SQR User’s Guide

Version 4.3.2

1080 Marsh Road, Menlo Park, California 94025

SQR User’s Guide, Version 4.3.2 Part Number: 06-M-4302-R01

Copyright © 1998 SQRIB E T ec hnologies All rights reserved. Printed in the USA.

This publication pertains to SQR 4.3.2 and to any subsequent release until otherwise indicated in new editions or technical notes. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. The software described herein is furnished under a license agreement, and it may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the agreement.

LIMITED WARRANTY THE SQR PROGRAM AND LANGUAGE TUTORIAL ARE SOLD "AS IS," WITHOUT WARRANT AS TO THEIR PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF THIS PROGRAM IS ASSUMED BY YOU. HOWEVER, TO THE ORIGINAL PURCHASER ONLY, THE PUBLISHER WARRANTS THE MAGNETIC MEDIUM ON WHICH THE PROGRAM IS RECORDED TO BE FREE FROM DEFECTS IN MATERIALS AND FAULTY WORKMANSHIP UNDER NORMAL USE FOR A PERIOD OF NINETY DAYS FROM THE DATE OF PURCHASE. IF DURING THE NINETY-DAY PERIOD THE MEDIUM SHOULD BECOME DEFECTIVE, IT MAY BE RETURNED TO THE PUBLISHER FOR A REPLACEMENT WITHOUT CHARGE, PROVIDED YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY EXECUTED A SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT.

SQRIBE, SQR, SQR Execute, SQR Print, SQR Viewer, VisualSQRIBE, InSQRIBE, PowerSQRIBE, WebSQRIBE, ReportMart, RM/API, RM/InSQRIBE, RM/Publisher, RM/Script, and Instant HTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of SQRIB E T ec hnologies . All other company and product names used herein may be the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................................... ix Audience........................................................................................................................ x How to Use the SQR User’s Guide .............................................................................. x Related Documents ...................................................................................................... xi Syntax Conventions .................................................................................................... xii Setting up the Sample Database................................................................................. xii If You Need Help .......................................................................................................xiii

Part 1—SQR Basics
1 A Simple SQR Program ............................................................................................... 1 Creating and Running an SQR Program ..................................................................... 1 SQR Output ................................................................................................................... 2 2 Headings and Footings................................................................................................. 5 3 Selecting Data from the Database .............................................................................. 9 The SQR SELECT Statement ...................................................................................... 11 Syntax of the SELECT Statement ..................................................................... 11 Positioning Data ................................................................................................ 12 4 Column Variables ....................................................................................................... 15 5 Break Logic .................................................................................................................. 19 Using ON-BREAK....................................................................................................... 21 Skipping Lines Between Groups................................................................................ 22 Arranging Multiple Break Columns .......................................................................... 23 Break Processing with Enhancements ....................................................................... 25 Handling Page Breaks ....................................................................................... 29 Printing the Date................................................................................................ 29 Obtaining Totals ................................................................................................ 30 Hyphens and Underscores ............................................................................... 31 Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER .............................................. 31 Understanding the Order of Events................................................................. 32 Controlling Page Breaks with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns ............................... 38 Saving a Value When a Break Occurs ....................................................................... 38 Using ON-BREAK on a Hidden Column.................................................................. 39 Restrictions and Limitations of ON-BREAK............................................................. 41 6 The SETUP Section..................................................................................................... 45 Using DECLARE-LAYOUT ....................................................................................... 46

Part 2—SQR Reports
7 Master/Detail Reports ................................................................................................ 49
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Contents

SQR 4.3

Correlating Subqueries ............................................................................................... 51 8 Cross-Tabular Reports ................................................................................................ 55 Arrays........................................................................................................................... 56 Creating the Array ...................................................................................................... 59 Grouping by Category ................................................................................................ 60 Using Multiple Arrays ................................................................................................ 63 9 Printing Mailing Labels ............................................................................................. 69 Defining Columns and Rows ..................................................................................... 70 Running the Program.................................................................................................. 72 10 Creating Form Letters ............................................................................................... 75 Laying Out the Letter.................................................................................................. 75 11 Exporting Data to Other Applications .................................................................... 79

Part 3—Fonts and Graphics
12 Using Graphics .......................................................................................................... 83 Adding Graphics ......................................................................................................... 84 Sharing Images among Reports.................................................................................. 88 Printing Bar Codes ...................................................................................................... 92 13 Business Charts ......................................................................................................... 95 Creating a Chart .......................................................................................................... 95 Defining the Chart....................................................................................................... 99 Printing the Chart...................................................................................................... 100 Running the Program................................................................................................ 100 Passing Data to the Chart ......................................................................................... 102 14 Changing Fonts........................................................................................................ 105 Positioning Text ......................................................................................................... 105 Using WRAP.............................................................................................................. 108 15 Writing Printer-Independent Reports .................................................................. 111 Guidelines for Printer-Independent Reports........................................................... 111

Part 4—Advanced SQR Programming
16 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking ....................................................................... 115 Using Variables in SQL ............................................................................................. 115 Dynamic SQL............................................................................................................. 117 SQL Error Checking .................................................................................................. 119 SQL and Substitution Variables ............................................................................... 120 17 Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables ......................................... 123 Procedures ................................................................................................................. 123 Local Variables ................................................................................................. 124
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SQR 4.3

Contents

Argument Passing............................................................................................124 18 Multiple Reports......................................................................................................131 19 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements...............................................................137 Using BEGIN-SQL .....................................................................................................137 20 Working with Dates ................................................................................................141 Date Arithmetic .........................................................................................................141 Date Formats..............................................................................................................144 String to Date Conversions .............................................................................145 Date to String Conversions .............................................................................145 Using Dates with the INPUT Command .................................................................146 Date Edit Masks.........................................................................................................146 Declaring Date Variables ..........................................................................................148 21 National Language Support ...................................................................................151 Locales ........................................................................................................................151 Available Locales .............................................................................................151 The Default Locale.....................................................................................................152 Switching Locales ......................................................................................................153 Modifying Locale Preferences ..................................................................................154 Keywords—NUMBER, MONEY, and DATE .........................................................154 22 Interoperability........................................................................................................157 Calling SQR from Another Application...................................................................158 Using the SQR API ....................................................................................................158 Extending SQR—UFUNC.C .....................................................................................161 Adding a User Function............................................................................................162 Step 1. Add Function Prototype.....................................................................162 Step 2. Add Entry to USERFUNCS Table .....................................................163 Step 3. Add Implementation Code ................................................................164 Step 4. Relink SQR...........................................................................................165 ufunc on Windows 95 & NT .....................................................................................165 Implementing New User Functions on Windows 95 & NT ...................................166 23 Testing and Debugging ..........................................................................................167 Using the Test Feature...............................................................................................167 Using the #DEBUG Command .................................................................................168 Using Compiler Directives for Debugging..............................................................169 Common Programming Errors.................................................................................169 24 Performance and Tuning ........................................................................................171 SQR Performance and SQL Statements ...................................................................171 Simplifying a Complex SELECT...............................................................................172 Using LOAD-LOOKUP to Simplify Joins................................................................172

SQR User’s Guide

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................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 174 Examining SQL Cursor Status.............................. 207 SQR Capabilities Available with HTML ............................................................... 219 Output File Types .............................................................Contents SQR 4..................3 Improving SQL Performance with Dynamic SQL .......... 202 Passing Command-Line Arguments—Other Approaches ......................................................... 189 26 Printing Issues ............................................................................................................................... 218 Using Additional HTML Procedures......................................................................... 202 Using an Argument File .................... 175 Avoiding Temporary Database Tables .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 209 Setting HTML Attributes under -PRINTER:EH.............................................. 187 Executing Programs on the Database Server ........................................................................................................................................... 182 Creating Multiple Reports in One Pass ............................................................................................................................. 186 Processing Limits..... 201 How SQR Retrieves the Arguments.................................................. 204 Using Batch Mode ..................... 201 Specifying Command-Line Arguments ........................................................... Windows 95............................. 219 Testing .............................................................................................................. and Windows NT ................................................................................................. 205 UNIX.................................. 176 Using and Sorting Flat Files ............................................................................................................ 207 Producing HTML Output ............................ 186 Buffering Fetched Rows................................................. 208 HTML Output ....................................................................................................... 220 How to Use HTML Procedures .................... 211 Using -PRINTER:HT................................... 185 Compiling SQR Programs and Using SQR Execute .............................. 220 Using HTML Procedures in an SQR Program ....................................................................................................................................................... 204 Creating an Argument File from a Report.................................. 205 VAX/VMS ....................................................................................... 193 27 Using the SQR Command Line .... 205 28 Working with HTML ............................ 187 Part 5—Running and Printing 25 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute ........................................................................................................... 215 Setting Attributes with HTML Procedures.... 214 "Bursting" and Demand Paging.......................... 221 vi SQR User’s Guide .................................................................................................. 203 Reserved Characters ............................................................................................................... 199 Command-Line Flags ................................................. 201 Specifying Arguments and Argument Files .............................. 176 Using and Sorting Arrays ........ 185 Tuning SQR Numerics ................................................................................... 208 Using -PRINTER:EH..........................................................

sqr—Using Break Logic on a Hidden Column .......................25 ex5e...................sqr—Form Letter Program ...............................................................................................................................238 29 Tables of Contents............................................1 ex2a...................................................................................................................................sqr—Cross-Tabular Report with Grouping by Two Categories ...................................................225 Highlighting..........................................................21 ex5c...sqr—Program to Create Tab-Delimited File ..........................233 Publishing Using an Automated Process ..............235 Creating the CGI Script .....61 ex8c...........................................sqr—Tabular Report without Graphics.....................................50 ex8a..................................................69 ex9b...............................................................................................................SQR 4.........................................................................................227 Lists ......................................sqr—Printing a Heading and Footing.........227 Paragraph Formatting........................................85 acme...................................................................................................................................sqr—Order of Events in Break Processing........................................................................................................sqr—Tabular Report with Graphics.............................................................................................inc.................................................6 ex3a.....sqr—Cross-Tabular Report with Grouping by Category ...................................................sqr—Program with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns .............................................................................................................sqr—Form Letter with Graphics......................241 Index ..............................................................................................................33 ex5f.............................79 ex12a..221 Table Procedures....................57 ex8b..................................................39 ex7a......................88 ex12c.......................................................................9 ex5a...............................................................................236 Passing Arguments to the SQR Program .....83 ex12b..................................................sqr—Master/Detail Report .............228 User-Defined HTML........................................sqr—Program with Break Logic and Enhancements ..................................................................sqr—Cross-Tabular Report ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................sqr—A Report with Break Logic........233 Publishing Using a CGI Script ........................................................................3 Contents Positioning Objects........................................................sqr—Mailing Labels Program (Alternate Layout) ........................................89 SQR User’s Guide vii ...76 ex11a.........229 Publishing the Report ...........................................................................63 ex9a........................................................sqr—A Simple Tabular Report........................................................sqr—Selecting Data from the Database .........................................sqr—A Simple Program........................225 Hypertext Links...................................................24 ex5d...............................................249 Sample Programs ex1a.....sqr—Mailing Labels Program ................226 Images ................................................................................................................................................223 Headings ...........................234 Creating the Fill-Out Form .................................232 Viewing the Published Report ........................................................229 Modifying an Existing SQR Program.....19 ex5b......73 ex10a................................................................................................................................................................

...................... 121 spell......... 128 ex18a.................................................inc—spell_number procedure ................................................. 116 ex16b................... Table 6....................................... 183 ex28a................................... 161 Compile-Time Commands and Run-Time Equivalents ..........................sqr—Sorting a Flat File ...................... Table 7............. Table 4..............................sqr Modified with HTML Procedures.............. 230 Tables Table 1....................................................... 107 ex16a............... 223 ex28b.................................. 178 ex24b.................................sqr—Business Chart ......sqr—Check-Writing Program ........................ 118 ex16c..................................xii Commands Available in the SETUP Section................................ 191 Command-Line Flags and Output Types....................................................................................sqr—External Files and Database Inserts..................sqr—Multiple Report Program.........................................sqr—Program ex12a................................ 193 Print Commands by Operating System .sqr—Using Variables in SQL ...................... 45 Sample Date Edit Masks .... Table 3.. 138 ex24a........................................................................... Table 9..........................................................sqr—SQL and Substitution Variables................. 159 Error Values Returned by the SQR API ...................................... 196 SQR Command-Line Arguments. 96 ex14a.................................3 ex13a......................Contents SQR 4............ Syntax Conventions........................................................................sqr—Dynamic SQL .......... 146 The SQR API ..............................................sqr—QuickSort Procedure ........................................................................................................................... 199 viii SQR User’s Guide ............................. Table 2........................... Table 5...........................................................................................................................................sqr—Report with Multiple Fonts.. 125 ex17a....................................................................................... 131 ex19a...............................................................sqr—Simple Tabular Program with HTML Procedures. Table 8........................

numbers. a specialized language for database processing and reporting. It will help you create the kinds of SQR programs that are important to your organization. • Extend SQR with procedures and functions written in C. such as tabular. cross-tabular and master/detail reports. By working through code examples. and envelopes. The first three parts of the User’s Guide teach basic uses of SQR. such as front-end user interface tools and spreadsheets. • Test and debug your programs. You will learn how to: • Create HTML output and publish your reports on the Internet or an Intranet or Extranet. • Integrate SQR with other software packages. • Tune your programs for optimum performance.Introduction Welcome to the SQR User’s Guide. The tips and techniques you find here will help you take advantage of SQR’s advanced capabilities. and we encourage you to copy code from it. • Create reports that format dates. Many of these techniques will save you time in developing reports for your organization. This User’s Guide is filled with real examples and sample programs. SQR User’s Guide ix . • Enhance your reports with typeset-quality fonts and graphics. You will learn how to: • Create a variety of reports. The next two parts of the User’s Guide describe the advanced features and uses of SQR. This guide is designed to help you learn SQR. and money according to local preferences. you will learn how to write SQR programs that select data from a database and present it in a report. • Produce mailing labels. • Produce graphs and charts that will help you present data and trends in visual terms. form letters. • Create reports that can be easily ported between different systems and databases and that support different printer and display types.

You also need to be familiar with your particular database and operating system. you will find the sample programs in the TUTORIAL directory. How to Use the SQR User’s Guide If this is your first time using SQR. SYBASE. The rest of the User’s Guide discusses advanced features and more technical issues. If you have not already installed SQR on your system. To try the sample programs. see the installation instructions provided with SQR. you need a working knowledge of SQL and experience in writing software programs. However. Informix. you may wish to rerun the installation program to install just these files. Ingres. The examples may also be run against other databases with minor modifications. but you may find it somewhat easier to review SQR program results from the Windows platform using the SQR Viewer. x SQR User’s Guide . Audience This guide was written for programmers developing reports for relational databases. If your database is not named here. To use this guide effectively. and SQLBase databases. consult the SQR ® Language Reference or SQRIBE Technologies Technical Support for additional information. you must first install SQR. You can run the User’s Guide programs on any hardware platform. the first three parts (through Chapter 15) will give you everything that you need to get started.3 The code examples also demonstrate good SQR programming style. If you did not include the User’s Guide files in the original installation. we encourage you to try these programs for yourself and to experiment with them. We recommend that you adopt this standard style because it will make your code easier for other SQR programmers to read. If you installed all of the program components.Introduction SQR 4. The program examples in this guide can be run without modification against the Oracle. You can use this book by simply reading it and studying the code examples. Try making some changes to our examples and see how they run.

however. • SQR Server Installation Guide contains installation instructions and configuration information specific to your platform.3 or higher.3. and command-line flags. that you use an account that does not hold important data. Related Documents In addition to this User’s Guide.3 Introduction À Note You can set up the sample database and run the sample programs with any user name and password. • SQR Server Release Notes describes enhancements and new features. We recommend. arguments. and the code examples require SQR Version 4. • VisualSQRIBE User’s Guide explains how to quickly create SQR reports. • VisualSQRIBE Release Notes describes enhancements and new features. the SQR product includes the following documentation: ® • SQR Language Reference contains a complete reference to SQR commands.SQR 4. This guide describes the features for SQR Version 4. • VisualSQRIBE Installation Guide contains installation instructions and configuration information specific to your platform. SQR User’s Guide xi . using the graphical SQR development tool on Windows 95 and Windows NT systems.

xii SQR User’s Guide .sqr by double-clicking on the Loadall icon. or parentheses.. To do so. A single quote starts and ends a literal text constant or any argument that has more than one word.3 Syntax Conventions Syntax and code examples use the following conventions: Symbol {} [] . An ellipsis shows that the preceding parameter can be repeated. Change to the SAMPLE directory. Parentheses must enclose an argument or element. Square brackets enclose optional items.Introduction SQR 4. SQR commands and arguments are specified in bold uppercase. A comma separates multiple arguments. you can run loadall. A vertical bar separates alternatives within brackets. On the command line.. If your system does not display this icon. you will need to create a sample database. | ’ Description Braces enclose required items. execute loadall. Syntax Conventions . Table 1.sqr. enter: sqr loadall username/password If SQR is installed on Windows NT or Windows 95. Information and values that you must supply are specified in italics. () BOLD UPPERCASE Italic Setting up the Sample Database To run the sample programs in this guide.sqr from the SQR product’s SAMPLEW directory. braces. run the program loadall.

S.473. For example: sqr loadall username/password a If You Need Help If you are unable to resolve an SQR question or problem using product documentation and you have a valid SQRIBE Technologies support agreement.SQR 4.800.7489 (outside of North America). You will also need to know the version of SQR you are using. C—Reload all tables. If you wish to execute a SQRIBE support agreement.com. + 1. R.3 Introduction If an individual table already exists. you will be prompted to: A—Abort the load. or C) on the command-line.888. R—Reload the specified table.437. please call 1. Please be prepared to provide a valid customer number and company name. you may contact SQRIBE Technical Support from 6:00 AM to 5:30 PM Pacific Time at 1. SQR User’s Guide xiii . You may also send an e-mail message to support@sqribe.6391.1663 (within North America) or. S—Skip the specified table.562.436. You can also run this as a batch program by the preferred option (A. your operating system and database names and versions.

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You may run SQR from the command line or from a GUI on Windows systems. is always run from the command line.sqr. SQR User’s Guide 1 . Save this program with the name ex1a. Program ex1a.’ (1. END-PROGRAM.sqr begin-program print ’Hello.1 A Simple SQR Program In this chapter. The first sample program is the simplest SQR program. the next step is to save your code.sqr.1) end-program À Note For your convenience. enter the appropriate SQR program command at the system command prompt or from within the SQR application’s graphical user interface. Run the sample program. you will learn three SQR commands: BEGIN-PROGRAM. Use the command appropriate to your operating system to change to the directory in which you saved the program. It prints a text string. Then. where available. Creating and Running an SQR Program Open a text editor and enter the code printed above exactly as shown or open the ex1a.sqr file found in the TUTORIAL directory. SQR on UNIX systems. SQR programs are normally given a file extension of . and PRINT. You will also learn how to create and run an SQR program. all of the program examples and their output files are included with the installation. World. If you are actually writing the sample program code.

The output files should appear as soon as your program has finished running. SQR Command-Line Flags in the SQR Language Reference for a complete explanation of connectivity. you should see a command line similar to: sqrw ex1a sammy/baker@rome -KEEP In order to produce the desired output file for this exercise. include "sqr" or "sqrw".A Simple SQR Program SQR 4. the SQR program name and connectivity string.. Do not worry about its presence at this stage. you may easily view the sample program’s . The SQR Viewer is invoked from the command line with "sqrwv". one output file will be in SQR Portable Format (recognizeable by its . If you specified the -KEEP argument. SQR is invoked from the command line with "sqr".. SQR Portable Format will be discussed later in this book but for now. on Windows platforms with the SQR Viewer GUI (sometimes referred to as an "SPF viewer") or from within VisualSQRIBE using the File|Open menu commands.spf.] Consult Table 1. SQR Output SQR normally places the SQR program output files in the directory from which you run the program. you may be running SQR on Windows NT against an Oracle database located on another machine in your network.. The command that you should then execute would have the following format: sqrw ex1a username/password@servername -KEEP If you correctly replace username. On UNIX systems. and arguments. On SQR for Windows systems. The following syntax shows you how to run SQR from the command line: [sqr or sqrw] [program] [connectivity] [flags .. and servername with the appropriate information. In a common configuration. ex1a..] [args . the -KEEP flag is used in our example.] [@file .SPF file output. SQR Command-Line Arguments and Table 2. all on one line.. The output file will have the same file name as the SQR file that created it but the file extension will differ.3 If you are entering the information from the command line. password. 2 SQR User’s Guide .SPF extension). SQR is invoked from the command line with "sqrw". flags.

and VI on UNIX systems. Take another look at sample program ex1a. This program consists of three lines of code. These two commands and the code between them make up the PROGRAM section. the output will look like this: Output for ex1a. The PROGRAM section contains a PRINT command. The PROGRAM section is required. the program will also produce an output file with an . column one.LIS extension. MORE.LIS file. It is typically placed at or near the top of the program. which are used in SQR to distinguish literal text from other program elements. or <FF> at the end of this output file.1)" indicates line one. starting with BEGIN-PROGRAM and ending with END-PROGRAM." This text is enclosed in single quotation marks (’). An output page can be thought of as a grid of lines and columns.SQR 4.3 A Simple SQR Program On Windows and UNIX systems. À Note In SQR. It is the form feed character that ejects the last page.sqr Hello.sqr. Use the command appropriate to your system to view or print the . SQR User’s Guide 3 . which is used to control the order of processing. You may indent SQR commands. You may also see a character such as ^L. we do not show the form-feed characters. World. You may view this output file type from the command line with such commands as TYPE on Windows sytems or CAT. No matter what platform you are using. and you may have only one. which in this case prints the text "Hello. The last element of the PRINT command gives the position on the output page. you must place each command on a new line. World. In this guide. which is the top left corner of the page. The "(1.

• The PRINT command can be used to print a text string. 4 SQR User’s Guide .3 Summary • The PROGRAM section is where execution of the program begins. • Enter each command on a new line. The next chapter explains how to extend your program by printing a title on the top of the page and a page number on the bottom of the page.A Simple SQR Program SQR 4. • Print position can be expressed by a pair of numbers enclosed in parentheses.

body. the page can be divided into three logical areas. In SQR. This is where we print the report data. the date. Typically. The middle part of the page is called the body. The following diagram shows the structure of a page with heading. Here is the code: SQR User’s Guide 5 . You will learn to use the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING commands. The top area of the page is the heading. and footing: Heading lines Body lines Footing lines 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 Heading Body Footing The diagram also shows that the heading. In other words. you can print to the first line of the body using line number 1. independent of the size of the heading. This is where we normally print the report title and the date. such as the title. and footing each have independent line numbers. Here we normally print the page number. and the page number. The bottom area of the page is the footing. The program you wrote in the last chapter can be expanded by adding a page heading and footing.2 Headings and Footings This chapter explains how to create page headings and footings. You can print in each of these page areas using line numbers that are relative to the top corner of that area without being concerned about the size of the other areas. body. every page of a report has some information about the report itself.

sqr begin-program print ’Hello. World.sqr Tutorial Report Hello. World." Note that any space reserved for the heading and footing is taken away from the body. With one line each in the heading and footing.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing Output for ex2a. which is the number of lines reserved for the heading.1) end-program begin-heading 1 print ’Tutorial Report’ (1) center end-heading begin-footing 1 ! print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1. In our example.’ (1. The BEGIN-HEADING command is followed by a number. which means that the footing will take one line. The section starts with BEGIN-HEADING and ends with END-HEADING. This line will consist of the text "Page 1 of 1. which starts with BEGIN-FOOTING and ends with END-FOOTING.Headings and Footings SQR 4. Page 1 of 1 The page heading is defined in the HEADING section. Note also that line 1 of the body is actually the first line after the heading. The page footing is defined in the FOOTING section. the heading will take exactly one line and will consist of the text "Tutorial Report. the maximum possible size of the body of our report is reduced by two lines. The command BEGIN-FOOTING is followed by the number 1. 6 SQR User’s Guide ." The CENTER argument ensures that the text is centered on the line.3 Program ex2a.

within the heading.SQR 4. In the program. Similarly. not on paper. The position (1. If you also omit the line and column numbers.1) in the heading is not the same as the position (1. the print position defaults to the current position. A position in SQR is expressed as three numbers in parentheses— (line. In our example. you must type it twice to tell SQR not to take it as the beginning of a comment. performing the body first.1) in the body. SQR always prepares a page in memory before printing it to paper. and LAST-PAGE commands. What is the order of execution? The PRINT command actually places text in memory. Note the parentheses in the PRINT. World" is executed first. PAGE-NUMBER. body. In the example. The LAST-PAGE command prints the number of the last page. In many cases. column is the column (character position) and width is the width of the text. World!!’ (1. line 1 of the footing is at the bottom of the page. so line 1 of the body is actually the second line of the page. Line 1 of the body is the first line below the heading. or more precisely. Print position is a point within the area of the page. then "Tutorial Report" and "Page 1 of 1. If you want to print an exclamation mark. For example: print ’Hello. "Hello. In this case. then the HEADING and FOOTING sections." which is bracketed by spaces. It is the first line following the body. Comments are preceded by an exclamation mark.1) The PAGE-NUMBER command prints the text "Page " and the current page number. a position consists only of the line and column numbers. or footing. preceded by the word "of. the position following the last item printed. The width is normally omitted because it defaults to the width of the text being printed. the heading has only one line." SQR User’s Guide 7 . Numbers in these parentheses give the position for printing. SQR prints "Page 1 of 1" because there is only one page.column. the LAST-PAGE command has the position "()" so the current position here is the position following the page number.width)—where line is the line number.3 Headings and Footings The first line in the FOOTING section is a comment. and they extend from the exclamation mark to the end of the line.

• Exclamation marks are used to precede comments.3 Summary • An SQR program can have HEADING and FOOTING sections which create the heading and footing of a report page. • Print positions are expressed by numbers enclosed in parentheses. 8 SQR User’s Guide . • Page numbers can be printed in a "Page n of m" format with the PAGE-NUMBER and LAST-PAGE commands. • The CENTER option of the PRINT command centers text on a line.Headings and Footings SQR 4. The next chapter explains how to write a program that retrieves data from the database and prints it in a report.

Here is the code.32) state (.55) end-heading begin-footing 1 ! Print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1.3 Selecting Data from the Database This chapter describes how to write a program that lists data from the database and prints it in columns. An explanation of it follows. Because the BEGIN-SELECT command is used in a procedure.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers end-select end-procedure ! list_customers SQR User’s Guide 9 .1) print ’City’ (.49) phone (.32) print ’State’ (. Program ex3a. which is the principal means of retrieving data from the database and printing it in a report.49) print ’Phone’ (.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure list_customers begin-select name (. You will learn the BEGIN-SELECT command. you will also learn how to use procedures.1) city (.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 4 print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3.

2125550021 Harry’s Landmark Diner 3175550948 City Everretsville New York Queens Zanesville Davenport Mamaroneck Teaneck Cleveland Frogline New York Bell Harbor Big Falls New York Miningville State Phone OH NY NY OH IN NY NJ OH NH NY MI NM NY IN Page 1 of 1 The PROGRAM section consists of a single DO command. a procedure is a group of commands that are performed one after the other. The HEADING section (shown again below) creates headings for the report columns. 10 SQR User’s Guide . In SQR. Inc. We recommend that you break your program logic into procedures and keep the PROGRAM section small. Four lines are reserved for the heading.3 Output for ex3a. A procedure is invoked with a DO command. It should normally consist of a few DO commands for the main components of your report.sqr Customer Listing Name Gregory Stonehaven 2165553109 Alfred E Newman & Company 2125552311 Eliot Richards 2125554285 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 5185559813 Harold Alexander Fink 3015553645 Harriet Bailey 9145550144 Clair Butterfield 2015559901 Quentin Fields 2165553341 Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties 6125552877 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2125559000 Sam Johnson 3135556732 Joe Smith and Company 8085552124 Corks and Bottles. which invokes the procedure list_customers.Selecting Data from the Database SQR 4. like a procedure (or subroutine) in other programming languages.

Line 4 of the heading is left blank. It tells you which procedure is being ended.SQR 4. "Name.49) print ’Phone’ (. which is helpful when you have a program with many procedures. À Note You must name each individual column in a table—the SELECT * FROM statement is not allowed in SQR. CITY. which starts with BEGIN-SELECT and ends with END-SELECT.1) print ’City’ (. The SQR SELECT Statement Look again at the list_customers procedure. STATE. The SELECT paragraph is unique. (You can also omit the exclamation point: END-PROCEDURE main. You can also place SQR commands between the column names. and there are no commas between the column names. PHONE FROM CUSTOMERS Syntax of the SELECT Statement In an SQR SELECT paragraph." is positioned at line 3 of the heading. Note the comment following the END-PROCEDURE command.55) end-heading The title "Customer Listing" is printed on line 1. The rest of the column-heading commands omit the line numbers in their positions and default to the current line. Line 2 is left blank. SQR User’s Guide 11 .32) print ’State’ (. each column is on its own line. character position 1.3 Selecting Data from the Database begin-heading 4 print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3. The first column heading. Instead. It combines a SQL SELECT statement with SQR processing in a seamless way. The actual SQL statement is: SELECT NAME. and these commands will be executed for every record that the SELECT fetches. the word SELECT is omitted. which starts with BEGIN-PROCEDURE and ends with END-PROCEDURE.) The procedure itself contains a SELECT paragraph.

1) city (. be sure your numbers don't specify a position outside the page boundaries. The rest of the SQR SELECT statement is then written freely. including printing of columns. the POSITION command is indented to prevent it from being taken as a column name.49) phone (. you see positioning after each column name. omitting the line number in the position lets it default to the current line. Column names must be placed at the beginning of a line. This command will advance the current print position to the next line.55) position (+1) from customers end-select ! Advance to the next line The implied PRINT command is a special SQR feature designed to save you coding time. are executed in a loop. once for each record that is returned by the SELECT.32) state (. Positioning Data In SELECT statement (repeated below). The SQR commands. A plus sign moves the print position forward from the current position. begin-select name (. The word FROM must be the first word in a line. following SQL syntax. The loop ends after the last record is returned. The "+1" in our program means one line down from the current line. As before. This positioning implies a PRINT command for that column. It only works inside a SELECT paragraph.Selecting Data from the Database SQR 4.3 SQR distinguishes column names from SQR commands in a SELECT paragraph by their indentation. there is a POSITION command: POSITION(+1). and a minus sign moves it back. You can think of the SELECT paragraph as a loop. The plus sign (or minus sign) indicates relative positioning in SQR. 12 SQR User’s Guide . SQR commands must be indented at least one space— in the example below. When you indicate print positions using plus or minus signs. After the last column.

SQR 4. • The POSITION command is used to give a position. • A procedure begins with BEGIN-PROCEDURE and ends with END-PROCEDURE. • A SELECT paragraph begins with BEGIN-SELECT and ends with END-SELECT. SQR User’s Guide 13 . This is called an implied PRINT command. These variables hold the results from a SELECT paragraph. The next chapter describes a special kind of SQR variable called a column variable. • SQR commands in a SELECT paragraph must be indented at least one space to prevent them from being taken for column names. • In a SELECT statement.3 Selecting Data from the Database Summary • The DO command is used to invoke a procedure. you can print a column by entering it at the beginning of a line with a position qualifier.

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1) end-if position (+1) from customers end-select end-procedure ! list_customers The phone column is considered an SQR column variable.4 Column Variables This chapter explains how to name database columns with variables and how to use their values in conditions and commands. but you cannot assign a new value to a column variable. When you select columns from the database in a SELECT paragraph.1) else print &phone (. for example. You can use their existing value. you can immediately print them using a position.1) position (+1) from customers end-select But what if you want to use the value of phone for another purpose. Column variables are preceded with an ampersand (&). in a condition? The following example shows you how to do this. begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-procedure list_customers begin-select phone if &phone = ’’ print ’No phone’ (. SQR User’s Guide 15 . column variables are read-only. Unlike other program variables. For example: begin-select phone (.

date. as the following example demonstrates. depending on its contents.1) if &cust_cnt < 100 print ’Less than 100 customers’ end-if position (+1) from customers group by city. an empty string. 16 SQR User’s Guide . the program prints "No phone" instead. This is the default. the expression count(name) is selected. &phone is compared to ’ ’. In the program. begin-select phone &cust_phone if &cust_phone = ’’ print ’No phone’ (.3 In the sample program. For example: begin-select count(name) &cust_cnt (. state end-select In this example. or numeric variable. If &phone is an empty string. but you can change it. Note that the column variable &phone inherited its name from the phone column. In the condition.1) end-if position (+1) from customers end-select Why would you want to change the name of the column variable? One reason is that you may want to use a selected column in an expression that has no name. &phone is a column variable that you can use in SQR commands as if it were a string.Column Variables SQR 4. you store this expression in the column variable &cust_cnt and refer to it afterwards by that name.1) else print &cust_phone (.

Column variables are preceded with an ampersand (&). • Column variables can be used in commands and conditions.3 Column Variables Summary • In SQR. It will also explain how to print database records across multiple lines in a report. we can refer to database columns as variables.SQR 4. We can rename column variables to receive the value of expressions. SQR User’s Guide 17 . The next chapter introduces the concept of a report break.

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Here is the program without break logic: Program ex5a. or salesperson (or all three). region.5 Break Logic This chapter describes techniques for using break logic in your SQR programs. To see how a break works. you can write a program similar to the one in the Chapter 3 and then add break logic to it. A break is a change in the value of a column or variable. records with the same value for state—logically belong to a group. There are a number of reasons to use break logic in a report. It also presents some additional techniques to enhance the appearance of reports that use break logic. The break logic will make the grouping more apparent. When a break occurs. Break logic will allow you to do all that and more—you can print column headings. a new group begins. Records with the same value—for example.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program Program continues on the following page. subtotal a column. you may want to prepare a sales report with records grouped by product. count records. SQR User’s Guide 19 . and perform additional processing on the count or subtotal. It allows you to: • Add white space to your reports • Avoid printing redundant data • Perform conditional processing on variables that change • Print subtotals For example.

Inc.7) (1. To make the grouping more apparent.Break Logic SQR 4.3 Program ex5a. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers Output for ex5a.24) (1.sqr State City IN IN MI NH NJ NM NY NY NY NY NY OH OH OH Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. the records are grouped by state. and name (note the ORDER BY clause in the BEGIN-SELECT).55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state. city.1) city (. city.55) begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 When the output is sorted by state.7) name (. you can add a break.sqr (continued) begin-heading 2 print ’State’ print ’City’ print ’Name’ print ’Phone’ end-heading (1.24) phone (. 20 SQR User’s Guide .1) (1.

sqr with the exception of the line that prints the state column.SQR 4. SQR User’s Guide 21 . city. city.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 2 print ’State’ (1. name. the ON-BREAK option of the PRINT command accomplishes two related tasks—it starts a new group each time the value of state changes. and prints state only when its value changes.3 Break Logic Using ON-BREAK In the program below.7) print ’Name’ (1.1) print ’City’ (1.24) print ’Phone’ (1. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers The output is shown on the following page. The program below is identical to ex5a.55) end-heading begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (.24) phone (. This line is shown in bold. Program ex5b.7) name (. where state. Note that ON-BREAK works as well for implicit as for explicit PRINT commands. such as in the example below. and phone are implicitly printed as part of the SELECT paragraph.1) on-break city (.

Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH With break processing.3 Output for ex5b.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state.Break Logic SQR 4. with the modified line shown in bold: begin-select state (.7) name (. Skipping Lines Between Groups You can further enhance the visual effect of break processing by inserting one or more lines between groups. 22 SQR User’s Guide . Here is the list_customers procedure from ex5b. Inc. the state abbreviation is printed only once for each group.sqr State City IN MI NH NJ NM NY Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. To do so. use the SKIPLINES qualifier with ON-BREAK. name end-select The output is shown below.24) phone (. city.1) on-break skiplines=1 city (.sqr.

so it is logical to arrange them according to size—first state. SQR User’s Guide 23 . This sort of arrangement is called nesting. then city. use the LEVEL keyword. Add another ON-BREAK to the program so that city will also be printed only when its value changes. Inc. When you have multiple breaks. the breaks concern geographical units. you must arrange them in a hierarchy.SQR 4. The LEVEL qualifier allows you to control the order in which you call break procedures.3 Break Logic State IN MI NH NJ NM NY City Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles. You can apply the same break concept to the city column to make this grouping of customers more apparent. Number your breaks in the same order in which they are sorted in the ORDER BY clause." on page 31. you can also have multiple customers within a city. see "Understanding the Order of Events. and the breaks are said to be nested. In the sample program. You will learn more about this technique in the section "Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER. To ensure that the breaks are properly nested. This argument numbers breaks by level and specifies that the columns are printed in order of increasing break levels. from left to right. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH Arranging Multiple Break Columns As you can see in the previous example." on page 32. For more information on LEVEL.

Program ex5c. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers Output for ex5c. 24 SQR User’s Guide .sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 2 print ’State’ print ’City’ print ’Name’ print ’Phone’ end-heading (1. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Quentin Fields Gregory Stonehaven Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Phone 3015553645 3175550948 3135556732 6125552877 2015559901 8085552124 9145550144 2125552311 2125550021 2125559000 2125554285 2165553341 2165553109 5185559813 OH As you can see. there are three customers in New York.1) (1.55) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state.Break Logic SQR 4.24) (1.7) (1. Inc.sqr State City IN MI NH NJ NM NY Davenport Miningville Bell Harbor Frogline Teaneck Big Falls Mamaroneck New York New York New York Queens Cleveland Everretsville Zanesville Name Harold Alexander Fink Harry’s Landmark Diner Sam Johnson Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Clair Butterfield Joe Smith and Company Harriet Bailey Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles.3 The next example is identical to ex5a.24) phone (.sqr with the exception of the two lines that print the state and city columns.1) on-break level=1 city (.55) begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state (.7) on-break level=2 name (. These two lines are shown in bold. so the city name for the second and third customers is left blank. city.

The break processing is performed on the state column. address.1) print ’Customer Name. Here is the code: Program ex5d.40) fill end-heading begin-footing 2 ! print "Page n of m" page-number (1.1. The following example illustrates these techniques.1) print #state_total () edit 999.9) fill print ’-’ (4.1) ! Leave 2 blank lines.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-heading 4 print ’Customers Listed by State’ (1) center print $current-date (1.999 position (+3. The program selects the customer’s name. SQR User’s Guide 25 .11) print ’-’ (4. let #cust_total = #cust_total + #state_total let #state_total = 0 end-procedure ! state_tot Program continues on the following page.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure state_tot print ’ Total Customers for State: ’ (+1.1) Edit ’DD-Mon-YYYY’ print ’State’ (3.SQR 4. and telephone number from the database.11. Address and Phone Number’ (.3 Break Logic Break Processing with Enhancements When you use break logic. you may want to enhance your report by controlling page breaks or calculating counts and totals for the ON-BREAK column.

26 SQR User’s Guide .11) ! continue on fourth line phone (.11) ! continue on second line addr2 (+1. name end-select if #cust_total > 0 print ’ Total Customers: ’ (+3.11) addr1 (+1.1) print #cust_total () edit 999. state (.3 Program ex5d.+2) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx ! Edit for easy reading. ! Since each listing takes 4 lines.Break Logic SQR 4. next-listing skiplines=1 need=4 let #state_total = #state_total + 1 from customers order by state.1) end-if end-procedure ! list_customers The output is shown on the following pages. The procedure ’state_tot’ will also be ! executed only when the value of ’state’ changes.999 ! Total customers printed. we specify ’need=4’ to ! prevent a customer’s data from being broken across two pages. ! Skip 1 line between listings.sqr (continued) begin-procedure list_customers let #state_total = 0 let #cust_total = 0 begin-select ! The ’state’ field will only be printed when it ! changes.’ (1. else print ’No customers.1) on-break print=change/top-page after=state_tot name (.11) ! continue on third line city (+1.

---------------------------------------IN Harold Alexander Fink 32077 Cedar Street West End Davenport (301) 555-3645 Harry’s Landmark Diner 17043 Silverfish Road South Park Miningville (317) 555-0948 Total Customers for State: MI 2 Sam Johnson 37 Cleaver Street Sandy Acres Bell Harbor (313) 555-6732 Total Customers for State: 1 NH Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Crazy Lakes Cottages Rural Delivery #27 Frogline (612) 555-2877 Total Customers for State: 1 NJ Clair Butterfield 371 Youngstown Blvd Quit Woods Teaneck (201) 555-9901 Total Customers for State: 1 NM Joe Smith and Company 1711 Sunset Blvd East River Big Falls (808) 555-2124 Total Customers for State: 1 NY Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street Greenwich Village New York (212) 555-2311 Page 1 of 2 SQR User’s Guide 27 .3 Break Logic Output for ex5d. Address and Phone Number --------.sqr 29-Apr-1996 Customers Listed by State State Customer Name.SQR 4.

3 29-Apr-1996 Customers Listed by State State Customer Name.---------------------------------------NY Corks and Bottles. Jamaica New York (212) 555-0021 Eliot Richards 2134 Partridge Ave Jamaica Queens (212) 555-4285 Harriet Bailey 47 Season Street Bellevue Park Mamaroneck (914) 555-0144 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2100 Park Ave East Side City New York (212) 555-9000 Total Customers for State: OH 5 Gregory Stonehaven Middlebrook Road Grey Quarter Everretsville (216) 555-3109 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 37211 Columbia Blvd Sweet Acres Zanesville (518) 555-9813 Quentin Fields 37021 Cedar Road Beachwood Cleveland (216) 555-3341 Total Customers for State: 3 Total Customers: 14 Page 2 of 2 28 SQR User’s Guide . 167 East Blvd.Break Logic SQR 4. Address and Phone Number --------. Inc.

then renumbers the current line as line 1. the value of state will be printed not only when it changes. Printing the Date In the HEADING section. The state and the customer name are printed on the first line. For a complete listing of reserved variables. the value of the ON-BREAK column will be printed when it changes and after every page break. In this case. and strings. To control the printing of the value. the complete command is PRINT $current-date (1. or reserved. dates. or format. SQR provides predefined. SQR User’s Guide 29 . This command serves two purposes. SQR provides a large variety of edit masks for use in formatting numbers.3 Break Logic Take a close look at the code." on page 31. With this qualifier.SQR 4. if there are fewer than four lines left on a page. They are fully described in the SQR Language Reference.1) EDIT ’DD/MM/YYYY’. the reserved variable $current-date is used to print the date and the time. Handling Page Breaks If a page break occurs within a group. The NEED=4 argument prevents a listing from being split over two pages by specifying the minimum number of lines needed to write a new listing on the current page. This argument calls the state_tot procedure after each change in the value of state. you may want to reprint headings and the value of the break column at the top of the new page. In this example. This variable is initialized with the date and time of the client machine at the start of program execution. The SKIPLINES=1 argument skips one line between records. variables for a variety of uses. The EDIT argument specifies an edit mask. The program also uses the argument AFTER=STATE_TOT. for printing the date. To format records. SQR will start a new page. In this example. The data is printed using a SELECT paragraph in the list_customers procedure. It prints the date and time at position 1. use the NEXT-LISTING command.1 of the heading. The customer’s address and phone number are printed on the next three lines. The order of processing is explained in the section "Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER. see the SQR Language Reference. but whenever the report starts a new page. use PRINT=CHANGE/TOP-PAGE.

The last two commands in the HEADING section print a string of hyphens under the column headings. The variable #state_total is incremented by 1 for every row selected. Their names are #state_total and #cust_total. Note the use of the edit mask EDIT 999. so there is normally no need to initialize them. In the FOOTING section. In the list_customers procedure. Note the use of the FILL option of the PRINT command. which formats the number. SQR has a small set of variable types. even though the date is on the left and the title is on the right. Obtaining Totals The program ex5d.3 Note that the PRINT command for the report title precedes the command for the $current-date reserved variable. SQR always assembles a page in memory before printing. its length is automatically adjusted. The most common types are numeric variables and the string variables. In SQR. These calculations are performed with two numeric variables. All numeric variables start out as zero and all string variables start out as null.999. the program calls the state_tot procedure and prints the value of #state_total. This initialization is optional and is done for clarity only. #state_total and #cust_total are set to zero at the beginning of the procedure. one for the subtotals and one for the grand totals. When a new value is assigned to a string variable. 30 SQR User’s Guide .Break Logic SQR 4. When the value of state changes. An additional SQR variable type is the date variable (see Chapter 20). so the order of these commands doesn’t matter as long as you use the correct print position qualifiers. numeric and string variables are not explicitly declared. The string variables are of varying length and can hold long strings of characters as well as short ones. All numeric variables in SQR are preceded with a pound sign (#) and all string variables are preceded with a dollar sign ($). we print the "Page n of m" as we did in earlier examples.sqr also prints two totals—a subtotal of customers in each state and a grand total of all customers. respectively. they are implicitly defined by their first use. It tells SQR to fill the specified width with this pattern. It’s a good way to print a line. Instead.

The condition starts with IF followed by an expression. In that case. If it is greater than zero. Otherwise. whereas procedure and variable names use an underscore. if there is an ELSE part to the IF.1) on-break before=state_heading after=state_tot SQR User’s Guide 31 . Setting Break Procedures with BEFORE and AFTER When you print variables with ON-BREAK. If #cust_total is equal to zero. Using underscores in procedure and variable names will help you distinguish them from SQR commands. It will also prevent confusion when you mix variable names and numbers in an expression. LET is the assignment command in SQR. the query has returned rows of data.SQR 4. At the end of the procedure." Hyphens and Underscores You may have noticed that many SQR commands. the program prints the string "No customers. and it lets you build complex expressions.3 Break Logic This procedure also employs the LET command. where hyphens could be mistaken for minus signs. LET is used to add the value of #state_total to #cust_total. the subsequent commands are executed. Procedure and variable names may contain either a hyphen or underscore. The list_customers procedure contains an example of SQR’s if-then-else logic. and the program will print the string "Total Customers: " and the value of #cust_total. you can automatically call procedures before and after each break in a column. such as BEGIN-PROGRAM and BEGIN-SELECT. use a hyphen. Here. For example: begin-select state (. IF commands always end with an END-IF. In this case. those commands are executed. If the expression evaluates to true or to a number other than zero. the query has not returned any data. #state_total is reset to zero. the value of #cust_total is examined. The BEFORE and AFTER qualifiers give you this capability. but we strongly recommend you use an underscore.

the AFTER qualifier automatically calls the state_tot procedure to print totals after each group of records. and zip—are printed in the next record. a break on state also means a break on city. When state breaks. zip end-select The breaks are processed as follows: 1.45) on-break level=3 after=zip_tot from customers order by state. All BEFORE procedures are automatically invoked before each break. and state_tot procedures are processed in that order. 2.3 The BEFORE qualifier automatically calls the state_heading procedure to print headings before each group of records of the same state. particularly where there are multiple ON-BREAK columns. In ex5c. The following SELECT statement has breaks on three levels: begin-select state (. city. and the old value saved. the zip_tot. Similarly. it also forces breaks on variables with higher LEVEL qualifiers. including the first—in other words. When a break occurs at one level. lines skipped. all AFTER procedures are invoked after each break. including the last group—in other words.7) on-break level=2 after=city_tot skiplines=1 zip (. before the SELECT is even processed. When zip breaks. Understanding the Order of Events You can define a hierarchy of break columns by using the LEVEL qualifier of ON-BREAK. then the city_tot procedure is executed. A break on a variable can trigger many other events. city_tot.sqr. the city_tot procedure is executed. 32 SQR User’s Guide . One line is skipped after the city_tot procedure is executed. 3. first the zip_tot procedure is executed.Break Logic SQR 4. In the sample program. and two lines are skipped after the state_tot procedure is executed. The value may be printed. state was defined as LEVEL=1 and city as LEVEL=2. and one line is skipped (SKIPLINES=1). Similarly. for example. city.1) on-break level=1 after=state_tot skiplines=2 city (. It is important to know the order of events. When city breaks. upon completion of the SELECT. procedures automatically called. Both city and zip are printed in the next record. All three columns—state.

It has three ON-BREAK columns.40) end-procedure The program continues on the following page.40) end-procedure begin-procedure cc print ’BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3’ (+1. Program ex5e.sqr begin-setup declare-Layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure a print ’AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1’ (+1.3 Break Logic The following program (ex5e. SQR User’s Guide 33 .SQR 4.sqr) demonstrates the order of events in break processing.40) end-procedure begin-procedure b print ’AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2’ (+1.40) end-procedure begin-procedure aa print ’BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1’ (+1.40) end-procedure begin-procedure bb print ’BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2’ (+1. The BEFORE and AFTER procedures print strings to indicate the order of processing. each with a LEVEL argument and a BEFORE and AFTER procedure.40) end-procedure begin-procedure c print ’AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3’ (+1.

sqr (continued) begin-procedure main local begin-select add 1 to #count print ’Retrieved row #’ (+1.+10)Edit 9999 position (+1) state (3.10) print ’ZIP’ (3.25) print ’Break Processing sequence’ (3.zip end-select end-procedure begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.1) print ’CITY’ (3.Break Logic SQR 4.3 Program ex5e.60) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ print ’STATE’ (3.city.40) print #count (. 34 SQR User’s Guide .1) On-Break Level=1 after=a before=aa city (3.25) On-Break Level=3 after=c before=cc Edit xxxxx next-listing Need=10 from customers order by state.40) end-heading The output is shown on the following pages.10) On-Break Level=2 after=b before=bb zip (3.1) edit ’DD-MM-YYYY’ page-number (1.

3 Break Logic Output for ex5e.SQR 4.sqr 02-05-1996 STATE IN CITY Davenport ZIP 62130 Page 1 of 3 Break Processing sequence BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 1 Retrieved row # Miningville 40622 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # MI Bell Harbor 40674 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NH Frogline 04821 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NJ Teaneck 00355 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # NM Big Falls 87893 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 6 5 4 3 2 SQR User’s Guide 35 .

3 02-05-1996 STATE NY CITY Mamaroneck ZIP 10833 Page 2 of 3 Break Processing sequence Retrieved row # 7 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # New York 10002 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 10134 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # 10204 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # Queens 10213 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # OH Cleveland 44121 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure state LEVEL 1 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 Retrieved row # Everretsville 40233 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 13 12 11 10 9 8 36 SQR User’s Guide .Break Logic SQR 4.

Select First Row of Data The first row of data is selected. Process BEFORE Procedures BEFORE procedures are processed in ascending order by LEVEL before the first row of the query is retrieved. Select Subsequent Rows of Data Processing of the SELECT continues. SAVE variables are set with the value of the previous ON-BREAK column. When a break occurs on any column.SQR 4. 5. The value of the new group is printed (unless PRINT=NEVER is specified). it also triggers breaks on columns at the same or higher levels. See "Saving a Value When a Break Occurs. for an explanation of the SAVE argument. 2. BEFORE procedures are not executed. Step 3. If SKIPLINES was specified.3 Break Logic 02-05-1996 STATE CITY Zanesville ZIP 44900 Page 3 of 3 Break Processing sequence Retrieved row # 14 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure city LEVEL 2 BEFORE Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure zip LEVEL 3 AFTER Procedure city LEVEL 2 AFTER Procedure for state LEVEL 1 The following steps explain the order of processing in detail. SQR User’s Guide 37 . BEFORE procedures are processed in ascending order from the current level to the highest level. 3. Step 1. Events occur in the following order: 1. 4." below. the current line position is advanced. Step 2. AFTER procedures are processed in descending order from the highest level to the level of the current ON-BREAK column. If no data is selected.

For example. To do this. Process AFTER Procedures After the SELECT is complete. state.sqr. the state_tot procedure prints the total number of customers per state. if any rows were selected. Because it is called with the AFTER argument. You can prevent page breaks within a record by following four simple rules: • Place ON-BREAK columns ahead of other columns in your SELECT statement. While it may be acceptable to have a page break within a group.Break Logic SQR 4. you may wish to print the previous value of the ON-BREAK column in the AFTER procedure. page breaks call for careful planning. Saving a Value When a Break Occurs In ex5d. use the SAVE qualifier of ON-BREAK.1) on-break after=state_tot save=$old_state You can then print the value of $old_state in the state_tot procedure. however. The answer is to save the previous break value in a string variable. has changed. you probably would not want to have one within a record. this procedure is executed only after the value of the ON-BREAK column. 38 SQR User’s Guide . • Use the same line positions for all ON-BREAK columns. • Avoid using WRAP and ON-BREAK together on one column. For example: begin-select state (. Controlling Page Breaks with Multiple ON-BREAK Columns Where there are multiple columns with ON-BREAK. AFTER procedures are processed in descending order by LEVEL. Simply printing the value of state will not work because its value will have changed by the time the AFTER procedure is called. • Place the lower-level ON-BREAK columns ahead of the higher-level ON-BREAK columns in your SELECT statement. Sometimes.3 Step 4. you may want to print the state name along with the totals for each state.

The way to create such a report is to "hide" the break variable with the PRINT=NEVER qualifier and print it in a heading procedure called by BEFORE.1) bold ! Advance a line and print ’City’ print ’Name’ (.58) fill position (+1) ! Advance to the next line end-procedure ! state_heading Note that this program has no HEADING section.18) bold print ’Phone’ (.49) bold print ’-’ (+1. city. Program ex5f. you may want to incorporate the ON-BREAK variable into a subheading.8) bold ! Print the state column here print ’City’ (+1.sqr. name end-select end-procedure ! list_customers begin-procedure state_heading print ’State: ’ (+1. SQR User’s Guide 39 . The key lines are shown in bold. Instead.49) position (+1) ! Advance to the next line from customers order by state.sqr begin-program do list_customers end-program begin-procedure list_customers begin-select state () on-break before=state_heading print=never level=1 city (.1) on-break level=2 name (.SQR 4. It is also useful when you want to leave room on the page for additional columns. you may want to use the features of break processing without printing the ON-BREAK variable.1) bold ! Advance a line and print ’State:’ print &state (. a procedure prints column headings for each state rather than at the top of each page. For example. The following code is based on the program ex5b.1.3 Break Logic Using ON-BREAK on a Hidden Column In some reports.18) phone (. This format might make your report more readable.

this break is set to LEVEL=1. The city column is assigned a LEVEL=2 break. Instead. The BEFORE qualifier specifies that the state_heading procedure will be called automatically before each change in state. In this procedure.Break Logic SQR 4. The output is shown below.3 Note also that the &state variable can be referenced throughout the program. In this program. even though the state column was not printed as part of the break. The most interesting line in the program is this one from the SELECT statement: state () on-break before=state_heading print=never level=1 This line defines the break processing for state. the state column is referred to as the column variable &state. it is printed in the state_heading procedure. The PRINT=NEVER qualifier makes the state column a hidden column and specifies that it won’t be printed as part of the SELECT statement. 40 SQR User’s Guide .

SQR 4. you must first move its value to a string variable and set ON-BREAK on that.sqr State: IN City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Davenport Harold Alexander Fink 3015553645 Miningville Harry’s Landmark Diner 3175550948 State: MI City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Bell Harbor Sam Johnson 3135556732 State: NH City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Frogline Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties 6125552877 State: NJ City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Teaneck Clair Butterfield 2015559901 State: NM City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Big Falls Joe Smith and Company 8085552124 State: NY City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Mamaroneck Harriet Bailey 9145550144 New York Alfred E Newman & Company 2125552311 Corks and Bottles. For example: SQR User’s Guide 41 . Inc.3 Break Logic Output for ex5f. If you need to perform break processing on a numeric variable. 2125550021 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2125559000 Queens Eliot Richards 2125554285 State: OH City Name Phone ---------------------------------------------------------Cleveland Quentin Fields 2165553341 Everretsville Gregory Stonehaven 2165553109 Zanesville Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 5185559813 Restrictions and Limitations of ON-BREAK ON-BREAK cannot be used with SQR numeric variables.

and date variables. but you may increase this setting. 42 SQR User’s Guide .1) on-break from cash_receipts order by amount_received end-select The maximum number of ON-BREAK levels is determined by the ON-BREAK setting in the [Processing-Limits] section of the SQR. • The SET and LEVEL qualifiers. Numeric variables are preceded with a pound sign (#) and start out as 0. • The SQR reserved variable $current-date holds the current date and time. • The SAVE qualifier saves the value of a previous group to a variable. • ON-BREAK LEVEL arranges breaks hierarchically.999. • The BEFORE and AFTER arguments set break procedures. such as the state column in a listing of customer addresses. • PRINT=CHANGE/TOP-PAGE prints a column after a page break or after a change in the column’s value. • SQR provides numeric. • ON-BREAK SKIPLINES inserts space between groups of records.INI file. see the SQR Language Reference. String variables are preceded with a dollar sign ($) and start out as null.INI. It allows you to build expressions. The default is 30. in conjunction with BEFORE and AFTER.3 begin-select amount_received &amount move &amount to $amount $$9.99 print $amount (+1. • NEXT-LISTING keeps a group of lines on the same page. Summary • PRINT ON-BREAK performs special processing when a value changes.Break Logic SQR 4. determine the order of events.535). For more information on SQR. • LET is the SQR assignment command. There is no need to initialize either variable type. string. Its maximum value is 64K-1 (65.

INI file determines the maximum number of ON-BREAK levels in a program. If you need to perform break processing on a numeric variable. • The ON-BREAK setting in the SQR. you must first move its value to a string variable and set ON-BREAK on that. The next chapter describes the SETUP section of an SQR program.SQR 4.3 Break Logic • ON-BREAK cannot be used with SQR numeric variables. For more information on the ON-BREAK argument. SQR User’s Guide 43 . see the PRINT command in the SQR Language Reference.

6

The SETUP Section
This chapter introduces the SQR SETUP section. This section is not required in a program, but it is very useful. The SETUP section holds all the declarations. Declarations define certain report characteristics and the source and attributes of various report components, such as charts and images. The SETUP section is evaluated when your program is compiled. The SETUP section, if present, is typically placed at the top of the program before the PROGRAM section. It begins with BEGIN-SETUP and ends with END-SETUP. The following commands can be issued in the SETUP section. If used, they are processed at compile time, before the program begins executing. For more information about the following commands, see the SQR Language Reference.

Command
ALTER-LOCALE ASK BEGIN-SQL CREATE-ARRAY DECLARE-CHART DECLARE-IMAGE DECLARE-LAYOUT DECLARE-PRINTER DECLARE-PROCEDURE DECLARE-REPORT DECLARE-TOC DECLARE-VARIABLE LOAD-LOOKUP USE

Comments
Can also appear in a procedure. Allowed only in SETUP section. Can also appear in a procedure. Executed when a run-time file (.SQT) is loaded. Can also appear in a procedure.

Can also appear in a local procedure. Can also appear in a procedure. SYBASE only.

Table 2. Commands Available in the SETUP Section

SQR User’s Guide

45

The SETUP Section

SQR 4.3

Using DECLARE-LAYOUT
One common declaration used in the SETUP section is the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. This command sets the page layout and includes such important options as the paper size and margins. Here is a typical SETUP section:
begin-setup ! Declare the default layout for this report declare-layout default paper-size=(8.5,11) left-margin=1 right-margin=1 top-margin=1 bottom-margin=1 end-declare end-setup

In the above example, the DECLARE-LAYOUT command sets the paper size to 8 1/2 by 11 inches, with all margins at 1 inch. In SQR, data is positioned on the page using line and character position coordinates. Think of the page as a grid where each cell holds one character. With such a grid, in a position qualifier consisting of (line,column,width), column and width are numbers that denote characters and spaces. The SQR page layout is shown below:
Character width Paper size (width) Top margin

Line height Paper size (height)

Right margin

Left margin

Bottom margin

46

SQR User’s Guide

SQR 4.3

The SETUP Section

The diagram shows how the main attributes of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command affect the structure of the page. The PAPER-SIZE argument defines the dimensions of the entire page, including margins. The arguments TOP-MARGIN, LEFT-MARGIN, BOTTOM-MARGIN, and RIGHT-MARGIN define the margins. In SQR, you cannot print in the margins. In the sample code above, the left margin will use 10 spaces and the top margin will use 6 lines. The page width will accommodate 65 characters (without the margins) and 54 lines. The default mapping of characters and lines to inches is 10 CPI (characters per inch) and 6 LPI (lines per inch). This means that each character cell is 1/10 inch wide and 1/6 inch high. These settings are used when a program does not contain a DECLARE-LAYOUT command. You can override the default settings by using the LINE-HEIGHT and CHAR-WIDTH arguments in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. These arguments will adjust the dimensions of the grid, which implies a change in the meaning of column and line. If your DECLARE-LAYOUT paragraph includes the arguments LINE-HEIGHT=1 and CHAR-WIDTH=1, the cells in the grid will measure 1 point by 1 point (1 point = 1/72 inch or approx. 0.35 mm). In that case, column will be a dimension given in points. The length of a string, however, will still be given in characters. Alternatively, you can use the MAX-LINES and MAX-COLUMNS arguments of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command to specify the number of lines on the page and the number of characters to fit across the page. SQR will calculate the line height and character width based on these settings and the size of the page and margins. Coordinates are specified in terms of lines and character positions. The first line from the top is 1 and the first column (from the left) is 1. There is no coordinate 0. The DECLARE-LAYOUT command also allows you to declare the page orientation. Note that this declaration does not affect how SQR uses position coordinates. Line and character positions are not transposed when page orientation is switched. The only effect of the ORIENTATION option of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command is that SQR will switch the printer to the specified orientation, portrait or landscape. The default mode is portrait.

SQR User’s Guide

47

The SETUP Section

SQR 4.3

Summary
• The SETUP section holds declarations and several commands. Most commands in the SETUP section are performed at compile time. • DECLARE-LAYOUT sets the page layout and includes such important options as the paper size and margins.
The next chapter explains how to create a master/detail report, which combines information from multiple tables.

48

SQR User’s Guide

7 Master/Detail Reports This chapter presents master/detail reports. such as customers and orders. "Break Logic. The solution is to create a master/detail report with one SELECT that retrieves records from the master table. In our example. This type of report has one major disadvantage—if a master record has no associated detail records. followed by separate SELECT statements that retrieve the detail records associated with each master record. For each customer. whether they have detail records or not. The customer information is the "master" and the orders are the "detail. one BEGIN-SELECT returns the names of customers. you can obtain such information with a single SQR SELECT statement. In such a program. it will not be displayed. one to retrieve order information and another to retrieve payment information. which show hierarchical information. If you need to show all master records. two additional BEGIN-SELECT commands are performed. You can implement break logic as described in Chapter 5. The following diagram depicts the BEGIN-SELECT structure in this example: Customers Orders Payments SQR User’s Guide 49 ." to group the detail records for each master record. this type of report will not meet your needs. The code example in this chapter produces just such a report. the data from the master table is joined with data from the detail table. The information is normally retrieved from multiple tables that have a one-to-many relationship." In many cases.

+1. one query returns customer names and two nested queries return detail information.10) let #any = 1 end-if date_received (+1.1. "Dynamic SQL and Error Checking.Master/Detail Reports SQR 4.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select Print ’Customer Information’ (.99 from cash_receipts a where a.3 When one query returns master information and another query returns detail information. 50 SQR User’s Guide .1. This variable correlates the customer number (cust_num) with the current customer record.16) state (. each one retrieving records that correspond to the current customer.13) Edit $$$$.$$0.cust_num = #cust_num end-select end-procedure ! cash_receipts Program continues on the following page.45) Fill name (+1.+1.2) cust_num do cash_receipts(&cust_num) do orders(&cust_num) position (+2.20) edit ’DD-MON-YY’ amount_received (.1) from customers end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure cash_receipts (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Cash Received’ (+2." for a more detailed explanation of bind variables.10) print ’-------------’ (+1.) Program ex7a. The subqueries are correlated with a bind variable in the WHERE clause. The nested queries are invoked once for each customer. In our sample program.+1. (See Chapter 16.10. the detail query is nested within the master query.25) city (.1) Print ’-’ (+1.

product_code = c. the procedures perform the same query with a different value for the cust_num variable in the WHERE clause.+1. which correspond to the three queries.13) Edit $$$$.cust_num = #cust_num end-select end-procedure ! orders begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.sqr (continued) begin-procedure orders (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Orders Booked’ (+2.order_num and b. SQR User’s Guide 51 .order_num = b.+1. It retrieves the customer names.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.20) c.$$0.10) let #any = 1 end-if a. "Procedures.99 from orders a.69) ’Page ’ end-heading Correlating Subqueries The above program consists of three procedures. and orders.order_num order_date (+1. SQR will not execute the following PRINT commands. When the BEGIN-SELECT command returns no records. Each time. For each customer.10. The procedure main is the master. Note the use of the IF command and the numeric variable #any in these procedures.20) Edit ’DD-MON-YY’ description (. cash_receipts and orders are called many times. if there are any. the headings for these procedures are only displayed for those customers who have records in the detail tables. ordlines b. This feature is discussed in more detail in Chapter 17. and orders to list the customer’s orders." As you can see.product_code and a.price * b. if there are any.3 Master/Detail Reports Program ex7a. once for each customer. Argument Passing. and Local Variables. cash_receipts. The procedures take the variable cust_num as an argument.quantity (.SQR 4. main. Thus.10) print ’-------------’ (+1. we invoke the procedures cash_receipts to list the cash receipts. products c where a.

25 Output continues on the following page.quantity.12 $260. À Note See Chapter 20. If there are fewer digits than the six that we allowed here. 52 SQR User’s Guide .Master/Detail Reports SQR 4. Output for ex7a. Finally.price * b." for more information on formatting dates.99.$$0.00 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Alfred E Newman & Company New York NY Cash Received ------------01-MAR-94 $140.00 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Eliot Richards Queens NY Cash Received ------------16-JAN-94 17-JAN-94 Orders Booked ------------02-MAY-94 02-MAY-94 $220." This format uses a "floating-to-the-right" money symbol. note that the format given to the dollar amount with the argument EDIT "$$$$.19 $3.980.sqr 26-APR-1996 Page 1 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Gregory Stonehaven Everretsville OH Cash Received ------------01-FEB-94 $130. The expression is c. the dollar sign will float to the right and stay close to the number.3 The procedure orders demonstrates the use of an expression in the BEGIN-SELECT. "Working with Dates.00 Whirlybobs Canisters $239.

00 Ginger snaps Modeling clay $44.3 Master/Detail Reports Output for ex7a.300.00 $1. • Queries that retrieve detail information are said to be nested in the queries that retrieve master information.SQR 4.05 Summary • Multiple BEGIN-SELECT commands can be used to retrieve detail information that is contained in different database tables. The next chapter describes how to create cross-tabular reports and assemble data in an SQR array.90 Customer Information --------------------------------------------Harold Alexander Fink Davenport IN Cash Received ------------01-FEB-94 01-MAR-94 Orders Booked ------------19-MAY-94 19-MAY-94 $1.200.00 $19.872.28 $517. SQR User’s Guide 53 .902.100. • Subqueries are joined to the main query by use of bind variables.sqr Customer Information --------------------------------------------Isaiah J Schwartz and Com Zanesville OH Cash Received ------------18-JAN-94 02-JAN-94 Orders Booked ------------02-MAY-94 02-MAY-94 $190.00 $1.00 Hop scotch kits Wire rings $6.

.

443 $5.209 $0 $3. These reports are useful for presenting summary numeric data.----------. SQR User’s Guide 55 . A category may also represent a range.------Total $2. The records fall into nine groups: three products sold through three sales channels. Products are classified as durable and nondurable. as demonstrated in the next example: Orders by Product by Product Category Less than 10 10 to 100 ----------. Cross-tabular reports vary in format.-----------.------0 320 924 1876 ------------.-----------.or spreadsheet-like reports.-----------.100 $1. Resellers can be domestic resellers plus international distributors.185 This report is based on many sales records. For example.--------.------1443 2196 In this example.520 $1.----------. Each row corresponds to a product. Some groups have no sales (such as mail order for Product A). Each category may be a discrete value of some database column or a set of values.-----------. The three middle columns correspond to sales channel categories.--------Total 322 431 Order Size More than 100 Total ------------. which are matrix.8 Cross-Tabular Reports This chapter presents cross-tabular reports.222 $1.309 B $120 $311 $519 $950 C $2 $0 $924 $926 ---------.--------. the rows correspond to nondiscrete categories.--------Durable 200 120 Nondurable 122 311 ----------.------A $2. which shows sales revenue summarized by product by sales channel: Revenue by Product by Sales Channel Product Direct Sales Resellers Mail Order Total ---------. Look at the following example. The columns represent categories that are ranges of order size.

These reports become more complex when the number of columns is not predefined and when there are more columns than can fit across the page. the row number. but they could be sums. averages. Data retrieved once and stored in an array can be presented in many ways without additional database queries. as we will see later in Chapter 13. SQR arrays are referenced in expressions as array_name. and it also has repeating fields (the "third dimension"). Of course.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4. the program must determine the range to which it belongs and add 1 to the count for that category. Arrays In a many cases." It has fields (columns) and rows. An array is a unit of storage that consists of rows and columns and exists in memory.sub2]). The second field is the order quantity of each month. the program needs to keep the data in some buffer where it can accumulate the numbers. Repeating fields are also numbered starting with zero. The second subscript (sub2) is specified when the field repeats. using one can be beneficial. This specific example could be programmed without an array. Rows are numbered starting with zero.3 For each record selected. but as you will see later. "Business Charts. There are three months in the example. The subscript can be a literal or an SQR numeric variable. but it exists only in memory. The numbers in the cells are counts. there are other types of cross-tabular reports. Sub1 is the first subscript.field(sub1[. this field occurs (repeats) three times. An array is similar to a database table. In the order_qty array. the program must process all the records before it can begin printing the data. an array called order_qty is created to hold the sum of the quantity of orders in a given month. the first field is the product description. 56 SQR User’s Guide . In the next sample program. This can be done in an SQR array. The data can even be presented in a chart." This example demonstrates an SQR feature called a "three-dimensional array. therefore. or any other expression. During the processing.

month_qty(#i.999 print #feb (.999 print #grand_total (.999.999 print #mar (.52.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.52.999.sqr #define max_products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=product:char end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.9) edit 9.1) let #mar = order_qty.SQR 4.999.product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.999 print #prod_tot (.62.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8a.999 print #mar_total (.62.9) edit 9.999 end-procedure print_array size={max_products} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page.42.30) print #jan (.0) let #feb = order_qty.999 print #feb_total (.999.32.999.32.9) edit 9.42.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.999.999.1) print #jan_total (.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.month_qty(#i.9) edit 9.999.1.month_qty(#i. SQR User’s Guide 57 .

