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The Cessna 182 Skylane is a favorite for cross-country travelers as well as for transitioning pilots. Its excellent safety record attests to its reliability and structural integrity. First built in 1956, and still manufactured today, approximately 13,000 Skylanes currently are on the FAA Aircraft Registry. This Safety Highlight analyzes fixed-gear Skylane accidents that occurred between 1983 and 1999. Included are 1,314 Cessna 182 accidents and 3,022 accidents of a comparison group, comprised of the following aircraft: Cessna 177 Cardinal, Cessna 205, Cessna 206, Cessna 207, Gulfstream American AA-5, and Piper PA-28. Almost three-quarters, or 72 percent, of Cessna 182 accidents were minor, resulting in little or no injury, while two-thirds, or 66 percent, of the comparison aircraft accidents were minor. (See Figure 1). Accidents resulting in serious injuries, as defined by NTSB Part 830, make up the smaller portion of the accident number. The Skylane had fewer serious accidents than the comparison group. This may be due to the Skylane being used for cross-country trips, while the majority of accidents in the comparison group involved PA-28s, which are used primarily as trainers. Trainers participate in more takeoffs and landings, which is when most accidents occur. According to FAA estimates, Cessna 182 aircraft flew approximately 22.4 million hours during the years 1983-1999. Only 1,314 accidents occurred during that time, which averages out to 5.9 accidents per
100,000 hours. The comparison group had a similar accident rate with 6.0 accidents per 100,000 hours.
As expected, the majority (80 percent) of Cessna 182 accidents were due not to aircraft problems, but to pilot error. Mechanical/ maintenance problems caused only 10 percent of the Skylane accidents, and the remaining 10 percent were attributed to other causes and unknown factors. (See Figure 2). Regardless of the type of aircraft, the number of accidents is inversely proportional to the number of hours a pilot has accumulated. (See Figure 3). The majority of accidents for the Skylane and comparison aircraft involved pilots with less than 400 hours total time, and less than 100 hours time in type. Pilots generally gain skill and better judgment with experience. Weather caused the highest number of pilot-related serious accidents. (See Weather section on page 4). Twenty-one percent of Cessna 182 and comparison aircraft serious accidents were due to poor pilot decision making and judgment regarding the weather. Pilots frequently choose the Skylane as one of their first cross-country airplanes and thus learn, some of them the hard way, about flying through weather systems.
Figure 1. Accident Summary C-182
Figure 2. Major Cause C-182
s SERIOUS s MINOR
Percent of Accidents
Percent of Accidents
s C-182 s COMP ACFT
C-182 COMP ACFT
Here are some specific items to include in your preflight: Pilot: The first step in planning for a flight is to be sure you are ready. s AWOS.nws. s Special use airspace along your route of flight. s Fuel requirements. s Obstructions en route and near the airports. physically and emotionally.gov/). Here are some things to keep in mind: s Remember IMSAFE: Illness Medication Stress Alcohol Fatigue Emotion s Know your personal limitations. DUATS (www. any wind or nonstandard conditions will alter your calculations for distance.duats. National Weather Service (NWS) (www.org/members/wx/).pdf. and your own minimums may even change from day to day. prohibited areas. weather.0 gph can fly for approximately 6 3⁄4 hours total. An out-of-balance airplane may become uncontrollable in flight. s Notams and Temporary Flight Restrictions. a weather briefing is required for all IFR flights and any flight not in the vicinity of an airport. and Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) (http://adds. This means a Skylane with 88 gallons of usable fuel.aopa. notams. s Takeoff and landing distances. Allow yourself plenty of time to thoroughly check each. it’s important to check the weather along your planned route. ASF recommends landing with at least one hour of reserves on board. including a loading example. especially if an unfamiliar route or airport will be encountered. MOAs.Figure 3. restricted areas. Such information includes the following: s Airport/runway conditions at the departure and arrival airports. Obtaining a weather briefing is a good idea for all flights.faa. if any. s Currency and proficiency. s Paperwork associated with the airplane (ARROW): Airworthiness certificate Registration certificate Radio station license (for international flights only) Operating limitations (Pilot’s Operating Handbook) Weight and Balance records s Weight and center of gravity (CG) limits. Note: Information regarding takeoff and landing in a Skylane can be found on pages 8 and 9. without feeling pressured or rushed. ASOS.. The following are some weather resources to use during the planning: s Flight Service Stations (FSS) may be contacted for weather information. i. see the Weather section on page 4. The FAA has published a personal minimums checklist. Every pilot is different. Airplane: The airplane preflight consists of a thorough check of the aircraft itself and associated paperwork: -3- > 1000 0 Review the airplane’s airworthiness status. Flight: There are many factors associated with any flight that must be checked before departing. and MTRs. require an excess amount of trim. and pireps. s Online services such as AOPA (www. and a fuel burn of 13. According to FAR 91. and/or may not be able to clear obstacles at the end of the runway.com). The flight should be conducted only after each component of the preflight has been checked and found to be satisfactory.gov/).e. airplane. Of course. from takeoff to landing.103. Are you safe and legal for this flight? Weather: Once you have prepared yourself for the flight. see the Fuel section on page 6.awc-kc. Pilot Total Flight Time Serious Accidents C-182 20 16 16 17 s C-182 s COMP ACFT 12 12 10 8 4 9 10 9 9 7 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 2 3 901-1000 0-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 401-500 501-600 601-700 701-800 801-900 C-182 36 34 35 33 COMP ACFT 167 176 120 88 25 44 13 10 40 37 14 16 24 30 7 137 26 258 Preflight A thorough preflight consists of four components: pilot. s Runway lengths and LAHSO distances at the departure and arrival airports. Note: For weight and balance information specific to the C-182. in no-wind conditions.noaa. or ATIS will provide you with the current local weather at your departure airport.noaa. Note: For more information regarding fuel planning.gov/avr/news/checklst. s Percent of Accidents Weight and Balance The weight and balance of any aircraft affects it in all phases of flight. An overloaded airplane may not be able to reach rotation speed from a short runway. see the Weight and Balance section on pages 3-4. including an inspection as described in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH). and flight. Note: For more weather information. or 5 3⁄4 hours with 1 hour reserves. or may not even be controllable during takeoff. which is available online at www. .
