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Social History of New Media Syllabus

Social History of New Media Syllabus

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Social  History  of  New  Media    

6273  -­‐  LCST  2037  -­‐  A   Class     8:00  am  -­‐  9:40  am  TR     Johnson/Kaplan  66  West  12th  518     Seminar     Instructor:  Trebor  Scholz,  PhD   Course  website:  http://socialhistoryofnewmedia.ning.com/     Office  Hours  and  Contact  Information     Tuesday  4pm  and  by     appointment   Office:  rm.  251  (65  W11th  St)   Email:  scholzt@newschool.edu         This  course  follows  the  history  of  computing  and  networked  communication.  We   will  approach  the  history  of  communication  -­‐-­‐  from  the  telegraph,  radio,  and   television  to  the  Internet  and  World  Wide  Web,  from  a  political,  cultural,  and  social   perspective.  Key  themes  will  include  copyright,  community,  virtual  worlds,  and   games,  privacy,  social  networking,  peer  to  peer  culture,  exploitation  and   empowerment  of  Internet  users,  remix,  and  the  reoccurring  utopian  hopes  and   dreams  that  accompany  the  development  of  communication  media.     Course  Formats:   Discussions,  Weekly  Responses     In  order  to  meaningfully  participate  in  class,  you  will  need  to  read  the  required   readings  for  each  week  and  bring  your  notes  to  class.  The  first  few  classes  will  start   with  questions  formulated  by  the  instructor  but  soon  you  will  frame  our  class   discussions  with  your  questions.  Participation  includes  listening  and  building  on   what  others  have  said.  Participation  accounts  for  30%  of  your  final  grade.      

We  will  make  use  of  Seesmic  for  some  video  discussions.       Every  week  before  Saturday  10pm  you  will  post  short  responses  to  the  readings.     You  will  also  pose  questions  that  we  will  then  become  part  of  class  discussion.         Throughout  the  semester  there  will  be  bi-­‐weekly  anonymous  after-­‐class   questionnaires  that  give  allow  to  give  feedback  on  the  class  all  throughout  the   semester.       Evaluation:   Participation  30%   1  class  presentation  20%  (throughout  the  semester)   Mid-­‐term  paper  20%  (DUE  10/13  before  class.  I  will  only  accept  printed  and   stapled  papers.  Please  do  not  email  your  paper.)   Final  30%  (DUE  12/6  before  class.  I  will  not  accept  late  submissions.)     Learning  Objectives:   Understanding  of  today’s  networked  media  through  the  lens  of  the  more  than  100   years  of  cinema,  and  60  years  of  television.       Participation   In  order  to  meaningfully  participate  in  class,  you  will  need  to  read  the  required   readings  for  each  week  and  bring  your  notes  to  class.  The  first  few  classes  will  start   with  questions  formulated  by  the  instructor  but  soon  you  will  frame  our  class   discussions  with  your  questions.  Participation  includes  listening  and  building  on   what  others  have  said.         Each  student  is  expected  to  spend  up  to  two  hours  each  week  reading  the  required   texts.  All  students  are  expected  to  read  and  come  to  class  prepared  to  discuss  the   assigned  readings.  You  are  asked  to  use  the  social  networking  site  Ning  to  share   question  sand  summaries  of  the  readings  before  each  Monday.    

  Eugene  Lang  Attendance  Policy:   Students  are  expected  to  attend  classes  regularly  and  promptly.  More  than  3   absences  may  result  in  a  failing  final  grade.  If  a  student  is  more  than  10  minutes  late   to  a  class,  this  will  count  as  an  absence.       Schedule  for  Presentations:   09/13   09/20   10/04     10/11   10/18   10/25         PART  I     Week  1  Overview  Syllabus,  Introductions   08/30,  09/01     •   • What  is  the  value  of  discussion?     Think  of  the  worst  group  discussion  you  have  ever  been  involved  in.  What   happened  that  made  these  discussions  so  unpleasant?  Conversely,  think  of   the  best  discussions  you  have  ever  been  involved  in.  What  made  these   conversations  so  satisfying?  How  would  you  like  to  be  spoken  to  by  your   peers?  Together  we  formulate  ground  rules  for  discussion  for  the  weeks  to   Setting  up  social  networking  site  for  class:  Ning   http://socialhistoryofnewmedia.ning.com/                   11/22     11/29   12/06   12/13             11/01   11/08     11/15        