’MM’)) .product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 4 print $current-date (1.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty.product_code = c.1) print ’ January’ (.order_num = b.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.#j) = order_qty.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty.62) print ’-’ (4.1) print ’Order Quantity by Product by Month’ (1.order_num and b.month_qty(#i. products c where a.sqr (continued) begin-procedure select_data begin-select order_date ! The quantity for this order quantity ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty.18) page-number (1. ordlines b.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.month_qty(#i.product(#i) = &description end-if let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.42) print ’ March’ (.product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty.32) print ’ February’ (.52) print ’ Total’ (.1.3 Program ex8a.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.70) Fill end-heading 58 SQR User’s Guide .64) ’Page ’ print ’Product’ (3.

as its name suggests. even though the program only uses 12 rows to process the sample data. the program checks to see if it’s a new product. the array has 100 rows. it would be buried in the code. In the example. It also adds up the month totals and prints them at the bottom. and is added to the array. The key is the datetostr function in the following command: let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date. which are the records ordered by the product description. The SETUP section creates the array using the CREATE-ARRAY command. and the data accumulates in the array. the procedure print_array does two things: It loops through the array and prints the data.) The resulting string is then converted to a number. It is a good practice to use #DEFINE because it displays our limit at the top of the program source. For each record selected. The command #DEFINE MAX_PRODUCTS 100 defines the constant max_products as a substitution variable. Select_data performs the database query. (The 'MM' edit mask specifies that only the month part will be converted. The sample program uses this constant to define the size of the array. ’MM’)) . The report summarizes the product order quantities for each month.1 This function converts the order_date column into a string. Their size must be known at compile time. if it is less than 3. Date manipulation can vary among databases. While the database records are being processed. The above program has two procedures: select_data and print_array. When the processing is over. it represents January. the array is incremented by row subscript #i. All SQR arrays are created before the program begins executing. you must over-allocate and specify an upper bound. nothing is printed.SQR 4. It then fills the array one product at a time. SQR User’s Guide 59 . if it is. The program also adds the quantity to the corresponding entry in the array based on the month. and to write truly portable code calls for careful planning. or March. Otherwise. The program creates the array order_qty with a size of 100. If you do not know exactly how many rows you will have. February. There is one complication with this program—how to obtain the month.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Creating the Array You must define the size of an array when you create it.

Then it adds the order quantity to the array cell that corresponds to the price category (row) and the month (column). to process the records in order of price category. The program uses an SQR EVALUATE command to determine the price category and assign the array subscript #i to 0. or 2.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4. the program would have to sort the table by price.sqr 11-JUN-96 Order Quantity by Product by Month Page 1 Product January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------Canisters 3 0 0 3 Curtain rods 2 8 18 28 Ginger snaps 1 10 0 11 Hanging plants 1 20 0 21 Hookup wire 16 15 0 31 Hop scotch kits 2 0 0 2 Modeling clay 5 0 0 5 New car 1 9 0 10 Thimble 7 20 0 27 Thingamajigs 17 0 120 137 Widgets 4 0 12 16 Wire rings 1 0 0 1 Totals 60 82 150 292 60 SQR User’s Guide .3 Grouping by Category The next example is a cross-tabular report that groups the products by price range. 1. This grouping cannot be done using a SQL GROUP BY clause. The example shows how to do it without sorting the data. Output for ex8a. Moreover.

sqr #define max_categories 3 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=category:char end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array end-program begin-procedure print_array let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty.999 print #mar_total (.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.9) edit 9.999.SQR 4.category(2) = ’Over $100’ size={max_categories} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page.1) let #mar = order_qty.9) edit 9.999.52.9) edit 9.999.999 print #grand_total (.42.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.31) print #jan (.category(0) = ’$0-$4.999 print #feb (.1.9) edit 9.999. SQR User’s Guide 61 .month_qty(#i.62.00’ let order_qty.999.62.999.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.month_qty(#i.999.42.0) let #feb = order_qty.999 end-procedure print_array begin-procedure select_data let order_qty.9) edit 9.32.999 print #feb_total (.1) print #jan_total (.52.999 print #mar (.999 print #category_tot (.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8b.999.00-$100.category(1) = ’$5.month_qty(#i.99’ let order_qty.32.9) edit 9.

3 Program ex8b.11) print ’Product Price Category’ (4.1. 62 SQR User’s Guide .42) print ’ March’ (.’MM’)) .1 if #j < 3 let order_qty.62) print ’-’ (5.32) print ’ February’ (.sqr (continued) begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.1) print ’ January’ (.70) Fill end-heading The output is shown on the following page.0 let #i = 0 break when <= 100. ordlines b.price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5. products c where a.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.order_num and b.1) page-number (1.month_qty(#i.order_num = b.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.#j) = order_qty.product_code = c.product_code end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1.0 let #i = 1 break when-other let #i = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.month_qty(#i.64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product Price Category by Month’ (2.52) print ’ Total’ (.

Another advantage is that you can combine the two sample reports into one. In the last example. you saw how it eliminated the need to sort the data.99 28 45 12 85 $5. two arrays are created—one to summarize monthly orders by product. With one pass on the data. you can fill the two arrays and then print the two parts of the report.00-$100.sqr #define max_categories 3 #define max_products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty field=product:char create-array name=order_qty2 field=category:char end-setup size={max_products} field=month_qty:number:3 size={max_categories} field=month_qty:number:3 Program continues on the following page. and another to summarize monthly orders by price range.sqr 11-JUN-96 Order Quantity by Product Price Category by Month Product Price Category January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------$0-$4. Program ex8c.SQR 4.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Output for ex8b.00 25 28 138 191 Over $100 7 9 0 16 Totals 60 82 150 292 Page 1 Using Multiple Arrays Using SQR arrays to buffer the data offers several advantages. SQR User’s Guide 63 . The next sample program performs the work done by the first two programs. In the SETUP section.

product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.9) edit 9.52.999.9) edit 9.month_qty(#i.62.999.9) edit 9.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.999.1.999.3 Program ex8c.42.9) edit 9.0) let #feb = order_qty.42.999.month_qty(#i.62.1) let #mar = order_qty. 64 SQR User’s Guide .9) edit 9.999 print #grand_total (.9) edit 9.999.32.1.month_qty(#i.9) edit 9.999 print #feb (.62.0) let #feb = order_qty2.999 print #feb (.1) let #mar = order_qty2.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.9) edit 9.52.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty2.1.32.sqr (continued) begin-program do select_data do print_array print ’-’ (+2.month_qty(#i.Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.999 print #mar (.999 print #feb_total (.999.9) edit 9.month_qty(#i.999.31) print #jan (.999 print #category_tot (.999.999 end-procedure ! print_array2 Program continues on the following page.999 print #prod_tot (.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.999.32.999.9) edit 9.42.1) print #jan_total (.999 print #mar_total (.999 position (+1) let #i = #i + 1 end-while end-procedure ! print_array begin-procedure print_array2 let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty2.9) edit 9.52.month_qty(#i.70) fill position (+1) do print_array2 end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.30) print #jan (.9) edit 9.999 print #mar (.999.

1 if #j < 3 let order_qty2.product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty.0 let #x = 1 break when-other let #x = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty.product(#i) = &description end-if if #j < 3 let order_qty.0 let #x = 0 break when <= 100. products c where a.#j) = order_qty. SQR User’s Guide 65 .order_num and b.order_num = b. ordlines b.00’ let order_qty2.category(1)=’$5.month_qty(#i.product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data Program continues on the following page.00-$100.category(2)=’Over $100’ begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.product_code = c.category(0)=’$0-$4.month_qty(#x.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.SQR 4.’MM’)) .price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Program ex8c.99’ let order_qty2.month_qty(#x.#j) + &quantity end-if ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty.month_qty(#i.#j) = order_qty2.sqr (continued) begin-procedure select_data let order_qty2.

Cross-Tabular Reports SQR 4.52) print ’ Total’ (.sqr (continued) begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1. presenting the above cross-tab as a bar chart is easy." 66 SQR User’s Guide .sqr 11-JUN-96 Page 1 Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month Product / Price Category January February March Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------Canisters 3 0 0 3 Curtain rods 2 8 18 28 Ginger snaps 1 10 0 11 Hanging plants 1 20 0 21 Hookup wire 16 15 0 31 Hop scotch kits 2 0 0 2 Modeling clay 5 0 0 5 New car 1 9 0 10 Thimble 7 20 0 27 Thingamajigs 17 0 120 137 Widgets 4 0 12 16 Wire rings 1 0 0 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$0-$4. For more information on charts.62) print ’-’ (5.42) print ’ March’ (.70) Fill end-heading Output for ex8c. "Business Charts.64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month’ (2.00-$100.10) print ’Product / Price Category’ (4.00 25 28 138 191 Over $100 7 9 0 16 Totals 60 82 150 292 SQR arrays are also advantageous in programs that produce charts.32) print ’ February’ (.1. see Chapter 13.1) page-number (1. With the data for the chart already in the array.1) print ’ January’ (.3 Program ex8c.99 28 45 12 85 $5.

• Procedures can be written to select data for an array and print it.SQR 4. • CREATE-ARRAY can be used to assemble data for a report in arrays.or spreadsheet-like reports that are useful for presenting summary data.3 Cross-Tabular Reports Summary • Cross-tabular reports are matrix. The next chapter explains how to use SQR to print mailing labels or other data in columns. • Arrays can be referenced in expressions. • EVALUATE can be used to place data in the correct row of the array. • Using multiple arrays can allow you to reduce database calls. SQR User’s Guide 67 .

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9 Printing Mailing Labels This chapter explains how to print mailing labels and similar information.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10. The page then becomes a matrix of rows and columns of labels. SQR User’s Guide 69 . It also counts the number of labels printed and prints that number on the last sheet of the report. A SQR SELECT paragraph retrieves the addresses and prints them on the page.11) left-margin=0. Program ex9a. in conjunction with NEXT-LISTING. The following program prints mailing labels in a format of three columns by ten rows.33 end-declare end-setup begin-program do mailing_labels end-program begin-procedure mailing_labels let #label_count = 0 let #label_lines = 0 columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 Program continues on the following page. SQR allows you to print into columns with the commands COLUMNS and NEXT-COLUMN. The process is quite simple. Sometimes you’ll need to print labels in multiple columns.

a new page is started.30) next-column at-end=newline add 1 to #label_count if #current-column = 1 add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} new-page let #label_lines = 0 else next-listing no-advance skiplines={LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS} end-if end-if from customers end-select use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (.999. After the last page of labels has been printed.sqr (continued) begin-select name (1.999 end-procedure ! mailing_labels Defining Columns and Rows The command COLUMNS 1 29 57 defines the starting position for three columns.3 Program ex9a.1) print #label_count () edit 9. When ten lines of labels are complete. the program prints a summary page showing the number of labels printed. The fourth address will go into the second row of the first column. 70 SQR User’s Guide .1. just below the first label.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1. and the third at character position 57.Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4.30) addr1 (2. the second at character position 29.1. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (3. the third address into the third. the second address into the second. The first column starts at character position 1. The above program writes the first address into the first column.1.30) city state zip move &zip to $zip XXXXX-XXXX let $last_line = &city || ’.

state. it starts a new page and resets the #label_lines counter. The first counter. NEXT-LISTING skips the specified number of lines (SKIPLINES) from the last line that was printed (NO-ADVANCE) and sets the new position as line 1. which is a proportionally spaced font. plus appropriate punctuation and spacing. and zip columns are moved to string variables. counts the number of rows of labels that were printed. On other platforms. which it stores in the variable $last_line. Printing and printer support are explained in greater detail in Chapter 26. and zip code. In this way.3 Printing Mailing Labels Note the technique for composing the last line of the label. The program defines two counters. which contains 30 characters and begins at character position 57. condenses the text so that it will fit on the page." In the sample program. city. This width accommodates the printing of the third column. #label_count. the command DECLARE-LAYOUT defines a page width of 10 inches. For more information on changing fonts in SQR. you can use proportionally spaced fonts with any printer that supports fonts or graphics. SQR directly supports HP LaserJet printers and PostScript printers. This command changes the font in which the report is printed. SQR assumes a default character grid of 10 characters per inch. The city.SQR 4. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip combines the city. The second counter. and zip code are printed without unnecessary gaps. however. The 10-point Times Roman used here. After each row of labels. SQR User’s Guide 71 . The command LET $last_line = &city || ’. the NEXT-LISTING command redefines the position where the next row of labels will be printed as line 1." The sample program prints the labels in 10-point Times Roman. #label_count and #label_lines. into a string. #label_lines. The page width is set at 10 inches to prevent SQR from treating the third-column print position as an error. "Changing Fonts. see Chapter 14. counts the total number of labels and prints it on the summary page." For more information on using proportionally spaced fonts. Note the use of the ALTER-PRINTER command. see Chapter 14. When the program has printed the number of lines defined by {MAX_LABEL_LINES}. In Windows. "Changing Fonts. which would cause the third column to print beyond the paper edge if this report used the default font. "Printing Issues. state. state.

you must use a slightly different technique for running the program and viewing the output. MI 40674-3900 Joe Smith and Company 1711 Sunset Blvd Big Falls. NY 10204-1234 Harry’s Landmark Diner 17043 Silverfish Road Miningville. Inc. 167 East Blvd. Here is a portion of the output: Output for ex9a. filling each row of labels before moving down the page. You will still need to use the -PRINTER:xx flag when printing. enter -PRINTER:PS (or -printer:ps) on the command line. OH 40233-1000 Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street New York. SQR Portable File format is covered in greater detail in Chapter 26. In the example above.sqr Gregory Stonehaven Middlebrook Road Everretsville. If you are using a PostScript printer. enter -PRINTER:HP (or -printer:hp). If you are using an HP LaserJet. NY 10134-2030 Sam Johnson 37 Cleaver Street Bell Harbor. IN 40622-4321 The report produces the output in three columns corresponding to the dimensions of a sheet of mailing label stock. OH 44121-9475 Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Crazy Lake Cottages Frogline. NH 04821-9876 Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop 2100 Park Ave New York. the report prints the labels left to right. NJ 00355-4530 Quentin Fields 37021 Cedar Road Cleveland. NY 10002-1001 Eliot Richards 2134 Partridge Ave Queens. IN 62130-1025 Harriet Bailey 47 Season Street Mamaroneck. NM 87893-7070 Corks and Bottles. OH 44900-1300 Harold Alexander Fink 32077 Cedar Street Davenport.Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4. neither -PRINTER:xx nor -KEEP is required. NY 10833-1660 Clair Butterfield 371 Youngstown Blvd Teaneck. NY 10213-1002 Isaiah J Schwartz and Company 37211 Columbia Blvd Zanesville. With VisualSQRIBE. specify the printer type with the -PRINTER:xx flag. For example: sqr ex9a username/password -printer:hp You may also use the -KEEP command-line flag to produce output in the SQR Portable File format (SPF) and print it using SQR Print. The output will automatically appear in the Viewer window after the report has been run. New York.3 Running the Program When you print with a proportionally spaced font. 72 SQR User’s Guide . If you are using a platform such as UNIX or VMS.

The output is not printed here.30) add 1 to #label_count add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} next-column goto-top=1 at-end=newpage let #label_lines = 0 else position (+1) position (+{LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS}) end-if from customers end-select use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (.30) addr1 (+1. The code is shown below.30) city state zip move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx let $last_line = &city || ’. Program ex9b.3 Printing Mailing Labels You can also print the labels from the top down.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10. but you can run the file and view it using the same procedure you used for the previous example.999 end-procedure ! mailing_labels SQR User’s Guide 73 . The differences between this code and the previous one are shown in bold.1.1.999.11) left-margin=0.33 end-declare end-setup begin-program do mailing_labels end-program begin-procedure mailing_labels let #Label_Count = 0 let #Label_Lines = 0 columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 begin-select name (0.1. filling each column before moving to the next column of labels.SQR 4. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (+1.1) print #label_count () edit 9.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1.

3 Summary • A SELECT paragraph is used to retrieve data for mailing labels and other similar reports. Counters also determine when a page is full. such as the number of labels printed. • ALTER-PRINTER can be used to specify fonts. 74 SQR User’s Guide . • NEXT-LISTING ends the current listing and begins another. produce summary information about a report. • Counters. such as #label_count and #label_lines. The next chapter describes how to create form letters.Printing Mailing Labels SQR 4. • COLUMNS is used to define report columns.

These are placeholders in the DOCUMENT section where you can print data after the DOCUMENT section is printed. SQR User’s Guide 75 . You will be introduced to the SQR DOCUMENT section and two new commands: BEGIN-DOCUMENT and END-DOCUMENT. you must explicitly mark them with a . The sample program uses a document marker to position the city. It starts with a BEGIN-DOCUMENT command and ends with an END-DOCUMENT command. and zip code because the city name varies in length and thus affects the position of the state name and zip code. Laying Out the Letter To create form letters. but it gives more flexibility in positioning the contents of variables. Another way to mix data with the letter is to use document markers.b (see the sample code below). in the program below. the customer’s name is printed on the first line. a variable would do. state. For example. For most purposes. To leave blank lines in a letter. you use a DOCUMENT section. SQR will print the contents of the variable in the position where it is placed in the DOCUMENT section. The sample program demonstrates the use of variables as well as document markers. In between you lay out the letter and insert variables where you want data from the database to be inserted. Using a document marker is less direct. This use of document markers is demonstrated in the simple form letter program below. Document markers are denoted with a name preceded by the at sign (@). SQR will insert the value of the variable when the document is printed.10 Creating Form Letters This chapter explains how to create a form letter.

end-document position () @city_state_zip print &city () print ’.3 Program ex10a.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip do write_letter from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure write_letter begin-document (1. During this month. our entire inventory is marked down by 25%. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc.b .b Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc.1) &name &addr1 &addr2 @city_state_zip . you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too. To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME. ’ () print &state () print ’ ’ () print &zip () edit xxxxx-xxxx new-page end-procedure ! write_letter 76 SQR User’s Guide . so don’t wait.b Sincerely. Yes.b $current-date Dear Sir or Madam: . . We would like to tell you about our limited-time offer.Creating Form Letters SQR 4.b . Delivery is free too.

"Using Graphics. Yes. To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME. The program prints the city. The state name. Delivery is free too. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc. Below is the first page of the output of our program for ex10a.sqr. it performs the write_letter procedure and the DOCUMENT section. The POSITION command sets the position to the appropriate line.3 Creating Form Letters First." Summary • To print form letters. our entire inventory is marked down by 25%. The next chapter explains how to export data to other applications. and zip code are automatically printed in the correct positions with appropriate punctuation.SQR 4. so don’t wait. Alfred E Newman & Company 2837 East Third Street Greenwich Village New York. Next. then continues printing the other elements to the current position. NY 10002-1001 10-MAY-1996 Dear Sir or Madam: Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc. You will find another example of a form letter in Chapter 12. SQR performs the main procedure and the SELECT statement. use variables or document markers inserted in the DOCUMENT section to place data in the text. SQR User’s Guide 77 . Sincerely. you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too. We would like to tell you about our limited-time offer. During this month. which is given by the marker @city_state_zip.

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1) new-page Program continues on the following page. which you can load into a document such as a spreadsheet. wide enough for the widest record ! and no page breaks declare-layout default left-margin=0 top-margin=0 max_columns=160 formfeed=no end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main encode ’<009>’ into $sep ! Separator character is TAB let $cust_num = ’Customer Number’ let $name = ’Customer Name’ let $addr1 = ’Address Line 1’ let $addr2 = ’Address Line 2’ let $city = ’City’ let $state = ’State’ let $zip = ’Zip Code’ let $phone = ’Phone Number’ let $tot = ’Total’ string $cust_num $name $addr1 $addr2 $city $state $zip $phone $tot by $sep into $col_hds print $col_hds (1. The following program example creates such a file.11 Exporting Data to Other Applications This chapter shows you how to create a tab-delimited file that is suitable for exporting data to many applications. SQR User’s Guide 79 . Program ex11a.sqr begin-setup ! No margins. The tabs create columns in your spreadsheet or word processing document which will correspond to the columns in your database table.

this time to combine the records (named as column variables) in the $db_cols variable.3 Program ex11a. The STRING command combines these variables in the $col_hds variable.Exporting Data to Other Applications SQR 4. not printed. 80 SQR User’s Guide . we use the STRING command again.lis) into a spreadsheet or other application. SQR will then treat it as a character code and set the variable accordingly. with each record similarly separated by a tab. with each heading separated by a tab. It really causes a new line and carriage return at the end of each record. this report is meant to be exported. Remember. In the SELECT paragraph. The LET command creates variables for the text strings used as column headings in the export file. You can now load the output file (ex11a. The code (9) is enclosed in angle brackets to indicate that it is a non-display character. ENCODE is a useful way to place nonalpha and nonnumeric characters into variables. with the line number reset to 1. The NEW-PAGE command is used in this example in an unusual way.sqr (continued) begin-select cust_num name addr1 addr2 city state zip phone tot string &cust_num &name &addr1 &addr2 &city &state &zip &phone &tot by $sep into $db_cols print $db_cols () new-page from customers end-select end-procedure ! main The ENCODE command stores the ASCII code for the tab character in the variable $sep. There is no page ejection because of the FORMFEED=NO argument in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command.

• STRING can be used to create a variable holding several text or data items separated by a variable representing a tab or other separator character. • ENCODE can be used to place the ASCII code for a tab into a value.SQR 4. • The contents of database column variables can also be exported.3 Exporting Data to Other Applications Summary • A tab-delimited output file can be used to export data into other applications. The next chapter explains how to create graphical reports. SQR User’s Guide 81 . • LET can be used to place text in variables for export.

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change the font.16) state (.1) print ’City’ (.99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select print ’-’ (.+1. You will learn how to include a logo or other graphic in a report.61) print ’-’ (4.99 end-procedure ! main begin-heading 5 print $current-date (1.40) print #grand_total (.30) city (.12 Using Graphics This chapter explains how to add graphical features to SQR reports.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name (.65) fill end-heading SQR User’s Guide 83 .5) tot (.1.11) fill print ’Grand Total’ (+1.11) edit 99999999.49) print ’Total’ (.+1. Program ex12a.+1.32) print ’State’ (.1.55.11) edit 99999999. and draw solid lines.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.55. The following example produces a simple tabular report similar to the one in Chapter 3.60) ’Page ’ print ’Name’ (3.

84 SQR User’s Guide .00 33.00 18. 06-JUN-96 Page 1 Name City State Total --------------------------------------------------------------Gregory Stonehaven Alfred E Newman & Company Eliot Richards Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Harold Alexander Fink Harriet Bailey Clair Butterfield Quentin Fields Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Sam Johnson Joe Smith and Company Corks and Bottles. Harry’s Landmark Diner Everretsville New York Queens Zanesville Davenport Mamaroneck Teaneck Cleveland Frogline New York Bell Harbor Big Falls New York Miningville OH NY NY OH IN NY NJ OH NH NY MI NM NY IN 39. On a graphical printer. the report would have no margins.00 9. The purpose of specifying the default layout is to use its margin settings.3 The SETUP section contains a DECLARE-LAYOUT command that specifies the default layout without defining any options. This command produces dashed lines.00 Grand Total Adding Graphics The next sample program includes graphical features—a logo.00 30.00 36.00 15.00 3.00 6. "Adding Graphics.Using Graphics SQR 4. The next section.00 42. and a change of font in the heading. Note the PRINT command with the FILL option.00 --------315. Text that has changed is shown in bold." shows you how to take advantage of this feature. it is possible to draw solid lines. Without DECLARE-LAYOUT. solid lines. Inc. which are defined as 1/2 inch. which is a simple way to draw lines for a report printed on a line printer.00 21. however.00 27.00 24.00 12.

(The actual width of a character cell is determined by the CHAR-WIDTH or MAX-COLUMNS arguments of DECLARE-LAYOUT.5) source=’acmelogo.+1.23) type=bmp-file image-size=(21.61) bold alter-printer point-size=12 font=3 ! restore font graphic (9.40) print #grand_total (.11) edit 99999999.30) city (.) SQR User’s Guide 85 .55.16) state (.66) horz-line 20 print-image (1.1.60) ’Page ’ alter-printer point-size=14 font=4 ! switch font print ’Name’ (9. Note that the third number in the position specifier is the length of the line.3 Using Graphics Program ex12b.bmp’ end-heading The GRAPHIC command is used to draw solid lines with the HORZLINE option.1) bold print ’City’ (.49) bold print ’Total’ (.55. See Chapter 6 for more information on character grids.1. which is given in characters.5) tot (.+1.SQR 4.1) page-number (1.32) bold print ’State’ (.12) horz-line 20 print ’Grand Total’ (+2.99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select graphic (.99 end-procedure ! main begin-heading 11 print $current-date (1.11) Edit 99999999.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name (.+1. The line is positioned using a normal SQR position specifier.

The following command changes the font to 14-point Helvetica: alter-printer point-size=14 font=4 ! switch font The PRINT-IMAGE command inserts the logo. the image is 30 characters wide (3 inches) and 7 lines high (1 1/6 inches). The format of the image must match that of the printer you are using. The font is specified by number. boxes and shaded boxes. for example.3 The HORZ-LINE argument of the GRAPHIC HORZ-LINE command is the thickness of the line. On a PostScript printer.1. For more information on fonts. and it is specified in decipoints (there are 720 decipoints per inch). In SQR. but the number is printerspecific. which is 1/36 of an inch (about 0. for an example. The GRAPHIC command can also be used to draw vertical lines. the command graphic (10.Using Graphics SQR 4. The thickness of the line is 20 decipoints. In our example the image is stored in Windows bitmap format (bmp-file).66) horz-line 20 specifies a horizontal line below line 10 in the report starting with position 1 (the left side of the report) and stretching for 66 character positions (at 10 characters per inch this is 6. font 4 is Helvetica. The FONT option selects a font (typeface) that is supported by the printer. column 19 in our example). These formats are: • Windows—bmp-file images • PostScript printer or viewer—eps-file • HP LaserJet—hpgl-file images • HTML output—GIF or JPEG formats (gif-file or jpeg-file) 86 SQR User’s Guide . see DECLARE-PRINTER in the SQR Language Reference.5). it restores the normal font for the rest of the report. PRINT-IMAGE is followed by a print position corresponding to the top left corner of the image (line 1. font 3 is Courier.6 inches). which is in your SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) subdirectory. When used a second time. POINT-SIZE=10. The POINT-SIZE option specifies type size in points. The ALTER-PRINTER command in ex12b.sqr changes the font for the heading. For example. In the example. You can use a whole number or even a fraction (for example. The GRAPHIC command in the SQR Language Reference also provides more information. and font 5 is Times Roman.7 millimeters).sqr. The TYPE option specifies the image file type. See the program sqrlaser. The size of the image is specified in terms of columns (width) and lines (height). images are always stored in external files.

The file may reside in any directory.SQR 4.BMP.sqr The output file now contains graphic language commands. SQR User’s Guide 87 . In our example. see Chapter 28. SQR can produce output suitable for HP LaserJet printers in a file format that uses the HP PCL language or output suitable for PostScript printers in a file format that uses the PostScript language." The SOURCE option specifies the file name of the image file.3 Using Graphics For more information on HTML output. Output for ex12b. "Working with HTML. SQR can also produce printerindependent output files in a special format called SQR Portable Format (SPF). as long as you specify a full pathname for the image file. The file is assumed to reside in the current directory or in the directory where SQR is installed (you can place the logo file in either of these two places). however. the file is ACMELOGO.

However.LIS file or by using SQR Print to generate an .inc: File acme. When using . you do not need to respecify these attributes.bmp’ end-declare This file declares an image with "acme-logo" as the name.SPF). Multiple programs can share the declaration and include the file acme.inc. such as the source. The declaration includes the type and source file for the image.SPF file.sqr prints a simple form letter. Program ex12c. a change in the contents of the image file will be reflected in the report the next time you print it or view it.SPF files. Because the image is shared among several reports." Sharing Images among Reports You can place logos and other images in a report using only the PRINT-IMAGE command. The image size is specified and provides the default.inc declare-image acme_logo type=bmp-file image-size=(30.3 SQR can create a printer-specific output file (an . 88 SQR User’s Guide . acme. the name of the image file is copied into it. As you will see. the DECLARE-IMAGE command is useful if you want several programs to share the definition of an image. and the image is processed at print time. you only need to change it in one place. the command DECLARE-IMAGE is contained in this file. "Printing Issues.LIS file) or create the output in portable format (. see Chapter 26. It shows how to print a logo using the DECLARE-IMAGE and PRINT-IMAGE commands and how to print a signature using only PRINT-IMAGE.LIS file from an . You can create printer-specific output by using SQR or SQR Execute to directly generate an . when printer-specific output is generated.7) source=’acmelogo. If you later need to change an attribute. When you create an . For more information on SQR Portable Format.SPF file. when the image is printed.Using Graphics SQR 4. It specifies the logo used in the last sample program.

inc’ end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip phone do write_letter from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure write_letter move &city to $csz concat ’. Program ex12c.3 Using Graphics If you need to change the size of an image in a particular report. It will override the image size specified in DECLARE-IMAGE. use the IMAGE-SIZE argument of the PRINT-IMAGE command.SQR 4. Program continues on the following page. ’ with $csz concat &state with $csz concat ’ ’ with $csz move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx concat $zip with $csz move &phone to $phone_no (xxx)bxxx-xxxx ! Edit phone number.sqr begin-setup #include ’acme. SQR User’s Guide 89 .

Encore. or blues. Encore.1.Using Graphics SQR 4.b Sincerely.0) &name &addr1 &addr2 $csz .b Now anyone who can hum a tune can play one too. Encore.b @logo $current-date Dear &name . Maestro!! is made for you. Maestro!! is the music teacher for you. Maestro!! begins with a step-by-step approach to some of America’s favorite songs. Maestro!! system.3) source=’clark. Maestro!! can even teach you to improvise your own solos. jazz. If you’ve always wanted to play an instrument but felt you could never master one. .sqr (continued) begin-document (1.b .bmp’ new-page end-procedure ! write_letter 90 SQR User’s Guide . our revolutionary teaching system for piano and organ. pop. You’ll learn the correct keyboarding while hearing the sounds you make through the headphones provided with the Encore. .b Whether you like classical. Maestro!!. From there. Encore.b Clark Axelotle end-document position () @logo print-image acme-logo () image-size=(16.b . so get ready to play your favorite tunes!! . @signature .b Thank you for your inquiry regarding Encore.b A local representative will be calling you at $phone_no to set up an in-house demonstration.4) position () @signature print-image () type=bmp-file image-size=(12. . you’ll advance to intricate compositions with dazzling melodic runs.3 Program ex12c.b .

The DOCUMENT section begins with a BEGIN-DOCUMENT command and ends with an END-DOCUMENT command. In the DOCUMENT section. without any following text. The document markers make it unnecessary to specify the position of these items in the PRINT-IMAGE command. for example. The program uses the document markers @logo and @signature in a POSITION command before printing each image. In this program.3 Using Graphics The #INCLUDE command. will remain the width of the column as defined in the database. It uses variables and document markers to print inside the letter. is used to pull in text from another file. however. and zip code. state. A column variable. SQR User’s Guide 91 . The output of our program is shown on the following page. you simply print to the current position. variables retain their predefined size. You can print the date and phone number directly. because they fall at the end of a line. the date. The program uses variables for the name and address. which is performed at compile time. The program uses the CONCAT command to put together the city. Instead. see the command #INCLUDE ’ACME. It uses document markers for the logo and signature.SQR 4. Document markers are placeholders in the letter.INC’ includes the code from the file acme. It is printed directly in the DOCUMENT section without issuing a PRINT command.inc in this program. The date is prepared with the reserved variable $current-date. and the phone number.

text to be encoded. For example: print-bar-code (1. SQR supports a wide variety of bar code types. height. In separate arguments.1) type=1 height=0. Specify the position of the bar code in an ordinary position qualifier.Using Graphics SQR 4. To create a bar code.5 text=’01234567890’ caption=’0 12345 67890’ 92 SQR User’s Guide .3 File ex12c.spf Printing Bar Codes You can also include bar codes in your SQR report. and optional check sum. caption. use the PRINT-BAR-CODE command. specify the bar code type.

3 Using Graphics Arguments to PRINT-BAR-CODE may be variables or literals. • PRINT-BAR-CODE can be used to create bar codes.SQR 4. Summary • DECLARE-LAYOUT can be used to set a margin. • CONCAT is used to combine multiple data elements into one variable. • The #INCLUDE command is used to include commands from other files in a program. see the PRINT-BAR-CODE command in the SQR Language Reference. • GRAPHIC can be used to draw solid lines or shaded boxes. The next chapter shows how to present information visually with charts and other graphics. • ALTER-PRINTER chooses a font. • DECLARE-IMAGE allows you to share images among reports. • PRINT-IMAGE prints a logo or other graphic in the report. The example above will produce the following bar code: For further information. SQR User’s Guide 93 .

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area. and histograms. DECLARE-CHART and PRINT-CHART. charts. SQR provides two commands for creating charts. and a rich set of chart types—line. That example combined the two reports in one program. stacked bar. it's just one more step to make a chart using the data already collected in the array. Here is the code. Business charts are useful tools for presenting summary data. stacked area. 100% bar. xy-scatter plot and high-low-close. SQR charts are also portable—you can move them from one hardware platform to another. floating bar.sqr). "CrossTabular Reports and the Use of Arrays" (ex8c. If you've already written a crosstabular report. You can customize many attributes of SQR charts by turning on threedimensional effects or setting titles and legends. The lines that were changed or added are shown in bold. overlapped bar. A business chart can be prepared using data held in an array. pie. histogram. Creating a Chart The following example builds on the report created in Chapter 8. SQR User’s Guide 95 .13 Business Charts This chapter shows how to present information visually with graphs. bar. The following program produces two charts corresponding to the two cross-tabs. 100% area. just like a cross-tabular report (see Chapter 8).

999.9) edit 9.1.month_qty(#i.2) let #prod_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $product (.999.999.30) print #jan (.9) edit 9.1) let #mar = order_qty.999.3 Program ex13a. 96 SQR User’s Guide .70) fill position (+1) do print_array2 new-page let $done = ’YES’ ! Don’t need heading any more do print_the_charts end-program begin-procedure print_array let #entry_cnt = #i let #i = 0 while #i <= #entry_cnt let $product = order_qty.1.month_qty(#i.999 print #mar (.62.52.9) edit 9.30) title=’Order Quantity’ legend-title=’Month’ type=stacked-bar end-declare ! orders-stacked-bar end-setup begin-program do select_data do print_array print ’-’ (+2.999 position (+1) let #i = #i + 1 end-while end-procedure ! print_array Program continues on the following page.999 print #prod_tot (.32.month_qty(#i.9) edit 9.0) let #feb = order_qty.999 print #feb (.sqr #define max-categories 3 #define max-products 100 begin-setup create-array name=order_qty size={max-products} field=product:char field=month_qty:number:3 create-array name=order_qty2 size={max-categories} field=category:char field=month_qty:number:3 declare-chart orders-stacked-bar chart-size=(70.product(#i) let #jan = order_qty.42.Business Charts SQR 4.