100 lb. Preflight should include obtaining the local weather and. Pireps are also a great source of weather information. Take the same aircraft to a mountain air- . departed from an intersection near the middle of the 5.518 feet to clear a 50-foot obstacle.aopa. Remember that POH performance numbers are based on new aircraft under standard weather conditions with a test pilot. and also consult the CG chart before each flight involving more baggage than usual or more than two occupants. Become familiar with it. Cessna 182R Sample Weight & Balance Problem Airplane (BEW) Pilots (Front) Passengers Baggage Area A Baggage Area B Baggage Area C Fuel Fuel for start-up. Below is an example of a weight and balance problem for a typical cross-country flight. beefy aircraft. Four occupants. but the 1956 through 1961 models only had maximum gross weights of 2. Therefore. and full fuel tanks will not be a problem with this aircraft. Most of us will not achieve the published numbers on a normal basis.778 feet. a couple of flight bags.100 lb in 1981. The Cessna 182. During takeoff. 40 gallons of fuel in the 60-gallon tanks. port surrounded by higher terrain and that strong performance magically dissipates into thin air. The aircraft touched down.000-foot density altitude airport becomes 4. The accident history suggests otherwise. heavier models. the autopilot may be used to get out of deteriorating weather.0 46. The C-182 is a good short-field airplane but it can’t do the impossible. ASF’s Weather Tactics and Weather Strategies Safety Advisors may be viewed online at www. with four people aboard. and will vary depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. causing 21 percent of the serious accidents for both. the density altitude equates to 7.2 37. compared to some of its lighter siblings. The airplane overran the end of the runway and collided with rough terrain.377 lb. use them. Weather changes rapidly. and forecasts don’t always hold true. That was increased to 2.1 97. The pilot aborted the takeoff upon realizing that inadequate engine power was being produced to lift off. and supply them when able.3 12. The maximum rate of climb at sea level is 865 fpm and decreases to 505 fpm at 7. The calculated density altitude was approximately 7.289-foot runway. Weather Weather was the leading cause of pilot-related serious accidents for the Cessna 182 as well as for the comparison aircraft group.950 lb. a 1985 C-182R. some pilots mistakenly believe that it can be loaded with impunity.6 25.750 feet with a temperature of 95 degrees. If the field’s elevation is 3.1 inches beyond the aft limit. If you carry passengers and baggage for a cross-country flight with full fuel tanks. Don’t become overconfident with the newer.100 feet.0 116. Notice that the fuel had to be reduced to allow for the four people and baggage (the fuel tanks can actually carry 528 lb of usable fuel). Weather is a crucial part of initial and recurrent training. and 380 pounds of cargo had been loaded prior to initiating the flight. a short-field takeoff in a C-182 at sea level. you may be very near the airplane’s capacity limit. but the landing weight for this model. and the center of gravity (CG) was estimated to be 1.200-foot runway at approximately midfield. However. Use it to safely turn around and depart the -4- Density Altitude The 160-hour private pilot did not check the density altitude or lean the mixture prior to taking off. Poor judgment and decision-making in regards to weather caused the majority of these accidents. One aeronautical myth that some pilots have attempted to disprove is that if it flew in.000 feet. either under ambient conditions.000 feet (2. or at all.7 2. Any normally aspirated aircraft with a large engine will be a strong sea-level performer. Be prepared for diversions around weather by carrying extra fuel. don’t assume that the forecasted weather will be what is encountered en route. ASF recommends adding 50 percent to all published takeoff and landing numbers. That does not include the close calls.html. If your aircraft is so equipped.6 45.640 feet at 7.0 -0. particularly at high density altitude.7 21. is 2. Most Skylanes will have a useful load of approximately 1100 lb.The weight and balance section of the C-182’s POH includes a loading example for your convenience.460 feet with the 50 percent safety margin). it will fly out.2 9. taxi. Know the numbers for the aircraft you fly.0 129.1 74.5 141. The landing distance over a 50-foot obstacle will increase from 1. The takeoff weight is 3. to allow a safety margin. The maximum baggage weight for the C-182R is 200 lb (120 lb forward of baggage door latch and 80 lb aft of it). The maximum useful load for a 1985 Skylane is 1.3 The Skylane is known for its large capacity and ability to carry heavy loads. and it becomes obvious why states with high real estate have much higher accident rates than the flatlands. (See Figure 4). then became airborne again before it crashed.6 Moment/1000 63.000 feet. You may even need to limit the amount you carry.6 46. the 435-hour private pilot lifted the Cessna 182 off the 3. runup TOTAL Weight 1800 340 340 100 20 60 450 -10 3100 X Arm = 35. standard temperature (15 degrees C). The aircraft was estimated to have been at least 210 pounds over its maximum allowable gross weight. for all flights not in the vicinity of an airport. the takeoff distance from the same 7. to verify that you have loaded the aircraft within the CG “envelope.350 feet at sea level to 1.” or limitation range. Local flights with an instructor. For example. Use Flight Watch and Flight Service en route for a more precise picture of what you will encounter. The 182’s takeoff distance will more than double to 3.org/asf/publications/sa_index.185 feet.650 lb.3 7. a full weather briefing. Because the C-182 is a big. There are many airports where it is possible to land but it may be impossible to depart.550 lb or 2. where pilots were lucky and avoided triggering the NTSB’s computer. a common occurrence on a summer day.950 lb beginning in 1970 and again to 3. Most new pilots will get only cursory exposure to it. Add in terrain or obstacles and the possibility of downdrafts to negate the already anemic climb. and zero wind requires 1. Two percent of the Skylane accidents were attributed to high density altitude. Remember that this is a POH number.
