l,earning Meilia
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1
PHYSTCS
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l Vision of New INDIA
96.,t,,,:
Febrgary Z0l
Fl K \
,i
iqht from the first lndustrial Revolution it has been proved that the *tion which has greater advantage is the one which takes the lead in tfre knowledge ievolution.
ernaih,infr,gI,rlg Website:w$v.mtg.in
' .,
The second revolution was in Nuclear Physics. During and after the Second
World War it was United States that was rhost powerful in the world.
The third knowledge revolution was in the field
Editor
Mahabir Singh
revolution of the conquest of space technology with the advances in computer technology.'
is very
'
Our government and the HRD minister in particular are very keen about the new lndian revolution of unification of lndia in a new way, Holding common exams, common cuniculum right from CBSE and the constant emphasis on the importance of Research are all connected to each other.
T.
4il 'u i
I
T T
As the Hon. Minister put it, "a college is a teaching institution and university is an institution where you create knowledge".
Mechanics
,ti
We had been emphasising all these years that we have to develop the art of questioning. The teachers of ancient lndia taught the disciples by asking questions and the students were equally keen to lebrn by asking
the fundamental questions.
This is the interaction between teachers and students. lt was the collective search for truth.
27 'i
Neither today nor in the yesteryears, a fresh graduate is ready to start research on his own 0r take part in production work. The key for the solution to the problem is inhouse training. Graduates, postgraduates and doctorate holders have to put in a lot of work with the seniors in the field helping them initially. 0nce they are ready to take on their own, the time and energy spent in training them is never regretted. Universities are certainly the place for research. This is
I
T
lntegerType Problems
AIEEE Foundation2011
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one institution where no questions are asked why research is necessary. Research needs no justification. Teaching is part of research, where the
students are subtly prodded to ask questions, to understand the present limitations of knowledge and then try to solve the internal contradictions by boldly going on their own. There is only one way that any nation can become a superpower. That is research and more research in every field agriculture to medicine,
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Physics Clinic
aeronauticaf applications to atomic research, informatics research, all on our own steam.
to
space
At a glance
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11
Exam Date
1Oth
April
2011
Usefuldata:GasconstanlR:8.314 IKlmoll,Molecularmass:H2SO4=9g&C2HpH=46gr =94 g, 1 F = 95500 C; Atomic Numbers: H= t Li= 3, B= 5;i= 6, N =7; O = 8, F = 9, Na =,11, P: 15, S = 16, Cl = 17, Ar= 18, K = L9, V 23, Cr= 24 Mn = 25, Fe ='Zi, = Co=27, Ni=2& Cu=29,2n=30,Ge=32,8r=35, Ag=47,I=53,Xe =54,pt=78,Hs.=g0, pb=g2
H2O = 18 g, C6H5OH
Straight Objective
llpe
3.
(a) (c)
a is
34 mL 30 mL
(b) 10 mL (d) 50 mL
This section contains 9 multiple choice questions numbered 1 to 9. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), k) and (d), out
1.
'
During the test of halogens, sodium extract is first boiled with nitric acid as to
(a) decompose NaCN and NarS (b) make silver halide'insoluble (c) :rrcrease the solubility of AgNO3
For a perfectly crystalline solid Co.. = aTB, wherc constant. If C, is 0.{2IlKmol at 10 K, molar entropy at 10 K is (a) 0.42llKmol O) 0.11llKmol (d) zero @) a.zllKmol
2.
The system shown in the diagram is at equilibrium at 27"C and volume of the bulb is 150 mL. At this temperature, the vapour pressure of water is
(a) H2O2 oxidises Fe(II) to Fe(Itr). (b) HrO2 can be obtained by' electrolysis of dil. H2so4. (c) HrO2 reduce Mn(Vtr) to Mn(II). (d) H2O, is a weak base.
:
28 millimetres of mercury..
approijmately
Calcium imide on hydrolysis gives gas (B) which on oxidation by bleaching powder gives gas(C). Gas(C) on reaction with magnesium give compound (D) which on hydrolysis gives again gas(B).Identify (B),(C) and (D). (a) NH3, N2 Mg3N, (b) N" NH3, MgNH
7.
(Sirou)2'anion is obtained when (a) no iixygen of a SiOftetrahedron is shared with another SiOf tetrahedron (b) one oxygen of a SiOf tetrahedron is shared with another SiOt tetrahedron (c) two oxygen of a SiOf tetrahedron are shared with another SiOf tetrahedron
takes place.
.i,,'
,,r
Linked,Comprehension rype
3 paragraphs Prrrr Pr"r, and Prrrr.
(d)
(a) bases (b) acids (c) phenolic compounds (d) all are correct
Which is/are the structure of XeFa ?
as also the increase in basicity of oxides from N, R As, Sb io Bi is principally due to the increasing size of the atoms. The ionization potential indicate that it is much more difficult to pull electrons of small nitrogen atom than the larger bismuth atom. It is interesting to
(a)
(b)
note that nitrogen obtained from the decomposition of.compounds such as NHaNO2 is of lower density than the residual gas obtained from the atmosphere by removal of oxygery carbon dioxide and water.
(a) (c)
As2O3
Sb2O3
:,
basic
This section contains 3 multiple choice questions numbered 10 to 12. Each question contains statementl (Assertion) and
statement2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct.
15. The residual nitrogen obtained from air after removal of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water
vapour has a greater densilv than that obtained from chemical compounds because (a) it is an allotrophic modification of nitrogen. (b) it is mixed with some heavier gas. (c) it is rich in heavier isotopes of nitrogen.
Statementl is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is not a correct explanation for Statement1 Statementl is True, Statement2 is False. Statementl is False, Statement2 is True. is slower
(d) nitrogen obtained from chemical sources contains some light gas. Paragraph for Question Nos. 16 to 18
An organic compound on analysis gave the following
data.
Statement2 : Heavier isotope(deuterium) is less reactive and bond energy of O  H bond is lesser
thanODbond.
11.
(i)
(ii) 0.4 gm of the compound on analysis by Duma's method gave 11.2 ml nitrogen gas at STP. 16. % of carbon in the compound is
(a)
(c) 60%
30%
b)
40Y'
(d) s0%
rranUnnv',r r
s%
(c)
2 questions.
A
(c)
35%
(d)
30%
Each question contains statements given in two columns which have be matched. statements (A,B,C,D) Column I have to be matched statements (p,q,r,s) in Column
pqrs
Paragraph for Question Nos. 19 to 21 For a nonideal gas, the compressibility factor (Z) is defined as
Z
=Pv* : vRT
Molar volume
Compressibility of an unknown gas at 600 K and 1.0 atm was found to be 1.2. Also this gas was found
to effuse 1.58 times slower than the pure methane gas
be appropriately bubbled as illustrbted in the following example. lf the correct matches,are Ap, As, Bq, Br, Cp, Cq and Ds, then the correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should
be as shown.
under identical conditions. t!. Density of the gas in the above mentioned experimental condition is
olumn,:I
(A)
(B)
Column
(p)
(q)
'II
DrO
ColourlEss
1ai o.ra g
rr
(c)
1.02 g
L{
@) @) La7 gLa
of the gas in.the given experimental
0.58 g
Lr
(c)
(r)
(s)
(D) Elz
(a) (c)
40.8 L 59.8 L
21. The value of the virial coefficient"B" in the virial equation is (Ignore the higher terms from the
equation during calculations) virial equation :
olumn
I
(p)
Coltifin *rII
as>0
CO:
220 kl/mol,
respectivelyl
(B) SOCl2nf + SO2kl,+,Ch1*,
(d)
(c) CO + Clzcl
tD) Ctrs6yr
r
COCl26y
AH<
AE
2.C161
aG,.<.0
(d)
3oCro
32Cro
26. There are 12 seats in a row numbered \ to 12, 4 men select 4 seats so that seat numbered 8
 2)r]20 is equal to the square of the coefficients in the expansion of the sum of l2bcx  (b + c)y110 where A, b, c are positive
(b + c)20 [1 + (a
is always occupied and with no two men like adjacent seats. If such arrangementi can be done in n ways then n
(a) 40 @) aa
(b) (d)
36
34
constants, then
27. In
(a)
(c)
o>Ji
c, a, b are
(b)
in
G.P.
c,
G) :,+,+^re
25. Coefficients of
r30
in expansion of
a cricket matctu the probabilitieg of scoring no run, 2 runs, 4 runs and 6 runs by a player X are 0.'1,, 0.2,0.4 and 0.3 respectively. If X requires 18 runs from last 4 balls, then probability of X winning the match without extra runs is
(1r)3211+r+x2)3ois
(a) (c)
0.4971.
@)
0.2497
(d)
0.2847 0.04e7
PHYsrcs FoRYou I
rrenunnv'rr
28. A bag contains 5 balls and it is not known how many of them are white. It is observed that
balls drawn from the bag at random are white. The probability that all the balls in the bag are
2
1.1
white, is
(a) (c)
Z
5
tu) (d)
1"
Statementl : There are 20 identical balls in a bag out of which 5 are white, 9 are black and 5 are blue. The number of ways in which one or mole balls can be selected from the bag is 419. Statement2: The number of ways in which one or more items can be selected from 20 distinct items is 220  1,.
; \ 12
z
4
34. Statementl :
o(ztu.,.zL t"r,aa)
29.
A and B play a game 16 times. A wins 8 times, B wins 5 timei and they draw twice. A and B play a seiies of 5 games. The probability that they win alternatell is 451256.
Statement2 : P(A u B): P(A) + P(B) if are mufually exclusive events.
(';;'(#);Jm
1 (c) Jt
(a)
L2)
and B
35.
(b) ta)
+ {3
Jt
of
30.
Triangle ABC is right angle at A with AB = AC, point M is interior point of the triangle so that ZMBA = ZMAB = 15o. The number of degree in
ZAMC
3 paragraphs P35,,, P3ea1 and pn *. Based upon each paragraph,3 multiple choice questions have to be answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and
This section contains (d), out of which 0NLY 0NE is correct.
(a) 1 (c) 3
32.
r,
Paragraph for Question Nos. 35 to 38 Suppose r is a random variable which takes values 0, t, 2,3, ..... and P(x : r) = pq, where 0 < p < 1, q = 1  p and r = 0, 1, 2, ....., then
36.
P(x > a) is
(c)
q"
(d)
Triangle ABC is right angle at C. Inradius and circumradius of triangle ABC with sides a, b, c
o(x>(a+b)\_
\x2a)
R,
then
>*r,t"(Lf9)=
(b) 4R2
(d)
(c)
4R
(d)
1. +rR
1.
o(
\ x>a )
x=
a+b\_
(b) P(x > b)
(d)
't
This section contains 3 multiple choice questions numbered 33 to 35. Each question contains Statementl (Assertion) and
Statement2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is conect.
Paragraph for Question Nos. 39 to 41 B be a function defined by y =/(x) such that / is bijective then there exists a unique function g : B + A such that f(x)=y e Cg)= x,YxeA and
Letf': A r
Statementl is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statementl. Statementl is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is not a correct explanation for Statementl. Statement'l is True, Statement2 is False. Statementl is False, Statement2 is True.
PHYsrcs FoR
yeB. Here., g is said to be inverse of / and g = ft : B'+ A = llf(x), x\: [x, f(x)lef ;. ir we consider two inverse functions sin1x and cofl r with
domain [1, U &
[*, ]and
rai'rge
respectively. Then
l;,;l&
(0,
r)
"]=r ir"
you I
reaRumv'r
,t
o,[',#]
(.)
40. If
(b)
[0,
u
This
t#,']
I
",[;,']
(a) (c)
41.
cotltqz)
"t+
Each question contains statements A given in two columns which have B be matched. Statements (A,B,C,D) _
and [.] denotes the greatest integer function then complete set of values of r is
ff real numbei
If [cotr
 ri"'
as illustrated in the following example. lf the correci matches As; Bq, Br, Cp, Cq and Ds, then the correctly Irl.4p: bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as shown.
"l
wherexisnonnegative
I
12
iColumn II
= (p)
1
(b)
(cos1,1l
(A)
312
r=0
> "rrr'(+l
Paragraph for Question Nos.42 to 44 Inradius and circumradius of triangle ABC with sides a, b; c are r and R respectively. Incircle of the triangle touches the sides a, b, c at At, Br, C1 respectively. Similarly the incircle of triangle ArBlCt touches its sides at 42, 82, C2 respectively and so on. 42. ln MrBrC, the value of Z.B2A2C2= 5n A (a) 3n  A
(c)
(B)
54eis
remainder
8 5n+A 1.6
,o, ''
1.6
n+A
4 B,C,
f irc =
) ) (b) (o)
Column
II
""(f
(p)
(q)
znn+f,
't"(+)
(B)
*'(f
R 2R
= lsinr
_*,(+)
(c)
cos3x
zrn+&
4
3costsin2x = cos3x
(r)
(a)
(c)
0)4 2
(D)
sec2/+cosec2r
(secr+cosecr)+4=0
 2Ji
(s)
(a) (*)
*,(#)
(c)
(il
47, If. nth division of main scale coincides with (n + 1)th divisions of vernier scale. Given one
main scale division is equal to a units. Find the
I rranunnv,rr
48. A long capillary tube of radius r is initially just vertically completely immersed inside a liquid . of angle of contact 0o. If the tube is slowly
lo
PHysrcs FoRyou
raised then relation between radius of curvature of meniscus(R) inside the capillary tube and displacement (h) of tube can be repiesented by
51.
'
(c)
(b) 3 (d) None of these 52. An irregular shaped body of rr.ass m, density o is falling with a terminal speed z' in a viscous
1
(a)
(c) J,
medium of density p and viscosifr q. The viscous drag force acting on the body will be
(a)
49.
mg
(u) ,gl.rP]
o./
(c) 6nqro
53.
," ,r(r.*)
.3h :h and f
a2
If
t4and
holes, then
ais
tJ2
Uranium ores on the earth at the present time have a composition consisting of 99.3oh of f.he isotope ,rIJ238 and.0.7o/o of the isotope ,rU235.The half lives of these isotopes are
4.47 xl}eyears and 7.04 x 108years respectively. If these two isopopes were equally abundant when
'
\0'7 )
(c) 6.07'
10e
years
10e years
(a)
J=
2t2
1
b)+
(d) none of these
54. If potential energy of electron revolving around nucleus in hydrogen atom is given by equation
"=#:,
(c)
50. The
T,
limbs of a manometer consist of uniform capillary tubes of radii 1.4 x 103 m and 7.2 x 1.0a m. Find out the correct pressure difference if the level of the liquid (density 103 kg m3, surface'tension 72 x '1,0a N m1) in narrower tube stands 0.2 m above that in the
broader tube (assume angle of contact 0o).
(a) 1386 Pa
the electronic charge and r is orbital radius of revolving electron. Application of Bohr,s theory to hydrogen atom in this shows that
nrh
n
orbit is orbit is
(c)
1
5170 Pa
th
55.
One mole of
monoatomic ideal gas undergoes process AB in given PV diagram. Then average specific heat for this Process is
a
58. Statementl : Heatingbystembased on circulation of steam are more efficient in warming a house
than those based on circulation of hot water. Statement2 : The latent'heat of steam is high.
(a) (c)
2LR
10
Paragraph for Question Nos. 59 to 61 A sphere of mass m and radius r is released from
9R
10
rest while completely submerged in a river. The flow velocity is zrs and there is no turbulence. The specific
gravity of material of the sphere is 5. The force of buoyancy is equal to weight of the sphere.There is a cavity in the sphere.
59. The fraction of the sphere which is empty will
be
(a)
Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is a correct explanation for Statement 1. Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is True; Statement 2 is not a correct explanation for Statement 1. Statement 1 is True, Statement 2 is False. Statement 'l is False, Statement 2 is True.
(a)
+ tu)9 (")?
SJCJ
(d):
60. The acceleration of the sphere at the instant when velocity of the sphere is
(b)
(a) (c)
61.
6r\rao
m 2turlrao
b)ry
'@) nryo
P 2
will be
circular plank of radius 1 m which is moving with an angular velocity or' 51 and 52 are two stationary observers at 3 m and 4 m from the centre of circular
plank.
3m
(b) 56.
Statementl :
Statement2: source.
51 and 52
same
circular piece of radius R is removed leaving a hole in the sheet now the sheet with hole and the piece are both heated to the same temperature. The piece can still exactly fit into the hole.
Statement2: The coefficient of surface expansion for both the piece and the hole is same.
PHYslcS FoR You I rtanunnv 't
I3
G4
The air column in a pipe closed at one end is made to vibrate in its second overtone in resonance with tuning
(a)
+
t43
,6' *fs^Po
2
fork of frequency 440 Hz The speed of sound in dir is 330 m sl and end corrections may be neglected.
