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Homework 6

Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, April 24, 2011

Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy [Switch to Standard Assignment View]

**A Driven Series L-C Circuit
**

Learning Goal: To understand why a series L-C circuit acts like a short circuit at resonance. An AC source drives a sinusoidal current of amplitude and a capacitor having capacitance given by . and frequency into an inductor having inductance that are connected in series. The current as a function of time is

Part A Recall that the voltages respective currents current driver? ANSWER: and and across the inductor and capacitor are not in phase with the . In particular, which of the following statements is true for a sinusoidal

and and lags leads Correct

both lag their respective currents. both lead their respective currents. and and leads lags .

The phase angle between voltage and current for inductors and capacitors is 90 degrees, or radians. Among other things, this means that no power is dissipated in either the inductor or the capacitor, since the time average of current times voltage, , is zero.

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Part B What is Hint B.1 , the voltage delivered by the current source? Current in a series circuit

Note that the current through the current source, the capacitor, and the inductor are all equal at all times. Hint B.2 What is Find the voltage across the capacitor , the voltage across the capacitor as a function of time?

Hint B.2.1 Find the charge on the capacitor What is the charge on the capacitor? and the voltage across it.

Express your answer in terms of the capacitance ANSWER:

= Answer Requested

Hint B.2.2 What is the current in terms of the charge on the capacitor? With the conventions in the circuit diagram, what is the current voltage? Express your answer in terms of the capacitance derivative ANSWER: = Answer Requested . and the voltage across it and/or its on the capacitor in terms of its

Integrate both sides of the equation appropriate expression for

(once you substitute in the

). The constant of integration is zero because there is no average

(DC) current or voltage in a pure AC circuit. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Answer Requested , , , and .

Hint B.3

What is the voltage across the inductor?

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What is

, the voltage across the inductor as a function of time?

Hint B.3.1 Voltage and current for an inductor Hint not displayed Express ANSWER: in terms of , , and .

= Answer not displayed

Hint B.4

Total voltage

You should have defined the voltages across the capacitor and inductor in such a way that the total voltage is equal to , that is, so that total voltage is obtained by adding the voltages at time , with careful attention paid to the signs. Express in terms of some or all of the variables , and , or and , ,

and, of course, time . ANSWER:

= Correct

Part C With and the amplitudes of the voltages across the inductor and capacitor, which of the following

statements is true? ANSWER:

At very high frequencies At very high frequencies for all frequencies. for all frequencies. and Correct

and at very low frequencies and at very low frequencies

. .

are about the same at all frequencies.

Part D The behavior of the L-C circuit provides one example of the phenomenon of resonance. The resonant frequency is . At this frequency, what is the amplitude of the voltage supplied by the current

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source? Express your answer using any or all of the constants given in the problem introduction. ANSWER: = 0

Correct

Part E Which of the following statements best explains this fact that at the resonant frequency, there is zero voltage across the capacitor and inductor? ANSWER:

The voltage The voltages The voltage The voltage or min). Correct

is zero at all times because ; ; and are zero at all times.

.

is zero only when the current is zero. is zero only at times when the current is stationary (at a max

At the resonant frequency of the circuit, the current source can easily push the current through the series L-C circuit, because the circuit has no voltage drop across it at all! Of course, there is always a voltage across the inductor, and there is always a voltage across the capacitor, since they do have a current passing through them at all times; however, at resonance, these voltages are exactly out of phase, so that the net effect is a current passing through the capacitor and the inductor without any voltage drop at all. The L-C series circuit acts as a short circuit for AC currents exactly at the resonant frequency. For this reason, a series L-C circuit is used as a trap to conduct signals at the resonant frequency to ground.

**Voltage and Current in AC Circuits
**

Learning Goal: To understand the relationship between AC voltage and current in resistors, inductors, and capacitors, especially the phase shift between the voltage and the current. In this problem, we consider the behavior of resistors, inductors, and capacitors driven individually by a sinusoidally alternating voltage source, for which the voltage is given as a function of time by . The main challenge is to apply your knowledge of the basic properties of resistors, inductors, and capacitors to these "single-element" AC circuits to find the current through each. The key

is to understand the phase difference, also known as the phase angle, between the voltage and the current. It is important to take into account the sign of the current, which will be called positive when it flows clockwise from the b terminal (which has positive voltage relative to the a terminal) to the a terminal (see figure). The sign is critical in the analysis of circuits containing combinations of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.

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Part A First, let us consider a resistor with resistance provides a voltage Hint A.1 Ohm's law Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct , , , and . connected to an AC source (diagram 1). If the AC source through the resistor as a function of time?

, what is the current

Note that the voltage and the current are in phase; that is, in the expressions for

and

, the

arguments of the cosine functions are the same at any moment of time. This will not be the case for the capacitor and inductor. Part B Now consider an inductor with inductance inductor varies as Hint B.1 Kirchhoff's loop rule Hint not displayed Hint B.2 The derivative of Hint not displayed Hint B.3 The phase relationship between sine and cosine Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of your answer. , , , and . Use the cosine function, not the sine function, in in an AC circuit (diagram 2). Assuming that the current in the that must be driving the inductor.

, find the voltage

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ANSWER: = Correct

Graphs of

and

are shown below. As you can see, for an inductor, the voltage leads (i.e., ; in other words, the current lags the voltage by . This

reaches its maximum before) the current by

can be conceptually understood by thinking of inductance as giving the current inertia: The voltage "tries" to push current through the inductor, but some sort of inertia resists the change in current. This is another manifestation of Lenz's law. The difference is called the phase angle.