weather may not have been the cause of each accident.000 IMC hours. Practice using the autopilot in good weather and practice coupled approaches so on that dark. the autopilot will help bring you down safely. others on the turn coordinator.3 6 s C-182 s COMP ACFT s Rate s 3 1.8 s All IMC 125 333 IFR Flights s C-182 COMP ACFT 37 77 -5- . or were instrument-rated but not on an IFR flight plan.3 Cessna 182 IMC accidents per 100. which is usually vacuum powered. At the very least.4 IMC accidents per 100. boring en route portion of the flight. IMC Accidents Per 100. or in icing conditions.Figure 4. That means 4.7 IMC accidents per 100. cloudy IMC night when you’re tired. (See Figure 5). Preflight Takeoff Taxi Climb C-182 10 COMP ACFT 13 1 29 14 16 75 16 17 21 18 10 42 22 8 1 136 38 61 195 44 22 59 36 49 104 55 26 hazardous conditions. if needed. FL and Sussex. Use the autopilot when programming GPS equipment or consulting charts. Pilot Related Causes Serious Accidents C-182 Percent of Serious Accidents 24 2121 20 16 12 8 4 0 3 1 00 Fuel Other VFR Missed Landing Cruise Apch Apch Weather Descent IFR Maneuver Other Apch 8 6 44 4 4 5 5 2 66 5 4 5 3 2 66 3 s C-182 s COMP ACFT 14 12 11 by FSS that VFR flight was not recommended. The FAA believes so much in autopilots that they are required for singlepilot IFR air taxi flights. Note: Although the accidents occurred in instrument conditions. the autopilot may be inoperative when needed the most. Some autopilot tips: s Figure 5. A VFR flight plan was filed but not activated. the pilot was advised Autopilot The autopilot is an invaluable piece of equipment that will reduce workload on long flights and under single-pilot IFR conditions.) Before this flight. The comparison group had 7. It should be a part of your aircraft familiarization training. Many pilots hand fly departures and arrivals to maintain proficiency and let the autopilot handle the long.000 IMC hours. The aircraft reversed course and soon afterwards it descended to the ground.9 of which involved instrumentrated pilots on IFR flight plans. because it may overstress the aircraft. The aircraft collided with the ground in a remote wooded area.8 were on IFR flight plans. but remember that the autopilot cannot be used in severe turbulence.000 IMC hours involved pilots who were not appropriately rated. One witness said the clouds were at treetop level.000 IMC Hours C-182 9 Know how to disengage the autopilot quickly by at least three methods. Be able to hand fly the aircraft at any point. s 7. One witness said that before the aircraft descended it pitched up and then spun during descent. Know where the autopilot derives attitude information–some depend on the attitude indicator. Witnesses reported the aircraft was flying northeast below a low overcast and some said it was flying in the clouds. because it may mask the signs of ice accumulation on the aircraft. Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) Between the years 1983 and 1999. the autopilot will maintain a wings-level attitude while the pilot troubleshoots a problem or navigates out of hazardous weather. there were 6.7 6. (The previous two stops were made because of adverse weather conditions.9 0 1. and don’t be reluctant to advise ATC to stand by if you’re busy after an autopilot failure. 1. Review its operation regularly. When the vacuum pump fails. That will help ease your workload. The 100-hour noninstrument-rated private pilot was on the third leg of a trip between Tampa. NJ. of which 1.
The alternate air source should resolve it. lack of carburetor heat use. ASF fuel recommendations: s Land with at least one hour of fuel reserves on board. radar contact was lost. the 350-hour private pilot obtained a weather briefing but did not file a flight plan. Understand that the aircraft is operating outside of the approved envelope and you have become a test pilot. have very accurate fuel logs.) s Avoid planned fuel stops within 100 miles or one hour of your destination. s For most operations. Stall/mush due to ice-buildup on airframe Total 4 1 3 7 6 15 5 1 Fuel The C-182 had 71 fuel exhaustion accidents compared to 188 for the comparison group.0 gph was used. s Add two gallons per hour to book consumption numbers until you have accumulated some experience with that particular aircraft to verify the fuel burn with your leaning techniques. . relatively warm temperatures. compared to 35 of the comparison group. 13.1 gph. Cessna 182 Icing Accidents Description Attempted takeoff with snow/ice on wings/airframe. Older Skylanes are susceptible to carb icing. tail. which can trap and hide water if there are “wrinkles” in the cell.000 feet and 65% power in a 1985 C-182. may be leaned at any altitude. Estimate the fuel consumption for each flight and check that against the actual amount of fuel added. The use of heat applied at the first indication of carb icing is essential. While the aircraft was descending to intercept the ILS. That may be because Skylanes have a BOTH option on the fuel selector. or use a fuel management device such as a totalizer. Conditions conducive to severe in-flight icing are high moisture content in clouds.800-hour ATP received a complete weather briefing. contrary to what is taught in many flight schools. Note: Add a safety margin of approximately 2. Failed to use carburetor heat during IMC/icing conditions. This will help establish the fuel usage of that aircraft. There is great temptation to press on to the destination. decreases lift. There were 27 Cessna 182 starvation accidents and 75 in comparable aircraft. ASF recommends adding a safety margin. and may cause a significant increase in stall speed. Keep track of fuel burn along your flight by using a fuel log. the zero-wind range (88 gallons/one hour reserve) is 764 nm. Endurance calculations based on 11. doesn’t reach the engine. (Note: The POH states a fuel burn of 11. -6- Cessna 182s are not approved for flight into icing conditions. common on 182s manufactured prior to 1979. However. For this example. carburetor heat not used. The accident report above states that endurance calculations were based on 11. Airspeed will begin to drop shortly after the flight encounters icing conditions. These caps. Some hangar tales tell about the fat wing and how much of a load it will carry. It is better to think of fuel in terms of time rather than distance. The first indication of ice will normally be a buildup on small protrusions. Power loss on descent because of lack of carburetor heat use. and prop. s Learn to lean properly and do it on every flight–most engines. Power loss on approach. Stalled/lost control during continued approach in icing conditions. leaving the fuel selector on BOTH will eliminate the possibility of running one tank dry. Turn on the pitot heat if it’s not already on and immediately work to get out of the clouds. Only six of those Skylane accidents were due to improper fuel tank selection or failure to switch tanks. For a flight at 8. provided they are below the approved power setting. Integral tanks will not pose such a problem. Structural Ice: Structural ice disrupts the flow of air over the wing.Prior to departing on the 600-mile flight.0 gph and a 600 nm distance. should be replaced by the umbrella-type caps. a 115 nm difference. but a blocked intake may cause a problem. and freezing rain. turbulence/ice encountered at high altitude. corners. The pilot filed an IFR flight plan and departed in an aircraft not certified for icing conditions. Lost control. Skylanes built after 1997 have fuel-injected engines and thus do not suffer from carb ice. Carburetor and Induction Ice: Induction ice blocks the air intake and can cause the engine to stop. for any number of reasons. The aircraft crashed into a mountain. Flush-type fuel caps leak water as the seals deteriorate. switch tanks on an hourly basis and set a timer to remind you. which increases drag. Icing Before takeoff. The briefing included numerous pilot reports that confirmed the forecast of icing and turbulence. (You really only know how much fuel is on board when the tanks are full unless you stick the tanks.) With a 20-knot headwind. Power loss. the range is reduced to 649 nm. correcting for nonstandard temperature and pressure.0 gph to POH fuel burn numbers until you gain some experience with that particular airplane. Fuel starvation occurs when fuel is available but. or the base of the windshield. Also on the older models are the bladder-type fuel tanks. A 10-knot speed reduction is a mandate to change altitude or divert immediately. which was likely the POH number. as are the aircraft of the comparison group. if a significant load imbalance exists. The briefer warned the pilot of an extremely hazardous weather system in the area and advised him several times not to go. the 1.0 gph. Exhaustion occurs when all tanks are depleted. The flight lasted for 5 hours and 28 minutes before the engine sputtered and quit four miles short of its destination airport. revealed a usable fuel burn time of 5 hours and 25 minutes.