SQR User’s Guide 97 .9) edit 9.9) edit 9.32.1) print #jan_total (.00-$100.999.category(2)=’Over $100’ begin-select order_date ! the price / price category for the order c.price &price move &price to #price_num evaluate #price_num when < 5.sqr (continued) begin-procedure print_array2 let #i = 0 while #i < {max_categories} let $category = order_qty2.999 print #feb (.999.9) edit 9.52.1.31) print #jan (.category(#i) let #jan = order_qty2.category(1)=’$5.999.999 end-procedure ! print_array2 begin-procedure select_data let order_qty2.999 print #grand_total (.999.1) let #mar = order_qty2.999 position (+1) let #jan_total = #jan_total + #jan let #feb_total = #feb_total + #feb let #mar_total = #mar_total + #mar let #i = #i + 1 end-while let #grand_total = #jan_total + #feb_total + #mar_total print ’Totals’ (+2.999 print #mar (.9) edit 9.999 print #mar_total (.9) edit 9.62.32.999.2) let #category_tot = #jan + #feb + #mar print $category (.62.42.3 Business Charts Program ex13a.52.999 print #category_tot (.0 let #x = 1 break Program continues on the following page.month_qty(#i.0 let #x = 0 break when <= 100.999 print #feb_total (.999.category(0)=’$0-$4.9) edit 9.999.99’ let order_qty2.month_qty(#i.9) edit 9.999.month_qty(#i.42.00’ let order_qty2.9) edit 9.0) let #feb = order_qty2.SQR 4.

1.’MM’)) .Business Charts SQR 4.order_num and b.#j) + &quantity end-if from orders a.32) print ’ February’ (.month_qty(#x. products c where a.1) print ’ January’ (.1) page-number (1.product_code = c.#j) + &quantity end-if ! the product for this order description if #i = 0 and order_qty.10) print ’Product / Price Category’ (4.42) print ’ March’ (.sqr (continued) when-other let #x = 2 break end-evaluate ! The quantity for this order quantity let #j = to_number(datetostr(&order_date.month_qty(#i.product_code order by description end-select end-procedure ! select_data begin-heading 5 if not ($done = ’YES’) print $current-date (1.3 Program ex13a.order_num = b.month_qty(#x.product(#i) != &description let #i = #i + 1 if #i >= {max_products} display ’Error: There are more than {max_products} products’ stop end-if let order_qty.product(#i) = &description end-if if #j < 3 let order_qty. 98 SQR User’s Guide .62) Print ’-’ (5.52) print ’ Total’ (.#j) = order_qty. ordlines b.product(#i) = &description end-if if order_qty.month_qty(#i.64) ’Page ’ print ’Order Quantity by Product and Price Category by Month’ (2.70) Fill end-if end-heading Program continues on the following page.1 if #j < 3 let order_qty2.#j) = order_qty2.product(#i) = ’’ let order_qty.

SQR 4.sqr (continued) begin-procedure print_the_charts print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2.1) data-array=order_qty2 data-array-row-count=3 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’. The height (or depth. Here is the DECLARE-CHART command: declare-chart orders-stacked-bar chart-size=(70. The text generated by LEGEND-TITLE must fit in the small legend box above the categories.sqr are based on the DECLARE-CHART command in the SETUP section and are named orders-stacked-bar. SQR User’s Guide 99 . The title is centered at the top of the chart.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Product By Month’ new-page print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. The width and height of the charts are specified in terms of character cells. these terms are used interchangeably) of the charts is 30 lines. In general.’Feb’.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Price Category By Month’ end-procedure ! print_the_charts Defining the Chart The two charts in program ex13a. which is 7 inches on a default layout. These dimensions define a rectangle that contains the chart. The box that surrounds the chart is drawn by default.’Feb’. The charts generated by this program will be 70 characters wide. so keep this description short. which translates to 5 inches at 6 lines per inch.3 Business Charts Program ex13a.1) data-array=order_qty data-array-row-count=12 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.30) title=’Order Quantity’ legend-title=’Month’ type=stacked-bar end-declare ! orders-stacked-bar The heading is disabled for the last two pages where the charts are printed. but you can disable it using the qualifier BORDER=NO. you’ll find that charts look best when the text items are short.

Running the Program When you create a graphical report. print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. enter -PRINTER:PS (or -printer:ps) on the command line. enter -PRINTER:HP (or -printer:hp). A legend is used to label the series. For a stacked-bar chart.3 Printing the Chart Now look at the PRINT-CHART commands. In this case. the first field in the array gives the names of the categories for the bars. The subtitle goes under the title and can be used as a second line of the title. The argument DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT is the number of rows (bars) to chart and DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT is the number of fields in the array that the chart uses.1) data-array=order_qty data-array-row-count=12 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.Business Charts SQR 4. specify the printer type with the flag -PRINTER:xx. The argument DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-LABELS is used to pass these labels. The rest of the fields are series of numbers. There are four fields in the array—the product (or price category) field plus the three series (months). If you are using a platform such as UNIX or VMS. Both are based on the orders-stacked-bar chart that was declared above. you must use a slightly different technique for running the program and viewing the output.1) data-array=order_qty2 data-array-row-count=3 data-array-column-count=4 data-array-column-labels=(’Jan’.’Feb’. If you are using a PostScript printer. each series corresponds to a month.’Feb’.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Price Category By Month’ The data source is specified using the DATA-ARRAY option. The named array is expected to have a certain structure that is specified by the TYPE option.’Mar’) sub-title=’By Product By Month’ new-page print-chart orders-stacked-bar (+2. If you are using an HP LaserJet. For example: sqr ex9a username/password -printer:hp 100 SQR User’s Guide .

3 Business Charts You may also use the -KEEP command-line flag to produce output in the SQR Portable File format (SPF) and print it using SQR Print. You will still need to use the -PRINTER:xx flag when printing. With VisualSQRIBE. neither -PRINTER:xx nor -KEEP is required. Output for file ex13a. Here is a portion of the output: The charts will appear on pages 2 and 3 of the report. The output will automatically appear in the Viewer window after the report has been run.SQR 4. SQR Portable File format is covered in greater detail in Chapter 26.spf SQR User’s Guide 101 .

3 Passing Data to the Chart The procedure for passing the data to the chart is to use the first field for the descriptions of bars (or lines or areas) and then use one or more additional fields with series of numbers.Business Charts SQR 4.. area. stacked-area. 102 SQR User’s Guide .2. overlapped bar. If ’Y’ is the value in the first row of the array. This procedure is common to many chart types. and 100% area. For pie charts. With pie charts.) for the bars. 100% bar." or pull away. bar. You can omit the first field and SQR will use cardinal numbers (1. Only text fields will be used for these options. . including line.. you can have a series of ’Y’ and ’N’ values which indicate whether or not to explode the segment. stacked-bar. histogram. only one series is allowed. the pie segment that corresponds to the first row will be exploded. Pie charts cannot have more than 12 segments. Using a third field in the array. you cannot omit the first field with the descriptions. from the center of the pie. Pie charts are also a special case because you can specify which segments to "explode.

In an xy-scatter plot. In addition. the first field does not have descriptions. You can disable this feature by using the qualifier PIE-SEGMENT-PERCENT-DISPLAY=NO. A pair in an xy-scatter plot represents x and y coordinates.SQR 4. the series are paired. A pair in a floating-bar chart represents the base and height of the bars. • Data arrays must be used to assemble and process the data used in making a chart. you can have one or more pairs of series. Summary • DECLARE-CHART and PRINT-CHART are used to print charts.3 Business Charts Pie charts display the numeric value next to each segment. The description is displayed in the legend. When data is passed to an xy scatter plot or a floating-bar chart. SQR User’s Guide 103 . SQR displays the percentage next to the value. the first field may or may not have descriptions for the bars. In a floating-bar chart. For both types. The next chapter gives details on changing fonts.

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For example. The ALTER-PRINTER command changes the font anywhere in the report. which is not printer-specific. use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. text is positioned according to a grid. the number of letters that you print may no longer match the number of character cells that the text actually fills. not the size defined by the grid. Note however that character grid and character size function independently of one another. Fonts will print in the size set by DECLARE-PRINTER or ALTER-PRINTER.14 Changing Fonts This chapter explains how to print text in different fonts. A character grid is best used for positioning the first character in a string. the word "Proportionally" fills only 9 cells. If you want to set a font for the entire report. you use the commands DECLARE-PRINTER and ALTER-PRINTER. be aware that the attributes you set with DECLARE-PRINTER only take effect when you print your report with the printer you specify with the TYPE argument. Positioning Text In SQR. It can only express the width of a string in terms of the number of characters it contains. If you are writing a printer-independent report. To specify a printer at print time. use ALTER-PRINTER. The DECLARE-PRINTER command sets the default font for the entire report. but you can give it another definition by altering the CHAR-WIDTH and LINE-HEIGHT parameters of the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. To select a font in SQR. at the beginning of the program. and the change remains in effect until the next ALTER-PRINTER. That grid is set by default to 10 characters per inch and 6 lines per inch. in the illustration below. not in an actual linear measurement. although it contains 14 letters. SQR User’s Guide 105 . When you use a proportionally spaced font. such as inches or picas.

after the output example. The use of these options with proportional fonts is explained below.2) When you print consecutive text strings. For this reason. which is not the same as its dimensional width. It consists of a list of reminders from the reminders table. instead of writing code such as: alter-printer font=5 print &first_name () print ’ ’ () print &last_name () alter-printer font=3 ! ! ! ! ! select a proportional font print first name print a space print the last name restore the font You should write code such as: alter-printer font=5 ! select a proportional font ! concatenate the name let $full_name = &first_name || ’ ’ || &last_name print $full_name () ! print the name alter-printer font=3 ! restore the font The WRAP and CENTER options of the PRINT command also require special consideration when used with proportional fonts. plus Helvetica bold.3 Large Times Roman font at position (4. For example. It is printed in a mix of fonts—Times Roman in two different sizes.4) .Report Title SQR default font at position (8. Look at the sample program. the actual position at the end of a string may differ from the position SQR assumes according to the grid.Changing Fonts SQR 4. we advise you to concatenate consecutive pieces of text and print them as one. 106 SQR User’s Guide .3) F ixed pitch fon t . They both calculate the text length based on the character count in the grid.Proportionally spaced font 12-pt Times Roman font at position (10.

+1) wrap 60 5 position (+2) from reminders end-select end-procedure ! main begin-heading 7 print $current-date (1. The point size was not set. both for positioning the text and for setting the length of the solid line.1.11) end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main ! Set Times Roman as the font for the report alter-printer font=5 point-size=12 begin-select remind_date (. The column headings are set to 12-point Helvetica with the command ALTER-PRINTER FONT=4 POINT-SIZE=12. In the HEADING section. its size is set to 24 points to print the title.sqr begin-setup declare-layout default paper-size=(10.66) horz-line ! Restore the font alter-printer font=5 point-size=12 end-heading The report uses the default layout grid of 10 characters per inch and 6 lines per inch.20) edit ’DD-MON-YY’ reminder (.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1. SQR User’s Guide 107 .1. The BOLD option of the PRINT command specifies that they are printed in bold. so it remains at the default of 12. The font is set at the beginning of the main procedure to font 5. which is Times Roman.60) ’Page ’ ! Use large font for the title alter-printer font=5 point-size=24 print ’Reminder List’ (3.22) bold graphic (6.3 Changing Fonts Program ex14a.25) ! Use Helvetica for the column headings alter-printer font=4 point-size=12 print ’Date’ (6.1) bold print ’Reminder’ (6.SQR 4.

which is 60 characters in the sample program. Remember that the character grid used for positioning assumes 10 characters per inch. although it will change the font used in the body of subsequent pages. Positioning the title requires careful coding. We recommend that you return fonts to their original settings in the same section in which you change them.25). Instead. character position 25. 25 characters translates to 2 1/2 inches. Note that it is positioned at line 6. position the title by estimating its length. SQR is designed to draw the solid line as an underline. Therefore. The CENTER option of the PRINT command won’t work because it does not account for the actual size of the text. This option wraps text based on a given width. At the end the HEADING section. Program ex14a. the same as the column headings. In this case. the font is restored to Times Roman." which is line 3. A font change in the heading will not affect the font used in the body of the current page. Make sure you keep track of your font changes. Using WRAP The WRAP option of the PRINT command is used to print the text of the reminder column. The character coordinates will be "(3.3 Under the column headings. the title should start 2 1/2 inches from the left margin.Changing Fonts SQR 4. 108 SQR User’s Guide .spf In an SQR program. there is a solid line. the report heading is performed after the body.

define the page as wider than it actually is. Remember. This means that a column with a nominal width of 44 characters (that’s the width of the reminder column) can actually hold as many as 66 letters when printed in the Times Roman font.3 Changing Fonts The WRAP option works only on the basis of the width given in the character grid. CENTER. To avoid this error. and WRAP options of the PRINT command are used to format text. This definition is given by the argument PAPERSIZE=(10. 8 1/2 inches minus the inch used in the margins is 7 1/2 inches. SQR will not use more lines than are needed. SQR calculates the maximum number of characters on a line using the page dimensions in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command (the default is 8 1/2 inches wide). SQR User’s Guide 109 . Printing 60 characters starting from position 22 could exceed this maximum and cause an error or undesirable output.11) in the DECLARE-LAYOUT command. • The BOLD. at 60 characters per line. this setting only specifies the maximum number of lines. In the sample program. Summary • DECLARE-PRINTER and ALTER-PRINTER are used to specify fonts.SQR 4. or 75 characters at 10 CPI. Text printed in Times Roman takes about 30-50 percent less room than the same text in Courier (the default font. The next chapter explains how to write reports that can be printed on any printer. To be conservative. no more than 5 lines are needed. Since the reminder column in the database is 240 characters wide. which is a fixed-size font). The other argument of the WRAP option is the maximum number of lines. ALTER-PRINTER is printerneutral. specify a width of 60. • DECLARE-PRINTER is printer-specific. It does not depend on the font.

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and the SYMBOL-SET argument of the ALTER-PRINTER command only define behavior when a specific printer is used. Your program should be free of the following commands: GRAPHIC FONT (use ALTER-PRINTER instead). USE-PRINTER-TYPE (except for using this command to select a printer at run time. 4. This reduces the common fonts to fonts 3 and 5 only. PRINTER-DEINIT. the CODE or CODE-PRINTER qualifiers of the PRINT command. Font 3 is Courier. SQR User’s Guide 111 . Font numbers 3. PRINT-DIRECT. As you will see. as demonstrated below). However. • DECLARE-PRINTER. and font 5 is Times Roman. PRINTER-INIT. the closer you can get to a truly printer-independent report. Graphics or solid lines printed with the graphic command are not printed on a line printer. and the CODE-PRINTER and CODE qualifiers of the PRINT command. the better. To create a printer-independent report. complete printer independence may be too restrictive. • Use only a small set of fonts. 5 and their boldface versions are the same regardless of the type of printer you use (except for a line printer).15 Writing Printer-Independent Reports This chapter explains how to prepare printer-independent reports. Helvetica may not be available. • Your report should be readable if printed on a line printer. font 4 is Helvetica. Guidelines for Printer-Independent Reports • Your program should not assume or require a specific printer. you must write a program that avoids using any characteristics that are unique to a specific printer. which can be run on any printer that SQR supports or distributed electronically. Note that on some HP printers. Test your graphical report on a line printer.

enter this command-line flag in the Parameters field of the Run dialog box.sqr modified to prompt the user to select the printer type at run time. begin-program input $p ’Printer type’ let $p = lower($p) evaluate $p when = ’hp’ when = ’hplaserjet’ use-printer-type hp break when = ’lp’ when = ’lineprinter’ use-printer-type lp break when = ’ps’ when = ’postscript’ use-printer-type ps break when-other display ’Invalid printer stop end-evaluate ! Prompt user for printer type ! Convert type to lowercase ! Case statement ! HP LaserJet ! Line Printer ! PostScript type. or -PRINTER:HT for HTML output. The added lines are shown in bold type. which specifies the output type for your report.3 • Be aware of certain limitations. -PRINTER:WP for Windows output. you can see the PROGRAM section of the program ex3a. Bmp-file images can only be printed using Windows. PRINTIMAGE and PRINT-CHART may not work with old printers that use PostScript Level 1 or HP LaserJet Series II. Hpgl-file images can only be printed on HP LaserJet Series 3 or higher or printers that emulate HP PCL at that level. Eps-file images can only be printed on PostScript printers. The first way is to use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. If you are using the system shell. -PRINTER:PS for PostScript output.Writing Printer-Independent Reports SQR 4.’ 112 SQR User’s Guide . enter the following on the command line: sqr test username/password -printer:ps The second way of specifying the printer type is by using the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command. Use -PRINTER:LP for lineprinter output. you can specify the printer at run time in two ways. If you are using VisualSQRIBE. -PRINTER:HP for HP LaserJet output. In the next example. If your report is printer-neutral and does not specify a printer. Gif-file and jpeg-file images are suitable only for HTML output.

the INPUT command prompts the user to enter the printer type.SQR 4. The EVALUATE command is similar to a switch statement in the C language. It compares a variable to multiple constants and executes the appropriate code. • The -PRINTER:xx command-line flag and the USE-PRINTER-TYPE and EVALUATE commands prompt the user to specify the printer at run time. the EVALUATE command is used to test for the six possible values and set the printer type accordingly.3 Writing Printer-Independent Reports do list_customers end-program In the code above. SQR User’s Guide 113 . Summary • Reports can be made printer-independent by writing programs that do not require a certain printer. Because the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command does not accept a variable as an argument. The next chapter describes how to produce reports that vary according to the report parameters and selection criteria supplied by the user.

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A SQL statement containing variables is considered static. Since SQL only allows variables in places where literals are allowed (such as in a WHERE clause or INSERT statement). SQR provides three ways to vary a SQL statement: • Using variables in SQL • Dynamic SQL • SQL and substitution variables SQR provides three ways to do error checking: • ON-ERROR procedures • Commands with ON-ERROR options • The INPUT command These techniques are described in more detail in the following sections. This sample program selects customers from a state that the user specifies. Using Variables in SQL The SQL language supports the use of variables.16 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking This chapter describes how to vary the SQL statement based on a user’s selection criteria or other report parameters. it is considered as executing the same statement. the database can parse the statement before the values for the variables are given. SQR User’s Guide 115 . even if the values of the variables change. When SQR executes this statement several times.

sqr begin-program do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure list_customers_for_state input $state maxlen=2 type=char ’Enter state abbreviation’ let $state = upper($state) begin-select name (. ensuring that the user enters a string of no more than two characters. The arguments MAXLEN and TYPE check the input. enter IN. The example shows the LET command used with the SQR upper function. You could let the SQL perform the conversion to uppercase. You would do so by using "where state = upper($state)" if you are using Oracle or SYBASE or by using "where state = ucase($state)" if you are using another database. The only thing that changes between executions of the SELECT statement is the value of the variable. which allows the user to input the state without worrying about the case.3 Program ex16a. In this program. If the entry is incorrect.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. you must specify one of the states included in the sample data for the program to return any records. NJ. When you run this program. or OH.1) position (+1) from customers where state = $state end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state Note the use of the $state variable in the SELECT paragraph. In the example. MI. the SQL statement sent to the database contains that variable. SQR allows you to write database-independent code by moving the use of such SQL extensions to the SQR code. At the prompt. SQR will generate the output shown below. However. This is the most common example of varying a SELECT statement. The program converts the contents of the $state variable to uppercase. INPUT reprompts. In many cases. NH. SQR "binds" the variable before the SQL is executed. If you enter NY (the state where most of the customers in the sample data reside). the INPUT command prompts the user to enter the value of state. the database only needs to parse the SQL statement once. 116 SQR User’s Guide . NY. NM. state is uppercase in the database. When you use a variable in a SQL statement in SQR.

SQR actually constructs the statement each time before executing it.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Output for ex16a. the first column is called name and the second column is called city. city The second SELECT statement will be: select city. name As you can see.SQR 4.sqr Alfred E Newman & Company Eliot Richards Harriet Bailey Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Corks and Bottles. Inc. name from customers order by city. It is illustrated in the following example. This technique is called dynamic SQL. the first column is the city and the second is name. The program runs the SELECT twice. and the program sorts by city with a secondary sort by name. run it with the command-line flag -CB. and the program sorts the records by name with a secondary sort by city. The first SELECT statement will therefore be: select name. Dynamic SQL You may find the restriction against using variables where only literals are allowed too limiting in some cases. SQR User’s Guide 117 . In the following example. The first time. The second time. To take full advantage of the error-handling procedure. the ordering of the records is changed based on the user’s selection. the statements are different. city from customers order by name.

if the text changes. You can use dynamic variables to produce reports like this one. The variables &column1 and &column2 are column variables. a new statement is compiled and executed. Each time the statement is executed." 118 SQR User’s Guide .sqr begin-program let $col1 = ’name’ let $col2 = ’city’ let #pos = 32 do list_customers_for_state position (+1) let $col1 = ’city’ let $col2 = ’name’ let #pos = 18 do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning begin-procedure list_customers_for_state let $my_order = $col1 || ’.#pos) position (+1) from customers order by [$my_order] end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state When you use variables in a SQL statement in SQR to replace more than literals.’ || $col2 begin-select on-error=give_warning [$col1] &column1=char (. when you use the dynamic variable [$my_order] in the ORDER BY clause of the SELECT statement.3 Program ex16b. Other dynamic variables used are [$col1] and [$col2]. They substitute the names of the columns in the SELECT statement.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. SQR will place the text from the variable $my_order in that statement. For example. Note the error-handling procedure give_warning. It is discussed below in "SQL Error Checking. you make them dynamic variables by enclosing them in square brackets. Note that the data in the first half of the report is sorted differently than the data in the second half.1) [$col2] &column2=char (.

SQR User’s Guide 119 . which can allow syntax errors to occur in run time. UPDATE. INSERT. If you want to change this default behavior. SQR checks the syntax of the SELECT. Any SQL syntax error will be detected and reported at compile time.SQR 4. the content of the dynamic variable is used to construct the SQL statement. Inc. Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Eliot Richards Clair Butterfield Isaiah J Schwartz and Company SQL Error Checking SQR checks and reports database errors for SQL statements. Inc. Eliot Richards Gregory Stonehaven Harold Alexander Fink Harriet Bailey Harry’s Landmark Diner Isaiah J Schwartz and Company Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Joe Smith and Company Kate’s Out of Date Dress Shop Quentin Fields Sam Johnson Bell Harbor Big Falls Cleveland Davenport Everretsville Frogline Mamaroneck Miningville New York New York New York Queens Teaneck Zanesville New York Teaneck New York Queens Everretsville Davenport Mamaroneck Miningville Zanesville Frogline Big Falls New York Cleveland Bell Harbor Sam Johnson Joe Smith and Company Quentin Fields Harold Alexander Fink Gregory Stonehaven Jerry’s Junkyard Specialties Harriet Bailey Harry’s Landmark Diner Alfred E Newman & Company Corks and Bottles.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Output for ex16b. When you use dynamic SQL. use the ON-ERROR option of the BEGIN-SELECT or BEGIN-SQL paragraphs. SQR cannot check the syntax until run time. and DELETE SQL statements in your program. report the error. and abort the program.sqr Alfred E Newman & Company Clair Butterfield Corks and Bottles. before the execution of the report begins. In that case. Errors could occur if the dynamic variables selected or used in a WHERE or ORDER BY clause were incorrect. SQR will trap any run-time error. When an SQR program is compiled.

if a database error occurs. see the table "SQR Reserved Variables" in the SQR Language Reference. and they are very useful. This example is less common. The value that the user enters is placed in a special kind of variable called a substitution variable. It contains the error message text from the database and is automatically set by SQR after a database error occurs. or part of a SQL statement at compile time. or predefined. the value of {my_order} cannot change and the SQL statement is considered static. From this point on. execution would continue at the statement immediately following the SQL or SELECT paragraph. SQR will invoke a procedure called give_warning instead of reporting the problem and aborting. Write this procedure as follows: begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning This procedure displays the error message but does not abort the execution of the program. SQR can check its syntax before execution begins. The variable #page-count has the page number for the current page. variables.3 begin-select on-error=give_warning [$col1] &column1=char (. This variable can be used to substitute any command. SQL and Substitution Variables SQR uses the value of this substitution variable to complete the SELECT statement at compile time. This is a special SQR reserved variable. For example. but it demonstrates the difference between compile-time and run-time substitutions.Dynamic SQL and Error Checking SQR 4. In the following program. argument. the ASK command in the SETUP section prompts the user at compile time. SQR has a number of reserved. the variable $sqr-program has the name of the program that is running. Instead. 120 SQR User’s Guide . For a complete list of reserved variables. Note the use of the variable $sql-error. Because the SELECT statement is complete at compile time.#pos) position (+1) from customers order by [$my_order] end-select In the above example. The variable $username has the user name that was used to log on to the database.1) [$col2] &column2=char (.

Therefore. there will be no prompt.SQR 4. When you run this program. The ASK command can only be used in the SETUP section. or both (in either order and separated by a comma). city. SQR User’s Guide 121 . Substitution variables set in an ASK command let you modify commands that are normally quite restrictive." earlier in this chapter. You can validate the length and type of data input and reprompt if it is not valid.32) position (+1) from customers order by {my_order} end-select end-procedure ! list_customers_for_state In this case. If the argument is passed on the command line. INPUT is more flexible than ASK.3 Dynamic SQL and Error Checking Program ex16c. The following code shows this technique. ASK commands are always performed at compile time before program execution begins. ASK can be more powerful. which will be used to sort the output.1) city (. the ASK command prompts the user for the value of the substitution variable {my_order}. The program will produce a report sorted accordingly. all ASK commands are performed before any INPUT command is performed. You can use INPUT inside loops. enter name.sqr begin-setup ask my_order ’Enter the column name to sort by (name or city)’ end-setup begin-program do list_customers_for_state end-program begin-procedure give_warning display ’Database error occurred’ display $sql-error end-procedure ! give_warning begin-procedure list_customers_for_state begin-select on-error=give_warning name (. We have seen an example of reprompting in the section "Using Variables in SQL.

Dynamic SQL and Error Checking

SQR 4.3

begin-setup ask hlines ’Number of lines for heading’ end-setup begin-program print ’Hello, World!!’ (1,1) end-program begin-heading {hlines} print ’Report Title’ () center end-heading

In this example, the substitution variable {hlines} defines the number of lines that the heading will occupy. The BEGIN-HEADING command normally expects a literal and does not allow a run-time variable. When a substitution variable is used with this command, its value is modified at compile time. For further information on the ASK and INPUT commands, see Chapter 25, "Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute."

Summary
• Dynamic variables are variables used in a SQL statement to replace more than literals. They are enclosed in square brackets. • You can customize SQR’s run-time error handling. • SQR has a number of reserved variables. For a full listing, see the table "SQR Reserved Variables" in the SQR Language Reference. • Substitution variables entered by the ASK command can be used in place of any command, argument, or SQL statement at compile time. They are enclosed in curly braces.
In the next chapter, you will learn more about SQR procedures.

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Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables
This chapter examines SQR procedures. It explains how to pass parameters and illustrates the difference between global and local procedures. In particular, it shows how to reference global variables from within a local procedure. The sample code in this chapter shows a procedure that spells out a number and a program for printing checks that uses this procedure. When printing checks, you normally need to spell out the dollar amount, as shown below.

In the sample program, it is assumed that the checks are preprinted and that our program only has to print such items as the date, name, and amount.

Procedures
SQR procedures that contain variables which are visible throughout the program are called global procedures. These procedures can also directly reference any program variable.

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In contrast, procedures that take arguments, such as the spell_number procedure in this chapter’s check-printing sample code, are local procedures. In SQR, any procedure that takes arguments is automatically considered local. Variables introduced in a local procedure are only readable inside the procedure. This useful feature avoids name collisions. In the sample program, the spell_number procedure is placed in an include file because other reports may also want to use it.

Local Variables
When you create library procedures that may be used in many programs, make them local. Then, if a program has a variable with the same name as a variable used in the procedure, there will not be a collision. SQR treats the two variables as separate. We recommend that you declare a procedure as local even if it does not take any arguments. Simply place the keyword LOCAL after the procedure name in the BEGIN-PROCEDURE command. To reference a global variable from a local procedure, insert an underscore between the prefix character (#, $, or &) and the variable name. Note also that the same technique is used to reference reserved variables such as #current-line. These variables are always global. You can reference #_current-line from a local procedure. SQR supports recursive procedure calls, but it maintains only one copy of a local variable. A procedure will not allocate new instances of the local variables on a stack, as C or Pascal would.

Argument Passing
Procedure arguments are treated as local variables. Arguments may be either numeric, date, or text variables or strings. If an argument is preceded with a colon, its value will be passed back to the calling procedure. In the example below, spell_number takes two arguments. The first argument is the check amount. This argument is a number, and the program passes it to the procedure. There is no need for the procedure to pass it back.

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Procedures, Argument Passing, and Local Variables

The second argument is the result that the procedure passes back to the calling program. We precede this variable with a colon, which means that the value of this argument will be copied back at the end of the procedure. The colon is only used when the argument is declared in the BEGIN-PROCEDURE command. Look at the following code. It’s not a complete program. It’s the spell_number procedure, which is stored in the file spell.inc. The checkprinting program will include this code using an #INCLUDE command. File spell.inc
begin-procedure spell_number(#num,:$str) let $str = ’’ ! break the number to it’s 3-digit parts let #trillions = floor(#num / 1000000000000) let #billions = mod(floor(#num / 1000000000),1000) let #millions = mod(floor(#num / 1000000),1000) let #thousands = mod(floor(#num / 1000),1000) let #ones = mod(floor(#num),1000) ! spell each 3-digit part do spell_3digit(#trillions,’trillion’,$str) do spell_3digit(#billions,’billion’,$str) do spell_3digit(#millions,’million’,$str) do spell_3digit(#thousands,’thousand’,$str) do spell_3digit(#ones,’’,$str) end-procedure ! spell_number begin-procedure spell_3digit(#num,$part_name,:$str) let #hundreds = floor(#num / 100) let #rest = mod(#num,100) if #hundreds do spell_digit(#hundreds,$str) concat ’hundred ’ with $str end-if if #rest do spell_2digit(#rest,$str) end-if if #hundreds or #rest if $part_name != ’’ concat $part_name with $str concat ’ ’ with $str end-if end-if end-procedure ! spell_3digit

Program continues on the following page.

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File spell.inc (continued)
begin-procedure spell_2digit(#num,:$str) let #tens = floor(#num / 10) let #ones = mod(#num,10) if #num < 20 and #num > 9 evaluate #num when = 10 concat ’ten ’ with $str break when = 11 concat ’eleven ’ with $str break when = 12 concat ’twelve ’ with $str break when = 13 concat ’thirteen ’ with $str break when = 14 concat ’fourteen ’ with $str break when = 15 concat ’fifteen ’ with $str break when = 16 concat ’sixteen ’ with $str break when = 17 concat ’seventeen ’ with $str break when = 18 concat ’eighteen ’ with $str break when = 19 concat ’nineteen ’ with $str break end-evaluate else evaluate #tens when = 2 concat ’twenty’ with $str break when = 3 concat ’thirty’ with $str break when = 4 concat ’forty’ with $str break

Program continues on the following page.

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SQR User’s Guide 127 .$str) end-if end-if end-procedure ! spell_2digit begin-procedure spell_digit(#num.inc (continued) when = 5 concat ’fifty’ with $str break when = 6 concat ’sixty’ with $str break when = 7 concat ’seventy’ with $str break when = 8 concat ’eighty’ with $str break when = 9 concat ’ninety’ with $str break end-evaluate if #num > 20 if #ones concat ’-’ with $str else concat ’ ’ with $str end-if end-if if #ones do spell_digit(#ones. Argument Passing.:$str) evaluate #num when = 1 concat ’one ’ with $str break when = 2 concat ’two ’ with $str break when = 3 concat ’three ’ with $str break when = 4 concat ’four ’ with $str break when = 5 concat ’five ’ with $str break when = 6 concat ’six ’ with $str break Program continues on the following page.SQR 4.3 Procedures. and Local Variables File spell.

and Local Variables SQR 4. Program ex17a. The program only supports numbers up to 999 trillion." Note that the word and is inserted only between dollars and cents. but not between three-digit parts. These functions are listed and described under the LET command in the SQR Language Reference.sqr #include ’spell. 128 SQR User’s Guide . This format is common for check printing in dollars. because the program begins with an empty string and keeps concatenating the parts of the number to it. The series of EVALUATE commands in the number-spelling procedures are used to correlate the numbers stored in the variables with the strings used to spell them out.inc (continued) when = 7 concat break when = 8 concat break when = 9 concat break end-evaluate end-procedure ! ’seven ’ with $str ’eight ’ with $str ’nine ’ with $str spell_digit The result argument is reset in the procedure. and ones. SQR has a rich set of functions that can be used in expressions. Another procedure spells out the three-digit numbers such as "one hundred twelve. thousands. Argument Passing. billions.3 File spell. This is the full program that prints the checks. millions. The number is broken into its three-digit parts: trillions.inc’ begin-setup declare-layout default end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page. Note the use of math functions such as floor and mod.Procedures.

quantity) * 0. products d where a.1) * 100.cust_num = b.12) print ’Rebate’ (16.product_code group by name having sum(d.1)) || substr($spelled_amount.00 let $spelled_amount = ’Zero dollars ’ else do spell_number(#amount. 0) let $cents_amount = ’and ’ || edit(#cents.01 end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure print_check(#amount) print $_current-date (3.price * c.990.order_num and c.10 >= 0.3 Procedures.12) move #amount to $display_amt 9.quantity) * 0. ordlines c.cust_num and b.2. orders b. It also joins with the products table for the price.’00’) || ’ cents’ concat $cents_amount with $spelled_amount print $spelled_amount (12. and Local Variables Program ex17a.price * c.product_code = d. Argument Passing.sqr (continued) begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main alter-printer font=5 point-size=15 begin-select name &name sum(d.#len .58) if #amount < 1.) The customers table has the customer’s name.45) edit ’DD-Mon-YYYY’ print &_name (8. The SELECT paragraph is a join of several tables. SQR User’s Guide 129 .order_num = c.SQR 4.’ ’) || ’**’ print $display_amt (8.1. (A join is created when you select data from more than one database table in the same SELECT paragraph.10 &refund do print_check(&refund) from customers a.12) print ’ ’ (20) next-listing need=20 end-procedure ! print_check The main procedure starts by setting the font to 15-point Times Roman.1) concat ’dollars ’ with $spelled_amount end-if let #cents = round(mod(#amount.99 ! enclose number with asterisks for security let $display_amt = ’**’ || ltrim($display_amt.$spelled_amount) let #len = length($spelled_amount) ! Change the first letter to uppercase let $spelled_amount = upper(substr($spelled_amount.999. The program joins it with the orders and ordlines tables to get the customer’s order details.