Part C Again consider an inductor with inductance voltage Hint C.1 Using Part B Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of your answer. ANSWER: = Correct , , , and . Use the cosine function, not the sine function, in connected to an AC source. If the AC source provides a through the inductor as a function of time?

, what is the current

For the amplitudes (magnitudes) of voltage and current, one can write the quantity

(for the resistor) and (sometimes

(for the inductor). If one compares these expressions, it should not come as a surprise that , measured in ohms, is called inductive reactance; it is denoted by ). It is called reactance rather than resistance to emphasize that there is no dissipation of energy.

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Using this notation, we can write

(for a resistor) and

(for an inductor). Also,

notice that the current is in phase with voltage when a resistor is connected to an AC source; in the case of an inductor, the current lags the voltage by . What will happen if we replace the inductor with a capacitor? We will soon see. Part D Consider the potentials of points a and b on the inductor in diagram 2. If the voltage at point b is greater than that at point a, which of the following statements is true? Hint D.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

The current The current

must be positive (clockwise). must be directed counterclockwise. must be negative.

The derivative of the current

The derivative of the current

must be positive.

Correct

It may help to think of the current as having inertia and the voltage as exerting a force that overcomes this inertia. This viewpoint also explains the lag of the current relative to the voltage. Part E Assume that at time , the current in the inductor is at a maximum; at that time, the current flows from , which of the following statements is true? point b to point a. At time Hint E.1

How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

The voltage across the inductor must be zero and increasing. The voltage across the inductor must be zero and decreasing. The voltage across the inductor must be positive and momentarily constant. The voltage across the inductor must be negative and momentarily constant. Correct

Part F

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Now consider a capacitor with capacitance provides a voltage time? Hint F.1

connected to an AC source (diagram 3). If the AC source through the capacitor as a function of

, what is the current

The relationship between charge and voltage for a capacitor Hint not displayed

Hint F.2

The relationship between charge and current Hint not displayed

Hint F.3

Mathematical details Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of sine function, in your answer. ANSWER: = Correct

,

,

and . Use the cosine function with a phase shift, not the

For the amplitude values of voltage and current, one can write

. If one compares this ,

expression with a similar one for the resistor, it should come as no surprise that the quantity measured in ohms, is called capacitive reactance; it is denoted by (sometimes

). It is called

reactance rather than resistance to emphasize that there is no dissipation of energy. Using this notation, we can write , and voltage lags current by radians (or 90 degrees). The notation is analogous to for a resistor, where voltage and current are in phase, and radians (or 90 degrees). We see, then,

for an inductor, where voltage leads current by that in a capacitor, the voltage lags the current by the voltage by the same quantity

, while in the case of an inductor, the current lags

. In a capacitor, where voltage lags the current, you may think of

the current as driving the change in the voltage. Part G Consider the capacitor in diagram 3. Which of the following statements is true at the moment the alternating voltage across the capacitor is zero? Hint G.1 How to approach the problem

Try drawing graphs of the (displacement) current through the capacitor and voltage across the capacitor as functions of time. Hint G.2 Graphs of and

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ANSWER:

The current must be directed clockwise. The current must be directed counterclockwise. The magnitude of the current must be a maximum. The current must be zero. Correct

Part H Consider the capacitor in diagram 3. Which of the following statements is true at the moment the charge of the capacitor is at a maximum? Hint H.1 How to approach this problem Hint not displayed Hint H.2 Graphs of and Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

The current must be directed clockwise. The current must be directed counterclockwise. The magnitude of the current must be a maximum. The current must be zero. Correct

Part I

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Consider the capacitor in diagram 3. Which of the following statements is true if the voltage at point b is greater than that at point a? Hint I.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint I.2 Graphs of and Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

The current must be directed clockwise. The current must be directed counterclockwise. The current may be directed either clockwise or counterclockwise. Correct

Part J Consider a circuit in which a capacitor and an inductor are connected in parallel to an AC source. Which of the following statements about the magnitude of the current through the voltage source is true? Hint J.1 Driven AC parallel circuits Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

It is always larger than the sum of the magnitudes of the currents in the capacitor and inductor. It is always less than the sum of the magnitudes of the currents in the capacitor and inductor. At very high frequencies it will become small. At very low frequencies it will become small. Correct

This surprising result occurs because the currents in inductor and capacitor are exactly out of phase with each other (i.e., one lags and the other leads the voltage), and hence they cancel to some extent. At a particular frequency, called the resonant frequency, the currents have exactly the same amplitude, and they cancel exactly; that is, no current flows from the voltage source to the circuit. (Lots of current flows around the loop made by the inductor and capacitor, however.) If an L-C parallel circuit like this one connects the wire between amplifier stages in a radio, it will allow frequencies near the resonance frequency to pass easily, but will tend to short those at other freqeuncies to ground. This is the basic mechanism for selecting a radio station.

A High-Pass Filter

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A series L-R-C circuit consisting of a voltage source, a capacitor of capacitance , and a resistor of resistance is driven with an AC voltage of amplitude to be the amplitude of the voltage across the resistor and the inductor.

, an inductor of inductance . Define

and frequency

Part A Find the ratio .

Hint A.1

Find Hint not displayed

Hint A.2

Find Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of either ANSWER: = Correct

,

,

and

, or

,

, and

.

For the following questions it will be useful to write the voltage ratio in the following form: .

Part B Which of the following statements is true in the limit of large ( )?

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Hint B.1

Implications of large Hint not displayed

ANSWER: is proportional to .

is proportional to

.

is proportional to

.

is close to 1.

Correct

Part C Which of the following statements is true in the limit of small ( )?