Let
P6
pipe, and APe tfe maximum amplituJe of pressure variation and AP = tMosinkr.
(d) None of these 42 Paragraph for Question Nos. 65 to 67 We have two radioactive nuclei A and B. A converts
(c)
(b)
i**
5
(c)
;
(a) 9* (b)
C are zero.
(a)
(c)
t'"
+"'
i*
(c) both (a) ?nd (b) are correct (d) both (a) and (b) are wrong 66. \ /hat are number of nuclei of C when number of nudlei of A and B are equal?
65. If atomic numbers and mass numbers of A and B are 21, Zu A, and.A, respectively. Then.. (a) Z,  Zr= 6 (b) A,  Az= 4
MTG;ll;; ;:ii;;i:?n
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money
the
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PHYSICS'FORYOU
I rranunnv,rr
(a)
2Ns
(b) 3No
(c)
9No
2
(d)
5No
2
Column
I
p)
Column
II
57. Ar what time rate of disintegration of are equal? (b) 5 min (a) 4 min (d) 2 min (c) 8 min
A and B
(A)
Heat current, in which heat transfer mechanism(s), is directly proportional to area of cross section
Conduction
(B)
This
statements
B given in two columns which have (A,B,C,D) be matched.Statements c Column I have to be matched D statements (P,q,r,s) in Column ll. The answers to these questions have to be appropriately correct bubbled as illustrated in the following example'lf the As, Bq, Br, Cp, Cq and Ds, then the matches are Ap, correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as shown'
to in with
(r)
Radiation
mechanism(s) that
densities
i'si
(s)
Kirchhoff
Law
's
as
CHEMISTRY
shown in the figure with part r inside the liquid some changes in the parameters are mentioned in columnI.
1. (a) 2. (b) 3.
(b)
4.
18.
(d)
5'
1s.
s,
15.
(a)
s.
16.
(b)
(b)
(c)
r, s; (D)q, r, s
24. (d) 25. (a) 26. (a) 27' (b) 28' (b) 2e. (c) 30' (a) 31. (b) 32, (b) 33. (b) 34. (d) 3s. (a) 36' (c) 37' 38. (a) 3e. (a) ao. (c) a1' (c) a2. 45. (A)p; (B)r;(C)p; (D)s 46. (A)p, q; (B)p, s; 1C)p, q, r, s; (D)F
PHYSICS
(b) (c)
Column
II
($
If
decreases, (B)
r will
(q) decredse
a7. (a) a8. (b) 4e. (c) 50. (b) 51. (c) 52' 54. (b) 55. (a) 56' (c) 57' (c) 58. (a) 5s'
(b) (a)
will
sYstery is (r)
remalns same
61. (d) 62. (b) 63' (c) 6a' (c) 65. (b) 66' (c) 67, (b) 68. (A)p; (B)p; (C)t (D)q 6e. (A)p, q, r;,(B)p, q, r;(C)q; (D)r
(c)
If the whole
r will
oo
(D)
bY
(s)
r will
PHYSICS FoR YoU I rrenunnv 't
S ffiss* PR
BLEMS
l.
A andBare connected eachotherby massless string and a spring, the string passes ovet a frictionless pulley as shown in figure.
Twoblocks
'
stationary block C and the block A slides along the vertical side of C, both with same uniform speed. The coefficient of friction between the surface of the blocks is 0.2. Force constant of the spring is 1960 N ml. If the mass of block A is 2 kg .ul*lut" the mass of the block B and the energy stored in
length L. A completely inelastic collision occurs in which the stone gets embedded in the object. Find (a) the speed of the combined,mass immediately after the collision with respectto an observer
on the ground.
(b)
in the string becomes zero when the string becomes horizontal during the subsequent motion of the combined mass
the spring.
4.
What is the work done by gravitlz in equalising the,leygls when the vesse.ls are connected?
S.
'
Two identical cylindrical.vessels with their bases at the same level each contain a liquid of density p. The height of the liquid in one vessel is h1 and that in the other is h2.The area of Fither base is a.
in tnir,,r.,ifofm circular disc of mass z and radius R is rotating in a horizontal plane about an axis passing through its centre and perpendicular to its plane with an angular. velocity or. ,Another disc of the same dimensions but of mass m/4 is placed gently on the first disc coaxially. Show that angular velocity of the system is 1ro.
if if
6.
Abody is allowed to slide on an inclined frictionless track from rest position under earth's gravity. The track ends in a circular loop of radius R. Show that the minimum hbight h of the body so that it may successfully complete the loop is given by
A cart is moving along rdirection with a velocity of 4 m s1. A person on the cart throws a stone with a velbcity 5 m 11 relative to himself. In the frame of reference of the cart the stone is thrown inyz plane maklng an angle of 30' with vertical zaxis. At the highest point of its trajectory, the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically
= 1.9)n.
\2)
7.
Twoblocks of masses 5 kg and 2 kg are placed on a frictionless surface and connected by a spring. ;An external kick gives a velocity 14 m s1 io the
t5
mass
while on block
A,
fn = PRa
0 = 0)'
:f ;,**"o"n0'
...(i)
T=fa=VmB{
While for vertical equilibrium of A,
with one end on the floor and is allowed to fall. Find the velocity of the other end when it hits
the floor, assuming that the end on the floor does
T=meg
From equations (i)
rrmeg=
...(ii)
not slip.
9.
IuJ
m
0.2
30 kg weight sitting'on his horse whips it. The horse speeds up at an average acceleration
Aboy of of 2 m
s2.
2.
"
1e6o
"
(10z;z
o.oe8l
a triangle from one end horizontal base falls on the other end of the
base after grazing the vertex. If 0 and Q are the base angle of projection, show that:
tand=141e+tanQ.
h=5sin37':5x0.5=3m
(a) As the block slides down the inclined plane,
.1)
o= rlzgi
=,1z"zs*
KE and does work against friction. Loss in pB = gain in KE + work done against
friction
irririilj'iiili,il
In this problem,
inl,Sii.iriiiiiil
(i)
Masses
A and B are moving with constant velocity, this is a problem of dynamic equilibrium, l.e. forces acting.on mass A (or
or 3.
a=J4g=6.26ms1
(a) Let i,i unai be the unit vectors along x, y and z directions respectively. Given,
(ii)
B) balance each other. String and spring are weightless and no mass is involved between them, Trg.int = T.pri.g = T' (iii) Force of friction on block B, (': Rs = mBg) fn= VRn= lLmE
g.6 i) * tl  doo* ""r, = (6 sin 30') i+ (6 cos 301AI = 1aNi + A dstone = dstone, cart * D."rt = Qi + 3'j + e.6t; m r1
This is the absolute velocity of stone (with respect
PHYslcS FORYou I
ocart=4tms'
1r
rianulnv'tt 17
to ground). At highest point of its trajectory, the vertical component of its velocity (or) will become
zero, whereas the r and y components will rer4ain unchanged. Therefore, velocity of stone at highest
AC=htn=(\:b)
So
point will
a=1+i+aj;ms1
. be
the level is
or
W=mgxAC=)pga(hrhr)2
4
s_1
L=t(o=rmra
Iiy'hen another disc of
1r
Here,
oe
or ?o  a5 i= i^sr = 2.5 m s1 .'. Speed of combined mass just after collision
is 2.5 m
s1.
*us A
and radius R is
in the string becomes zero at horizontal position. It implies that velocity of combined mass also becomes zero in horizontal position.
@) Tension
r,=!*,2
.I(t^)r =!*,,
I' Z*"
s
6.
'
o=afi
zgr
2(e.8)
... L=4=gt=0.32m
29
D.!
Suppose a be the velocity of the body at the highest point C. At point P, the potential energy of thebody = mgll At point C, the potential energy of the body
tTo,
= mg(2R)
will
=1 *oz
left vessel shown in figure drops from A to C and that in the right vessefrises from B to D. Effectively, the water in the part AC has
or
h=(4:hr)
:.
!*r'
= mg(h
2Ri.o.
a2
zgltt
zn1 ...(i)
Hence,
+N
=(+)
*=rolr,(r*\=(!t+)
1d pwslcs FoR you I reenunnv,r r
Since N cannot be negative, the velocity of the body at C must correspond to N = 0 if tire body is describe a circle i.e.
*g=+or
...hi.
.
uhin=gN o1 ,,i^=rfilR)
gR = 29 (h*i,.
,[=p,n=p,(Mg)
p,(30x10) < 60 N
a2^6=2g(h^  2R) or
\L,l
2R)
r'=#=o'20
=[+J. ,o= +
ncM=;r+;
5x14+2x0
5+2
m.i. +m"i"
Zkg
For a particle proiected with an initial velocity a at an angle o, the equation of trajectory is
;. ar,, Lrvr
(b) The centre of mass reference frame is one in which centre of mass is at rest' So the velocity of the heavier block in this frame just after the
!=xta^a
#k
oztt2sinacosal
kick is
a't =
where R = range
at
l.
L' "
o)=az
10 =
10 m s1
i.e., inthe centre of mass frame the blocks of 5 kg and 2 kg will approach each other with speeds 4 m s1 and 10 m s1 respectively.
\A/hen rod is held vertically, its centre of mass is at a height (LIZ) fromthe floor, so tliat the potential energy of the rod is Mg(Ll2). On releasing, the rod
lz=hcototanolr
ftcot0 + hcotQl
r h,totrt,l
tane =
tana cotd
cote + coto
kinetic energy
1^
or
of
irtertia of the rod about the lower end and co the angular velocity when it hits the floor. Thus by conservation of mechanical energy,
OO
MnL =L 2
lr'
or
or
{3s./
4
[': r=L]
Ifuis the
floor, then
XPLO RE R
10 ModelTest Papers 20 YRS. (19912010) Solved Papers with detailed solution
DUtl'HT
S*##JffiT
EXPLSHGH
o=rr=,,{i{,
9.
(a) The boy does not slide back, its acceleration = acceleration of the horse.
(b)
f,= IYla = 30 x 2.0 = 60 N. If the boy slides back, the horse could not
PHYSIGS FOR YOU I rtanunRv',t
19
Fast
NUCLEUS
Z)m,
M(Z,A)
light, n ismass)
in ev (electro"
E(=iamui=@er
= 931
"oit, "v
= 1.5 x 10"
I)
(g
r rot)'
The number of protons in a nucleus of an atom is called as the atomic number (Z) of that atom. The number of protons and neutrons (together .called nucleons) in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number (A) of the atom. A particular set of nucleons forming an atom is called a nuclide. It is represented as 7XA. The nuclides having same number of protons (Z),
x 106 eV = 931 MeV + B. E. = am (sgr) \4ev There is another quantity which is very useful in
predicting the stability of a nucleus called
energy per nucleon.
B.E. per nucleon =
as
binding
o'f") t"u.
we Observe that:
0.)
:>
YF
n la
h.t
boc
The nucleons are bound together in a nucleus and the energy has to be supplied in order to break apart the constituents into free nucleons. The energy with which nucleons are bound together in a nucleus is called binding energy (8.E.). In order to freenucleons from a bound nucleus, this much of energy ( = B.E.) has to be supplied. It is observed that the mass of a nucleus is always less than the mass of its constituent (free) nucleons. This difference in mass is called as mass defect and is denoted as L,m. lf m, = mass of neutron and m, = mass of a Proton
501 io(
, , ''
o
,,,,.;.,.r.,11M4$S,hqmfugr,(4),,':,
o o
B.E./nucleon increases on an average and reaches a maximum of about 8.7 MeV for A = 5080. For heavier nuclei, B.E./nucleon decreases slowly as A increases. For the.heaviestnafural element U238 it drops to about 2.5 VteV. From above observation, it follows that nuclei in the region of atomic masses5080 are most
stable.
: :::'
Akhil Tewari,
rtenunnv'to 21
NUCLEAR FORCES The protons and neutrons are held together by the strong attractive forces inside the nucleus. These forces ale called as nuclear forces. Propertieri of the Nuclear Force
o o
Nuclear force is short ranged. It exists in small region_(of diamete. i0t5 m 1 ;). = The nuclear force between two nucleons decrases rapidly as the sepafation between them increases and becomes negligible at
be controlled and the chain reaction in such .;J;; known as controlled chain reaction. This forms the basis of a nuclear reactor.
NUCLEAR FUSION
explosion is created. In such cajes; the chain reaction is known as uhcontrolled chain reaction. This forms the basis of atomic bomb. In a chain reaction, the fast moving neutrons are
can
gf continuous fission by itself. If the number of fissions in a given interval of time goes on increasing continuously, then a condition of
it is capable
Nuclear force is independent of charge. The nrrclear force between two protons is same aS that between two neutrons or between a neutron and proton. This is known as charge independent character of nuclear iorce.
The process in which two or'more light nuclei are combined into a single nucleus with the release of tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear the fusion (1.e. of light nuclei) is more than the sum of masses after the fusion (i.e. of bigger nucleus) and this difference appears as the fusion energy. The most typical fusion reaction is the fusion of two deuterium
fusion. Like a fission reaction, the sum of masses before
NUCLEAR REACTION
Itr nuclear reaction, sum of masses before reacti6n is difference in massesappears in the form of energy following the law of interconversion of mass and energy. The energy released i" u ,"".tio., rs called as Q valqe of a reaction "".tu", and is given as
greater than the sum of masses after the reaction. The
nuclei into
helium.
.l
is An amu
For the fusion reaction to occui the light nuclei are brought closer to each other (with a Jistance of
1014
followed. Total number.of protons and neutrons should also remain same on both sides of a nuclear reaction.
NUCLEAR FISSION
fusion reaction.
to counter the repulsive force between nuclei. Due to this reason, the fusion reaction is very difficult to perform. The inner core of sun is at very high temperature, and is suitable for fusion, in fact the
The breaking of a heavy nucleus into two or more fragments of comparable masses, with the release
following
uB^'n'* ,ukr, + 3ont +200 Mev more than one of the neutrons produced in the above fission reaction are capable of inducing a fission reaction (provided ll3i i, urruifuUiJ, tf,u., the number of fissions taking place at successi,re stages goes incre4sing at a very brisk rate and this generates a series of fission reactions. This is known as chain reaction, If mass of Ws sample greater than
lf
e2J}3s
+ont1
reaction.
used with a25Yo efhciency in the reactor, how mairy grams of deuterium will be needed per day? (The masses of 1H2 and 2Hea are i.Ot+t umu und 4.0025 amu respectively.) Solution : Let us first calculate the value of nuclear e Q = Amc2 = An(931) MeV
Illustratiori 1 : It is proposed to use the nuclear fusion reaction, ,H, 1 ,H, + 2Hea in a nuclear reactor, of 200 MW rating. If the energy from above reaction is
e = (2 x 2.014't  4.0026)x
931
MeV
=
=
25
106
eV
21o/o.
i6bt
22
Now 9.534 x
2 deuterium.
1.013
J energy is released
by fusion of
yRadiation
(#)
 '2
(9'534 x 1013)
T/deuterium is released.
'
These are electromagnetic waves of nuclear origih and of very short wavelength. They have no charge and no mass. They have maximum penetrating power and minimum ionising power. The energy released in a nuclear reaction is mainly emitted in the form
=_ry*t,
2
= 3.624x7025
ftx6xlOts
of 1 radiation Laws of Radioactive Decay O RutherfordSoddy laws (Statistical Laws) O The disintegration of a radioactive substance is random and spontaneous.
3.624xt0* =Tx6x1023
O O
+m=
or particles from the nucleus is called radioactivity. The substances which emit these radiations are called as radioactive substances. It was discovered by Henry Becquerel for atoms of radium, Later it was
discovered that many naturally occurring compounds of heavy elements like radium, thorium etc also emit
The radioactive decay follows first order kinetics, i.e., the rate of decay is proportional to the number of undecayed atoms in a radioactive substance at any time f . If dN be
the number of atoms (nuclei) disintegrating
in
.
radiations. At present, it is known that all the naturally occurring elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive. For example some of them are; radium,
disintegration constant. Let N6 be the number of nuclei at time t = 0 and Nrbe the number of nuclei after time f, then according to integrated first order rate
law, we have
polonium, thorium, actinium, uranium, radon etc. Later on Rutherford found that emission of radiation
always accompanied by transformation of one element
'
The half
Nr = Noext
period of a radioactive substance is defined as the time in which onehalf of the radioactive substance is disintegrated. If N6 be the number of nuclei at f = 0, then in a half life Tyy the number of
life
'
)"f = ln
No
(Ty2)
aParticles
(2Hea)
..
.(i)
These carry a charge of. +2e and mass equal to 4mr. These are nuclei of helium atoms. The energies of
aparticles vary from 5 MeV to 9 MeV and their velocities vary from 0.010.1 times of c (velocity of iighg. They can be deflected by electric and magnetic fields and have low penetrating Power but high ionizing power.
pParticles
(1eo)
= 2"= ry^rlr,i,
From (i) and (ii), we get
No
..