• To pass an argument back to its calling procedure.price * c.price * c. • Variables in local procedures are visible only within the procedure. preface it with a colon. Summary • Variables in global procedures are visible throughout the program. The next chapter shows how to create multiple reports simultaneously from one program.10 The statement groups the records by the customer name. This is done with the clause: group by name having sum(d. Note the way it references the date and customer name with &_current-date and &_name.10 >= 0. respectively. and Local Variables SQR 4.quantity) * 0. Argument Passing.3 The following expression adds up all of the customer’s purchases and calculates a 10 percent rebate: sum(d.01 The HAVING clause eliminates checks for less than 1 cent. The procedure print_check is a local procedure. or & and the variable name. • To reference a global variable from a local procedure. 130 SQR User’s Guide . $.quantity) * 0. place an underscore between the prefix character #. one check per customer.Procedures.

and the listing report from Chapter 3. In the following example. selecting the database records only once and creating different reports simultaneously. The sample program will print three reports—the labels from Chapter 9. SQR User’s Guide 131 .18 Multiple Reports This chapter shows you how to create multiple reports from one program.sqr #define MAX_LABEL_LINES #define LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS 10 3 begin-setup declare-layout labels paper-size=(10. Program ex18a.33 end-declare declare-layout form_letter end-declare declare-layout listing end-declare declare-report labels layout=labels end-declare declare-report form_letter layout=form_letter end-declare declare-report listing layout=listing end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page. This powerful feature can save a significant amount of processing time. Repeated queries are costly because database operations are often the most resource-consuming or time-consuming part of creating a report.11) left-margin=0. the form letter from Chapter 10. You can create multiple reports based on common data. you will see how SQR allows you to write multiple reports with different layouts and different heading and footing sections. The alternative—writing separate programs for the different reports— would require you to perform a separate database query for each report. All three reports are based on exactly the same data.

Multiple Reports SQR 4. ’ || &state || ’ ’ || $zip print $last_line (3.30) next-column at-end=newline add 1 to #label_count if #current-column = 1 add 1 to #label_lines if #label_lines = {MAX_LABEL_LINES} new-page let #label_lines = 0 else next-listing no-advance skiplines={LINES_BETWEEN_LABELS} end-if end-if end-procedure ! print_label Program continues on the following page.1.sqr (continued) begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main do init_mailing_labels begin-select name addr1 addr2 city state zip move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx phone do print_label do print_letter do print_listing from customers end-select do end_mailing_labels end-procedure ! main begin-procedure init_mailing_labels let #label_count = 0 let #label_lines = 0 use-report labels columns 1 29 57 ! enable columns alter-printer font=5 point-size=10 end-procedure ! init_mailing_labels begin-procedure print_label use-report labels print &name (1.1. 132 SQR User’s Guide .30) let $last_line = &city || ’.1.30) print &addr1 (2.3 Program ex18a.

During this month. Yes. our entire inventory is marked down by 25%.3 Multiple Reports Program ex18a.1) print $current-date () print ’Total labels printed = ’ (+1. To place an order simply dial 800-555-ACME.1) print #label_count () edit 9.999 end-procedure ! end_mailing_labels begin-procedure print_letter use-report form_letter begin-document (1. Delivery is free too.b . you can buy your favorite merchandise and save too.1) &name &addr1 &addr2 @city_state_zip . We would like to tell you about our limited time offer. so don’t wait. Clark Axelotle ACME Inc.sqr (continued) begin-procedure end_mailing_labels use-report labels use-column 0 ! disable columns new-page print ’Labels printed on ’ (. end-document position () @city_state_zip print &city () print ’. .999.b Sincerely.b $current-date Dear Sir or Madam: .SQR 4.b Thank you for your recent purchases from ACME Inc.b . ’ () print &state () print ’ ’ () move &zip to $zip xxxxx-xxxx print $zip () new-page end-procedure ! print_letter Program continues on the following page. SQR User’s Guide 133 .

Each procedure processes one record for its corresponding report. The other two reports use a layout that is identical to the default layout. unless there is a logical reason why the two layouts should be the same.55) end-heading begin-footing 1 for-reports=(listing) ! Print "Page n of m" in the footing page-number (1. The phone column is only used in the listing report and the addr2 column is only used in the form-letter report.1) ’Page ’ last-page () ’ of ’ end-footing begin-procedure print_listing use-report listing print &name (.32) print ’State’ (.Multiple Reports SQR 4. The labels report requires a layout that is different from the default. three procedures are executed. The name of the layout indicates which report uses it. It would be possible to save the last layout declaration and use the form-letter layout for the listing.1) print &city (.32) print &state (.49) print ’Phone’ (. Each procedure begins by setting the SQR printing context to its corresponding report. Note that it is only performed once and includes all the columns for all the reports.sqr (continued) begin-heading 4 for-reports=(listing) print ’Customer Listing’ (1) center print ’Name’ (3. For each record selected. 134 SQR User’s Guide . and print_listing prints one line into the listing report. print_letter prints one letter. it is better to keep separate layouts. The main procedure performs the SELECT. SQR sets the printing context with the USE-REPORT command. The print_label procedure prints one label.1) print ’City’ (. However.49) print &phone (.55) position (+1) end-procedure ! print_listing The SETUP section defines three layouts and three different reports that use these layouts.3 Program ex18a. The other columns are used in more than one report.

These output files will have the names ex18a. • USE-REPORT sets the printing context for each report.spf. ex18a.) When you run ex18a. will be displayed. the output files will be named ex18a. and ex18a. See Chapter 9 for more information on running reports with proportional fonts. ex10a. ex18a.s01.SQR 4. Summary • Writing multiple reports simultaneously with one program reduces database queries. and ex18a. because the other two reports do not use them.sqr.l02 (customer listing). but only the first output file. ex18a. • The FOR-REPORTS option of BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING defines headings and footings for individual reports.lis (labels). Because this program creates output with proportional fonts. You can view the other output files by selecting File→Open. The FOR-REPORTS option of the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGIN-FOOTING commands specifies the report name.3 Multiple Reports SQR allows you to define HEADING and FOOTING sections for each report. The next chapter explains how to integrate SQL statements other than SELECT with SQR. you may omit -KEEP.sqr. respectively.sqr. respectively. If you specify -KEEP. If you are running VisualSQRIBE. Most of the code for ex18a. ex10a. and ex3a. The parentheses are required.sqr is taken from ex9a.s02. you must run it with the -KEEP or -PRINTER:xx command-line flags. (If you are running the report with VisualSQRIBE. you get three output files that match the output files for ex9a. SQR User’s Guide 135 . and ex3a. The report is implied by the FOR-REPORTS option.sqr. • You can define separate reports in the SETUP section.l01 (form letter). This example only defines the heading and footing for the listing report.spf. Note that the USE-REPORT command is not needed in the heading or the footing. the Viewer window will open automatically after you run the programs.

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you can create two SQL paragraphs in your SQR program (CREATE TABLE and DROP TABLE) to create this table at the beginning of the program and drop the table at the end. The following example loads data from an external file into the database.19 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements Although SELECT may be the most common SQL statement. tickets. SQR can read and write external files and construct records. Here are a few examples: • If the program prints important documents such as checks. Using BEGIN-SQL To perform a SQL statement other than a SELECT statement you must use the BEGIN-SQL paragraph. • You can use SQR to load data into the database. It demonstrates two important features of SQR—handling external files and performing database inserts. you may need to update the database to indicate that the document was printed. This is easily performed in SQR with a SQL UPDATE statement. SQR User’s Guide 137 . This program loads the tab-delimited file created by the program ex11a. or invoices. SQR can perform any SQL statement. SQR can also insert these records into the database using a SQL INSERT statement. • If you need to hold intermediate results in a temporary database table.sqr. you can also perform other SQL commands in SQR. These are only a few examples. and this feature is used often.

3 Program ex19a. zip varchar (10). tot) values (#cust_num. addr2. phone varchar (10). addr1. addr1 varchar (30). name varchar (30). #tot) end-sql end-while Program continues on the following page. city varchar (16).lis’ as 1 for-reading record=160:vary read 1 into $rec:160 ! skip the first record. phone. $state. $zip. $addr2. state. city. $city. $phone. column headings while 1 read 1 into $rec:160 if #end-file break end-if unstring $rec by $sep into $cust_num $name $addr1 $addr2 $city $state $zip $phone $tot move $cust_num to #cust_num move $tot to #tot begin-sql insert into customers_ext (cust_num. addr2 varchar (30). tot int ) end-sql end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main #if {sqr-database} = ’Sybase’ begin-sql begin transaction end-sql #endif encode ’<009>’ into $sep open ’ex11a. 138 SQR User’s Guide .Using DML and DDL SQL Statements SQR 4.sqr begin-setup begin-sql on-error=skip ! table may already exist create table customers_ext ( cust_num int not null. $name. $addr1. name. state varchar (2). zip.

The changes are committed with a SQL COMMIT statement inside a BEGIN-SQL paragraph.sqr (continued) #if {sqr-database} = ’Sybase’ begin-sql commit transaction end-sql #else #if {sqr-database} <> ’Informix’ begin-sql commit end-sql #endif #endif close 1 end-procedure ! main The program starts by creating the table customers_ext. The program reads the records from the file and inserts each record into the database by using an INSERT statement inside a BEGIN-SQL paragraph. for example. the program branches out of the loop. For Oracle databases. use the ON-ERROR=SKIP option.3 Using DML and DDL SQL Statements Program ex19a." for more information on error handling. much like the SYBASE example of BEGIN TRANSACTION and COMMIT TRANSACTION. and your database was created with transaction logging. Dynamic SQL and Error Checking. See Chapter 16. The input file format is one record per line. The last step is to commit the changes to the database and close the file. see the SQR Language Reference. To ignore this error message. If the table already exists you will get an error message. When the end of the file is encountered (if #end-file). SQR User’s Guide 139 . Note that #end-file is an SQR reserved variable. For a complete listing of reserved variables. you can use the SQR COMMIT command. If you are using Informix. you must add a BEGIN WORK and a COMMIT WORK. we recommend you use the SQR COMMIT.SQR 4. Alternatively. Note that the code may be database-specific. with each field separated by the separator character.

use SQL commands such as INSERT and COMMIT inside the BEGIN-SQL paragraph. use the SQR COMMIT. The next chapter explains how to work with dates in SQR.Using DML and DDL SQL Statements SQR 4. For Oracle databases. 140 SQR User’s Guide .3 Summary • A BEGIN-SQL paragraph can be used to perform SQL statements other than SELECT. • To insert database records.

SQR allows you to easily perform these calculations in your program. • As a result of an SQR date function: dateadd. It also stores the time of day with the precision of a microsecond.C. SQR User’s Guide 141 . datediff. to December 31. or the same as another date. We strongly recommend that you always keep dates with four-digit year values (and not truncate to two digits) to avoid date problems at the turn of the century.D. 4712 B. or compare dates to find if one date is later. editing. subtract one date from another to find a time difference. datenow. You may need to add or subtract a number of days from a given date. The internal date representation always keeps the year as a four-digit value. earlier. Date values can be obtained in one of five ways: • By selecting a date column from the database. Date variables will be discussed later in this chapter. SQR has powerful capabilities in date arithmetic. A date can be represented as a character string or in an internal format using the SQR date datatype. The date datatype allows you to store dates in the range of January 1. • By referencing or printing the reserved variable $current-date. Date Arithmetic Many applications require date calculations. or strdodate. and manipulation. • By using INPUT to get a date from the user. You will learn the best way to handle dates in a program. it is not necessary to declare date variables. For most applications.20 Working with Dates This chapter explains how to handle dates with SQR. • By declaring a date variable using the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. 9999 A.

3 Many databases allow you to perform date calculations in SQL. The strtodate function converts a string to a date.’day’. months.30) < datenow() print ’Past Due Order’ (. The function dateadd adds 30 days to the invoice date (&invoice_date). subtract. $current-date. the program prints the string "Past Due Order.12) end-if position (+1) end-select In this example. The datenow function returns the current local date and time. SQR provides a reserved date variable.Working with Dates SQR 4. Fractions are allowed—you can add 2. or seconds.12) else print ’Current Order’ (." 142 SQR User’s Guide .5 days to a given date. The resulting date is then compared with the current date. weeks. the functions dateadd and datenow are used to compare dates. quarters. perform those calculations in SQR—your programs will be portable. Conversion between time units is also allowed—you can add. You can compare dates by using the usual operators (< . which is returned by datenow. the program prints the string "Current Order. The datediff function returns the difference between two specified dates in the time units you specify—years. or >) in an expression. or compare dates using days and state the difference using weeks. The following code uses functions to add 30 days to the invoice date and compare it to the current date: begin-select order_num (. If the invoice is older than 30 days. which is automatically initialized with the local date and time at the beginning of the program. In addition." If the invoice is 30 days old or less. hours. minutes. Instead. days. because they won't rely on a particular SQL syntax. but that can be awkward if you are trying to write portable code. The dateadd function adds or subtracts a number of specified time units from a given date. =.1) invoice_date if dateadd(&invoice_date. because the syntax varies between databases. The datetostr function converts a date to a string.

When the order date is later than January 3. 1996. the IF condition compares the invoice date with the date of 30 days before today. If the date includes the time of day. The condition is equivalent to that of the previous example.’dd/mm/yyyy’). the condition is satisfied. the timeof-day portion of the order date is omitted. Here is another technique for comparing dates: begin-select order_date if &order_date > strtodate(’3/1/1996’. 1996. only dates that are of January 4 or later will satisfy the condition. use the dateadd function with a negative argument.’dd/mm/yyyy’) print ’Current Order’ () else print ’Past Due Order’ () end-if from orders end-select The IF statement has a date column on the left side and the strtodate function on the right side.3 Working with Dates To subtract a given number of days from a date. In the next example.’dd/mm/yyyy’) In this example. SQR User’s Guide 143 . and they demonstrate the flexibility provided by these functions. the datetostr function converts the order date to a string that only stores the day.’day’) > 30 All three IF statements are equivalent. if &invoice_date < dateadd(datenow(). not a date comparison: if datediff(datenow(). 1996 with a time of day greater than 00:00. The strtodate function then converts this value back into a date.SQR 4.’dd/mm/yyyy’) > strtodate(’3/1/1996’.&invoice_date. Now when it is compared with January 3. This technique is demonstrated in the next example. With these two conversions. Note that the comparison is now a simple numeric comparison. and year. the comparison will be satisfied for orders of January 3. In this example.’day’. which is compared with the column &order_date. The strtodate function returns a date type. the date is truncated to remove the time-of-day portion of a date: if strtodate(datetostr(&order_date. month.-30) This condition can also be written as follows using the datediff function.

À Note The literal date format assumes a 24-hour clock. month. minutes. seconds. 1996 to the variable $a. The literal date format is SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]]. day. The respective outputs (when printed with the edit mask ’DD-MON-YYYY HH:MI AM’) will be: 09-APR-1996 12:00 AM 09-APR-1996 03:20 PM You can also specify a date format with the environment variable SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT.INI file. This is called the literal date format. Here are some examples: let $a = strtodate(’19960409’) let $a = strtodate(’19960409152000’) The first LET statement assigns the date of April 9. The following digits represent year. For example. A default is assumed for the missing elements. The first S in this format represents an optional minus sign. For more information on the SQR. You may omit one or more time elements from the right part of the format. The time portion defaults to 00:00. The second LET statement assigns 3:20 in the afternoon of April 9. This format can be specified as an environment variable or specified in the SQR. and microseconds. 1996 to $a. you can use a value in this format in the strtodate function without the use of an edit mask.Working with Dates SQR 4. the string represents a date B. 144 SQR User’s Guide . This format has the advantage of being independent of any specific database or language preference. If preceded with a minus sign.C.INI" in the SQR Language Reference.3 Date Formats SQR allows you to specify date constants and date values in a special format that is recognized without the use of an edit mask. see the chapter "SQR.INI file. hours.

PRINT. This implicit conversion will take place with the following commands: • MOVE • The datetostr function • The commands DISPLAY. The format specified in SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT 2.3 Working with Dates String to Date Conversions If you convert a string variable or constant to a date variable without specifying an edit mask that identifies the format of the string.SQR 4. or SHOW. SQR will apply a date format. SQR User’s Guide 145 . The database-dependent format Database-dependent formats are listed in the table "Default Database Formats" in the SQR Language Reference. when used to output a string variable as a date. This implicit conversion will take place with the following commands: • MOVE • The strtodate function • The commands DISPLAY. The database-dependent format 3. SQR will apply a date format. PRINT. The literal date format SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]]. or SHOW. The format specified in SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT 2. Date to String Conversions If you convert a date variable to a string without specifying an edit mask. SQR will attempt to apply date formats in the following order: 1. when used to output a date variable SQR will attempt to apply date formats in the following order: 1.

The value is loaded into the variable $start_date. A format for the date should be specified. MONTH-YYYY HH:MI ’HH:MI AM’ MARCH-1996 09:35 09:35 AM Table 3. The name of the order date month will be printed followed by the day of the month. Date Edit Masks When you print dates. which is validated as a date using the "dd/mm/yyyy" format. 1996. Sample Date Edit Masks 146 SQR User’s Guide . SQR provides a rich set of date edit masks. Description Edit mask containing blank space must be enclosed in single quotes. 1996 at 9:35 in the morning. use the TYPE=DATE qualifier. the edit masks produce the following results: Edit Mask dd/mm/yyyy DD-MON-YYYY ’Month dd. For string variables. Name of the month in uppercase followed by four-digit year Meridian indicators. YYYY. A date can be loaded into a date or string variable. the user is prompted with "Enter starting date:" (the colon is automatically added). If the value of the date value being edited is March 14. Please refer to the table "Date Edit Format Codes" in the SQR Language Reference for a complete listing. and four-digit year. Here is an example: input $start_date ’Enter starting date’ format=’dd/mm/yyyy’ type=date In this example.Working with Dates SQR 4. you can format them with an edit mask. a comma. For example: print &order_date () edit ’Month dd.3 Using Dates with the INPUT Command The INPUT command also supports dates. YYYY’ This command will print the order date in the specified format. Edit mask containing blank space must be enclosed in single quotes. The user then types in the value.’ Result 14/03/1996 14-MAR-1996 March 14.

SQR 4. For example. a mask of "The \mo\nth is month" results in the output string of "The month is march".3 Working with Dates Edit Mask YYYYMMDD DD. A backslash forces the character that follows into the output. The second backslash is needed because "n" is a valid date edit mask element. In some cases.MM. SQR User’s Guide 147 . This technique is useful when you want to print text that would otherwise be recognized as a date mask element. Sample Date Edit Masks (continued) If the edit mask contains other text. Since the words "As of" are not recognized as date mask elements. it is also printed. For example: print &order_date () edit ’As of Month dd. and ’D’ (day of week). Without the backslashes the output string would be "The march is march".YY Mon Day DY Q WW W DDD DD D Result 19960314 14. ’DD’ (day of month). ’DDD’ followed by ’D’ can be written as ’DDD|D’. 1996" if the order date is March 14. use a vertical bar as a delimiter between format elements. One example is the mask ’DDDD’. they are simply printed. For example. 1996. YYYY’ This command will print the string "As of March 14. To resolve such ambiguity. combining date edit mask elements may result in ambiguity.96 Mar Thursday THU 1 11 2 74 14 5 Description Abbreviated name of the month Day of the week Abbreviated name of day of the week Quarter Week of the year Week of the month Day of the year Day of the month (1-31) Day of the week (Sunday = 1) Table 3. which could be interpreted as various combinations of ’DDD’ (day of year).03.

DY. if the month is January. let $c = ’19960409152000’ The LET statement assigns 3:20 in the afternoon of April 9. For example. In addition. AM. DAY. PM. DAY. and RM are casesensitive and follow the case of the mask entered. Later. MONTH. See the ALTER-LOCALE command or the chapter "SQR. All other masks are case-insensitive and can be entered in either uppercase or lowercase. let $c = strtodate(’March 1. 1996 to $c.’Month dd. AD. The variable $c is then printed with the edit mask ’dd/mm/yyyy’. PM. 1996 12:00’.INI" in the SQR Language Reference for additional information. Like string variables. $c is declared as a date variable. DY. 148 SQR User’s Guide . national language support is provided for the following masks: MON.. MONTH. Declaring Date Variables To hold date values in your program. 1996. You must explicitly declare date variables using the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. Date variables can be initialized with date literals as shown in the following example: begin-setup declare-variable date $c end-declare end-setup . and AD.. date variables are prefixed with a dollar sign ($). AM... use date variables. For example: begin-setup declare-variable date $c end-declare end-setup . Date variables are useful for holding results of date calculations. the mask Mon yields "Jan" and MON yields "JAN". yyyy hh:mi’) print $c () edit ’dd/mm/yyyy’ In this example. BC. it is assigned the value of noon on March 1. which yields 01/03/1996.Working with Dates SQR 4. BC.3 The masks MON.

• Perform date arithmetic and date comparison by using the date functions.SQR 4.INI file. This format can be specified as an environment variable or specified in the SQR. • You can also specify a date format with the environment variable SQR_DB_DATE_FORMAT. or strtodate. a 24-hour clock is assumed. The next chapter describes the SQR features for national language support.3 Working with Dates Summary • Obtain date values by selecting a date column from the database. datediff. datenow. SQR User’s Guide 149 . • The SQR literal date format is SYYYYMMDD[HH24[MI[SS[NNNNNN]]]]. • Declare date variables with the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. or using an SQR date function such as dateadd. printing or referencing the reserved variable $current-date. For this format.

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respectively. PM. one locale may use English. German." in the SQR Language Reference. Their use is discussed and demonstrated below. "SQR. For more information about the SQR. A locale contains settings for N/A.INI file. MONEY. A locale contains default edit masks for number. These keywords can be specified in the INPUT. thousands separator. and PRINT commands. BC. These edit masks are used when you specify the keywords NUMBER. and date. and AD in the language of the locale. You can easily define additional locales or modify existing locales by editing the SQR. currency. date separator. decimal separator. These settings are described in detail in the reference section for the ALTER-LOCALE command in the SQR Language Reference. DISPLAY. UK-English. This chapter describes SQR locales and explains how to use them to write programs that automatically adapt to local preferences. money. Available Locales SQR provides predefined locales such as US-English. This support is provided through the concept of locales. refer to the chapter. and a period for the decimal place.21 Locales National Language Support This chapter describes SQR features for national language support (NLS). MOVE.INI file. and the presentation of dates and numbers.INI. A locale is a set of local preferences for language. numbers with commas separating the thousands. A locale contains a setting for names of the days of the week and names of the months in the language of the locale. AM. It also contains settings for how to handle lower/upper case editing of these names. For example. A locale also contains settings for currency symbol. and Spanish. dates in "dd/mm/yy" format. and time separator. SQR User’s Guide 151 . SHOW. French. dollar currency. and DATE.

which are specified in the SQR. Therefore. use the default locale. You can even have different parts of your program use different locales. however. 'System' settings can be altered at run time using ALTER-LOCALE.999.INI file will make it unnecessary to specify the locale in every program." System is not a real locale. Different sites may have a different locale as the default.3 With the ALTER-LOCALE command. and in Paris it may be 5. Your program will then automatically respect the local preferences. For example. To adapt your program to any location.National Language Support SQR 4. Most or all of your programs may use the same locale.INI file of the machine on which it is run. When you install SQR. the default locale is set to the reserved locale called "System. and specifying the default locale in the SQR.99’ The setting of the default locale in the SQR. before national language support was added. The preferences in the system locale are hard-coded in the product and cannot be set or defined in the SQR. 152 SQR User’s Guide .INI file defines a default locale. It defines the behavior of older versions of SQR. the result may be 5.120. date format preferences in the system locale are different for every database you use with SQR.INI.120. For example. In London.00. The delimiters for thousands and the decimal—the comma and the period— will be switched automatically according to the preferences of the locale.00.INI file will control the format. you can choose a locale—at the beginning of your program or anywhere else. You can select a locale with this command: alter-locale locale = ’German’ The Default Locale The SQR. The date preferences are dependent on the database you are using. and an office in London may use the "UK-English" locale. an office in Paris may use the "French" locale.999. you may print the number 5120 using the following command: print #invoice_total () edit ’9.

SQR User’s Guide 153 . the locale will be Spanish. To do that. the locale is switched to Spanish and later restored to the previous locale before it was switched. Switching Locales You can switch from one locale to another any number of times during program execution. The value of $old_locale is then used in the ALTER-LOCALE command at the end of the procedure.SQR 4. if you change the default locale to "French.3 National Language Support À Tip Changing the settings of the default locale may change the behavior of existing programs. Consider this example: begin-procedure print_data_in_spanish ! Save the current locale let $old_locale = $sqr-locale ! Change the locale to "Spanish" alter-locale locale = ’Spanish’ ! Print the data do print_data ! restore the locale to the previous setting alter-locale locale = $old_locale end-procedure In this example. or reports that have different sections for different locales. to switch to the Spanish locale: alter-locale locale = ’Spanish’ From this point in the program. This technique is useful for writing reports that use multiple currencies. use the ALTER-LOCALE command." programs that used to print dates in English may now print them in French. the locale setting before it is changed is read in the reserved variable $sqr-locale and stored in $old_locale. For example. To switch to another locale. For example. Be sure that you review and test existing programs when making a change to the default locale.

MONEY. and date outputs with the masks defined in the ALTER-LOCALE command. Whether you set the locale in the SQR. suppose that the locale was "USEnglish" and the date and money edit masks were modified using the above code. these keywords are used with the PRINT command to produce output for the US-English and French locales: 154 SQR User’s Guide . By using the keywords NUMBER.99’ To restore modified locale preferences to their defaults.National Language Support SQR 4.$$$. In the following example. money.INI file or in your program. and DATE later in your program. The following code will reset the changed date and money edit masks: alter-locale locale = ’US-English’ Keywords—NUMBER. and date formats once at the top of your program and use these formats throughout your report. and DATE. The second case is when you want to specify your number. Here is an example of how you can modify default preferences in a locale: alter-locale date-edit-mask = ’Mon-DD-YYYY’ money-edit-mask = ’$$. they format number. and SHOW allow you to specify the keywords NUMBER.$$9. you can reselect the modified locale. The first case is when you want to write programs that automatically adapt to the default locale. these keywords will have the same effect. These keywords can be useful in two cases. you tell SQR to take these edit masks from the default locale settings. and DATE The commands DISPLAY. It does not modify the SQR. and DATE in place of an explicit number or date edit mask. you define these formats with an ALTER-LOCALE command at the top of your program. The ALTER-LOCALE command only affects the current program. MONEY. MONEY. Then when you use the keywords NUMBER.INI file. money. MONEY. For example. PRINT. In this case.3 Modifying Locale Preferences With the ALTER-LOCALE command. you can modify any individual preference in a locale. MOVE.

00 123.456.1) print #num_var (.22) DATE The output will be as follows: US-English locale With NUMBER keyword With MONEY keyword With DATE keyword French locale With NUMBER keyword With MONEY keyword With DATE keyword 123.1) print $date_var (.22) DATE ! set locale to French ALTER-LOCALE locale = ’French’ print ’French locale’ (+2.22) MONEY print ’With DATE keyword ’ (+1.00 May 20.00 $ 123.22) MONEY print ’With DATE keyword ’ (+1.456.1) print ’With NUMBER keyword ’ (+1.22) NUMBER print ’With MONEY keyword ’ (+1.SQR 4.456.1) print #money_var (.3 National Language Support let #num_var = 123456 let #money_var = 123456 let $date_var = strtodate(’19960520152000’) ! set locale to US-English alter-locale locale = ’US-English’ print ’US-English locale’ (1.456.1) print $date_var (. 1996 123.1) print ’With NUMBER keyword ’ (+1.00 F 20 mai 1996 SQR User’s Guide 155 .22) NUMBER print ’With MONEY keyword ’ (+1.1) print #money_var (.1) print #num_var (.

and the presentation of dates and numbers can be specified in a locale. • You can switch among locales by using the command ALTER-LOCALE.3 Summary • Local preferences for language. • You can edit the SQR. • You can also specify formats with the keywords NUMBER. MONEY.INI file.INI file to alter predefined locales or to create new ones. currency.National Language Support SQR 4. The next chapter explains how SQR can interoperate with other applications and how SQR can be extended with functions supplied by you or contained in a third-party library. You can also specify individual preferences for a locale by using ALTER-LOCALE. • Predefined locales are specified in the SQR. and DATE. 156 SQR User’s Guide .

Next. Applications can run SQR programs using the SQR API (application program interface).C interface.22 Interoperability This chapter describes how SQR can interoperate with other applications or be extended with additional functions.C SQR Calling an External Application’s API Using UFUNC. SQR User’s Guide 157 . the chapter will explain how to invoke an external application’s API by using the UFUNC. An SQR program can also call an external application’s API.C This chapter will first describe how to invoke an SQR program from another application using the SQR API. This API is provided through a DLL on Windows and through an object library on other platforms. This interoperability is depicted in the two diagrams below: External Application SQR Execute SQR API External Application Invoking an SQR Program Using the SQR API SQR Execute External Application UFUNC.

See the SQR Server Installation Guide for more information about linking with SQR. On platforms other than Windows.Interoperability SQR 4. and STIMAGES. The SQR for PowerBuilder extensions are covered in the SQR for PowerBuilder User’s Guide. "Using the SQR Command Line. LIBSTI32. and an import library (SQRWIN. Be sure to include the SQR API library and your database library when you link your C or C++ application. SQRAPI.DLL. the SQR API is provided as a static library (sqr. The SQR command line is covered in Chapter 27. SQR requires the following DLLs to run: For Windows 95 & NT they are SQRW. You can use the SQR API from any application that is capable of calling DLL functions.DLL. 158 SQR User’s Guide . BCLW32." • Using the SQR API—the application makes a call to the SQR API.H. For C and C++ applications. The aforementioned DLL files are located in the BINW directory.a. Two additional libraries are required: bcl.H (or sqrapi.a and libsti.DLL.DLL.LIB). a header file.h). The SQR command includes all the necessary parameters. is provided. For C and C++ applications. This method is covered in the next section. a header file.3 Calling SQR from Another Application The following techniques can be used to invoke an SQR program from another application: • Using the SQR command line—the application initiates a process for running SQR. SQRAPI.LIB) are provided.a or SQR. Using the SQR API The SQR API is provided on Windows through a DLL (Dynamic Link Library). • Using SQR for PowerBuilder—your PowerBuilder application can call to the local or remote SQR user objects.

Call this function after the last program execution. This feature provides a significant improvement in processing time. the most recently run SQR program is saved in memory. Include this header file in your source code: #include ’sqrapi. To force SQR to release its memory and database cursors. Table 4. This function returns zero (0) if it is successful. sqrcancel is called using another thread or some similar asynchronous method. the APIs are declared in the file SQRAPI. This is a synchronous call. and arguments. Cursors may be left open to speed up repeated execution of the same SQR program. If the same SQR program is run again with either the same or different arguments.H. The SQR API For the benefit of C/C++ programmers. SQR User’s Guide 159 . including program name. flags. Passes the address of a null terminated string containing an SQR command line.h’ When you call SQR from a program. call sqrend() at any time. the program is not scanned again and the SQL statements are not parsed again.SQR 4. or optionally between SQR program executions. Since the sqr function does not return until the SQR program has completed. Cancels a running SQR program. This function always returns zero (0).3 Interoperability The following API functions are defined for calling SQR: Function int sqr(char *) Description Runs an SQR program. void sqrcancel(void) int sqrend(void) Releases memory and closes cursors. connectivity information. It returns when the SQR program has completed. The program may not stop immediately because SQR waits for any currently pending database operations to complete.

. call sqr() and pass a command line../libsti. Following is an example of a command that links a C application with the SQR API on a UNIX machine: cc -o {your_prog} {your_prog}. you must call sqrend before the calling program exits to ensure that SQR properly cleans up any database resources such as database cursors and temporary stored procedures. To call SQR.o $SQRDIR/sqr./lib/bcl.3 Although memory is automatically released when the program exits...error occurred. 160 SQR User’s Guide ... Check the make files or link scripts that are supplied with SQR for details. in C: status = sqr("myprog sammy/baker arg1 arg2 arg3"). if (status != 0) .a\ $SQRDIR/. You may want to copy and modify those to link in your program..a (DB Libname)..a $SQRDIR/. For example.Interoperability SQR 4.

SQR 4.LIS file (create/write) Problem with .SQR/. SQR would allow you to call these functions from SQR programs. This feature allows you to integrate your own code and third-party libraries into SQR.DLL Problem with -ZCF file Table 5. For example.SQT file (open/read) Problem with . with functions for initiating the connection and sending and receiving data. both standalone and callable: Non-VMS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 VMS 1 0 0x2622 0x2632 0x2642 0x2652 0x2662 0x2672 0x2682 0x2692 0x26A2 0x26B2 0x26C2 0x26D2 0x26E2 0x26F2 Reason Normal exit Error exit Cannot process SQRERR. Error Values Returned by the SQR API The VMS codes are given in hexadecimal notation.SQT file Program did not compile Problem with .3 Interoperability The following table describes error values returned by SQR.C The SQR language can be extended by adding user functions written in standard languages such as C.ERR file (create/write) Problem with . Error codes 9 and 12 are only applicable to the Windows release. suppose you had a library for communication over a serial line. SQR uses the 0x2600 group for its error messages to avoid conflict with VMS error messages.DAT Command-line flag in error Problem creating . Extending SQR—UFUNC.STR file (open/read) Cannot call SQR recursively Problem with Windows Internal error occurred Problem with SQRWIN.LOG file (create/write) Problem with POSTSCRI. SQR User’s Guide 161 .

char *[]. Step 1. The new SQR executable will then recognize the new functions as if they were standard SQR functions.C. char *. The line that adds the initcap function is shown in bold. You can find the modified version of UFUNC. you must prepare the functions. This file contains the list of user-defined functions. split CC_ARGS((int. and then link the objects (and libraries) with the SQR objects and libraries to form a new SQR executable.C in the TUTORIAL directory. static static static static void void void void max CC_ARGS((int. UFUNC. 162 SQR User’s Guide . To add initcap to SQR. The code segment above is taken from the file UFUNC.C. double *[]. double *)). JOSEPH JEFFERSON’) The result value in the variable $a would be "Mr.3 To extend SQR in this way.C. The key to the process is an SQR source file called UFUNC. char *[]. Joseph Jefferson. This code defines a prototype for a C function called initcap. Oracle users are familiar with this function. Add Function Prototype Begin by adding a function prototype to the function declaration list. initcap CC_ARGS((int. The function initcap changes the first letter of every word to uppercase and changes the rest of the letters to lowercase. Note that the name of the C function does not have to be the same as the name of the SQR function. "tell" SQR about them. double *)).C. For example: let $a = initcap(’MR. One example of such an extension would be an initcap function.C is provided in the LIB subdirectory (LIBW in Windows). printarray CC_ARGS((int." Adding a User Function The following example demonstrates how to extend SQR with an initcap function. double *)). char*[]. It also contains comments with a description of the process of adding a function to SQR. int)). you need to add it to a global array called userfuncs in UFUNC.Interoperability SQR 4. The prototype is required by the C compiler. The SQR name for the function is defined in the next step. The first three lines are part of the original UFUNC.