Hint C.1

Implications of small Hint not displayed

ANSWER: is proportional to .

is proportional to

.

is proportional to

.

is close to 1.

Correct

When

is large,

, and when

is small,

. Therefore, this circuit has the property

that only the amplitude of the low-frequency inputs will be attenuated (reduced in value) at the output, while the amplitude of the high-frequency inputs will pass through relatively unchanged. This is why such a circuit is called a high-pass filter.

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**A Low-Pass Filter
**

The figure shows a low-pass filter; the output voltage is taken across the capacitor in an L-R-C series circuit.

Part A Derive an expression for angular frequency Hint A.1 , the ratio of the output and source voltage amplitudes, as a function of the

of the source.

Voltage over a capacitor Hint not displayed

Hint A.2

Current through the circuit Hint not displayed

Hint A.3

What is an expression for impedance? Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of the capacitance frequency ANSWER: = Correct of the circuit.

, resistance

, inductance

, and angular

You can see from the shape of the graph (see the figure) of

why the circuit in this problem is

called a low-pass filter: Low frequencies pass through (i.e., have output voltage) at a much higher multple of their source voltage than high frequencies. No units are shown, since this graph is simply meant to give a general idea of how the graph is shaped. The exact details depend on the inductance, resistance, and capacitance of the components of the circuit.

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**Alternating Current, LC circuit
**

A capacitor with capacitance inductor 2 with inductance is connected in parallel to two inductors: inductor 1 with inductance , as shown in the figure. The capacitor is charged up to a voltage , and , at which

point it has a charge . There is no current in the inductors. Then the switch is closed.

Part A Since the two inductors are in parallel, the voltage across them is the same at any time. Hence, , where and are the reactances of inductors 1 and 2, and and currents through them. Use this equality to express Hint A.1 The reactance of an inductor Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: . in terms of . are the

= Correct

Part B

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What is the effective inductance Hint B.1

of the inductors 1 and 2 in the circuit?

Formulas for effective inductance Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct

.

Part C Find the maximum current Hint C.1 through inductor 1.

Use conservation of energy to find the total maximum current Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct

,

, and

.

**Average Power in an L-R-C Circuit
**

A circuit consists of a resistor (resistance ), inductor (inductance ), and capacitor (capacitance . Assume that all circuit is the ) connected in series with an AC source supplying sinusoidal voltage resonant frequency of the circuit. Part A What is the average power Hint A.1 supplied by the voltage source?

elements are ideal, so that the only resistance in the circuit is due to the resistor. Also assume that

Find the instantaneous power dissipated in the circuit? Note: You will need to use the fact that from your answer.

What is the instantaneous power

the circuit is being driven at its resonant frequency to eliminate Hint A.1.1 A useful formula for power

The power dissipated in the circuit is equal to the voltage supplied by the AC source times the current in the circuit: .

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Hint A.1.2 The current in a driven L-R-C circuit The L-R-C circuit described in the problem introduction obeys the differential equation , where is the charge on one of the capacitor plates. After solving this equation for . The result is . as a function of

time, you can take the derivative to find the current in the circuit: , where , and

Hint A.1.3 Determine the resonant frequency The problem introduction states that the circuit is being driven at its resonant frequency value of in terms of other given quantities? , , . . What is the

Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following quantities: ANSWER: = Answer Requested

Note that the current in the circuit is in phase with the voltage supplied by the voltage source only if the voltage source is in resonance with the circuit (i.e., oscillates at the resonant frequency of the circuit). In addition, the amplitude of the current in the circuit is at a maximum when the voltage source is in resonance with the circuit. The combination of these two factors means that the power dissipated in the circuit is maximum when the voltage source and the circuit are in resonance. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following quantities: ANSWER: = Answer Requested , , , , .

Now finding the average power is a matter of calculating the average value of this time-dependent function over a single period. Hint A.2 Average value of a periodic function , integrate the function over one period and

To find the average value of a periodic function then divide by the period:

. You will find that the average value of the function

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or

is

. This is a useful result to remember!

Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following quantities: ANSWER: = Correct

,

,

, and

.

**Constructing a Low-Pass Filter
**

A series L-R-C circuit is driven with AC voltage of amplitude capacitor is , and the inductance of the inductor is . and frequency . Define to be the amplitude of the voltage across the capacitor. The resistance of the resistor is , the capacitance of the

Part A What is the ratio ?

Hint A.1

Find Hint not displayed

Hint A.2

Find Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of either

,

,

, and

or

,

, and

.

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ANSWER: = Correct

For the following questions it will be useful to write the voltage ratio in the following form: .

Part B Which of the following statements is true in the large limit (that is, for )?

Hint B.1

Implications of large Hint not displayed

ANSWER: is proportional to .

is proportional to

.

is proportional to

.

is close to 1.

Correct

Part C Which of the following statements is true in the small limit (that is, for )?

Hint C.1

Implications of small Hint not displayed

ANSWER: is proportional to .

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is proportional to

.

is proportional to

.

is close to 1.

Correct

When omega is large,

; and when omega is small,

. Therefore, the circuit of this

problem has the property that only the high-frequency inputs will be attenuated (reduced in value) at the output, while low-frequency inputs will pass through relatively unchanged. That is why such a circuit is called a low-pass filter.

