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# ECEN 448: Real-time DSP, Final Project, Texas A&M University (Fall 2010), Instructor: Dr. D.

KundurPage 1 of 10

Final Project: Face Recognition
Objectives of this Project
• This project introduces students to the practical capabilities and challenges of automated facial recognition. Good luck!

Instructions
• This project can be conducted in groups of at most two people. It is acceptable to discuss the project with other groups and to help other groups. However, the report has to be done separately for each group and no “copying” of code is allowed between groups. You should use the last lab session on December 2, 2010 to ask the TA any questions you may have and to attempt to conduct the project. You must attend the December 2, 2010 lab session for full points.

Deliverables
• Please provide a group report presenting the following: o o o o A picture of the *.mdl and/or *.m file(s) that you used to generate the results. Please note that you can use either MATLAB or Simulink to conduct this project. A picture of your test and reference image(s) that you used to generate the results. Documentation and explanation of your results. A discussion of the challenges you encountered and any changes in models you made to obtain good results.

You will be graded on the completeness, accuracy and presentation quality of your report.

This project report is due at noon on Tuesday December 14, 2010. Please note that this is a strict deadline, as the grades must be reported shortly after this date.

William Luh developed a preliminary version of this project description.

and Y denote the test feature extracted (i. If we model the pixels X i. but we will use it in the next € paragraph). average) and sample variance of the difference image X − Y as in Equations (1) and (2). KundurPage 4 of 10   average of all difference pixels. Do we decide same face or different face? Where does the threshold lie for the comparison stage? For this. details are beyond the scope of € this project. So now we have a random variable mean(X − Y ) that has a Gaussian distribution with an estimate of its mean and variance. € € € mean(x − y) is the actual sample mean computed using the registered feature image data. Our approach is to model the image pixels as random variables and then apply a confidence interval test to give a probability measure that can be used for comparison of the facial similarities.Y ) . which makes. and check if 0 is inside this confidence € interval. respectively: € € mean(X − Y ) = ∑ €(X i. D.e. We can use probability theory to test whether it is likely that 0 is the true mean. The question we ask during this comparison phase of the facial recognition is whether the sample mean of Equation (1) is close enough to zero that it seems the faces in the reference and test images are the same. Final Project. i.ECEN 448: Real-time DSP. we instead employ the sample mean of Equation € (1). j i.a. we rely on statistics. j and Yi. Assume the pixels of each image are denoted X i. Instructor: Dr. € Without access the true mean and true variance. it is unlikely that the resulting value will be identical to 0. Let both images be M×N matrices. with its own mean being equal to € true mean of the difference image X − Y denoted m .e. Let X denote the reference feature extracted (i. j − Yi. j as random variables that are independent. j .e. By the Central Limit Theorem. are also random variables. The minus one is used to make the sample variance an unbiased estimate of the true variance. The parameter b is a number. j − Yi. and define the sample mean (a.mean(x − y) + b]} = 1 − p Y (3) © Dr. mean(x − y) +b]? As discussed before. respectively.. Texas A&M University (Fall 2010). j ) − mean(X. edge detected) image after registration as shown in Figure 1. and its variance being the € “true variance of ( X − Y )”/(M N) € (don’t worry about why this is true.5. Deepa Kundur € . then the sample mean and variance denoted   mean(X − Y )  and var(X.. Specifically. for a user-defined p: € € Pr{mean(X −€ ) ∈[mean(x − y) − b.Y )]2 M⋅ N −1 (2) Notice that the minus one in the denominator of Equation (2) is not a typo. we ask the question: Is 0 in the interval [ mean(x − y) -b. j [(X i. Say we compute a sample average of 1. Equation (1) with the actual image pixel value numbers substituted which we denote with mean(xy) as not to confuse with with the random variable version. edge detected) image.Y ) = ∑ i. we can assume that mean(X − Y )  is a Gaussian random variable. We form a confidence interval. j ) M⋅ N (1) € var(X.k. j   and Yi. and substitute the sample variance appropriately into “true variance of ( X − Y )”/(M N) .

The smaller the p-value. we know that this only had a 0. mean(x − y) + b].95 (or confidence at 95%). Let us consider a pictorial representation as in Figure 2. Why is this? Recall our definition of the relationship between p and b in Equation (3). the p-value is given by Equation (4): € ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ | mean(X − Y ) |⎟ p-value = 1 − erf ⎜ ⎜ 2 var(X − Y ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ MN € (4) The erf or error function is used to find the probabilities for the Gaussian distribution.b. mean(x − y) + b].y)-b.05.y)-b mean(x. It is calculated based on a look-up table. then the corresponding b value is set so that with probability 0.y) Figure 2: Tail Probabilities as an Indicator of whether 0 is an Anomaly or not. KundurPage 5 of 10   € For example. Analytically. so it € must be an anomaly and we reject the notion that the true mean can be 0.y)+b estimated with mean(x.05 chance of happening.y)+b] mean(x. Recall from probability theory that integrating under a density function about a portion of the horizontal axis say [a c] gives the probability of the random variable falling in that range particular range of values.mean(x. then we can say that with probability 0. [mean(x. Recall also that integrating over the entire probability density function equals one.95.b. Even though you’ll be performing the © Dr. but when you try to actually make it.ECEN 448: Real-time DSP.05. of Figure 2 corresponds to the event that € mean(X − Y ) does not fall in the region [ mean(x − y) . called “tail probabilities”. mean(x − y) + b] which has probability 1-p. and the corresponding parameter b is such that 0 is not in the interval [ mean(x − y) . Texas A&M University (Fall 2010). Final Project. and thus is commonly called the p-value. € Design and Implementation Implementing a Simulink model for Figure 1 may look simple enough.b. all occurrences of sample means should be in this interval. Deepa Kundur . the details of doing so are not inherently obvious. Another way to look at this is if p = 0. Instructor: Dr. € You can see in Figure 2 that the shaded region corresponds precisely to p (because the un-shaded € € region corresponds to 1-p and the overall area under the function is one). The shaded region. Figure 2 shows a Gaussian probability density function for the estimated mean random variable denoted mean(X − Y ) . Thus if we get a sample mean outside of this interval. D. the more likely 0 is an anomaly if it is not in the interval [ mean(x − y) . the two faces are not the same. if we choose p = 0.