.(ii)
*=(1)"t"
n = number of half lives
=(ll
to e and. mass me = 9.1 x 1031 kg' Their velocities vary from 1"/" to 99oh of the velocity of light (c). They can also be deflected by electric and magnetic fields' They have low ionizing power but high penetrating power. p* particles are positrons.
resnuenv'.ro 23
PHYSTCS FORYOU I
(7.) of a radioactive
substance is equal
to the sum of life times of all atoms divided by the number of all atoms. It is given by
_ _'l." mI
Illustration 2 : The mean lives of a radio active substance are'1,620 and 405 years for cemission and pemission respectively. Find out the time during which three fourth of a sample will decay if
+tpl
+ _reo +0(antineutrino)
+ *, e0
,pt ort
(positron) + u(neutrino)
pemission simultaneously. Solution : When a substance decays by cr and p emission simultaneously, the average rate of disintegration l.uu is given by
When a
l,ur=l,o+l"U
where l,o= disintegration constant for oemission only. disintegration constant for pemission only. Mean life is given by
aB =
1 t^=T
,dN A=If a time f = 0, the activity of a radioactive substance be As and after time f = f s, activity be A, then
rNo
+ .11.7
=)
_=++_ T. Td
=
^=l#],=,=TF
1''
Unit of Activity
A' = A'eLt
The activity is measured in terms of Curie (Ci). 1 curie is the activity of 1 g of a freshly prepared sample of
'
ro*)r =2.303bs
3.08 x 10'
radium
Ra226
1010
1Ci = 3.7 x
Bq
Illustration 3 : Radioisotopes of phosphorus p32 and P35 are mixed in the ratio of 2:L of atoms. The
activity of the sample is 2 Ci. Find the activity of the sample after 30 days. 7112 of P32 = L4 days and Ty2 of P35 is 25 days. Solution: Let Ao = initial activity of sample. ,41e= initial activity of isotope 1 and ,426= initial activity of isotope 2.
d + Energy
4=At +4o
Similarly for final activity (Activity after time f)
protory antineutrino is produced. Ithas no ctrarge or mass/ but has momentum. When a proton is converted to a neutron, a neutron and a +ve
A,=Arr+Ax
Now in the given equatiory
A, =
AroeL't
AroeL't
as
4=2Ci +
Ao
= Aro+Aro=
..
..(i)
24
PHYSTCS FORYOU I
=2:
"1516
A=l,N
Illustration
Am
Aro
lrNro
=&tL Nro
T1
...(ii)
count ratq meter is used to measure the activity of a given sample. At one instant the rneter shows 4750 counts per minute. Five.minutes later it shows 2700 counts per minute. Find (a) decay constant (b) the half life of the sample. Solution: (a) Initial activity = 4 = ff at t = O dN Final activity = 4 =i at t = t
4 :A
xJ
ArneL't
.
_o.9jls
,n
=
&
e1'485
1.48s  Iogy=m +
i.e.,
lo
7'485
)' =
2'303
, 5
lon "2700
4750
0.1129 min1
result
e_,
=antiloslffi)
/r\
oo
Easy
to Grasp
the form of po.,.n!s o A.!3ndy High Yield Facts Book Essential for all Competitive Examinations
PHYsrcs ron
v6u I rrenunnv'to
2,
1. Ir the shown
figure
a vessel
density varies
with
, =rr(n!)
*n*"
A solid block of
and mass
small'
dimensions of density
I
L
po
is released from
5. A
the bottom of the tank. Show that the block will execute
If a mass M is suspended from the bottom of the rope, find the time for a transverse wave to travel the length of the rope.
vertically.
q
starts going up at constant acceleration 4, where At a height h the acceleration of the elevator
1.
Density of block is
Pbtock =
reverses
in
direction,
its
magnitude remains
constant. How soon after the start show the right time again?
J.
will the
clock
(s
Oo,
to its volume is
IrPoJ
A plank of mass M is kept on rest on two identical spherical balls each of mass rn and radius R. The plank is connected to two springs which in turn
are attached to walls as shown in figure. Find the frequenry of small oscillation of the plank, assuming pure rolling of spheres on surface, and
no slipping condition between plank and spheres.
^I
from the bottom,
I;+
,,(n_ff\r_^r
'=lffi]
4.
shown in figure.
from
. [+J''{#lrr
Randhawa Institrite of Physics, S.C.O.208, First floor, Sector36D, Chandigarh.
PHYsrcs FoR You
rranumv'r
27
=l%
As ao=
(e*c\
J"
{7
o*=h =
E.r
Resultant acceleratieo
(#)'
,  WIJT*"l ''?!;l:
rotartime
LJt. "
r)=hbJI"1
,z*
forSHM.
So,wehave,6
=E*,r=ff1W1
11
EIE,tr] 17lTl
Consider a small horizontal displacement r of the plank. Total energy of oscillation of the system,
+E
8l
'2n\I
tEi
L*pz
,_E "!;'
\a
m1 x_
8+a
I
2n
Time gained
rl =8"+E"l,.E,. g+a)
k)
x2
.lI, . **llf']'
fr^)rff , #
=o
rlw
=[4r'mtl
keep
!r{*t*ot)=o
 *ro,
[*n*",,=;]
r,rtz.ff + (r,.
esff*0,#.ffi,=o
Let f, be the time in which the pendulum will lose the tirre it gained during up motion, so that it can
.lrrect time.
=rrr!{t=
="['tF] =trft,ttil
Time gained = Time lost
released,
respectively and
pulley.
28
KErrr*=KEmass +
KEpurcy
(KE)*"*
=!I o^'
= mr(r
 a)a2
a)z
=+(#l
PE.y,,"^
.**Hl
 a)2 mf  maz + m(r h= KEo = PE.o mr(r  a)a2 = mga (1 cosO)
(tl
2mr(r
a)
=*w' =+r(+,1
=**'
m""
#(^*#.,*.*)=o
Srnce
=(,.Tr)r
dx
rs
not zero,
*(n^*L,;)+k'=o 2
dt'\ d2nk^
)
(mlr)
,,,*(dq'=u
t=zlfrl,[r.*,lr]
\18
",
I t
\l rnts
oo
flow charts
AIIMS
Analysis of 11 year's
AIIMSA&Rquestions
PHYsrcs FoRYou
I resnunnv'rr 29
IIFJEE
1.
Ageostationary satellite is orbiting the earth at a height of 6R from the surface of the earth, where R is the radius of the earth. The time period of
'rT:'
Problems
@ @ @ @
sedion answer I ln this secion the answer to each of the questions is a single digit integer, ranging lrom 0 to 9. lf the correct answer to qustion numben )GY Z andW (say) are 6,0,9 and 2 respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will look like the following.
keep the car under view, at what angular speed (in rad s1) must the camera be rotated?
another satellite at a height of 2.5R from the x n hours, the value surface of the earth is "E
Track
Car
+40msi
ofnis
2.
nonviscous
For a certain organ pipe, three successive resonmce
liquid of density oneeighth of the density of material of the bob, then its time period of
oscillation becomes
of x?
3.
qrl
7.
\Z ".What
is the value
frequencies are observed at425,595 and 765H2 respectively. Taking the speed of sound in air to be 340 m s1, find the length of the pipe (in
metre).
8.
'
the initial temperature of the gas is [ (in Kelvin) and the final temperature is aTi, then the value
\8)
ofais
Two identical charged spheres are suspended by strings of equal length. The strings make an angle of 30'with each other. When suspended in a liquid of density 0.8 g cm3, the angle remains the same. What is the dielectric constant of the liquid? [Density of the material of sphere is 1.6 g cm3] In the given circuit diagram, find the current (in A) passing through wire CD.
4.
A particle is projected from a horizontal plane with velocity of sJi m sl at an angle, At highest
point its velocity is found to be 5 m (in m) will be
s1.
Its range
9.
(Takeg=10ms2)
5.
by massless string as shown in the figure on a frictionless table. They are pulled with a force F = 50 N. lf mr= 1,0k9, mz= 20 kg and ms = 30 kg,
then ratio
L
T1
is
10.
rr
6.
l'tl*lnz>l'sP t
Tl
T2 rr
F=6oN
A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed in its volume with a charge density
50v
at a constant speed of 40 m s1. A T.V. cameraman is recording the event from a distance of 30 m directly away from the track as shown in figure. In order to
p = Kro, where r and a are constants and r is the distance from its centre. If the electric field at r = R'12 is U8 times that at r = R, find the value of a.
11.
A steady current / goes through 4 wire loop PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with
30
PQ:3x, pp = 4x and QR = 5r. If the magnitude of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is
r'=2nE
kff4).
k.
Is'=r"E \zs
(Using (i))
12. A fish at a depth of 1.2 cm in water is viewed by an observer on the bank of a lake. To what height
\+anx )'
r'=E["rF)="F
6 ,'=nl;
Therefore, the value of
3.
is the image of fish raised? ^ (Refractive index of lake water = i) When two progressive waves
and. y2=
= 4sin(3x
7t)
is 2.
3sin(3x
7t +
TV't1=constant
and B (radius
T,Vlt =T.VY1'
T,v,rl
'
andTv respectively' maximum intensity in the emission spectrum The of A is at 500 nm and in that of B is at 1500 nm' Considering them to be black bodies, what will be the ratio of the rate of total energy radiated
=or,FL\' '1.8 /
5. 2
2
a'=g^t7
by A to that of
B?

5Jf * tt
? = tlcose
15.
;. a=83
= 93 = 123;3 =22 = 4.
1.
(6) Here
\=
6R + R = 7R; Tr = 24 hours
.ose=* +
,t2
0=45'
r?=rE r? t, t
20kg ms= 30 k8, F = 60 N k& ^r= The common acceleration of the system is
(3) Here mt = 10 u=
F
T1
m1*rn2*m3 10+20+30
=7nra:1go
Tz= (mt + m2)a = (10 + 20\a = 30a
_ a1
60
 :t
r =znE
\ls z=zn
When
then
E !s
...(i)
fz _na
T1
_,
\0a
vpg'=vPgvog
where p is the densitY of the bob
440ms1 0=30'
r'= r'=
[t;)t
(rf )s
g'
=f,s
PHYsrcs FoRYou I rrenunnv'tt 31
'h
x = htan
dt
dx nsec4".dd , 0J =
'dt
l.
When the balls are suspended in a liquid of density o and dielectric constant I(, the electric force will become (1/K) times, i.e., F' = (F/K) while weight mg' = mg Th = mg  Vog ITh = y;g1
u = hsec2{,uo
(a,
oJ=
h
U
*'=*1,t]
:
tano'= F'
F mg' Xmg[l.(o lill
1",
sphere)
"=f]
hsec2 q
= 3cor2 d
["
"*r=#)
9.
Ql
...(iv)
4o f.6 = 19 cos2 3oo  30"[ I = 1 rer o1 30"" " " 2 rraqD
7.
(1) Since frequencies are in odd number ratio, the pipe has to be a closed pipe.
Ratio of 3 frequencies
v P ^ =+== (p  o)
1'.6
(1.6
 0.8)
is
425 Hz.
425=5u + v=2_5=g5Hz
where u is the fundamental frequency of the
PiPE. 5
s0V (t\+t2)
Applying Kirchhoff's second law for the closed
loop ACDBA. we get
_rr + 3(1_ L) =
0
Fundamental frequency,
l =$ 4L
where L is the length of the pipe and z is the speed of sound ih air.
or, L=
8.
'= 4u
340
4x85
=1*.
\+3t_31=0 3r_411=O
loop CEFDC
...(i)
(2)
4(Ir 
Ir) + 4(I
211+l1r+414h+4Iz=0
 I, + Ir; = 9
...(ii)
4I6\+6Iz=0 2I3\+3.Iz=0
It2(11I)+59=9
mg
(i) Tension T
11211+2lz+50=0
mg
Initially, the forces acting on each ball are (ii) Weight lzg
1\+2Iz+50:0 $ J
...(iii)
I in equation (ii)
,(*)",+3r2=o
...(i) ...(ii)
... (iii)
811911+9lz=0
i
m8
r
It+91r=g ...(iv) Solving equation (iii) and (iv) we get 12= 2 A. Hence, current passing through wire CD is 2 A.
PHYSTCS FOR
yOU rrenunnv,r I
10.
{E.dl=^ff
4nr2
=*tr*'
nrzilr
lz=3sn(3x zt *l The phase difference between two waves is $='2 A=
n
:+
'=#l#] ='=;#
r('=i)=;E(r=R)
(Given)
Jq * 4*2;..Arr""q
42 + 32 +
2x 4x3 x cos3
('.'
.o,;
o)
8eo(a+3)'
14.
l"rT = constant
zo*7=8
or ;=r
TO
..(i)
According to Stefan Boltzmann law, rate of energy radiated by a black body E = oATa = o4nRzTa [Here, A = 4nR2]
LxpDx1x=Lx:lxx4x
.'.
PD=\2'
5
:[r*)'
x 1s;a(usins(i))
T=J
and DR =5r2t
=1!t 55
!mo(to12 =Lmr@r)2
Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor. Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current
element QR is Pol=(sinQ1+sinQ2)
L+^r(ao)z
=L*r(rp)'
LD=
^hh Afl=,
Lp
* t=+
('ft=^)
' ffiaaq
'
mpap
4x
t. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.7. 8.
9.
15.
@@@@@@@oo@@@o@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@(&@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@o@@@@@@@@@
72. (3)
Real deoth
n*;*a"o.rt
lg)
=129=3cm.  7t)
oo
PHYsrcs FoR You I rpsnuanv 't
33
This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualified teaching experts welltuned to the requirements of these
EntranceTests.
2010
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2009 2
2008
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2006
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Electrons in the conduction band are called free electrons or conduction electrons. These electrons contribute to the electric current. Forbidden Energy Gap
The gap between the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band is called the
forbidden energy gap. Sometimes, it is also called energy band gap or energy gap. It is usually denoted by symbol E . No electrons are present in this gap.
METALS, INSULATORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS
soLtDs
tr Ir
an atom, electrons revolve in definite orbits around the nucleus and each orbit has a definite energy, i.e., atom has its discrete energy states. These energy states are so close to each other that they form an energy band. Thus, the group of energy levels (states) very close to each other is called an energy band. The energy bands in solids are dassified as follows :
tr
be
O O O
Metals Lrsulators
Semiconductors
Valence Band The energy band formed by the energy levels of the valence electrons is called the valence band. tr This band contains valence electrons. This band maybe partially or completely filled with electrons. This band is never empty. Electrons in this band . do not contribute to electric current.
Metals
tr
In metals, either the conduction band is partially filled or the valence band and the conduction
band partially overlap each other and there is no forbidden energy gap between the valence band and conduction band. The energy band diagram of metal is as shown in figure (i).
Conductionband
tr
Conduction Band The energy band above the valence band is called the conduction band. Normally, the conduction band is empty.But when it overlaps with valence band electtons can move freely into it.
PHYsrcs FoR You I rranunnv'r
34
tr They are good conductors of electricity. tr The highest energy level occupied by the electrons at absolute zero temperature is called Ferrri level
and the energy corresponding to the Fermi level is called Fer:ni energy.
INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
A pure semiconductor which is free from every impurity is called intrinsic semiconductor.
Germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) are the important examples of intrinsic semiconductors. L:r an intrinsic semiconductor, the number density of electrons is equal to the number density of
holes.
Insulators
tr
as
O A
Eg = 5 eV or
more
semiconductor, electrons and holes move in opposite directions so that total current (I) through
I=Ir+In
(ii)
[.
tr They
tr
nl =
AoT3sEslkr
empty and there is a small forbidden energy gap between the valence band and conduction band. It is of ttre order of 1 eV. For silicoru it is 1.1 eV and for germ4nigln it is 0.72 eV. The energy band structure of a semiconductor is
as shown
where E, is the energy gap at 0 K in electron volt, k is the Boltzmann constant in eV K1 and As is a constant independent of T.
Effect
of
Temperature
on Conductivity
of
infgure (iii).
Conduction band
n With increase in temperafure, the density of holeelectron pairs increases and hence the conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor increases with increase in temperafure. In other words, the resistivity (inverse of conductivity)
decreases as the temperafure increases.
El
(in)
EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
tr
The deliberate addition of a desirable impurity is called doping and the impurity atoms are called
dopants.
tr '
In an extrinsic semiconductor, the number density of electrons is not equal to the number density of
holes. i,e., nrnlr= n!. This law is called mass action law.
PHYSTCS FOR YOU
i rrenunnv',r
35
o An extrinsic semiconductor
is of two types
O O
ntypesemiconductor ptypesemiconductor
Conduction b4nd
nType Semiconductor
tr When a pure semiconductor of Si or Ge (tetravalent) is doped with a group V pentavalent impurities like
arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), phosphorus (P) etc, we
.