**Reactance and Current
**

Consider the two circuits shown in the figure. The current in circuit 1, containing an inductor of self-inductance , has an angular frequency , while the current in circuit 2, containing a capacitor of capacitance , has an angular frequency . If we increase dimmer. and decrease , both bulbs grow

Part A If we keep and constant, we can achieve the exact same effect of decreasing the brightness of each bulb by performing which of the following sets of actions? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Inductive reactance Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Capacitive reactance

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Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Determine how can be changed Hint not displayed Hint A.5 Determine how can be changed Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

increasing

and decreasing and

increasing both decreasing

and increasing and

decreasing both Correct

As you found out, the reactance of these circuits can be changed not only by varying the frequency of the current, but also by changing the characteristics of the elements in them, i.e., by changing the inductance of the inductor and the capacitance of the capacitor. Part B Now combine the capacitor, the inductor, and the bulbs in a single circuit, as shown in the figure. What happens to the brightness of each bulb if you increase the frequency of the current in the new circuit while keeping and constant?

Hint B.1

How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Hint B.2

Find which element experiences a decrease in current at higher frequencies Hint not displayed

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ANSWER:

Both bulbs become brighter. The brightness of each bulb remains constant. Bulb 1 becomes brighter than bulb 2. Bulb 2 becomes brighter than bulb 1. Both bulbs grow dimmer. Correct

Since inductive reactance is proportional to frequency, for a given voltage, high-frequency currents will have a much smaller amplitude through the inductor than through the capacitor. That is, the inductor tends to block high-frequency currents. The opposite situation occurs if the frequency is decreased. The capacitor will block low-frequency currents and bulb 2 will grow dimmer.

**Resonating RLC Series Circuit Ranking Task
**

Six series RLC circuits are described below, where capacitance of the circuits. Part A Rank these circuits on the basis of their resonance frequencies. Hint A.1 Resonance and the phase between voltage and current Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Resonance and impedance Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Equating inductive and capacitive reactance at resonance Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: is the resistance, the inductance, and the

View Correct

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Part B Each circuit is driven at its resonance frequency by a 100 basis of their maximum current. Hint B.1 Current at resonance Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Maximizing maximum current Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: AC power supply. Rank these circuits on the

View Correct

**± A Voltage-Driven Parallel L-C Circuit
**

An AC source that provides a voltage capacitor having capacitance drives an inductor having inductance and a , all connected in parallel.

Part A Recall that the currents respective voltages statements is true? and and through the inductor and capacitor are not in phase with their . In particular, for a sinusoidal voltage driver, which of the following

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ANSWER:

and and leads lags Correct

both lag their respective voltages. both lead their respective voltages. and and lags leads . .

The phase angle between voltage and current for inductors and capacitors is

radians. Among other

things, this means that no power is dissipated in either, since the time-averaged product of current and voltage (= power) is zero: .

Part B What is the amplitude of the current through the voltage source? In other words, if the time-dependent current is , what is the value of ? Hint B.1 Voltage in a parallel circuit Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Current through the capacitor Hint not displayed Hint B.3 The current through the inductor Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Total current Hint not displayed Express the amplitude of the current ANSWER: = Correct in terms of , , , and .

Part C With and representing the respective magnitudes of the currents through the inductor and

capacitor, which of the following statements is true?

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ANSWER:

At very high frequency At very high frequency for all frequencies. for all frequencies. and Correct

and at very low frequency and at very low frequency

. .

are about the same at all frequencies.

Part D The L-C circuit is one example of a system that can exhibit resonance behavior. The resonant frequency is . At this frequency, what is the amplitude of the current supplied by the voltage source? Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = 0 and any other need terms from the problem introduction.

Correct

Part E Which of the following statements best describes the implications of the result that ? when

ANSWER:

The currents The current The current The current changing. Correct

;

;

are zero at all times. and are not.

is zero at all times although

is zero only when the voltage is zero. is zero only when the amplitude of the voltage is not

At the resonant frequency of the circut, the voltage source can supply voltage easily because the parallel L-C circuit draws no current at all! (For this reason, a parallel L-C circuit can be used as a filter to pass signals at the resonance frequency.) Of course, the same current flows in the inductor and the capacitor as the current that flows when they are driven separately by the voltage source. However, the currents are exactly out of phase, so that the net effect is a current circulating around the loop made by the capacitor and the inductor without passing into or out of the voltage source.

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Resonance in an R-L-C Circuit

In an L-R-C series circuit, the resistance is 340 ohms, the inductance is 0.400 henrys, and the capacitance is 1.40×10−2 microfarads. Part A What is the resonance angular frequency Hint A.1 of the circuit?

Definition of the resonance angular frequency Hint not displayed

Hint A.2

Relationship between current and voltage amplitudes Hint not displayed

Hint A.3

What is an expression for impedance? Hint not displayed

Hint A.4

Finding the formula for the resonant frequency Hint not displayed

**Express your answer in radians per second to three significant figures. ANSWER:
**

4 = 1.34×10 Correct

Part B The capacitor can withstand a peak voltage of 560 volts. If the voltage source operates at the resonance frequency, what maximum voltage amplitude can the source have if the maximum capacitor voltage is not exceeded? Hint B.1 Voltage across a capacitor Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Current at the resonance frequency Hint not displayed Express your answer in volts to three significant figures. ANSWER: = 35.6 Correct

Triangle Electromagnetic Wave

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Learning Goal: To show how a propagating triangle electromagnetic wave can satisfy Maxwell's equations if the wave travels at speed c. Light, radiant heat (infrared radiation), X rays, and radio waves are all examples of traveling electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves consist of mutually compatible combinations of electric and magnetic fields ("mutually compatible" in the sense that changes in the electric field generate the magnetic field, and vice versa). The simplest form for a traveling electromagnetic wave is a plane wave. One particularly simple form for a plane wave is known as a "triangle wave," in which the electric and magnetic fields are linear in position and time (rather than sinusoidal). In this problem we will investigate a triangle wave traveling in the x direction whose electric field is in the y direction. This wave is linearly polarized along the y axis; in other words, the electric field is always directed along the y axis. Its electric and magnetic fields are given by the following expressions: and , where , , and and are constants. The constant , which has dimensions of length, is introduced so that have dimensions of electric and magnetic field respectively. This wave is pictured in . Note that we have only drawn

the constants the figure at time

the field vectors along the x axis. In fact, this idealized wave fills all space, but the field vectors only vary in the x direction. We expect this wave to satisfy Maxwell's equations. For it to do so, we will find that the following must be true: The amplitude of the electric field must be directly proportional to the amplitude of the magnetic field. The wave must travel at a particular velocity (namely, the speed of light).