and temperatures as warm as 70 degrees F or higher. There may be obstructions in the area that cannot easily be seen at night. Note: Basic VFR weather minimums are listed in FAR 91. Here are some specific things to be aware of at night: s Avoid bright lights at least 30 minutes before flying at night.aopa. Many pilots have gotten themselves in dangerous situations by ignoring the instruments. to 500 feet below.7 Cessna 182 accidents per 100. spatial disorientation. s Don’t descend to pattern altitude before you are in the pattern – descend over the airport. obstruction clearance. cloudy days but can occur in clear air. and emergencies.500 feet. Most general aviation flying is during daylight hours and. However.155. FAR 61. there will be only about one half hour from electrical system failure to battery depletion and darkness.9 per 100. close one eye to preserve night vision in that eye. but witnesses observed the airplane flying 150 feet above the water.57 requires three night takeoffs and landings to a full stop. with only 10 percent of all studied accidents attributable to mechanical issues. Night Accidents Per 100. to be legal to act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers at night. The FARs raise the basic night VFR weather minimums in Class G airspace to 3 statute miles. When a clear horizon is unavailable. Your personal minimums should be more conservative at night. The weather between reporting points may be much worse than what is observed. s Weather and clouds are much harder to see at night. Try to go to airports that have VASI or ILS and avoid unfamiliar short fields. Below 1.000 feet. except in the airport traffic pattern (1000 feet AGL and 500 feet below the clouds). 1. approximately 50 percent of each were due to powerplant/propeller issues. That is probably because the majority of Skylane hours are flown in VMC (20.5 out of 1.9 s C-182 s COMP ACFT Rate 1. Aircraft Icing. East of the Mississippi.200 feet AGL.2 Mechanical IFR in IMC 4 11 Total 184 543 In IMC 39 139 C-182 COMP ACFT Of the 134 Cessna 182 and 308 comparable aircraft mechanical/ maintenance accidents. Figure 6.7 2. only 0. The fuel system and the landing gear/brakes caused 15 percent of the mechanical Skylane accidents each. -7- . not surprisingly. Night The noninstrument-rated private pilot departed on a night cross-country in VMC along the East Coast. The temperature drops as much as 70 degrees F within the carburetor’s throat. s Check the aircraft electrical system thoroughly. vision. compared to only 1 mile during the day. Does the aircraft have an annunciator to show when the alternator has failed? Typically. the distance from clouds increases from day VFR requirements of clear of clouds. within the preceding 90 days. night flying skills may become rusty. the aircraft are extremely reliable.2 were IFR in IMC (See Figure 6).000 feet horizontal.500 feet and level off. Instrument-rated pilots should use instrument approach procedures. Many owners have installed a carburetor temperature gauge or ice detector device to warn them of the onset of carburetor icing conditions.Carb ice is not restricted to cold. Follow the checklist. fatigue. trust your instruments.8 7. ASF recommends regular night instruction to review aircraft and airport lighting.000-foot ceiling in flat terrain.2 0. The NTSB cited spatial disorientation and the pilot’s lack of instrument experience as factors in this accident.000 feet above. and lights may create an artificial horizon. It dropped off radar at 1. During a left turn on this dark.5 million out of 22.4 million). use carb heat whenever operating at reduced power.html. Of the 1. Get and give pireps. The horizon is less visible at night. moonless night. takeoffs/landings. s Have more than one flashlight easily accessible in the cockpit. An instrument rating is highly recommended for night cross-country flying. the airplane descended and struck the water. That means that 1. compared to the total number of 7.000-foot ceiling and 10 miles. Get a full weather briefing. (See Figure 7). The airplane was observed on radar to climb to 2. Ceiling and visibility frequently deteriorate at night as the temperature and dewpoint spread closes. and be suspicious of carb ice when flying in clouds and rain. Mountainous terrain minimums should be at least a 5.2 0. s Spatial disorientation. Shortly after leveling off. Only 1.7 night IMC accidents per 100.000 night hours occurred in IMC. ASF recommends at least 5 nm visibility for night cross-country flights and a 2.000 hours. If bright light is needed while flying. high humidity. the transi- tion areas around airports at 700 feet AGL effectively preclude night VFR flight when ceilings are below 1.000 Night Hours C-182 10 8 6 4 2 0 8.000 night hours involved either a noninstrument-rated pilot or a rated pilot who was not on an IFR flight plan. the airplane descended at 500 fpm. discusses both structural and carburetor/induction icing and how to fly safely when icing conditions are forecast. and update it while en route. Your body may feel as if you’re turning when you are actually in straight and level flight.org/asf/publications/sa11. weather.7 night IMC accidents. The Air Safety Foundation’s Safety Advisor. Most night accidents for both the Skylane and comparison group occurred in VMC. www. and 2.
