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The second revolution was in Nuclear Physics. During and after the Second

World War it was United States that was rhost powerful in the world.
The third knowledge revolution was in the field

: : Editor. Hony.Idvisor : ' I r' ,:','], : : r' . '


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Our government and the HRD minister in particular are very keen about the new lndian revolution of unification of lndia in a new way, Holding common exams, common cuniculum right from CBSE and the constant emphasis on the importance of Research are all connected to each other.

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Full length Practice Paper IITJEE 2011 10 Best Problems

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T T

As the Hon. Minister put it, "a college is a teaching institution and university is an institution where you create knowledge".

Mechanics

Learn Fast Nuclear Physics

,ti

We had been emphasising all these years that we have to develop the art of questioning. The teachers of ancient lndia taught the disciples by asking questions and the students were equally keen to lebrn by asking
the fundamental questions.
This is the interaction between teachers and students. lt was the collective search for truth.

Ihought Provoking Problems


Simple tlarmonic Motion & Waves

27 'i

Neither today nor in the yesteryears, a fresh graduate is ready to start research on his own 0r take part in production work. The key for the solution to the problem is inhouse training. Graduates, post-graduates and doctorate holders have to put in a lot of work with the seniors in the field helping them initially. 0nce they are ready to take on their own, the time and energy spent in training them is never regretted. Universities are certainly the place for research. This is

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one institution where no questions are asked why research is necessary. Research needs no justification. Teaching is part of research, where the
students are subtly prodded to ask questions, to understand the present limitations of knowledge and then try to solve the internal contradictions by boldly going on their own. There is only one way that any nation can become a superpower. That is research and more research in every field agriculture to medicine,

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PHYsrcs FoR You I reanurnv 'r

ffiww-#ffiffi

11
Exam Date
1Oth

April

2011

Usefuldata:GasconstanlR:8.314 IK-lmol-l,Molecularmass:H2SO4=9g&C2HpH=46gr =94 g, 1 F = 95500 C; Atomic Numbers: H= t Li= 3, B-= 5;i= 6, N =7; O = 8, F = 9, Na =,11, P: 15, S = 16, Cl = 17, Ar= 18, K = L9, V 23, Cr= 24 Mn = 25, Fe ='Zi, = Co=27, Ni=2& Cu=29,2n=30,Ge=32,8r=35, Ag=47,I=53,Xe =54,pt=78,Hs.=g0, pb=g2
H2O = 18 g, C6H5OH

Straight Objective

llpe
3.

(a) (c)
a is

34 mL 30 mL

(b) 10 mL (d) 50 mL

This section contains 9 multiple choice questions numbered 1 to 9. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), k) and (d), out

of which ONLY ONE is conect.

1.

'

During the test of halogens, sodium extract is first boiled with nitric acid as to
(a) decompose NaCN and NarS (b) make silver halide'insoluble (c) :rrcrease the solubility of AgNO3

For a perfectly crystalline solid Co.-. = aTB, wherc constant. If C,- is 0.{2IlK-mol at 10 K, molar entropy at 10 K is (a) 0.42llK-mol O) 0.1-1llK-mol (d) zero @) a.zllK-mol

Which of the following statement is not


correct?

(d) ,.{issolve AgCN

2.

The system shown in the diagram is at equilibrium at 27"C and volume of the bulb is 150 mL. At this temperature, the vapour pressure of water is

(a) H2O2 oxidises Fe(II) to Fe(Itr). (b) HrO2 can be obtained by' electrolysis of dil. H2so4. (c) HrO2 reduce Mn(Vtr) to Mn(II). (d) H2O, is a weak base.
:

28 millimetres of mercury..

If the bulb contains


liquid water is

Fluorine does not show highest oxidation state


opposite to other halogens, because (a) it is most electronegative. (b) it has no d-orbital. (c) its atomic radius is very small. (d) F- ion is stable and isoelectronic with neon.

0.001 mol of Orn, volume of the

approijmately

Calcium imide on hydrolysis gives gas (B) which on oxidation by bleaching powder gives gas(C). Gas(C) on reaction with magnesium give compound (D) which on hydrolysis gives again gas(B).Identify (B),(C) and (D). (a) NH3, N2 Mg3N, (b) N" NH3, MgNH

(c) N, N2O5, Mg(NO3)2 (d) NH3, NO" Mg(NOj,


By Momentum : JABALPUR : (076r) 2400022, NAGPUR : (071,2) 225291,1, GWALIOR : (07s7) 243L6'10.

pHystcs FoR you rernunnv,r I

7.

(Sirou)2'-anion is obtained when (a) no iixygen of a SiOf-tetrahedron is shared with another SiOf- tetrahedron (b) one oxygen of a SiOf- tetrahedron is shared with another SiOt- tetrahedron (c) two oxygen of a SiOf- tetrahedron are shared with another SiOf- tetrahedron

Statement-2 : In an adiabatic process, no heat


exdrange between the system and tlre zurroundings

takes place.

.i,,'

,,r

Linked,Comprehension rype
3 paragraphs Prr-rr Pr"r, and Prr-rr.

This section contains

(d)

three oxygen of a Siot-tetrahedron are shared

Based upon each paragraph,3 multiple choice questions have

with another SiOf-tetrahedron


Platinum-saltmethod is used for the determination of molecular weight of the organic

to be answered. Each question has 4 chokes (a), (b), k) and


(d), out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

Paragraph for Question Nos. 13 to 15


The pronounced change from non-metallic behaviour

(a) bases (b) acids (c) phenolic compounds (d) all are correct
Which is/are the structure of XeFa ?

as also the increase in basicity of oxides from N, R As, Sb io Bi is principally due to the increasing size of the atoms. The ionization potential indicate that it is much more difficult to pull electrons of small nitrogen atom than the larger bismuth atom. It is interesting to

(a)

(b)

note that nitrogen obtained from the decomposition of.compounds such as NHaNO2 is of lower density than the residual gas obtained from the atmosphere by removal of oxygery carbon dioxide and water.

13. \Alhich of the following oxides is most acidic

(a) (c)

As2O3
Sb2O3

(b) Bio: (d) POr

14. Which of the following hydrides would be most

':, . r,,,rAsgertion ReaSon ltpe,r,';: r,.

:,

basic

This section contains 3 multiple choice questions numbered 10 to 12. Each question contains statement-l (Assertion) and

(a) PH3 (c) NHs

(b) tuH. (d) sbH3

statement-2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

15. The residual nitrogen obtained from air after removal of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water
vapour has a greater densilv than that obtained from chemical compounds because (a) it is an allotrophic modification of nitrogen. (b) it is mixed with some heavier gas. (c) it is rich in heavier isotopes of nitrogen.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2' is a correct explanation for Statement-1.

Statement-l is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for Statement-1 Statement-l is True, Statement-2 is False. Statement-l is False, Statement-2 is True. is slower

10. Statement-l : Chemical reaction of H2O


than D2O.

(d) nitrogen obtained from chemical sources contains some light gas. Paragraph for Question Nos. 16 to 18
An organic compound on analysis gave the following
data.

Statement-2 : Heavier isotope(deuterium) is less reactive and bond energy of O - H bond is lesser

thanO-Dbond.
11.

(i)

0.4 gmof organic compoundoncomplete combustion

gave 0.44 gm CO2 and 0.18 gm H2O.

Statement-l : Li2SOa does not form alum.


Statement-2 : The size of Li* is very small and it can not show co-ordination of six H2O molecules.

(ii) 0.4 gm of the compound on analysis by Duma's method gave 11.2 ml nitrogen gas at STP. 16. % of carbon in the compound is

12. Statement-l : In an adiabatic process, entropy of the system remains constant.

(a)

(c) 60%

30%

b)

40Y'

(d) s0%

PHYSICS FOR YOU

rranUnnv',r r

L7. % of hydrogen in the comPound is

(a) 10% (b)

s%

(c)

20o/" (d) 15%


This section contains

18. % of nitrogen in the organic compound is (b) 45'/" (a) 40o/"

2 questions.
A

(c)

35%

(d)

30%

Each question contains statements given in two columns which have be matched. statements (A,B,C,D) Column I have to be matched statements (p,q,r,s) in Column

pqrs

Paragraph for Question Nos. 19 to 21 For a non-ideal gas, the compressibility factor (Z) is defined as
Z

answers to these questions have to

t@re-L@l to in B l@@@ol with c l@@o@l ll.The D l@@o@l

=Pv* : vRT

Molar volume

Compressibility of an unknown gas at 600 K and 1.0 atm was found to be 1.2. Also this gas was found
to effuse 1.58 times slower than the pure methane gas

be appropriately bubbled as illustrbted in the following example. lf the correct matches,are A-p, A-s, B-q, B-r, C-p, C-q and D-s, then the correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should
be as shown.

under identical conditions. t!. Density of the gas in the above mentioned experimental condition is

22. Match the co}umn

olumn,:I
(A)
(B)

Column
(p)
(q)

-'II

Heavy water Nuclear reaction


D2

DrO
ColourlEss

1ai o.ra g

rr

(c)

1.02 g

L{

@) @) La7 gLa
of the gas in.the given experimental

0.58 g

Lr

20. Molar volume


conditions is

(c)

(r)
(s)

Low boiling point


Diatornic

(D) Elz

(a) (c)

40.8 L 59.8 L

b) 3e.2L (d\ 27.2L

23. Match the column.

21. The value of the virial coefficient"B" in the virial equation is (Ignore the higher terms from the
equation during calculations) virial equation :

olumn-

I
(p)

Coltifin *rII

(A) CO2G; + Cc", -+ 2CO [AHi: CO2 = -394 and

as>0

CO:

-220 kl/mol,

z=1*B*C+D+.--.-v^ "-'' i* ' ' '"""'n


u,] u,1
@)

respectivelyl
(B) SOCl2nf -+ SO2kl,+,Ch1*,

(q) AH>AE (r)


(s)

(a) 8.16 L mol-l (c) 11..76 L mol-l

(d)

7.84 L mol-l 5.44 L mol-l

(c) CO + Clzcl
tD) Ctrs6y-r

-r

COCl26y

AH<

AE

2.C161

aG,.<.0

(a) 3oCto (c) 3'cto


This section contains 9 multiple choice questions numbered 24to32. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), k) and (d), out

(b) 32. u30

(d)

3oCro

32Cro

26. There are 12 seats in a row numbered \ to 12, 4 men select 4 seats so that seat numbered 8

of which 0NLY ONE is conect.

24. If the sum of the coefficients in the expansion of

- 2)r]20 is equal to the square of the coefficients in the expansion of the sum of l2bcx - (b + c)y110 where A, b, c are positive
(b + c)20 [1 + (a

is always occupied and with no two men like adjacent seats. If such arrangementi can be done in n ways then n

(a) 40 @) aa

(b) (d)

36

34

constants, then

27. In

(a)
(c)

o>Ji
c, a, b are

(b)
in
G.P.

c,

a,b are in A.P. in A'P'

G) :,+,+^re

25. Coefficients of

r30

in expansion of

a cricket matctu the probabilitieg of scoring no run, 2 runs, 4 runs and 6 runs by a player X are 0.'1,, 0.2,0.4 and 0.3 respectively. If X requires 18 runs from last 4 balls, then probability of X winning the match without extra runs is

(1-r)3211+r+x2)3ois

(a) (c)

0.4971.

@)

0.2497

(d)

0.2847 0.04e7

PHYsrcs FoRYou I

rrenunnv'rr

28. A bag contains 5 balls and it is not known how many of them are white. It is observed that
balls drawn from the bag at random are white. The probability that all the balls in the bag are
2

-1.1-

white, is

(a) (c)

Z
5

tu) (d)

1"

Statement-l : There are 20 identical balls in a bag out of which 5 are white, 9 are black and 5 are blue. The number of ways in which one or mole balls can be selected from the bag is 419. Statement-2: The number of ways in which one or more items can be selected from 20 distinct items is 220 - 1,.

; \ 12

z
4

34. Statement-l :

o(ztu.,.zL- t"r,aa)
29.

A and B play a game 16 times. A wins 8 times, B wins 5 timei and they draw twice. A and B play a seiies of 5 games. The probability that they win alternatell is 451256.
Statement-2 : P(A u B): P(A) + P(B) if are mufually exclusive events.

('-;;'(#);Jm
1 (c) Jt
(a)

L2)

and B

35.

(b) ta)

+ {3
-Jt

sin18o and -sin54o as its roots has rational


coefficients.

Statement-L : The quadratic equation with

Statement-2 : x : 18o and r = the equation cos3r = sin2x.

54o are roots

of

30.

Triangle ABC is right angle at A with AB = AC, point M is interior point of the triangle so that ZMBA = ZMAB = 15o. The number of degree in

ZAMC

(a) 75" (c) 45'


31.

(b) 60. (d) none of these

3 paragraphs P35-,,, P3ea1 and pn -*. Based upon each paragraph,3 multiple choice questions have to be answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and
This section contains (d), out of which 0NLY 0NE is correct.

The number of positive integral solution of the equation


tan-1

(a) 1 (c) 3
32.

x+cos-,_!=sin-l * tlt*Y' '/10


(b) 2 (d) infinite

r,

Paragraph for Question Nos. 35 to 38 Suppose r is a random variable which takes values 0, t, 2,3, ..... and P(x : r) = pq, where 0 < p < 1, q = 1 - p and r = 0, 1, 2, ....., then
36.

P(x > a) is

(a) > q" (b) < q"


37.

(c)

q"

(d)

Triangle ABC is right angle at C. Inradius and circumradius of triangle ABC with sides a, b, c

o(x>(a+b)\_

\x2a)

are r and (a)


4r2
1

R,

then

>*r,t"(Lf9)=
(b) 4R2

(a) P(x = b) (c) q


38.

(b) P(x > b)

(d)

(c)

4R

(d)

1. -+rR

1.

o(

\ x>a )

x=

a+b\_
(b) P(x > b)

(a) P(x = b) (c) o

(d)

't

This section contains 3 multiple choice questions numbered 33 to 35. Each question contains Statement-l (Assertion) and

Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is conect.

Paragraph for Question Nos. 39 to 41 B be a function defined by y =/(x) such that / is bijective then there exists a unique function g : B -+ A such that f(x)=y e Cg)= x,YxeA and

Letf': A -r

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Statement-l is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-l. Statement-l is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for Statement-l. Statement-'l is True, Statement-2 is False. Statement-l is False, Statement-2 is True.
PHYsrcs FoR

yeB. Here., g is said to be inverse of / and g = f-t : B'-+ A = llf(x), x\: [x, f(x)lef ;. ir we consider two inverse functions sin-1x and cofl r with
domain [-1, U &

[-*, -]and

rai'rge

respectively. Then

l-;,;l&

(0,

r)

-"]=r ir"

you I

reaRumv'r

,t

o,[',#]
(.)
40. If

(b)

[0,

u
This

section contains 2 {uestions.

t#,']

-I

< x < 0 then sin-1 .r =

",[;,']

(a) (c)
41.

cot-ltqz)
"t+

"*-'[q7] ", -..r(qt)


n (d) none of these
=
O

to in Column I have to be matched with statements (p,q,r,s) in Column ll. The

Each question contains statements A given in two columns which have B be matched. Statements (A,B,C,D) _

answers to these questions have to be appropriately bubbled

and [.] de-notes the greatest integer function then complete set of values of r is

ff real numbei

If [cot-r

- ri"-'

as illustrated in the following example. lf the correci matches A-s; B-q, B-r, C-p, C-q and D-s, then the correctly Irl.4-p: bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as shown.

"l

wherexisnonnegative

45. Match the column.

I
12

iColumn II
= (p)
1

(a) (cos1, cotl) (c) (cot1, 1l

(b)

(cos1,1l

(d) none of these

(A)

312

r=0

> "rrr'(-+l

Paragraph for Question Nos.42 to 44 Inradius and circumradius of triangle ABC with sides a, b; c are r and R respectively. Incircle of the triangle touches the sides a, b, c at At, Br, C1 respectively. Similarly the incircle of triangle ArBlCt touches its sides at 42, 82, C2 respectively and so on. 42. ln MrBrC, the value of Z.B2A2C2= 5n- A (a) 3n - A
(c)

(B)

54eis

remainder

divided by 7 then (q) is

If m:20101 then the value of


(c)
the expressiorl

(t) 1 -....- 1 , 1 -,log3m log2s1nm = Iogzm


(s)

/r-c \ 43' cosf(a) (c)

8 5n+A 1.6

,o, '-'

1.6

n+A
4 B,C,

(D) solutions of xp2xs = 30 is 4 )" + 3 then the value of l, is

Number of positive integral


6

46. Match the column. Column


(A) lcosr I = sinx
cosx

f irc =
) ) (b) (o)

Column

II

-""(f

(p)
(q)

znn+f,

't"(+)

(B)

*'(f
R 2R

= lsinr

_*,(+)
(c)
cos3x

zrn+&
4

r( Areaof ' 44. Areaof ABC\ 'A1B,C1

-3costsin2x = cos3x

(r)

^3n znlt-r '4


znn-!
4

(a)

(c)

(d) none of these

0)4 2

(D)

sec2/+cosec2r

(secr+cosecr)+4=0

- 2Ji

(s)

least count of the vernier.


This section contains 9 multiple choice questions numbered 47 to 55. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), k) and (d), out of which 0NLY ONE is conect.

(a) (*)

*,(#)

(c)

(il

(d) Can't be determined

47, If. nth division of main scale coincides with (n + 1)th divisions of vernier scale. Given one
main scale division is equal to a units. Find the
I rranunnv,rr

48. A long capillary tube of radius r is initially just vertically completely immersed inside a liquid . of angle of contact 0o. If the tube is slowly

lo

PHysrcs FoRyou

raised then relation between radius of curvature of meniscus(R) inside the capillary tube and displacement (h) of tube can be repiesented by

51.

Figure shows a parabolic graph between T and


1

for a mixture of a gas undergoinganadiabatic

'

process. What is the ratio of ur^" and speed of


(a)

sound in the mixfure?

(c)

(b) 3 (d) None of these 52. An irregular shaped body of rr.ass m, density o is falling with a terminal speed z' in a viscous
1

(a)

(c) J,

medium of density p and viscosifr q. The viscous drag force acting on the body will be

(a)
49.

mg

(d) none of these Equal volumes of two immiscible liquids of


densities p and 2p are filled in a vessel ai shown in figure. Two small holes are p.rrrih"d at depth

(u) ,gl.r-P]

o./

(c) 6nqro
53.

," ,r(r.*)

.3h :h and f
a2

tuom the surface of lii;hter liquid.

If

t4and

are the velocities of efflux at these two

holes, then

ais
tJ2

Uranium ores on the earth at the present time have a composition consisting of 99.3oh of f.he isotope ,rIJ238 and.0.7o/o of the isotope ,rU235.The half lives of these isotopes are
4.47 xl}eyears and 7.04 x 108years respectively. If these two isopopes were equally abundant when

'

the earth was formed, then the age of the earth is

lrake tn2 = o.7,rn( 99'3)= n.nut


@) a.06 x 10e years (b) 2.03 '

\0'7 )

(c) 6.07'

10e

years

10e years

(d) none of thlse

(a)

J=
2t2
1

b)+
(d) none of these

54. If potential energy of electron revolving around nucleus in hydrogen atom is given by equation

"=-#:,

where k is.positive constant, e is

(c)
50. The

T,

limbs of a manometer consist of uniform capillary tubes of radii 1.4 x 10-3 m and 7.2 x 1.0-a m. Find out the correct pressure difference if the level of the liquid (density 103 kg m-3, surface'tension 72 x '1,0a N m-1) in narrower tube stands 0.2 m above that in the
broader tube (assume angle of contact 0o).
(a) 1386 Pa

the electronic charge and r is orbital radius of revolving electron. Application of Bohr,s theory to hydrogen atom in this shows that

(a) total energy of electron in nth orbit is


proportional to
to
n3.

(b) total energy of electron in nth orbit is 'proportional


n6.

(c) the velocity of electron in


proportional to
'
n6.

nrh
n

orbit is orbit is

(c)
1

5170 Pa

(b) 1863 Pa (d) None of these


,r
r

(d) the velocity of electron in


proportional to
z-3.

th

pnvslcs FoR you rrsnunnv I

55.

One mole of

monoatomic ideal gas undergoes process AB in given P-V diagram. Then average specific heat for this Process is
a

58. Statement-l : Heatingbystembased on circulation of steam are more efficient in warming a house
than those based on circulation of hot water. Statement-2 : The latent'heat of steam is high.

Linked ComPrehension TlPe


This section contains 3 paragraphs P5e-61, P62-6adnd Pur-ur' Based upon each paragraph,3 multiple choice questions have to be answered. Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), (c), and (d), out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

(a) (c)

2LR
10

(b) 18R 10 _ 13R (d) _


10

Paragraph for Question Nos. 59 to 61 A sphere of mass m and radius r is released from

9R
10

rest while completely submerged in a river. The flow velocity is zrs and there is no turbulence. The specific

Assertion Reason IYPe


This section contains 3 questions numbered 56 to 58. Each question contains Statement-l (Assertion) and Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (a), (b), k) and (d) out

gravity of material of the sphere is 5. The force of buoyancy is equal to weight of the sphere.There is a cavity in the sphere.
59. The fraction of the sphere which is empty will
be

of which ONLY 0NE is conect.

(a)

Statement -1 is True, Statement -2 is True; Statement -2 is a correct explanation for Statement -1. Statement -1 is True, Statement -2 is True; Statement -2 is not a correct explanation for Statement -1. Statement -1 is True, Statement -2 is False. Statement -'l is False, Statement -2 is True.

(a)

+ tu)9 (")?
SJCJ

(d):

60. The acceleration of the sphere at the instant when velocity of the sphere is

(b)

(c) (d) A source of sound with frequency fsis fitted on a

(a) (c)
61.

6r\rao
m 2turlrao

b)ry
'@) nryo

P 2

will be

circular plank of radius 1 m which is moving with an angular velocity or' 51 and 52 are two stationary observers at 3 m and 4 m from the centre of circular
plank.

3m

The graph of the velocity with time is best


represented by
a
ag

(a) .. ,' UU'

(b) 56.

Statement-l :
Statement-2: source.

51 and 52

will never hear

same

frequency at any instant.


51

and S2are observing same moving

57. Statement-l : From a large metal sheet a small

circular piece of radius R is removed leaving a hole in the sheet now the sheet with hole and the piece are both heated to the same temperature. The piece can still exactly fit into the hole.
Statement-2: The coefficient of surface expansion for both the piece and the hole is same.
PHYslcS FoR You I rtanunnv 't

I3

Paragraph for Question Nos. 52 to

G4

The air column in a pipe closed at one end is made to vibrate in its second overtone in resonance with tuning

(a)

-+
t43

,6' *fs^Po
2

fork of frequency 440 Hz The speed of sound in dir is 330 m s-l and end corrections may be neglected.
Let
P6

denote the mean pressure at any poini in the

pipe, and APe tfe maximum amplituJe of pressure variation and AP = tMosinkr.

(d) None of these 42 Paragraph for Question Nos. 65 to 67 We have two radioactive nuclei A and B. A converts

(c)

into C after emitting two c,-particles and three


B-particles. Nucleus B converts into,C after emitting
one o-particle and five B-particles. At time f = 0, nuclei of A are 4No and that of B are Ns. Half life of A (into the conversion of C) is 1 min and that of B is 2 min.

62. Find the length L of the air column.


{a)
75
15

(b)

i**
5

(c)

;-

(a) 9* (b)

tnitiatty number of nuclei of

C are zero.

63. Wavelength of air column is

(a)
(c)

t'"

+"'

64, What is the amplitude of pressure variation at


the middle of the column?'

i*

(d) none of these

(c) both (a) ?nd (b) are correct (d) both (a) and (b) are wrong 66. \ /hat are number of nuclei of C when number of nudlei of A and B are equal?

65. If atomic numbers and mass numbers of A and B are 21, Zu A, and.A, respectively. Then.. (a) Z, - Zr= 6 (b) A, - Az= 4

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14

PHYSICS'FORYOU

I rranunnv,rr

(a)

2Ns

(b) 3No

69. Match the column'

(c)

9No
2

(d)

5No
2

Column

I
p)

Column

II

57. Ar what time rate of disintegration of are equal? (b) 5 min (a) 4 min (d) 2 min (c) 8 min

A and B

(A)

Heat current, in which heat transfer mechanism(s), is directly proportional to area of cross section

Conduction

(B)

For a small temPerature (q) Convection


difference; heat current is directly proPortional to the temperature difference in case of

This

section contains 2 questions.

Each question contains

statements

B given in two columns which have (A,B,C,D) be matched.Statements c Column I have to be matched D statements (P,q,r,s) in Column ll. The answers to these questions have to be appropriately correct bubbled as illustrated in the following example'lf the A-s, B-q, B-r, C-p, C-q and D-s, then the matches are A-p, correctly bubbled 4 x 4 matrix should be as shown'

to in with

(c) The heat transfer

(r)

Radiation

mechanism(s) that
densities

i'si

are due to difference of


(D)

Fastest heat transfer


mechanism

(s)

Kirchhoff
Law

's

58. A uniform solid cube is floating in a liquid

as
CHEMISTRY

shown in the figure with part r inside the liquid some changes in the parameters are mentioned in column-I.

1. (a) 2. (b) 3.

(b)

4.
18.

(d)

5'
1s.

(b) (d) (b)

s,
15.

(a)

s.
16.

(d) 10' (d) 11' (a) 12' (a)


17.