Part A What is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave whose electric and magnetic fields are

given by the expressions in the introduction? Hint A.1 Phase velocity

All points along the wave will propagate with the same velocity. You may find it easiest to concentrate on the point where . At , this point occurs at . Where is this point when is some later time ?

Express the location , where the field amplitude is zero at time , in terms of

and

any necessary quantities from the problem introduction.

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ANSWER:

=

Answer Requested

Express

in terms of

and the unit vectors

, , and . The answer will not involve ; we have

not yet shown that this wave travels at the speed of light. ANSWER: = Correct

In the next few parts, we will use Faraday's law of induction to find a relationship between

and

.

Faraday's law relates the line integral of the electric field around a closed loop to the rate of change in magnetic flux through this loop: .

Part B To use Faraday's law for this problem, you will need to constuct a suitable loop, around which you will integrate the electric field. In which plane should the loop lie to get a nonzero electric field line integral and a nonzero magnetic flux? ANSWER:

the xy plane the yz plane the zx plane Correct

Part C Consider the loop shown in the figure. It is a square loop with sides of length , . Recall that , with one corner at the .

origin and the opposite corner at the coordinates What is the value of the line integral of the electric field around loop at arbitrary time ?

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Hint C.1

Integrating along segments 1 and 2 Hint not displayed

Hint C.2

Integrating along segments 3 and 4 Hint not displayed

Hint C.3

Integrating around the entire loop Hint not displayed

Express the line integral in terms of ANSWER: =

,

, , , and/or .

Correct

Part D Recall that plane that is bounded by the loop Hint D.1 . Find the value of the magnetic flux through the surface , at arbitrary time . in the xy

Simplifying the integrand . The surface is in the xy plane and is bounded

The quantity appearing in the integrand is by the curve . Because the curve

is oriented in a counterclockwise direction, the unit vector that is is . Therefore, . . When you take the dot

normal (i.e., perpendicular) to the surface product of and , you find that

Hint D.2

Evaluating the integral

Using the result from the previous hint,, we find that the integral reduces to . What is the value of the integral Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Answer Requested ? , , and .

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Express the magnetic flux in terms of ANSWER: =

,

, , , and/or .

Correct

Part E Now use Faraday's law to establish a relationship between Hint E.1 Using Faraday's law Hint not displayed Express ANSWER: in terms of and other quantities given in the introduction. and .

= Correct

If the electric and magnetic fields given in the introduction are to be self-consistent, they must obey all of Maxwell's equations, including the Ampère-Maxwell law. In these last few parts (again, most of which are hidden) we will use the Ampère-Maxwell law to show that self-consistency requires the electromagnetic wave described in the introduction to propagate at the speed of light. The Ampère-Maxwell law relates the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed loop to the rate of change in electric flux through this loop: . In this problem, the current is zero. (For to be nonzero, we would need charged particles moving

around. In this problem, there are no charged particles present. We assume that the electromagnetic wave is propagating through a vacuum.) Part F To use the Ampère-Maxwell law you will once again need to construct a suitable loop, but this time you will integrate the magnetic field around the loop. In which plane should the loop lie to get a nonzero magnetic field line integral and hence nonzero electric flux? ANSWER:

the xy plane the yz plane the zx plane Correct

Part G

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Use the Ampère-Maxwell law to find a new relationship between Hint G.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint G.2

and

.

Find an expression for the left-hand side of the equation Hint not displayed

Hint G.3

Find an expression for the right-hand side of the equation Hint not displayed

Hint G.4

Use the Ampère-Maxwell law Hint not displayed

Express ANSWER:

in terms of

,

,

, and other quantities given in the introduction.

= Correct

Part H Finally we are ready to show that the electric and magnetic fields given in the introduction describe an electromagnetic wave propagating at the speed of light. If the electric and magnetic fields are to be self-consistent, they must obey all of Maxwell's equations. Using one of Maxwell's equations, Faraday's law, we found a certain relationship between and . You derived this in Part E. Using another of Maxwell's equations, the Ampère-Maxwell law, we found what appears to be a different relationship between . You derived this in Part I. If the results of Parts E and I are to agree, what does this imply that the speed of propagation Express ANSWER: = Correct must be? and . and

in terms of only

You have just worked through the details of one of the great triumphs of physics: Maxwell's equations predict a form of traveling wave consisting of a matched pair of electric and magnetic fields moving at a very high velocity . We can measure and independently in the laboratory, and these experimentally determined values lead to a speed of , the speed of light .

After thousands of years of speculation about the nature of light, Maxwell had developed a plausible and quantitatively testable theory about it. Faraday had a hunch that light and magnetism were related, as demonstrated by the Faraday effect. (Glass, put in a large magnetic field, will rotate the plane of polarization of light that passes through it.) Now Maxwell had predicted an electromagnetic wave with the following properties:

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It was transverse, with two possible polarizations (which agreed with an already known characteristic of light). It had an extraordinarily high velocity (relative to waves in air or on strings) that agreed with the experimentally determined value for the speed of light. Any doubt that light waves were in fact electromagnetic waves vanished as various optical phenomena (such as the behavior of electromagnetic waves at glass surfaces) were predicted and found to agree with the behavior of light. This theory showed that lower frequency waves could be created and detected by their interactions with currents in wires (later called antennas) and paved the way to the creation and detection of radio waves.