C file. The first argument of the C function is the argument count of the corresponding SQR function. "cnnc". ’n’. The second argument of the C function is an array of pointers. PVR printarray. 0. /* Last entry must be NULL—do not change */ "". The userfuncs table is an array of structures. Here is the modified code: } userfuncs[] = { /* (2) Define functions in userfuncs table: Number of Name Return_type Arguments Arg_Types -------------. 0. ’c’. PVR initcap.--------. As stated before. we will define it as "char *". depending on platform. this table exists in the UFUNC.3 Interoperability The CC_ARGS macro makes your code portable between compilers that expect full ANSI prototyping and compilers where the argument prototype is omitted.SQR 4. The line contains five arguments. You could also write: static void initcap(). remove the STATIC keyword.--------"max". Since initcap returns a string. and it initializes one structure in the array. The length of this string is the size of the result buffer. You cannot return a value that is longer than the maximum length. Note also that the keyword STATIC means that the code for initcap will be added in the file UFUNC. "printarray". ’n’. 0. 0 }. Add Entry to USERFUNCS Table The next step is to tell SQR about our initcap function. "initcap". PVR split. SQR User’s Guide 163 . In this case. ’n’. 1. only the first pointer is actually used.*/ PVR max.C. "". since initcap only takes one argument. which you must not overflow. The last argument sets the maximum length of the result string. The third argument of the C function is a pointer to the result buffer. "c". this argument count should be 1 because initcap takes exactly one argument. This array is the argument list. "C". In the case of initcap. 4. If you have the code in a separate file. "n". "split". which correspond to the five fields of the structure. Function -------. '\0'. The line added is shown in bold. The maximum length is typically around 2000 bytes. Step 2.

flag = 0. Remember that if you want to put the code in a separate file. Set it to 1.result. char *p. argv[]) /* Pointers to arguments: */ CC_ARG(char*. /* don’t exceed maxlen */ if (isalnum(*ptr)) { if (flag) *p = islower(*ptr)?toupper(*ptr):*ptr. char *ptr. This argument is the initcap function for which we have provided a prototype in the previous step.H. ptr = argv[0]. Step 3. the string contains one character enclosed in double quotation marks.argv[0] >= maxlen) break.maxlen)) CC_ARG(int. which ’c’ (enclosed in single quotation marks) indicates is a character string. } 164 SQR User’s Guide . return. } *p = ’\0’. } p++.argv. *p = *ptr. Since initcap has only one argument. else *p = isupper(*ptr)?tolower(*ptr):*ptr. The fourth argument is a string representing the types of the arguments. "c".C. p = result. This character indicates that the argument for initcap is a string. result) /* Where to store result */ CC_LARG(int. Add Implementation Code The next step is to add the implementation code for initcap. you will have to remove the STATIC keyword from the prototype. This is the name that you will use in the LET. maxlen) /* Result’s maximum length */ { int flag = 1. Note the PVR macro that provides proper cast for the pointer. The second argument is the return type. } else { flag = 1.C: static void initcap CC_ARGL((argc. which is inserted at the end of UFUNC. The last argument is a pointer to a C function that implements the SQR function we are adding. while (*ptr) { if (ptr . Here is the code. You can insert it right into the file UFUNC. You may also need to include standard C header files such as CTYPE. ptr++.3 The first argument is the name of the SQR function being added. argc) /* Number of actual arguments */ CC_ARG(char*. The third argument is the number of arguments that initcap will take.Interoperability SQR 4. IF and WHILE commands.

whose names and locations tend to vary.DLL and SQRWT. SQR User’s Guide 165 . as long as the appropriate calling protocol is maintained.argv.SQR 4. If SQRW.DLL and the DLLs specified in the SQR. ufunc on Windows 95 & NT On Windows 95 & NT.INI.maxlen) int argc. Joseph Jefferson For further information on argument types in user-defined functions. ufunc now resides in SQREXT. FARPROC lpfnUFuncRegister. The source code for SQREXT. you must relink SQR.DLL find SQREXT.DLL using any language or tool. When SQRW.INI file. they make the following calls in all the DLLs. and CC_LARG macros. You may have to modify the make file for your system. Use the make file that is provided in the LIB (or LIBW) subdirectory of SQR. JOSEPH JEFFERSON’) print $a () end-program The result in the output file should be: Mr. /* Number of actual arguments */ char* argv[]. they look for SQREXT. static void initcap(argc.DLL are loaded. passing the instance handle (of the calling module) and three function pointers: void InitSQRExtension ( HINSTANCE hInstance. see the comments in the UFUNC. This step is highly specific to operating systems and databases.DLL in the same directory and for any DLLs specified in the [SQR Extension] section in SQR. You may rebuild SQREXT.C). /* Where to store result */ int maxlen.result. Try the following program: begin-program let $a = initcap(’MR. you are ready to test.3 Interoperability Note the use of the CC_ARGL. You can also write the code as follows (only the first five lines are shown).DLL is included in the shipped package (EXTUFUNC.DLL and SQRWT. Once SQR is relinked.C file. /* Result’s maximum length */ Step 4. FARPROC lpfnConsole.C. CC_ARG. /* Pointers to arguments: */ char* result. SQR is linked with the database libraries. Relink SQR Once you have modified UFUNC. FARPROC lpfnError ).DLL.

C for the definition of struct ufnns and the sample user functions. you should rebuild the DLL using the supplied make file.3 Implementing New User Functions on Windows 95 & NT You may implement new user functions in SQREXT.DLL or any other extension DLL. • To extend SQR. Refer to EXTUFUNC. they must be listed in the [SQR Extension] section in SQR. lpfnUFuncRegister(struct ufnns* ufunc). you must register it by making the following call in InitSQRExtension(). The next chapter describes techniques for testing and debugging SQR programs.C file. add functions to the userfuncs global array in the UFUNC. The function pointer lpfnUFuncRegister is passed in from the calling module. Summary • Applications can run SQR programs using the SQR API (application program interface). If new extension DLLs containing new user functions are to be used.Interoperability SQR 4. SQREXT. If you choose to implement user functions in SQREXT. For any ufunc. • You can extend SQR with third-party libraries and functions written in standard languages such as C.INI in the system directory.DLL. All the extension DLLs must have the InitSQRExtension() function exported. • An SQR program can call also an external application’s API. 166 SQR User’s Guide .MAK.

select Limit to nn pages in the Run dialog. you are only interested in the first few pages of the report. À Note If your program contains break logic. Enter the desired number of test pages after the -T flag. if your report is named customer. If you are using VisualSQRIBE. -T6 will cause the program to stop after 6 pages of output have been created.LIS.23 Testing and Debugging This chapter describes the SQR functionality designed to help with the testing and debugging of SQR programs.sqr. For example.lis. The -T flag lets reports finish more quickly because all BEGIN-SELECT ORDER BY clauses are ignored. The default name of the output file is the same as the program file with the extension . To speed the cycle of running and viewing a few pages. Using the Test Feature During the development of an SQR program. the breaks may occur in unexpected locations because the ORDER BY clause is ignored. enter the following command: sqr customer username/password -T3 The -T3 flag specifies that the program will stop running after 3 pages have been produced. the output file will be named customer. you frequently test it by running it and examining its output. This chapter will focus on facilities in the SQR language and command-line options. SQR User’s Guide 167 . check it by displaying the output file on your screen or printing it. For example. When the test completes successfully. The database will not sort the data and the first set of records will be selected sooner. use the -T command-line flag. In many cases.sqr. To test a report file called customer.

In this example. Commands preceded with #DEBUGd are not compiled because "d" was not specified in the -DEBUG command-line flag. that command is processed only if the -DEBUG flag is specified on the SQR command line. You can use the #DEBUG command to conditionally process portions of your program. Indicate which command is to be debugged on the -DEBUG flag. 168 SQR User’s Guide . #DEBUGb. SQR provides the #DEBUG command to help you make temporary changes to your code. Precede the command with #DEBUG.Testing and Debugging SQR 4. run it without the -T flag. as shown in the following example: sqr myreport username/password -DEBUGabc In this example. #DEBUGa. or #DEBUGc are compiled when the program is executed. display or modify variables that you suspect are causing a problem. Your program will process all ORDER BY clauses and run to completion. Using the #DEBUG Command When debugging a program it is often useful to: • Display data or show when a procedure or query executes by using temporary SHOW or DISPLAY commands in key places in the program. • Isolate problem areas by temporarily skipping the parts of the program that work correctly. commands preceded by #DEBUG. • Temporarily cause additional behavior in questionable areas of the program. You can achieve debug multiple commands by using up to 10 letters or digits to differentiate between them. If the program creates more than one report. the -T flag restriction will apply only to the first report. the value of $s will be displayed only when you run the program with -DEBUG.3 When the development of your program is complete. as shown in the following example: #debug display $s When #DEBUG precedes a command. For example.

as shown in the following example: #define DEBUG_SESSION Y #if DEBUG_SESSION = ’Y’ begin-procedure dump_array let #i = 0 while #i < #counter ! Get data from the array get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (.24) print $phone (. By defining DEBUG_SESSION as Y. SQR considers the mistyped variable as if it is another variable.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while end-procedure ! dump_array #end-if The dump_array procedure is only used for debugging. it will not issue an error message when variables names are mistyped.1) print $city (. you can change DEBUG_SESSION to N and exclude the dump_array procedure from the program. the dump_array procedure is included in the program.SQR 4.3 Testing and Debugging Using Compiler Directives for Debugging You can conditionally compile entire sections of your program using the five compiler directives: • #IF • #ELSE • #END-IF or #ENDIF • #IFDEF • #IFNDEF You can use the value of a substitution variable. Later. Instead. SQR User’s Guide 169 . to turn on or off a set of statements. The #IF command in this example is case-insensitive. Because SQR does not require variables to be declared. Common Programming Errors The most common programming error using SQR is mistyping variable names.7) print $name (. declared by a #DEFINE command.

use $_area. Can you see the typo? The "c" in "acess" on the PRINT command is missing. Summary • You can speed up the testing cycle by using the -T command-line flag.3 For example: let #customer_access_code = 55 print #customer_acess_code () This example will not print 55 because we mistyped the variable name. Instead. If you refer to a global variable in a local procedure without preceding it with an underscore. #IFDEF. It will print nothing because the local $area variable did not receive a value. • You can conditionally compile entire sections of your program using the five compiler directives #IF. Such small errors are hard to detect because SQR considers #customer_acess_code as simply another variable with a value of zero. and #IFNDEF. A related problem has to do with global versus local variables. For example: begin-procedure main let $area = ’North’ do proc end-procedure ! main begin-procedure proc local print $area () ! Should be $_area end-procedure In this example.Testing and Debugging SQR 4. the local procedure proc prints the value of the local variable $area and not the global variable $area. • You can conditionally process sections of a program by using the #DEBUG command and the -DEBUG command-line flag. SQR will not issue an error message. #END-IF. #ELSE. 170 SQR User’s Guide . To refer to the global variable. it is taken as a new local variable name. • The most common programming error is the mistyping of variable names.

or EXECUTE command.24 Performance and Tuning Performance considerations are an important aspect of application development. Tuning SQL is often specific to the type of database that you are using—tuning SQL statements for an ORACLE database may be different than tuning SQL statements for DB2. This chapter focuses on SQR tools for simplifying SQL statements and reducing the number of SQL executions. General tuning of SQL is outside the scope of this book. This chapter also describes certain SQR capabilities that can help you write high-performance programs. • Writing programs that create multiple reports • Tuning SQR numerics • Running compiled programs with SQR Execute • Adjusting processing limits • Buffering fetched rows • Running programs on the server SQR User’s Guide 171 . it performs a SQL statement. Processing SQL statements typically consumes significant computing resources. Tuning SQL statements typically yields higher performance gains than tuning any other part of your program. including: • Simplifying a complex SELECT • Using LOAD-LOOKUP to simplify joins • Using dynamic SQL • Examining cursor status • Using an array or flat file instead of a temporary database table. There are several techniques. BEGIN-SQL. This chapter examines some of the issues that affect the performance of SQR programs. SQR Performance and SQL Statements Whenever your program contains a BEGIN-SELECT.

Performance and Tuning

SQR 4.3

Simplifying a Complex SELECT
With relational database design, information is often "normalized" by storing data entities in separate tables. To display the normalized information, you must write a SELECT statement that joins these tables together. With many database systems, performance suffers when you join more than three or four tables in one SELECT. With SQR, you can perform multiple SELECT statements and nest them as we saw in Chapter 7, "Master/Detail Reports." In this way, you can break a large join into several simpler SELECTS. For example, a SELECT statement that joins orders and products tables can be broken into two SELECTS. The first SELECT will retrieve the orders in which we are interested. For each order retrieved, a second SELECT will retrieve the products that were ordered. The second SELECT is correlated to the first SELECT by having a condition such as: where order_num = &order_num This condition specifies that the second SELECT will only retrieve products for the current order. Similarly, if your report is based on products ordered, you can make the first SELECT retrieve the products, and make the second SELECT retrieve the orders for each product. This method will improve performance in many cases, but not all. To achieve the best performance, you may need to experiment with the different alternatives.

Using LOAD-LOOKUP to Simplify Joins
Database tables often contain key columns such as a product code or customer number. To retrieve a certain piece of information, you join two or more tables that contain the same column. For example, to obtain a product description, you may join the orders table with the products table, using the product_code column as the key. With LOAD-LOOKUP, you can reduce the number of tables that are joined in one SELECT. This command is used in conjunction with one or more LOOKUP commands.

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The LOAD-LOOKUP command defines an array containing a set of keys and values and loads it into memory. The LOOKUP command looks up a key in the array and returns the associated value. In some programs, this technique will perform better than a conventional table join. LOAD-LOOKUP can be used in the SETUP section or in a procedure. If used in the SETUP section, it is processed only once. If used in a procedure, it is processed each time it is encountered. LOAD-LOOKUP retrieves two fields from the database, the KEY field and the RETURN_VALUE field. Rows are ordered by KEY and stored in an array. The KEY field must be unique and contain no NULL values. When the LOOKUP command is used, the array is searched (using a "binary" search) to find the RETURN_VALUE field corresponding to the KEY referenced in the lookup. The following example illustrates LOAD-LOOKUP and LOOKUP:
begin-setup load-lookup name=prods table=products key=product_code return_value=description end-setup ... begin-select order_num (+1,1) product_code lookup prods &product_code $desc print $desc (,15) from orderlines end-select

In this example, the LOAD-LOOKUP command loads an array with the product_code and description columns from the products table. The lookup array is named prods. The product_code column is the key and the description column is the return value. In the SELECT paragraph, a LOOKUP on the prods array retrieves the description for each product_code. This technique eliminates the need to join the products table in the SELECT. If the ordlines and products tables were simply joined in the SELECT (without LOAD-LOOKUP), the code would look like this:

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begin-select order_num (+1,1) ordlines.product_code description (,15) from ordlines, products where ordlines.product_code = products.product_code end-select

Which is faster, a database join or LOAD-LOOKUP? It depends on your program. LOAD-LOOKUP improves performance in the following situations:

• When it is used with multiple SELECTS. • When it keeps the number of tables being joined from exceeding three or four. • When the number of entries in the LOAD-LOOKUP table is small compared to the number of rows in the SELECT, and they are used often. • When most entries in the LOAD-LOOKUP table are used.

À Tip

You can concatenate columns if you want RETURN_VALUE to return more than one column. The concatenation symbol is database-specific.

Improving SQL Performance with Dynamic SQL
Chapter 16, "Dynamic SQL and Error Checking," explained how to use dynamic SQL variables. Dynamic SQL can also be used in some situations to simplify a SQL statement and gain performance.
begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and ($state = ’CA’ and order_date > $start_date or $state != ’CA’ and ship_date > $start_date) end-select

In this example, a given value of $state, order_date or ship_date is compared to $start_date. The OR operator in the condition makes such multiple comparisons possible. With most databases, an OR operator slows processing. It may cause the database to perform more work than necessary.

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However, the same work can be done with a simpler SELECT. For example, if $state is ’CA,’ the following SELECT would work:
begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and order_date > $start_date end-select

Dynamic SQL allows you to check the value of $state and create the simpler condition:
if $state = ’CA’ let $datecol = ’order_date’ else let $datecol = ’ship_date’ end-if begin-select order_num from orders, customers where order.customer_num = customers.customer_num and [$datecol] > $start_date end-select

The substitution variable [$datecol] substitutes the name of the column to be compared with $state_date. The SELECT is simpler and no longer uses an OR. In most cases, this use of dynamic SQL will improve performance.

Examining SQL Cursor Status
Since SQR programs select and manipulate data from a SQL database, it is helpful to understand how SQR handles SQL statements and queries. SQR programs may perform multiple SQL statements. Moreover, the same SQL statement may be executed many times. When your program executes, a pool of SQL statement handles—called cursors—is maintained. A cursor is a storage location for one SQL statement, for example, SELECT, INSERT, or UPDATE. Every SQL statement uses a cursor for processing. A cursor holds the context for the execution of a SQL statement. The cursor pool consists of 30 cursors, and its size cannot be changed. When a SQL statement is re-executed, its cursor can be immediately reused if it is still in the cursor pool. When your SQR program executes more than 30 different SQL statement, cursors in the pool are reassigned.

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Performance and Tuning

SQR 4.3

To examine how cursors are managed, use the -S command-line flag. This flag will cause cursor status information to be displayed at the end of a run. The following information will be displayed for each cursor:
Cursor #nn: SQL = <SQL statement> Compiles = nn Executes = nn Rows = nn

The listing will also include the number of "compiles," which will vary according to the database and the complexity of the query. With Oracle, for example, a simple query is compiled only once. With SYBASE, a SQL statement is compiled before it is first executed and recompiled for the purpose of validation during the SQR compile phase. Therefore, you may see two compiles for a SQL statement. Later when the SQL is re-executed, if its cursor is found in the cursor pool, it can proceed without recompiling.

Avoiding Temporary Database Tables
Programs often use temporary database tables to hold intermediate results. Creating, updating, and deleting database temporary tables is a very resource-consuming task, however, and can hurt your program’s performance. SQR provides two alternatives to using temporary database tables. The first alternative is to store intermediate results in an SQR array. The second is to store intermediate results in a local flat file. Both techniques can bring about a significant performance gain. You can use the SQR language to manipulate data stored in an array or a flat file. These two methods are explained and demonstrated in the following sections. Methods for sorting data in SQR arrays or flat files are also explained.

Using and Sorting Arrays
Chapter 8, "Cross-Tabular Reports and the Use of Arrays," introduced the array as a means of holding data records during program execution.

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The following code retrieves records.000 rows. During the first pass. but with fewer lines of code. prints them. and saves them into an array named customer_array. It starts with zero and maintains the subscript of the next available entry. The next piece of code retrieves the data from customer_array and prints it: let #i = 0 while #i < #counter get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (. you can assign all four fields in one command. The PUT command performs the same work. If the customers table had more than 1.1) city (.SQR 4.24) print $phone (.24) phone (. you can store them in the array. With PUT. and it can hold up to 1. when records are retrieved from the database. The array has four fields that correspond to the four columns selected from the customers table.1) print $city (. the value of #counter is the number of records in the array.55) position (+1) put &state &city &name &phone into customer_array(#counter) add 1 to #counter from customers end-select This example creates an array named customer_array. At the end of the SELECT. create-array name=customer_array size=1000 field=state:char field=city:char field=name:char field=phone:char let #counter = 0 begin-select state (.7) print $name (.3 Performance and Tuning An SQR array can hold as many records as can fit in memory. Subsequent passes on the data can be made without additional database access. it would be necessary to create a larger array.000 rows. The PUT command is then used to store the data in the array. The #counter variable serves as the array subscript.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while SQR User’s Guide 177 . The SELECT prints the data. Chapter 8 showed how to use the LET command to assign values to array fields.7) name (.

The program uses a well-known sorting algorithm called QuickSort. For further information on QuickSort. make appropriate changes. and $phone. $city.sqr #define MAX_ROWS 1000 begin-setup create-array name=customer_array size={MAX_ROWS} field=state:char field=city:char field=name:char field=phone:char ! ! Create a helper array that is used in the sort ! create-array name=QSort size={MAX_ROWS} field=n:number field=j:number end-setup begin-program do main end-program Program continues on the following page. and use it to sort your array. Program ex24a. 1982. The following program shows how to sort customer_array by name. These values are then printed.3 In this piece of code. The fields from each record are moved into the corresponding variables $name. Sorting In many cases. 178 SQR User’s Guide .Performance and Tuning SQR 4. #i goes from 0 to #counter-1. $state. You can copy this code into your program. intermediate results must be sorted by a different field. see the book Fundamentals of Data Structures by Horowitz and Sahni.

55) position (+1) ! Put data in the array put &state &city &name &phone into customer_array(#counter) add 1 to #counter from customers order by state end-select position (+2) ! ! Sort customer_array by name ! let #last_row = #counter . 0.1) city (.7) name (.sqr (continued) begin-procedure main let #counter = 0 ! ! Print customers sorted by state ! begin-select state (.24) phone (. #last_row) ! ! Print customers (which are now sorted by name) ! let #i = 0 while #i < #counter ! Get data from the array get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) print $state (.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24a.24) print $phone (.7) print $name (. SQR User’s Guide 179 .1) print $city (.SQR 4.1 do QuickSort(0.55) position (+1) add 1 to #i end-while end-procedure ! main Program continues on the following page.

#n) subtract 1 from #level end-if end-procedure ! QuickSort Program continues on the following page.3 Program ex24a.j(#level . #m. ! This is a recursive function. #j) else break end-if end-while do QSortSwap(#m. #j) add 1 to #level ! Save #j and #n let QSort.n(#level .1) add 1 to #j do QuickSort(#level. ! ! #level .sqr (continued) ! ! QuickSort ! ! Purpose: Sort customer_array by name. Since SQR does not allocate ! local variables on a stack (they are all static). this ! procedure uses a helper array.name(#i) < $key add 1 to #i end-while subtract 1 from #j while #j >= 0 and customer_array.name(#m) while 1 add 1 to #i while #i <= #j and customer_array.1) = #n subtract 1 from #j do QuickSort(#level.1) = #j let QSort.n(#level .name(#j) > $key subtract 1 from #j end-while if #i < #j do QSortSwap(#i. #j) ! restore #j and #n let #j = QSort. #j.The "n" argument of the classical QuickSort ! begin-procedure QuickSort(#level. #n) if #m < #n let #i = #m let #j = #n + 1 ! Sort key is "name" let $key = customer_array. #m.1) let #n = QSort.Recursion level (used as a subscript to the helper ! array) ! #m .j(#level .The "m" argument of the classical QuickSort ! #n .Performance and Tuning SQR 4. 180 SQR User’s Guide .

as described above. If you plan to use these procedures to sort an array in your applications. Qsort.sqr refer to customer_array and its fields. The QuickSort procedure sorts in ascending order. rows with a lower key value are moved up.name(#j) let customer_array. the program must save the values of these two variables before making the recursive call. then restore those values when the call completes. The QuickSort procedure takes three arguments. SQR maintains only one copy of the procedure’s local variables. The second and third arguments are the beginning and end of the range of rows to be sorted. Typically. Each time QuickSort calls itself. The QSortSwap procedure swaps two rows in customer_array. add a #level variable that maintains the depth of recursion. which means that it calls itself.Array subscript ! begin-procedure QSortSwap(#i. In QuickSort the variables #j and #n are overwritten when QuickSort calls itself.city(#i) = customer_array.city(#j) let customer_array.state(#i) = customer_array.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24a. The procedures QuickSort and QSortSwap in ex24a. a helper array. For the algorithm to work properly. The first is the recursion level (or depth).Array subscript ! #j .phone(#i) = customer_array. To do this. QuickSort can call itself recursively many times. the range gets smaller. The main procedure starts QuickSort by calling it with the full range of rows.phone(#j) put $state $city $name $phone into customer_array(#j) end-procedure ! QSortSwap The QuickSort algorithm uses a recursive procedure.state(#j) let customer_array. In this example.SQR 4. #j) get $state $city $name $phone from customer_array(#i) let customer_array. SQR User’s Guide 181 . you’ll need to change these references to the applicable array and fields. is used to hold multiple values of #j and #n. which is #level.sqr (continued) ! ! ! QSortSwap ! ! Purpose: Swaps records #i and #j of customer_array ! ! #i .name(#i) = customer_array. so the program may need to save many copies of #j and #n.

The QuickSort procedure will then be modified as follows. The advantage of using a file is that the program is not constrained by the amount of memory that is available. you may need to write a National Language Sensitive character string comparison and add that to SQR.3 QuickSort and National Language The QuickSort procedure does not support National Language Sensitive character string sort. but they may not sort correctly with other languages. They work well for US ASCII English.dat instead of the array. you may need a sorting utility that supports NLS. The comparisons while #i <= #j and customer_array.customer_array.name(#i) < $key and while #j >= 0 and customer_array. You can use a flat file when the required array size exceeds available memory.name(#j)) Using and Sorting Flat Files An alternative to an array is a flat file. 182 SQR User’s Guide . The following code is rewritten to use the file cust. However." explains how to add functions to SQR. Chapter 22. while #i <= #j and NLS_STRING_COMPARE(customer_array. As is the case with an array.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. The disadvantage of using a file is that the program will perform more I/O. For such languages.name(#j) > $key are simple string comparisons. This example can be extended to include other operating systems.name(#i).$key) while #j >= 0 and NLS_STRING_COMPARE($key. This program uses the UNIX sort utility to sort the file by name. The sample code in the previous section can be rewritten to use a file instead of an array. "Extending SQR. it may still be faster than performing another SQL statement to retrieve the same data.

dat close 1 end-procedure ! main The program starts by opening a file cust.dat > cust2.sqr begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main ! ! Open cust.dat’ as 1 for-reading record=80:vary while 1 ! loop until break ! Get data from the file read 1 into $name:30 $state:2 $city:16 $phone:10 if #end-file break ! End of file reached end-if print $state (.7) name (.55) position (+1) end-while ! ! close cust2.1) print $city (.SQR 4.dat’ as 1 for-writing record=80:vary SQR User’s Guide 183 .7) print $name (.dat by name ! call system using ’sort cust.3 Performance and Tuning Program ex24b.dat ! open ’cust.dat open ’cust.dat’ as 1 for-writing record=80:vary begin-select state (.dat’ #status if #status <> 0 display ’Error in sort’ stop end-if ! ! Print customers (which are now sorted by name) ! open ’cust2.24) phone (.24) print $phone (.55) position (+1) ! Put data in the file write 1 from &name:30 &state:2 &city:16 &phone:10 from customers order by state end-select position (+2) ! ! Close cust.dat close 1 ! Sort cust.1) city (.

The next two characters are placed in $state and so on.3 The OPEN command opens the file for writing and assigns it file number 1. Next. a status of 0 indicates success.dat > cust2. we open cust2. 184 SQR User’s Guide . it will be padded with blanks.dat for reading. If the actual name is shorter. the reserved variable #end-file is automatically set to 1 (true). which makes it easier to sort the file by name.Performance and Tuning SQR 4.dat. As the program selects records from the database and prints them. It writes the name first. When the end of the file is encountered.dat and direct the output to cust2. For this example. The completion status is saved in #status.dat’ #status The command sort cust. When the program has finished writing data to the file.dat is sent to the UNIX system. Finally. &name:30 specifies that the name column will use exactly 30 characters.dat > cust2. The program writes fixed-length fields—for example. It invokes the UNIX sort command to sort cust. you could also use fixed-length records. The program checks for #end-file and breaks out of the loop when the end of the file is reached. The file is sorted with the UNIX sort utility. Since name is at the beginning of each record.dat. You can open as many as 12 files in one SQR program. the program closes the file using the CLOSE command. it closes the file using the CLOSE command. write 1 from &name:30 &state:2 &city:16 &phone:10 The WRITE command writes the four columns into file number 1—the currently open cust. call system using ’sort cust. The command read 1 into $name:30 $state:2 $city:16 $phone:10 reads one record from the file and places the first 30 characters in $name.dat. the file will be sorted by name. The file is set to support records of varying length with a maximum of 80 bytes (characters). it writes them to cust.

these reports are similar. you can sometimes use the ROUND option of commands such as ADD.SQR 4. with only a difference in layout or summary. SQR User’s Guide 185 . Some accuracy may be lost when converting decimal fractions to binary floating point numbers. It uses binary floating point and normally holds up to 15 digits of precision. The multiple report feature of SQR is described in Chapter 18. This is the most accurate method. This method is very fast. Such repeated processing is often unnecessary. you can create multiple programs and even reuse code. Decimal numbers provide exact math and precision of up to 38 digits. In many cases.3 Performance and Tuning Creating Multiple Reports in One Pass Sometimes you must create multiple reports that are based on the same data. but also the slowest. With SQR. and DIVIDE." Tuning SQR Numerics SQR provides three types of numeric values: • Machine floating point numbers • Decimal numbers • Integers Machine floating point numbers are the default. a single program creates multiple reports. To overcome this loss of accuracy. They use the floating point arithmetic provided by the hardware. the database has to repeat the query. MULTIPLY. You can also use the round function of LET or numeric edit masks that round the results to the desired precision. Typically. In this method. SUBTRACT. Math is performed in software. making just one pass on the data. However. if each program is executed separately. The amount of database processing is thus greatly reduced. "Multiple Reports. one program can create multiple reports simultaneously.

This method is explained in Chapter 25. or the DEFAULT-NUMERIC entry in the [Default-Settings] section of the SQR.INI are used to define the sizes and limitations of some of the internal structures used by SQR. When you choose decimal numbers. you can choose the type of numbers that SQR uses. An -M command-line flag can be used to specify a startup file whose entries will override those set in SQR. 186 SQR User’s Guide . typically faster than floating point numbers. you can also specify the desired precision. and they adhere to integer rules when dividing numbers. You can then run it with SQR Execute. you can select the type for individual variables in the program with the DECLARE-VARIABLE command.3 Integers can be used for numbers that are known to be integers. then corresponding sections of the file will not be processed.INI file. Selecting the numeric type for variables allows you to fine-tune the precision of numbers in your program.SQT) file.INI.Performance and Tuning SQR 4. The compiled program is stored in a run-time (. The default is machine floating point to provide compatibility with older releases of the product. the -DNT command-line flag. this type of tuning will not yield a significant performance improvements and we recommend selecting decimal. Moreover. Many of these settings have a direct impact on memory requirements. There are several benefits for using integers: They enforce the integer type by not allowing fractions. Processing Limits A startup file and the [Processing-Limits] section of SQR. If you use the DECLARE-VARIABLE command. however. If the -M command-line flag is used. Integer math is also the fastest. For most applications. Your program will run faster because it will skip the compile phase. Compiling SQR Programs and Using SQR Execute Performance can be improved if you compile your SQR program.

In both cases. then network traffic is also significantly reduced. instead of after every single record. This means that the number of database fetch operations is further reduced. This is a substantial performance gain.1. most operating systems use virtual memory and tuning memory requirements would normally not affect performance in any significant way. The number of records to fetch together can be modified using the -B command-line flag or for an individual BEGIN-SELECT command using its -B option. This feature is currently available only when you use SQR for the Oracle or SYBASE databases. The records are buffered. Executing Programs on the Database Server You can reduce network traffic and greatly improve performance by running SQR programs directly on the database server machine. In such cases you must increase the corresponding settings.SQR 4. Today.3 Performance and Tuning Tuning of memory requirements used to be significant with older 16-bit operating systems such as Windows 3. A database fetch operation is therefore performed after every 10 records. The only case where you may need to be concerned with [Processing-Limits] settings is with large SQR programs that exceed default [Processing-Limits] settings. For example -B100 specifies that records will be fetched in groups of 100. and your program processes these records one at a time. SQR User’s Guide 187 . they are fetched in groups rather than one at a time. The default is groups of 10 records. The SQR server product is available on many server platforms including Windows NT and UNIX. records are fetched from the database server. Buffering Fetched Rows When a BEGIN-SELECT command is executed. you specify the number of records to be fetched together. To improve performance. If the database server is on another computer.

Two alternatives to temporary database tables are SQR arrays and flat files. or integer). • Adjust settings in the [Processing-Limits] section of SQR. • Use LOAD-LOOKUP to simplify joins.Performance and Tuning SQR 4.INI or in a startup file. • Write programs that create multiple reports with one pass on the data. • Use dynamic SQL instead of a condition in a SELECT statement. • Increase buffering of rows in SELECT statements with the -B flag. 188 SQR User’s Guide . • Save compiled SQR programs and rerun them with SQR Execute.3 Summary The following techniques can be used to improve the performance of your SQR programs: • Simplify complex SELECT statements. • Use the most efficient numeric type for numeric variables (machine floating point. decimal. The next chapter will explain how to use compiled versions of SQR programs. • Execute programs on the database server machine. • Avoid using temporary database tables.

This file is portable between different hardware platforms and between some databases. You should enter something similar to the following: sqrw ex1a. #INCLUDE. That way.SQT. and #IFDEF. • "Preprocesses" substitution variables and certain commands—ASK. An example of this is as follows: sqrw ex1a. Run the SQR executable ("sqr" for Unix systems or "sqrw" for Windows systems) against your SQR program file and include the -RS command-line flag to save the run-time file. running an SQR program is a one-step process. however. Note that SQR does not compile the program into machine language. • Performs the SETUP section. For SQR. and validates the program. • Validates SQL statements. Execution will be faster because the program is already compiled. #DEFINE. SQR: • Reads. you perform the compile step only once and skip it in subsequent runs. For the user. SQR creates a ready-to-execute version of your program that is already compiled and validated.25 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute This chapter explains how to save and run compiled versions of your SQR programs. interprets. #IF. SQR will create a file with a file name extension of .sqr sammy/baker@rome -RS Run the SQR executable ("sqr" or "sqrw") with the -RT command-line flag to execute the . When compiling a program.sqt sammy/baker@rome -RT SQR User’s Guide 189 . SQR allows you to save the compiled version of a program and use it when you rerun a report.SQT file. there are two steps—compiling the program and executing it. The steps are simple.

you may have to use substitution variables with commands that require a constant and do not allow a variable. In some cases. #INCLUDE.Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute SQR 4. no equivalent exists and you will have to work your way around the limitation. We demonstrated this solution in Chapter 15.SQT files but does not include the code that compiles an SQR program. These were already performed at the time that the program was compiled and the run-time file was saved. you should use commands such as IF and INPUT. which does not accept a variable as an argument.SQT) file. You must make a clear distinction between what is performed at compile time and what is performed at run time. A list of SQR features that apply at compile time and their possible runtime equivalents follows." where we worked around the limitation of the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command. For run-time customization. An example of running SQR Execute from the command line is as follows: sqrwt ex1a.) You may run the .SQT file by invoking SQR Execute from the command line with "sqrt" (on UNIX systems) or "sqrwt" (on Windows systems). "Writing Printer-Independent Reports. Commands such as #IF or ASK allow you to customize your report at compile time. Think of compile-time steps as defining what the report is.sqt sammy/baker@rome It is important to realize that once you save the run-time (. SQR Execute is capable of running . For example. or ASK commands or performing the SETUP section. SQR will no longer perform any compile-time steps such as executing #IF. (This program is equivalent to running SQR with -RT.3 The SQR product distribution includes SQR Execute (the SQRT program). 190 SQR User’s Guide .

use the -RT command-line flag or SQR Execute.3 Compiling Programs and Using SQR Execute Compile Time Substitution variables. use the -RS commandline flag. See Chapter 16. INPUT LET IF No equivalent No equivalent No equivalent PRINT-CHART PRINT-IMAGE USE-PROCEDURE ALTER-PRINTER (where possible) -DB command-line flag ASK #DEFINE #IF INCLUDE DECLARE-LAYOUT. If you are substituting parts of a SQL statement. margins Number of heading or footing lines DECLARE-CHART DECLARE-IMAGE DECLARE-PROCEDURE DECLARE-PRINTER USE (SYBASE only) Table 6. Compile-Time Commands and Run-Time Equivalents Summary • To save a compiled version of an SQR program.SQR 4. SQR User’s Guide 191 . use dynamic SQL instead. Run Time Use regular SQR variables. • To run a precompiled program. The next chapter explains how to create different types of output files.