6. (a) 7. (d) 13. ($ 1a. (c)


20. (c) 21. (c)

(b)

(b)

(c)

22. (A)-p, q; (B)-p; (c)-p, q,

r, s; (D)-q, r, s

23, (A)-p, q, s; (B)-p, q; (C)'r; (D)-F,q


MATHEMATICS

Assuming no other changes, match the


following. Coltrmn
(A)

24. (d) 25. (a) 26. (a) 27' (b) 28' (b) 2e. (c) 30' (a) 31. (b) 32, (b) 33. (b) 34. (d) 3s. (a) 36' (c) 37' 38. (a) 3e. (a) ao. (c) a1' (c) a2. 45. (A)-p; (B)-r;(C)-p; (D)-s 46. (A)-p, q; (B)-p, s; 1C)-p, q, r, s; (D)-F
PHYSICS
(b) (c)

Column

II

($

a3' (b) aa'

If

density of the liquid (p) increase

decreases, (B)

r will
(q) decredse

If height of the cube is


increased keePing base area and densitY same,
x

a7. (a) a8. (b) 4e. (c) 50. (b) 51. (c) 52' 54. (b) 55. (a) 56' (c) 57' (c) 58. (a) 5s'

(b) (a)

s3. (c) 60.


(b)

will
sYstery is (r)
remalns same

61. (d) 62. (b) 63' (c) 6a' (c) 65. (b) 66' (c) 67, (b) 68. (A)-p; (B)-p; (C)t (D)-q 6e. (A)-p, q, r;,(B)-p, q, r;(C)-q; (D)-r

(c)

If the whole
r will

accelerated upward, then

oo

(D)

If the cube is rePlaced


but lesser densitY,

bY

(s)

another cube of same size

may increase or decrease

For Paper I (Full Length); Refer to February Issue of Chemistry Today

r will
PHYSICS FoR YoU I rrenunnv 't

S ffiss* PR

BLEMS

l.

A andBare connected eachotherby massless string and a spring, the string passes ovet a frictionless pulley as shown in figure.
Twoblocks

Block B slides over the horizontal surface of

'

stationary block C and the block A slides along the vertical side of C, both with same uniform speed. The coefficient of friction between the surface of the blocks is 0.2. Force constant of the spring is 1960 N ml. If the mass of block A is 2 kg .ul*lut" the mass of the block B and the energy stored in

length L. A completely inelastic collision occurs in which the stone gets embedded in the object. Find (a) the speed of the combined,mass immediately after the collision with respectto an observer
on the ground.

(b)

the length L of the string such that the tension

in the string becomes zero when the string becomes horizontal during the subsequent motion of the combined mass

the spring.

4.

What is the work done by gravitlz in equalising the,leygls when the vesse.ls are connected?
S.
'

Two identical cylindrical.vessels with their bases at the same level each contain a liquid of density p. The height of the liquid in one vessel is h1 and that in the other is h2.The area of Fither base is a.

A block is placed on the top of a inclined plane


inclined at 37'with horizontal. The length of the

in tnir,,r.,ifofm circular disc of mass z and radius R is rotating in a horizontal plane about an axis passing through its centre and perpendicular to its plane with an angular. velocity or. ,Another disc of the same dimensions but of mass m/4 is placed gently on the first disc co-axially. Show that angular velocity of the system is 1ro.

plane is 5 m. The block slides down the plane


and reaches the bottom. (a) Find the speed of the.block at the bottom the inclined plane is smooth. (b) Find the speed of the block at the bottom the coefficient of friction is 0.25. (Given, sin37" = 0.60 and cos37o = 0.80)
3.

if if

6.

Abody is allowed to slide on an inclined frictionless track from rest position under earth's gravity. The track ends in a circular loop of radius R. Show that the minimum hbight h of the body so that it may successfully complete the loop is given by

A cart is moving along r-direction with a velocity of 4 m s-1. A person on the cart throws a stone with a velbcity 5 m 11 relative to himself. In the frame of reference of the cart the stone is thrown iny-z plane maklng an angle of 30' with vertical z-axis. At the highest point of its trajectory, the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically

= 1.9)n.

\2)

7.

Twoblocks of masses 5 kg and 2 kg are placed on a frictionless surface and connected by a spring. ;An external kick gives a velocity 14 m s-1 io the

heavier block in the direction of lighter one.


Find

from branch of a tree by means of a string of

t5

PHYSTCS FOR YOU I rranunnv ',r r

(a) the velocity gained by the centre of


and

mass

while on block

A,

fn = PRa

0 = 0)'

(b) the separate velocities of the two blocks in


the centre of mass frame just after the kick.
8.

For horizontat equitiurirlm

:f ;,**"o"n0'
...(i)

T=fa=VmB{
While for vertical equilibrium of A,

A thirr rpd.-o-f length L and mass M is held vertically

with one end on the floor and is allowed to fall. Find the velocity of the other end when it hits
the floor, assuming that the end on the floor does

T=meg
From equations (i)
rrmeg=

...(ii)

ind (ii), weget mAg ot *r=(*o)=2-=rc kg

not slip.
9.

IuJ
m

0.2

For spring T = W, equation (ii), becomes

30 kg weight sitting'on his horse whips it. The horse speeds up at an average acceleration

Aboy of of 2 m

s-2.

(a) If the'b6y does not slide back, what is the


force of friction exerted by the horse on the
boy?

W=*^s tn rQ 2x9.8 oT tt=43-=10-2 " k 1960


=

The energy stored in the sPring,

(b) If the boy slides back during the acceleration,


what is the coefficient of static friction between the horse and the boy? (Take I = 10 m s-2)

2.

Let L be the height of inclined plane as shown in figure,

"

(i)w,= (}) '

1e6o

"

(10-z;z

o.oe8l

lg. A particle thrown over


of. a

a triangle from one end horizontal base falls on the other end of the

base after grazing the vertex. If 0 and Q are the base angle of projection, show that:

tand=141e+tanQ.

h=5sin37':5x0.5=3m
(a) As the block slides down the inclined plane,

it loses PE and gains KE. Loss in PE: Gain in KE


mgh=tma-

.1)

o= rlzgi

=,1z"zs*

=7.6T ms-l It gains

(b) As the block comes down, it loses PE.

KE and does work against friction. Loss in pB = gain in KE + work done against

friction

irririilj'iiili,il
In this problem,

inl,Sii.iriiiiiil

or mgh=!*o'+ (prrgcos3T') x 5 1^ or 3mg = I mI)'+ 0.25 x zg x 0.8 x 5

(i)

Masses

A and B are moving with constant velocity, this is a problem of dynamic equilibrium, l.e. forces acting.on mass A (or

or 3.

a=J4g=6.26ms-1

(a) Let i,i unai be the unit vectors along x, y and z directions respectively. Given,

(ii)

B) balance each other. String and spring are weightless and no mass is involved between them, Trg.int = T.pri.g = T' (iii) Force of friction on block B, (': Rs = mBg) fn= VRn= lLmE

g.6 i) * t-l - doo* ""r, = (6 sin 30') i+ (6 cos 301AI = 1aNi + -A dstone = dstone, cart * D."rt = Qi + 3'j + e.6t; m r-1
This is the absolute velocity of stone (with respect
PHYslcS FORYou I

ocart=4tms'

1-r

rianulnv'tt 17

to ground). At highest point of its trajectory, the vertical component of its velocity (or) will become
zero, whereas the r and y components will rer4ain unchanged. Therefore, velocity of stone at highest

The height descended by this water is

AC=ht-n=(\:-b)
So

point will

a=1+i+aj;ms-1

. be

work done by the force of gravity in equalising

the level is

or

Speed at highest point,


r--=--

W=mgxAC=)pga(hr-hr)2
4
s_1

=r a r=r/(+)t + (3)2 = 5 m Since, momenfum is conserved. mu = (2m)as


a

The angular momentum of first disc

L=t(o=rmr-a
Iiy'hen another disc of

1r

Here,

oe

or ?o - a5 i= i^s-r = 2.5 m s-1 .'. Speed of combined mass just after collision
is 2.5 m
s-1.

is velocity of combined mass,

*us A

and radius R is

placed co-axially, total momeXt of inertia of the combination is

in the string becomes zero at horizontal position. It implies that velocity of combined mass also becomes zero in horizontal position.

@) Tension

r,=!*,2

.I(t^)r =!*,,

As no extemal torque has been applied, angular momentum is conserved.

. r..-, , fto |*"' .'. IO=J(D Or 0)'=-::--a---tO

I' Z*"

s--

?0=z.5ms-' Applying conservation of energy, we have

6.

'

o=afi

-zgr
2(e.8)

... L=4=gt=0.32m

29

Flence, length of the string is 0.32 m.


4.

D.!

Suppose a be the velocity of the body at the highest point C. At point P, the potential energy of thebody = mgll At point C, the potential energy of the body

tTo,

tAs the total volume of water is constant, the


height lu in each vessel after interconnection be given by hp1 + h2a2= h(a1 + a2)

At point C, the kinetic energy of the body

= mg(2R)

will

2. According to law of conservation of energy Energy at point P = Energy at point C. mgh=mg(2R1+!mrP


,1

=1 *oz

left vessel shown in figure drops from A to C and that in the right vessefrises from B to D. Effectively, the water in the part AC has

\z The level in the

or

h=(4:hr)

fas a1= a2 (given)l

:.

!*r'

= mg(h-

2Ri.o.

a2

zgltt

zn1 ...(i)

-Hence,

At point C downward force = mg + N for circular motion at point C :


mg

dropped down to BD.

+N

=(+)

The mass of this volume of water is

*=rolr,-(r*\=-(!t+)
1d pwslcs FoR you I reenunnv,r r

Since N cannot be negative, the velocity of the body at C must correspond to N = 0 if tire body is describe a circle i.e.

*g=+or
...h-i.
.

Maximum force of static friction

uhin=gN o1 ,,-i^=rfilR)
gR = 29 (h*i,.

,[=p,n=p,(Mg)

p,(30x10) < 60 N

For minimum velocity, eq. (i) becomes

a2^6=2g(h^- - 2R) or
\L,l

2R)

r'=#=o'20

=[+J. ,o= +
ncM=-;r+;
5x14+2x0
5+2

(a) Using, Here


o1

m.i. +m"i"
Zkg
For a particle proiected with an initial velocity a at an angle o, the equation of trajectory is

= 14 m sa, az= 0, ffir= 5 kg and m2=


= 10 m s-l

;. ar,, Lrvr

(b) The centre of mass reference frame is one in which centre of mass is at rest' So the velocity of the heavier block in this frame just after the

!=xta^a

#k
o-ztt2sinacosal

kick is
a't =

'v = xtano,lt -{) \ R)

where R = range

at

a.,tt = 14- |0 = 4 m s-l


oCI'I = 0

l.

and that of lighter block is

L' "

o)=az-

10 =

-10 m s-1

The co-ordinates of A are (hcot0, h) and range


-_

i.e., inthe centre of mass frame the blocks of 5 kg and 2 kg will approach each other with speeds 4 m s-1 and 10 m s-1 respectively.
\A/hen rod is held vertically, its centre of mass is at a height (LIZ) fromthe floor, so tliat the potential energy of the rod is Mg(Ll2). On releasing, the rod

OB = hcotQ + hcotQ. Substituting the co-ordinates of A in the equation of trajectory, we get

lz=hcototanolr-

ftcot0 + hcotQl

r h,totrt,l

falls, i.e., it rotates about the end on the floor and

tane =

tana cotd
cote + coto

the potential energy is converted into rotational

kinetic energy

] Iol2, *h"te I is the moment 2

1^

or

tan0 cotO + tane cotO = tanq' cot0

of

irtertia of the rod about the lower end and co the angular velocity when it hits the floor. Thus by conservation of mechanical energy,

l+-=-- tanQ or - tanO tancr tanQ or tanQ + tan0 = tanc,


tfrffi!

OO

MnL =L 2

lr'

or
or

Mgi=++o2 lFo,rod I= IrUt


.
=

{3s./

4
[': r=L]

Ifuis the
floor, then

linear velocity of the end'hifting the

XPLO RE R
10 ModelTest Papers 20 YRS. (1991-2010) Solved Papers with detailed solution

DUtl'HT

S*##JffiT
EXPLSHGH

o=rr=,,{i{,
9.

(a) The boy does not slide back, its acceleration = acceleration of the horse.

As friction is the only horizontal force, it must


act along the acceleration.

(b)

f,= IYla = 30 x 2.0 = 60 N. If the boy slides back, the horse could not
PHYSIGS FOR YOU I rtanunRv',t

exert a friction of 60 N on the boY.

19

Fast
NUCLEUS

It exists at the centre of an atom, containing entire


positive charge and almost the whole of the mass' The electrons revolve around the nucleus to form an atom. The nucleus consists of protons (+ve charge)
and neutrons (no charge). A proton has positive charge, equal in magnitude to that of an electron, (1.6 x 1Q-tr C) and a mass equal to 1836 times that of an electron. A neutron has no charge and its mass is approximately

ThetL Arz = Zmr -r (a

Z)m,

M(Z,A)

This mass defect is in form of energy and is responsible

for binding the nucleons together. From Einstein's


mass-energy relation,
E = mc2 (c speed of =a Binding energy = Lmc2

light, n ismass)

Generally,"An iimeasured in amu units. So let us


calculate the energy equivalent to L amu. It is calculated

in ev (electro"

equal to that of the proton (f.OfZOx10-27kg)


(1837 times that of an electron).

E(=iamui=@er
= 931

't xt.67 xto-27

"oit, "v

= 1.5 x 10-"

I)

(g

r rot)'

The number of protons in a nucleus of an atom is called as the atomic number (Z) of that atom. The number of protons and neutrons (together .called nucleons) in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number (A) of the atom. A particular set of nucleons forming an atom is called a nuclide. It is represented as 7XA. The nuclides having same number of protons (Z),

x 106 eV = 931 MeV + B. E. = am (sgr) \4ev There is another quantity which is very useful in
predicting the stability of a nucleus called
energy per nucleon.
B.E. per nucleon =
as

binding

o'f") t"u.

but different number of nucleons (A) are called


isotopes. The nuclides having the same number of nucleons (A), but different number of protons(Z) are called isobars. The nuclides having the same number of neutrons (A - Z) are called isotones.
MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY

From the Plot of B.E./Nucleon Vs Mass Number (A),

we Observe that:
0.)

:->
YF

n la
h.t
boc

The nucleons are bound together in a nucleus and the energy has to be supplied in order to break apart the constituents into free nucleons. The energy with which nucleons are bound together in a nucleus is called binding energy (8.E.). In order to freenucleons from a bound nucleus, this much of energy ( = B.E.) has to be supplied. It is observed that the mass of a nucleus is always less than the mass of its constituent (free) nucleons. This difference in mass is called as mass defect and is denoted as L,m. lf m, = mass of neutron and m, = mass of a Proton

501 io(

, , ''
o

,,,,.;.,.r.,11M4$S,hqmfug-r,(4),,':,

o o

M(Z'A) = mass of bound nucleus


By
:

B.E./nucleon increases on an average and reaches a maximum of about 8.7 MeV for A = 50-80. For heavier nuclei, B.E./nucleon decreases slowly as A increases. For the.heaviestnafural element U238 it drops to about 2.5 VteV. From above observation, it follows that nuclei in the region of atomic masses50-80 are most

stable.

: -:::'

Akhil Tewari,

cRAViitY, 20 D, Ballygunge Tenace, Kolkata


PHYSlcs FORYOU I

rtenunnv'to 21

NUCLEAR FORCES The protons and neutrons are held together by the strong attractive forces inside the nucleus. These forces ale called as nuclear forces. Propertieri of the Nuclear Force

o o

separation more than 10 fm.

Nuclear force is short ranged. It exists in small region_(of diamete. i0-t5 m 1 ;). = The nuclear force between two nucleons decrases rapidly as the sepafation between them increases and becomes negligible at

Nuclear forcq is rnuch stronger than electromagnetic force and gravitational


force.

be controlled and the chain reaction in such .;J;; known as controlled chain reaction. This forms the basis of a nuclear reactor.
NUCLEAR FUSION

(like heavy water), then the number of fissions

absorbed by certain substances knowri as.moderators

explosion is created. In such cajes; the chain reaction is known as uhcontrolled chain reaction. This forms the basis of atomic bomb. In a chain reaction, the fast moving neutrons are
can

gf continuous fission by itself. If the number of fissions in a given interval of time goes on increasing continuously, then a condition of

a certain size called the critical size then

it is capable

Nuclear force is independent of charge. The nrrclear force between two protons is same aS that between two neutrons or between a neutron and proton. This is known as charge independent character of nuclear iorce.

The process in which two or'more light nuclei are combined into a single nucleus with the release of tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear the fusion (1.e. of light nuclei) is more than the sum of masses after the fusion (i.e. of bigger nucleus) and this difference appears as the fusion energy. The most typical fusion reaction is the fusion of two deuterium
fusion. Like a fission reaction, the sum of masses before

NUCLEAR REACTION

Itr nuclear reaction, sum of masses before reacti6n is difference in masses-appears in the form of energy following the law of inter-conversion of mass and energy. The energy released i" u ,"".tio., rs called as Q valqe of a reaction "".tu", and is given as
greater than the sum of masses after the reaction. The

nuclei into

helium.

.l

is An amu

follows : If difference in mass before and after the reaction

For the fusion reaction to occui the light nuclei are brought closer to each other (with a Jistance of
10-14

,H2 + ,H2 -+ ,Hea + 24 MeV

followed. Total number.of protons and neutrons should also remain same on both sides of a nuclear reaction.
NUCLEAR FISSION

Law of conservation of momentum is also

Am = mass of reactants minus mass of products, then Q value = Am(931) MeV

fusion reaction.

source of energy in sun and other stars is the nuclear

to counter the repulsive force between nuclei. Due to this reason, the fusion reaction is very difficult to perform. The inner core of sun is at very high temperature, and is suitable for fusion, in fact the

m). This is possible only at very high temperature

slow moving neutrons strike


nuclear reaction takes place.

fission. The most typical fission reaction occurs when


,rUzss. The

of tremendous amount of energy is called as nuclear

The breaking of a heavy nucleus into two or more fragments of comparable masses, with the release

following

uB^'n'* ,ukr, + 3ont +200 Mev more than one of the neutrons produced in the above fission reaction are capable of inducing a fission reaction (provided ll3i i, urruifuUiJ, tf,u., the number of fissions taking place at successi,re stages goes incre4sing at a very brisk rate and this generates a series of fission reactions. This is known as chain reaction, If mass of Ws sample greater than

lf

e2J}3s

+ont--1

reaction.

used with a25Yo efhciency in the reactor, how mairy grams of deuterium will be needed per day? (The masses of 1H2 and 2Hea are i.Ot+t umu und 4.0025 amu respectively.) Solution : Let us first calculate the value of nuclear e Q = Amc2 = An(931) MeV

Illustratiori 1 : It is proposed to use the nuclear fusion reaction, ,H, 1 ,H, -+ 2Hea in a nuclear reactor, of 200 MW rating. If the energy from above reaction is

e = (2 x 2.014't - 4.0026)x

931

MeV

=
=
25

23.834 MeV = Zg.B3+

106

Now efficienry of reactor is


So effective energy used

eV

21o/o.

i6b-t

23,834x106 x 1.5 x 10-re ; = l.Se+ x 10-13;

22

pHyStcS FoRIOu I reenuenv,rr

Now 9.534 x
2 deuterium.

1.0-13

J energy is released

by fusion of

y-Radiation

(#)

- '2

(9'534 x 10-13)

T/deuterium is released.

Requiremmt is 200 lvIW = 200 " 1ff lls

No. of deuterium nuclei required

'

8d[00 for 1 day.

These are electromagnetic waves of nuclear origih and of very short wavelength. They have no charge and no mass. They have maximum penetrating power and minimum ionising power. The energy released in a nuclear reaction is mainly emitted in the form

=-_ry*t,
2

200 x 106 x 86400

= 3.624x7025

Number of deuterium nuclei =

ftx6xlOts

of 1 radiation Laws of Radioactive Decay O Rutherford-Soddy laws (Statistical Laws) O The disintegration of a radioactive substance is random and spontaneous.

3.624xt0* =Tx6x1023

O O

Radioactive decay.is puiely a nuclear phenomenon and is independent o{ any


physical and chemical conditions.

+m=

2x3.624x1025 =t20.83 glday. 6x10ts

RADIOACTIVITY The phenomenon of spontaneous emission of radiation

or particles from the nucleus is called radioactivity. The substances which emit these radiations are called as radioactive substances. It was discovered by Henry Becquerel for atoms of radium, Later it was
discovered that many naturally occurring compounds of heavy elements like radium, thorium etc also emit

The radioactive decay follows first order kinetics, i.e., the rate of decay is proportional to the number of undecayed atoms in a radioactive substance at any time f . If dN be
the number of atoms (nuclei) disintegrating

in
.

trme dt, the rate of decay is given as dN / dt

From first order of kinetic rate law dN :=_


dt

l,N, where ), is called as decay or

radiations. At present, it is known that all the naturally occurring elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive. For example some of them are; radium,

disintegration constant. Let N6 be the number of nuclei at time t = 0 and Nrbe the number of nuclei after time f, then according to integrated first order rate
law, we have

polonium, thorium, actinium, uranium, radon etc. Later on Rutherford found that emission of radiation
always accompanied by transformation of one element

'
The half

Nr = Noe-xt

(transmutation) into another' Actually radioactivity


is the result of disintegration of'an unstable nucleus. Rutherford studied the nature of these radiations and found that these mainly consist of cr, p, Y rays.

period of a radioactive substance is defined as the time in which one-half of the radioactive substance is disintegrated. If N6 be the number of nuclei at f = 0, then in a half life Tyy the number of

life

'

)"f = ln

$ = ,'rgr log "N, N,

No

(Ty2)

a-Particles

(2Hea)

nuclei decayed will be No/2. Nt = Noe-lt

..

.(i)

These carry a charge of. +2e and mass equal to 4mr. These are nuclei of helium atoms. The energies of

a-particles vary from 5 MeV to 9 MeV and their velocities vary from 0.01-0.1 times of c (velocity of iighg. They can be deflected by electric and magnetic fields and have low penetrating Power but high ionizing power.
p-Particles
(-1eo)

= 2"= ry^r-lr,i,
From (i) and (ii), we get

No

..

.(ii)

*=(1)"t"
n = number of half lives

=(ll

These are fast moving electrons having charge equal

to -e and. mass me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg' Their velocities vary from 1"/" to 99oh of the velocity of light (c). They can also be deflected by electric and magnetic fields' They have low ionizing power but high penetrating power. p* particles are positrons.
resnuenv'.ro 23

PHYSTCS FORYOU I

The mean life

(7.) of a radioactive

substance is equal

to the sum of life times of all atoms divided by the number of all atoms. It is given by

positron. p rays are electrons and p* are


the antielectrons or positrons.
snr

_ _'l." -mI
Illustration 2 : The mean lives of a radio active substance are'1,620 and 405 years for c-emission and p-emission respectively. Find out the time during which three fourth of a sample will decay if

+tpl

+ _reo +0(antineutrino)
+ *, e0

,pt -ort

(positron) + u(neutrino)

Antineutrino and neutrino share the energy


of electrons and positrons. That is the reason why the energy of p is continuous and B rays has a energy maximum.

p-emission simultaneously. Solution : When a substance decays by cr and p emission simultaneously, the average rate of disintegration l.uu is given by

it is decaying both the a-emission and

When a

particle is produced, both atomic

and mass number remain constant.

Activity of a Radioactive Isotope The activity of a radioactive substance (or radioisotope)


means the rate of decay per second or the number of nuclei disintegrating per second. It is generally denoted by A.

l,ur=l,o+l"U
where l,o= disintegration constant for o-emission only. disintegration constant for p-emission only. Mean life is given by
aB =
1 t^=T

,dN A=If a time f = 0, the activity of a radioactive substance be As and after time f = f s, activity be A, then
rNo

+ .11.7
=)

1,", = l,o + l,p

_=++_ T. Td
=

^=l#],=,=TF

A,=|-4ry.l =- lrv. '*'f ' L dt

1'-'

h*#=3.08x10-3 Lout =2.go3toe I "25


(e.oa

Unit of Activity

A' = A'e-Lt

The activity is measured in terms of Curie (Ci). 1 curie is the activity of 1 g of a freshly prepared sample of

'

ro*)r =2.303bs
3.08 x 10-'

+t= 2.303x#"^1 log4= 450.17years. D


Soddy Fajan Laws (Group-Displacement Laws) O When a nuclide emits one c-particle (2Hea), its mass number (A) decreases by 4 units and atomic number (Z) decreases by 2 units. ,X^ -,_r.yn-n + rHea + Energy

radium

Ra226

1Tr,, = 1602 years.)

1 curie = 1, C|= 3.7

1010

dps (disintegration per second)


1010

1 dps is also known as 1 Bq (becquerel)

1Ci = 3.7 x

Bq

Illustration 3 : Radioisotopes of phosphorus p32 and P35 are mixed in the ratio of 2:L of atoms. The
activity of the sample is 2 Ci. Find the activity of the sample after 30 days. 7112 of P32 = L4 days and Ty2 of P35 is 25 days. Solution: Let Ao = initial activity of sample. ,41e= initial activity of isotope 1 and ,426= initial activity of isotope 2.

When a nuclide emits a p-particle, its mass

number remains unchanged but atomic


number increases by one unit.