obtain a ntype semiconductor. The pentavalent impurity atoms are called as donor atoms.
tr
o It is called ptype
....
o
tr In ntype semiconductor, the fermi level lies in the
energy gap very close to conduction band.
k,
because the conduction of electricity in such semiconductor is due to motion of electrons l.e. negative charges. tr It is called donor type semiconductor, because the doped impurify atom donates one free electron to semiconductor for conduction. tr ln ntype semiconductor,'electrons are majority charge carriers and holes are minority charge
carriers.
as
o
I
o
.o o
oao AAA oo Oo
ooo
o o
LegendF;. o Hole (positive charge) . ElecFon (negative charge) e Immobile icin,(iiQiative charge)
J tr
fln=No>>44;,.,,,,
Legends: r Free electron (negative charge) o Hole (positive charge) O lmmobile ion (positive charge)
@ @. @.
a a
@ o
o a o o @o ^o
oo a
oo aa
oa
tr tr
D
o /,type semiconductor
is electrically neutral.
nr= N4)>
fi1,
tr tr
The conductivity of the semiconductor is given by o = e(nelre+ nn\) ' where p, and p1 are the electron and hole mobilities and e is the electronic charge. r., ..' . The conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is o;= np(1t,+ 1to) The conductivity of ntype semiconductor is on= eNfl)", The conductivity of ptype semiconductor is
or=
pn JUNCTION
eNolt"y
is doped with a groirp III trivalent impurities like aluminium (Al), boron (B), indium (In) etc we obtain a ptype semiconductor. The trivalent
impurity atoms are called
as acceptor atoms.
When a ptype semiconductor crystal is brought into close contact with an ntype semiconductor
is called a
a
It is also called
semiconductor diode.'A pn iunction cannot be made by simply pushing the two pieces together.
36
I reanunRv 'r r
This would not lead to a single crystal strucfure. Special fabrication techniques are needed to form a pn junction.
E Ir tr
reverse biasing the width of the depletion region increases. The resistance of the pn junction becomes high in
reverse biasing.
the
in reverse bias can be considered to be equivalent to a capacitor with p and n regions act as the plates of the capacitor and the depletion region acts as the dielectric. Its capacitance is called depletion capacitance or transition capacitance.
is its ability to conduct current in one direction only. In the other (reverse) direction it offers very
high resistance. The current in the junction diode is given by
where
k = Boltzmann
I = Io (dvrtr
1)
constant 10
reverse
saturation current, T = absolute temperature. Depletion Region In the vicinity of junction, the region containing the uncompensated acceptor and donor ions is called depletion region. There is a depletion of mobile charges (holes and free electrons) in this region. Since this region has immobile (fixed) ions which are electrically charged it is also called as the space charge region. The potential developed across the depletion layer is called barrier potential. The physicAl distance of the depletion region is called width of the depletion region. For silitortrdiode the barrier potential is about 0.7 V vFlieieai fot a germanium diode it is about
0.3
Breakdown Voltage Apn junction allows a very small curient to flow when it is reverse biased. This current is due to the movement of minority charge carriers. It is almost independent of the voltage applied. However, if the reverse bias is made too higtr, the current through the pn junction increases abruptly. The voltage at which this phenomenon occurs is called breakdown voltage. There can be two different process of breakdown. One is called zener breakdown and the other is called avalanche breakdown.
,vCHARACTERISTICS OF A pn JUNCTION The /Vcharacteristics of. apn junctton do not obey Ohm's law. The experimental circuit arrangements
tr
v.
,i
tr The width of the depletion layer is about 10{ m. tr The width.ofthe depletion layer and the magnitude of potentiallbarrier depend on the nature of the
material of semiconductor and the concentration of impurity,atoms. Forward Biasing of
a
pn ]unction
When the positive terminal of extemal battery is connected to pside and negative terminal to
nside of pn junctiory then the pn junction is said to be forr.vard biased.
When the positive terminal of the extemal battery is connected to nside and the negative terminal to pside of apn jvnctron, then the junction is said to
be reverse biased.
rranunRv'rr 37
O It is a device
voltage. Rectifiers are of two types: O Half wave rectifier O Full wave rectifier
tr In forward
[ [r half wave rectifier one diode is used. tr The circuit diagram, input and output
current starts to increase rapidly is called cutin qr knee voltage. For germaniurn diode it is about 0.3 V whereas for silicon diode it is 0.7 V.
RESISTANCE OF A DIODE
voltage waveforms for a half wave rectifier are as shown in the following figure.
tr
Output voltage
ways.
of the voltage applied across the diode to the corresponding current flowing through it. It is given by
v rdc=7
It is defined as the ratio of small change in voltage across the diode to the corresponding small change in
ac or dynamic resistance :
={J
d. to
Time
current. It is given by
 _AV '""
point.
IDEAL DIODE
T
rvo 'orf+&
ry is the forward diode re'siiitance, R1 is the load resistance and Ve is the peak value of the input voltage. Average or dc value of current is '
where
tr
A diode permits only unidirectional conduction. It conducts well in the forward direction and poorly in the reverse direction. It would have 6eei ideal if a diode acts as a perfect conductor (with zero voltage across it) when it is forward biased, and as a perfect insulator (with no current flows through
'd.
, Io tr
, T '^t Io
Peak inverse voltage is
tr
as
shown
Vd.=Id"R.=*R.
It is also given
by rr Var=2
IE
(Assuming diode
O O
38
tr
trmformer
Diode 1 (D1)
Rr I
output
vottage
=,ft.sryt
o
For full wave rectifier,
rrms
=t.zt
+
=0.482 +E" o;
Peak value of current is
Rectif ication Ef f iciency The rectification efficiency tells us what percentage of total input ac power is converted into useful dc
,vo ^u
rac
rJU +R,
2Io
=.:i
'*t=E
Peak inverse voltage is
,10
is
=rl.R.
=[*J
o.
Input
ac
power is
P". = r3,,,
(! +R.) =(21
n,+R1)
V1"=I6.R1
=fR1
It is also given by
n=Pdc ''
40.5 lr
o/
lf ry<< Rp
Maximum rectification efficienry, t1= 40'6%. For a full wave rectifier, dc power delivered to the load is
Pu.
=rl.R,
=(?lt
reeRunnv',rr 39
,=Gr;uJ=l[+T
lnput
ac
power is
P".
Rectification efficienry
PHOTODIODE
=+ 
lf ry<< Rr,
Maximum rectification efficienry, q = Form Factor
tr
O
gap (E ) of the semiconductor, then electronhole pairs are generated due to the absorption
I*"
Form factor
of photons. The diode is fabricated such that the generation of electronhole pairs takes place in or near the depletibn region of the diode.
in
the
tr
,,^"=#,
Form factor =
Io,=2*
SOLAR CELL
tr
O
It converts electrical energy into light energy. It is a heavily doped pn junction which under
forward bias emits spontaneous radiation.
The diode is encapsulated with a transparent cover so that emitted light can come out.
pn junction. It works on the same principle (photovoltaic effect) as the photodiode, except that no extemal bias is applied and the junction area is kept much larger for solar radiation to be incident. '
ZENER DIODE
tl
tr
The IV characteristics of a LED is similar to that of Sijunction diode. But the threshold voltages are much higher and slightly different for each colour. The reverse breakdown voltages of LEDs are very low, typically around 5 V.
tr It is designed to operate
regulator.
of visible
ll
D tr
sides of the junction. Due tg . this, depletion region formed is very thin and the electric field of
the junction is extremely high.
p and
The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) is used.for making LEDs of
different colours. GaAs is used for making infrared LED. The symbol of a LED is shown in the figure.
tr
in the
*+^
O The circuit
Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator diagram of a voltage regulator using a Zener diode is shown in the figure.
tr
LEDs have a number of advantages over ordinary incandescent lamps. They work on low voltages and currents and thus consume less power. They
require no heating, no waimup time, and hence are very fast in action. They are small in size and light inweight. They are not affected by mechanical vibrations and have long life.
Regulated voltage
40
a.series resistance Rs such that the Zener diode is reverse biased. If the input voltage increases, the current through R5 and Zener diode also increases. This increases the voltage drop across Rs without any change in the voltage across the Zener diode. This is because in the breakdown regiory Zener voltage remains constant even though the current through the Zener diode changes. Similarly, if the
The symbols lor npn and pnp trairsistors are shown in the figure below.
Rg
nPn
pnp
and Zener diode also decreases. The voltage drop across Rs decreases without any change in the voltage across the Zener diode. Thus, any increase/ decrease in the input voltage results in increase/ decrease of the voltage drop across R5 without any change in voltage across the Zener diode. Thus the Zener diode acts as a voltage regulator.
TRANSISTOR
In the operation of a transistor, IB = l" I 7, where Ir is emitter current, 1" is base currenf
the collector current.
16
is
O O O
A transistor is a crystal of germanium or silicon having three regions. Either a thin layer of
ptype crystal is sandwitched between two r?type regions or vice versa. [n the former case, it is called
tr
Input Characterislics of a Transistot The variation of the input current with the input
voltage for a given output voltage is called input
characteristics of a transistor.
npn transistor and in the later case, it is pnp type.the middle region is called base, while the two outer regions are called as emitter and
collector. Alihough the two outer regions are of same type (n regions in case of npn transistor), but their functions cannot be interchanged. The two regions have different physical and electrical
properties.
Output Characteristics of
Transistor
tr A
O
brief 'deseription
Emitter :
tr
A transistor has two pn junctions. The junction between emitter and base is called emifterbase junction or emitter junction. Similarly, the junction between base and the collector is called collectorbase junction or collector iunction. There are four possible ways of biasing these two junctions as shown in the table.
Emitter iunction Forward biased Forward biased
Reverse biased Reverse biased
Collector
O O
Base
iunction n"rr"rr"uiur"a
Forward biased
Reverse biased
the collector.
Collector : It is moderately doped and larger in size as compared to the emitter. It collects a
tr
major portion of the majority carriers supplied by the emitter. The schematic representation of a npn and pnp transistors are shown in the figure.
Forward biased
TRANSISTOR AS AN AMPLIFIER
it is said to be in
The circuit diagram using npn transistor as a common erhitter amplifier is as shown in the
figure.
PHYSICSFORYOU I
reenurnv'rr 41
Various gains in coutmon base amplifier: O dc cunent gain : It is defined as the ratio of collector current (16) to the emitter current (Is).
Input AC
signal
tu
oo"
=k lE
ac current gain : It is defined as the ratio of change in collector current (Aid to the change
In the common emitter transistor amplifier, the input signal voltage and the output collector
voltage are L80o out of phase. Various gains in common emitter amplifier O dc current gain : It is defined as the ratio of the collector current (Is) to the base current (/s).
in emitter current
(AIg).
s".
f4k') tlle /
as the
ratio of output
B"=f
o
current gain : It is defined as ratio of change in collector currerit (A16) to the drange in base current (AIB).
ac
1/
o dc pac _
/ EputpowAi@l?_
output power = aux Ao
(Po)
41,
Voltage gain : It is defined as the ratio of output voltage to the input voltage.
cl
and p
B=rft'o=th
TRANSISTOR AS A SWTCI{
*f,"r" $
&
tr
When the transistor is used in the cut off region or saturation region, it acts as a switch.
TRANSISTOR AS AN OSCILLATOR
represents that output voltage is opposite in phase with the input voltage. Power gain : It is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power. ,,r output power (Po) 'n _ . tu input power (t) = 9^"'Ao
ve sign
tr
figure.
=zorosn?
=201og1s
A,
=1ousf;
a
cr'Is
.tl
[f.
Mutualinductance
(Coupling ttrough
Input AC sign4
tu
Ic
signal
llEt"
ln
signal voltage and the output collector voltage are in the same phase.
ll
output
42
PHYSICS FORYOU I
reanulnv'rr
tr
A logic gate is a digital circuit that follows certain logical relationship between the input and output
voltages.
Y=A
NAND Gate
It is an AND gate followed by
a
of digital
NOT gate.
NOT gate
OR Gate
D
The logic symbol and the truttr table for NAND gate is as shown in the figure.
o It is called OR gate because the output is high if o The logic symbol and the truth table for OR gate is
as
=AB
a
A
B
NOR Gate
It is an OR gate followed by
A
NOT gate.
=A+B
one
I
O
The logic symbol and the truth table for NOR gate is as shown in the figure.
output. It is called AND gate because outPut is high only when all the inputs are high. The logic symbol and the truth table for AND gate is as shown in the figure.
A
B
A.rT I
B4+/ Y
"xpressiffiAND
+r{+l loTiTl
liToT
gate is
l"p"t fo"tt"tl
o1
=A+B
i_filTt
Exclusive OR Gate or XOR Gate The XOR gate can be obtained by using O& AND and NOT gates asshown in the figure.
o
tr tr tr
The Boolean
NOT Gate The NOT gate is the,simplest of all logic gates. It has only one input and one outPut.
NOT gate is also called inverter because it inverts
the input. The logic symbol and the truth table for NOT gate is as shown in the figure.
Y=A.B+A.B
The logic symbol and the truth table for XOR gate is as shown in the figure.
PHYSTCS FOR YOU I rrenUnnv',r
43
Y=
A.B=A+B= A+B
as
tr The XNOR gate can be obtained by using OIf AND and NOT gates as shown in the figure.
Y=A
D AND gate from NOR gate
Y = AB
+E.E
:=>'
u
The Boolean expression for XNOR gate is
Y=
.
A.B+A.B=ToB
Universal Gate
Y=A+B=A+B
Boolean Identities
NAND Gate
as a
o NAND
with
A+B=B+A
A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C
A'(B+C)=A'B+A'C A+0= A
A+B.C=(A+B).(A+C)
,4.0=0
4.1.= A
Y=A
o AND
gate from NAND gate
A+L=1
A+A=A
A+ A=1
A,A=A
A.A=0 A=A
A.B= A+B
A.(A + B)= A
Y=
A.B= A.B
A.(A+B)= A.B
44
De Morgan's Theotems
tr A+B=A'E A.{\. a.<lT I )o.<y: Bj4/ lv I "1_/ to bubbled AND gate'
NOR gate is equivalent
A communication system is the set up used in the transmission and reception of information from
one place to another.
tr
D fr=A+E
tr
o Receiver The block diagram of a communication system is shown in the figure below.
""""'"'i
O Transmitter O Channel
Communication SYstem
Received Signal
Transmitter : Transmitter converts the message signal produced by information source into a form (e.g. electrical signal) that is suitable for
transmission through the channel to the receiver' Channel : Channel is a medium in the form of wire or cables which connects the transmitter and the receiver or it maY be wireless.
signals are continuous variations of voltage oi current. They are essentially singlevalued functions of time. Sine wave is a fundamental
analog signal. Sound and picture signals in TV are analog in nature. Digital signals are those which can take only discrete stePwise values. Transducer: Any device that converts one form of energy into another is called a transducer. Noise : It refers to the unwanted signals that tend
I I
I I
I J
Receiver: The receiver has the task of operating on the received signal. It reconstructs a recognisable form of the original message signal for delivering it to the user of information. There are two basic modes of communication o PointtoPoint
processing of
tr J
Broadcast
In pointtopoint communication mode, communication takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver. Telephony is anexample of such a mode of communication. In the broadcast mode, there are a large number of receivers corresponding to a single transmitter' Radio and television are the examples of broadcast mode of commununication.
sourcegenerating the noise may be located inside or outSide the sYstem. Attenuation : It refers to the loss of strength of a signal wJrile propagating through a medium' Amplification : It is the process of increasing the strength of a signal using some suitable electronic circuit. Amplification is necessary to compensate for the attenuation of the signal in communication
system. It canbe done at a place between the source
tr tr
becomes weaker than the required strength. Range: It is the largest distance between a source and a destination up io which the signal is received
for trans'mission is called a signal' be either analog or digital' Analog Signals can
rtanumv'tt 45
 F1:;
=qtrya
the
tr
wave). Demodulation : The process of retrieval of information from the modulated wave at the receiver is called demodulation. Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation.
ffod$ati9n Itis the phenomenon of supgrimposing frequenry message signal lcalted the
:
low
to.a j9wGHz. This range of frequencies is further subdivided and allocated for virious services as shown in the table. Name of Frequency Service band Standard AM 5401600 kHz broadcast FM broadcast 88108 MHz
Comments
frequenry.