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The following table summarizes SQR command-line flags and the types of output they produce. CommandLine Flag -PRINTER:EH -PRINTER:HP -PRINTER:HT -PRINTER:LP -PRINTER:PS -PRINTER:WP Output File Extension . but it does not print it directly. SQR does not actually print the report. we will examine the SQR command-line flags that specify output file type and the printer for which it is produced. You can set your default printer using the Windows Control Panel. we will cover technical issues relevant to printing.htm . Command-Line Flags and Output Types SQR User’s Guide 193 .htm . Specifically. "Multiple Reports.Snn (for multiple reports)." that a program can produce more than one report. We will cover the DECLARE-PRINTER command and expand on printing issues that pertain to multiple reports.SPF or . File Format Enhanced HTML PCL HTML ASCII PostScript Suitable for Intranet/Internet HP LaserJet printer Intranet/Internet Line printer PostScript printer Windows Table 7.LIS Output goes directly to the default printer without being saved to a file.26 Printing Issues In this chapter. SQR creates an output file that contains the report. The output file may be a printer-specific file or an SQR portable file (SPF).LIS .LIS . Except for the Microsoft Windows platform. You may recall from Chapter 18. SQR portable files have a default extension of .

sqr from Chapter 18. Producing . lines. HP LaserJet. For example -PRINTER:PS will cause SQR to produce a PostScript output. Line printer.LIS file that is normally created) file . charts. The DECLARE-PRINTER command itself does not cause the report to be produced for a specific printer. or the PRINTER-TYPE option of DECLAREREPORT. shaded areas. Command-Line Flags and Output Types (continued) À Note When no flags are specified. the -PRINTER:xx flag will affect all the reports. To specify a specific format.SPF output also allows you to decide later where to print it. PostScript. USE-PRINTER-TYPE. including fonts. SQR will produce a line printer output unless otherwise set in the SQR program with DECLARE-PRINTER. or PostScript Table 7. boxes. such as the program ex18a. This file format is very useful for saving the output of a report. When you are ready to print an .Snn File Format SQR Portable Format Suitable for SQR Print and SQR Viewer can print this file to different printers.Snn (in No flag .LIS .SPF file.Printing Issues SQR 4. you may do so with the SQR Viewer or SQR Print. or PostScript. SPF files can be distributed electronically and read with the SQR Viewer. PCL.3 CommandLine Flag -NOLIS Output File Extension . respectively.SPF or . and images.LIS ASCII. and HTML.SPF or . use one of the following three methods: • Use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag.SPF file to different printers. SQR Portable File (SPF) is a printer-independent file format that allows for all the SQR graphical features. The DECLARE-PRINTER command is used to specify printer-specific settings for the printers that SQR supports: line printer. 194 SQR User’s Guide . bar codes. -KEEP SQR Portable Format and the addition to the format of the . If your program creates multiple reports. HP LaserJet. SQR Print and SQR Viewer can print this .

but with a different file extension.lis -fletter. as we discussed in Chapter 18. you can name the output file by using multiple -F flags as follows: sqr ex20a username/password -flabel. The default file extension is . For example: declare-report labels layout=labels printer-type=ps end-declare will cause SQR to produce PostScript output for the labels report. use the FOR-REPORTS option. USE-PRINTER-TYPE PS. • Use the PRINTER-TYPE option of the DECLARE-REPORT command.lis SQR User’s Guide 195 .SQR 4. You must use this command before you print anything because SQR cannot switch printer type in the middle of a program. DEFAULT-HP. The DECLARE-REPORT command is normally used when your program generates more than one report. for example. HP Laserjet (HP). The type of printer is specified using the TYPE option of the DECLARE-PRINTER command or by specifying one of the predefined printers DEFAULT-LP.lis -flisting.out When your program creates more than one report. How is the output file named? The output file will normally have the same name as your program. the command to run SQR will be as follows: sqr ex1a username/password -fchapter1. Your program may have more than one DECLARE-PRINTER command if you define settings for each of the printer types.SPF. To make a DECLARE-PRINTER command apply to a specific report. If you are generating an SQR Portable File the default extension is . The DECLARE-PRINTER command defines settings for line printers. will cause SQR to produce PostScript output. or HP LaserJet printers.3 Printing Issues • Use the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command in your report. and DEFAULT-HT. if you want to use chapter1. you can define settings for each printer for each report. The settings for a particular printer will only take effect when output is produced for that printer. For example. If you would like SQR to use another name for the output file (including a user-defined file extension). When your program generates multiple reports.sqr. PostScript. you can use the -F option on the command line.out as the output of the program ex1a.LIS for PostScript (PS). DEFAULT-PS. or Line Printer (LP).

letter. Table 8. /QUEUE for printer destination /COPIES for number of copies /AFTER for printing time /PASSALL to resolve printing issues Use the Print Setup dialog in SQR Print. the following command will invoke SQR Print to create a PostScript file myreport.lis -d . Different operating systems require different techniques for printing the output. For example.SPF files instead of . Consult your operating system documentation for details. Print Commands by Operating System 196 SQR User’s Guide . For example: sqr ex20a username/password -flabel.lis PRINT MYREPORT.LIS file.LIS files. The actual file names will be label.s02.SPF file.LIS file cannot be turned into an . and listing.3 Note that you cannot directly name . On platforms other than Windows.SPF files.lis from the output file myreport..lis Windows SQR will print directly.s01 and the third .spf: sqrp myreport. Note that the second . You can also use the File Manager Copy command to copy the file to the printer destination (for example.spf. but an .lis -flisting.Printing Issues SQR 4. O/S UNIX SysV Command lp myreport. The following table summarizes the commands and command-line options that you may use on different systems to send your report output to the printer.. Command-Line Options Use -D for printer destination You may use the UNIX "at" command to schedule the printing time.SPF file can be turned into an . VisualSQRIBE. You can also use SQR Print or VisualSQRIBE. you first use SQR Print to create the printer-specific file. or the SQR Viewer to choose a printer destination.lis -nolis The -NOLIS command-line flag will cause SQR to produce .SPF file is named . Use SQR Print to print multiple copies.lis lp myreport. but you cannot control the file name extension. UNIX BSD VMS lpr myreport. lpt1).s01.s02. if the output is in SPF format.lis -fletter. SQR supplies file extensions such as these when your program generates multiple reports.spf -printer:ps Note that this is a one-way conversion—an . You can still use the -F command-line flag to name the file.

we recommend that you check with your systems administrator about other procedures or commands applicable to printing output files at your site.SQR 4. in greater detail. how to pass arguments and flags from the SQR command line. use the -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. • DECLARE-PRINTER is used to specify printer-specific settings. • To prepare a report for a specific printer.SPF extension. Summary • Command-line flags create output files appropriate for different platforms and printers. The next chapter will explain. SQR User’s Guide 197 .3 Printing Issues In any case. • The -NOLIS and -KEEP command-line flags create files in SQR portable format with an . the USE-PRINTER-TYPE command or the DECLARE-REPORT command with the printer-type option. • The -F command-line flag allows you to name output files (including file extensions). but it does not itself cause the report to be prepared for a specific printer.

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SQR prompts you for it. SQR Command-Line Arguments SQR User’s Guide 199 ..SQR. DB2 connectivity Ssname/SQLid is the subsystem name and SQL authorization ID to use.. Informix Ingres ODBC Table 9. Database[/STAR][/Username] is the name of the database to use and an optional user name.] where: Argument program Description The name of your program. Data_Source_Name/[Username]/[Password] is the name you give to the ODBC driver when you set up the driver. The syntax of the SQR command line is as follows: SQR [program] [connectivity] [flags . The information needed by SQR to connect to the database.27 Using the SQR Command Line This chapter explains how to use the SQR command line to specify flags and pass arguments to your program.. and password for the database. your user name.] [args . Database is the name of the database to use. you must precede it with a backslash (\). On UNIX-based systems. or -S can be entered on the command line to modify some aspect of program execution or output.] [@file . Command-line flags such as -Bnn. Command-line arguments are typically answers to requests (made in the SQR program by ASK or INPUT commands) for user input.. if your shell uses the question mark as a wild card character.. The default file type or extension is .. If entered as "?" or omitted. SQR prompts you for the program name. If entered as "?" or omitted. -KEEP. This technique is a good way to modify your program at run time.

your user name. and args can be specified in this file. Table 9.. You can also specify the connection string for the database (e.. Arguments must be entered on the command line in the same sequence they are expected by the program—first all ASK arguments in order and then INPUT arguments in order. The command-line arguments program. Arguments used by SQR while the program is running. File containing program arguments. @B:ORASERVER).g. Rdb Red Brick Data_Source_Name/[Username]/[Password] is the name you give to the Red Brick supplied driver when you setup the driver. one argument per line. and password for the database.. Arguments listed in the file are processed one at a time. SQLBase [Database]/[Username]/[Password] is the name of the database to use. Optionally.g. SYBASE flags args. connectivity. and password for the database..Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4. Any of the flags listed in the SQR Language Reference. you can specify the connection string for the database (e. [Username]/[Password[@Database]] is your user name and password for the database. your user name. @B:RDBSERVER).. 200 SQR User’s Guide .3 Argument Description Oracle [Username]/[Password[@Database]] is your user name and password for the database. Username/[Password] is your user name and password for the database. Arguments listed here are used by the ASK and INPUT commands rather than prompting the user. SQR Command-Line Arguments (continued) @file.

On some platforms. the argument must be entered directly after the flag with no intervening space. followed by the file file. When a flag has an argument. SQR User’s Guide 201 . or with the environment variable SQRFLAGS. If the INPUT command is used with the BATCH-MODE argument. SQR will not prompt the user but will instead return a status meaning "No more arguments. precede its name with the at sign (@) as shown in the following example: sqr myreport sammy/baker arg1 arg2 @file. You can pass arguments to SQR on the command line. in files. Specifying Command-Line Arguments You can pass an almost unlimited number of command-line arguments to SQR at run time. SQR uses this input instead of prompting the user. SQR checks to see if you entered any arguments on the command line or if an argument file has been opened. subsequent ASK or INPUT commands prompt the user for input. See the SQR Language Reference for a complete discussion of SQR command line flags. Each line in file." SQR processes all ASK commands before INPUT commands. To reference a file on the command line.dat In this example. reference the file name on the command line and put one argument on each line of the file.dat has an additional argument. How SQR Retrieves the Arguments When the ASK and INPUT commands execute. the operating system will impose a limit on the number of arguments or the total size of the command line. If so.dat. Passing arguments is especially useful in automated reports. such as those invoked by scripts or menu-driven applications. When you pass arguments in a file. You thus avoid any limits imposed by the operating system. arg1 and arg2 are passed to SQR. After the available arguments are used.3 Using the SQR Command Line Command-Line Flags Command-line flags begin with a hyphen.SQR 4.

it must be enclosed in quotes.dat.dat’ ! Contains #DEFINE commands for ! printer and paper width and length declare-layout report paper-size =({paper_width} {paper_length}) end-declare end-setup 202 SQR User’s Guide . printer initializations. the value "OH". The "OH" argument is in quotes to ensure that SQR uses uppercase OH. as shown in the following example: sqr rep2 sammy/baker 18 @argfile1. the contents of argfile2. ASK commands will have already been processed.dat based on the command-line argument: begin-setup ask num ! Printer number.SQT file. the actual strings with uppercase characters and any spaces are passed to SQR. For example. Using an Argument File If you wanted to print the same report on different printers with different characteristics. and the value "New York". the following command line passes the value 18 to SQR: sqr myreport sammy/baker 18 An #INCLUDE command in the report file chooses file printer18. and fonts in separate files and use a command-line argument to specify which file to use. the contents of argfile1. in that order. Use INPUT instead. Arguments stored in files do not require quotes and cannot contain them.3 À Note If you compiled your SQR program into an .dat "New York" This command line passes SQR the number 18. you could save values for the different page sizes. Specifying Arguments and Argument Files You can mix argument files with simple arguments.dat "OH" @argfile2. #include ’printer{num}. When a command-line argument is case-sensitive or contains spaces.Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4.dat.

SQR will prompt the user to supply these. or password on the command line or in an argument file. the ASK command assigns the value 18 to the variable num..5 #define bold_font LS12755 #define light_font LS13377 #define init HM^J73011 Passing Command-Line Arguments—Other Approaches SQR examines an argument file for a program name. as shown in the following example: sqr ? ? @argfile.SQR 4. and password: sqr @argfile.dat In this example. SQR User’s Guide 203 . You can use more than one question mark on the command line. the program prompts the user for the user name and password instead of taking them from the first line in the argument file.dat The first two lines of the argument file for this example contain the program name and user name/password: myreport sammy/baker 18 OH . 18 is a compile-time argument. use the question mark (?).. user name. the user is prompted for the program name and user name/password. which could include commands similar to the following: ! Printer18. If you do not want to specify the report name.dat. or password if none is provided on the command line. user name. #define paper_length 11 #define paper_width 8.dat In this example.3 Using the SQR Command Line In this example.dat-definitions for printer in Bldg 4. user name. For example: sqr myreport ? @argfile. The #INCLUDE command then uses the value of num to include the file printer18. The following command line omits the program name.

" as shown in the following example: 123344 134455 156664 . co_name. state. city. To use either of these characters as the first character of a command-line argument. END An SQR program could use the numbers in acctlist. contact. addr. as shown in the following example: sqr myreport ? --17 @argfile. and the at sign precedes an argument file name.. then run a second report with the following command: sqr myreport sammy/baker @acctlist. as shown in the following example: begin-procedure get_company next: input $account batch-mode status = #status if #status = 3 goto end_proc end-if begin-select cust_num.dat. you could print a list of account numbers to the file acctlist.dat End acctlist. double the character to indicate that it is a literal hyphen or at sign.3 Reserved Characters The hyphen (-) and at sign (@) characters have special meaning on the command line..Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4.dat @@X2H44 In this example.dat with a flag such as "END. For example. the double hyphen and double at sign are interpreted as single literal characters: Creating an Argument File from a Report You can create an argument file for one program from the output of another program.dat with an INPUT command. zip do print-page ! Print page with ! complete company data from customers where cust_num = $account end-select goto next ! Get next account number end_proc: end-procedure !get_company 204 SQR User’s Guide . The hyphen precedes an SQR flag.

This DCL command procedure prompts you for the name of your report. UNIX. Windows 95/98.SQR 4. and Windows 95/98 operating systems. then writes a temporary command procedure and submits it to the batch queue. and Windows NT You can create UNIX shell scripts or MS-DOS batch (. Include the SQR command line in the file as you type it at the keyboard.COM. VAX/VMS You can run your SQR reports in batch mode using the supplied procedure. SUBMITSQR. UNIX.bat) files to run SQR. your username/password.3 Using the SQR Command Line Using Batch Mode SQR lets you run reports in batch mode in VAX/VMS. Windows NT. SQR User’s Guide 205 . run-time arguments for the program (if supplied).

Using the SQR Command Line SQR 4. • Use batch mode to run multiple programs. • Specify a command-line argument to supply information requested by an ASK or INPUT command. • Use a question mark on the command line to prompt a user for input. 206 SQR User’s Guide .3 Summary • Enter a flag on the command line to modify program execution or output. The next chapter explains how to create HTML output and publish it on a Web server. • Specify multiple arguments in an argument file referenced on the command line.

• Centering The SQR features not currently supported for HTML output include: • Font selection SQR User’s Guide 207 . À Note SQR makes it easy to generate professional quality HTML report files. SQR Capabilities Available with HTML The SQR language has a rich set of available features. if you you wish to create customized HTML output using SQR’s HTML Procedures you may find it helpful to learn more about HTML. Extranet. This chapter also explains how to create a script that will allow users browsing the Internet or an Intranet to request execution of an SQR program and view its output. • Font styles. A point size specified in an SQR program is mapped into an appropriate HTML font size. HTML specifies font sizes in a value from one to six. The SQR features supported under HTML include: • Images • Font sizing. The SQR language specifies font sizes in points. The bold and underline font styles are supported. but some of these features are not available for HTML output due to the limitations of that format. Though. or the Internet. It is not necessary to be an HTML "expert" to generate fine quality HTML output with SQR. Many books and web sites offer information on this subject.28 Working with HTML This chapter explains how to generate HTML from an SQR program output and how to publish that output onto a Web site so that it will be available over an Intranet.

the SQR program must include the command: #include ’html. • Running an unmodified SQR program with the command line flag -PRINTER:HT makes its HTML 2. HTML Output When an SQR program is used to generate HTML output. • Using two HTML procedures—html_set_head_tags and html_set_body_attributes—allows you to define a title and background image for the HTML output.0 or 3. The tags it contains indicate the starting and end points of HTML formatting. With this method.3 • • Bar codes Lines and boxes (Using -PRINTER:HT) Producing HTML Output There are four ways to produce HTML output from an SQR program. An HTML tag is a character sequence that defines how information is displayed in a Web browser. With this method. HTML output looks something like this: <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>myreport. that output contains HTML tags.2 output viewable in a Web browser. you must still use the command line flag -PRINTER:HT.Working with HTML SQR 4. you must still use the command line flag -PRINTER:HT. • Running an unmodified SQR program with the command line flag -PRINTER:EH makes its HTML 3.0 output viewable in a Web browser. including lists. and hypertext links.inc’ The file HTML. To utilize HTML procedures.lis</TITLE></HEAD><BODY> This code is just a portion of the HTML output that SQR generates. Use the command line flag -I to specify its path. Each method provides a different level of HTML features. The procedures used in the last two options are contained in a file called html. • Using additional HTML procedures produces output with a full set of HTML features. tables.inc. 208 SQR User’s Guide .INC is located in the SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) directory.

SQR 4.2 or FALSE for HTML 3. The HTML level output from the SQR Viewer is also determined by your sqr.3 Working with HTML For example. depending on your platform) to output Enhanced HTML from . The tags <TITLE> and </TITLE> enclose the report title—in this case.0 or 3. Run the . it is not necessary to re-run your SQR program.sqr sammy/baker@rome -PRINTER:EH You can control the version of HTML that is used by editing the [Enhanced-HTML] parameter FullHTML in the sqr. It's as simple as that.lis.2 text.SQT files").ini file settings and has the same default value. This will produce output which contains HTML formatting tags such as those shown in "HTML Output.SPF files from which you want to generate Enhanced HTML output.sqr sammy/baker@rome -RT -PRINTER:EH SQR User’s Guide 209 . myreport.SPF files by using a command similar to: sqrwp myreport. Set FullHTML equal to TRUE for HTML 3. the tag <HTML> defines the output that follows as HTML output. you may run it against SQR (or SQRW. You may invoke SQR Print (sqrp or sqrwp. Adjust this based upon the level of HTML your web browser supports. you may also output this same highquality HTML by selecting File | Save as HTML.spf -PRINTER:EH From within the the SQR Viewer. you can easily output high-quality HTML from SQR programs by just issuing a command similar to: sqrw myreport. The -PRINTER:EH default output is HTML 3.0. To generate Enhanced HTML use the -PRINTER:EH flag in the command: sqrw myreport.SQT file against SQR Execute with a command similar to the following: sqrwt myreport. Using -PRINTER:EH. on Windows platforms) by including the -RT flag.SQT file. If you have existing .ini file. The <BODY> tag indicates that the information following it comprises the body of the report.sqt sammy/baker@rome -PRINTER:EH As is true of executing any . Using -PRINTER:EH You can generate Enhanced HTML output from an SQR program using the command-line flag -PRINTER:EH. in the HTML code shown above. You may also generate Enhanced HTML files with pre-compiled SQR program files (".0. All output is displayed as fully formatted HTML 3." above.

These flags only work with -PRINTER:EH."First". -EH_Icons:dir.sqr (in Web browser) When -PRINTER:EH is specified. 210 SQR User’s Guide . -EH_Icons:dir specifies the directory where the HTML should look for the referenced icons. you can produce HTML output which. "Previous".Working with HTML SQR 4. -EH_CSV:file. or "Next". -EH_CSV:file associates the CSV icon with the specified file. "Last". which produces a simple master/detail report. you may also use additional flags such as -EH_CSV.sqr. will be similar to the following example. You can also use the navigation links to move through the pages in any order you wish -. and -EH_Scale:{nn} to modify the ouput. -EH_Scale:{nn} sets the scaling factor from 50 to 200. -PRINTER:EH Output for ex7a.3 Chapter 7 in this User’s Guide contains the program ex7a. You can enter a specific page number and press <Enter> on your keyboard (or click "Go!"). By running it with -PRINTER:EH. Note that a "banner" frame is produced which contains the means to navigate through the report. when viewed from a web browser. -EH_CSV creates an additional output file in Comma Separated Value format.

It is placed between the <TITLE> </TITLE> HTML tags. These tags are passed-through to the output without change. Specifying HTML Title The HTML page title normally appears on the caption bar of the browser window and it is also used when creating a bookmark for the page. text color. Specifying a Background Image for the Report If you would like to use a background image for the report pages that enhanced HTML generates. insert %%Background extension at the beginning of your program: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Background tile. By using these extensions you can specify features such as the HTML title.gif’ The background attribute can be any valid URL. and hyperlinks. You can specify the title of the HTML page by using the %%Title extension at the beginning of your SQR program by entering: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Title Monthly Sales’ Specifying Background Color You may specify a background color for the pages generated with -PRINTER:EH by using the %%Body-BgColor extension. SQR User’s Guide 211 .SQR 4. background color (or image). Enhanced HTML extensions also allow you to include your own HTML tags in the output. please refer to the section "Specifying HTML Colors" below.3 Working with HTML Setting HTML Attributes under -PRINTER:EH In certain cases. You can use this feature to include advanced HTML capabilities such as JavaScript and <APPLET> tags. SQR suports extensions that allow you to control the generated HTML. you may want additional control over the Enhanced HTML code that is generated with -PRINTER:EH. Enter code similar to the following at the beginning of your program: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Body-BgColor seashell’ For information about specifying colors.

For example. examine the following piece of code: Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Href #section2’ Print ’ABC’ () . The object can be the item on which you click to activate the link. When using frames or multiple browser windows. specify on one line Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Href target="_top" http://www. image. To restore the color back to the default (normally. 212 SQR User’s Guide . or chart object into a link. clicking on the "ABC" text on the page will jump to the "XYZ" text.3 Specifying Hyperlinks To specify a hyperlink in your report use the %%Href extension. or it could be the location in the page where the link takes you.sqribe. you can control which frame will display the target of the link using the target option of the %%Href extension.. when the value of the column is over 100000 we print it in red. The latter is specified using the %%Anchor extension. This is demonstrated in the following code example: If &Salary > 100000 Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Color red’ End-If Print &Salary () If &Salary > 100000 Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%ResetColor’ End-If In our example. number. A subsequent invocation of %%Color with a different color will set the current color to the new color.com’ Specifying Text Color To change the color of text you can use the %%Color and %%ResetColor extensions. For example. Print-Direct Printer=html ’%%Anchor section2’ Print ’XYZ’ () In our example. This is similar to the behavior of the ALTER-PRINTER command in SQR. This extension allows you to make a text. black) use the %%ResetColor extension..Working with HTML SQR 4. The %%Color extension affects all text (and number) printing from this point on.

the next two specify the green. coral. plum. Your browser’s documentation should contain a complete listing of supported colors. Including Your Own HTML Tags The SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT provides a means for you to inject any text into the HTML output. lightblue. Enhanced HTML will not translate special symbols that are used in HTML tags such as ’<’. SQR User’s Guide 213 .inc" or by using SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT to insert HTML codes. red. lightyellow. gold. silver. darkcyan. teal. maroon. For example. You will then specify all formatting using the HTML procedures in "html. and the last two specify the blue. crimson. orange. navajowhite. lightcoral. green. turquoise. gray. By invoking the "html_on" procedure. Using a name is the easiest and offers considerable variety. Specifying color as an RGB hexadecimal value is more complicated. This text could have anything that your browser understands. beige. seashell. green would be #00FF00. lightcyan. skyblue. azure. brown. -PRINTER:EH enhanced HTML makes extensive use of HTML tables. This is done by entering a # character followed by six hexadecimal digits. black.SQR 4. violet. tan. lightgreen. lightgrey. goldenrod.inc" and are documented in this chapter and in the SQR Language Reference. The first two digits specify the intensity of the red. you instruct Enhanced HTML to perform no formatting at all. aquamarine. aqua. olive. darkblue. darkgreen. You might consider trying some of the following colors: antiquewhite. lime. pink. To gain full control over formatting you can use the HTML procedures that are defined in "html. royalblue. white. limegreen. blue. magenta. purple.3 Working with HTML Specifying HTML Colors Color can be specified in one of two ways: by name or by value. darkgray. SQR makes no attempt to check the text you are printing. violet. darkorange. navy. lavender. cyan. Be careful however not to try to use this hook for formatting as it is very likely that your formatting will conflict with -PRINTER:EH enhanced HTML formatting. ’>’. lightpink. and ’&’. and yellow. When using SQR PRINT with CODE-PRINTER=HT.

" are mapped into the character sequences &lt. you can make some simple modifications to your program.sqr produces a simple master/detail report. The "navigation bar" permits you to move the first page and last page or move one page forward or back from your relative page viewing position. Text is displayed using a fixed-width font such as Courier. Add either DECLARE-PRINTER with the argument TYPE=HT or USEPRINTER-TYPE HT. and &quot. &gt. Font sizes are mapped to an appropriate HTML font size.. 214 SQR User’s Guide ..Working with HTML SQR 4. Alternatively.3 Using -PRINTER:HT Another method for generating HTML output from an SQR program is by running your program with the command-line flag -PRINTER:HT. HTML output is generated as follows: • • • • • All output is displayed as preformatted text. By running it with -PRINTER:HT. will be similar to the following example.. Note that a left frame is produced with hyperlinks to each page of the report. you can produce HTML output which. With these methods. This prevents the Web browser from mistaking such output as an HTML sequence. &. &amp.. The right frame also features a "navigation bar" which appears at the top of every page in the report. Chapter 7 in this User’s Guide contains the program ex7a. Text is positioned on the page by the position coordinates specified in the SQR program. using the HTML <PRE> </PRE> tags. HTML reserved characters are mapped into the corresponding HTML sequence. respectively. >. when viewed from a web browser. The characters <.

But what if you want your HTML files to be smaller in size for faster load time or divided on the basis of report page ranges? Or. SQR User’s Guide 215 . Using -BURST:P (or BURST:P1) with -PRINTER:EH or -BURST:P1 with -PRINTER:HT. (This is frequently referred to as "demand paging. you might want to preview a report’s Table of Contents in your web browser without generating an entire report. 3. For example.one report page per .SQR 4.sqr (in Web browser) "Bursting" and Demand Paging We have shown you how.1. if you have a 25 page report. -BURST:P0. 4 and 5. it will be divided into 25 separate . You can do all of these things by using -BURST:{xx} in conjunction with -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT. you can also specify the report page ranges you wish to see within an HTML file.htm output files.3 Working with HTML -PRINTER:HT Output for ex7a. You can then focus on information that is truly of interest. you can generate HTML format reports using -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT command line flags.3-5 generates an HTML file containing only report page numbers 1.") So. with SQR.htm file. Using -PRINTER:HT. you can generate HTML ouput files "burst" by report page numbers -.

in the main procedure immediately after the begin-select and Print ’Customer Information’ (. if you if you specify -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:S. if you specify -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:T. you will only generate the Table of Contents file.sqr. Using -BURST:S.3 Similarly..Working with HTML SQR 4.sqr: begin-setup declare-toc common for-reports=(all) dot-leader=yes indentation=2 end-declare end-setup We also added code to the body of the program -. your Table of Contents will provide more detailed information than simple hyperlinked page numbers as illustrated in the example below. As an example of how simple it is to use DECLARE-TOC and TOCENTRY to improve the information available in generated HTML output. 216 SQR User’s Guide .1) toc-entry text = &name The HTML ouput from the modified ex7a.g. We added the following code to the beginning of ex7a. And. you will generate report output according to symbolic Table of Contents entries. -BURST:S2 bursts on level 2).sqr program is shown in the illustrations that follow. you can specify the numeric level to burst on. (e. If you have used DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands in your SQR program. we modified ex7a.

sqr SQR User’s Guide 217 .3 Working with HTML -PRINTER:HT with -BURST:T Output for Modified ex7a.SQR 4.sqr -PRINTER:HT Output from Modified ex7a.

gif"’) The first line of this code causes the title "Monthly Report" to be displayed. For example: do html_set_head_tags(’<TITLE>Monthly Report</TITLE>’) do html_set_body_attributes(’BACKGROUND="/images/mylogo. 218 SQR User’s Guide . the SQR program must include the file html. Note that the argument is enclosed in single quotes.Working with HTML SQR 4. as described in "Producing HTML Output.inc.sqr Setting Attributes with HTML Procedures You can use SQR’s HTML procedures html_set_head_tags and html_set_body_attributes to define a title and background image for a report. You must also run the program using the command-line flag -PRINTER:HT. To utilize these procedures. the entire sequence ’<TITLE>Monthly Report</TITLE>’ is passed as an argument to the procedure html_set_head_tags. These procedures must be called at the start of the program." above.3 -PRINTER:EH Output Table of Contents File from Modified ex7a. Specifically.

rows. When set to SHORT the report output files use the form myreport. and strikethrough. including HTML physical tags and logical markup tags.gif"> Using Additional HTML Procedures Using additional HTML procedures in the SQR program provides enhanced capabilities. and menus • Paragraph formatting.INI file.SQR 4.htm) and report output file(s). HTML logical markup tags include citation.gif to be displayed for the Web page. an argument is passed to the procedure. The report output file extensions are controlled by the OUTPUT-FILE-MODE entry in the [Default-Setting] section of the SQR. including ordered lists. and column headings Output File Types An SQR report named myreport.htm. keyboard. including: • Highlighting. while the file name and path are enclosed in double quotes. including captions. the two lines of code above will generate the following HTML output. and sample. unordered lists. HTML physical tags include subscript.hzz and when set to LONG the files use the form myreport_zz. superscript. including paragraph breaks. Together. and horizontal dividers • Tables. • Headings • Hypertext links • Lists. columns. Again.sqr will create a FRAME file (myreport. Note that the entire argument is enclosed in single quotes. line breaks.3 Working with HTML The second line causes the background image mylogo. SQR User’s Guide 219 . definition lists. The value of zz ranges from 00 to 99 and reflects the report number. code. directory lists. <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>My Report</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY BACKGROUND="/images/mylogo.

An SQR program with these procedures generates output as described above in "Using Printer:HT.htm). then the FRAME file will contain a link to each report output file. open the FRAME file (myreport_frm. If myreport. If your Web browser supports the HTML FRAME construct.h00. Each report output file contains a list of pages (hypertext links) at the end of the file. In addition. • 220 SQR User’s Guide . White space. To test a program’s output. Using HTML Procedures in an SQR Program To enhance the appearance of the HTML output. Text is displayed using a proportional font such as Arial. Positioning values specified in the SQR program are ignored. and other information are placed in the HTML output in the order in which they are generated by the SQR program. each report output file will contain links to the other report output files that were created during the program run. This is a good way to test the output before it is published on a Web site. myreport_00. use HTML procedures in an SQR program. Text. Testing HTML output produced by an SQR program can be previewed on a local system. open the file in the Web browser.3 The FRAME file shows a list (hypertext links) of report pages in one frame and the report text in another frame. otherwise open the report output file (myreport." with the following exceptions: • • • The HTML <PRE> </PRE> tags are not used.sqr created multiple reports.htm). such as spaces between PRINT commands. is removed. HTML tags.Working with HTML SQR 4.

print print print print print ’Report summary:’ (1. Use the command DECLARE-LAYOUT with a large MAX-LINES setting to prevent page breaks from occurring. The following SQR code does not use the HTML procedures to format the output. If a page break falls in the middle of an HTML construct.1) ’Amount billed:’ (3. The SQR program must also call the procedure html_on at the start of the program. such as spaces between PRINT commands is removed. the HTML procedures must be used to format the report. the output may display incorrectly. and program output and HTML tags are placed in the output file in the order in which they are generated. As before.1) #amount_amount (3. regardless of their position qualifiers.3 Working with HTML À Note See the SQR Language Reference for more information on the HTML procedures available with SQR. Thus. SQR User’s Guide 221 .SQR 4. SQR automatically inserts the page navigation hypertext links and an HTML <HR> tag at a page break. The command that calls this procedure is: do html_on Additionally.20) ’Total billed:’ (4. the program must specify a large page length to prevent page breaks. How to Use HTML Procedures To utilize the HTML procedures.20) The output from the above sample code. Note that all the text appears on the same line with no spaces between the data. HTML output is generated without the <PRE></PRE> tags. White space.1) #total_amount (4. follows. such as a table. as displayed by the Web browser. as described in "Producing HTML Output. Positioning Objects When HTML procedures are turned on. All position qualifiers in the SQR program are ignored. the SQR program must include the file html.inc." above. you must run the SQR program with the -PRINTER:HT command-line flag.

20) do html_table_end The output from the above code is displayed by the Web browser as follows: 222 SQR User’s Guide . The procedures html_table.20) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’WIDTH=300’) print ’Total billed:’ (4. html_td. Note that an empty string is passed to each procedure as it is called. html_tr. The following SQR code uses the procedure html_br to separate the first two lines of text. This empty string is required if no other argument is passed.1) do html_td(’’) print #amount_amount (3.’’) do html_table(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’WIDTH=300’) print ’Amount billed:’ (3. and html_table_end are used to display the totals in a tabular format.1) do html_br(2.3 With the HTML procedures for line breaks and a table. the output can be formatted properly.Working with HTML SQR 4.1) do html_td(’’) print #total_amount (4. print ’Report summary:’ (1.

• Captions—call html_caption to mark the start of a table caption and html_caption_end to mark the end of the table caption. all positioning values in the SQR program are ignored.3 Working with HTML Table Procedures When the HTML procedures are turned on. • Columns—call html_td to mark the start of a column and html_td_end to mark the end of the column. but it can be used for completeness. To display records in a tabular format use the following procedures: • Tables—call html_table to start a table and html_table_end to end a table.SQR 4. The end is typically implied and html_th_end is not needed. but it can be used for completeness. the position values cannot be used to display records in a tabular format. The end is typically implied and html_td_end is not needed. The end is typically implied and html_tr_end is not needed. Program ex28a. The end is typically implied and html_caption_end is not needed. but it can be used for completeness. The following SQR program uses these table procedures to display information in a tabular format.sqr #include ’html. • Rows—call html_tr to mark the start of a new row in the table and html_tr_end to mark the end of the row.inc’ begin-program do main end-program ! set a large page length to prevent page breaks begin-setup declare-layout default max-lines=750 end-declare end-setup begin-procedure main ! turn on HTML procedures do html_on Program continues on the following page. Thus. but it can be used for completeness. SQR User’s Guide 223 . • Column headings—call html_th to mark the start of a column heading and html_th_end to mark the end of the column heading.