,X^ - ,*ryA +_reo + where 6 is antineutrino.


[r
the

d + Energy

4=At +4o
Similarly for final activity (Activity after time f)

nudeug due to conversion of neutron into.

protory antineutrino is produced. Ithas no ctrarge or mass/ but has momentum. When a proton is converted to a neutron, a neutron and a +ve

A,=Arr+Ax
Now in the given equatiory

A, =

Aroe-L't

Aroe-L't

p-particle is produced, which is called


rrenunnv,rr

as

4=2Ci +

Ao

= Aro+Aro=

..

..(i)

24

PHYSTCS FORYOU I

Initial ratio of atoms of isotopes


From definition of activitY,

=2:

e. = ? x 0.2265 + L x 0.4354 = 0.5444 Ci.

"1516

A=l,N

Illustration

Am

Aro

lrNro

=&tL Nro

T1

^.2N20 where T represents half life

On solving equation (i) and (ii), we get

4o =?r25 -, Am '1. 1.4-so =25 1,4 7,

...(ii)

725 4o=G "ttd4o =t


A, =
Aros

count- ratq meter is used to measure the activity of a given sample. At one instant the rneter shows 4750 counts per minute. Five.minutes later it shows 2700 counts per minute. Find (a) decay constant (b) the half life of the sample. Solution: (a) Initial activity = 4 = ff at t = O dN Final activity = 4 =i at t = t
4 :A

xJ

Arne-L't
.

rq _o.b , go , + A.=2e la '-- +le '-t 76 75


e-A
Let y =
4.7'4,Js

_o.9jls

,n

Consider the first exponential term:


x _ 0.693 30

Usins )rf =2.303ton

-=-

4750 N" 2700 N,

&

e-1'485

-1.48s - Iogy=m +
i.e.,

lo

(-r.+ss'l Y= anurogl ,,m J

7'485

+ r(s) = 2.303 :-cm

So, frdm above calculations you can derive a general

)' =

2'303

, 5

lon "2700

4750

-0.1129 min-1

result

e_,

=antiloslffi)

/-r\

(b) T,,^ - 0'693 = 6.1.4 min. Lt z 0-1729.

oo

A Series of Quick Reference Books


, Cover complete syllabus in

Easy

to Grasp

the form of po.,.n!s o A.!3ndy High Yield Facts Book Essential for all Competitive Examinations

Send DD/Mg in favour'of

MTG Book3.Available at all leading bookhops throughoutthe country.

PHYsrcs ron

v6u I rrenunnv'to

2,

'tlhoug it lProvallki tng lh


lProlbllemns rtlm
By: Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1. Ir the shown

figure

a vessel

density varies

with

filled with a liquid whose height /r from the bottom as


ps is a constant and h6 is

5. Find the natural frequenry of the semicircular


shell of mass m and radius r which rolls without slipping as shown in figure.

, =rr(n-!)

*n*"

the height of the liquid in the container.

A solid block of
and mass

small'

dimensions of density

I
L

po

is released from

5. A

the bottom of the tank. Show that the block will execute

SHM. Also find the frequency of oscillation.

If a mass M is suspended from the bottom of the rope, find the time for a transverse wave to travel the length of the rope.
vertically.
q

rope of mass m and length L is suspended

Apendulum clock is rnounted in an elevator which


a < g.

starts going up at constant acceleration 4, where At a height h the acceleration of the elevator

1.

Density of block is

Pbtock =

reverses

in

direction,

its

magnitude remains

constant. How soon after the start show the right time again?
J.

will the

clock

(s

Oo,

to its volume is

IrPoJ

A plank of mass M is kept on rest on two identical spherical balls each of mass rn and radius R. The plank is connected to two springs which in turn

are attached to walls as shown in figure. Find the frequenry of small oscillation of the plank, assuming pure rolling of spheres on surface, and
no slipping condition between plank and spheres.

^I
from the bottom,

I;+
,,(n_ff\r_^r

The resultant force acting on the block at height h

\A/hen the block is in equilibrium position, then

'-=lffi]

4.

Find the natural freguency of vibration of the


spring-mass-pulley system
as

shown in figure.

r-=o at n=b ,t2


Let the block be displaced by r from mean position.

Now rsultant force on block at height


mean position.

from

. [+J''{-#lr--r
Randhawa Institrite of Physics, S.C.O.208, First floor, Sector-36D, Chandigarh.
PHYsrcs FoR You

rranumv'r

27

=-l%
As ao=

(e*c\
J"

{7
o*=h =

E.r-

Resultant acceleratieo

(#)'

, - WIJT*"-l ''?-!;l:
rotartime

LJt. "

-r)=hb-JI-"1

,z*

forSHM.

So,wehave,6-

t @-=rn or 1)=zn @ sho l \sho


"
=

=E*,r=ff1W1
11

The frequency of the pendulum clock, when the


elevator is at rest, is given by

EIE,tr] -17lT-l
Consider a small horizontal displacement r of the plank. Total energy of oscillation of the system,

The frequency when the elevator is accelerated up

+E

8l

'2n\I

tEi

Time gain in one oscillation

E=!kr2 *|*r*, *|mo, +zxlrro,


Ic = M.I of spheres about contact pornt =

Time taken by elevator to travel a distance /r up,

L*pz

,_E "-!;'
\a

No. of oscillations in time f = f x ui =rl-

' =ff =velocity of plank . = = rrr*lar velocity of spheres *


The sphere is in pure rolling, therefore, aqM is half that of thg top most point. As there is no slipping between plank and spheres, the velocity of contact point is same. Thus, n=
+ f;<rc,

m1 x_

8+a
I

2n

Time gained

rl =8"+E"l,.E-,. g+a)

k)

x2

.lI, . **llf']'
fr^)rff , #
=o

rlw
=[4r'm-tl
keep

!r{*t*ot)=o

- *ro,
[*n*",,=;]

r,rtz.ff + (r,.

esff*0,#.ffi,=o

Let f, be the time in which the pendulum will lose the tirre it gained during up motion, so that it can

.lrrect time.

Time l,rst in one oscillation

4. If mass is displaced slightly and


Timelost

=rrr!{t=

="['-tF] =trft-,ttil
Time gained = Time lost

d' dt =rfu dt 'J. dx -ffi and -dt 2R dt

released,

where x and y displacements

respectively and
pulley.

of mass and pulley 0 is angular displacement of

28

PHysrcs FoRyou I reaRunnv,l

KErrr*=KEmass +

KEpurcy

=+*(#l .+'el .+'(#l


=

(KE)*"*

=!I o^'

= mr(r

- a)a2
a)z

where, la = lqrl+ m(r

+-el *, "i(#l +G,")" #el


. .

=+-(#l
PE.y,,"^

.**Hl

- a)2 mf - maz + m(r h= KE-o = PE.o mr(r - a)a2 = mga (1- cosO)
(tl

2mr(r

a)

=*w' =+r(+,1

=**'

m""

Due to the mass of string, the tension in the string is


variable. .'. Wave velocity is variable. Consider a point A at distance r from O. Tension at A, T6

!;xr+pE)=o dxdzx 3 M--+-/cr-=U --dxdzx l- dx m--+dt dtz 8 dt 752 4 dt

#(^*#.|,*.*)=o
Srnce

=(,.Tr)r

wheremlL is the mass per unit length of string.


Velocity of the wave at point A,

dx

rs

not zero,

*(n^*L,;-)+k'=o 2
dt'\ d2nk^
)

(mlr)

,,,*(dq'=u
t=zlfrl,[r.*-,lr]
\18

",

whenM =0, t=2.1L


For m << M, the expression reduces to
t_
a

I t-

\l rnts

oo

2900+ Chapterwise new

A & R question with,detailed solutions

ASSERTION & REASON

400+ figures, diagrams, tables and

flow charts
AIIMS

l1 year'sA & R questions

Analysis of 11 year's

AIIMSA&Rquestions

PHYsrcs FoRYou

I resnunnv'rr 29

IIFJEE
1.
Ageostationary satellite is orbiting the earth at a height of 6R from the surface of the earth, where R is the radius of the earth. The time period of

'rT:'
Problems
@ @ @ @

sedion answer I ln this secion the answer to each of the questions is a single digit integer, ranging lrom 0 to 9. lf the correct answer to qustion numben )GY Z andW (say) are 6,0,9 and 2 respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will look like the following.

keep the car under view, at what angular speed (in rad s-1) must the camera be rotated?

another satellite at a height of 2.5R from the x n hours, the value surface of the earth is "E

Track

Car

+40ms-i

ofnis

2.

A simple pendulum has a time period 2 s in air.


When it is completely immersed in
a

non-viscous
For a certain organ pipe, three successive resonmce

liquid of density one-eighth of the density of material of the bob, then its time period of
oscillation becomes
of x?
3.

qrl|

7.

\Z ".What

is the value

An ideal monoatomic gas is compressed adiabaticallv to (1)*t of its initial volume. If

frequencies are observed at425,595 and 765H2 respectively. Taking the speed of sound in air to be 340 m s-1, find the length of the pipe (in
metre).
8.

'

the initial temperature of the gas is [ (in Kelvin) and the final temperature is aTi, then the value

\8)

ofais

Two identical charged spheres are suspended by strings of equal length. The strings make an angle of 30'with each other. When suspended in a liquid of density 0.8 g cm-3, the angle remains the same. What is the dielectric constant of the liquid? [Density of the material of sphere is 1.6 g cm-3] In the given circuit diagram, find the current (in A) passing through wire CD.

4.

A particle is projected from a horizontal plane with velocity of sJi m s-l at an angle, At highest
point its velocity is found to be 5 m (in m) will be
s-1.

Its range

9.

(Takeg=10ms-2)
5.

Three blocks of masses m1, m2 arrd ms are connected

by massless string as shown in the figure on a frictionless table. They are pulled with a force F = 50 N. lf mr= 1,0k9, mz= 20 kg and ms = 30 kg,
then ratio

L
T1

is
10.

r-r
6.

l'tl-*lnz|--->-l'sP -t

Tl

T2 r-r

F=6oN

A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed in its volume with a charge density

50v

Aracing car is travelling along a track

at a constant speed of 40 m s-1. A T.V. cameraman is recording the event from a distance of 30 m directly away from the track as shown in figure. In order to

p = Kro, where r and a are constants and r is the distance from its centre. If the electric field at r = R'12 is U8 times that at r = R, find the value of a.

11.

A steady current / goes through 4 wire loop PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with

30

PHYsrcs FoR You I rronunnv 'r

PQ:3x, pp = 4x and QR = 5r. If the magnitude of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is

Time period of oscillation in liquid,

r'=2nE

kff4).

find the value'of

k.

Is'=r"E \zs
(Using (i))

12. A fish at a depth of 1.2 cm in water is viewed by an observer on the bank of a lake. To what height

\+anx )'

r'=E["rF)="F
6 ,'=nl;
Therefore, the value of
3.

is the image of fish raised? ^ (Refractive index of lake water = i) When two progressive waves
and. y2=

= 4sin(3x

7t)

is 2.

3sin(3x

7t +

L ) are superimposed, the


6 cm)

(4) For an adiabatic process,

amplitude of resultant wave is 14. Two spherical bodies A (radius


18 cm) are at temPeratures T1

TV't-1=constant
and B (radius

T,Vl-t =T.VY-1'
T,v,r-l

'

andTv respectively' maximum intensity in the emission spectrum The of A is at 500 nm and in that of B is at 1500 nm' Considering them to be black bodies, what will be the ratio of the rate of total energy radiated

Substituting the given values, we get

=or,FL\-' '1.8 /
5. 2
2

a'=g^t-7

by A to that of

B?

For a monoatomic gas, T=

|
5Jf * t-t
? = tlcose

15.

The ratio of the de Broglie wavelength of a proton

and an cr-particle of same kinetic energy is

;. a=83

= 93 = 123;3 =22 = 4.

(5) Here, velocity of projection, u -

1.

(6) Here

12=2'5R+R=3.5R According to Kepler's third law of planetary


motion,
T?

\=

6R + R = 7R; Tr = 24 hours

At highest point velocity of projectile, .'. 5=5lEcosO

.ose=* +
,t2

0=45'

r?=rE r? t, t

u2 sin}Q Kange = r3/2

"=r(?\'=,n(#l'' 24 =5.8 hours


=(2)3t2 2Jz =.'24
The value of n is 5.
(2) Time period of a simple pendulum in air is

_ (5E)2sin2x+S" =2512 =5.


10 10

20kg ms= 30 k8, F = 60 N k& ^r= The common acceleration of the system is
(3) Here mt = 10 u=-

F
T1

m1*rn2*m3 10+20+30
=7nra:1go
Tz= (mt + m2)a = (10 + 20\a = 30a

_ --------a-1---

60

-- --:t

r =znE
\ls z=zn
When
then

E !s

...(i)

fz _na

T1

_,

\0a

it is immersed in a liquid of density o,

(1) Let x be distance of car from the point O.

vpg'=vPg-vog
where p is the densitY of the bob

440ms-1 0=30'

r'= r'=

[t-;)t
(r-f )s

g'

=f,s
PHYsrcs FoRYou I rrenunnv'tt 31

Then from figure, tand = {

'h

x = htan|

-dt

dx nsec4".dd , 0J =
'dt
l.

When the balls are suspended in a liquid of density o and dielectric constant I(, the electric force will become (1/K) times, i.e., F' = (F/K) while weight mg' = mg Th = mg - Vog ITh = y;g1

u = hsec2{,uo

(a,

oJ=
h

U---

'dt' ,=49') dt)

*'=*1,-t]
:
tano'= F'
F mg' Xmg[l.-(o lill

1",

sphere)

(where p is the density of the material of the

"=f]

hsec2 q

For equilibrium of ball,

= 3cor2 d

Substituting the given values, we get


or

["

"*r=#)
9.
Ql

...(iv)

According to given problem 0, = 0


From eqs. (iv) and (iii), we get

4o f.6 --= 19 cos2 3oo - 30"[ I = 1 rer o-1 30-"" -" " 2 -rraqD

7.

(1) Since frequencies are in odd number ratio, the pipe has to be a closed pipe.
Ratio of 3 frequencies

v- P ^ =+=---= (p - o)

1'.6

(1.6

- 0.8)

: 425 : E9S :765 =5:7:9

The frequency of 5s harmonic (i.e.2nd overtone)

is

425 Hz.

425=5u + v=2_5=g5Hz
where u is the fundamental frequency of the
PiPE. 5

s0V (t-\+t2)
Applying Kirchhoff's second law for the closed
loop ACDBA. we get
_rr + 3(1_ L) =
0

Fundamental frequency,

l =$ 4L

where L is the length of the pipe and z is the speed of sound ih air.

or, L=

8.

'= 4u

340
4x85

=1*.

-\+3t_31=0 3r_411=O
loop CEFDC

Applying Kirchhoff's second law for the closed

...(i)

(2)

4(Ir -

Ir) + 4(I

-211+l1r+41-4h+4Iz=0

- I, + Ir; = 9
...(ii)

4I-6\+6Iz=0 2I-3\+3.Iz=0

Applying Kirchhoff's second law for the closed


loop AEGHA

-It-2(11-I)+59=9
mg
(i) Tension T

-11-211+2lz+50=0
mg

Initially, the forces acting on each ball are (ii) Weight lzg

1\+2Iz+50:0 $ J

...(iii)

From equation (i), we get I =

(iii) Electric force F For its equilibrium along verticaf


Tcos0 = mg

Su-bstituting the value of

I in equation (ii)

,(*)-",+3r2=o
...(i) ...(ii)
... (iii)

and along horizontal Tsin0 = F Dividing eq. (ii) by (i), we get


tane =

811-911+9lz=0

i
m8
r

-It+91r=g ...(iv) Solving equation (iii) and (iv) we get 12= 2 A. Hence, current passing through wire CD is 2 A.

PHYSTCS FOR

yOU rrenunnv,r I

10.

(2) By Gauss theorem,

{E.dl=^ff

4nr2

=*tr*'

nrzilr

lz=3sn(3x -zt *|l The phase difference between two waves is $='2 A=
n

:+

'=#l#] ='=;#
r('=i)=;E(r=R)
(Given)

The amplitude of the resultant wave is

Jq * 4*2;..Arr""q
42 + 32 +

2x 4x3 x cos3

" eo(a+slLzl - []]".'=][n'.'J

('.'

.o,;

o)

8eo(a+3)'---

14.

(91 According to Wien's displacement law,

l"rT = constant

zo*7=8

... (I.)o7; =(L)r(?r)


nm (I')o o, !4-- (],)a - 1500 nm 500 TB

or ;=r

TO

..(i)

Using the concept of area of triangle

According to Stefan Boltzmann law, rate of energy radiated by a black body E = oATa = o4nRzTa [Here, A = 4nR2]

LxpDx1x=Lx:lxx4x

" + =[#l t+l

.'.

PD=\2'
5

:[r*)'

x 1s;a(usins(i))

(21 de Broglie wavelength,


According to given problem

T=J-

and DR =5r-2t

=1!t 55

!mo(to12 =Lmr@r)2

Magnetic field at P due to current elements PQ and PR is zero as the point P is on the conductor. Therefore, magnetic field at P due to current
element QR is Pol=(sinQ1+sinQ2)

L+^r(ao)z

=L*r(rp)'
LD=-

^hh Afl=-,
Lp

* t=+
('ft=^)

-' ffiaaq

'

mpap

= 4n.PD' ' ' ' Folxs (exls), (t6xls)) n

AnxL2x\ 3x pols (3 , 4'\_ Tpor = 48* l.5- 5 )- 48"k=7.


As F=

4x

-moao =4y!=2 l,d mpap 2

t. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.7. 8.

9.

1.0. 11.. 72. 13. 14.

15.

@@@@@@@oo@@@o@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@(&@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@o@@@@@@@@@

72. (3)

Real deoth

n*;*a"o.rt
lg)

Aooarent der:th = __rr__ , (47? , =g r


The height through which image of fish is raised

(5) Here Ar = 4sin(3x

=12-9=3cm. - 7t)

oo
PHYsrcs FoR You I rpsnuanv 't

33

Maximize your chance of success, and high rank in


llT/AIEEE/BITSAT by reading this column.

This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualified teaching experts well-tuned to the requirements of these
EntranceTests.

Year No. of Ques.

2010
1

2009 2

2008
2

2007
2

2006
6

2005 3

Electrons in the conduction band are called free electrons or conduction electrons. These electrons contribute to the electric current. Forbidden Energy Gap

The gap between the top of the valence band and bottom of the conduction band is called the
forbidden energy gap. Sometimes, it is also called energy band gap or energy gap. It is usually denoted by symbol E . No electrons are present in this gap.
METALS, INSULATORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS

ENERGY BANDS IN SOLIDS OR BAND THEORY OF

soLtDs

tr Ir

an atom, electrons revolve in definite orbits around the nucleus and each orbit has a definite energy, i.e., atom has its discrete energy states. These energy states are so close to each other that they form an energy band. Thus, the group of energy levels (states) very close to each other is called an energy band. The energy bands in solids are dassified as follows :

tr

On the basis of band theory the solids can


divided into three categories:

be

O O O

Metals Lrsulators
Semiconductors

Valence Band The energy band formed by the energy levels of the valence electrons is called the valence band. tr This band contains valence electrons. This band maybe partially or completely filled with electrons. This band is never empty. Electrons in this band . do not contribute to electric current.

Metals

tr

In metals, either the conduction band is partially filled or the valence band and the conduction
band partially overlap each other and there is no forbidden energy gap between the valence band and conduction band. The energy band diagram of metal is as shown in figure (i).
Conductionband

tr

Conduction Band The energy band above the valence band is called the conduction band. Normally, the conduction band is empty.But when it overlaps with valence band electtons can move freely into it.
PHYsrcs FoR You I rranunnv'r

34

tr They are good conductors of electricity. tr The highest energy level occupied by the electrons at absolute zero temperature is called Ferrri level
and the energy corresponding to the Fermi level is called Fer:ni energy.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

A pure semiconductor which is free from every impurity is called intrinsic semiconductor.
Germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) are the important examples of intrinsic semiconductors. L:r an intrinsic semiconductor, the number density of electrons is equal to the number density of
holes.

Insulators

tr

In insulatorb, valence band is completely filled


and the conduction band is completely empty and there is a very wide forbidden energy gap between them. It is of the order of 5 eV or more.
D

i.e., n"= fry= fri


where n, and n, are the number density of electrons and holes respectively and n; is the intrinsic carrier concentration. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the fermi level lies at the middle of the energy gap, When an electric field is applied across an intrinsic

The energy band structure of an insulator is shown in figure (ii).


Conductionband

as

O A

Eg = 5 eV or

more

semiconductor, electrons and holes move in opposite directions so that total current (I) through

the semiconductor is the sum of the electron


current /, and the hole current

I=Ir+In
(ii)

[.

tr They

are poor conductors of electricity.

tr

Intrinsic Canier Concentration The intrinsic carrier concentration n; varies with


temperafure T
as

Semiconductors In semiconductors, valence band

is completely filled and the conduction band is completely

nl =

AoT3s-Eslkr

empty and there is a small forbidden energy gap between the valence band and conduction band. It is of ttre order of 1 eV. For silicoru it is 1.1 eV and for germ4nigln it is 0.72 eV. The energy band structure of a semiconductor is
as shown

where E, is the energy gap at 0 K in electron volt, k is the Boltzmann constant in eV K-1 and As is a constant independent of T.

Effect

of

Temperature

on Conductivity

of

infgure (iii).
Conduction band

Intrinsic Semiconductor An intrinsic semiconductor behaves as a perfect


insulator at absolute zero.

n With increase in temperafure, the density of hole-electron pairs increases and hence the conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor increases with increase in temperafure. In other words, the resistivity (inverse of conductivity)
decreases as the temperafure increases.

El
(in)

The semiconductors have negative temperafure


coefficient of resistance.

o At absolute zero, sbmiconductor behaves as a


perfect insulator. The forbidden energy Bap Es in a semiconductor depends upon temperature. For silicorL Et(T) = 1'.21' - 3.60' 104T eV At room temperature (300 K), Es = 1.1 eV For germanium, Es(I) = 0.785 - 2.23 x 10aT eV At room temperature (300 K), Es= 0.72 eV

EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

tr

The deliberate addition of a desirable impurity is called doping and the impurity atoms are called

dopants.

tr A doped semiconductor is called extrinsic


semiconductor.

tr '

In an extrinsic semiconductor, the number density of electrons is not equal to the number density of
holes. i,e., nrnlr= n!. This law is called mass action law.
PHYSTCS FOR YOU

i rrenunnv',r

35

o An extrinsic semiconductor

is of two types

O O

n-typesemiconductor p-typesemiconductor

Conduction b4nd

n-Type Semiconductor

tr When a pure semiconductor of Si or Ge (tetravalent) is doped with a group V pentavalent impurities like
arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), phosphorus (P) etc, we

-.

--

-. Acceptor energy level

obtain a n-type semiconductor. The pentavalent impurity atoms are called as donor atoms.

tr Inp-type semiconductor, the fermi level lies in the


energy gap/ very close to valence band. because the conduction of electricity in such semiconductor is due to motion of holes l.e. positive charges. tr It is called acceptor type semiconductor because the doped impurity atom creates a hole in semiconductor which accepts the electrory resulting conduction in p-type semiconductor.

tr

The energyband structure of p-type semiconductor is as shown in figure.


Conduction band
-

o It is called p-type

-....

Donor energy level

o
tr In n-type semiconductor, the fermi level lies in the
energy gap very close to conduction band.

k,

p-type semiconductor, holes are majority

charge carriers and electrons are minority charge carriers.

because the conduction of electricity in such semiconductor is due to motion of electrons l.e. negative charges. tr It is called donor type semiconductor, because the doped impurify atom donates one free electron to semiconductor for conduction. tr ln n-type semiconductor,'electrons are majority charge carriers and holes are minority charge
carriers.

It is called n-type semiconductor

The representation of p-type semiconductor is shown in the figure.


_o
o o

as

o
I
o

.o o

oao AAA oo Oo

ooo

o o

LegendF;. o Hole (positive charge) . ElecFon (negative charge) e Immobile icin,(iiQiative charge)

J tr

p-Wpe semiconductor is electrica^ll;l neutral.

In p-type semiconductor, the nur+ber density of


holes n;, is nearly equal to the ngmber density of acceptor atoms No and is very la+ge;a+ compared to number density of electrons n.

o The representation of ,?-type semiconductor is as


shown in the figure.
@ @ a

fln=No>>44;,-.,,,,
Legends: r Free electron (negative charge) o Hole (positive charge) O lmmobile ion (positive charge)

-@ @. @.
a a

@ o

o a o o @o ^o
oo a

oo aa

oa

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SEM1CONDUCTOR

tr tr
D

o /,-type semiconductor

is electrically neutral.

tr In n-type semiconductor, the number density of


electrons n" is nearly equal to the number density of donor atoms Na and is very laige as compared to number density of holes 11.

nr= N4)>

fi1,

p-Type Semiconductor When a pure semiconductorof Sior Ge (tetravalent)

tr tr

The conductivity of the semiconductor is given by o = e(nelre+ nn\) ' where p, and p1 are the electron and hole mobilities and e is the electronic charge. r., ..' . The conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor is o;= np(1t,+ 1to) The conductivity of n-type semiconductor is on= eNfl)", The conductivity of p-type semiconductor is

or=
p-n JUNCTION

eNolt"y

is doped with a groirp III trivalent impurities like aluminium (Al), boron (B), indium (In) etc we obtain a p-type semiconductor. The trivalent
impurity atoms are called
as acceptor atoms.