come.         Mapping  Exercise     New  Media?  What  is  Social  Media?  What  is  History?  

•  

Required  Reading  for  Thursday:   McLuhan,  Marshall.  ”The  Medium  is  the  Message”  The  New  Media  Reader.  New   York:  The  MIT  P,  2003.     Vannevar  Bush,  "As  We  May  Think,"  The  Atlantic  Monthly,  August,  1945     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  2  From  BBS  and  Usenet  to  ARPANET  and  the  Internet   09/06,  09/08     Required  Reading:   Abbate,  Janet.  “’The  most  neglected  element:’  users  transform  arpanet.”  Inventing   the  Internet.  Cambridge,  Mass:  MIT  P,  1999.       Hafner,  Katie.  “Email.”  Where  wizards  stay  up  late  the  origins  of  the  Internet.  New   York:  Simon  &  Schuster,  1996.       Suggested  Reading:   Winston,  Brian.  “The  First  Computers.”  Media  technology  and  society  a  history  :   from  the  telegraph  to  the  Internet.  London:  Routledge,  1998.       Licklider,  J.  C.  R.,  and  R.  W.  Taylor.  "The  computer  as  a  communication  device."   KurzweilAI.net.  25  Aug.  2009   <http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0353.html>.     History  of  the  Internet   http://www.thocp.net/reference/internet/internet1.htm     Video:   History  of  the  Internet   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hIQjrMHTv4&feature=channel_page     Artwork:   Trackers  by  Merce  Cunningham,  1987  

-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  3  Counterculture,  Computing  and  Participation  in  the  Sixties     09/13,  09/15     Required  Reading:   Turner,  Fred.  Introduction  and  The  Well  from  From  Counterculture  to  Cyberculture     Suggested  Reading:   Feenberg,  Andrew.  Technocracy  and  rebellion  the  may  events  of  1968.   Questioning  technology.  London:  Routledge,  1999.  21-­‐43.     Campbell-­‐Kelly,  Martin,  and  Aspray,  William  .  Babbage’s  Dream  Comes  True.   Computer  A  History  of  the  Information  Machine  (The  Sloan  Technology  Series).  New   York:  Westview  P,  2004.  23-­‐61.     Online  Version  of  The  Well,  Fall  1968   http://www.wholeearth.com/issue-­‐electronic-­‐edition.php?iss=1010     Short  Film  Excerpts:   Commune   The  Summer  of  Love   The  Early  Days  of  The  Well  (http://blip.tv/file/805566)   Video  of  The  Well  Party  (http://blip.tv/file/860833/)   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐       Week  4  Cybernetics  and  The  Failure  of  the  Soviet  Internet   09/20,  09/22     Required  Reading:   Barbrook,  Richard.  Imaginary  Futures  From  Thinking  Machines  to  the  Global  Village.   New  York:  Pluto  P,  2007.    Chapter  3,  4,  5.     Suggested  Reading:   Briggs,  A.,  Burke,  P.  The  Age  of  Television.  In:  A  Social  History  of  the  Media.  From   Gutenberg  to  the  Internet.       Guest  Lecture:  Ben  Peters  (Columbia  University)   http://www.columbia.edu/~bjp2108/blog/      