Repeater : It is a combination of a receiver and a transmitter. It picks up the signal from the ttansmitter, amplifies and retransmits it to the receiver, sometimes with a change in carrier
Television
TV
tr
BANDWDTH OF SIGNALS
communication system, the message signal can be voice, music, picture or computer d'ata."nacn of
trn a
TV
tr The type of
O
communication process.
communication .system needed depends on the band of frequencies which is considered essential for the
Mobile to
station
base
Base station to
Satellite
tr
Q
2800H2 (3100 Hz  300 Hz). The audible range of frequencies is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. As the frequenciis produced by musical
folgggech signalg frequenry range is from 300 Hz to 3100 Hz. Thus, bandwidth of ipeech simals is
O Optical fibte communication is used in the frequenry range of I THz to 1000 THz (microwaves to ultravioleg. An optical fibre
can offer a transmission bandwidth in excess of
100
GHz
I
O
offers a bandwidth of approximately 250 MHz. These cables are normally opu.it"d below
18 GHz.
and optical fibre cable. Coaxial cable is a widely used wire medium. It
from the transmitter, the strength of the wave keeps on decreasing. Several factors influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves and the path they follow.
space and reach the receiving antenna at th6 other end. As the electromagnetii wave travels away
at the transmitter radiates the electromagnetic waves (em waves), which travel througfi the
D
O
earth's atmosphere plays an important role in Qur the propagation of electiomagnetic *ulrur. Some useful layers of the earth,s atmosphere as shown in the table. Frequencies most affected
layer.
Uf
und
Hf to,or"e degr"e
km
Daytime,'merges
PartiallyabsorbsHrw@
reach F2.
with
300
F2
at night
km at night, 250400 km
night
4O
tr
Various modes
MUF=*fo=D,
where
secl
tr
Ground or Surface Wave Propagation Ground or surface wave propagation is a mode of propagation in which the ground has a strong influence on the propagation of signal waves from the transmitting antenna to receiving antenna. In this propagatiory the signal wave glides over the
surface of earth. A ground wave induces current in the ground over whidr it passes and it is attenuated as a result of absorption of energy by the earth. The attenuation
tr
direction of incidence of waves. Skip distance : It is the smallest distance from the transmifter along the earth's,surface at which a sky wave of a frequenry not more than critical
frequency is sent back to the earth. The skip distance is givenby
tr
D"yir=2h where
Dr"
r2
I
surface waves increases very rapidly with in frequenry. The maximum range of coverage depends on the transmitted power and
increase frequenry.
of
is generally used
Q .
tr
atmosphere, u* is the rnaximum frequency of electromagnetic waves used and u. is the critical frequency for that layer. Space Wave Propagation Space wave propagation is that mode of wave propagation in whidr the radiowaves emitted from the transmitter antenna reach the receiving antenna through space. These radiowaves are
called space waves.
h is the height of
\)
reflecting layer of
The
frequency band and medium frequency band but not for high frequency band Sky Wave Propagation
tr
O
in a
tr Sky wave
propagation in whidr the radiowaves emitted from the transmitter antenna reach the receiving
antenna after reflection by the ionosphere.
propagation
is a
mode
of
wave
transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Space waves are used for the lineofsight communication as well as for the satellite communication.
for
propagation
is
also called
as
A '
communication. h is the hqight of the transmitting antenna, then ry the distance to the horizon is given by where R l, tt e,aairr3ol For TV signal, area coveied =T*=nEA:"I. Population covered = population
ff5"*
densif
x area
long
Important tenns for sky wave propagation tr Critical frequency : It is the highest frequency of radio wave, whidr when. sent straight (i.e. normally)'towards the layer of ionosphere gets reflected from ionosphere and retums to the earth.. If the frequency of the radio wave is more than critical frequenry, it will not be reflected by
ionosphere. The critical frequenry of a sky wave for reflection from a layer of atmosphere is given by
tr
The maximum lineofsight distance r";:#::l two antennas having heights lr1 and lrp above the
earth is grven by
dm=JM +{ffi_x.
where h1 is the height of the transmitting antenna and hx is the height of the receiving antenna and R is the radius of the earth.
MODULATION
u.=9(N;*)14
where
O Low frequencies
called modulation.
cannot be transmitted
to long
electron/m3.
Q Maximum
It is that.highest
distancesas sudr. Therefore, theyare superimposed on a high frequency carrier signal by a process
PHYSrcs FoRYOU I
rronunnv'il
4t
Need For Modulation Size of the antenna or aerial : An antenna or aerial is needed, both for transmission and reception. Each antenna should have a size comparable to the wavelength of the signal, (atleast l,/4 in size), so that
=4
(t +frsn.i.^t)ri,',0.r
A
@^)t
time variation of the signal is properly sensed by the anterma. For 15 kHz frequenry the length of the antenna is 5000 m which is practically impossible to construct and operate such a long antenna. For 1 MHz frequenry, the length of the antenna is 75 m which is reasonable. Therefore, there is a need of translating the information contained in our original low frequenry baseband signal into high or radio frequencies before transmission.
_trA,
AHere, F =
cos(co. +
a^)t
fr
p is kept < 1 to avoid distortion. Maximum amplitude, A^o= Ar+ A* Minimum amplifude, A,6,, = A"  A^
Modulation index, p
=+
=ffi
amplitude
by an
antenna
Theoretical studies reveal that power P radiated from a linear antenna of length I is proportional to (Il))2, i.e., P *
are needed
&
The amplitude modulated wave contains three frequencies, viz t)c/ uc + u, and D"  u' The first frequenry is the carrier frequency Thus, the process of modulation does not change the original carrier frequenry but produces two new frequencies (u" + ur) and
(u.
for good transmission, therefore, for given antenna Iength, wavelength l, should be small or frequency u should be high. Thus, this factor also points out to the need of using high frequenry transmission.
 u,) whidr
are
known
as side
band frequencies.
Ugg=U"tl),
Types of Modulation
Modulation are of three types: o Amplitude modulation o Frequency modulation o Phase modulation
In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of carrier wave is varied in accordance with the amplitude of modulating signal (or message signal).
Bandwidth or amplitude
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
tr tr
il:Ifi:,t=1l,;
Let
c(f) = A,sinrrr,f represent carrier wave m(t) = A^snrc,f represent modulating signal or message signal
where
cr,"=2tutr=
frequenry of carrier wave a*=2filu.= angular frequenry of modulating signal A* A,= amplitude of modulating and carrier waves respectively The amplitude modulated wave is represented as
c^(t) = (A" + A.sinro.f) sinto"f
*g,tla.
o=4(r*t\ '2R\ 2)
Fraction of total power carried by side bands
pr
Pr=
v2
It2
2+
48
tr
tr
Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave The block diagram of a detector for AM wave is shown in the figu.re below
AM
wave
o
c(f)
_:_<<RC
be be
where u. is the carrier wave frequenry and RC is the time constant of the circuit.
FREQUENCY MODULATION
tr In
frequenry modulatiorL the frequenry of the carrier wave varies in accordance with the modulating signal. In frequency modulatior; the
amplitude of the modulated wave is same as that
of the carrier wave.
PULSE MODULATION
tr
The carrier wave is in the form of the pulses. The pulse modulation can be classified as : o Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
9 AHHH Iilffi
GHAPTERWISE
AilffiHffi
t*tPr*ft*rsfi fot$$ofr
fi$ai I{rffi#irff If,.ll*trnr'
soluiloNs
***
PHYSICS
CHEMISTRY
MATHEMATICS
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ril@
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PHYSICS FORYOU I
rranunnv'rr 49
(a) (c)
40 m
30 m
@) asm
(d)
25 m
8.
Consider the following statements A and B and identif the correct answer. A. AZener diode is always connected in reverse
Z.
B.
bias.
The potential barrier of. a pn junction lies between 0.1 to 0.3 V approximately. (a) A and B are correct. (b) A and B are wrong. (c) A is correct, but B is wrong. (d) A is wrong/ but B is correct.
9.
(a) zeto (c)
20
1a
(b)
204
50
(d)
1A
(a) Mobile phone (b) Walkyaalky (c) Loud speaker (d) Radio 10. Audio signal cannot be transmitted because (a) the signal has more noise (b) the signal cannot be amplified for distance
communication
The voltage gain of an amplifier with 9% negative feedback is 10. The voltage gain without feedback will be
(c) (d)
(a)
(c)
e0
(d)
10
4.
, n4/
(a) NOR gate (c) AND gate (b) OR gate (d) NAND gate
For an amplitude modulated wave, the maximum amplitude is found to be 8 V while the minimum
ll, 12 and, 13 are based on the following passage. Passage 1 : The input and output resistances in a commonbase amplifier circuit are 400 Q and 400 kO respectively. The emitter current is 2 mA and current gain is 0.98.
Directions : Question numbers
(a) (c)
1.84 1.2
mA mA
mA
(a)g
(c)
(a) (c)
'
(a) (c)
40 50
mA mA
(b) 60 mA (d) 45 mA
50
it
(a) lowers the potential barrier (b) raises the potential barrier (c) greatly increases the minority carrier
(a) o.=+
rb) Rc<1
1)
(c) RC<1
20.
(d) nc >> 1
current
A carrier frequency of 1 MHz and peak value of 10 V is amplitude modulated with a signal frequency of 10 kHz with peak value of 0.5 V.
Then the modulation index and the side band frequencies respectively are (a) 0.05 and 1 + 0.010 MHz (b) 0.5 and 1 t 0.010 MHz (c) 0.05 and l. + 0.005 MHz (d) 0.5 and L t 0.005 MHz
Directions : Question numbers 2122 contain statement1 and statement2. Of the four choices
@) A.B+A.B @) A.B+A.E
(a) Statementlis true, Statement2 is false. (b) StatementL is true, Statement2 is'true; Statement2 is a correct explanation for (c) Statementl is true, Statement2 is true; Statement2 is not a correct explanation for
Statementl.
an npn
Statementl.
transistor differs from that of a pnp transistor is that  (a) the emiter junction is reverse biased in the
npn
O)
(c)
the enrritter injects minority carriers into the base region otthepnp and majority carriers in the base region of. the nPn the emitter injects holes into the base region of thepnp and electrons into the base region of. the np'n
(d) the emitter injects electrons into the base region of the pnp and holes into the base region of the npn. 19. Given below is the circuit diagram of an AM demodulator. For good demodulation of AM signal of carrier frequency u, the value of RC
should be
24.
(a)
0.s
A (b) 1A
(c)
1's
(d)
In optical communication system operating at 1200 nm, only 2% of the source frequency is
available for TV transmission having abandwidth of 5 MHz. Thdnumber of TV channels that can be transmitted is (b) 10 million (a) 2 million
AM signal
(d) L million
PHYSTCS FORYOU I
rrgRunRv',rr 51
25. The collector supply voltage is 6 V and the voltage drop across a resistor of 600 Cl in the collect6r circuit is 0.5 V, in a transistor connected in common
...
lo=
A
9 100
1,+Ax
(b) 0.05 mA
(d) 0.02 mA
of the signal to be transmitted are doubled, the power radiated by the antenna (a) is doubled (b) is halved (c) remains constant (d) is quadrupled 27. Modem is a device which performs (a) modulation (b) demodulation
Y'= A'B
(c) rectification (d) modulation and demodulation 28. In a,half wave rectifier ciriuit operating from
SdHzmains frequency, the fundamental frefuenry in the ripple would be
(a)
(b) (d)
50 Hz 100 Hz
ptype semiconduct ot of pn junction is at higher is at lower potential. It is so for circuit (a).
is 0.14
1..5
on the following passage. Passage 2 : A block of pure silicon at 300 K has a length of 10 cm and dn area of 1.0 cm2. Abattery of emf 2 V is connected across it. The mobility of electrons
'
1016
m2 V1 sl and their number density is m+. The mobility of holes is 0.05 m2 Vr s{.
29. The electron current is (a) 6.72 ' 10aA b) 6.72 x'105 A (c) 6.72 x 104 A (d) 6.72 " L07A 30. The hole irrrrent is (a) 2.0 x 107 A (b) 2.2 x l07 A .@) 2.a " L07 A (d) 2.6 x'1,0r A
1. 2. 3. (q)
(al
: Here,pnjunction is reverse biased. Therefore, the current flowing pn junction is zero.
.A
' t+4
9oh
where A is the voltage gain wjthout feedback, p is the feedback factor. Here A. = 10, p =
'=
9
100
52
PHystcsFoRyou I rerRqolv,rt
7.
=A.(A+B)=A+(A+B)
=A+(A.B)
= Jzr64mr10u
t(40
,h*.8
"
o+00
"
10'
"
20
Y"'=8.(A+E)=B+(A+r)
=B+(A.B)=B +(A.B)
Y
_
A+(A.B)
4o x L03 h 8.
'
 16) x 10:12
2x5.4x106
= 45 m.
=lA+(A.B)l [B+(A.B)]
=[A+(A'B)]+[B+(A.B)]
=
(c) : AZener diode is always connected in reverse bias when it is used. The potential barrier of germanium pn junction is 0.3 V and of. Si pn junction is 0.7 V. So statement A is correct but B is wrong.
=A'(A'B)+B'(A'B)
9.
(a): Duplex or
full duplex
device refers to

A.B+ A.B
(A+B) C= 1a+r; +e (From De Morgant theorem) + e (From De Morgan's theorem) 1Z.B=;
77.
(al,
=
device because only one person can talk at a time, or transmission of data is in one direction only at that time.
=(Z.B)+a
18. (c) 19. (d): For good demodulatioru
as
such because the length of transmitting antenna requireci would be too large and impracticable.
11 :<<RC or RC>>
ut)
11. (b): Here, R,'= 400 O, R, = 400 kCl a = 0.9g, Ir = 2 mA= 2 x 103 A
(I,
= 400
"
103 Q
20.
12
Ac
= !
Ir',1 L ..!:
i{[a
"\
The side bands frequencies are u53 = ua i D, = 1 t 0.010 MHz ('.' u, = 10 kHz = 0.010 MHz)
1.96 mA
21. (d): Indium is trivalent. Doping of silicon with.indium leads to the formation of ptype
0.04
mA
semiconductor.
= = "&400o.9g r
.
q'&
4oo
"
103
= 9go
23.
biased, so it
In the given circuit, diode D1 is reverse will not conduct. Diodes D2 and Ds are forward biased, so they will conduct. The
(c) :
PHYSICS FORYOU I
reOnUlnv',rr 53
o 'bqFJilId=io;t6
30
/
=
=T$
remains constant.
/ and the wavelength of the signal l, are doubled, the power radiated by' the antenna
a*.*.,.n*wh..the blttev,
#*
tt
= r.s
27.
(d) : Modem is a device whictr performs modulation and demodulation of the signal.
or
n= 3xLosmsl =)5ytgl{H,
1200 x 10e
o=$
ia.
a,
halfwave rectifier circuit has single variation in one rycle of ac voltage, hence the fundamental frequency in the ripple of output voltage would be 50 Hz.
#r
29. (d):
I, =
n"Aev,
= (1.5 x 1016) x (1.0 x lQr) x (1.d x 16_rr; x 2.9 = 6.72 x 107 A 30. (c) : ln a pure semiconductor,
o_ ,IB
= frh = 1.5 x 1016 m3 an= $nE = 0.05 x 20 = 1,.0 m The hole current is
fle
s1 ..
In = nnAean
"
(*l
1.0
oo
54
PHYSCS FORyOU I
rrrhUlnv,rr
Foundati
Maximize your chance of success, and high rank
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3.
P, Q and R are long straight wires in air, carrying currents as shown in the figure. The force on Q
is directed
l.
,{
(b) to the right (a) to the left (c) perpendic;ular to the plane of the diagram (d) along the current in,Q. A uniform electric field E in the ydirection and
uniform magngtic field F in the rdirection exists in free space. A particle of mass m and carrying charge 4 is projected from the origin with speed as along the y axis. The speed of the particle as a function of its y coordinate will be
(a)
at a rate of o.rotiitions per second, the magnetic
(C)
(")
(c)4
4rcy"
Se
@+
1a; For3rll'
2rcyt
When a positively charged particle enters into a uniformmagnetic field with uniform velocity, its trajectory can be (i) a'straight line (il) a'circle
W Fry
oF@
(d)
oo
(iii)
(a) (i) only .."."., .S[ .(i) or (ii) (c) (i) or (iii) l::;lj.. {:'l'';' '1 (d) any one oF'(t)l'(ii) ana'(iii) "
PHYsrcg,FgRYou I reenumv'rr 55
a helix.
6.
The figure below depicts a long wire carrying a current coming out of the plane of the paper. A charge 4 at a distance r from it is moving towards it with speed a and experiences a magnetic force of magnitude F. If the distance of the charge from the wire is 2r (and all other conditions rernaining the same), then the force would be
72. When a charged particle moving with velocity D is subjected to a magnetic field E, the force on it
is nonzero. This implies that (a) angle between is either zero br 180o (b) angle between is necessarily 90o
(c) (d)
o
(a)
7.
K_r
___+l
T'q
zero and
180o.
(b)
2F
(.1 I '2
(d)
I
4
13.