When a p-type semiconductor crystal is brought into close contact with an n-type semiconductor

crystal, the resulting arrangement


p-n junction or junction diode.

is called a
a

The energyband structure of p-type semiconductor is as shown in the figure.

It is also called

semiconductor diode.'A p-n iunction cannot be made by simply pushing the two pieces together.

36

pxvslcs FoR You

I reanunRv 'r r

This would not lead to a single crystal strucfure. Special fabrication techniques are needed to form a p-n junction.

E Ir tr

Two important processes occur during


formation of ap-njunction: diffusion and drift. It is symbolically represented by

reverse biasing the width of the depletion region increases. The resistance of the p-n junction becomes high in
reverse biasing.

the

O The p-n junction

in reverse bias can be considered to be equivalent to a capacitor with p and n regions act as the plates of the capacitor and the depletion region acts as the dielectric. Its capacitance is called depletion capacitance or transition capacitance.

The most important characteristic of a p-n junction

is its ability to conduct current in one direction only. In the other (reverse) direction it offers very
high resistance. The current in the junction diode is given by

where

k = Boltzmann

I = Io (dvrtr

1)

constant 10

reverse

saturation current, T = absolute temperature. Depletion Region In the vicinity of junction, the region containing the uncompensated acceptor and donor ions is called depletion region. There is a depletion of mobile charges (holes and free electrons) in this region. Since this region has immobile (fixed) ions which are electrically charged it is also called as the space charge region. The potential developed across the depletion layer is called barrier potential. The physicAl distance of the depletion region is called width of the depletion region. For silitortrdiode the barrier potential is about 0.7 V vFlieieai fot a germanium diode it is about
0.3

Breakdown Voltage Ap-n junction allows a very small curient to flow when it is reverse biased. This current is due to the movement of minority charge carriers. It is almost independent of the voltage applied. However, if the reverse bias is made too higtr, the current through the p-n junction increases abruptly. The voltage at which this phenomenon occurs is called breakdown voltage. There can be two different process of breakdown. One is called zener breakdown and the other is called avalanche breakdown.

,-vCHARACTERISTICS OF A p-n JUNCTION The /-Vcharacteristics of. ap-n junctton do not obey Ohm's law. The experimental circuit arrangements

tr

for studying I-V characteristics of a p-n junction


diode are shown in figure (i) and (ii).

v.

,i

tr The width of the depletion layer is about 10{ m. tr The width.ofthe depletion layer and the magnitude of potentiallbarrier depend on the nature of the
material of semiconductor and the concentration of impurity,atoms. Forward Biasing of
a

p-n ]unction

When the positive terminal of extemal battery is connected to p-side and negative terminal to
n-side of p-n junctiory then the p-n junction is said to be forr.vard biased.

In forward biasing, the width of the depletion


region decreases.
The resistance of the p-zl junction becomes low in forward biasing. Reverse Biasing of ap-n |unction

When the positive terminal of the extemal battery is connected to n-side and the negative terminal to p-side of ap-n jvnctron, then the junction is said to
be reverse biased.

The I-V characteristics of a p-n junction are


shown in figure below.
PHYSICS FORYOU I

rranunRv'rr 37

tr In actual practice, no diode can act as an ideal


diode.
RECTIFIER

in reverse bias it acts as .u:r open switch.

O It is a device

which converts ac voltage to dc

voltage. Rectifiers are of two types: O Half wave rectifier O Full wave rectifier

Half Wave Rectifier


Knee Voltage

tr In forward

biasing, the voltage at which the

[ [r half wave rectifier one diode is used. tr The circuit diagram, input and output

current starts to increase rapidly is called cut-in qr knee voltage. For germaniurn diode it is about 0.3 V whereas for silicon diode it is 0.7 V.
RESISTANCE OF A DIODE

voltage waveforms for a half wave rectifier are as shown in the following figure.

tr

Resistance of the diode is defined in two different

Output voltage

ways.

dc or static tesistance: It is defined as the ratio

of the voltage applied across the diode to the corresponding current flowing through it. It is given by

v rdc=7

It is defined as the ratio of small change in voltage across the diode to the corresponding small change in
ac or dynamic resistance :

={J

d. to

Time

current. It is given by

- _AV '""
point.
IDEAL DIODE

-T

Peak value of current is

It is equal to the reciprocal of the slope of the


ctraracteristic (1-V characteristics curve) at that

r-vo 'o-rf+&
ry is the forward diode re'siiitance, R1 is the load resistance and Ve is the peak value of the input voltage. Average or dc value of current is '

where

tr

A diode permits only unidirectional conduction. It conducts well in the forward direction and poorly in the reverse direction. It would have 6eei ideal if a diode acts as a perfect conductor (with zero voltage across it) when it is forward biased, and as a perfect insulator (with no current flows through

'd.

, --Io tr

rms value of current is

, -T '^t -Io
Peak inverse voltage is

tr

it) when it is reverse biased. The I-V characteristics qf an ideal diode


in figure below.

as

shown

pIV = Vo Average or dc value of voltage is

Vd.=Id"R.=*R.
It is also given

by rr Var=2
IE

(Assuming diode

forward resistance is zero)

O O
38

An ideal diode acts like an automatic switch,


In forward bias, it acts as a closed switch whereas
PHYSICS FOR YOU I rrenumv 'r r

Full Wave Rectifier


In the fuII wave rectifier two diodes are used.

tr

The circuit diagram, input and output voltage


waveforms for a full wave rectifier are as shown in the figures.
Centre tap

For half wave rectifiet

trmformer

Diode 1 (D1)

Rr I

output
vottage

=,ft.sry-t
o
For full wave rectifier,
rrms

=t.zt

-+

, -Io rdc -2j : -f,, , - l

=0.482 +E" o;
Peak value of current is

Rectif ication Ef f iciency The rectification efficiency tells us what percentage of total input ac power is converted into useful dc

output power. Rectification efficiency is defined


as

,vo ^u
rac

Average or dc value of current is

rJU +R,
2Io

n= ac input power from


n=Pd.x1oo% '
P^"

dc power delivered to load

the secondary of the transformer

=.:i-

rms value of current is

'*t=E
Peak inverse voltage is

,10

For a half wave rectifier, dc power delivered to the load l- ;2


Po"

is

=rl.R.

=[*J

o.

PIV rr2V3, Average ortdc Value of voltage is 2I^

Input

ac

power is

P". = r3,,,

(! +R.) =(21

n,+R1)

V1"=I6.R1

=fR1

Rectifi cation ef ficiency

It is also given by

,r. =ZVo 'cc ft


Ripple Frequency

(Assuming diode forward


tesistance is zero)
= 50

n=Pdc ''

(h/n)2Ri =(Iol2)z (ry +R1) xloo% P". _


i. l ,* R;

Hz tr For a half tr For a full wave rectifier, u, = 2u; = 100 Hz


wave rectifier, D/ =
D-

40.5 lr

o/

Ripple Factor The ripple factor is a measure of purity of the dc


output of a rectifier, and is defined f=
as

lf ry<< Rp
Maximum rectification efficienry, t1= 40'6%. For a full wave rectifier, dc power delivered to the load is
Pu.

rms value of the ac component of wave


average or dc value

=rl.R,

=(?lt
reeRunnv',rr 39

,=Gr;uJ=l[+T-

lnput

ac

power is

P".

=rfu,(rr.*r,=(#)t (,y +nry


PHYSTCS FORYOU I

Rectification efficienry

PHOTODIODE

=+ -

RL xlooo/o - 81'.2 y Qo tJi)' e1 + R7) r* lL ,RT


(zlol:t)z
81,.2"/"

O A photodiode is a special purpcise p-n jtnctton O D


diode fabricated with a transparent window to allow light to fall on the diode. It is operated under reverse bias. l4/hen the photodiode is illuminated with light (photons) with energy (hu) greater than the energy

lf ry<< Rr,
Maximum rectification efficienry, q = Form Factor

tr
O

Form factor = -Lql


Ia" For half wave rectifier,

gap (E ) of the semiconductor, then electronhole pairs are generated due to the absorption

I*"
Form factor

=!, t'^=b 2,'4, n

of photons. The diode is fabricated such that the generation of electron-hole pairs takes place in or near the depletibn region of the diode.

The symbol of a photodiode is shown


figure.

in

the

tr

=!4=n 2='1.57 -Ioln

For full wave rectifier,

,,^"=#,
Form factor =

Io,=2*

SOLAR CELL

b!9 = -9 = r.ir 2Io ln 2J2

tr A solar cell is basically a p-n junctionD

It converts solar energy into electrical energy.


which

LrGHT EM|TT|NG DTODE (LED)

tr
O

It converts electrical energy into light energy. It is a heavily doped p-n junction which under
forward bias emits spontaneous radiation.
The diode is encapsulated with a transparent cover so that emitted light can come out.

p-n junction. It works on the same principle (photovoltaic effect) as the photodiode, except that no extemal bias is applied and the junction area is kept much larger for solar radiation to be incident. '

generates emf when solar radiation falls on the

ZENER DIODE

tl

tr

The I-V characteristics of a LED is similar to that of Sijunction diode. But the threshold voltages are much higher and slightly different for each colour. The reverse breakdown voltages of LEDs are very low, typically around 5 V.

It is a special purpose semiconductor diode, named after its inventor C. Zener.

tr It is designed to operate
regulator.

the breakdown region and used, as a voltage

under reverse bias in

D It is fabricated by heavily dopinglboth


n

O The semiconductor used for fabrication

of visible

ll
D tr

LEDs must at leaSt have a band gap of 1.8 eV.

-sides of the junction. Due tg . this, depletion region formed is very thin and the electric field of
the junction is extremely high.

p- and

The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) is used.for making LEDs of
different colours. GaAs is used for making infrared LED. The symbol of a LED is shown in the figure.

tr

The symbol for Zener diode is shown


figure.

in the

*-+^

O The circuit

Zener Diode as a Voltage Regulator diagram of a voltage regulator using a Zener diode is shown in the figure.

tr

LEDs have a number of advantages over ordinary incandescent lamps. They work on low voltages and currents and thus consume less power. They

require no heating, no waim-up time, and hence are very fast in action. They are small in size and light inweight. They are not affected by mechanical vibrations and have long life.

Regulated voltage

a The unregulated dc voltage (filtered output of a


rectifier) is connected to the Zener diode through

40

PHYSICS FORYOU I rranunnv,rr

a.series resistance Rs such that the Zener diode is reverse biased. If the input voltage increases, the current through R5 and Zener diode also increases. This increases the voltage drop across Rs without any change in the voltage across the Zener diode. This is because in the breakdown regiory Zener voltage remains constant even though the current through the Zener diode changes. Similarly, if the

The symbols lor n-p-n and p-n-p trairsistors are shown in the figure below.

input voltage decreases, the current through

Rg

n-P-n

p-n-p

and Zener diode also decreases. The voltage drop across Rs decreases without any change in the voltage across the Zener diode. Thus, any increase/ decrease in the input voltage results in increase/ decrease of the voltage drop across R5 without any change in voltage across the Zener diode. Thus the Zener diode acts as a voltage regulator.
TRANSISTOR

In the operation of a transistor, IB = l" I 7, where Ir is emitter current, 1" is base currenf
the collector current.

16

is

B A transistor can be operated in any one of the


following three configurations
:

O O O

Common emitter (CE) Commonbase (CB) Common collector (CC)

A transistor is a crystal of germanium or silicon having three regions. Either a thin layer of
p-type crystal is sandwitched between two r?-type regions or vice versa. [n the former case, it is called

tr

Input Characterislics of a Transistot The variation of the input current with the input
voltage for a given output voltage is called input
characteristics of a transistor.

n-p-n transistor and in the later case, it is p-n-p type.the middle region is called base, while the two outer regions are called as emitter and
collector. Alihough the two outer regions are of same type (n regions in case of n-p-n transistor), but their functions cannot be interchanged. The two regions have different physical and electrical
properties.

Output Characteristics of

Transistor

The variation of the output current with the output

voltage for a given input current is called output characteristics of a transistor.


ACTION OF TRANSISTOR

tr A
O

brief 'deseription
Emitter :

of the three regibns of

transistor is giVen below:

It is of moderate size and heavily doped.'It.sirpplies a large number of majority


carrierd'rfoi the current flow through the
trandistor.'
'

tr

A transistor has two p-n junctions. The junction between emitter and base is called emifter-base junction or emitter junction. Similarly, the junction between base and the collector is called collectorbase junction or collector iunction. There are four possible ways of biasing these two junctions as shown in the table.
Emitter iunction Forward biased Forward biased
Reverse biased Reverse biased

Collector

O O

Base

: It is very thin and lightly doped. It

passes rhost of the majority. charge carriers to

iunction n"rr-"rr"uiur"a
Forward biased
Reverse biased

Region of operation Active Saturation Cut off Inverted

the collector.

Collector : It is moderately doped and larger in size as compared to the emitter. It collects a

tr

major portion of the majority carriers supplied by the emitter. The schematic representation of a n-p-n and p-n-p transistors are shown in the figure.

Forward biased

TRANSISTOR AS AN AMPLIFIER

The transistor works as an amplifier, with its


emitter-base junction forward biased and the base-collector junction reverse biased. \A/hen the transistor is biased in this way
active state.

it is said to be in

Common Emitter Amplifier

The circuit diagram using n-p-n transistor as a common erhitter amplifier is as shown in the
figure.
PHYSICSFORYOU I

reenurnv'rr 41

Various gains in coutmon base amplifier: O dc cunent gain : It is defined as the ratio of collector current (16) to the emitter current (Is).
Input AC
signal

tu

oo"

=k lE

ac current gain : It is defined as the ratio of change in collector current (Aid to the change

In the common emitter transistor amplifier, the input signal voltage and the output collector
voltage are L80o out of phase. Various gains in common emitter amplifier O dc current gain : It is defined as the ratio of the collector current (Is) to the base current (/s).

in emitter current

(AIg).

s".

f4k') tlle /
as the

Voltage gain : It is defined

ratio of output

voltage to the input voltage.

B"=f
o
current gain : It is defined as ratio of change in collector currerit (A16) to the drange in base current (AIB).
ac

.-& 4=t =4". *d


Power gain: It is defined as the ratio of output power to the input power.

1/

o -dc pac _

/ -EputpowAi@l?_
output power = aux Ao

(Po)

41,

Voltage gain : It is defined as the ratio of output voltage to the input voltage.

Note: Relationship between

cl

and p

B=rft'o=th
TRANSISTOR AS A SWTCI{

.A,=+=-p^^ *& ac"R vi

*f,"r" $

Here Ro and R; are the output and input


resistances.

&

is called the resistance gain.

tr

When the transistor is used in the cut off region or saturation region, it acts as a switch.

TRANSISTOR AS AN OSCILLATOR

represents that output voltage is opposite in phase with the input voltage. Power gain : It is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power. ,,r output power (Po) 'n _ . tu-- input power (t) = 9^"'Ao

-ve sign

O A transistor can be used as an oscillator. O An oscillator can also be considered as a self


sustained amplifier in which a part of output is fed back to the input in the same'phase (positive
feedback).

tr

The block diagram of an oscillator is shown in the

figure.

Note: Voltage gain (in dB)

=zorosn?
=201og1s

A,

Power gain (in dB)

=1ousf;
a

Common Base Amplifier

The circuit diagram using n-p-n transistor as


common base amplifier is as shown in the figure.

The circuit diagram of the tuned collector oscillator

cr'Is

is shown in the figure below


Lr

.tl
[f.

Mutualinductance
(Coupling ttrough

Input AC sign4

tu

Ic
signal

llEt"

ll; magnetic field) Ll'-+

ln

common base transistor amplifier, the input

signal voltage and the output collector voltage are in the same phase.

ll-

output

42

PHYSICS FORYOU I

reanulnv'rr

tr The frequenry of the oscillations is given by .,_ 1 " - 2nJrc


LOGIC GATES

tr

A logic gate is a digital circuit that follows certain logical relationship between the input and output
voltages.

The Boolean expression for NOT gate is

Y=A
NAND Gate
It is an AND gate followed by
a

tr Logic gates are the building blocks


electronics. D There are three basic logic gates
:

of digital

NOT gate.

O ORgate O AND gate

NOT gate

OR Gate
D

The logic symbol and the truttr table for NAND gate is as shown in the figure.

An OR gate has two or more inputs and one


output.
any or all the inputs are high.

o It is called OR gate because the output is high if o The logic symbol and the truth table for OR gate is
as

shown in the figure.

The Boolean expression for NAND gate is


Y

=AB
a

A
B

NOR Gate

It is an OR gate followed by
A

NOT gate.

The Boolean expression for OR gate is


Y

=A+B
one

I
O

AND Gate An AND gate has two or more inputs and

The logic symbol and the truth table for NOR gate is as shown in the figure.

output. It is called AND gate because outPut is high only when all the inputs are high. The logic symbol and the truth table for AND gate is as shown in the figure.

A
B

A.-rT I
B4+/ -Y
"xpressiffiAND

|+|r{+l l-oTiT--l
l-iToT
gate is

l"p"t fo"tt"tl
o-1

The Boolean expression for NOR gate is


Y

=A+B

i_fil-Tt

Exclusive OR Gate or XOR Gate The XOR gate can be obtained by using O& AND and NOT gates asshown in the figure.

o
tr tr tr

The Boolean

NOT Gate The NOT gate is the,simplest of all logic gates. It has only one input and one outPut.
NOT gate is also called inverter because it inverts
the input. The logic symbol and the truth table for NOT gate is as shown in the figure.

Y=A.B+A.B
The logic symbol and the truth table for XOR gate is as shown in the figure.
PHYSTCS FOR YOU I rrenUnnv',r

43

Y=

A.B=A+B= A+B
as

NOR Gate as a Universal Gate

a NOR gate is called o


The Boolean expression for XOR gate is
Y basic gate.

universal gate because with

the repeated use of NOR gate we can construct any

=A.B+ A'B= A@B

tr NOT gate from NOR gate

Exclusive NOR or XNOR Gate

tr The XNOR gate can be obtained by using OIf AND and NOT gates as shown in the figure.

Y=A
D AND gate from NOR gate

Y = A-B

+E.E

tr The logic symbol and the tmth table for XNOR


gate is shown in the figure.

:=>-'
u
The Boolean expression for XNOR gate is
Y=

Y=A+B =A.B =A.B


tr ORgate from NORgate

.-

A.B+A.B=ToB
Universal Gate

Y=A+B=A+B
Boolean Identities

NAND Gate

as a

o NAND

gate is called as universal gate because

with

the repeated use of NAND gate we can construct


any basic gate

A+B=B+A
A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C
A'(B+C)=A'B+A'C A+0= A

A'B =B'A A.(B.C)= (A'B).C

tr NOT gate from NAND gate

A+B.C=(A+B).(A+C)
,4.0=0
4.1.= A

Y=A
o AND
gate from NAND gate

A+L=1

A+A=A
A+ A=1

A,A=A

A.A=0 A=A
A.B= A+B
A.(A + B)= A

Y=

A.B= A.B

OR gate from NAND gate

A=A A+B=A.E A+A'B=A a+A-n= A+B

A.(A+B)= A.B

44

PHYSTCS FOR YOU I resnurnv ',r

De Morgan's Theotems

tr A+B=A'E A.--{\. a.--<lT I )o.<y: Bj---4-/ l-v I "-1_/ to bubbled AND gate'
NOR gate is equivalent

ELEMENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

A communication system is the set up used in the transmission and reception of information from
one place to another.

tr

Every communication system has three essential


elements:

D fr=A+E

^--i-l_": u*-{\._" B,-)-_-/ B.--L//


NAND is equivalent to bubbled OR gate'
Transmitted
Signal Signal

tr

o Receiver The block diagram of a communication system is shown in the figure below.
""""-'--"'-i

O Transmitter O Channel

Communication SYstem

Received Signal

Transmitter : Transmitter converts the message signal produced by information source into a form (e.g. electrical signal) that is suitable for
transmission through the channel to the receiver' Channel : Channel is a medium in the form of wire or cables which connects the transmitter and the receiver or it maY be wireless.

signals are continuous variations of voltage oi current. They are essentially single-valued functions of time. Sine wave is a fundamental
analog signal. Sound and picture signals in TV are analog in nature. Digital signals are those which can take only discrete stePwise values. Transducer: Any device that converts one form of energy into another is called a transducer. Noise : It refers to the unwanted signals that tend

I I

I I

I J

Receiver: The receiver has the task of operating on the received signal. It reconstructs a recognisable form of the original message signal for delivering it to the user of information. There are two basic modes of communication o Point-to-Point

to disturb the transmission and


message signals

processing of

in a communication system. The

tr J

Broadcast

In point-to-point communication mode, communication takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver. Telephony is anexample of such a mode of communication. In the broadcast mode, there are a large number of receivers corresponding to a single transmitter' Radio and television are the examples of broadcast mode of commununication.

sourcegenerating the noise may be located inside or outSide the sYstem. Attenuation : It refers to the loss of strength of a signal wJrile propagating through a medium' Amplification : It is the process of increasing the strength of a signal using some suitable electronic circuit. Amplification is necessary to compensate for the attenuation of the signal in communication
system. It canbe done at a place between the source

and the destination wherever signal strength

tr tr

becomes weaker than the required strength. Range: It is the largest distance between a source and a destination up io which the signal is received

TERMINOLOGY USED IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Signal : Information converted in electrical form


an-d suitable

with sufficient strength. Bandwidth : It refers to the frequency range over


which an equipment operates or the portion of the
spectrum occupied bY the signal.
PHYslcs FoRYou I

for trans'mission is called a signal' be either analog or digital' Analog Signals can

rtanumv'tt 45

- -F-1-:;

=qtrya

the

tr

wave). Demodulation : The process of retrieval of information from the modulated wave at the receiver is called demodulation. Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation.

T".*"]"Fg signal) on a fugh it"qrr"r,.y *urr" (called the carrier

ffod$ati9n Itis the phenomenon of supgrimposing frequenry message signal lcalted the
:

-low

to.a j9w-GHz. This range of frequencies is further subdivided and allocated for virious services as shown in the table. Name of Frequency Service band Standard AM 540-1600 kHz broadcast FM broadcast 88-108 MHz

Comments

frequenry.

Repeater : It is a combination of a receiver and a transmitter. It picks up the signal from the ttansmitter, amplifies and retransmits it to the receiver, sometimes with a change in carrier

Television

54-72MHz 76-88MHz 174-216MHz 420-890MHz 896-901MHz


840-935 MHz

VHF (very high


frequencies)

TV

UHF (ultra high


frequencies)

tr

BANDWDTH OF SIGNALS

communication system, the message signal can be voice, music, picture or computer d'ata."nacn of
trn a

TV

tr The type of
O

communication process.

communication .system needed depends on the band of frequencies which is considered essential for the

these signals has different,urrg"s of frequencies.

Cellular mobile radio

Mobile to
station

base

for a given signal

Base station to

Satellite

tr
Q

instrurnents are higtu theiefore, approximate bandwidth for music is 20 kHz.


For transmission of picfures, video signals require abandwidth of 4.2MHz.

2800H2 (3100 Hz - 300 Hz). The audible range of frequencies is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. As the frequenciis produced by musical

folgggech signalg frequenry range is from 300 Hz to 3100 Hz. Thus, bandwidth of ipeech simals is

O Optical fibte communication is used in the frequenry range of I THz to 1000 THz (microwaves to ultravioleg. An optical fibre
can offer a transmission bandwidth in excess of
100

mobile 5.925-5.4aiGHz Uplink 3.7-4.2GHz Downlink

GHz

PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

O Fu commonly used transmission free space

BANDWDTH OF TRANSMISSION MEDIUM

I
O

offers a bandwidth of approximately 250 MHz. These cables are normally opu.it"d below
18 GHz.

and optical fibre cable. Coaxial cable is a widely used wire medium. It

media are wire,

from the transmitter, the strength of the wave keeps on decreasing. Several fact-ors influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves and the path they follow.

space and reach the receiving antenna at th6 other end. As the electromagnetii wave travels away

at the transmitter radiates the electromagnetic waves (em waves), which travel througfi the

Lr communication using radio waves/ an antenna

waves takes place over


Name b{thb

Communication through free space using radio

D
O

frequencies ranging from a few hundreds of-kHz

a very wide ringe of

earth's atmosphere plays an important role in Qur the propagation of electiomagnetic *ulrur. Some useful layers of the earth,s atmosphere as shown in the table. Frequencies most affected

layer.