4 6. Another large change with the new aircraft is the number of fuel drains. The pilot had not removed the control wheel lock prior to takeoff.2 2 0 Improper Fuel Inadeq. On touchdown the airplane lifted off the 1. but rare.7 6. local weather. and 20 degrees C.100 lb. The takeoff was aborted.1 0. replacement of flush-type fuel caps. according to the pilot.6 50. speed mods. Accidents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15. System Involvement C-182 Pct.org/pilot/features/skylane0012. With the safety margin included. Use half the predicted headwind and double the predicted tailwind. Takeoff Most takeoff accidents were due to improper takeoff procedures. There are several modifications available for the Skylane.7 8 6. for example.7 16. at 3.2 1. increased horsepower.7 8. The pilot was not able to stop the airplane before traveling off the departure end of the runway where the airplane nosed over. The winds.0 9.7 percent of the pilot-related Cessna 182 accidents and 9. wind direction and speed.0 8. Factors affecting the safety of takeoff must be checked as part of your preflight procedure.0 1. and fuel problems such as contaminated fuel.3 2. The new Skylane model C-182S.3 2. overweight.0 2. Other factors included inadequate runway.0 0. wrong fuel tank selected.355 feet. but the aircraft overran the runway and nosed over. The private pilot was on takeoff roll when he observed the aircraft would not rotate. as a safety margin. 230 hp Textron-Lycoming IO-540 engine. VFR in IMC.aopa. the distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle is 1.0 s C-182 s COMP ACFT 2. that increases to 2. obstacles at each end of the runway(s). and premature rotation/liftoff. This includes 6.3 Other Powerplant/ Fuel Lndg Gear/ Oil Electrical/ Controls/ Vacuum Sys Propeller System Brakes System Ignition Airframe Instruments 0. the winds were 90 degrees to the landing runway with a speed of approximately 45 mph./Maint. The maximum demonstrated crosswind component for most Cessna 182 aircraft is 15 knots.0 1. Procedure Problem Runway 1. the aircraft may be able to handle greater winds but most pilots should consider that as limiting . and adding a backup vacuum system. More information can be found online at www.7 2. wind.0 1. manufactured beginning in 1997.html. (See Figure 8). Induction icing is a possibility.7 1. failure to attain takeoff/liftoff speed.6 Figure 8.9 15.7 6 4 2. Aerodynamically. The new engines are therefore not susceptible to carburetor ice. According to the airport manager. which currently has 577 STCs in the FAA registry. The second touchdown occurred with 100 to 150 feet of the runway remaining. is powered by a fuel-injected. and two in the belly. There are now five under each wing. installing solid fuel tanks to replace the bladder-type (pre-1979).3 Winds/ High Elev/ VFR in Gusts Over Wt IMC C-182 COMP ACFT 67 165 21 52 21 26 9 29 8 27 5 4 3 5 C-182 70 COMP ACFT 236 24 53 18 48 10 48 3 48 1 7 11 24 The newer Cessna 182s contain some major mechanical changes. 70 mph with full flaps. Wind affects the takeoff distance by 10 percent for each nine knots of headwind and 10 percent for each two knots of tailwind. -8- Wind The private pilot flew a normal approach in the Cessna 182. The airplane crossed the runway threshold at 60 mph. such as failure to establish a positive climb rate. failure to maintain directional control. were gusty at touchdown. improper trim setting. and fuel exhaustion.8 3. The demonstrated crosswind component of this aircraft was 12 mph with no flaps and 11 mph with full flaps. of Mech. runway lengths. sea level.735-foot runway.570 feet. high elevation. Abort the takeoff if an abnormal situation exists. It’s always better to resolve problems on the ground rather than complicate a situation by becoming airborne. For example.7 percent of those for the comparison aircraft group. ASF recommends adding 50 percent to POH numbers. Possible modifications include increased gross weights for earlier models (pre-1972). instead of the 230 hp Continental O-470s used in the past.Figure 7. whereas the older models had one sump under each wing and a fuel strainer drain under the belly.4 9. Critical Phase of Flight–Takeoff C-182 10 s C-182 s COMP ACFT Percent of Pilot Accidents 53. and condition of aircraft and pilot. gusts.
VFR pilots should review this with an instructor.until they are highly proficient in crosswinds and have had the opportunity to explore the aircraft’s behavior on a long wide runway. and flying at nontowered airports. so pilots should reduce speed before entering the pattern.aopa. Understanding what is being communicated over the radio drastically minimizes confusion.org/asf/publications/sa08.3 5. but won’t require so much forward pressure on the controls during a go-around. Percent of Pilot Accidents Section 4 of the POH suggests procedures for taking off and landing in crosswinds. be prepared for nonstandard patterns.7 2. Pre-purchase inspections should include a close look at the firewall. Approach Almost 10 percent of pilot-related Skylane accidents occurred during approach. For the 182. For more information about terminology. High performance aircraft like the 182 take a while to slow down. with 39 percent and 29 percent. Critical Phase of Flight–Approach C-182 8 7. taxi diagrams Instrument pilots must additionally be aware of landing minimums and missed approach procedures. -9- 3 0 2. (See Figure 9).5 Landed Hard 134 138 Landed Short 24 61 C-182 COMP ACFT .3 Landed Long 80 130 Scan constantly for other traffic and monitor the CTAF. Remember to compensate for winds during landing. A tailwind of only four knots will increase landing distance by 20 percent.7 percent of pilot-related C-182 accidents. Hard landing forces are transmitted through the gear and engine support structure to the firewall. Be situationally aware. The Skylane had considerably more accidents landing hard than did the comparison group (12. Trimming for 75 knots will require you to hold back pressure during landing. Include landing distance calculations as part of your preflight and add 50 percent to the book numbers. a high workload phase of flight. Understand IFR terminology. With the mix of VFR and IFR traffic at most airports.pdf. especially for pilots transitioning from lighter airplanes. but don’t trim so much that you will not be able to handle a go-around. Figure 9. approach charts. Substantial trim is required during landing. Note: Improper speed control and a forward CG (full fuel and two occupants) results in bent firewalls being very common during 182 landings. respectively.0 6 s C-182 s COMP ACFT 4 2 2. landing hard was the leading transgression. Operations at Nontowered Airports. Both should be performed with the minimum flap setting necessary for the field length.7 percent).2 6.2 1. compared to 5.7 12 9 6 s C-182 s COMP ACFT 7. This may be due to the heavy feel of the elevator control. (See Figure 10). ASF recommends a full load checkout as part of your Skylane familiarization. That may be the reason for it having more accidents during approach. view ASF’s Safety Advisor. Most of them occurred in VFR conditions. to help in your situational awareness. Critical Phase of Flight–Landing C-182 15 12. compared to approximately eight percent for the comparison group. communication.8 0 VFR 76 146 IFR 23 44 C-182 COMP ACFT Landing Landing is the most accident-prone phase of flight for Cessna 182s and comparison aircraft. online at www. Figure 10.6 5. when most of the flying in these types of aircraft occurs. Below are some things to consider before beginning an approach: s s s s s s Obstructions in the area Runway lengths Wind direction and speed Percent of Pilot Accidents Radio frequencies Sectional. Transitioning pilots have to get used to thinking further ahead of the airplane when flying the Skylane. than the comparison group. especially for pilots transitioning to the Skylane from lighter airplanes.