**Electromagnetic Wave Vector Drawing
**

An antenna emits an electromagnetic wave. The electric field lines at a certain instant in time are shown. Part A Correct the orientation of the electric field and electromagnetic wave velocity vectors at points A and B. ANSWER:

View Correct

If you wanted to place a receiving antenna at either point A or B, how would you orient it to maximize the signal? The "signal" consists of a current generated in the antenna by the incident wave. The wave will cause electrons in the receiving antenna to move in a direction parallel to the electric field. So if you orient the receiving antenna with the straight conducting rod parallel to the electric field, you will get maximum electron motion and therefore maximum current. Part B At point A, what is the direction of the magnetic field? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

ANSWER: Correct

Electromagnetic Waves Ranking Task

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Part A Rank these electromagnetic waves on the basis of their speed (in vacuum). Hint A.1 Relating speed, frequency, and wavelength Hint not displayed Rank from fastest to slowest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

View Correct

Part B Rank these electromagnetic waves on the basis of their wavelength. Hint B.1 Electromagnetic spectrum Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Radio waves Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Visible light Hint not displayed Rank from longest to shortest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

View Correct

Part C

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Rank these electromagnetic waves on the basis of their frequency. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

View Correct

**Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
**

Electromagnetic waves transport energy. This problem shows you which parts of the energy are stored in the electric and magnetic fields, respectively, and also makes a useful connection between the energy density of a plane electromagnetic wave and the Poynting vector. In this problem, we explore the properties of a plane electromagnetic wave traveling at the speed of light along the x axis through vacuum. Its electric and magnetic field vectors are as follows: . Throughout, use these variables ( permittivity of free space , , , , , , and ) in your answers. You will also need the .

and the permeability of free space

Note: To indicate the square of a trigonometric function in your answer, use the notation sin(x)^2 NOT sin^2(x). Part A What is the instantaneous energy density Hint A.1 Energy density in an electric field Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of some or all of the variables in ANSWER: = Correct . in the electric field of the wave?

Part B What is the instantaneous energy density in the magnetic field of the wave?

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Hint B.1

Energy density in a magnetic field Hint not displayed

Give your answer in terms of some or all of the variables in ANSWER: = Correct

.

Part C What is the average energy density Hint C.1 Average value of Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and . in the electric field of the wave?

Part D What is the average energy density Hint D.1 Average value of Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and . in the magnetic field of the wave?

Part E From the previous results, derive an expression for Hint E.1 Relationship among , , and , the average energy density in the whole wave.

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Hint not displayed Hint E.2 Relationship between and for electromagnetic waves in vacuum Hint not displayed Hint E.3 Relationship among , and for electromagnetic waves in vacuum Hint not displayed Express the average energy density in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and only.

Part F The Poynting vector relation . Calculate the time-averaged Poynting vector Hint F.1 Relationship between and of the wave considered in this problem. for electromagnetic waves in vacuum Hint not displayed Hint F.2 Relationship among , and for electromagnetic waves in vacuum Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct , and and unit vectors , , and/or . Do not use or . gives the energy flux per unit area of electromagnetic waves. It is defined by the

If you compare this expression for the time-averaged Poynting flux to the one obtained for the overall energy density, you find the simple relation . Thus, the energy density of the electromagnetic field times the speed at which it moves gives the energy flux, which is a logical result.

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**Magnetic Field and Poynting Flux in a Charging Capacitor
**

When a circular capacitor with radius the electric flux and plate separation is charged up, the electric field , and hence , between the plates changes.

According to Ampère's law as extended by Maxwell, this change in flux induces a magnetic field that can be found from , where is the permittivity of free space and is the permeability of free space. We can solve this equation to obtain the field inside a capacitor: , where is the radial distance from the axis of the

capacitor. Part A You might know already that it is possible to think of the energy stored in a charged capacitor as being stored in the electric field between the plates. We will explore this idea by considering the flow of energy into the space between the plates during the charging process. The capacitor is charged by a constant current , which flows for a time . At the beginning of this charging process ( ), there is no charge on the plates. The Poynting vector gives the flow of electromagnetic energy per unit area per unit time and is defined in and the magnetic field vector . by the relation

terms of the electric field vector

Find an expression for the magnitude of the Poynting vector of the two circular plates. Hint A.1 Find the electric field Hint not displayed

on the surface that connects the edges

Express the magnitude of the Poynting vector in terms of , , parameters of the problem. Ignore all fringing effects. ANSWER: = Correct

,

,

, and other variables and

Part B Calculate the the total amount of energy to that flows into the space between the capacitor plates from

, by first integrating the Poynting vector over the surface that connects the edges of the two

circular plates, and then integrating over time.