VHF (up to several GHz)


Reflects LF, absorbs

Uf

und

Hf to,or"e degr"e

Helps surface waves, reflects HF


170-190

km

Daytime,'merges

PartiallyabsorbsHrw@
reach F2.

with
300

F2

at night

km at night, 250-400 km

.during day time

night

Efficiently .eflects HF .wuves, purticr'rlarly at

4O

PHYS|CS FORyOU I rrenunnv,rr

VARIOUS MODES OF WAVE PROPAGATION

tr

Various modes

of wave propagation are as

frequency of radio waves which when sent at


some angle towards the ionosphere, gets reflected from that and refums to the earth.

follows: O Ground or surface wave propagation O Sky wave propagation O Spacewavepropagation

MUF=*fo=D,
where

secl

i is the angle between

normal and the

tr

Ground or Surface Wave Propagation Ground or surface wave propagation is a mode of propagation in which the ground has a strong influence on the propagation of signal waves from the transmitting antenna to receiving antenna. In this propagatiory the signal wave glides over the
surface of earth. A ground wave induces current in the ground over whidr it passes and it is attenuated as a result of absorption of energy by the earth. The attenuation

tr

direction of incidence of waves. Skip distance : It is the smallest distance from the transmifter along the earth's,surface at which a sky wave of a frequenry not more than critical
frequency is sent back to the earth. The skip distance is givenby

tr

D"yir=2h where

D-r"

r2
I

surface waves increases very rapidly with in frequenry. The maximum range of coverage depends on the transmitted power and
increase frequenry.

of

O The ground wave propagation


service.

is generally used

Q .

for local broadcasting as a medium wavebroadcast

tr

atmosphere, u* is the rnaximum frequency of electromagnetic waves used and u. is the critical frequency for that layer. Space Wave Propagation Space wave propagation is that mode of wave propagation in whidr the radiowaves emitted from the transmitter antenna reach the receiving antenna through space. These radiowaves are
called space waves.

h is the height of

\)

reflecting layer of

The

groud wav propagation is used for low

frequency band and medium frequency band but not for high frequency band Sky Wave Propagation

tr
O

Space waves travel

in a

shaight line from

tr Sky wave

propagation in whidr the radiowaves emitted from the transmitter antenna reach the receiving
antenna after reflection by the ionosphere.

propagation

is a

mode

of

wave

transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Space waves are used for the line-of-sight communication as well as for the satellite communication.

O The space wave propagation is used

for

television broadcast microwave link and satellite

O The sky wave

propagation

is

also called

as

ionospheric wive propagation.

A '

O The sky wave propagation


broadcast service.

communication. h is the hqight of the transmitting antenna, then ry the distance to the horizon is given by where R l, tt e,aairr3ol For TV signal, area coveied =T*=nEA:"I. Population covered = population

is used by short wave

tr With the help of sky wave propagation


distance communication is possible.

ff5"*
densif
x area

long

Important tenns for sky wave propagation tr Critical frequency : It is the highest frequency of radio wave, whidr when. sent straight (i.e. normally)'towards the layer of ionosphere gets reflected from ionosphere and retums to the earth.. If the frequency of the radio wave is more than critical frequenry, it will not be reflected by
ionosphere. The critical frequenry of a sky wave for reflection from a layer of atmosphere is given by

tr

The maximum line-of-sight distance r";:#::l two antennas having heights lr1 and lrp above the
earth is grven by

dm=JM +{ffi_x.
where h1 is the height of the transmitting antenna and hx is the height of the receiving antenna and R is the radius of the earth.
MODULATION

u.=9(N;*)14
where

N^* is the maximuin number density of


usable frequency :

O Low frequencies
called modulation.

cannot be transmitted

to long

electron/m3.

Q Maximum

It is that.highest

distancesas sudr. Therefore, theyare superimposed on a high frequency carrier signal by a process

PHYSrcs FoRYOU I

rronunnv'il

4t

Need For Modulation Size of the antenna or aerial : An antenna or aerial is needed, both for transmission and reception. Each antenna should have a size comparable to the wavelength of the signal, (atleast l,/4 in size), so that

=4

(t +frsn.i.^t)ri,',0.r
A

c*(t) = A, sintD.f + pA. sincorf sinor.f

c^(t) = A. sinco.f + pf cos(ol.

@^)t

time variation of the signal is properly sensed by the anterma. For 15 kHz frequenry the length of the antenna is 5000 m which is practically impossible to construct and operate such a long antenna. For 1 MHz frequenry, the length of the antenna is 75 m which is reasonable. Therefore, there is a need of translating the information contained in our original low frequenry baseband signal into high or radio frequencies before transmission.

_trA,
AHere, F =

cos(co. +

a^)t

fr

is ttre modulation index, in practice

p is kept < 1 to avoid distortion. Maximum amplitude, A^o= Ar+ A* Minimum amplifude, A,6,, = A" - A^

Modulation index, p

=+

=ffi
amplitude

Effective power radiated


l-;2

by an

antenna

Theoretical studies reveal that power P radiated from a linear antenna of length I is proportional to (Il))2, i.e., P *

The frequenry spectrum of the


modulated wave is shown in the figure.
A"

[+ | . a, nign powers \I/

are needed

&
The amplitude modulated wave contains three frequencies, viz t)c/ uc + u, and D" - u' The first frequenry is the carrier frequency Thus, the process of modulation does not change the original carrier frequenry but produces two new frequencies (u" + ur) and
(u.

for good transmission, therefore, for given antenna Iength, wavelength l, should be small or frequency u should be high. Thus, this factor also points out to the need of using high frequenry transmission.

When many transmitters are

Mixing up of signals from different transmifters:


tranSmitting they get mixed up and there is no simple way to distinguish between them. The possible solution is, communication at high frequencies and allotting a band of frequencies to each transmitter so that there is no mixing.

baseband information signals simultaneously,

- u,) whidr

are

known

as side

band frequencies.

Ugg=U"tl),

Types of Modulation

Frequenry of lower side band


U19g=t)6-U7 Frequency of higher side band
1Jg53=Us*1J7

Modulation are of three types: o Amplitude modulation o Frequency modulation o Phase modulation
In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of carrier wave is varied in accordance with the amplitude of modulating signal (or message signal).

Bandwidth or amplitude

AMPLITUDE MODULATION

tr tr

Power in AM Wave Power of the carrier wave is

il:Ifi:,t=1l,;

Let

c(f) = A,sinrrr,f represent carrier wave m(t) = A^snrc,f represent modulating signal or message signal

, _A? 2R "- side bands is Total power of the


P^=w'4R
Total power of the AM wave is

where
cr,"=2tutr=

frequenry of carrier wave a*=2filu.= angular frequenry of modulating signal A* A,= amplitude of modulating and carrier waves respectively The amplitude modulated wave is represented as
c^(t) = (A" + A.sinro.f) sinto"f

*g,tla.

o-=4(r*t\ '2R\ 2)
Fraction of total power carried by side bands

pr

Pr=

v2
It2

2+

48

PHYsrcs FoR You | ruanunnv 'i i

Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave

tr

Amplitude modulation can be produced by


shown in the block diagram in the figure below.

tr

variety of methods. One of the simplest methods

for producing amplitude modulated wave is

Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave The block diagram of a detector for AM wave is shown in the figu.re below

AM
wave

o
c(f)

For detection of AM wave, the essential condition


is

_:_<<RC
be be

The amplitude modulated signal cannot transmitted as such. The modulator is to

where u. is the carrier wave frequenry and RC is the time constant of the circuit.
FREQUENCY MODULATION

followed by a power amplifier whidr provides

the necessary power and then the modulated


signal is fed to an antenna o.f appropriate size for radiatisn. The block diagram of a transmitter is shown in figure below

tr In

frequenry modulatiorL the frequenry of the carrier wave varies in accordance with the modulating signal. In frequency modulatior; the
amplitude of the modulated wave is same as that
of the carrier wave.

PULSE MODULATION

tr

The carrier wave is in the form of the pulses. The pulse modulation can be classified as : o Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)

Pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse width modulation (PWM)


Pulse position modulation (PPM).

9 AHHH Iilffi
GHAPTERWISE

AilffiHffi
t*tPr*ft*rsfi fot$$ofr
fi$ai I{rffi#irff If,.ll*trnr'

soluiloNs
***

PHYSICS

Fully Solved Papers Detailed Solutions by Experts

CHEMISTRY

MATHEMATICS
The Essential Resource

for

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Aspiring Engineers Now Made Easy!

ril@

Send DD/MO in favour of MTG Books. Available at all leading bookshops throughout the country.

PHYSICS FORYOU I

rranunnv'rr 49

QUESTTONS FOR PRACTTCE


1.
Carbon, silicon and germanium have four valence electrons each. These are characterised by valence and conduction bands separated by energy band gap respectively equal to (Es)o (E )s1 and (Es)co Which of the following statement is true? (a) (Eg)sr < (Es)c" < (E )c (b) (Eg)c < (Eg)c" > (Eg)si (c) (Eg)c > (Er)si > (Es)c" (d) (Eg)c = (E )sr: (Es)c"

in line-of-sight mode. Then the value of h is


(Given radius of the earth is 6400 km)

(a) (c)

40 m
30 m

@) asm

(d)

25 m

8.

Consider the following statements A and B and identif the correct answer. A. AZener diode is always connected in reverse

Z.

B.

bias.

Current through the ideal diode as shown in


figure is

The potential barrier of. a p-n junction lies between 0.1 to 0.3 V approximately. (a) A and B are correct. (b) A and B are wrong. (c) A is correct, but B is wrong. (d) A is wrong/ but B is correct.

9.
(a) zeto (c)
20

1a

(b)

204
50

(d)

1A

(a) Mobile phone (b) Walkyaalky (c) Loud speaker (d) Radio 10. Audio signal cannot be transmitted because (a) the signal has more noise (b) the signal cannot be amplified for distance
communication

Whith of the following device is full duplex?

The voltage gain of an amplifier with 9% negative feedback is 10. The voltage gain without feedback will be

(c) (d)

the transmitting antenna length is very small

(a)

1.25 (b) 100

(c)

e0

(d)

to design the transmitting antenna length is very large


and impracticable

10

4.

The circuit as shown in figure is equivalent to

, n4--/
(a) NOR gate (c) AND gate (b) OR gate (d) NAND gate
For an amplitude modulated wave, the maximum amplitude is found to be 8 V while the minimum

ll, 12 and, 13 are based on the following passage. Passage 1 : The input and output resistances in a common-base amplifier circuit are 400 Q and 400 kO respectively. The emitter current is 2 mA and current gain is 0.98.
Directions : Question numbers

amplitude is found to be 2 V. What is the


modulation index?

11. The collector current is

(a) (c)

1.84 1.2

mA mA
mA

(b) 1.95 mA (d) 2.04 mA


(b) (d) (b) (d)
0.02 mA 0.04 mA e70 eeo

(a)g

tt)* (c)+ (d)+

12. The base current is (a) 0.01mA

(c)
(a) (c)

0.03 960 980

A forward biased diode is

(a)ov@-zv (b)-4v+-3v (c)sr,#sv (d)-zv@+zv


A transmitting antenna of height 20 m and the
receiving antenria of height h are separated by a distance of 40 km for satisfactorv communication

13. Voltage gain of transistor is

'

14. AZener diode

is specified as having a breakdown voltage of 9.1 V, with a maximum power dissipation

of 364 mW. What is the maximum current the


diode can handle?

(a) (c)

40 50

mA mA

(b) 60 mA (d) 45 mA

50

PHYSICS FOnYOU I reanunnv'rr

15. When we apply reverse bias to a junction diode,

it
(a) lowers the potential barrier (b) raises the potential barrier (c) greatly increases the minority carrier

(a) o.=+

rb) Rc<1
1)

(c) RC<1
20.

(d) nc >> 1

(d) greatly increases the majority carrier


current.
15. The simplified Y output of the given logic circuit is

current

A carrier frequency of 1 MHz and peak value of 10 V is amplitude modulated with a signal frequency of 10 kHz with peak value of 0.5 V.
Then the modulation index and the side band frequencies respectively are (a) 0.05 and 1 + 0.010 MHz (b) 0.5 and 1 t 0.010 MHz (c) 0.05 and l. + 0.005 MHz (d) 0.5 and L t 0.005 MHz

Directions : Question numbers 21-22 contain statement-1 and statement-2. Of the four choices

given, choose the one that best describes the two


statements.

(a) A,B+A.B (c) A.E+A'B


1.7.

@) A.B+A.B @) A.B+A.E

In Boolean algebra @+E).C will be equal to

(a) Statement-lis true, Statement-2 is false. (b) Statement-L is true, Statement-2 is'true; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for (c) Statement-l is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is not a correct explanation for
Statement-l.

(a) 1A.q+e (c) (A'B)'c


18. One way

(b) (A.B)+c (d) (A+B)+C


of.

in which the operation

an n-p-n

Statement-l.

transistor differs from that of a p-n-p transistor is that - (a) the emiter junction is reverse biased in the
n-p-n

(d) Statement-1 is false, Statement'2 is true.


21. Statement-l : Doping of silicon with indium leads to n-type semiconductor. Statement-2 : Indium is a trivalent atom. 22. Statement-l : NOT gate is also called invertor circuit.

O)
(c)

the enrritter injects minority carriers into the base region otthep-n-p and majority carriers in the base region of. the n-P-n the emitter injects holes into the base region of thep-n-p and electrons into the base region of. the n-p'n

Statement-2 : NOT gate inverts the input


order.
23. In the given circuif

(d) the emitter injects electrons into the base region of the p-n-p and holes into the base region of the n-p-n. 19. Given below is the circuit diagram of an AM demodulator. For good demodulation of AM signal of carrier frequency u, the value of RC
should be
24.

the current through the batterY is

(a)

0.s

A (b) 1A

(c)

1's

(d)

In optical communication system operating at 1200 nm, only 2% of the source frequency is
available for TV transmission having abandwidth of 5 MHz. Thdnumber of TV channels that can be transmitted is (b) 10 million (a) 2 million

AM signal

(c) 0.l million

(d) L million

PHYSTCS FORYOU I

rrgRunRv',rr 51

25. The collector supply voltage is 6 V and the voltage drop across a resistor of 600 Cl in the collect6r circuit is 0.5 V, in a transistor connected in common

...

lo=

A
9 100

1,+Ax

emitter mode. If the current gain is 2e the base current is

(a) 0.25 mA (c) 0,12 mA


26. If-both

(b) 0.05 mA

On solving, we get A = 100.


(d)
1t
Bt

(d) 0.02 mA

the length of an antenna and the wavelength

of the signal to be transmitted are doubled, the power radiated by the antenna (a) is doubled (b) is halved (c) remains constant (d) is quadrupled 27. Modem is a device which performs (a) modulation (b) demodulation

Y'= A'B

Y"=A.B=A.B Y=A.B (a) : Here, A^^"= 8 V, A-"


Modulation

(c) rectification (d) modulation and demodulation 28. In a,half wave rectifier ciriuit operating from
SdHzmains frequency, the fundamental frefuenry in the ripple would be

y inde>,; tr = 4-"" -4"i' A-* +A-t,


=2

(a)

(a) 25Hz (c) 70.7 Hz

(b) (d)

50 Hz 100 Hz

p-type semiconduct ot of p-n junction is at higher is at lower potential. It is so for circuit (a).

: A diode is said to be forward biased if

_8V_2V = 6 =3 8V+2V 10 5'

potential and n-type semiconductol of p-n pnJtion

DirecHons : Qirestion numbere2g and 30 are based

is 0.14
1..5

on the following passage. Passage 2 : A block of pure silicon at 300 K has a length of 10 cm and dn area of 1.0 cm2. Abattery of emf 2 V is connected across it. The mobility of electrons

'

1016

m2 V-1 s-l and their number density is m+. The mobility of holes is 0.05 m2 Vr s{.

29. The electron current is (a) 6.72 ' 10aA b) 6.72 x'10-5 A (c) 6.72 x 104 A (d) 6.72 " L0-7A 30. The hole irrrrent is (a) 2.0 x 10-7 A (b) 2.2 x l0-7 A .@) 2.a " L0-7 A (d) 2.6 x'1,0r A
1. 2. 3. (q)

(al

: Here,p-njunction is reverse biased. Therefore, the current flowing p-n junction is zero.

(b): l4/hen the feedback is negative, the voltage


gain is given by
l:lt =

.A

' t+4
9oh

where A is the voltage gain wjthout feedback, p is the feedback factor. Here A. = 10, p =
'=
9

100

52

PHystcsFoRyou I rerRqolv,rt

7.

(b\t dy =,{zmp *,{zt<tt,


where hp and h1 are the heights of receiving and transmitting antenna and R is the radius of the
earth.
40 x 103

Y'= A.B= A+B


Y"

=A.(A+B)=A+(A+B)
=A+(A.B)

= Jzr64mr10u
t(40

,h*.8

"

o+00

"

10'

"

20

Y"'=8.(A+E)=B+(A+r)
=B+(A.B)=B +(A.B)
Y

-_-

A+(A.B)

4o x L03 h 8.

= J2x6400r1.03 x h +16 x 103

'-

- 16) x 10:12

2x5.4x106

= 45 m.

=lA+(A.B)l [B+(A.B)]
=[A+(A'B)]+[B+(A.B)]
=

(c) : AZener diode is always connected in reverse bias when it is used. The potential barrier of germanium p-n junction is 0.3 V and of. Si p-n junction is 0.7 V. So statement A is correct but B is wrong.

=A'(A'B)+B'(A'B)

9.

(a): Duplex or

full duplex

device refers to

the simultaneous transmission of data in two


directions. A mobile phone is a full duplex device as two people can talk at once and hear each other at the sarne time. Walky-talky is a half duplex

=A.B(A+B) = (A+B)(A+B) = A.A+A.n+a.E+s.B =o+A'B + A.B+o f.' A.A=oand B.B =o)


=

--

A.B+ A.B
(A+-B) C= 1a+r; +e (From De Morgant theorem) + e (From De Morgan's theorem) 1Z.B=;

77.

(al,
=

device because only one person can talk at a time, or transmission of data is in one direction only at that time.

=(Z.B)+a
18. (c) 19. (d): For good demodulatioru

10. (d): Audio signals cannot be transmitted

as

such because the length of transmitting antenna requireci would be too large and impracticable.

11 :<<RC or RC>>-

ut)

11. (b): Here, R,'= 400 O, R, = 400 kCl a = 0.9g, Ir = 2 mA= 2 x 10-3 A
(I,

= 400

"

103 Q

20.

(a) : Modulation index, P =


0.5 V u---u.us ' 10v

12
Ac

= --!-

Ir',1 L ..!:

i{[a

"\

Ic = aIr'=.0.98L, 2 " 10-3 A = 1..96'10-3 A = 1.96 mA.

The side bands frequencies are u53 = ua i D, = 1 t 0.010 MHz ('.' u, = 10 kHz = 0.010 MHz)

12. (d): Ir= ls+ Ic


Is = Js,-',.Ia.= 2 mA

1.96 mA

21. (d): Indium is trivalent. Doping of silicon with.indium leads to the formation of p-type
0.04

mA

semiconductor.

13. (c) , A,, 14.

= = "&400o.9g r
.

q'&

4oo

"

103

= 9go

22. (}l: A NOT gate puts the input condition in the


opposite order, means for high input it gives low output and for low input it gives high output. For this reason NOT gate is known as invertor cfucuit.

(a) : Th9 maxilngm permissible current is

. P 364x7na ta =-=--------ry-=40 mA. 4max


VZ
9.1,

23.

biased, so it

15. (b): When. we apply reverse bias to a junction


diode it raises the potential barrier. '16. (a)
:

In the given circuit, diode D1 is reverse will not conduct. Diodes D2 and Ds are forward biased, so they will conduct. The
(c) :

corresponding equivalent circuit is as shown in the figure.

PHYSICS FORYOU I

reOnUlnv',rr 53

The equivalbnt resistance of the circuit is _(5+5)x20. 10X20 200 Z0 ^

o 'bq-FJilId=io;t6

30
/
=

=T$

remains constant.

/ and the wavelength of the signal l, are doubled, the power radiated by' the antenna

a*.*.,.n*wh..the blttev,

#*
tt

= r.s

27.

(d) : Modem is a device whictr performs modulation and demodulation of the signal.

24. (dl: Optical source frequency

or

n= 3xLosms-l =)5ytgl{H,
1200 x 10-e

o=$

ia.

Gl , Since the outpur .rrotiugu obtained in

a,

Bandwidth of drannel=2% of the source frequency

half-wave rectifier circuit has single variation in one rycle of ac voltage, hence the fundamental frequency in the ripple of output voltage would be 50 Hz.

Total bandwidth. No. of channels = Bandwidth needed per channel

#r

2.sx't01a Hz=5 x1012Hz

29. (d):

f=Y==',U ,Ou^-, I 0.1m


m2
s-1

A = 1.0 cm2 = 1.0 x 10a


a"

tlz 10o = 1 million' 5"10eH, =


x'!.012

= VeE= 0.14 x 20 : 2.g m The electron current is

25. (b): The collector current is given by

I, =

n"Aev,

- v. -'-': f.='. - 0.5v =LX10-3A=1mA ' & 600cl


Ic
20

= (1.5 x 1016) x (1.0 x lQr) x (1.d x 16_rr; x 2.9 = 6.72 x 10-7 A 30. (c) : ln a pure semiconductor,

o_ ,IB

- I. --=0.05mA lp=--e=lmA "p


25. (c) : Power radiated by the antenna is proportional

= frh = 1.5 x 1016 m-3 an= $nE = 0.05 x 20 = 1,.0 m The hole current is
fle

s-1 ..

In = nnAean

"

(*l

When both the length of the antenna

= (1.5 x 1016) x (1.0 x = 2.4 x 10-7 A

lQ{) x (1.5 x t6_rs; ,

1.0

oo

54

PHYS|CS FORyOU I

rrrhUlnv,rr

Foundati
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3.

P, Q and R are long straight wires in air, carrying currents as shown in the figure. The force on Q

is directed

l.

A conductor is bent in the form of concentric


semicircles as shown in the figure. The magnetic field at the point O is

,{
(b) to the right (a) to the left (c) perpendic;ular to the plane of the diagram (d) along the current in,Q. A uniform electric field E in the y-direction and
uniform magngtic field F in the r-direction exists in free space. A particle of mass m and carrying charge 4 is projected from the origin with speed as along the y axis. The speed of the particle as a function of its y coordinate will be

(a)
at a rate of o.rotiitions per second, the magnetic

field at a poinf;on the axis at a large distance y


from the centre is

(C)

(")

(c)4
4rcy"

Se

@+
1a; For3rll'
2rcyt

When a positively charged particle enters into a uniform-magnetic field with uniform velocity, its trajectory can be (i) a'straight line (il) a'circle

W Fry

oF-@
(d)
oo

(iii)

(a) (i) only .."."., .S[ .(i) or (ii) (c) (i) or (iii) l::;lj.. {:'l'';' '1 (d) any one oF'(t)l'(ii) ana'(iii) "
PHYsrcg,FgRYou I reenumv'rr 55

a helix.

6.

The figure below depicts a long wire carrying a current coming out of the plane of the paper. A charge 4 at a distance r from it is moving towards it with speed a and experiences a magnetic force of magnitude F. If the distance of the charge from the wire is 2r (and all other conditions rernaining the same), then the force would be

72. When a charged particle moving with velocity D is subjected to a magnetic field E, the force on it

is non-zero. This implies that (a) angle between is either zero br 180o (b) angle between is necessarily 90o

(c) (d)

angle between can have any value other than


900

o
(a)
7.

K_r

___-+l

T'q

angle between can have any value other than

zero and

180o.

(b)

2F

(.1 I '2

(d)

I
4

13.

A straight horizontal conducting rod of length


two vertical wires at its e4ds. A current of 5.0 A is set up in the rod through the wires. What magnetic field should be set up normal to the conductor in order that the tension in the wires is zero?
50 cm and mass 50 g is suspended by

A coil of n number of turns is wound tightly in the form of a spiral with inner and outer radii a
and b respectively. When a current of strength I is passed through the coil, the magnetic field at

its centre is

@)

(Takeg=10ms-2)

(a)
8.

0.05

(b)

0.1 T

(c)

0.2

(d)

0.5 T

(c)ry

#bs,t

(b)

Po

ttl

2Q-a\

An electron is revolving around a proton in a circular path of diameter 0.1 nm. It produces a magnetic field 14 tesla at a proton. Then the
angular speed of the electron is

"t4. A solenoid of 0.4 m length with 500 turns carries a current of 3 A. A coil of 10 turns and of radius

#'s,l
3n2
12n2

0.01 m carries a current of 0.4 A. The torque

(a) (c)
9.

8.8

1016

rad

2.2 x 1016 rad

s-l b)

4.4 x 1016 rad s-1

s-1 (d) 1.1 x 1015 rad s-1


15.

it is

required to hold the coil with its axis at right angle to that of solenoid in the middle point of

A square frame of side L m carries a current 1,


produces a magnetic field B at its centre. The same current is passed through a circular coil having the same perimeter as the square. The magnetic

(a) 6n2 x L0-7 N m (c) 9n2 x 10-7 N m

(b) (d)

x 10-z N m x 10-7 N m

field at the centre of the circular coii is 8,. The ratio B/B'is t6 8

(a) -'t n'


10. Two

o)+ 7t-

(c)

+ rt'

(d)w

A galvanometer having a coil resistance of 60 e shows full scale deflection, I4trhen,a current of 1.0 A passes through it. It carr be converted into an ammeter to read current;t*pto,5.0 A by (a) putting in series a resistahee;oJ 15 e (b) putting in series a resistance of.240 A (c) putting in parallel a re$istance, of 15 e (d) putting in parallel a resisthnce of 240 e
along the positive z-direction:A rectangular loop

flat circular coils have a common center, but their planes are at right angles to each other. The inner coil has 150 turns and radius of n cm. The outer coil has 400 tums and a radius of 2n cm. The magnitude of the resultant magnetic field at the common centers of the coils when a current of 200 mA is sent through each of them is (a) tO-g Vy'b m-2 (b) 2 x L0-3 Wb m-2 (c) 5 T 10-a y,r5 ttr-z @) 7 x 10-3 Wb m-2

t6. Auniform magnetic field of fbbO G is established of sides L0 cm and 5 cm carries a current of 12 A. What is the torque on the loop as shown in the figure?