What are the fuel consumption and TAS at standard temperature for 2300 rpm. 8. 8. What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity? __________ knots (This number is noted only in newer POHs. and climb fuel. What is the recommended fuel grade? How should the fuel selector be positioned to ensure the maximum fuel load? What is the endurance with a 45-minute reserve at a cruise altitude of 10.Cessna 182 Skylane Test Questions The purpose of this open-book test is to familiarize the pilot with the Cessna 182 Skylane and its corresponding POH.000 feet. 10. sea level. 6.100 lb. OAT 20 degrees C? __________ 13. What limitation applies to the fuel selector valve during takeoffs and landings? ________________________ . answers given pertain to that aircraft. 80 degrees F ___________________ 12. 3.000 feet at standard temperature? Include start-up. 4. What is the maneuvering speed (Va) at max gross weight? __________ 16. takeoff. It is not considered limiting. 9. What are the rate of climb and airspeed at 3.10 - . 85 degrees F ___________________ 3. What is the recommended oil type and viscosity? What is the maximum takeoff weight? __________ What is the maximum landing weight? __________ How much payload will your airplane carry with maximum fuel? __________ lb How much fuel can you carry with the following payload? __________ Front seats: 400 lb Rear seats: 200 lb Baggage: 150 lb 5. What is the distance required to clear a 50-foot obstacle during takeoff under the following conditions: 3. 1. 2. Fill to __________ quarts for normal flights of less than 3 hours. Total fuel capacity is __________ gallons. The 1985 Cessna Model 182R Skylane was chosen as the test airplane.100 lb. Refer to the POH for your aircraft as you complete the test. What is the CG range? __________ 11. at 7000 feet? Fuel consumption __________ TAS __________ 14. and __________ quarts for extended flights. 65% power. With full tanks at 65% power: __________ With 65 gallons at 65% power: __________ Do not operate on less than __________ quarts of oil.) 15.100 lb. taxi. 7.000 feet. 7. Total usable fuel is __________ gallons.
The speeds and flaps settings for takeoffs and landings are: Normal takeoff __________ Normal landing __________ Short-field takeoff __________ Short-field landing __________ Flaps __________ Flaps __________ Flaps __________ Flaps __________ 26. Vx __________ Best rate of climb. What are the indications that the alternator has failed? How would you attempt to bring it back online? What is the procedure if unable to restore the alternator? 24. Vy __________ 28. Vne __________ Maximum flaps extended. full flaps.17. Vs __________ Stall. List the number of fuel drains and locations. Vfe __________ Stall. Vno __________ Best angle of climb.600 lb? __________ KIAS 18. How is carburetor ice detected? 22. What is the procedure for a go-around? 30. What are the indications of a vacuum system failure? 19. What is the procedure to remove carb ice? 23. Which instruments will be inoperative with a dead battery? 25.11 - . clean configuration. What is the emergency descent procedure? 27. What is the best glide speed at maximum gross weight? __________ KIAS At 2. What is the normal full flaps approach speed? __________ 29. 21. Vso __________ Normal operating. Which instruments/systems would be affected by a complete vacuum failure? 20. Vr __________ Never exceed. What is the procedure following an inflight engine failure? . List the following indicated airspeeds: Rotation.
2 gph and 132 KTAS. 5. and ashless dispersant oil conforming to Continental Motors Specification MHS-24 and all revisions thereto after the first 25 hours. 80 degrees F: 3. with a 45-minute reserve at a cruise altitude of 10. Section 3. 8. Section 7.600 lb is 70 KIAS.8 hours With 65 gallons at 65% power: 4. Refer to POH. Limitations. You can carry full fuel (92 gallons) with the 750 pounds of payload. To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling and minimize cross-feeding when parked on a sloping surface.7 hours Refer to POH. Normal Procedures. Section 1. The maximum landing weight is 2. Section 2. 9. Refer to POH. 7. For extended flight. Normal Procedures. Refer to POH.498 feet Refer to POH. Airplane & Systems Descriptions or Section 8. 2. 17. Handling. Emergency Procedures.12 - . Performance. Limitations. The best glide speed at 2.000 feet at standard temperature is: With full tanks at 65% power: 6. During takeoffs and landings. Limitations.4”). Section 2.000 feet. Performance.5” – 5. The maximum takeoff weight is 3.100 lb. & Maintenance. Refer to POH. Refer to POH. The minimum oil capacity is nine quarts. General. The fuel consumption and TAS are 11. 18. 16. Section 2. Limitations. The rate of climb and airspeed at 3. Refer to POH. 6. Fill to 10 quarts for normal flights of less than three hours.0 inches–46. fill to 12 quarts. Refer to POH. Section 5. sea level.950 lb. Section 1. 85 degrees F: 1. Refer to POH. Section 2. Section 5. 14.Answers to Cessna 182 Skylane Test Questions 1. General or Section 8. . Performance. Refer to POH. Refer to POH. The maneuvering speed at max gross weight is 111 KIAS. The best glide speed at maximum gross weight is 76 KIAS. and the suction gauge will be indicating out of normal operating range (4. the fuel selector valve handle must be in the BOTH position. Refer to POH.0 inches. Section 5. Emergency Procedures and Section 7. Refer to POH. 11. The recommended oil type and viscosity is MIL-L-6082 aviation grade straight mineral oil during the first 25 hours. Section 4.100 lb. and climb. Refer to POH. The maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity is 15 knots. The distance required to clear a 50-foot obstacle during takeoff under the following conditions: 3. General. Refer to POH. The airplane will carry 772 lb payload with maximum fuel. Weight & Balance/Equipment List 4. 8. A vacuum system failure will be indicated by a low vacuum warning light on the annunciator panel. The endurance. & Maintenance. Handling.100 lb. place the fuel selector valve in either the LEFT or RIGHT position. Section 3. The recommended fuel grade is 100LL grade aviation fuel (blue) or 100 grade aviation fuel (green). taxi. 10.100 lb. takeoff. (Operation on either left or right tank is limited to level flight only. Airplane & Systems Descriptions. Service. Section 5. Section 6. The DG and attitude indicator will be inoperative. OAT 20 degrees C is 380 fpm at 76 KIAS. 3. Section 6. Refer to POH. Total usable fuel is 88 gallons. Total fuel capacity is 92 gallons. Section 1. 12. 7. including start-up. Weight & Balance/Equipment List. Performance. 13.) Refer to POH. The CG range is 33. Limitations or Section 4. Service.680 feet 3. 15.000 feet. Section 2.