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Hint B.1

How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Hint B.2

Integration over the surface Hint not displayed

Hint B.3

Surface area of a cylinder Hint not displayed

Hint B.4

Time integral Hint not displayed

Hint B.5

A helpful integral Hint not displayed

Express the total amount of energy in terms of of the problem. Ignore all fringing effects. ANSWER: = Correct

, ,

,

,

, and other variables and parameters

Recalling that the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor given in terms of the surface area of the plates and the distance between the plates is , and also recalling that the charge on the plates at time , we can see that we have expressed the energy stored by the capacitor in the familiar way, , even though we derived it in a different way using the Poynting vector. is given by

**Poynting Flux and Power Dissipation in a Resistor
**

When a steady current flows through a resistor, the resistor heats up. We say that "electrical energy is dissipated" by the resistor, that is, converted into heat. But if energy is dissipated, where did it come from? Did it come from the voltage source through the wires? This problem will show you an alternative way to think about the flow of energy and will introduce a picture in which the energy flows in many unexpected places--but not through the wires! We will calculate the Poynting flux, the flow of electromagnetic energy, across the surface of the resistor. The Poynting flux, or Poynting vector , has units of energy per unit area per unit time and is related to the electric field vector and the magnetic field vector by the equation

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, where is the permeability of free space. , length , flowing along

Consider a cylindrical resistor of radius and resistance with a steady current the axis of the cylinder.

Part A Which of the following is the most accurate qualitative description of the the magnetic field vector the cylindrical resistor? ANSWER: inside

The magnetic field vector points radially away from the axis of the cylinder. The magnetic field vector is everywhere tangential to circles centered on the axis of the cylinder. The magnetic field vector points inward toward the axis of the cylinder. The magnetic field vector points along the axis of the cylinder in the direction of the current. Correct

Part B Find the magnitude of the magnetic field the axis of the cylinder, in terms of , , inside the cylindrical resistor, where is the distance from and .

, , and other given variables. You will also need

Ignore fringing effects at the ends of the cylinder. Hint B.1 Ampère's law

To calculate the magnetic field, you need Ampère's law, which relates the integral of the magnetic field vector around a loop to the flow of current through it: .

Hint B.2

How to set up the integral

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What kind of loop do you need? You could take any loop, and it might be interesting for you to take different loops inside the resistor. However, the better way to proceed is to exploit the symmetry of the situation, choosing a loop in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, making it circular, and centering it on the axis of the resistor. The magnetic field always reflects the symmetry of the problem. Hint B.3 Amount of current through a loop centered on the axis is simply .

The amount of current that passes through a loop of radius

ANSWER: = Correct

Part C What can you say about the electric field vector inside the resistor?

ANSWER:

The electric field vector points along the axis of the resistor in the direction of the current. The electric field vector is zero inside the resistor and on its surface. The electric field vector is confined to the surface of the resistor and points in the direction. The electric field vector points radially outward--away from the axis of the cylinder. The electric field vector is everywhere tangential to circles centered on the axis of the resistor that lie in the plane perpendicular to the current direction. Correct

Part D What is the magnitude of the electric field vector ?

Hint D.1

Use Ohm's law across the resistor in terms of the current and current through it.

Use Ohm's law to express the potential drop Give you answer in term of resistance ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

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Hint D.2

Relationship between

and

Inside the resistor, the electric field is uniform, just like the electric field inside a parallel plate capacitor; therefore the field is defined by the relationship .

Give the magnitude of the electric field vector in terms of problem. ANSWER: = Correct

, , and other parameters of the

Part E In what direction does the Poynting vector Hint E.1 point?

Cross products in cylindrical coordinates Hint not displayed

ANSWER: The Poynting vector is zero inside the resistor including its surface.

Correct

Part F Calculate , the magnitude of the Poynting vector at the surface of the resistor (not at the circular ends of .

the cylinder). To answer this you need to take Hint F.1 Definition of the Poynting vector

Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: , , and other parameters of the problem.

=

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Correct Multiplying this value of the Poynting flux by the surface area of the resistor (which in this case is equivalent to integrating the Poynting vector over the surface of the resistor), we recover the familiar expression for the power dissipated in a resistor through which a current flows: .

**Satellite Television Transmission
**

A satellite in geostationary orbit is used to transmit data via electromagnetic radiation. The satellite is at a height of 35,000 km above the surface of the earth, and we assume it has an isotropic power output of 1 kW (although, in practice, satellite antennas transmit signals that are less powerful but more directional). Part A Reception devices pick up the variation in the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave sent out by the satellite. Given the satellite specifications listed in the problem introduction, what is the amplitude of the electric field vector of the satellite broadcast as measured at the surface of the earth? Use for the permittivity of space and for the speed of light. Hint A.1 How to approach this problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the Poynting Vector Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the energy flux through a sphere Hint not displayed Express the amplitude of the electric field vector in microvolts per meter to three significant figures. ANSWER: = 7.00 Correct

Part B Imagine that the satellite described in the problem introduction is used to transmit television signals. You have a satellite TV reciever consisting of a circular dish of radius which focuses the electromagnetic energy incident from the satellite onto a receiver which has a surface area of 5 How large does the radius at the receiver? For simplicity, assume that your house is located directly beneath the satellite (i.e. the situation you calculated in the first part), that the dish reflects all of the incident signal onto the receiver, and that there .

of the dish have to be to achieve an electric field vector amplitude of 0.1

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are no losses associated with the reception process. The dish has a curvature, but the radius the projection of the dish into the plane perpendicular to the direction of the incoming signal. Hint B.1 How to approach this problem

refers to

The power incident on the dish is equal to the magnitude of the Poynting vector at the surface of the dish times the dish area: . Similarly for the reciever. You also know that all of the power incident on the dish is reflected onto the receiver: receiver terms of Hint B.2 and the dish and the field amplitudes. The relationship between and and, similarly, that , . Express and in terms of the radii (of the in ) and the amplitude of the electric field incident on each. Then solve for

We know that where and

. This implies that

are the electric field amplitudes at the dish and receiver, respectively. , find . in terms of .