A coil of n number of turns is wound tightly in the form of a spiral with inner and outer radii a
and b respectively. When a current of strength I is passed through the coil, the magnetic field at
its centre is
@)
(Takeg=10ms2)
(a)
8.
0.05
(b)
0.1 T
(c)
0.2
(d)
0.5 T
(c)ry
#bs,t
(b)
Po
ttl
2Qa\
An electron is revolving around a proton in a circular path of diameter 0.1 nm. It produces a magnetic field 14 tesla at a proton. Then the
angular speed of the electron is
"t4. A solenoid of 0.4 m length with 500 turns carries a current of 3 A. A coil of 10 turns and of radius
#'s,l
3n2
12n2
(a) (c)
9.
8.8
1016
rad
sl b)
it is
required to hold the coil with its axis at right angle to that of solenoid in the middle point of
(b) (d)
x 10z N m x 107 N m
field at the centre of the circular coii is 8,. The ratio B/B'is t6 8
o)+ 7t
(c)
+ rt'
(d)w
A galvanometer having a coil resistance of 60 e shows full scale deflection, I4trhen,a current of 1.0 A passes through it. It carr be converted into an ammeter to read current;t*pto,5.0 A by (a) putting in series a resistahee;oJ 15 e (b) putting in series a resistance of.240 A (c) putting in parallel a re$istance, of 15 e (d) putting in parallel a resisthnce of 240 e
along the positive zdirection:A rectangular loop
flat circular coils have a common center, but their planes are at right angles to each other. The inner coil has 150 turns and radius of n cm. The outer coil has 400 tums and a radius of 2n cm. The magnitude of the resultant magnetic field at the common centers of the coils when a current of 200 mA is sent through each of them is (a) tOg Vy'b m2 (b) 2 x L03 Wb m2 (c) 5 T 10a y,r5 ttrz @) 7 x 103 Wb m2
t6. Auniform magnetic field of fbbO G is established of sides L0 cm and 5 cm carries a current of 12 A. What is the torque on the loop as shown in the figure?
11.
A protory a deutron and an a particle enter a magnetic field perpendicular to field with same
velocity. What is the ratio of the radii of circular
paths?
56
PHYSICS FORYOU I
(b) i.8 x 102 N m (d) 1.8 x 10aN m 17. Two charged particles A and B having the same
(a) Zero N m (c) 1.8 x 103N m
charge, mass and speed enter into a magnetic field
22, A circular coil of 16 tums and radius 10 cur carrying a current of 1 A rests with its plane normal to an extemal field of rnagnitude 5.0 x 102 T. The
in such
a way that the initial path of A makes an angle of 30o and that of B makes an angle of 90o
(a)
that of A
coil is free,to turn about an axis in its plane perpendicular to the'field direction. When the coil is turned slightly and released, it oscillates about its stable equilibrium with a frequenry of 2.0 s1. \A/hat is the moment of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation?
(b) both will have the same curvature (c) A will have smaller radius of curvature than
that of
(d) both
B
(a)
I x to{ kg *2 fi
kg m2
TE
@ 1"10+
(d)
n
kg m2
will
(c) 1x to{
23.
19 x 10a kg m2
18. A closed loop lying in the ry plane carries a current. If a uniform magnetic field B is present
in the region, the net force acting on'the loop will be zero if B is in (b) the ydirection (a) the rdirection
(c) the zdirection
A magnetic dipole is under the influence of two magnetic fields. The angle between the field directions is 60o and one of the fields has a magnitude of '1,.2 x 102 Tr If the dipole comes
to stable equilibrium at an angle of tS'with this field, what is the magnitude of the other field?
(a) 3(J5  r)x ro3 r (b) (J3  r)x roa r (c) e(Ja . r)xro3 r (d) 2(J3  r)xro3 r
24. The radius of the coil of a tangent galvanometer which has 10 tums is 0.1 m. The current required to produce a deflection of 60o is
19. A vibrdtiein:rhagnetometer placed in magnetic meridian,lra a small bar magnet. The magnet executes.'osdillations with a time period of 2 s in earth's h6rtiei,idtal magnetic field of 24'microtesla.
(c)
2.1
(d)
2.6
25. Th6 magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic material at  73"C is 0.0075. Its value at 173oC
'
(d) a s (c) 3 s (a) 1.s,,,(FJi2 t 20. The magnetic induction and the intensity of mag.neticfield indide an iron core of an electrornlagnet',are 1 Wb m2 and 150 A ml
respectively. The relative permeability of iron is (po = 4n x L07 henry m1)
When a;hsf*Sontal field of 18 microtesla is produced upposite to the earth'sfield by placing a current'trrlgring wire, the new time period of magnet'will'be'
will be (b) 0.0030 (a) 0.0045 (d) 0.007s (c) 0.015 25. A steel wire of length I has a magnetic moment M. It is then bent into a semicircular arc. The
new magnetic moment is
(u)M
b)ry G)+
(d)Mxr
(a)
tt'
418
4
OTE
avibration magnetometer
21. A bar magnet of magnetic moment 1.5 J T1 lies aligned withthe direction of a uniform magnetic field of 1 T. What is the amount of work required by an external torque to tum the magnet so as to align its magnetic moment, opposite to the field direction?
makes 12 oscillations per minute in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field. When an
(a)
2I
(b)
3I
(c) 4l
(d) 5J
(a)
Jd
(b)
JA
(c)
.65 @ J67
PHYSlcs FoRYOU I
rtanunnv'tt 57
34. A series LCR circuit is connected to an ac source of variable frequency. When the irequency is
Year No. of ques.
_L_
2010
2009
3
2008
3
2007
3
2006 4
Pre. I Mains
311
increased continuously, starting from a small value, the power factor (a) goes on increasing continuously (b) goes on decreasing continuously
(d) remains constant The flux linked with a coil at any instant f is
given by
(a)
0.5
0=10t250f+250
Then induced emf at f = 3 s is
(d)
2.0
A
35.
V1, across
(a) 
10
V (b) 10 V
(c)
190
(d) 1e0 V
A small square loop of wire of side / is placed inside a large square loop of wire of side L (>> t).
The loops are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the mutual inductance of the system?
T
(a) is in phase with the source voltage V (b) leads the source voltage V by 90" (c) leads the source voltage Vby an angle between
and 90o (d) lags behind the source voltage Vby an angle between 0o and 90o
0o 31.
(a) zJzbll nL
(c)
37.
sJzgL
zAbt 2nL
A rectangular, a square, a circular and an elliptical loop all in ry plane are moving out of a uniform magnetic field with a constant velocity O ai,The = magnetic field is directed along,the negative zaxis
When a dc voltage of 200 V is applied to'a coil of self inductan ce (ZJS I n) H, a current of 1 A flows through it. But by replacing dc source with ac source of.200Y, the current in the coil is reduced to 0.5 A. Then the frequency of ac supply is
@) 75Hz
is
direction. The induced emf during the passage of these loops, out of the field region will not remain constant for (a) any of four loops (b) the rectangular, circular arud.elliptical loops (c) circular and elliptical loops (d) only the elliptical loop
38.
(d) 50 Hz
and D as shown in
figure is
(c) 1000 watt , (d) zero watt 33. A conducting circular loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field, B = 0.025 T with its
plane perpendicular to the loop. The radius of the loop is made to shrink at a constant rate of 1 mm s1. The induced emf when the radius is
2 cm, is
difference is I/= 200sin(100f) volt. Then the power consumed is (a) 200 watt (b) 500 watt
(b) e H (c) 0.55 H (d) O.ee H 39. A metal rod of resistance 20 Q is fixed along a diameter of a conduting ring of radius 0.L m
(a)
and lies
(a) 2a pV
(b) n pV (d)
2 pV
o xy plane. There is a magnetic field B = (50 f) I. fne ring rotates with an angular
(c)
I u,
velocity ot = 20 radrs1 about its axis. An extemal resistance of 10 Qiis corurected across the centre
58
of the ring and rim. The current through external resistance is (d) zero (a) rul " \/
(d)t
\*,f 1e 2'
1e r.l 1e 4 3
(a)
(b)
10
(c) 15
(d)
20
45. The instantaneous magnitudes of the electric field (E) and the magnetic field (B) vectors in an
electromagnetic wave propagating in vacuum are
in the figure,
related as
(u) E= L
(c) E=
to
+ cExB
(c)
(d)B
(a) Y=100V
42. A transformer is used to light a 100 W and 110 V larnp from a 220 V mains' If the main
current is 0.5 A, the efficiency of the transformer is approximatelY
I=2A (b) Y=100Y {=sA v=4oov I=2A (d) Y=3ooY, I=24 i.i
50
Hz
47. Which of the following statement is false for the properties of electromagnetic waves?
(a) 'Both
electric and magnetic field vectors attain the maxima and minima at the same place and same time.
(a)
30%
When an ac source of emf s = essinlOOf is connected across a circuit, the phase difference between the
divided equhily between electric and magnetic vectors' (c) Both electric and magnetic field vectors are parallel to each other and perpendicular to ihe direction of propagation of wave' (d) These waves do not require any material
emf e and current I in the circuit is observed to be nl4, as shown in figure. If the circuit consists possibly only of RC or RL or LC in series, find possible values of two elements.
medium for ProPagation. 48. Apoint source of ilectromagnglg r1$iation has an urr"tag" Power output of 1500 W' Themaximum .ralue"ofelectric fiild at a distance of 3 m from this source in V m1 is
t
t (g
(a)
iuT (ol+
Er=
0;
r, =2.5co, l(t
(a) R=1ka,C=10PF (b) R = 1. ksl, c:1 pF (c) R:1 kQ, L: 10 mH (d) R:10 kQ, L = 10 mH
Ez
=0'
The wave is
An inductance of 3
10'F
^fi
200
mH, a capacitance of
und a resistance of 10 Q are connected n in'series with an AC source of 220Y,50 Hz' The phase angle of the circuit is
(a) moving along the + r direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 100 m(b) moving along + x direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m' (c) moving along  r direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m' (d) moving along + y direction witti frequency 2n x 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m'
PHY5CS FORYOU I
rtrnunnv'tt 59
(a):
Here,
L.
(b)
F=s(E+a xB)
= = i.Ar=!arrd,
q(ri *osirn?)
q(ri ,ont)
....(i)
4VoB
Arw
4a
where a is the radius of the first semicircle. The current in all the semicircles is the same but its
sense is alternately opposite (l.e. anticlockwise
Ist semicircle
aE
in
8:
:2: 4:
ar=dvo
...(ii)
L5:.........
........] J
dtm
dr,
Ay
_qE
=#(' .1.
*
+. ) (;. *. # )
)l
"{,ro,r=!#
uu uO
i,l
6,
l.'
iJJ
2aEv
=#[(3)
_pot (2)
(3)]
5.
7.
0y=
2qEv m
 k\i)2.
_ por
(d)
(c)
6.
(c)
1=p=2nrlot (1/ u)
. v'ftr
...(i)
: Here, / = 50 cm = 50 x L02 m m = 50 8 = 50 x 103 kg; I = 5.0 A Tension in the wires is zero, if the force on the
rod due to magnetic field is equal and opposite to the weight of the rod.
Magnetic field at a point on the axis at a distance y from the centre of current carrying circular rod is 2nlr2 o * Fo
G'
B =FolrT
il
If y >> r, then
, _50x103x10=0.27
5x50x10z
2y"
L
(Using (i))
=Po'! (2m?,t)
2y"
1011
B=747
_e.ea
T2r
(.,=?J
50
N,
For coil 2 (In vertical plane) = 400, Rz=2n cm = 2n x 102 m Iz=200 mA= 200' 103A
Rl
FoNr/r
2R1
(d): =
4.4x
rad
s1.
1.6
' 4n R2 
1m
1m
'1m
Refer figure,
tan 45'=
9l
OF
OF=CF=
t*
2
4nxl}r =
11.
x200 x 103 x 10 x 25
Zx rcxl}z
103 Wb m2 (a) : V/hen a charged particle of charge and 4 with velocity o perpendicular to magnetic field B, it follows a circular path whose radius is given by
mass m enters
ma m
Ba
b, l
MJZ
then
2nr=4
Or
,=2
 q
B.
The magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil carrying same current l is
:,
ro i rd : ro
B,_lro
=flP 'qp4a?a
where subscripts p, d, and. q represent protoo deutron and a particle respectively. rp:rd
m2m4m ira=;,; tE
='1.:2:2
12. (d) : Force acting on a charged particle moving with velocity d is subjected to magnetic field E
is given by
F = q(Ax B) or, p
(ii)
For coil 1. (In horizontal plane) N1 = 150, Rr = n cm = r x 102 m 1r = 200 mA = 200 103 A "
(i)
This implies, force acting on a charged particle is nonzero, when angle between d and B can have
PHYSTCS
rrenumv'rr 51
13. (d)
til = tzx
5o x 1o+
=5oo x
roal
.^\
i=titxB
, A
=zeroNm
17. (a) : Use 4oBsin0
r
Consider an element of thickness dr at a distance r from the centre of spiral coil. Number of turns in spiral = n Number of turns per unit thickness
(...i"i
=o)
*" =
B
*4 sin0
1,
...
18. (d)
rA _ sin9Oo _
ft=
rp
"
1 t4
T of oscillation of a magnet
Zrn
or
19
&d
ndr
element dr is
where,
T 2n.1
\ wn
ft'
dB =vo2ndnl
I = Moment of inertia of the magnet about the axis of rotation M = Magnetic moment of the magnet
As the
b1 Jz@a)r
2(ba)t
.'.
IcOI=
1T"E
i
14.
voln r^, fl) =2(b d"'\a)' (a): B forsolenoi4= 'u 'ux19x3 ltnnl=Pn 0.4
Magnetic morrient of the coil = I x A x N
t.
Tz=(2t)il6uT
=4s
En:t
m\ H=
150
M=0.4xpx
r = BMsin90'
(0.01)2x10
1 Wb
Aml
B = Volt,H
:. r=4nx107
15. (c)
x500 x 3x0.4xnx(o.ot)2
0.4
xto
21. (b)
u B
n'
=
FoH
= 6n2 x107 N m
: A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter of given range by connecting a shunt of suitable resistance S (in parallel) across the
galvanometer.
Zn,
roTtso = ?7
105
W 15
f r.*rd}
01
a in parallel
0.
lr
'01
= f mn sinodo = MB(cosor 
cos02)
10a m2
I=t2 A
Magnetic moment of the loop is
Here, 01 = 0o; 0z = 180o; M = 1'.5J f1; B = 1 T Substituting the given values, we get 1,lg = (1.5 I Tr) (i T) [coso.  cos180.]
=3I
62
(a) : Here
i=lAiu=2s1 'M=Ninrz
Here, r = 0.1 m;N = 10, 0 = 50o, Bn= 4 x 10s T In case of a tangent galvanometer
(!)
1=2'8, t*re
NFo
where / is the moment of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation
l 2x0.1x4x10s
10
x 4nx10a
tan 60o
.l=7.14
(Using (i))
4iE'1)'
Ninr2B =w
=R
Ni12B
=' (. r* * +)
..'(i)
100 K
L6xLx(0.1)2x5x1.02
26. (b)
4xnx2'
=9x1oakgm2 n
23. (c)
:
MmI
a
semicircle of radius
t+Zr#l
Zr!
TE
M'
27.
mxvr
(Using(i))
xt=12
MB1 sin01 = MBzsin$z.
.'.
6 = 45o
case,
D_.:
B"
sin02
sin45o
1.2 x 102
sin0'
1.2 x L02
sinl'S' sin45'
1, @; \=E{f
...(i)
(sin45'cos30' cos45'sin30')
sin 45q
In second
1
case,
=1.2x102 [cos30'
sin30"]
=72x70_2tf
=6(J5 r)xro3
;)
'2n
magnet
PHYSICS FoRYOu I
...(ii)
rranunnv'tt 53
In the third
t)a=1
case,
"2n
IBH+B
...(iii)
or (r^,
or
32. (d) : Here,
r
+)'
_ [{
x2
t2 !