Video:   http://www.imaginaryfutures.net/book/video/     Artwork:   TV  Decoll/age  by  Wolf  Vostell,  1958   Magnet  TV  by  Nam  Jun  Paik,  1965   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐       Week  5  The  World  Wide  Web   09/27(CLASS  MEETS),  09/29  (ROSH  HASHANAH,  NO  CLASSES)     Required  Reading:   How  the  Web  Was  Won  by  Keenan  Mayo  and  Peter  Newcomb  July  2008     http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/07/internet200807     boyd,  d.  m.,  &  Ellison,  N.  B.  (2007).  Social  network  sites:  Definition,  history,  and   scholarship.  Journal  of  Computer-­‐Mediated  Communication,  13(1),  article  11.     http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html#history     Reference:   Gillies,  James;  Cailliau,  Robert.  “Timeline.”  How  the  Web  Was  Born.       Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press,  2000.       Film  Excerpts:   Homepage  by  Doug  Bock   (http://old.d-­‐word.com/homepage/)     Artwork:   ARTIST'S  STATEMENT  N0.  45,730,944:  THE  PERFECT  ARTISTIC  WEB  SITE     Young-­‐Hae  Chang     http://www.yhchang.com/PERFECT_ARTISTIC_WEB_SITE.html                  

-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     -­‐  PART  II  -­‐     Week  6  Dreams  of  Love,  Democracy,  and  Liberation   -­‐-­‐  from  the  Telegraph  to  the  Internet   10/04,  10/06     Required  Reading:   Standage,  Tom.  The  Victorian  Internet.  New  York:  Berkley  Trade,  1999.     Chapters  5,  6,  8,  9,10,  11,  12     Suggested  Reading:   Hindman,  Matthew  Scott.  “The  Internet  and  the  Democratization  of  Politics.”  Myth  of   digital  democracy.  Princeton:  Princeton  UP,  2008.       Video:   Telecommunications  services  for  the  1990s   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqtoVmACDng     Artwork:   Kino-­‐Automat  by  Raduz  Cincera,  1967     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  7  Electrifying  the  World   10/11,  10/13       MID-­‐TERM  DUE  10/13  before  class.  I  will  only  accept  printed  and  stapled  papers.       Required  Reading:   Part  1  (chapter  1-­‐5)     Carr,  Nicholas.  “One  Machine.”  The  Big  Switch:  Rewiring  the  World,  from  Edison  to   Google.  New  York:  W.W.  Norton  &  Co,  2009.     Burke,  Peter,  and  Asa  Briggs.  "From  Steam  to  Electricity."  A  Social  History  of  the   Media:  From  Gutenberg  to  the  Internet.  Polity,  2005.     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  8  Reproducibility  and  Transmission   10/18,  10/20    

  Required  Readings:   Benjamin,  Walter.  “The  work  of  art  in  the  age  of  mechanical  reproduction.”  H.  Zohn   (Trans.),  Illuminations:  Essays  and  reflections  New  York:  Schocken.  1968.       Nichols,  Bill.  "Culture  in  the  Age  of  Cybernetic  Systems."  The  New  Media  Reader.   New  York:  The  MIT  P,  2003.    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  9  Piracy  and  a  history  of  intellectual  property   10/25,  10/27       Required  Reading:   Coleman,  Gabriella.  Code  is  Speech:  Legal  Tinkering,  Expertise,  and  Protest  Among   Free  and  Open  Source  Software  Developers.  Cultural  Anthropology,  Vol.  24,  Issue  3,   pp.  420–454.  2009.     Hesse,  Carla.  "The  rise  of  intellectual  property,  700  b.c.–a.d.  2000:  an  idea  in  the   balance."  Weblogs  at  Harvard  Law  School.  25  Aug.  2009   <http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/geekroom/2004/02/23/carla-­‐hesses-­‐the-­‐rise-­‐of-­‐ intellectual-­‐property-­‐and-­‐a-­‐gift-­‐economy/>.     Suggested  Reading:   Communication  and  Media  in  NYC   http://www.nycarchivists.org/exhibit/comtime.html   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  10  The  Early  Years:  Digital  Labor  and  Exploitation   11/1,  11/3     Required  Reading:   Terranova,  Tiziana.  "Free  Labour."  Network  Culture  Politics  for  the  Information  Age.   New  York:  Pluto  P,  2004.     Andrejevic,  Mark.  “iManagement-­‐  the  early  years”  iSpy  surveillance  and  power  in   the  interactive  era.  University  Press  of  Kansas,  2007.       Suggested  Reading:   Thrift,  Nigel.  Re-­‐inventing  invention:  new  tendencies  in  capitalist  commodification.   Economy  and  Society  Volume  35  Number  2  May  2006:  279/306.  