1) do html_th(’’) print ’Name’ (.3 Program ex28a.10) ! display each record begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) cust_num (1.6) edit 099999 do html_td(’’) name (1.1) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’’) print ’Cust No’ (+1.25) next-listing skiplines=1 need=1 from customers end-select ! end the table do html_table_end end-procedure Output for ex28a.Working with HTML SQR 4.10.sqr (continued) ! start the table and display the column headings do html_table(’border’) do html_caption(’’) print ’Customer Records’ (1.1.sqr 224 SQR User’s Guide .

The available heading levels range from one to six. To utilize the highlighting procedures.3 Working with HTML Headings The heading procedures display text using heading levels such as those used in this book.1) do html_sub(’’) print ’subscript’ () do html_sub_end print ’ text’ () SQR User’s Guide 225 . Once the text is output. The following SQR code displays text as a second-level heading: do html_h2(’’) print ’A Level 2 Heading’ (1. • Subscript—call html_sub and html_sub_end. The following highlighting procedures are available: • Blink—call html_blink and html_blink_end. • Keyboard—call html_kbd and html_kbd_end. Once the text is output call the corresponding end procedure. • Superscript—call html_sup and html_sup_end.1) do html_h2_end Highlighting The highlighting procedures provide the ability to display text in the various HTML highlighting styles. • Code—call html_code and html_code_end. The following SQR code displays text in the subscript style: print ’Here is ’ (1. • Sample—call html_sample and html_sample_end. a first-level heading is the highest. To utilize the heading procedures. call the corresponding end procedure. Highlighting is also called logical markup. call the appropriate heading procedure before the text is output. • Citation—call html_cite and html_cite_end. • Strike—call html_strike and html_strike_end. call the appropriate highlighting procedure before the text is output.SQR 4.

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Hypertext Links
The hypertext link procedures provide the ability to create hypertext links and hypertext link anchors. When the user clicks on the hypertext link, the Web browser switches to the top of the specified HTML document, to a point within the specified document, or to a link anchor within the same document. A hypertext link can point to the home page of a Web site, for example. To insert a hypertext link, use the procedure html_a, output the information that is to become the hypertext link, and use the procedure html_a_end to mark the end of the hypertext link. Two useful attributes for the procedure html_a, are the HREF and NAME attributes. Use the HREF attribute to specify where the hypertext link points to. Use the NAME attribute to specify an anchor to which a hypertext link can point. These attributes are passed as arguments to the procedure html_a. The following SQR code creates an anchor and two hypertext links. The anchor is positioned at the top of the document. The first hypertext link points to the HTML document home.html. The second hypertext link points to the anchor named TOP in the current document. Note the pound sign (#) in the argument, which indicates that the named anchor is a point within a document. The third link points to an anchor named POINT1 in the document mydoc.html.
do html_a(’HREF=home.html’) print ’Goto home page’ () do html_a_end do html_a(’NAME=TOP’) do html_a_end print ’At the top of document’ () do html_br(40, ’’) print ’At the bottom of document’ () do html_p(’’) do html_a(’HREF=#TOP’) print ’Goto top of document’ () do html_a_end do html_a (’HREF=mydoc.html#POINT1’) print ’Goto point1 in mydoc.html’ () do html_a_end

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Images
An image can be included in an HTML output with the PRINT-IMAGE command or the procedure html_img. Both of these produce the HTML <IMG> tag. The PRINT-IMAGE command displays images for all printer types but only allows you to specify the image type and source. The html_img procedure displays images only for HTML printer type but it allows you to specify any of the attributes available for an HTML <IMG> tag. For HTML output, only files of the GIF or JPEG format can be used. With PRINT-IMAGE, use the argument TYPE=GIF-FILE or TYPE=JPEG-FILE, respectively.

Lists
The list procedures display lists. To utilize these procedures, call the appropriate procedure before the list is output. Once the list is output, call the corresponding end procedure. The following list procedures are available.

• Definition (for lists of terms and their definitions)—call html_dl and html_dl_end. • Directory—call html_dir and html_dir_end. • Menus—call html_menu and html_menu_end. • Ordered (numbered or lettered) lists—call html_ol and html_ol_end. • Unordered (bulleted) lists—call html_ul and html_ul_end.
To display a list, except for the definition list, call the appropriate list procedure before the list is output. Call html_li to identify each item in the list; you can also call html_li_end for completeness. Once the list is output call the corresponding end procedure. The following code displays an ordered list:
do html_ol(’’) do html_li(’’) print ’First item in list’ (1,1) do html_li_end do html_li(’’) print ’Second item in list’ (+1,1)

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do html_li_end do html_li(’’) print ’Last item in list’ (+1,1) do html_li_end do html_ol_end

To display a definition list call html_dl before the list is output. Call html_dt to identify a term and html_dd to identify a definition. Once the list is output call html_dl_end. You can also call html_dd_end and html_dt_end for completeness The following code displays a definition list:
do html_dl(’’) do html_dt(’’) print ’A daisy’ (1,1) do html_dt_end do html_dd(’’) print ’A sweet and innocent flower’ (+1,1) do html_dd_end do html_dt(’’) print ’A rose’ (+1,1) do html_dt_end do html_dd(’’) print ’A very passionate flower’ (+1,1) do html_dd_end do html_ol_end

Paragraph Formatting
The HTML procedures provide various paragraph-formatting capabilities. To utilize these procedures, call the appropriate paragraph procedure before the list is output. The following procedures are available:

• Paragraph breaks—call html_p to mark the start of a paragraph and html_p_end to mark the end. Many HTML constructs imply an end of paragraph; thus, the procedure html_th_end is not needed, but it can be used for completeness. • Line breaks—call html_br to insert a line break. • Horizontal dividers (usually a sculpted line)—call html_hr to insert a horizontal divider. • Prevent line wrapping—call html_nobr to mark the start of a section of text that cannot be wrapped by the Web browser to fit the width of the browser window. Use the procedure html_nobr_end to mark the end.

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The following code uses the paragraph-formatting procedures to format text into paragraphs:
print ’Here is some normal text’ (1,1) do html_p(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) print ’Here is right aligned text’ (+1,1) do html_br(1,’’) print ’and a line break’ (+1,1) do html_p_end do html_hr(’’) do html_nobr(’’) print ’A very long line of text that cannot be wrapped’ (+1,1) do html_nobr_end

User-Defined HTML
You can incorporate your own HTML tags into the HTML output. To do so, use the PRINT command with the argument CODE-PRINTER=HT. Text printed with this argument is placed only in the HTML output generated when the HTML printer type is specified. With all other printer types, the text is not placed in the output. In addition, the specified text is placed directly in the HTML output without any modifications, such as the mapping of reserved characters. The following SQR code uses the HTML <B> tag to print bold text:
print ’<B>’ () code-printer=ht print ’Bold text’ () print ’</B>’ () code-printer=ht

Modifying an Existing SQR Program
In this section, an existing SQR program, ex12a.sqr, is modified to use HTML procedures. (The modified program is named ex28b.sqr). First, examine the output from ex12a.sqr when this program is run without modifications using the command line flag -PRINTER:HT. Three HTML files are generated: ex12a.htm, ex12a_frm.htm, and ex12a_toc.htm. If your web browser supports HTML frames, after opening ex12a_frm.htm, you should see the following:

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Program ex28b.sqr
#include ’html.inc’ begin-setup declare-layout default max-lines=10000 end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure main do html_on print $current-date (1,1) edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ do html_p(’’) do html_table(’BORDER’) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’WIDTH=250’) print ’Name’ (3,1) do html_th(’WIDTH=120’) print ’City’ (,32) do html_th(’WIDTH=60’) print ’State’ (,49) do html_th(’WIDTH=90’) print ’Total’ (,61)

Program continues on the next page.
230 SQR User’s Guide

Note the arguments passed to the HTML procedures. html_td. The procedure html_on is used to turn on the HTML procedures.99 next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers end-select do html_tr(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’COLSPAN=3 ALIGN=RIGHT’) print ’Grand Total’ (+1. The procedures html_table.16) do html_td(’’) state (. COLSPAN causes the label "Grand Total" to be spanned beneath three columns of data.sqr (continued) begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) name (. SQR User’s Guide 231 .1.11) edit 99999999.3 Working with HTML Program ex28b. a DECLARE-LAYOUT command with a large page length setting specified in the MAX-LINES argument is issued to prevent page breaks. BORDER produces the sculpted border seen in the output that follows.5) do html_td(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) tot (.11) edit 99999999.40) do html_td(’ALIGN=RIGHT’) print #grand_total (.99 do html_table_end end-procedure ! main In this code. the procedure tr_th is used to display column headings.+1.+1. html_tr.+1.SQR 4.30) do html_td(’’) city (. WIDTH defines the width of the columns. and html_th are used to position the information in a tabular format. Instead of using a HEADING section.55. ALIGN right-aligns the text in the "Total" column.

Thereafter. Create hypertext links in a home page or other Web site that point to the report files so users browsing the network can navigate to the report and view it. use a utility such as FTP to transfer the HTML output files to the Web server. See your Webmaster for more details on creating a URL. 3.sqr Publishing the Report A report generated by an SQR program can be published onto the Web site. the user of a Web browser can view the report over the Internet or an Intranet by specifying the report’s URL address. 232 SQR User’s Guide . 2.3 Output for ex28b. Copy the generated HTML output files to the chosen directory on the Web server. 4. you must: 1. The directory must be one that is pointed to by a URL on your server. To publish a report.Working with HTML SQR 4. Determine where the report output will be stored on the Web server. If the output is generated on a client PC. Run the SQR program.

out to capture any status messages. • Runs the SQR program /usr2/reports/myreport. The sample Bourne shell program shown below: • Sets the necessary environment variables.h00. The program should run the SQR program and copy the output to the appropriate location. specify a URL address in your Web browser. a listing of report pages contained in the FRAME file would not be needed.sqr and generates the output files /usr2/reports/myreport.htm. it should only contain a single page. If the report was created with HTML procedures. Only the report output file would be required for publication on a Web site. • Redirects the standard output to /usr2/reports/myreport. however.3 Working with HTML To support older Web browsers that do not support the HTML FRAME construct. In that case. for example http://www." and another pointing to the report output file and labeled to indicate "non-frame version". The output file can be viewed at a later time to diagnose any problems.SQR 4. Publishing Using an Automated Process The Webmaster can create a program that automates the publishing process.) SQR User’s Guide 233 .myserver. Viewing the Published Report The Web browser can be used to view a report that is published onto a Web site. • Specifies /dev/null as the source of standard input to prevent the program from hanging if it requires input. create two separate hypertext links – one pointing to the FRAME file (. See the documentation of your particular scheduling software for more details. • Copies the generated report files to the directory /usr2/web/docs to publish it on the Web server. To do this. (Use the directory name appropriate for your server. The program can even be launched using a scheduling utility to automatically run the program and publish it on the Web site at specified times.com/myreport.htm) and labeled to indicate "frame version.htm and /usr2/reports/myreport.

3. The user enters information on the fill-out form and presses a button to invoke the CGI script.h00 /usr2/web/docs À Note The environment variables and the file names must be adjusted to fit your particular environment.Working with HTML SQR 4.out 2>&1 < /dev/null # copy over the output cp /usr2/reports/myreport. One way to allow the user to run an SQR report is by providing a fill-out form. the user of a Web browser can run an SQR report and view the output.sqr orauser/orapasswd \ -PRINTER:ht -I$SQRDIR \ > /usr2/reports/myreport. export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_HOME=/usr2/oracle7.3 Here is the code: #! /bin/sh # set the appropriate environment values ORACLE_SID=oracle7. 4. The user of the Web browser navigates to a fill-out form. The following items are required for this process: • The fill-out form • The CGI script • The SQR program 234 SQR User’s Guide .htm /usr2/web/docs cp /usr2/reports/myreport. The user views the report. 5. Publishing Using a CGI Script In the CGI script method. The CGI script runs the SQR program. export SQRDIR # invoke the SQR program sqr /usr2/reports/myreport. This method consists of the following steps: 1. export ORACLE_HOME SQRDIR=/usr2/sqr/bin. The CGI script copies the report output file to the standard output. 2.

In the INPUT tags. The URL address of the CGI script must be adjusted to fit your particular environment. For more information on implementing an HTML fill-out form. see HTML documentation available in print or on the Internet.sh will be invoked when the submit button is pressed. The VALUE attribute of the selected radio button is passed via the CGI script to the SQR program. SQR User’s Guide 235 . The submit button invokes the CGI script.SQR 4. the attribute TYPE="radio" defines a radio button. Here is the HTML code: <HTML> <TITLE>View Customer Information</TITLE> <FORM METHOD=POST ACTION="/cgi-bin/myreport. The following HTML code defines a fill-out form with three radio buttons and a submit button.3 Working with HTML Creating the Fill-Out Form This section explains how to create an HTML fill-out form that allows the user to enter some values and launch the request. as shown in example that follows. The radio buttons allow the user to specify the sorting criteria.sh"> <B>Select the Field to Sort By</B><P><DIR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="cust_num" CHECKED> Number<BR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="name"> Name<BR> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rb1" VALUE="city"> City<BR> <P><INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="run" VALUE="Run Report"></DIR> </FORM> </HTML> The FORM METHOD tag specifies that the CGI script /cgi-bin/myreport.

LIS file to the standard output stream. We do not recommend that SQR be called directly as a CGI script—a Perl script.HTM file is not used since it points to the . this step is not required. 3.LIS file. Reads the contents of the standard input stream and parses it to obtain the values entered on the fill-out form. 236 SQR User’s Guide . or a C program all provide simpler routines for processing as a CGI script. Invokes the SQR program. The relative address does not tell the Web browser where to find the . a shell script. We also recommend that you make provisions within your SQR program to output an error message. 2. The . 4. For more information on implementing a CGI script. Values entered by the user on the fill-out form are passed to the SQR program via the CGI script and the command line. The CGI script performs the following tasks: 1. Identifies the output as being in HTML format by outputting the string "Content-type: text/html" along with an extra empty line to the standard output stream. Outputs the generated . see the HTML documentation available in print or on the Internet.LIS file with a relative URL address. If the fill-out form has no input fields. A CGI script can be any executable program.3 The fill-out form will look like this: Creating the CGI Script The CGI script is launched when a user makes a request from a fill-out form.Working with HTML SQR 4.

The $$ is the process ID of the program and is used as a unique identifier to prevent any multiuser problems. export ORACLE_HOME SQRDIR=/usr2/sqr/bin. SQR User’s Guide 237 . it outputs the string "Content-type: text/html" along with an extra empty line to the standard output stream to identify the text as being HTML format. the script redirects the standard input from /dev/null to prevent the program from hanging if the program requires any input.sqr is used and the file /tmp/myreport$$.3 Working with HTML The following Bourne shell is an example of a CGI script..lis -I$SQRDIR "$SORTBY" \ > /tmp/myreport$$. The report file /usr2/reports/myreport.&.. The script runs the SQR program. It also redirects the standard output to /tmp/myreport$$.*rb1=. s.out to capture any status messages. The script retrieves the value of the selected radio button into the variable SORTBY."‘ # invoke the SQR program sqr7 /usr2/reports/myreport. export SQRDIR # identify the output as being HTML format echo "Content-type: text/html" echo "" # get values from fill-out form using the POST method read TEMPSTR SORTBY=‘echo $TEMPSTR | sed "s.out 2>&1 < /dev/null if [ $? -eq 0 ].SQR 4.lis is generated.out echo "</PRE></BODY></HTML>" fi # remove temp files rm /tmp/myreport$$. #! /bin/sh # set the appropriate environment values ORACLE_SID=oracle7.sqr orauser/orapasswd \ -PRINTER:ht -f/tmp/myreport$$. Next.lis else # error ocurred. export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_HOME=/usr2/oracle7.* This script first sets the necessary environment variables.. In addition.*. display the error echo "<HTML><BODY><PRE>" echo "FAILED TO RUN SQR PROGRAM" cat /tmp/myreport$$. then # display the output cat /tmp/myreport$$. The value is passed to the SQR program on the command line.

Passing Arguments to the SQR Program The SQR program must be modified to accept values entered by the user on the fill-out form. it deletes any temporary files. The code shown below is the procedure main from file ex28b. The modified lines are shown in bold.+1. The $sortby variable is obtained from the command line with an INPUT command and used as dynamic variables in the ORDER BY clause.49) begin-select do html_tr(’’) do html_td(’’) name (.sqr.3 The script then copies the generated report file to the standard output stream.5) next-listing no-advance need=1 let #grand_total = #grand_total + &tot from customers order by [$sortby] end-select Summary • Running an existing SQR program with the -PRINTER:EH or -PRINTER:HT command-line flag will cause the program to produce HTML output. 238 SQR User’s Guide .30) do html_td(’’) city (. • Modifying an SQR program with the argument TYPE=HT of the DECLARE-PRINTER command or USE-PRINTER-TYPE HT will also cause it to produce HTML output.1. It has been modified to use the SORT BY value passed from the CGI script.32) do html_th(’’) print ’State’ (. If an error occurs it outputs the status message file instead to allow the user to view the status messages.+1.16) do html_td(’’) state (. begin-procedure main input $sortby ’Sort by’ type=char do html_on do html_table(’’) do html_tr(’’) do html_th(’’) print ’Name’ (3. Finally.1) do html_th(’’) print ’City’ (.Working with HTML SQR 4.

inc. myreport_00.h00.SQR 4. • To utilize these HTML procedures. use a shell script or a scheduling utility.htm) and report output file(s) (myreport. • A CGI script invokes the SQR program and passes values entered in the fill-out form to it. These procedures are contained in a file called html. • The command PRINT-IMAGE and the HTML procedure <IMG> provide support for GIF and JPEG images. • To automate the publishing process. run the SQR program and copy the output file to the Web server. • To generate customized HTML output. • To publish an SQR report on a Web server. include the file html.inc in your SQR program and call the procedure html_on. SQR User’s Guide 239 . use a CGI script and a fill-out form. • To allow users to request an SQR report. • A fill-out form allows users to request an SQR program and specify values such as sorting criteria.3 Working with HTML • An SQR program run that produces HTML output will create a FRAME file (myreport. use HTML procedures.htm).

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DECLARE-TOC defines a Table of Contents and its attributes. (The default setting is NO and the DOT-LEADER is suppressed in all HTML output except when -BURST:T with -PRINTER:HT are also specified. this is accomplished through the use of two SQR commands: DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY. When generating multiple reports and Tables of Contents from one SQR program. If no Table of Contents is generated.29 Tables of Contents This chapter describes how to create Tables of Contents for your reports. the procedure does not execute. The FOR-REPORTS argument allows you to specify the reports within the SQR program which will use this Table of Contents. The DECLARE-TOC command must be issued in your program’s SETUP section similar to the following example: begin-setup declare-toc toc_name for-reports = (all) dot-leader = yes indentation = 2 end-declare . AFTER-TOC.) DECLARE-TOC also supports procedures frequently used for setup and initialization purposes: BEFORE-TOC. and AFTER-PAGE. DOT-LEADER specifies whether or not a dot leader will precede the page number. TOC-ENTRY places an entry into the Table of Contents. SQR User’s Guide 241 . If no Table of Contents is generated. (The default setting is 4. (Use (all) if you want all the reports to use one Table of Contents. you may also utilize the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command. In the simplest form. BEFORE-PAGE. you may specify a Table of Contents name.) INDENTATION specifies the number of spaces that each level will be indented by. . . the procedure does not execute. end-setup After the DECLARE-TOC command. BEFORE-TOC specifies a procedure to be executed before the Table of Contents is generated.) Specifying individual report names is only necessary when you are generating multiple reports with different TOCs from one program. AFTER-TOC specifies a procedure to be executed after the Table of Contents is generated.

and columns. Legal text includes text literals. use the LEVEL argument which specifies the level at which to place the text. you may use the FOR-REPORTS argument of the DECLARE-TOC command to identify the reports to which the DECLARE-TOC applies. Under HTML. To specify the name of the Table of Contents applicable to a given report using the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command.” we modified ex7a.Tables of Contents SQR 4. end-setup In Chapter 28. However. the Table of Contents file is a hyper-linked point of navigation for the online report. Your program may have multiple DECLARE-TOC statements and multiple DECLARE-REPORT statements.3 BEFORE-PAGE specifies a procedure to be executed at the start of every page. But. Then.LIS file (or use -PRINTER:WP on Windows). include code similar to the following in the SETUP section of your program: begin-setup declare-report toc = toc_name end-declare . As previously mentioned. If you wish to include levels in your Table of Contents. TOC-ENTRY places an entry into the Table of Contents and takes the mandatory argument TEXT which specifies the text to be placed in the Table of Contents. you can use the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command to specify the name of the Table of Contents you want the report to use. AFTER-PAGE specifies a procedure to be executed at the end of each page. “Working with HTML.) If you are writing programs which generate multiple reports. you must include the FORTOCS argument in your DECLARE-TOC statements or the TOC argument in your DECLARE-REPORT statements. we generated HTML output from the modified program using the -PRINTER:EH and PRINTER:HT command-line flags. you may also wish to generate ouput files for printing reports on paper. (If this argument is not specified. 242 SQR User’s Guide .sqr to use the DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands. . And the Table of Contents features work here as well. run the modified version of ex7a. To test this. the previous level’s value will be used.sqr program from Chapter 28 and print it from an . The Table of Contents ouput will contain the traditional dot leaders and necessary page numbers relating to a hardcopy report. variables. Alternatively. you have some options to choose from. .

1) print ’After TOC’ () bold position (+1.25) toc-entry text = &name level = 1 Program continues on the following page. SQR User’s Guide 243 . One Table of Contents level is set using the TOCENTRY command’s LEVEL=1 argument. Indentation is set to 3.1. The dot leader is turned ON.1) end-procedure begin-procedure before_page position (+1.1) end-procedure begin-procedure main begin-select print ’Customer Info’ () print ’-’ (+1.1.1) print ’Before Page’ () bold position (+1. Table of Contents Sample Program #1 begin-setup declare-toc cust_toc for-reports=(all) dot-leader=yes indentation=3 after-toc=after_toc before-page=before_page end-declare end-setup begin-program do main end-program begin-procedure after_toc position (+1.62) Fill name (+1. The program identifies the Table of Contents with the specific name cust_toc.3 Tables of Contents The following program is based on cust.SQR 4. The BEFORE-PAGE and AFTER-TOC arguments of the DECLARE-TOC command are used to print simple messages here.sqr which is located in the SAMPLE (or SAMPLEW) directory.

17. It is similar to the previous program but declares two Table of Contents levels. by name." Table of Contents Sample Program #2 begin-setup declare-report cust end-declare declare-toc cust_toc for-reports=(cust) dot-leader=yes indentation=3 after-toc=after_toc before-page=before_page end-declare declare-variable integer #num_toc integer #num_page end-declare end-setup Program continues on the following page. The Table of Contents footing prints "Company Confidential. if your program is generating multiple reports with multiple Tables of Contents.69) ’Page ’ end-heading The following program is also based on cust. So. This program also creates Table of Contents specific headings and footings. you may apply unique or common headings and footings to reports and Tables of Contents.1) from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.sqr.Tables of Contents SQR 4.1.30) city (+1.35. The page numbers in the Table of Contents print as roman numerals. The Table of Contents heading of this program prints "Table of Contents" and the page number.3 Table of Contents Sample Program #1 (continued) cust_num (. 244 SQR User’s Guide . the Table of Contents to which the particular heading or footing section applies. The FOR-TOCS argument of the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGINFOOTING commands allows you to specify.15) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx position (+2.1.16) state (.2) phone (+1.

15) edit (xxx)bxxx-xxxx position (+2.1) end-procedure begin-procedure main begin-select print ’Customer Info’ () print ’-’ (+1.1) print ’After TOC’ () bold position (+1.20) toc-entry text = &description level=2 Program continues on the following page.1.1) do orders(&cust_num) position (+2.10) let #any = 1 end-if b.1) print ’Before Page’ () bold position (+1.1) end-procedure begin-procedure before_page position (+1.10) print ’-------------’ (+1.30) city (+1.1.35.product_code order_date (+1.20) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ description (.1) from customers order by name end-select end-procedure ! main begin-procedure orders (#cust_num) let #any = 0 begin-select if not #any print ’Orders Booked’ (+2.+1.1.order_num b.SQR 4. SQR User’s Guide 245 .1.62) Fill name (+1.16) state (.10.17.2) phone (+1.25) toc-entry text = &name level = 1 cust_num (.3 Tables of Contents Table of Contents Sample Program #2 (continued) begin-program use-report cust do main end-program begin-procedure after_toc position (+1.

3 Table of Contents Sample Program #2 (continued) c.69) ’Page ’ end-heading 246 SQR User’s Guide .1) bold center let $page = roman(#page-count) print ’Page ’ (1.+1.1.order_num.13) Edit $$$$.Tables of Contents SQR 4.order_num = b. products c where a.69) print $page () end-heading begin-heading 3 print $current-date (1.quantity (.order_num and b.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ end-footing begin-heading 3 for-tocs=(cust_toc) print ’Table of Contents’ (1.product_code end-select end-procedure ! orders begin-footing 3 for-tocs=(cust_toc) print ’Company Confidential’ (1. b.price * b.product_code = c.product_code and a.1) Edit ’DD-MON-YYYY’ page-number (1.cust_num = #cust_num order by b.0) center print $current-date (1.99 from orders a.$$0. ordlines b.

SQR 4.. Use the TOC argument of the DECLARE-REPORT command or the FOR-REPORTS argument of the DECLARE-TOC command to specify which TOC goes with which report • You may create headings and footings for specified Tables of Contents using the FOR-TOC argument to the BEGIN-HEADING and BEGINFOOTING commands. SQR User’s Guide 247 .3 Tables of Contents Two Level Table of Contents HTML File Output with PRINTER:EH Summary • Use the DECLARE-TOC and TOC-ENTRY commands to create Tables of Contents for your reports. • You may output multiple Tables of Contents and multiple reports from the same program.

63 performance issues. 168 #DEFINE. 201 BEGIN-FOOTING. 47 break logic. 120 B bar codes. 120 . 176 ASK. 216 T. 153 $sqr-program. 86. 201 arrays. 112 bmp-file. 49 ORDER BY clause with. nesting. 169. 189 #IFNDEF. 123–30 arguments SQR User’s Guide 249 . 5. 86. 189 #IFDEF. 116 bitmaps. 19–43 breaks. 137 ON-ERROR option with. . 120 $sqr-locale. 215 S. 169 #INCLUDE. 190. 9. 153 ALTER-PRINTER. 169 #ENDIF. 189 A ALTER-LOCALE. 205 BATCH-MODE argument. 169. 100 multiple. 189. 215 P. 190 #INCLUDE. 139 bind variables. 201 # #DEBUG. 86. 204 used with ASK or INPUT. 202 argument passing.SQT files. 244 FOR-REPORTS option with. 135 BEGIN-PROCEDURE. 190 #IF. 11 BEGIN-PROGRAM. 56. 130 BEGIN-SELECT. 244 FOR-REPORTS option with. 121. 112 BOLD option with PRINT. 152. 29 $sql-error. 23 -BURST{xx}. 189 #page-count. 1 BEGIN-SELECT. 120 $username.Index ! ! (comment character). 189 #ELSE. 7 command-line. 107 BOTTOM-MARGIN option. 49 BEGIN-SELECT. 20 BEGIN-SQL. 52 with HAVING clause. 105 argument files. 201 creating file from reports. 92 batch mode. 5. 215 $ $current-date. 135 BEGIN-HEADING. 216 Bursting. 169 #IF.

137–40 -DEBUG flag. 46. 145 formats. 47 ORIENTATION option with. 47 MAX-LINES option with. 119 Demand Paging. 201 command-line flags. 84 defining page width with. 105 charts. 142 datenow function. 91 DOCUMENT section. 241 DELETE.Index SQR 4. 88 DECLARE-LAYOUT. 75. 55–67 D DATA-ARRAY option. 204 using special characters. 194. 100 DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT argument. 142 DB2. 137 date arithmetic. 148 dateadd function. 80 END-FOOTING. 71. 3 END-PROGRAM. 11 end-program. 142 converting from strings. 45 DECLARE-CHART TITLE option with. 3. 193. 186 connectivity. 106. 1 END-SELECT. 189–91 compiling SQR programs performance issues. 201 comments. 142 datediff function. 47 setting margins with. 141 comparing. 145 converting to strings.3 C CENTER option. 75. 59 cross-tabular reports. 209 250 SQR User’s Guide . 241 PRINTER-TYPE option with. 167 declarations. 6 END-HEADING. 142. 108 CGI script. 116–19 dynamic variables. 234. 118 E edit masks case sensitivity. 193. 195 DECLARE-REPORT. 215 DML (Data Manipulation Language) 137–140 document markers. 47 DECLARE-PRINTER. 47 PAPER-SIZE option with. 115. 111 DECLARE-PRINTER. 75 dynamic SQL. 46. 195 TYPE option with. 100 DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT argument. 31 ENCODE. 199 DDL (Data Definition Language). 229 column variables. 11 END-SETUP. 146 ELSE. 142 date variables. 195 DECLARE-TOC. 144 datetostr function. 2 counters. 71 MAX-COLUMNS option with. 236 character grid. 195 FOR-REPORTS option with. 148 dates. 69 command line using reserved characters on. 99 DECLARE-IMAGE. 71 CREATE-ARRAY. 203 command-line arguments. 142 dates. 7 compiling. 45 Enhanced HTML. 31 END-PROCEDURE. 91 document section. printing. 6 END-IF. 15 columnar data. 168 debugging SQR programs. 100 database inserts. 142. 95–103 CODE-PRINTER qualifier. 111 CODE-PRINTER qualifier.

60 exclamation mark. 83 K -KEEP command-line flag. 129 performance issues. 86 fonts. 121 INPUT. 86. 124 GRAPHIC. 194 L LaserJet printers. 227 LOAD-LOOKUP. 112 HTML. 80 LEVEL keyword. 87. 162 INPUT. 23 lists with HTML. 79–81 external files. 172 local procedures. 124 local variables. 219. 139 interoperability. 153 LOOKUP. 207–39 hypertext links. 151–56 switching. 112 LAST-PAGE. 75–77 FOR-REPORTS option. 51 IF. 105–9 footing. 31 images with HTML. 235 flags. 227 global variables. 190 INPUT. 6 headings with HTML. 199 initcap function. 225 highlighting with HTML. 135 FOR-REPORTS option with DECLARE-PRINTER. 123 locales. 85 hpgl-file. 201 INSERT. 225 HORZ-LINE option. 196 FILL option. 86. 119. 31 SQR User’s Guide 251 . 128 J joins. 227 G GIF format. 84 fill-out form. 47 LET use of functions in. 137 I IF. 130 heading.SQR 4. 2 floor function. 5. 12 H HAVING clause with BEGIN-SELECT. 112 EVALUATE. 226 hyphens. 195 functions. 12 Informix. 7 exporting data. 227 indentation. 195. 5. 6 form letters. 219. 164 LET.3 Index eps-file. 86 graphics. 30. 128 FONT option. 146. 219. 219. 172 JPEG format. 173 loops. 199 Ingres. 113. 157–66 F -F command-line flag. 7 LEFT-MARGIN option.

86 procedures. 38 paragraph formatting with HTML. 30 R recursive procedures. 112 PRINT. nesting of. 139 Oracle. 111 printer-independent reports. 227 SOURCE option with. 108–9 PRINT-CHART. 112.Index SQR 4. 69 master/detail reports. 100 TYPE option with. 5 reserved characters with HTML. 11. 200 ORDER BY clause. 103 POINT-SIZE option. 100 DATA-ARRAY-ROW-COUNT argument with. 3. 196 O ON-BREAK. 119. 214 -PRINTER:xx command-line flag. 2 252 SQR User’s Guide . 46. 124 PROGRAM section. 12. 41 ON-ERROR option. 131–35 performance issues. 91. 107 WRAP option with. 151 NEED argument. 203 performance issues. 200 report body. 214 reserved variables. 228 passing command-line arguments. 111–13 PRINTER-INIT. 86 TYPE option with. 84 FILL option with. 49–53 mod function. 87. 171 PIE-SEGMENT-PERCENT-DISPLAY qualifier. 123–30. 91 position. 3. 111 -PRINTER:{xx} EH. 115. 194. 21 with BOLD. 100 DATA-ARRAY-COLUMN-COUNT argument with.3 M mailing labels. 47 ON-BREAK option with. 189 running SQR programs in UNIX. 12 FILL option with. 112 PRINT-IMAGE. 71 -NOLIS command-line flag. 118 ORDER BY clause with BEGIN-SELECT. 19–43 limitations. 50 page breaks with ON-BREAK. 85. 86. 100 SUB-TITLE argument with. 7. 29. 100 PRINT-DIRECT. 10. 219. 86 POSITION. print. 120. 189 -RT command-line flag. 194 PRINTER-DEINIT. 181 report arguments file on command line. 128 MS-DOS. 95. 209 HT. 20 ORIENTATION option. 10 Q P queries. 124 -RS command-line flag. 112 PRINT-CHART DATA-ARRAY option with. 1. 29 NO-ADVANCE option. 2 in Windows. 86 PostScript printers. 193. 205 multiple reports. 185 N national language support. 195 PRINT-IMAGE. 111 PRINTER-TYPE option.

152 SQRW. 165 UFUNC. 164 STRING. 194 SQR Viewer. 2 STATIC keyword. 115–16 VMS. 75 in documents. 165 ufunc on Windows NT.3 Index run-time arguments. 99 TOC-ENTRY. 202 T -T command-line flag. 22 SOURCE option. 116 USE-PRINTER-TYPE. 161 underscores. 12. 91 variables in SQL. 205 VMS SUBMITSQR. See SPF file format SQR Print. 111 U ufunc on Windows 95. 88. 195 S script files. 241 tables with HTML. 47 tuning issues. 142 substitution variables. 193. 88. 205 SQR User’s Guide 253 . 118 SETUP section. 115 SQL and substitution variables. 205 SELECT paragraph. 166 V variables. 69. 169 defining. 158 SQR API. 45–48. 29. 167 tab-delimited file. xiii temporary database tables performance issues. 79 Tables of Contents. 105 TITLE option. 134 SKIPLINES argument. 79 SQL dynamic.SQR 4. 176 testing SQR programs. 119–20 SQL statements and SQR performance. 121. 167 text positioning. 190 with multiple reports. 175 SQL error checking.COM. 194 SQR. 31 UNIX. 190 performance issues. 163. 29. 241 TOP-MARGIN option. 194. 195 user functions with Windows 95. exporting to. 189–91. 120–22 SQL cursor status performance issues. 219 Technical Support. 71 SKIPLINES argument. 158–61 SQR Execute. 100 SYBASE. 15 common error with. 122 SUB-TITLE argument. 200 SQR calling from another application. 166 userfuncs.INI. 11. 120. 2 spreadsheets. 100. 186 SQR Portable Format. 86. 171 SQLBase. 30 for positioning. 166 with Windows NT. 171 TYPE option. 200 SYMBOL-SET argument. 194 SPF file format. 205 upper function. 196 SPF Viewer. 80 strtodate function. 87 SPF file format. 162. 119 SELECT paragraph.C.

108–9 254 SQR User’s Guide .3 W Windows 95 user functions with. 166 WRAP option. 166 Windows NT user functions with.Index SQR 4.

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