11.

A protory a deutron and an a particle enter a magnetic field perpendicular to field with same
velocity. What is the ratio of the radii of circular
paths?

(a) 7:2:2 (c) 1:1:2

(b) 2:7 :1, (d) t :2 :1.


rtenunnv'rr

56

PHYSICS FORYOU I

(b) i.8 x 10-2 N m (d) 1.8 x 10aN m 17. Two charged particles A and B having the same
(a) Zero N m (c) 1.8 x 10-3N m
charge, mass and speed enter into a magnetic field

22, A circular coil of 16 tums and radius 10 cur carrying a current of 1 A rests with its plane normal to an extemal field of rnagnitude 5.0 x 10-2 T. The

in such

a way that the initial path of A makes an angle of 30o and that of B makes an angle of 90o

with the field. Then the trajectory of

(a)

will have smaller radius of curvature than

that of A

coil is free,to turn about an axis in its plane perpendicular to the'field direction. When the coil is turned slightly and released, it oscillates about its stable equilibrium with a frequenry of 2.0 s-1. \A/hat is the moment of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation?

(b) both will have the same curvature (c) A will have smaller radius of curvature than
that of
(d) both
B

(a)

I x to{ kg *2 fi
kg m2
TE

@ 1"10+
(d)
n

kg m2

move along the direction of their velocities. original

will

(c) 1x to{
23.

19 x 10a kg m2

18. A closed loop lying in the ry plane carries a current. If a uniform magnetic field B is present

in the region, the net force acting on'the loop will be zero if B is in (b) the y-direction (a) the r-direction
(c) the z-direction

A magnetic dipole is under the influence of two magnetic fields. The angle between the field directions is 60o and one of the fields has a magnitude of '1,.2 x 10-2 Tr If the dipole comes
to stable equilibrium at an angle of tS'with this field, what is the magnitude of the other field?

(d) any of the above directions.

(a) 3(J5 - r)x ro-3 r (b) (J3 - r)x roa r (c) e(Ja . r)xro-3 r (d) 2(J3 - r)xro-3 r
24. The radius of the coil of a tangent galvanometer which has 10 tums is 0.1 m. The current required to produce a deflection of 60o is

19. A vibrdtiein:rhagnetometer placed in magnetic meridian,lra a small bar magnet. The magnet executes.'osdillations with a time period of 2 s in earth's h6rtiei,idtal magnetic field of 24'microtesla.

(Bn=4x10-5T) (a) 3A (b) 1.1A

(c)

2.1

(d)

2.6

25. Th6 magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic material at - 73"C is 0.0075. Its value at -173oC

'

(d) a s (c) 3 s (a) 1.s,,,(FJi2 t 20. The magnetic induction and the intensity of mag.neticfield indide an iron core of an electrornlagnet',are 1 Wb m-2 and 150 A m-l
respectively. The relative permeability of iron is (po = 4n x L0-7 henry m-1)

When a;hsf*Sontal field of 18 microtesla is produced upposite to the earth'sfield by placing a current'trrlgring wire, the new time period of magnet'will'be'

will be (b) 0.0030 (a) 0.0045 (d) 0.007s (c) 0.015 25. A steel wire of length I has a magnetic moment M. It is then bent into a semicircular arc. The
new magnetic moment is

(u)M

b)ry G)+

(d)Mxr

The angle of dip at a certain place where the


horizontal and vertical components of the earth's magnetic field are equal is (c) 60' (d) 45' (a) 30" (b) 75'
28. The magnetic needle of

(a)

tt'

418

ru) 61T (.) +IE (d)

4
OTE

avibration magnetometer

21. A bar magnet of magnetic moment 1.5 J T-1 lies aligned withthe direction of a uniform magnetic field of 1 T. What is the amount of work required by an external torque to tum the magnet so as to align its magnetic moment, opposite to the field direction?

makes 12 oscillations per minute in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field. When an

eiternal short bar'magnet is placed at some


distance along the axis of the needle in the same line, it makes 15 oscillations per minute. If the poles of the bar magnet are interchanged, the number of oscillations it makes per minute is

(a)

2I

(b)

3I

(c) 4l

(d) 5J

(a)

Jd

(b)

JA

(c)

.65 @ J67

PHYSlcs FoRYOU I

rtanunnv'tt 57

34. A series LCR circuit is connected to an ac source of variable frequency. When the irequency is
Year No. of ques.
_L_

2010

2009
3

2008
3

2007
3

2006 4

Pre. I Mains

311

increased continuously, starting from a small value, the power factor (a) goes on increasing continuously (b) goes on decreasing continuously

29. A capacitor and a coil in series are connected


to a 6 volt AC source; By varying the frequenry of the source, maximum current of 500 mA is observed. If the same coil is now connected to a cell of emf 5 V and intemal resistance of.2 {1, the current through it will be
35.

(c) becomes maximum at a particular


frequency

(d) remains constant The flux linked with a coil at any instant f is
given by

(a)

0.5

A (b) 0.5 A (c) 1.0 A

0=10t2-50f+250
Then induced emf at f = 3 s is

(d)

2.0

A
35.

30. In the circuit shown, the voltage


capacitor C

V1, across

(a) -

10

V (b) 10 V

(c)

190

(d) -1e0 V

A small square loop of wire of side / is placed inside a large square loop of wire of side L (>> t).
The loops are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the mutual inductance of the system?

T
(a) is in phase with the source voltage V (b) leads the source voltage V by 90" (c) leads the source voltage Vby an angle between
and 90o (d) lags behind the source voltage Vby an angle between 0o and 90o
0o 31.

(a) zJ-zbll nL
(c)
37.

sJ-z-gL

zAbt 2nL

(d) none of these

A rectangular, a square, a circular and an elliptical loop all in r-y plane are moving out of a uniform magnetic field with a constant velocity O ai,The = magnetic field is directed along,the negative z-axis

When a dc voltage of 200 V is applied to'a coil of self inductan ce (ZJS I n) H, a current of 1 A flows through it. But by replacing dc source with ac source of.200Y, the current in the coil is reduced to 0.5 A. Then the frequency of ac supply is

(a) 100 Hz (c) 60 Hz


;=

@) 75Hz
is

direction. The induced emf during the passage of these loops, out of the field region will not remain constant for (a) any of four loops (b) the rectangular, circular arud.elliptical loops (c) circular and elliptical loops (d) only the elliptical loop
38.

(d) 50 Hz

The inductance between

and D as shown in

32. In an AC circuit, the current


ssin(roor

figure is

- i) "*o"te and the potential

(c) 1000 watt , (d) zero watt 33. A conducting circular loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field, B = 0.025 T with its
plane perpendicular to the loop. The radius of the loop is made to shrink at a constant rate of 1 mm s-1. The induced emf when the radius is
2 cm, is

difference is I/= 200sin(100f) volt. Then the power consumed is (a) 200 watt (b) 500 watt

(b) e H (c) 0.55 H (d) O.ee H 39. A metal rod of resistance 20 Q is fixed along a diameter of a conduting ring of radius 0.L m

(a)

and lies

(a) 2a pV

(b) n pV (d)
2 pV

o x-y plane. There is a magnetic field B = (50 f) I. fne ring rotates with an angular

(c)

I u,

velocity ot = 20 radrs-1 about its axis. An extemal resistance of 10 Qiis corurected across the centre

58

PHYSICS FORYoU I reenunnv'rr

of the ring and rim. The current through external resistance is (d) zero (a) rul " \-/

("); tu); (c);

(d)t

\*,f 1e 2'-

A coil has 1000 turns and 500 cm2 as its area'


The plane of the coil is placed perpendicular.to u rrrrifor- magnetic field of 2 x L0-s T' The coil is rotated through 180" in 0.2 seconds' The average

1e r.l 1e 4 3-

emf induced in the coil, in mV is

(a)

(b)

10

(c) 15

(d)

20

45. The instantaneous magnitudes of the electric field (E) and the magnetic field (B) vectors in an
electromagnetic wave propagating in vacuum are

47. In the series LCR circuit as shown

in the figure,

related as

the voltmeter V and ammeter A readings are

(u) E= L

(b) E=cB (d)


E=
c2B

(c) E=
to

+ cExB

46. The velocity of electromagnetic wave is parallel

(a) BxE (b)


100

(c)

(d)B

(a) Y=100V

42. A transformer is used to light a 100 W and 110 V larnp from a 220 V mains' If the main
current is 0.5 A, the efficiency of the transformer is approximatelY

I=2A (b) Y=100Y {=sA v=4oov I=2A (d) Y=3ooY, I=24 i.i

50

Hz

47. Which of the following statement is false for the properties of electromagnetic waves?
(a) 'Both

(b) The energy in electromagnetic- wave is

electric and magnetic field vectors attain the maxima and minima at the same place and same time.

(a)

50% (b) e0%

(c) 10% (d)

30%

When an ac source of emf s = essinlOOf is connected across a circuit, the phase difference between the

divided equhily between electric and magnetic vectors' (c) Both electric and magnetic field vectors are parallel to each other and perpendicular to ihe direction of propagation of wave' (d) These waves do not require any material

emf e and current I in the circuit is observed to be nl4, as shown in figure. If the circuit consists possibly only of R-C or R-L or L-C in series, find possible values of two elements.

medium for ProPagation. 48. Apoint source of ilectromagnglg r1$iation has an urr"tag" Power output of 1500 W' The-maximum .ralue"of-electric fiild at a distance of 3 m from this source in V m-1 is

t
t (g

(a)

500 (b) 100

iuT (ol+

49. The electric field part of an electromagnetic wave in a medium is rePresented bY

Er=

0;

r, =2.5|co, l(t
(a) R=1ka,C=10PF (b) R = 1. ksl, c:1 pF (c) R:1 kQ, L: 10 mH (d) R:10 kQ, L = 10 mH
Ez

=0'

to'#)'], "o'+)t - (',

The wave is

An inductance of 3
10-'F
^fi

200

mH, a capacitance of

und a resistance of 10 Q are connected n in'series with an AC source of 220Y,50 Hz' The phase angle of the circuit is

(a) moving along the + r direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 100 m(b) moving along + x direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m' (c) moving along - r direction with frequency 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m' (d) moving along + y direction witti frequency 2n x 106 Hz and wavelength 200 m'
PHY5|CS FORYOU I

rtrnunnv'tt 59

50. Radiations of intensity 0.5 W m-2 are striking


metal plate. The pressure on the plate is (a) 0.156 x 10+ N m-2 (b) 0.332 x 10+ N m-2 (c) 0.111 x 10+ N m-2 (d) 0.083 x 10{ N m-2

Both due to 20 A (P) as well as 60 A (Q), the force on Q is towards left.

(a):

Here,

E=Ei; B=Bi; O=aoi

L.

(b)

r Magneticfieldatthecentreof asemicircular cu(rent carrying conductor is given by


,-PsIn-PsI

The Lorentz force acting on a charged particle of charge 4 and mass ln is

F=s(E+a xB)
= = i.Ar=!arrd,

q(ri *osirn?)
q(ri -,ont)
....(i)
4VoB

Arw

4a

where a is the radius of the first semicircle. The current in all the semicircles is the same but its
sense is alternately opposite (l.e. anticlockwise
Ist semicircle

aE

in

and clockwise in II"d semicircle and


1.

so on) and the radii are in the proportion

8:

:2: 4:

ar=dvo

...(ii)

L5:.........

From equation (i), we get

Net magnetic field at the point O is

B=trollt - 1 * 1 - 1 + 1 - 1 *. 4aL 2 4 8 1.6 32

........] J

dtm
dr,
Ay

_qE

=#(' .1.
-*

=#f['.].i- )-(;. ].*;


_t'otl( 1 )_f 1/2 )l
Ll.'-

+. )- (;. *. #- )
)l

dydt -qr m aEilu zJrdau= t-tm

Integrate both sides of the above equatiory we get

"{,ro,r=!#
uu -uO

i,l
6,

l.'-

iJJ

2aEv

(By using geometric progression formula)

=#[(3)
_pot (2)

(3)]
5.
7.

0y=

2qEv m

- k\i)2.

_ por

(d)
(c)

6.

(c)

(a) : Current in the rod,.

1=p=2nrlot (1/ u)
. v'ftr

...(i)

: Here, / = 50 cm = 50 x L0-2 m m = 50 8 = 50 x 10-3 kg; I = 5.0 A Tension in the wires is zero, if the force on the
rod due to magnetic field is equal and opposite to the weight of the rod.

Magnetic field at a point on the axis at a distance y from the centre of current carrying circular rod is 2nlr2 o * Fo

i.e., mg :'BII o D -m8


--

G'
B =Folr-T

il

Substituting the given values, we get

If y >> r, then

, _50x10-3x10=0.27
5x50x10-z

2y"

L
(Using (i))

=Po'! (2m?,t)
2y"

(b) : Here 2r = 0.1. nm/ r = 0.05 nm r = 0.05 x 10-e m = 5 x

10-11

B=747

Current due to motion of electron is


3.

(a): Parallel currents attract and antiparallel


currents repel.

_e.ea

T2r

(.,=?J

50

PHYSICS FOR YOU I reonuanv'r r

Magnetic field at a proton is

& -$o 2n (ero\= Fo ero 4Ttr 4nrlZn) 4nr or r=a[1n)tt


B=
2nI
-

N,

For coil 2 (In vertical plane) = 400, Rz=2n cm = 2n x 10-2 m Iz=200 mA= 200' 10-3A

Magnetic field at the common centre O due to current in coil 1 is

IuoJ e 1 v_ 5 x 10-11 t4v--'' 10_7 1.6xt0_1e


L019

& =Ig N{r2n ' 4n

Rl

FoNr/r
2R1

(d): =

4.4x

rad

s-1.

1.6

ZRz Resultant magnetic field at O is


B= JB?r*

Magnetic field at O due to current in coil 2 is Nzlz2n FoNzIz B, - [o

' 4n R2 -

('.' rrisr- to nr)

1m
1m

'1m
Refer figure,

tan 45'=

9l
OF

OF=CF=

t*
2

4nxl}r =
11.

x200 x 10-3 x 10 x 25

The magnetic field at the centre O of the square frame is


B=

Zx rcxl}-z
10-3 Wb m-2 (a) : V/hen a charged particle of charge and 4 with velocity o perpendicular to magnetic field B, it follows a circular path whose radius is given by
mass m enters
ma m
Ba

b, l-

[rir,+S. an\1.12)L + sin45"-lI x 4 =l&-16J

MJZ

\Alhen the frame is taken as circular coil of radius r,

then

2nr=4

Or

,=2

- -q

for the same value of o and


rY-L- tmo-

B.

The magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil carrying same current l is

:,

ro i rd : ro

B,_lro

B .'. -= 1.6 B' Jz n2


10. (a)
:

_po 2nI _l!9nzl 4n r 4n (2ln) 4n"


2nI

=flP 'qp4a?a

where subscripts p, d, and. q represent protoo deutron and a particle respectively. rp:rd

m2m4m ira=;,; tE
='1.:2:2

12. (d) : Force acting on a charged particle moving with velocity d is subjected to magnetic field E

is given by
F = q(Ax B) or, p

(ii)
For coil 1. (In horizontal plane) N1 = 150, Rr = n cm = r x 10-2 m 1r = 200 mA = 200 10-3 A "

(i)

= qaBsin} When0 =0o,F=qoBsin0"=0


When 0 = 90o, F = qoBsrn9}" = qaB
=0

(iii) When 0 = 180o, F = 4aBsin180o

This implies, force acting on a charged particle is non-zero, when angle between d and B can have

any value other than zero and 180o.


FORyOU I

PHYSTCS

rrenumv'rr 51

13. (d)

til = tzx

5o x 1o+

=5oo x

roal
.^\

Torque acting on the loop is

i=titxB

= 6oox1o{ [x(tooo* 1,04i)

, A

=zeroNm
17. (a) : Use 4oBsin0
r
Consider an element of thickness dr at a distance r from the centre of spiral coil. Number of turns in spiral = n Number of turns per unit thickness

(...i"i

=o)

*" =
B

*4 sin0
1,

for the same values of m, a, q and


sin3Oo

...
18. (d)

rA _ sin9Oo _

ft=

rp

"
1 t4
T of oscillation of a magnet

Zrn

or

19

Number of turns in element dr is,

&-d
ndr

19. (d) : The time period


is given by

=b-a Magnetic field at its centre O due to current in


6ln

element dr is

where,

T -2n.1

\ wn

ft'

dB =vo2ndnl

21 2r\b-a) 4n r =N-6=W(4) tr^I n dr =:-sX 2 @-a) r


by

I = Moment of inertia of the magnet about the axis of rotation M = Magnetic moment of the magnet
As the

B: Uniform magnetic filed l and M remain the same

Total magnetic field at centre O due to current

-Xthrough the whole coil is . p pohar PoIn dr

-b1 Jz@-a)r

2(b-a)t

'lB T1 llBz According to given problem, h=24ttl

.'.

Ic-OI-=

1T"E

i-

14.

voln r^, fl) =2(b d--"'\a)' (a): B forsolenoi4= '|u '|ux19x3 ltnnl=Pn 0.4
Magnetic morrient of the coil = I x A x N

Bz=24pT-18pT = 6pT Tt=2s

t.

Tz=(2t)il6uT
=4s

En:t
m-\ H=
150

M=0.4xpx
r = BMsin90'

(0.01)2x10

20. (b) : Here, B

1 Wb

Am-l

B = Volt,H

:. r=4nx10-7
15. (c)

x500 x 3x0.4xnx(o.ot)2
0.4

xto
21. (b)

u--- B
n'
=

FoH

= 6n2 x10-7 N m

: A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter of given range by connecting a shunt of suitable resistance S (in parallel) across the
galvanometer.

: The amount of work done by the external torque is given by


0"

Zn,

roTtso = ?7

105

W -15

f r.*rd}
01

Then s = !-t "=


16.

I-Ir =ry= 5-1

a in parallel

0.

(a): Here, E=roooic=roooxror


A = 10 cm x 5 cm = 50 cmz= 50

lr

'01

= f mn sinodo = MB(cosor -

cos02)

10a m2

I=t2 A
Magnetic moment of the loop is

Here, 01 = 0o; 0z = 180o; M = 1'.5J f1; B = 1 T Substituting the given values, we get 1,lg = (1.5 I Tr) (i T) [coso. - cos180.]

=3I

62

PHYsrcs FoRYou I rranunRv'rr

(a) : Here

Magnetic moment of the coil,

' \ffi Asu=nl7or or "MB D'=.7 4it'I .MB l=-

i=lAiu=2s-1 'M=Ninrz

N = 16; r = 10 cm = 0'1 m; B = 5 x 10-27


...(i)

Here, r = 0.1 m;N = 10, 0 = 50o, Bn= 4 x 10-s T In case of a tangent galvanometer

(!)

1=2'8, t*re
NFo

Substituting the given values, we get

where / is the moment of inertia of the coil about its axis of rotation

l- 2x0.1x4x10-s
10

x 4nx10a

tan 60o

.l=7.14
(Using (i))

4iE'1)'

Ninr2B =w

(c): Here, Xq=0.0075; Tt r - 73"C = (- 73 + 273) K= 200 K Tz = - L73"C = (-173 + 273) K=

=R

Ni12B

As x*, =!= # T2 1oc


xmi.

=' (. r* * +)
..'(i)

100 K

Substituting the given values, we get

L6xLx(0.1)2x5x1.0-2

26. (b)

xm2=27*r= 2 x 0'0075 = 0'015 Magnetic moment of a wire of length I is

4xnx2'
=9x1oakgm2 n
23. (c)
:

M--mI
a-

where m is the strength of each pole.

When the wire is bent


into
a

semicircle of radius

r, then l" l:nr ot r=TC

t+-Zr#l

Now, the distance between two Poles

-Zr-!
TE

Its new magnetic moment is


Here, 0 = 60"; Bt = L.2 x 10-2 T 0r = 15"; 0z = 60o - L$o = 45o. In equilibrium, torques due to two fields must
balance

M'
27.

mxvr

*rI IE=2;{^rD =2!


TE

(Using(i))

xt=12
MB1 sin01 = MBzsin$z.

(d): tan6 =+=pr=t (': B, =Bu(Given)

.'.

6 = 45o
case,

D_.:

B"

sin02
sin45o
1.2 x 10-2

sin0'

1.2 x L0-2

sinl'S' sin45'

2g. (b): In first

_ t.z x to-2 sin(+s'-go')

1, @; \=E{f

...(i)

(sin45'cos30'- cos45'sin30')
sin 45q

where Bs is the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field

In second
1

case,

=1.2x10-2 [cos30'

sin30"]

=72x70_2tf
=6(J5- r)xro-3

;)

'2n
magnet
PHYSICS FoRYOu I

...(ii)

where B is the magnetic field due to external

rranunnv'tt 53

In the third
t)a=1

case,

"2n
IBH+B

...(iii)

or (r^,
or
32. (d) : Here,
r

+)'

= (+oo)r- (2oo)2=2oo x ooo

Divide (ii) and (i), we get

4.\6u = 2rE x 100 or u = 50 Hz.


= ssinfroor

_ [-{
x2

t2 !
41 25,
g=

,s=f,Ba

B"

1') \2) - o

V = 200sin 1ioo4 v .'. Phase difference between V and i is d=-

[-z
Ba
B BH

.n
=

Power consumed, P =

V*" lr
zero W

-=l+16

V*, i*,

cos9Oo =

"

cosQ

! = BH t6
u3_

33. (b)
...(iv)

Here,

Divide (iii) by (i), we get

/E[-r .t -{ B"
(Using iv)

field B = 0.025 T Radius of the loop, r = 2 cm= 2 x L0-2 m Constant rate at which radius of the loop
Magnetic

shrinks, 4=t*10-3ms-l 'dt


Magnetic flux linked with the loop is
0 = Bz{cos0 =.B(n'2)cosl = Bnr2 The magnitude of the induced emf is

DaO -=124
xs=g,lV vibs/min =J63 vibs/min
29. (a) : The maximum curent is obtained at resonance where the net impedance is only resistive which is the resistance of the coil only. This gives the resistance of the coil as 10 Q. Now, this coil along

H=4 =!Gn\=Bnzr!! dt dt dt
= 0.025

xnx2x2xI0-2 x 1x 10-3

34. (c) : Power factor becomes equal to one at the


resonant frequency.

=rx10{V=npV
-

with the internal resistance of the cell gives a


current of 0.5 A.
30.

35. (a) : Here, 0 = t$t'


The induced

50t + 250

(d)

The phase diagram is as shown

in

the

figure.

r-

vc=vr

= _(20f_50) At t = 3 r = - (20 x 3-5b) :- 10 V. (a) : Let the current I be flowing in the larger 35.
loop.

46 -dr ir =: Il0t2 _ 50f + 250) dt dt'

emf is

F-L_-_+ <-l-+
31. (d)

:
ll h

Resistance of coil,

withacsource,
nf

I=.$ 200 n/n'z + xl t/n'?+ xl

tloru

tA

= 200 Cl

E
i2
I

The larger loop is made up of four wires each of length L, the field at the centre i.e., at a distance

or

R2 +

(2nrL)z = (400)2

from each wire, will be

64

PHYSICS FORYOU I reenunnv,rr

B=4x r l9t,=. (sin45'+sin45') 4n(Ll2)'

40. (b) :When the plane of a coil is perpendicular to the field, the flux linked with the coil is
When the coil is turned through 180o, the flux linked with the coil is
Q2

=4x b 4nL'lZ

2t 2==zJt!g! nL

Q1= NBAcosO'= NBA

Flux linked with smaller looP

Qz=BSz=2,11lfj-lxP
Hence,
37.

.'. Change in

*=+' - ,=rJrbl
44
is constant' But in case

flu& AQ = Qz - 0r = -NBA-NBA = -aNBA l^0l = 2NBA

NBAcoslS0o = - NBA ("' cos180' =

1)

(c):

lel

=#=t#
changes.

Magnitude of average induced is

Now as the square loop and rectangular looP move out of magnetic field,

r" r= lAQl -zNBA I'av I


Lt
At

2 x1000 x

2x 10-s x 500x 10{


0.2

of circular and ellipticai toop",

ff

Therefore, le I does not remain constant. 38. (a) : The three coils are in parallel.

41. (a) : As V1 =

=10x10-3V=10mV Vc t. Xr= Xc

1 1 1 111L. "LpLtLzLt333 -I-=-+-+-= -=-f or Lp = lH


.

The circuit is resonance circuit.

Current. 1= 199 = 26 '50

39.

(b) :Here, resistance of rod = 20 {2, r = 0.1 m,


B = 50 T along z-axis;

As V= rlvrt+(vy-Vdz

--;-h

= 20 rad s-1.

Potential difference between centre of the ring and the rim is


V

.'.

100

lVi+O

=VR orVn = 100 V

=LBar2 =1x50x20x(0.1)2 =5V .t,


A
10s)

Hence, the reading of the voltmeter V is 100 V and the reading of arhmeter A is 2 A.

The equivalent circuitof the arrangement is shown

in figures.