41 25,
g=
,s=f,Ba
B"
1') \2)  o
[z
Ba
B BH
.n
=
Power consumed, P =
V*" lr
zero W
=l+16
V*, i*,
cos9Oo =
"
cosQ
! = BH t6
u3_
33. (b)
...(iv)
Here,
/E[r .t { B"
(Using iv)
field B = 0.025 T Radius of the loop, r = 2 cm= 2 x L02 m Constant rate at which radius of the loop
Magnetic
DaO =124
xs=g,lV vibs/min =J63 vibs/min
29. (a) : The maximum curent is obtained at resonance where the net impedance is only resistive which is the resistance of the coil only. This gives the resistance of the coil as 10 Q. Now, this coil along
H=4 =!Gn\=Bnzr!! dt dt dt
= 0.025
xnx2x2xI02 x 1x 103
=rx10{V=npV

50t + 250
(d)
in
the
figure.
r
vc=vr
= _(20f_50) At t = 3 r =  (20 x 35b) : 10 V. (a) : Let the current I be flowing in the larger 35.
loop.
emf is
FL__+ <l+
31. (d)
:
ll h
Resistance of coil,
withacsource,
nf
tloru
tA
= 200 Cl
E
i2
I
The larger loop is made up of four wires each of length L, the field at the centre i.e., at a distance
or
R2 +
(2nrL)z = (400)2
64
40. (b) :When the plane of a coil is perpendicular to the field, the flux linked with the coil is
When the coil is turned through 180o, the flux linked with the coil is
Q2
=4x b 4nL'lZ
2t 2==zJt!g! nL
Qz=BSz=2,11lfjlxP
Hence,
37.
.'. Change in
*=+'  ,=rJrbl
44
is constant' But in case
1)
(c):
lel
=#=t#
changes.
Now as the square loop and rectangular looP move out of magnetic field,
2 x1000 x
ff
Therefore, le I does not remain constant. 38. (a) : The three coils are in parallel.
41. (a) : As V1 =
=10x103V=10mV Vc t. Xr= Xc
39.
As V= rlvrt+(vyVdz
;h
= 20 rad s1.
.'.
100
lVi+O
Hence, the reading of the voltmeter V is 100 V and the reading of arhmeter A is 2 A.
in figures.
42. (b): Given : Output power/ P = 100 W Voltage acrobs primary, Vp = 220 Y Current in the primaY, Ip = 0.5 A
Efficienryof atransformer n' =
jl#
lnput power
100 %
tand= '
10r} 10f,l
toCR
(''.=#)
...(i)
roCR
=5Q
.'. CR= 1=
100
(Using (i))
 = R+r==10+5 3
_E51 I
WhenR=1kA=il3Q
A
C=+=105F=10pF
10r
PHYSICS FOR YOU I i'rOnUnnv ',t
1_
55
L=ry*" nnft
F, R =
2oo x 1o3
n = 93 H
,=
c eorfr or
Eo =
c=
1Qu
1E
ro e,
l#Jt,'
r
V^"=220Vu=50H2
The inductive reactance is
tr=[
zn(s)2
1500
Xt =
^L=2n'vL=2nx50'
is
,V= n
29
g
49. (b)
Ev =
= 100 V ml
Giveru
E*:
2n x 50 x 103
==Loe
2.s
E'=0'
or 2tw = 2nx
?t
106 or u = 106 Hz
45. (b)
47. (c): In an electromagnetic wave both electric and magnetic vectors are perpendicular to each other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave. 48. (b) : Average intensity of electromagnetic waves
is
and k= nx1.02 or
n
k=4=nx102
^2n or I=_=200m
x10'
50. (a)
, p =!= c
o'5
3x108
= 0.1,66
L08
m2
oo
AIPMT EXPLORER
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SOLVED PAPERS
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Solved Paper 2010
66
PHYSTCS FOR
yOU rranuanv I
,r
ff
ffi
Passage 1
4.
If the resistance of a 1 m length of a given wire is 8.13 " 103 Q, and it carried a current 1 A" the
electric field is
In fact, the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat conductivity is almost a constant. At very low
temperatures, this relation is not accurate. As the kinetic theory of gases was already developed, this was extended by Lorentz to electrical conduction
also.
5.
greater than 8.13 x lQ3 ! rn1 less than 8.13 x 103 V m1
! pl
However the calculated value of o*" according to the kinetic theory of gas was muchhigher when compared to that of an electrpn. However broad comparison of methods still holds.
1.
o*"
of gas molecules
6.
The drift velocity is very small; but it is found that as soon as one switChes on the lights at home, the bulb immediately glows. This is because (a) the electrons travel very fast. (b) the electric field travels very fast. (c) this depends on the circuit. (d) none of these. The resistivity of a metal normally
By the same analogy, the value of the drift velocity of the electron at the same temperature is (a) equal to that of the gas molecule (b) more than that of the gas molecule, as the mass of the electron is much smaller than that of the gas molecule (c). because electrons flow the same law (d) none of these
(a)
@)
(c) (d)
increases with temperature decreases with temperature does not change none of these
2,
As the electron is making constant collision at the average interval of time t, the acceleration is only for the time t when due to collision it loses its velocity and again starts from zeio. The value of drift velocity is (a) proportional to the potential difference.
components.
difference. It is a
behaves like inertia and a resistor dissipates energy. A resistance is also used in a heater, fumace or press
as
3.
V = RI (Ohm's law)
Therefore the current density is (a) proportional to conductivity of the metal (b) proportional to the resistivity (c) proportional to the field (d) none of these
8.
(a)
WI b) vI
(c)
I v
@+
reenuanv'rr 67
PHYSICS FORYOU I
9.
12. The emf of a Daniel cell is 1.08 V and the intemal resistance is 10 Q. The current flowing through two resistances of 100 Q each connected in parallel in the circuit is
more than 2 A less than 2 Abut more than less than 0.02 A more than 0.2 A
Passage 3
Kirchhoff's laws:
Lawof
the junction
13. If the voltrneter is connected across the cell in the Q.No. 12, the potential difference across the cell
is
n#i'\rs
t1
:rl
,l
(a) more tnlan the emf (b) less than the emf (c) equal to the emf (d) equal to 1.08 V 14. If. a wire of negligible resistance is connected
across the battery in Q. No. 12, the current in the
When currents 11, 12 enter a junction and currents 13, Ia 15 flow out, whatever current enters the junction, flows out of the junction 11 +12 \ 14  /u = g
wire is
(b) 0.108 A (a) 1.08 A (c) this will short the battery the current will
(d)
too high none of these
be
n.
Passage 4
It is seen that when two resistances are connected in series, the resistance gets added up, and when
connected inparallel, the effective resistance is smaller than the smallest. This idea is used in converting a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter.
When current flows fromA to B, the potential difference is negative. IA/hen one takes the potential from B toA, it is positive. (Up the curreatt flow  potential difference
is positive).
15.
 IR + e :0. These two laws are extremely useful to find the parameters such as currnt voltage and resistance in
complicated loops. 10. Show that when resistances are connected
An ammeter and a voltmeter are connected in a circuit containing a battery and an extemal
resistance.
in
series,
'
One has to measure the current passing through the resistance and as the potential difference. The meters are connected as follows. (a) The ammeter is connected in series with ttle
resistance.
series
with the
(c)
(d) The voltmeter is connected ih parallel across the resistance to measure the potential
IfRl>R2
difference. 16. To measure the current passing through a particular part of the circuit, the ammter is connected in series. To convert a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter, resistance is connected so that the
(a)
(b)
(c)
the potential difference across resistance R1 is greater than of R2. potential difference across R2 is greater as this resistance is smaller. the potential differences are the same across
R2 as
well
as R1.
You I rrsnumY't
69
22.
galvanometer.
Rz
3C),5(land5f2"R3andRa
are replaced by (a) 3 C),5 (b) 5 cr,6 Cl (c) 3 C),5 O
fi
(a)
(d)
6 cr,3 cl
ABC > the current throudh ADC. (b) The current throughADC > the current through ABC. (c) The currents through ABC, ADC and AC are the same. (d) There is current only through AC.
The equivalent resistance between A and C is
(o)*
t.r
Jn
(d)
2R
(a)
(c)
T
8R
2R
(b)
6R
ts
ff
='1..17x10sms1
This will be much higher than that of the gas. This should be (b). However this theory is not
applicable; therefore (d). (d) : The drift velocity = 4E 1
(a) The'ctirrent density in AB is the same as that
inCD.
(b) The field inAB> the field in CD. (c) The current in the thicker wire AB > the current in the'thinner wire CD. (d) The current is the same inAB and CD.
o=accelerationxtime
(a,c):
70
t1
Applying the second law of Kirchhoff, in the loop ACBDA, J1Rr + izRz = 0. It follows I1R1 = I2R2. The potential difference along the path ACB as well as BDA are the same. However as R1 is greater, the current is smaller than that through R2.
$)
12. (c):
(a) : The resistivity and hence the resistance increases with temperature. This is the principle
of the platinum resistance thermometer.
G) : They are superconductors. The theory of superconductivity will be studied by you later, as
quantum mechanics is applied for this study. (b) : The work done per second is the power consumed. Work done is Vq arrd per second, it is
100
r,
112
100 =L00
100 = 50 Q
t Unlike the situation in charging a capacitor, the moment the potential difference is applied, the maximum current flows in the'resistor, unlike a
capacitor where work done is capacitor.
as
!=VI
1'08 60
0.018
!qV. 2'
The current is
not connected to an extemal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is emf, 1.08 V.
(!)
P:IV + I= L. v
The power loss along the transmission lines is
iry 10f,)
= 0.108
=I2R=[#)^
For a given resistance, as power loss is inversely proportional to lZ, higher the transmission voltage, lower is the power loss, when transmifting a given power and given transmission wires.
10'
fi*ffi?ilN^trr.t$i*.r D rc r
B.
Rl
Therefore the current entering B, I is the same through R1. Similarly by taking points C, D
successively, one finds, the same current is flowing
through
R2
and R3.
PHYSTCS FORYOU I
neanunnv',rr 71
18. (c):
B, O, D are identical.
in
R
parallel connection
between A and B and three more between B and C. B, O, D have the same potential.
Vn = Vo.
i, 4*
:'
VaVs=VeVo.
Va
33
2R
3
Similarly,
common.
Vc
should be equal to Vp
Vs. C is
21. @t:
ven
vnc vnc
Rt=R,
_veo
Rn
rrRz
IlRl _ 12R3
lzRq The current is the same as R1 and R2 are in series. As R1 < R2 (because R1 is thicker), Vae is less than V6p. Therefore E1 < E2 where E1 and E2 are the fields. (a) is not correct as the areas of crosssection of AB and CD are different.
Rz
As
Wheastone's bridge. 19. One can find various problems of this type. The method of solution is the same. Let the total resistance to right of CD be X. The circuit is now
22. (dl: AC is only a connecting wire between A and C which has negligible resistance. The current
passes from A to C.
23. (a)
: This is a Wheatstone's bridge. There is no current along BD or DB. AB and BC are in series and CD and DA are in series. The equivalent value is
_t__
111 2R2RR
one has to mark the points.
24. First,
2 Q is connected
2X
2+X
As this is ari infinite series, X.
+
2X
2X
2+X
ls also eoual to
2+X
4
v
X+1=Totalresistance
L Q is
where
the resistance of AC
i.r. 2X
2+X
+ 1=
:tt:":,i.,,i
oo
1{1usrr$*rN
lf you have any difficult / unsolved problem or you are unable to understand one, then write to us. Our team of experts will diagnose your problems. The diagnosed problems will
be published in the subsequent issues. u[hey.,often,
eh oose,,,g
W
gestio,ns u.pper
tor,Lgernr,rn,uch
'oi* ,1:\\$',.\iN+
iht'**it*'*ii}i
1.
We know according to the law of conservation of energy, P.E. + K.E. = constant. If a car running on a highway is accelerated, its kinetic energy increases
P.E.
but the gravitational potential energy remains the same. Kindly explain this.
[Mr. Sumant Kalra,
Ferozepur City (Puniab)]
III. Aconstant force is acting on abody continuously to move it through a particular distance x.
I.
height
h.
As it is falling,
the potential energy decreases and the kinetic energy increases. The total remains the same.
22 !
muz,
the final
 initial kinetic
u{*,
.i
hi
8t
'."
r
,,
The mechanical energy and eiectrostatic energy is normally used in classical physics. In modem physics, according to Einstein, the total energy E = mc2.wherci the energy may be any type of energy.
it
is falling from A to B. We can assume that the body had been already falling and it passes A at time zero
of our experiment. In that case it has also some kinetic
K.E.
energy at A. Initial K.E + Initial P.E. is equal to final K.E. + Final potentiil energy.
.
only the kinematics chapter of Newtonian mechanics where things are ideal and calculations are simple. Ybur question is good because it ls orrly by searching for contradictions and resolving them that one makes
progress.
This is
ponservative system.
74
pHyslcsFoRyou I rrsRunny'rr
2.
voltage?
[Mr.
Soln.: Suppose one takes a 2 V battery.
5sr
Tas GurungJ
e=L
1=I y
The emf of the battery is the maximum potential difference in the circuit. The potential difference is not for the whole circuit but across the various
resistances.
In the first circuit, the resistance connected is R1, whereas in the second, it is R1 + R2 in series. Let
us assume that the battery is new and its internal resistance is negligible. If Rl = 5 O and R, = I 9,
The total resistance is 6 Q.
The voltage or potential difference across various parts is supply voltage to that part.
The voltage across a battery is called its emf. This is
the maximum voltage one can obtain from the battery.
*= * JJ
Whatever yoltage is supplied from any source  battery or dlmamo to a particular circuit is called
the supply voltage.
oo
,1
Ein*t
"l
Perseverance is priceless.
"lt's not that l'm so smart; it's just that lstay with T_ "' longer." " ' problems  JJ ,   
The imagination is powerful.'f lmagination is everything. lmagination is more important than knowledge."
Make mistakes. " A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new."
Live in the moment.
"l
Don't expect different results, "lnsanity:doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results."
Knowledge comes from experience. "lnformation is not knowledge.The only source of knowledge is experience.
Learn the rules and then play bitter. "You have
PHYstcsFoRYou
I rrsRunRy'rr
75
KCET, BHU,
t.
(b) (d)
2.5 m 0.5 m
(a)
2.
(i)
(b)
(ii)
(c)
Four balls A, B, C and D are projected with the same speed making angles of 10", 30o, 45o, 60" respectively with the horizontal. Which ball will strike the ground at the farthest point?
(a)
5.
(b)
(c)
(d) c
maximum height?
(a)
(b) 2H
(c)
Hlz (d) 3H
7.
The bob of a simple pendulum is of mass 10 g. It is suspended with a thread of 1 m. If we hold the bob so as to stretch the string horizontally and release it, what will be the tension at the lowest position? (Take g = 10 m s2)
3.
block of
tt:.a.ss trt2
passing over a smooth fixed pulley situated at the edge of the table as shown in the figure. Initially the system is at rest wrth ml at a distance d fuom the pulley. The. time taken for ru, to reach the pulley is
Assuming that a positive charge Q is uniformly distributed over the surface of a shell, the field at a distance r from the centre of the shell where r = 3R (R being the radius of the shell), is
(a)Q44n(2R)'
(c)Q" , eo4tt(3R)' 8.
(a)
:+
mr+m2
l;s
Edh* *"\
30sl
A stone of rnass 2 kg is projected upward with kinetic energy of 98 J. The height at which the
kinetic energy of the stone becomes half its original
g.
(b) R=30o (a) R=15o (d) E=180V (c) E=36V A lift is tied with thick iron wire and its mass is 1000 kg. The minimum diameter of the wire if the maximum acceleration of the lift is 1.2 m s2
and the maximum safe stress is 1.4 x 108 N m2 is
value, is given by
(Takeg=9.8ms2)
?6,
(a) ,(c)
1Q,
0:00141 m 0.005 m
(b) (d)
1,0u
10002
The volume of a metal sphere increases by, 0:24V" when its temperature is raised by 40'C.
The coefficient of linear expansion of the metal
is
A current of I ampere flows in a circular wire which subtends an angle oI (3n12) radian at its
centre, whose radius is R. Tlie magnetic induction
B at the centre is
2R
3PoI 8R
27qC is 6.21
The average kinetic energy of a gas molecule at x 1021 ]. Its average kinetic enrgy at227"C will be
20. A magnet
M is broken into two parts of length 6 cm and 8 cm. They are put at right angles to each other
(a) (c)
b\
(d)
72. The ratio of de Broglie wavelength of a pioton and an cr particle accelerated through the same potential difference is
(a)
13.
sJ, b) zJi
(c)
2.,6
At
certain
(a)
2.,6
Plutonium decays with half life of 24000 years. If plutonium is stored for 72000 years, the fraction of it that remains is
O s1.The
(a) 1,18 @)
l,ls (Q Ua
@) Ll2
14. The current gain of a transistor in a common base arrangement is 0.98. Find the change in collector current corresponding to a change of 5.0 mA in
(a) (c)
0.05 H 0.2 H
@)
(c)
15.
An 8 kg metal block of dimensions 16 cm x 8 cm x 6 cm is lying on a table with its face of largest area touching the table. If g = 10 m s2, the minimum amount of work done in making it stand with its length vertical is
inductoi of inductartce L03 H. The maximum current that will flow in the circuit has the value (a) Jrooo ma (b) 1mA (c) 10 mA (d) 1000 mA 23. A ny of light is incident on a glas.s sphere of
refractive index 3/2. \tVhat'should be an angle of incident so'that the ray which enters the sphere does not come out of the sphere?