http://nigelthrift.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/reinventing.pdf.   Economy  and  Society  Volume  35  Number  2  May  2006:  279-­‐  306   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  11  Fan  Culture,  and  the  History  of  the  Commoditization  of  Networked   Publics   11/8,  11/10       Required  Reading:   Benedikt,  Michael  L.  "The  Lessons  from  Lucas  Film'  Habitat."  Cyberspace  First  Steps.   New  York:  The  MIT  P,  1992.     Jenkins,  Henry.  “Searching  for  Origami  Unicorn:  The  Matrix  and  Transmedia   Storytelling.”  Convergence  Culture.  New  York:  New  York  University  Press,  2006.     Suggested  Reading:   Atton,  Chris.  “Fan  culture  and  the  internet.”  An  Alternative  Internet.  New  York:   Edinburgh  UP,  2005.     Imagining  Community   http://socialmediaclassroom.com/host/vircom/wiki/imagining-­‐community     Resource  on  the  history  of  fan  culture:   http://www.fanhistory.com/wiki/Main_Page     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  12  Branding  and  the  Audience  Commodity:  from  Quaker  Oats  to   Facebook   11/15,  11/17     Required  Reading:   Mattelart,  Armand.  “The  Power  of  Propaganda”  Networking  the  World,  1794-­‐2000.   New  York:  University  of  Minnesota  P,  2000.       Bermejo,  Fernando.  "Audience  manufacture  in  historical  perspective:  from   broadcasting  to  Google."  New  Media  &  Society.  Web.  25  Aug.  2009.   <http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/11/1-­‐2/133>.     Film  Excerpts:   Metropolis  by  Fritz  Lang   The  Matrix  

-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  13  Memory,  Permanence,  Erasure   11/22  (Class  MEETS),  11/24  (THANKSGIVING,  NO  CLASSES)     Required  Readings:   Kittler,  Friedrich  A.  "Gramophone."  Gramophone,  film,  typewriter.  Stanford,  Calif:   Stanford  UP,  1999.     Suggested  Reading:   Winston,  Brian.  "The  Capture  of  Sound."  Media  technology  and  society  a  history  :   from  the  telegraph  to  the  Internet.  London:  Routledge,  1998.     Guest  Speaker:  Douglas  Kahn  (unconfirmed)     Assignment:  Prepare  questions  for  David  Golumbia  via  Seesmic     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  14  The  Cultural  Logic  of  Computation   11/29,  12/1     Golumbia,  David.  “Computation,  Globalization,  and  Cultural  Striation.”  The  Cultural   Logic  of  Computation.  Cambridge,  Harvard  University  Press,  2009.           Golumbia,  David.  “Epilogue.”  The  Cultural  Logic  of  Computation.”  Cambridge,   Harvard  University  Press,  2009.           Guest  Speaker:     David  Golumbia  (University  of  Virginia)   (http://www.mindspring.com/~dgolumbi/docs/cv.html)     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐       Week  15  The  Globalized  Network  of  Networks   12/6,  12/8     Required  Reading:   Thompson,  John  B.  “The  globalization  of  communication.”  The  Media  and  Modernity   A  Social  Theory  of  the  Media.  New  York:  Stanford  UP,  1996.    