42. (b): Given : Output power/ P = 100 W Voltage acrobs primary, Vp = 220 Y Current in the primaY, Ip = 0.5 A
Efficienryof atransformer n' =

jl#
lnput power

100 %

P xloo%- 1oo x 1oo% =90"/o. - VpIp 220 x0.5


43. (a) : Figure' given in the question shows that current I leads the emf e by a phase angle n/4.
Therefore, the circuit can be R-C circuit alone'

tand= '

10r} 10f,l

x' Rn1 tan-=4 oCR t= 1

toCR

(''.=#)
...(i)

roCR

From e = so sin100f, we get


ol = 100 rad s-1

11721 :-:+i=-=!orRp RP1010105

=5Q

.'. CR= 1=

100

(Using (i))

Current through extemal resistance,

- =- R+r=-=10+5 3

_E51 I

WhenR=1kA=il3Q

A-

C=+=10-5F=10pF
10r
PHYSICS FOR YOU I i'rOnUnnv ',t

1_

55

44. (b) : Here,

L=ry*" nnft
F, R =

2oo x 1o-3

n = 93 H

,=

c |eorfr or

Eo =

c=

1Q-u
1E

ro e,

Substituting the given values, we get

l#Jt,'
r

V^"=220Vu=50H2
The inductive reactance is

tr=[
zn(s)2

1500

Xt =

The capacitive reactance

-x.=+=+= n ' roC 2ntC


$='4

^L=2n'vL=2nx50'

is

,V= n

29

g
49. (b)
Ev =

xll t +"x e x roe)] x s x 1od l'''


0,

= 100 V m-l

Giveru

E*:

2n x 50 x 10-3

==Loe

2.s

tan6=(x.-x.)-20-10-1 R10 .1E


45. (b) : At every instant the ratio of the magnitude of
the eleckic field to that of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave equals the speed of light.

E'=0'

I *,[(* ",ou a), - (" "r'*)1],

This shows that the wave is propagating along + x direction.

Comparing the given equation with E, = Eecos(cof - kx), we get


a = 2nx
106

or 2tw = 2nx
?t

106 or u = 106 Hz

45. (b)
47. (c): In an electromagnetic wave both electric and magnetic vectors are perpendicular to each other as well as perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave. 48. (b) : Average intensity of electromagnetic waves
is

and k= nx1.0-2 or
n

k=4=nx10-2

^2n or I=-_=200m
x10-'
50. (a)

, p =!= c

o'5

3x108

= 0.1,66

L0-8

m-2

oo

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66

PHYSTCS FOR

yOU rranuanv I

,r

ff
ffi
Passage 1
4.

It is observed that good conductors of heat are also


good conductors of electricity.

If the resistance of a 1 m length of a given wire is 8.13 " 10-3 Q, and it carried a current 1 A" the
electric field is

In fact, the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat conductivity is almost a constant. At very low
temperatures, this relation is not accurate. As the kinetic theory of gases was already developed, this was extended by Lorentz to electrical conduction
also.
5.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

8.13 " 1.0-3 V 8.13 x lQ-3

greater than 8.13 x lQ-3 ! rn-1 less than 8.13 x 10-3 V m-1

! p-l

However the calculated value of o*" according to the kinetic theory of gas was muchhigher when compared to that of an electrpn. However broad comparison of methods still holds.

1.

The formula for the value of

t;; IJ'(I -\ *'

o*"

of gas molecules
6.

The drift velocity is very small; but it is found that as soon as one switChes on the lights at home, the bulb immediately glows. This is because (a) the electrons travel very fast. (b) the electric field travels very fast. (c) this depends on the circuit. (d) none of these. The resistivity of a metal normally

By the same analogy, the value of the drift velocity of the electron at the same temperature is (a) equal to that of the gas molecule (b) more than that of the gas molecule, as the mass of the electron is much smaller than that of the gas molecule (c). because electrons flow the same law (d) none of these

(a)
@)

(c) (d)

increases with temperature decreases with temperature does not change none of these

The resistivity for mercury, hafnium and certain

other alloys falls below zero for very low


temperatures. They are called (a) semiconductors (b) super conductors (c) any normal conductor behaves like this (d) none of these
Passage 2

2,

As the electron is making constant collision at the average interval of time t, the acceleration is only for the time t when due to collision it loses its velocity and again starts from zeio. The value of drift velocity is (a) proportional to the potential difference.

Every electrical circuit, d.c. or a.c., has three important

components.

(b) inversely proportional tb the potential


difference.

A capacitor stores energy, an inductor

(c) independent of the potential (d)


constant. it depends on the field.

difference. It is a

behaves like inertia and a resistor dissipates energy. A resistance is also used in a heater, fumace or press

where the heat produced is useful. It is also used


room-heaters for boiling water, etc.

as

While the behaviour of a capacitor and inductor is


more useful with alternating current, the resistance is widely used both in a.c. as well as d.c. appliances.

3.

V = RI (Ohm's law)

Therefore the current density is (a) proportional to conductivity of the metal (b) proportional to the resistivity (c) proportional to the field (d) none of these

8.

The power consumed in a resistance R when a potential difference V is applied is

(a)

WI b) vI

(c)

I v

@+
reenuanv'rr 67

PHYSICS FORYOU I

9.

The reason why during long transmission, one


uses higher voltages is because

(a) the power consumed during transmission is (b) (c) (d)


more for high voltage. the power consumed is less for high voltage. it depends on the temPerature' one cannotsay.

12. The emf of a Daniel cell is 1.08 V and the intemal resistance is 10 Q. The current flowing through two resistances of 100 Q each connected in parallel in the circuit is

(a) (b) (c) (d)

more than 2 A less than 2 Abut more than less than 0.02 A more than 0.2 A

Passage 3

Kirchhoff's laws:

Lawof

the junction

13. If the voltrneter is connected across the cell in the Q.No. 12, the potential difference across the cell
is

n#i'\rs
t1

:rl

,l

(a) more tnlan the emf (b) less than the emf (c) equal to the emf (d) equal to 1.08 V 14. If. a wire of negligible resistance is connected
across the battery in Q. No. 12, the current in the

When currents 11, 12 enter a junction and currents 13, Ia 15 flow out, whatever current enters the junction, flows out of the junction 11 +12- \- 14 - /u = g

wire is

(b) 0.108 A (a) 1.08 A (c) this will short the battery the current will
(d)
too high none of these

be

n.

Passage 4

It is seen that when two resistances are connected in series, the resistance gets added up, and when
connected inparallel, the effective resistance is smaller than the smallest. This idea is used in converting a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter.

When current flows fromA to B, the potential difference is negative. IA/hen one takes the potential from B toA, it is positive. (Up the curreatt flow - potential difference
is positive).

15.

For the loop ABCDA,

- IR + e :0. These two laws are extremely useful to find the parameters such as currnt voltage and resistance in
complicated loops. 10. Show that when resistances are connected

An ammeter and a voltmeter are connected in a circuit containing a battery and an extemal
resistance.

in

series,

the same currentisflowing through the resistances.

'

One has to measure the current passing through the resistance and as the potential difference. The meters are connected as follows. (a) The ammeter is connected in series with ttle
resistance.

(b) The voltmeter is connected in


resistance.

series

with the

(c)

The ammeter is connected in parallel with the


resistance.

(d) The voltmeter is connected ih parallel across the resistance to measure the potential
IfRl>R2
difference. 16. To measure the current passing through a particular part of the circuit, the ammter is connected in series. To convert a moving coil galvanometer into an ammeter, resistance is connected so that the

(a)
(b)

(c)

the potential difference across resistance R1 is greater than of R2. potential difference across R2 is greater as this resistance is smaller. the potential differences are the same across
R2 as

full current passing through the ammeter is not


dissipated. How is the galvanometer converted to an ammeter?
PHYslcs
FOR

well

as R1.

(d) One must know the value of the emf applied.

You I rrsnumY't

69

17. How is the voltmeter connected in a circuit to


measure the potential difference across the wire?

22.

Choose the right statement.

18. The essential principle of the Wheatstone bridge is in


the given circuit, no current will be flowing through the

galvanometer.
Rz

If Rl = 1 C), ='2 Q, and one has also

3C),5(land5f2"R3andRa
are replaced by (a) 3 C),5 (b) 5 cr,6 Cl (c) 3 C),5 O

fi

(a)

The current passing through the branch

(d)

6 cr,3 cl

ABC > the current throudh ADC. (b) The current throughADC > the current through ABC. (c) The currents through ABC, ADC and AC are the same. (d) There is current only through AC.
The equivalent resistance between A and C is

What is the total resistance connected to the


battery? 20.

All resistances are equal. The total resistance betweenA and C is


(a)
R

(o)*

t.r

Jn

(d)

2R

(a)
(c)

T
8R

2R

(b)

6R

Give the equivalent diagram.

(d) none of these Lerrgth of AB and CD are the same but AB


thicker than CD.

ts

(d) : ?r*. for the electron =

ff

='1..17x10sms-1

This will be much higher than that of the gas. This should be (b). However this theory is not
applicable; therefore (d). (d) : The drift velocity = 4E 1
(a) The'ctirrent density in AB is the same as that

As initiat velocity = O afte%very collisiory

inCD.
(b) The field inAB> the field in CD. (c) The current in the thicker wire AB > the current in the'thinner wire CD. (d) The current is the same inAB and CD.

o=accelerationxtime

(a,c):

y=R[ =+ v=9!*I A v=Field E,I=MI

70

PHYsrcs FoRYou I rrenurnv'rr

+ El=p-AI - I-:E = I=oE Ap


(b) :AV= IR; LV =(1 A) x (8.13' 10-3 Q)

t1

+ 4I = a.rs x 1o-3 v m-l L


The velocity of the electric field is the velocity of light. It is the field that causes current to flow
:

Applying the second law of Kirchhoff, in the loop ACBDA, -J1Rr + izRz = 0. It follows I1R1 = I2R2. The potential difference along the path ACB as well as BDA are the same. However as R1 is greater, the current is smaller than that through R2.

$)

12. (c):

and not the electrons that travel from one end to


the other.
6.

(a) : The resistivity and hence the resistance increases with temperature. This is the principle
of the platinum resistance thermometer.

G) : They are superconductors. The theory of superconductivity will be studied by you later, as
quantum mechanics is applied for this study. (b) : The work done per second is the power consumed. Work done is Vq arrd per second, it is

100

r,

r is the intemal resistance. The resistance of 100 Q and 100 Q in parallel

112

=+ The total resistance in parallel


The current in the circuit
13. (c, d)
:

100 ---=-L00

100 = 50 Q

t Unlike the situation in charging a capacitor, the moment the potential difference is applied, the maximum current flows in the'resistor, unlike a
capacitor where work done is capacitor.
as

!=VI

The total resistance in the circuit = 50 + 10 = 60 Q

1'08 60

0.018

!qV. 2'

The current is

not connected to an extemal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is emf, 1.08 V.

y'hen the cell is

also not a constant when charging or discharging


a

(!)

The intemal resistance of this battery is rather

high (10 Q) as given in Q. No. 12. Therefore the


current flowing will be
(a, d)

(b) : When power is taken through long wires,

P:IV + I= L. v
The power loss along the transmission lines is

iry 10f,)

= 0.108

=I2R=[#)^
For a given resistance, as power loss is inversely proportional to lZ, higher the transmission voltage, lower is the power loss, when transmifting a given power and given transmission wires.

The current passing through which the circuit


should not be disturbed. Therefore the ammeter which is connected in series with the circuit should
pass all the curcent i.e. the ammeter must have low resistance. This is achieved by connecting a thick

10'

fi*ffi?-ilN^trr.t$i*.r- D rc r
B.

Rl

At B, when I, is entering from A, flows out of

Therefore the current entering B, I is the same through R1. Similarly by taking points C, D
successively, one finds, the same current is flowing

wire of low resistance in parallel (shunting) to the


ammeter. 17. The voltmeter is connected in parallel so that the current passing through the voltmeter is negligible. A high resistance is connected in series with the galvanometer. A high resistance is in series with the galvanometer so that its effective resistance is very high. The dissipation of the current through the voltmeter will be negligible.
I

through

R2

and R3.

PHYSTCS FORYOU I

neanunnv',rr 71

18. (c):

B, O, D are identical.

Three resistances are


If galvanometer gives null position, A is common for AB andCD.

in
R

parallel connection

between A and B and three more between B and C. B, O, D have the same potential.
Vn = Vo.

The total resistance

i, 4*

:'

Va-Vs=Ve-Vo.
Va

33

2R
3

Similarly,
common.

Vc

should be equal to Vp

Vs. C is

21. @t:

ven

vnc vnc
Rt=R,

_veo
Rn

rrRz

IlRl _ 12R3
lzRq The current is the same as R1 and R2 are in series. As R1 < R2 (because R1 is thicker), Vae is less than V6p. Therefore E1 < E2 where E1 and E2 are the fields. (a) is not correct as the areas of cross-section of AB and CD are different.

Rz
As

Rt=1 ... Rs=q=1 R22Rt62

The other combinations for R3 and Ra do not fit the

Wheastone's bridge. 19. One can find various problems of this type. The method of solution is the same. Let the total resistance to right of CD be X. The circuit is now

22. (dl: AC is only a connecting wire between A and C which has negligible resistance. The current
passes from A to C.

23. (a)

: This is a Wheatstone's bridge. There is no current along BD or DB. AB and BC are in series and CD and DA are in series. The equivalent value is
_t_-_

111 2R2RR
one has to mark the points.

24. First,
2 Q is connected

in parallel with X which gives

2X

2+X
As this is ari infinite series, X.
+

2X

2X

2+X

ls also eoual to

2+X
--4

-v

X+1=Totalresistance
L Q is

where

the resistance of AC

i.r. 2X

" X'-X-2=O = X=1+.h+8 2


Y

2+X

+ 1=

X. the total resistance

Total resistance, X not valid here.

2 Q as the negative value is


i:i:";!::ti:ii

20. (a): This is an extended Wheatstone's Bridge. This is equivalent to


72
PHYsics FoR You I irsnunnv 'r
r

:tt:":,i.,,i

This is a lrVheatstone's bridge. There is no current through BD.

oo

1{1usrr$*rN

lf you have any difficult / unsolved problem or you are unable to understand one, then write to us. Our team of experts will diagnose your problems. The diagnosed problems will
be published in the subsequent issues. u[hey.,often,
eh oose,,,g

W
gestio,ns u.pper
tor,Lgernr,rn,uch

'oi* -,1:\\$',.\iN+

iht'**it*'*ii}i

1.

We know according to the law of conservation of energy, P.E. + K.E. = constant. If a car running on a highway is accelerated, its kinetic energy increases

P.E.

of the electron + K.E. of the electron = Total energy

which is a constant for a particular level.

but the gravitational potential energy remains the same. Kindly explain this.
[Mr. Sumant Kalra,
Ferozepur City (Puniab)]

III. Aconstant force is acting on abody continuously to move it through a particular distance x.

Soln.: Let us study this question part by part.

I.

Abody is falling through

height

h.

As it is falling,

Work done = constant force F x r, the displacement.


This is ubo 1 ma2

the potential energy decreases and the kinetic energy increases. The total remains the same.

22 -!

muz,

the final

- initial kinetic

energy. The potential energy remains the samebut the

u{*,

increase in kinetic energy is due to the work done.

.i
hi

8t

'."
r

,,

The mechanical energy and eiectrostatic energy is normally used in classical physics. In modem physics, according to Einstein, the total energy E = mc2.wherci the energy may be any type of energy.

There was no external force acting on the body'as

it

For a photorr, E = hu (Einstein's photoelectric


equation).
The classical theory is applicable to a closed system. Here the P.F.
+

is falling from A to B. We can assume that the body had been already falling and it passes A at time zero
of our experiment. In that case it has also some kinetic

K.E.

energy at A. Initial K.E + Initial P.E. is equal to final K.E. + Final potentiil energy.
.

constant because we are studying

only the kinematics chapter of Newtonian mechanics where things are ideal and calculations are simple. Ybur question is good because it ls orrly by searching for contradictions and resolving them that one makes
progress.

This is

ponservative system.

II. This is the same in the case of the H atom model


(classical theory).

74

pHyslcsFoRyou I rrsRunny'rr

2.

What is the difference between emf and supply

The potential difference across

voltage?

[Mr.
Soln.: Suppose one takes a 2 V battery.
5sr

Tas GurungJ

33 Total potential difference =Vr+Vr=: - + =: JJJ


:+
V -- 2V.

e=L

1=I y

The emf of the battery is the maximum potential difference in the circuit. The potential difference is not for the whole circuit but across the various
resistances.

In the first circuit, the resistance connected is R1, whereas in the second, it is R1 + R2 in series. Let
us assume that the battery is new and its internal resistance is negligible. If Rl = 5 O and R, = I 9,
The total resistance is 6 Q.

The voltage or potential difference across various parts is supply voltage to that part.
The voltage across a battery is called its emf. This is
the maximum voltage one can obtain from the battery.

This is the voltage obtained only due to chemical


action in the battery.

)\/ 1 The current flowing through the circuit = 1= i e " 6Q 3


The potential difference across 5Q= 5 x

*= * JJ

Whatever yoltage is supplied from any source - battery or dlmamo to a particular circuit is called
the supply voltage.

oo
,1

Amazing Life Lessons You Can LearT f,ro.m Albert


Follow your curiosity.

Ein*t

"l

have no special talent. I am only passionately curious."

Perseverance is priceless.

"lt's not that l'm so smart; it's just that lstay with T_-- -"'- longer." " -'- problems - J---J , -- - ---

The imagination is powerful.'f lmagination is everything. lmagination is more important than knowledge."

lt is preview of life's coming attractions.

Make mistakes. " A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new."
Live in the moment.

"l

never think of the future

it comes soon enough."

Create value. "strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value."


.l

Don't expect different results, "lnsanity:doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results."
Knowledge comes from experience. "lnformation is not knowledge.The only source of knowledge is experience.
Learn the rules and then play bitter. "You have

to learn the rules of the game. And then you have

to play better than anyone else,"

PHYstcsFoRYou

I rrsRunRy'rr

75

Must for AllMS, AFMC, CBSE-PMT,

K-CET, BHU,

Kerala PML DUMET, WB'JEE, 0rissa JEE, UGET Manipal...'

t.

Of the following quantities which one has the


dimensions different from the remaining three? (D Energy density (ii) Force per unit area (iii) Product of drarge per unit volume and voltage (iv) Angular momentum per unit mass
5.

(a) 5m (c) 1.5 m

(b) (d)

2.5 m 0.5 m

(a)
2.

(i)

(b)

(ii)

(c)

(iii) (d) (iv)

Four balls A, B, C and D are projected with the same speed making angles of 10", 30o, 45o, 60" respectively with the horizontal. Which ball will strike the ground at the farthest point?

(a)
5.

(b)

(c)

(d) c

Aparticle is projected from ground at some angle


with the horizontal. Let P be the point at maximum height H. At what height above the point P the particle should be aimed to have range equal to

maximum height?

(a)

(b) 2H

(c)

Hlz (d) 3H
7.

The bob of a simple pendulum is of mass 10 g. It is suspended with a thread of 1 m. If we hold the bob so as to stretch the string horizontally and release it, what will be the tension at the lowest position? (Take g = 10 m s-2)

3.

Ablock of mass mrlies on a smooth horizontal


table and is connected to another freely hanging

(a) zero (c) 0.3 N

(b) 0.1N (d) 1.0 N

block of

tt:.a.ss trt2

by a light inextensible string

passing over a smooth fixed pulley situated at the edge of the table as shown in the figure. Initially the system is at rest wrth ml at a distance d fuom the pulley. The. time taken for ru, to reach the pulley is

Assuming that a positive charge Q is uniformly distributed over the surface of a shell, the field at a distance r from the centre of the shell where r = 3R (R being the radius of the shell), is

(a)Q44n(2R)'

ft) --g eg4nRt


^

(c)Q" , eo4tt(3R)' 8.

(d) none of these

In the circuit shown, the value of


1..5A

(a)

:+

mr+m2

l-;s-

Edh* *"\

30sl

f 2*i (c) t@r.^g 4,

(d) none of these

A stone of rnass 2 kg is projected upward with kinetic energy of 98 J. The height at which the
kinetic energy of the stone becomes half its original

g.

(b) R=30o (a) R=15o (d) E=180V (c) E=36V A lift is tied with thick iron wire and its mass is 1000 kg. The minimum diameter of the wire if the maximum acceleration of the lift is 1.2 m s-2
and the maximum safe stress is 1.4 x 108 N m-2 is

value, is given by

(Takeg=9.8ms-2)

?6,

PHYSICS FoR YoU I rtanumv 't I

(a) ,(c)
1Q,

0:00141 m 0.005 m

(b) 0.00282 m (d) 0.01 m


:

(^) u (c) 100u


19.

(b) (d)

1,0u

10002

The volume of a metal sphere increases by, 0:24V" when its temperature is raised by 40'C.
The coefficient of linear expansion of the metal
is

A current of I ampere flows in a circular wire which subtends an angle oI (3n12) radian at its
centre, whose radius is R. Tlie magnetic induction

B at the centre is

(a) (c) lL.

2x10-5oc-1'1b; 0x10-soc-1 (d) 1.2 x 10-s oc-l 18 x 10-s. oC-1

rat llo1. ft) &I .,

2R

(c) 2Po1 (d)

3PoI 8R

27qC is 6.21

The average kinetic energy of a gas molecule at x 10-21 ]. Its average kinetic enrgy at227"C will be

20. A magnet

of lqngth 14 cm a4d magnetic moment

M is broken into two parts of length 6 cm and 8 cm. They are put at right angles to each other

(a) (c)

52.2 x 10-21.I 10.35 x 10-21 I

b\

(d)

5.22 x 10-21J 11.35 x L0-21 I

with the opposite poles together. The magnetic


moment.of the combination is

72. The ratio of de Broglie wavelength of a pioton and an cr particle accelerated through the same potential difference is

(a) Ml1..a (c) 1.4M

(b) M (d) 2.8M


R = 0.2 Q.

(a)
13.

sJ, b) zJi

(c)

2.,6

21. ln an ac circuit, the resistance

At

certain

(a)

2.,6

Plutonium decays with half life of 24000 years. If plutonium is stored for 72000 years, the fraction of it that remains is

instant Vn-V": 0.5 V 1= 0.5 A, inductance of coil is

O s-1.The

(a) 1,18 @)

l,ls (Q Ua

@) Ll2

14. The current gain of a transistor in a common base arrangement is 0.98. Find the change in collector current corresponding to a change of 5.0 mA in

(a) (c)

0.05 H 0.2 H

(b) 0.1H (d) 0.03 H

emitter current. What would be the change in


base current?

22. A capacitbr of capacitance 1.plF is charged to a potential of 1 V. It is connected in parallel to an

@)

(c)
15.

.9 mA, 0.1 5.9 mA, 0.3

mA b) 4.9 mA" 0.2 mA mA (d) 5.9 mA, 0.8 mA

An 8 kg metal block of dimensions 16 cm x 8 cm x 6 cm is lying on a table with its face of largest area touching the table. If g = 10 m s-2, the minimum amount of work done in making it stand with its length vertical is

inductoi of inductartce L0-3 H. The maximum current that will flow in the circuit has the value (a) Jrooo ma (b) 1mA (c) 10 mA (d) 1000 mA 23. A ny of light is incident on a glas.s sphere of
refractive index 3/2. \tVhat'should be an angle of incident so'that the ray which enters the sphere does not come out of the sphere?

(a) 0.41

b) 6.41 k\ 4I

(d)

12.q

(a) tan-1 t2l3) (c) 90'

(b) 60" (d) 30"

16. A railway carriage has its centre of gravity at a height of L m above the rails,'which are 1..5 m apart. The maximum safe speed at which it could travel round an unbanked curve of radius 100 m

24. The coefficients of apparent expansion of a liquid when determined using two different vessels A and B are y1 and y, respectively. If the coefficient of linear expansion of the vessel A is q,, the

(a) (c)
17.

12 m s-l 22 m s-1

(b) 18 m sr (d) 27 m sr

coefficient of linear expansion of the vessel B is

(a)
(c)

qryr"{z

Two satellites A and B go round a planet P in circular orbits having radii 4R and R respectively. If the speed of the sateilite A is 3o, the speed of
satellite B is

^{r+ Tz

@r#
1a)

(a) 1.2a (b)


18.

6a

@)+ @)+

The surface energy of a liquid drop is u. It is splitted into 1000 equal droplets. Then:its surface
energy becomes

25. A train of weight 107 N is running on a levetr track with uniform speed of 35 km h 1. The frictional force is 0.5 kg f per quintal. If g = 10 m s-2, power of engine is (a) 500 kW (b) s0 kw (c) 5 kW (d) 0.5 kw
PHYSICS FOR YOU I

-""

\:12

r$nuanv 'r

17

26. The height


decreases

at

which the acceleration due to gravity

by 36% of its value on the surface of

the earth is (where R is the radius of the earth)

RRR (a); (b)Z G)z


27, The area enclosed by

ror 3o
(a) AND gate (c) NOR gate
35.

a circle of diameter 1.05 m

to correct number of significant figures is

(b) OR gate (d) NAND gate

(a) (c)

0.88 m2 0.882 m2

(b) (d)

0.088 m2 0.530 m2

28. A particle has an initial velocity of g?+ai and acceleration of O.+l+O.gi. Its speed after 10 s
is

Five equal resistors when connected in series dissipated 4 W power. If they are connected by parallel, the power dissipated will be

36.