(a) 0.41
b) 6.41 k\ 4I
(d)
12.q
16. A railway carriage has its centre of gravity at a height of L m above the rails,'which are 1..5 m apart. The maximum safe speed at which it could travel round an unbanked curve of radius 100 m
24. The coefficients of apparent expansion of a liquid when determined using two different vessels A and B are y1 and y, respectively. If the coefficient of linear expansion of the vessel A is q,, the
(a) (c)
17.
12 m sl 22 m s1
(b) 18 m sr (d) 27 m sr
(a)
(c)
qryr"{z
Two satellites A and B go round a planet P in circular orbits having radii 4R and R respectively. If the speed of the sateilite A is 3o, the speed of
satellite B is
^{r+ Tz
@r#
1a)
6a
@)+ @)+
The surface energy of a liquid drop is u. It is splitted into 1000 equal droplets. Then:its surface
energy becomes
25. A train of weight 107 N is running on a levetr track with uniform speed of 35 km h 1. The frictional force is 0.5 kg f per quintal. If g = 10 m s2, power of engine is (a) 500 kW (b) s0 kw (c) 5 kW (d) 0.5 kw
PHYSICS FOR YOU I
""
\:12
r$nuanv 'r
17
at
ror 3o
(a) AND gate (c) NOR gate
35.
(a) (c)
0.88 m2 0.882 m2
(b) (d)
0.088 m2 0.530 m2
28. A particle has an initial velocity of g?+ai and acceleration of O.+l+O.gi. Its speed after 10 s
is
Five equal resistors when connected in series dissipated 4 W power. If they are connected by parallel, the power dissipated will be
36.
(a) hE
(c)
29.
units
8.5 units
If
excess of pressure inside a soap bubble of radius 1 cm is balanced by that due to column of oil (specific gravity 0.8) 2 mm higtu the surface tension of soap bubble is (a) 2.9 x 102 N ml (b) 4.92 x 102 N ml (d) 392 x lQz 5 t (c) 5.9 x lQ2 \
(a) 25W (b) 50W (c) 100W (d) 125w An electric charge 103 pC ii placed at the origin (0, 0) of X  Y coordinate system. Two points A and B are situated at (J2,JI) and (2, 0) respectively. The potential difference between the points A and B will be (a) 4.5 V (b) 9 V (c) zero (d) 2 V
particle thrown up vertically reaches its highest f1 and returns to the ground in a further time f2. The air resistance exerts a constant force on the particle opposite to its direction of motion. Then (a) t1> t, (b) fr = fz
37. A
point in time
30.
A parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and separation between the plates d, is charged by a constant current I. Consider a plane surface of area Al2 parcllel to the plates and drawn between
the plates. The displacement current through this
^1
area is
(a)r @+ (.)i
1..33.
(d)*
31.
velocity for a planet is v,. A tunnel is dug along a diameter of the planet and a small body is dropped into it at the surface. When the body reaches the centre of the planet, its speed
will be (u) a,
1b) + "v2
a^
(.)
? 2
will
(a) ;
(b)
ro
(c)
39, In a sonometer wire, the tension is maintained by suspending a 50.7 kg mass from the free end of the wire. The suspended mass has a volume of 0.0075 m3. The fundamental frequency of the wire is 260 Hz If the suspended mass is completely submerged in water, the fundamental frequency
33. A
particle of mass
106
as an electron moving
3x
with a velocity of
(b) 220H2
@) 2a0Hz
s1. The
(Mass of electron = 9.1 x tO31 kg) (a) 3 x 1031 m s1 (b) 2.7 x 1021 m s1 (c) 2.7 x 1018 m sl (d) 9 x 102 m s1 34. The circuit as shown in the figure is equivalent
to
(a)
(d)
2.s
78
(a) 1 el in series (b) 1 A in parallel (c) 0.1 C) in series (d) 0.1 Q in parallel
(c)
660 Hz
(d)
330 Hz
42. In certain Young's double slit experiment, the slit separation is 0.05 cm. The slit to screen distance is 100 cm. When blue light is used the distance
the amplifier is
(a)
50. An
(c)
light
(a) (c)
4000 aa00
A A
(b) 4300 A
(d) 4500 A
80 MHz carrier is modulated by 400 Hz sine 5 V and the frequency deviation is 20 kHz. Find modulation index.
43. The condition of apparent weightlessness can . be created momentarily when a plane flies over the top of a vertical circle at a speed of
900 km
(a)
25
(b)
50
(c)
400
(d)
The radius of the vertical circle that the pilot must use is
hr.
1.
[ML2T+]
(a) (c)
10.5 5.4
km km
[L'1
= rMr1T2t J 
t"'" r
while travelling in opposite direction. They get 0.4 m closer every second while travelling in same direction. The speed of A and B are
respectively.
= t\{t_:1T21
ffixvortase=mr#
=
(a)
b)
2.2 m sl and 0.4 m s1 2.2 m s1 and 1.8 m s1 4 m s1 and 0.4 m s1
=rIo'u = Volume
[ML2J{]=[ML{T4]
[L.]
Angular momentum tt
Mass
45. A player caught a cricket ball of mass 150 g moving at a rate of 20 m s1. If the catching frocess is completed in 0.1 s, the force of blow exerted by
2.
(a)
46. Two bodies of masses 2 kg and 4 kg are moving with velocities 2 m sl and 10 m s1 towards each other due to mutual gravitational attraction. What is the velocity of their centre of mass? (a) 5.3 m s1 (b) 5.4 m sr (c) zero (d) 8.1 m sr
47.
R:H
o, or or
z2
sin20 _
z2 sin2 e
84c
2
A polyster {ibre rope of diameter 3 cm has a breaking strength of 150 kN. If it is required to
have 500 kN breaking strength. What should be the didmeter of similar rope? (a) 12 cm (b) 5 cm (c) 3 cm (d) 1.5 cm
In ZAMC,
tang=#=W#
(Using (i))
48. The
velocity of sound waves in air is 330 m s1. For a parlicular sound in air, a path difference of
40 cm is equivalent to a phase difference of.'J..6n.
4=h+H Rr2
+ 4=2(h+H) + h=H H
PHYSICS FORYOU I rtanunnv
'tt
79
,,l,t,
3.
5.
112
sin2e
in the figure.
ITJr
= m2a From (i) and (ii), we get
m2g
dat rr
6.
Wv
Range will be maximum for which sin20 is maximum i.e., sir20 =']., + 0 = 45'. (c) : g".", h =; = ! m, m= 10 g = 0.01 kg When the bob falls through a vertical height of 1 m, the velocity acquired at the lowest poinf
o
T
tig
=,ffi =Jt1o
r.1 =.,80
Centritugal force
...(i)
T=mfi T
* st =9{4#=
N
0.20 N
...(ii)
10 + 0.20 = 0.30
q=hEUsing, s=
...(iii)
f\+m2
1. ut+tat'
(Using(iii))
is.", if the whole charge is concentra{e{ at the centre of the shell.. By Gauss's theorem, it.
(c) :11
!::
t:..:
r = 3R) i..
8.
1.5)
A = 0.25 A.
Voltage across 30 A = 1.5 '30 = 45 V As R2 and 30 f) are in parallel .'. Voltage across, Rz = 45 V
K=!mu'
2
whete m is the mass of the stone and a is the velocity of the projection
..
r\^ '
45V
0.75
Using,
.
o2
= u2
2gh
Rz=60Q
f.' a=0)
...(i)
9.
E=(135+45)V=180V lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration a, then tension in the wire is T = m(g + a) = 1000(9.8 + 1.2) = 11000 N
(d): y,'h"tr the
Now,stress '
:.
ltt"o,
K=I* ,t;a
11
(Using(i))
K,=!ma,2 =l^r,,[Zgh, .2
2
K'
tt =
11000x7
h,
Kh K 2
+ff=vt
=h' 2Kh
h,=L=9 m=2.5m
22
ffi=rno ,=.t10=u,.ro*.'l;,:
PHYslcs FoR YoU I rranumv 't
81
o=1=#=!al6sog1.
11. (c): Average kinetic energy,
\A/here k is Boltzmann constant.
Where, 2r is the wheel base and h is the height of c.g. above the rails.
f,=2ff z
a=27.1
lq.s=1
E,
u
GM
12.
(b)
ot a22ttr=2x3o=6a
(b):
Surface energy u = S x 4nR2 I4lhen droplet is splitted into 1000 droplets each
or
r.=+,Y= ,,!2mqV
tua
2mr7rV
of radius r, then
J+*z =
zJi
19.
Here, R is bigger drop and S is surface tension .'. Surface energy of all droplets
4nR
N" c[=+
a'{E
B=Fo"0I
4nR
Given, 0 = 3nl2
Change in collector current A16 = (a)(AIs) = 0.98 5.0 = 4.9 mA " Change in base current, AIs = 41,  AIc= (5.0  4.9) mA = 0.1 mA
M= m x']..4
...(i)
(c)
: When face of the largest area is touching the table, height of centre of gravity above the table
When magnet is broken into two parts, the pole strength remains undranged but distance between the poles becomes ,t* * = 10 cm So magnetic dipole moment of the combination
becomes
\=*=s,
With its length verticaf height of centre of gravity
would become
.22
n^
=!=
M'=mx10=mxExf0
8 cm
mg(h2h)
1.4
M
1..4
(Using(i))
+
... w=8x1of3)
100
=+I
nl
O.S
Here,q=46sinof
xh=mgx
g2
PHYstcs FoRyou I rEanuanv'rr
Maximum current
Io =
@40
Now.
i. ".
ux= 3 units
ffidW= 4 units;
Jto,
fi= ari
0.4
.'.
Io =
(to')'t'x
(r x
ro{)
= Jr6dd mA
units
Now, ur ur* dxt = 3 + 0.4 x 10 = 7 units oy= uy+ ayt = 4 + 0.3 x 10 = 7 units
a=
N
lo;
,17'
+a,
Fromfigure,
sine^ =
r=F
*7'
=7.t?units
IABO= IOAB=
Density of
...(i)
oil,
p = 0.8 x 103
kg*';
1= 'p3 '3
h=2mm=2x10{m
Pressure due to 2 mm column of oil,
P = hps
sini _ 3 sinO. 2
"i,,;
24.
=
l1Y3)= r
t2I3,'
30
(Using (i))
In
=9 r
+ sini=sin90" +
(dlz
Yrea
i=90o
= Yapp * Y""*l
Pr 2x0.8x9.8x102 44
=3.92x L02 N ml 30. (b): Charge on capacitor plates at time f is, q = It. Electric field between the plates at this
instant is
Yt"siet =
+ 3cr =
Yz
+ 3crn
.,25.
f*.+0 "3
"'(i)
Frictional force, F =
q
100
F=500fi)N
5000
kef
,,=(t),=*
'a
at
...(ii)
(Using (i))
o=35kmhl=10msl
P = F x u = 50000 x 10 = 5 x 105 W = 500 kW.
64 6 too
sRz
(n+t)t
96
='oald)=,
(Using (ii))
64V"=9  lodg
i=,u, r(+ +)
a='.s1)fat \ 'lR, r) 20
When lens is in water,
...(i)
lcl:
+:(""')(+
or
f. \
1
1.33
+) +)
'(
j
_(1,51,33)ti
...(ii)
28.
(a)
t As, u=gi+4i,
',rr
83
or
fi,=rrut(#)
f,,,
or
= 2or
o.s
"
...(ii)
37. (c)
a1
,, "
4rno
= 78.2 cm The change in focal length = 78.2  20 = 58.2 cm 32. (b): Ttre intensity of principal maximum in the
single slit diffraction paftern does not depend upon the width.
=g+I. {u"t"
up*urds. Let
a, = downward acceleration.
m Thus ar> a2 Let h = maximum height reached.
(c) : As, ),, = hlm.a; if for the two particles same, then their momenfum mustbe same. ,'. mPvp = meoe or 704 x tt, = (9.1, x 1031) " (3 x 106)
l,
is
mgF=ma, ota2=gF,
Of
7)=
(s.r x
ro*')x
106
(s x rou)
s1
h=)artl =a,i )
38. (b):
Escape velocity,
tz>tl
= 2.73 ,1018 m
34.
(b):
,, =,,lZRg where R is the radius of the planet Potential energy of the body on the surface of the planet,
u,
=
"A{
planet
Y=A.E
=
rr _ 3GMm qct
If
R
A+B= A+B
It is the Boolean expression of OR gate. 35. (d): In series, total resistance of 5 resistors
!*r'=uruc ="Ao* (
Ol =ltlv
=5R
t*
Powerdissipated
v2 Or =25 R
Ir
=l=5 5R
.,.(i)
1 z GMm =rR(2
R 2R
)
3GMm
ry)
2'
=r[#] =sx2s=12sw
36. (c)
(Using (i))
J'
260=
['=#)
L E. zI\
N'
it=
Jri + Jri
J(Jt)' + (A)' 2
A
,;
(d): Initially,
lTrl= rr=
\=
50.79 = s07
r''
New tension,
T2= F07
7s) N = 432 N
rr14 ,A_W
1 = 4re0 84
{1,2* L03x10{
2
ol
t)=
Potential at point B
ii
or
u /e
t
2I\
IE ,tt
ttn
!169
FM 12 =
13
o =240 Hz
PHYTSCS
FOnyou I rrenunnv,rr
40.
u+a=4msl andzu=0.4ms1
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
...(i)
..'(ii)
:. x=rL  1) t Ki
2u=4.4,u=2.2msL
o=1.8ms1
ro=z(r*)***sivesK=5
4t. (b): Avoltmeter
is a galvanometer having a high resistance connected in series with it. The current
45.
(b): Here,
m = 150 g, u = 20 m s1, zr = g
:,
t=0.ls,F=? Fxt=m(au\
(c) : Under mutual gravitational attraction, the centre of mass remains at rest.
47.
30N
(b):Y=LrL. AAL
The breaking strength F
Fr
noll+
=
Di
ForI=5A,weget
or D,= o, (?)'"
(#3)"'
= 5 cm
x=0.36cm,n=4
For bright fringes,
,=ry
o,
,=#
A
L6nJ?jx40
"
^=7t(rooo"t:
l, l.=50cm=0.5m
66oHz d=t *
r=3330I 0.5
_ (r x
! dr x&
8=9'8msz
For apparent weightlessn
,ir==I
zsorzso =5377.5m=5.4km
9.8
4 =^g """, r
44.
then
OO
PMT CAPSULE
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'tt
35
$ttii$
THE ALOlEMIST
ir lsaac Newton was a towering genius in the history of science, he knew he was a genius, and he didn't like wasting his time. Born on
December 25, 1642, the great English physicist and
sometimes surpassed
in
celestial mechanics. Newton was a serious alchemis! who spent night upon dawn forthree decades of his life slaving over a stygian furnace in search of the power
and may well have died, at the age of 85, with his
virginity intact. "l never knew
him to take any recreation or
wasn't easy being Newton. Not only did he hammer out the
universal laws of motion and gravitational attraction,
No,
it
of Newton's alchemical oeuvre, and offered insight into the central mystery that often baffles
the
man
who vies in'surveys with Albert Einstein for the title of "greatest physicist ever", the man whom James
Gleick has aptly designated "chief architect
of
the
86
The alchemists had their triumphl inventing brilliant new pigments, perfecting the oldred lead
oxide, yellow arsenic sulfide, a little copper and vinegar
uncompromising stientist than was Sir lsaac, author of the magisterial Principia Mathematica' There were plenty of theoretical and empirical reasons at the time
and you've got bright green verdigris' The chemistry lab replaced the monastery garden as a souice of
new medicines. Alchemists also became expert at spotting cases of fraud. lt was a renowned alchemist
who proved that the "miraculous" properties of vitriol springs had nothing
into other; more desirable substances. Newton and his peers believed it was possible to prompt metals to grow, or "vegetate", in a flask.At the time, miners were pulling up from the ground twisted bundles of copper and silver that were shaped like the
stalks of a plan! suggesting that veins of metals and minerals were proliferating underground with almost
lnstead, the water's vitriol, or copper sulfate, would cause iron atoms on the surface of a submerged iron
vitriol springs of modernday Slovakia, for example, and the artifact will emerge agleam with copper, as though the dull, dark particles of the original
had been elementally reinvented'
"l would go so far as to say that alchemy was crucial to Newton's breakthroughs in optics," said Newman. "He's not just passing light through a prismhe's
resynthesising it," Consider this a case of "technology
said Newman. "Most of the experimental scientists of the 17th century did. Alchemy was synonymous
oo
Poinhrise theory
WB.JEE
CHAPIERWISE SOTUTIONS
Based on New Syllabus & Latest Pattern
tr
Questions
f,1,
PreviousYears Questions
with
Detailed Solutions
67