If unable to restore the alternator. prepare for an emergency landing. Section 3. Refer to POH. ignition switch . Emergency Procedures. retract the flaps to full up after reaching 70 KIAS. Refer to POH. Adjust rudder trim if needed. flaps as required. fuel selector valve . Normal Procedures. Adjust the trim for an 80 KIAS descent and keep hands off the control wheel. List the following indicated airspeeds: Rotation.IN and LOCKED. 30. doors unlatch prior to touchdown. attempt to restart using the following procedures: maintain 75 KIAS. Emergency Procedures. master switch . 28. Vy 81 KIAS Refer to POH. Vso 40 KIAS Normal operating. Vx 59 KIAS Best rate of climb. An alternator failure is indicated by a low voltage warning light. Vr 50 KIAS Never exceed. Emergency Procedures. Section 2. mixture . and a discharge rate on the ammeter. Section 3. mixture . 22. primer . Section 4. Emergency Procedures. Refer to POH. Section 4. Vs 50 KIAS Stall. Vfe 95 KIAS (full flaps) Stall. 23. 21. 29. Refer to POH. full flaps. Following an engine failure in flight. .19. carburetor heat cold. Normal Procedures. (Note: It is normal for the engine to run rough as the carb heat begins working–the engine will smooth out again once the carb ice has been removed. Section 4. Section 3. carburetor heat . apply brakes heavily. Monitor the turn coordinator and make corrections with the rudder. one under the left wing. Limitations and Section 4.OFF. turn the master switch OFF. Section 4. To bring the alternator back online. If that is unsuccessful. Normal Procedures. Remove carb ice by applying full throttle and pulling the carb heat knob out until the engine runs smoothly. Carb ice is detected by an unexplained drop in MP and eventual engine roughness may result. 20. then turn the master switch ON. Vne 179 KIAS Maximum flaps extended. Maintain 75 KIAS. Refer to POH. clean configuration. and one under the nose. turn the avionics switch OFF. The normal full flaps approach speed is 60-70 KIAS. Section 3. There are 3 fuel drains: one under the right wing. 25. and reduce power for a 500-800 fpm descent. climb 80 KIAS – Flaps up Normal landing – 60-70 KIAS – Flaps down Short-field takeoff – rotate 50 KIAS. Refer to POH. The emergency descent procedure is to put the mixture full rich. Normal Procedures.OFF. 27.OFF.RICH. climb 59 KIAS – Flaps 20º Short-field landing – 61 KIAS – Flaps down Refer to POH. fuel selector . open cowl flaps.IDLE CUT-OFF. retract the flaps to 20 degrees and climb at 55 KIAS. secure seat belts/shoulder harnesses. carb heat on. Refer to POH. Section 3. .BOTH. check that the ALT circuit breaker is in. 26. The turn coordinator will be inoperative if the aircraft has a dead battery. Resume normal cruising flight at the completion of the descent.ON. ignition switch .13 - . The procedure for a go-around is: power 2.) Refer to POH.BOTH (or START). A complete vacuum failure would affect the DG and attitude indicator. Emergency Procedures. Normal Procedures. Section 3. Then remove carb heat and adjust the throttle. Emergency Procedures. Vno 143 KIAS Best angle of climb. Refer to POH. minimize the drain on the battery and land as soon as possible. Section 7. The speeds and flap settings for takeoffs and landings are: Normal takeoff – rotate 50 KIAS. 24.400 rpm. Airplane and Systems Descriptions. Refer to POH.
and the fourth block concentrates on cross-country flight. Because of variables involving pilot experience and proficiency. and static system failures s Electrical system malfunctions s Emergency descents s Inadvertent door opening in flight Troubleshooting s Autopilot and electric trim malfunctions s Relationship of vacuum failures to autopilot operation s Electrical system and what to do if charging system fails s Load shedding and estimated time of usable battery life s Hung starter indications and remedies s Emergency checklists s Relationship between EGT. a thorough discussion of IFR procedures and regulations is recommended for pilots who are not current. For more proficient pilots this much instruction may not be necessary and training should be adjusted accordingly. if instrument-rated. The pilot will review normal and emergency operations. short-field. and doors s Engine and engine instruments s Propeller s Fuel system s Electrical system. The second block reviews normal and emergency VFR procedures and elementary IFR procedures. The time required to complete this training will vary with pilot proficiency and experience. calculate weight and balance. short-field. and distance to climb charts s Cruise performance charts s Range and endurance charts s Landing distance charts Weight and Balance s Review of aircraft equipment list s Determination of weight and balance from sample loading situations Limitations s Airspeeds s Powerplant s Fuel system s Operating instrument indications Normal Procedures s Speeds for normal operation s Preflight inspection s Engine start and runup s Taxiing s Normal. fuel. and fuel flow on climb and cruise . if installed Aircraft Inspections and Handling s Required inspections s Ground handling s Fueling s Oil. and crosswind landings s Balked landings and go-arounds s Flap retraction procedures s After landing. The first block. The third block reviews instrument flight operations. its systems. In-cockpit familiarization will be accomplished and C-182 accident history will be discussed. Pilots should perform all tasks to practical test standards (PTS) and receive. at the satisfactory conclusion of training. an instrument proficiency check. if so equipped.Cessna Skylane Training Course Outline INTRODUCTION This outline is a training guide for pilots and flight instructors. and currency s High performance endorsement. securing the aircraft Emergency Procedures s Airspeeds for emergency operations s Engine failure procedures s Emergency and precautionary landings s Fires s Icing s Vacuum. hydraulic. Block 1: Ground Orientation The pilot will thoroughly review the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and all documents covering modifications to the aircraft and electronic equipment installed. soft-field.14 - . and autopilot s Landing gear and hydraulic system s Brakes s Seats. oxygen replenishment Performance s Use of performance charts s Takeoff distance. time. seat belts. ratings. and crosswind takeoffs s Normal and maximum performance climbs s Cruising flight s Descents s Normal. avionics. ground service plug s Lighting systems s Environmental control system s Pitot-static system and instruments s Vacuum system and instruments s Supplemental oxygen system. Ground: 2. if needed Airplane and Systems s Flight controls s Installed instruments. For example. Average time to complete each block is indicated below. and calculate takeoff and landing performance data. the training should be flexible. a flight review endorsement and. concentrates on the C-182. This training course outline is divided into four blocks of instruction. and pilot procedures. consisting of two hours ground orientation. soft-field. pitot.0 hours Pilot s Certificates.