Mattelart,  Armand.  “Globalization:  The  Networks  of  the  Postnational  Economy.”     Networking  the  World,  1794-­‐2000.  New  York:  University  of  Minnesota  P,  2000.       Suggested  Reading:   Siegert,  Bernhard.  “The  world  postal  system,  or  the  end  of  the  world.”  Relays   Literature  as  an  epoch  of  the  postal  system.    Stanford:  Stanford  UP,  1999.     -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐     Week  16     12/13,  12/15  A  Short  History  of  Peer-­‐to-­‐Peer  Culture     Goldsmith,  Jack  and  Wu,  Tim.  “The  File  Sharing  Movement.”  Who  Controls  The   Internet.  New  York,  Oxford  University  Press.  1998.     Palfrey,  John,  Gasser,  Urs.  “Pirates.”  Born  Digital.  New  York:  Basic  Books.  2008.       Suggested:   Peer-­‐to-­‐Peer  Art   (Art  made  for  -­‐  and  only  available  on  -­‐  the  peer  to  peer  networks)   http://www.p2p-­‐art.com/     Reference  for  History  of  Peer-­‐to-­‐Peer  Culture   http://tinyurl.com/ngjrs2   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐         Eugene  Lang  Policy  on  Plagiarism:   Plagiarism  is  the  unacknowledged  use  of  someone  else’s  work  as  one’s  own  in  all   forms  of  academic  endeavor  (such  as  essays,  theses,  examinations,  research  data,   creative  projects,  etc.),  which  may  be  derived  from  a  variety  of  sources  (such  as   books,  journals,  Internet  postings,  student  or  faculty  papers,  etc.).  Students  should  

refer  to  the  Policy  on  Academic  Honesty  in  the  Eugene  Lang  College  catalog  for  full   information  on  the  consequences  of  plagiarism.     Eugene  Lang  Policy  on  Disabilities:     In  keeping  with  the  University's  policy  of  providing  equal  access  for  students  with   disabilities,  any  student  requesting  accommodations  must  first  meet  with  Student   Disability  Services.  Jason  Luchs  or  a  designee  from  that  office  will  meet  with   students  requesting  accommodations  and  related  services,  and  if  appropriate,   provide  an  Academic  Adjustment  Notice  for  the  student  to  provide  to  his  or  her   instructors.  The  instructor  is  required  to  review  the  letter  with  the  student  and   discuss  the  accommodations,  provided  the  student  brings  the  letter  to  the  attention   of  the  instructor.  This  letter  is  necessary  in  order  for  classroom  accommodations  to   be  provided.    Student  Disability  Services  is  located  at  79  Fifth  Avenue  -­‐  5th  Floor.   The  phone  number  is  (212)  229-­‐5626.    Students  and  faculty  are  expected  to  review   the  Student  Disability  Services  webpage.  The  webpage  can  be  found  at   http://www.newschool.edu/studentaffairs/disability/  and  the  office  is  available  to   answer  any  questions  or  concerns.     References   •      How  to  present  well?  (Authors@Google:  Garr  Reynolds)  http://is.gd/hgqd   •      Hacker,  D.  (2004)  A  Pocket  Style  Manual.  Boston:  St.  Martin's.     • • •   Grade  Chart     93-­‐100  %  A     86-­‐92.9%  A-­‐     80-­‐85.9%  B+     75-­‐79.9%  B     Writing  skills  (Slideshare  presentation  by  the  instructor)  http://is.gd/hgrl   Skills  for  critical  reading  (http://www.uefap.com/reading/readfram.htm)     MLA  formatting  (http://easybib.com/)    

70-­‐74.9%  B-­‐     65-­‐69.9%  C+     60-­‐64.9%  C     55-­‐59.9%  C-­‐     50-­‐54.9%  D+     30-­‐49.9%  D     Less  than  30%  F      

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