(a) hE
(c)
29.

units

8.5 units

(b) 7 units (d) 10 units

If

excess of pressure inside a soap bubble of radius 1 cm is balanced by that due to column of oil (specific gravity 0.8) 2 mm higtu the surface tension of soap bubble is (a) 2.9 x 10-2 N m-l (b) 4.92 x 10-2 N m-l (d) 392 x lQ-z 5 --t (c) 5.9 x lQ-2 \

(a) 25W (b) 50W (c) 100W (d) 125w An electric charge 10-3 pC ii placed at the origin (0, 0) of X - Y co-ordinate system. Two points A and B are situated at (J2,JI) and (2, 0) respectively. The potential difference between the points A and B will be (a) 4.5 V (b) 9 V (c) zero (d) 2 V
particle thrown up vertically reaches its highest f1 and returns to the ground in a further time f2. The air resistance exerts a constant force on the particle opposite to its direction of motion. Then (a) t1> t, (b) fr = fz

37. A

point in time

30.

A parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and separation between the plates d, is charged by a constant current I. Consider a plane surface of area Al2 parcllel to the plates and drawn between
the plates. The displacement current through this

^-1

(c) t1 < t, (d) may be (a) or (c) depending on the ratio of


the force of air resistance to the weight of
the particle.
38. The escape

area is

(a)r @+ (.)i
1..33.

(d)*

31.

A convex lens of focal length 20 cm made of


glass oT refractive index 1.5 is immersed in water

having refractive index focal length of lens is

The change in the

velocity for a planet is v,. A tunnel is dug along a diameter of the planet and a small body is dropped into it at the surface. When the body reaches the centre of the planet, its speed

(a) 62.2 cm (c) 58.2 cm


32. If
16

(b) 5.82 cm (d) 6.22 cm

will be (u) a,

1b) + "v2

a^

(.)

? 2

(d) zero "

is the intensity of the principal maximum in

the single slit diffraction pattern, then what

will

be its intensity when the slit width is doubled? I^

(a) ;

(b)

ro

(c)

41s (d) 2Io

39, In a sonometer wire, the tension is maintained by suspending a 50.7 kg mass from the free end of the wire. The suspended mass has a volume of 0.0075 m3. The fundamental frequency of the wire is 260 Hz If the suspended mass is completely submerged in water, the fundamental frequency

33. A

particle of mass
106

mg has the same wavelength

as an electron moving
3x

with a velocity of

will become (a) 200 Hz (c) 230 Hz


up to 100 V. A

(b) 220H2
@) 2a0Hz

s-1. The

velocity of the particle is

(Mass of electron = 9.1 x tO-31 kg) (a) 3 x 10-31 m s-1 (b) 2.7 x 10-21 m s-1 (c) 2.7 x 10-18 m s-l (d) 9 x 10-2 m s-1 34. The circuit as shown in the figure is equivalent

40. The plates of a parallel plate capacitor are charged


2 mm thick plate is inserted between the plates, then to maintain the same potential difference, the distance between the capacitor plates is increased by 1,.6 mm. The dielectric constant of the plate is

to

(a)

(b) 1.25 (c)

(d)

2.s

78

PHYstcs FoRYou I rranunnv'rr

41. The range of voltmeter of resistance 300 Q is 5 V.

The resistance to be connected to convert it into an ammeter of range 5 A is

The frequency of the wave is (a) 1.55 Hz (b) 1s0 Hz

(a) 1 el in series (b) 1 A in parallel (c) 0.1 C) in series (d) 0.1 Q in parallel

(c)

660 Hz

(d)

330 Hz

49. The input resistance of a CE amplifier is


333 Q and the load resistance is 5 kQ. A change of base current by 15 pA a results in the change of collector current by 1 pA. The voltage gain of

42. In certain Young's double slit experiment, the slit separation is 0.05 cm. The slit to screen distance is 100 cm. When blue light is used the distance

from central fringe to the fourth order bright


fringe is 0.35 cm. What is the wavelength of blue

the amplifier is

(a)
50. An

550 (b) 101

(c)

501 (d) 1001

light

(a) (c)

4000 aa00

A A

(b) 4300 A

(d) 4500 A

80 MHz carrier is modulated by 400 Hz sine 5 V and the frequency deviation is 20 kHz. Find modulation index.

wave. The carrier voltage is

43. The condition of apparent weightlessness can . be created momentarily when a plane flies over the top of a vertical circle at a speed of
900 km

(a)

25

(b)

50

(c)

400

(d)

The radius of the vertical circle that the pilot must use is

hr.

1.

(d): EnergY densitY


_ = Vot"t"" Energy

[ML2T+]

(a) (c)

10.5 5.4

km km

(b) 8.5 km (d) a.0 km


A
and B get 4 m closer gach second

[L'1

= rMr-1T-2t J -

t"'" r

44. Two particles

while travelling in opposite direction. They get 0.4 m closer every second while travelling in same direction. The speed of A and B are
respectively.

Force [MLT-2] = Area -- fli


1

= t\{t_:1T-21

ffixvortase=mr#
=

(a)

b)

(c) (d) none of these

2.2 m s-l and 0.4 m s-1 2.2 m s-1 and 1.8 m s-1 4 m s-1 and 0.4 m s-1

=rIo'u = Volume

[ML2J{]=[ML{T4]
[L.]

Angular momentum tt

Therefore, dimensions of (iv) is different.

Mass

- [ML2T{] - rnnor rr=ff=[MoLzT{]

45. A player caught a cricket ball of mass 150 g moving at a rate of 20 m s-1. If the catching frocess is completed in 0.1 s, the force of blow exerted by

2.

(a)

the ball on the hands of the player is equal to

(a) 3N (c) 300 N

(b) 30 N (d) 1s0 N


From figure, AC = Rl2, PC = H We have to find h = MP According to problem,

46. Two bodies of masses 2 kg and 4 kg are moving with velocities 2 m s-l and 10 m s-1 towards each other due to mutual gravitational attraction. What is the velocity of their centre of mass? (a) 5.3 m s-1 (b) 5.4 m sr (c) zero (d) 8.1 m sr
47.

R:H

o, or or

z2

sin20 _

z2 sin2 e

84c
2

A polyster {ibre rope of diameter 3 cm has a breaking strength of 150 kN. If it is required to
have 500 kN breaking strength. What should be the didmeter of similar rope? (a) 12 cm (b) 5 cm (c) 3 cm (d) 1.5 cm

2sino cose = !i119. tan0 = 4


...(i)

In ZAMC,

tang=#=W#
(Using (i))

48. The

velocity of sound waves in air is 330 m s-1. For a parlicular sound in air, a path difference of
40 cm is equivalent to a phase difference of.'J..6n.

4=h+H Rr2-

+ 4=2(h+H) + h=H H
PHYSICS FORYOU I rtanunnv

'tt

79

,,l,t,

3.

tet a be common acceleration of the '. : system.


(b):
'

5.

(d): Range of projection,

112

sin2e

The free body diagrams of two blocks is as shown

in the figure.

ITJ-r
= m2a From (i) and (ii), we get
m2g

dat r-r

6.

Wv

Range will be maximum for which sin20 is maximum i.e., sir20 =']., + 0 = 45'. (c) : g".", h =; = ! m, m= 10 g = 0.01 kg When the bob falls through a vertical height of 1 m, the velocity acquired at the lowest poinf
o

T
tig

=,ffi =Jt1o

r.1 =.,80

Centritugal force
...(i)

Their equations of motion are

T=mfi -T

+ Tension at the lowest point


:
7.

* s-t =9{4#=
N

0.20 N

...(ii)

= Weight + Centrifugal force 0.01

10 + 0.20 = 0.30

q=-hEUsing, s=

...(iii)

f\+m2

1. ut+tat'
(Using(iii))

is.", if the whole charge is concentra{e{ at the centre of the shell.. By Gauss's theorem, it.

(c) :11

d=0xt+! mzg * 2m1+m2


,_ W**r) '- \l mrg
4.

r_a_0t.. - - -----------;- - --------------=


eo(4nr') eo4r(3R)'

!::
t:..:

r = 3R) i..

8.

(d) : gqro.1 1111o,rgr R2b e.Zs

1.5)

A = 0.25 A.

(b): 41 the time of projection kinetic energy of


the stone,

Voltage across 30 A = 1.5 '30 = 45 V As R2 and 30 f) are in parallel .'. Voltage across, Rz = 45 V

K=!mu'
2

whete m is the mass of the stone and a is the velocity of the projection

..

r\^ '

45V
0.75

" 2K 2x98 Or yz =-=-=98 m2


2g

Using,
.

o2

= u2

2gh

(.' Rr = Rz lGiven)) Also, R1 = 60 O Voltage across, \= 2.25 x 60 Q : 135 V

Rz=60Q

-u2 h-.98 ,?=-=5m 2x9.8

f.' a=0)

...(i)

9.

E=(135+45)V=180V lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration a, then tension in the wire is T = m(g + a) = 1000(9.8 + 1.2) = 11000 N
(d): y,'h"tr the
Now,stress '

:.

ltt"o,

K=I* ,t;a
11

(Using(i))

K,=!ma,2 =l^r,,[Zgh, .2
2

K'
tt -=-

':z2xL4x1o8:4r1ot or '-200 .'. Minimum diameter of the wire


D=zr=fr=o.or r"
10. (a) : Pro* v, = vs(7 + yLt)

11000x7

fT =!= ftr, o, 12 =tt x stress A


1 1

h,

Kh -K 2

According to the problem


'A;-u,

+ff=vt

=h' 2Kh

h,=L=9 m=2.5m

22

ffi=rno ,=.t10=u,.ro-*.-'l;,:
PHYslcs FoR YoU I rranumv 't

81

Coefficient of linear expansion,

o=1=#=!al6-sog-1.
11. (c): Average kinetic energy,
\A/here k is Boltzmann constant.

Where, 2r is the wheel base and h is the height of c.g. above the rails.

f,=2ff z

a=27.1

lq.s=1

... E,=7, -273+227 -500 T, 273+27 300


or Er=ix1.Ztx10-2rl
= 10.35 x 10-21 J
5

E,

77. (bl:. Orbital velocity,

u-

GM

.1. X.e. Oewith drarged

12.

(b)

de Brdglie wavelength associated

particle is given by,

ot a2--2ttr=2x3o=6a
(b):
Surface energy u = S x 4nR2 I4lhen droplet is splitted into 1000 droplets each

or

r.=+,Y= ,,!2mqV
tua

2mr7rV

of radius r, then

where subsctipts, p and o represent for proton and a particle respectively.

4^q 4 :'tl(" = 1.000:nr' + J3'=fr "

* ! =,! ur6!s- =| -Lcr ! ffio 4 4, t (a)z n=taoo-d.=3


72000

J-+*z =

zJi
19.

= S x 1000 x 4nr2 : S x 1000 x 4r(R/10)2 = 10(S4nR2) = 102

Here, R is bigger drop and S is surface tension .'. Surface energy of all droplets

N, 14. (a): Given a = 0.98 and A/6 = 5.0 mA


From the definition of,

N=lzJ =lz) =e /r\" /r)3


1

(d): For a loop, magnetic induction at centre,


B=Vo *znl

4nR

When loop subtends angle 0 at centre, then

N" c[=--+
a'{E

B=Fo"0I

4nR

Given, 0 = 3nl2

Change in collector current A16 = (a)(AIs) = 0.98 5.0 = 4.9 mA " Change in base current, AIs = 41, - AIc= (5.0 - 4.9) mA = 0.1 mA

... g-&r,E"l=fuo/. 4n2R8R


20.
(a) 3 Magnetic moment

M= m x']..4

...(i)

(c)

: When face of the largest area is touching the table, height of centre of gravity above the table

When magnet is broken into two parts, the pole strength remains undranged but distance between the poles becomes ,t* * = 10 cm So magnetic dipole moment of the combination
becomes

\=*=s,
With its length verticaf height of centre of gravity

would become

.22

n^

=!=

M'=mx10=mxExf0

8 cm

Minimum work required W = (P.E.)2 - G.E.)r


=

mg(h2-h)

mx14 =-=_ 1..4

1.4

M
1..4

(Using(i))
+

... w=8x1-of-3)
100

=+I

2t. (al z V^ -Vn =Vr +UR = Lff

nl

O.S

(d): Here, h = I m, r = 100 m, 2r = L.5 m


For safe maximum speed to avoid skidding mzi
22.

or Lr8+0.2x0.5=0.5 or 8L=0.5_0.1=0.4 =, L=0.05H (a) : Charge on the capacitor,


4o= CV = 1 x 10+ x 1 = 10{ C = 1 pC

Here,q=46sinof

-xh=mgx
g2
PHYstcs FoRyou I rEanuanv'rr

Maximum current

Io =

@40

Now.

' =L ,,/ro-3 x ro{=+=(to')t" Jtc


ro

i. ".

ux= 3 units

ffidW= 4 units;

Jto,

fi= ari
0.4

+ aoi =0.4i +0.3j;

.'.

Io =

(to')'t'x

(r x

ro{)

= Jr6dd mA

units

and a, = 0.3 units

Now, ur- ur* dxt = 3 + 0.4 x 10 = 7 units oy= uy+ ayt = 4 + 0.3 x 10 = 7 units
a=
N

lo;
,17'

+a,

Fromfigure,
sine^ =

r=----F

*7'

=7.t?units

IABO= IOAB=

29. (ft.lzHere, r = L cm = 1.0-2 m;


0c

Density of
...(i)

oil,

p = 0.8 x 103

kg*-';

1= 'p3 '3

h=2mm=2x10{m
Pressure due to 2 mm column of oil,
P = hps

Applying Snell's law at A

sini _ 3 sinO. 2
"i,,;
24.
=

= (z ro*)(o.s x ld) x e's " =2x0.8x9.8Pa

l1Y3)= r

t2I3,'
30

(Using (i))

In

case of a soap bubble, P

=9 r

+ sini=sin90" +
(dlz
Yrea

i=90o

= Yapp * Y""*l

Pr 2x0.8x9.8x10-2 44
=3.92x L0-2 N m-l 30. (b): Charge on capacitor plates at time f is, q = It. Electric field between the plates at this
instant is

Yt"siet =

For vessel A,\na= Yr + 3cr For vessel B, Treat= h + 3dr


Hence,
Y1

+ 3cr =

Yz

+ 3crn

.,25.

(a) : Weight of train = 107

-f*.+0 "3

F:q -It - Aeo Aeo


N = 106 kg f
106

"'(i)

Electric flux through the given area Al2 is

Frictional force, F =

q
100

F=500fi)N

5000

kef

,,=(t),=*
'a
at

...(ii)

(Using (i))

o=35kmhl=10msl
P = F x u = 50000 x 10 = 5 x 105 W = 500 kW.

Therefore, displacement current

26. (b): The value of acceleration due to gravity


a height lz reduce to = 100

, -- dQ, - 'o ilt a( n\ I

64 6 too

sRz
(n+t)t

-96

='oald)=,

(Using (ii))

64V"=9 - lodg

31. (c) : When the lens is in air

,R o. a= R+h + 8(R+h)=10R * h=I .4 10


27.

i=,u, r(+ +)
a='.s-1)fa--t \ 'lR, -r) 20
When lens is in water,
...(i)

lcl:

Here, 7 =l'06 = 0.53 m. 2

Area enclosed =nr2

= 3.1.4 x (0.53)2 = 0.882026 m2 = 0.882 m2


(Rounded to three significant figures)

+:(""')(+
or
f. \
1
1.33

+) +)
'(
j

_(1,5-1,33)ti

...(ii)

28.

(a)

t As, u=gi+4i,

PHYSTCS FORYOU I irsRunRv

',rr

83

or

fi,=rru-t(#)
f,,,

or

= 2or

o.s

"

1'33 =78.2 cm o.17

...(ii)

37. (c)
a1

:. V^-Ut=9. : Let F be the force of air resistance.


mg+F=flMrotd1

,, "

4rno

1' q 1 10-3x10{ r, 4re0 2

= 78.2 cm The change in focal length = 78.2 - 20 = 58.2 cm 32. (b): Ttre intensity of principal maximum in the

For the upward motion, F acts downwards. Let ' = retardation

single slit diffraction paftern does not depend upon the width.

For the downward motion,

=g+I. {u"t"

up*urds. Let

a, = downward acceleration.
m Thus ar> a2 Let h = maximum height reached.

(c) : As, ),, = hlm.a; if for the two particles same, then their momenfum must-be same. ,'. mPvp = meoe or 704 x tt, = (9.1, x 10-31) " (3 x 106)

l,

is

mg-F=ma, ota2=g-F,

Of

7)=

(s.r x

ro*')x
10-6

(s x rou)
s-1

h=)artl =|a,i )
38. (b):
Escape velocity,

tz>tl

= 2.73 ,10-18 m
34.

(b):

,, =,,lZRg where R is the radius of the planet Potential energy of the body on the surface of the planet,
u,
=

-"A{

(where rn is the mass of the body)

Potential energy of the body at the centre of the

planet

Y=A.E
=

rr _ 3GMm qc--t
If
R

A+B= A+B

o is the velocity acquired by the body while at

the centre of the planet, then

It is the Boolean expression of OR gate. 35. (d): In series, total resistance of 5 resistors

!*r'=ur-uc =-"Ao* (
Ol =ltlv-

=5R
t*

Powerdissipated

v2 Or -=25 R
Ir

=l=5 5R
.,.(i)

1 z GMm =--r-R(2

R 2R
)

3GMm

ry)
2'

or o, =zG! (2 - ,)= gg = nn =t. "d


R
Ot O=
a,

parallel, total power

=r[#] =sx2s=12sw
36. (c)

(Using (i))

J'
260=

['=#)
L E. zI\
N'

it=

Jri + Jri
J(Jt)' + (A)' -2
A
,---------;------

(d): Initially,

lTrl= rr=

When the mass is submerged upthrust


= (0.0075 m3)(103 kg m-:; (10 m s-z;

\=

50.79 = s07

r''

fz=21+ol or f irf =rz=2


Potential at point A is

New tension,
T2= F07

New fundamental frequenry

7s) N = 432 N

rr-14 ,A_W

1 = 4re0 84

{-1,2----* L0-3x10{
2
ol

t)=-

Potential at point B

ii

or

=i_= 260 1l?i llsoz -=

u /e
t-

2I\

IE ,tt

ttn

!169

FM 12 =
13

o =240 Hz

PHYTS|CS

FOnyou I rrenunnv,rr

40.

(a): Here, f =2mm, x=1.6 mm,K=!


As potential

difference remains the same, capacity

u+a=4ms-l andz-u=0.4ms-1
Adding (i) and (ii), we get

...(i)

..'(ii)

must remain the same

:. x=rL - 1) t Ki

2u=4.4,u=2.2ms-L

o=1.8ms-1

ro=z(r-*)***sivesK=5
4t. (b): Avoltmeter
is a galvanometer having a high resistance connected in series with it. The current

45.

(b): Here,

m = 150 g, u = 20 m s-1, zr = g

:,

t=0.ls,F=? Fxt=m(a-u\
(c) : Under mutual gravitational attraction, the centre of mass remains at rest.
47.

through the galvanometer is

5V 1 f -8=- 300 c)=- 50

(0 , -m@ - D- 150 0.120) =f 1000'

30N

An ammeter is a galvanometer having a low


resistance connected in parallel with it. The shunt

resistance S is determined from

(b):Y=LrL. AAL
The breaking strength F

l.S I-Ir G'


whereG=300Cl(grven).

Fr

-A, _nDll4 _D; At

noll+
=

Di

ForI=5A,weget

1160 S = 5-(1/60) 300 =S=1Q.


42. (d): }lerc, d = 0.05 cm, D = 100 cm

or D,= o, (?)'"

(#3)"'

= 5 cm

x=0.36cm,n=4
For bright fringes,

,=ry

o,

,=#
A

4s. (c):Here,o:330ms1 Phase differen". =4x Path difference l.

Subsituting the values, we get (0.36 cm) x (0.05 cm)

L6nJ?jx40

"

^=--7t(rooo"t:

l, l.=50cm=0.5m
66oHz d=t *

4.5 x 10-s cm = 4.5 x 10-7 m = 4500

r=3-330I 0.5
_ (r x

43. (c) ; o =900 km

h-r=9oo xx looo * s{ = 2,50 m s-1; 60 60

(d): Voltage gain, 7,r=

! dr x&

8=9'8ms-z
For apparent weightlessn

,ir=-=I

zsorzso =5377.5m=5.4km
9.8

4 =^g """, r

ro{)x (s x ro') _ roo, (rs x ro{)x ssa


of deviation to

50. (b): Modulation index is the ratio


modulating frequenry '

44.

(b) : If z and o are speeds of A and B respectively,

then

*,r = != t99P = uo ' 1)m 400

OO

PMT CAPSULE

Learn how to study effectively How to manage time How to improve concentration How to solve MCQ'S

PHYSICS FORYOU I rtenunnv

'tt

35

Sir lsaac Newton

$ttii$

THE ALOl|EMIST
ir lsaac Newton was a towering genius in the history of science, he knew he was a genius, and he didn't like wasting his time. Born on
December 25, 1642, the great English physicist and

sometimes surpassed

in

intensity his devotion to

celestial mechanics. Newton was a serious alchemis! who spent night upon dawn forthree decades of his life slaving over a stygian furnace in search of the power

mathematician rarely socialized or traveled far from


home. He didn't play sports or a musical instrument,

to transmute one chemical element into another.


Newton's interest in alchemy has long been known

gamble at whist or gambol or a horse. He dismissed


poetry as "a kind of ingenious nonsense" and the one

in broad outline, but the scope and details of that


moonlighting enterprise are only now becoming clear;

time he attended an opera he fled at the third act.


Newton was unmarried, had

as science historians gradually analyse and publish Newton's extensive writings

no known romantic liaisons

Newton's alchemical investigations could have helped yield his

and may well have died, at the age of 85, with his
virginity intact. "l never knew
him to take any recreation or

on alchemy - a million-plus words from the Newtonian


archives

fundamental breakthroughs in optics


Newton was a serious alchemist,

that had previously

been largely ignored.

pastime," said his assistant,


Humphrey Newton, "thinking

who spent night upon dawn for three


decades of his life slaving over a

Speaking last week at

the ' Perimeter lnstitute for Theoretical Physics in


Waterloo, 0ntario, William Newman, a professor of the

all hours lost that were not


speni on his studies."

stygian furnace in search of the power

wasn't easy being Newton. Not only did he hammer out the
universal laws of motion and gravitational attraction,

No,

it

to transmute one chemical element

history and philosophy of science at lndiana University


in Bloomington, described his studies

formulating equations that are still used today t6 plot

of Newton's alchemical oeuvre, and offered insight into the central mystery that often baffles

the trajectories of space rovers bound for Mars; and

contemporary Newton fans, How could

the

man

not only did he discover the spectral properties of


light and invent calculus. Sir lsaac had a whole other full-time careeL a parallel intellectual passion that he kept largely hidden from view but that rivalled and

who vies in'surveys with Albert Einstein for the title of "greatest physicist ever", the man whom James
Gleick has aptly designated "chief architect

of

the

modern world", have been so swept up in what looks

86

PHYslcs FoRYou I rranunnv'rr

to modern eyes like a medieval delusion? Sir lsaac the


Alchemist, Dr Newman said, was no less the fierce and

The alchemists had their triumphl inventing brilliant new pigments, perfecting the old-red lead
oxide, yellow arsenic sulfide, a little copper and vinegar

uncompromising stientist than was Sir lsaac, author of the magisterial Principia Mathematica' There were plenty of theoretical and empirical reasons at the time

and you've got bright green verdigris' The chemistry lab replaced the monastery garden as a souice of

to take the principles of alchemy seriously, to believe


that compounds could be broken down into their basic
constituents and those constituents then reconfigured

new medicines. Alchemists also became expert at spotting cases of fraud. lt was a renowned alchemist
who proved that the "miraculous" properties of vitriol springs had nothing

into other; more desirable substances. Newton and his peers believed it was possible to prompt metals to grow, or "vegetate", in a flask.At the time, miners were pulling up from the ground twisted bundles of copper and silver that were shaped like the
stalks of a plan! suggesting that veins of metals and minerals were proliferating underground with almost

to do with true transmutation.

lnstead, the water's vitriol, or copper sulfate, would cause iron atoms on the surface of a submerged iron

rod to leach into the wate4 leaving pores that were


quickly occupied by copper atoms from the spring.
For Newton, alchemy may also have proved bigger

than chemistry. Newman argues that


Sir lsaac's alchemical investigations helped yield

florid zeal. Pools found around other mines seemed to


have extraordi nary ProPerties.

one of his fundamental breakthroughs in physics: his


discovery that white light is a mixture of coloured rays,

Dip an iron bar into the cerulean waters of the

and that a sunbeam prismatically fractured into the

vitriol springs of modern-day Slovakia, for example, and the artifact will emerge agleam with copper, as though the dull, dark particles of the original
had been elementally reinvented'

familiar rainbow suite called Roy G. Biv can with

lens be resolved to tidy white sunbeam once again.

"lt was perfectly

reasonable for lsaac Newton to believe in alchemy",

"l would go so far as to say that alchemy was crucial to Newton's breakthroughs in optics," said Newman. "He's not just passing light through a prism-he's
resynthesising it," Consider this a case of "technology

said Newman. "Most of the experimental scientists of the 17th century did. Alchemy was synonymous

transfer," said Newman, "from chemistry to physics."


Couftesy : The New Year Times

with chemistry and chemistry was much bigger than


transmutation,"

oo
Poinhrise theory

WB.JEE
CHAPIERWISE SOTUTIONS
Based on New Syllabus & Latest Pattern

Multiple Choice Questiorts .,

tr

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Questions
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67