0 hour Weight and Balance Calculation Review of Normal and Emergency Procedures Determination of PIC and Transfer of Control Flight: 2. Accurate Readback s Accurate copy and readback s Proper nav and com radio configuration s SID.Annual/100 Hour . climbs. and procedures for IFR flight operations.Other s Periodic Inspections . regulations. and landing performance calculations s Preflight line check s Starting: Normal Hot External power s Pretakeoff runup and checks Takeoff Operations s Normal s Rejected s Crosswind s Instrument s Short-field s Soft-field Airwork s Climbs s Turns s Slow flight s Approaches to stalls/full stalls s Steep turns s Cruise configuration s Approach/landing configuration Instrument s Turns. in-flight. if appropriate Note: If ATC clearance is not available. Ground: 1.Recommended service intervals .Required equipment .RNAV/Loran/GPS .High performance endorsement.Preflight line inspection FARs for Instrument Flight s Flight plan/clearance required s Compliance with ATC instructions s Alternate criteria s Lost communication procedures s Required reporting points s PIC authority and responsibility Charts s SIDs / STARs s Low altitude en route s Instrument approach procedures Preflight Briefing s Lesson content s Instructor/pilot roles and responsibilities s Transfer of control s Collision avoidance procedures Flight: 1.Autopilot/Flight Director .ADs/Service Bulletins . and postflight operations will be discussed and practiced. descents s Slow flight s Unusual attitude recovery s Recovery from approaches to stalls Emergency Procedures s Engine failure s Fire in flight s Induction ice s Alternator failure s Vacuum pump failure Landings s Normal s Crosswind s No flap s Short-field s Soft-field s Balked (go-around) s Failed engine Block 3: IFR Operations The pilot will review the requirements.Pilot-static system .Block 2: General Flight Operations The pilot will become acquainted with the Cessna 182 aircraft.ELT .5 hours Clearance Copy.5 hours Preflight Operations s Takeoff. instructor will issue clearance containing all elements of a standard departure clearance.Certificates.90-day currency s Aircraft .Transponder . Pretakeoff s Checklist use s Instruments s Avionics s Charts s Departure procedure review . Ground: 1.15 - . and currency .Six-month currency .Equipment certification . if needed . ratings. Preflight.5 hours Requirements for Instrument Flight s Pilot . climb.
MDA s Interception of bearings s Timing.0 hours The Flight Environment s Airspace s FAR Part 91 Weather s The atmosphere s Winds and clear air turbulence s Clouds and thunderstorms s Icing s Weather products and services available for pilot use Flight Planning and Navigation s Fuel: wind and ATC routings s Navigation s Charts s Navaids s Planned descents Physiological Training s Respiration s Hypoxia s Vision Emergency Operations s In-flight fire s Turbulence s Thunderstorms s Ice s Use of autopilot to assist in some emergency situations . DH s MAP procedure s ATC and CTAF Partial-Panel Approach s Approach clearance s Checklist. heading. MAP identification s ATC and CTAF GPS Approach s Approach clearance s Approach programming s Approach arm s Missed approach s ATC and CTAF Circling Approach s Altitude s Distance from airport s Traffic avoidance s Missed approach procedure s ATC and CTAF ILS Approach s Approach clearance s Aircraft configuration s Tracking.ATC notification and coordination Emergency Procedures s Engine failure s Airframe ice s Vacuum pump/gyro failure s Fire s ATC notification and coordination Block 4: Cross-Country IFR/VFR Operations The pilot will gain understanding of the elements of cross-country flight and demonstrate proficiency in IFR and/or VFR cross-country operations.Load shedding .Flight plan revision .Revised minimums .Position reporting s Lost Navigation Equipment . orientation. aircraft configuration s Orientation s Altitudes. MAP s ATC coordination Missed Approach s Climb.Departure s Heading and altitude s Route interception s Amended clearance s Climb and cruise checklists Holding s Holding clearance copy and readback s Aircraft configuration prior to holding fix s Entry procedure s ATC reporting NDB Approach s Approach clearance s Checklist. altitude s Course interception s Climb checklist s ATC and CTAF DME Arc Approach. orientation. altitude. orientation s Altitudes. MDA s Timing. altitude.ATC report s Alternator Failure . if available s Arc interception s Orientation s Radial identification s ATC and CTAF VOR Approach s Approach clearance s Checklist. MDA s ATC and CTAF Inoperative Equipment s Lost communication . aircraft configuration s Tracking.Route and altitude .16 - . aircraft configuration s Tracking. Ground: 1.
AOPA Air Safety Foundation 421 Aviation Way • Frederick. documents s Checklist use s Clearance copy and readback Departure s Checklist s SID.Flight: 1. Kathleen Roy.5 hours Preflight Briefing s Line check s Charts. Maryland 21701 Phone: (800) 638-3101 • Internet: www. Steve Ells Statistician: John Carson • Data Analyst: Dorsey Shipley .org/asf • Email: email@example.com Publisher: Bruce Landsberg • Editors: John Steuernagle. if appropriate Approach and Landing s Checklist use © Copyright 2001.aopa. if appropriate Climb s Checklist Cruise s Checklist s Power setting s Mixture setting Emergencies s Emergency descent (discussion only) s Alternator failure s Load shedding s Flight plan change s ATC coordination s In-flight fire s Checklist use Descent s Planning s Engine temperature monitoring s Airspeed s STAR.
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