Using these two equations and the fact that Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Answer Requested , , and

Give your answer in centimeters, to two significant figures. ANSWER: = 18 Answer Requested

Solar Sail

A solar sail allows a spacecraft to use radiation pressure for propulsion, similar to the way wind propels a sailboat. The sails of such spacecraft are made out of enormous reflecting panels. The area of the panels is maximized to catch the largest number of incident photons, thus maximizing the momentum transfer from the incident radiation. For such spacecraft to work, the force from the radiation pressure exerted by the photons must be greater than the gravitational attraction to the star emitting the photons. The critical parameter is the area density (mass per unit area) of the sail. Part A Consider a perfectly reflecting mirror oriented so that solar radiation of intensity perpendicular to, the reflective surface of the mirror. If the mirror has surface area is incident upon, and , what is , the

magnitude of the average force due to the radiation pressure of the sunlight on the mirror? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem

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Radiation pressure arises from the photon momentum transfer as the photons strike the mirror. Thus, if you find an expression for the total momentum transferred to the mirror by the photons that strike it, you can determine the average force exerted on the mirror. Notice that when writing an expression for the momentum transfer you'll need to take into account the fact that the mirror reflects the photons, rather than absorbs them. Hint A.2 Find the total momentum transfer transferred to the mirror by the photons in a time interval ?

What is the total momentum

Hint A.2.1 Energy of the photons and their momentum The momentum of a photon can be expressed in terms of the photon energy , where is the speed of light in vacuum. This ratio also holds for the total momentum and energy of the as

photons striking the mirror. Hint A.2.2 Radiation intensity and energy The total energy of the photons striking the mirror during a time interval , where is the intensity of the radiation and is the surface area of the mirror. is given by

Hint A.2.3 Reflection vs. absorption When an object absorbs a photon of energy reflects a photon of energy , it receives momentum equal to . When an object

, the object must not only stop the photon (as is the case when the

photon is absorbed) but also send it back in the opposite direction. Thus, the total momentum transfer for photon reflection is twice as much as in the case of photon absorption. Express your answer in terms of the time interval , and the speed of light . ANSWER: = Answer Requested , the intensity , the mirror's surface area

Hint A.3 Let

Force and change in momentum be the total momentum transferred to the mirror by the photons that strike the mirror during a . Then the magnitude of the average force exerted on the mirror is

time interval

Express your answer in terms of the intensity , the mirror's surface area .

, and the speed of light

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ANSWER: = Correct

To solve the second part of this problem you will need to know the following: the mass of the sun, , the intensity of sunlight as a function of the distance from the sun, , and the gravitational constant

.

Part B Suppose that the mirror described in Part A is initially at rest a distance away from the sun. What is the

critical value of area density for the mirror at which the radiation pressure exactly cancels out the gravitational attraction from the sun? Hint B.1 Find the force due to gravity . Find a general expression for , the magnitude of the gravitational

Suppose the mirror has mass

force due to the sun that acts on the mirror. Express your answer symbolically in terms of the gravitational constant , the mass of the mirror, ANSWER: = Answer Requested , and the mirror's distance from the sun, , the mass of the sun, .

Hint B.2

Solving for area density found in Part A) and the force due to the sun's

By equating the force due to the sun's radiation (

gravitational pull, you should be able to solve for the area density of the mirror. Note that the expression for the intensity, given in the problem, has a factor of , just like the expression for the gravitational force, so the critical value of the area density turns out to be independent of .

Express your answer numerically, to two significant figures, in units of kilograms per meter squared. ANSWER: mass/area = 1.60×10−3 Correct

In selecting the material for a solar sail, area density, strength, and reflectivity are the principal concerns. Given a representative thickness of the sail of 1 , one of the few currently existing

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materials with a sufficiently low density and high strength can be made from carbon fibers. These have a density of 1.60 , roughly one-fifth that of iron.

**The Electromagnetic Spectrum
**

Electromagnetic radiation is more common than you think. Radio and TV stations emit radio waves when they broadcast their programs; microwaves cook your food in a microwave oven; dentists use X rays to check your teeth. Even though they have different names and different applications, these types of radiation are really all the same thing: electromagnetic (EM) waves, that is, energy that travels in the form of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Consider the following: radio waves emitted by a weather radar system to detect raindrops and ice crystals in the atmosphere to study weather patterns; microwaves used in communication satellite transmissions; infrared waves that are perceived as heat when you turn on a burner on an electric stove; the multicolor light in a rainbow; the ultraviolet solar radiation that reaches the surface of the earth and causes unprotected skin to burn; and X rays used in medicine for diagnostic imaging. Part A Which of the following statements correctly describe the various forms of EM radiation listed above? Hint A.1 The electromagnetic spectrum Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: They have different wavelengths. They have different frequencies. They propagate at different speeds through a vacuum depending on their frequency. They propagate at different speeds through nonvacuum media depending on both their frequency and the material in which they travel. They require different media to propagate. Correct

The frequency and wavelength of EM waves can vary over a wide range of values. Scientists refer to the full range of frequencies that EM radiation can have as the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves are used extensively in modern technology. Many devices are built to emit and/or receive EM waves at a very specific frequency, or within a narrow band of frequencies. Here are some examples followed by their frequencies of operation: garage door openers: 40.0 ,

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standard cordless phones: 40.0 to 50.0 baby monitors: 49.0 cell phones: 800 to 900 microwave ovens: 2450 , , , FM radio stations: 88.0 to 108

,

Global Positioning System: 1227 to 1575 , . wireless Internet technology: 2.4 to 2.6 Part B

,

Which of the following statements correctly describe the various applications listed above? Hint B.1 Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Hertz, megahertz, and gigahertz Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Meters and kilometers Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: All these technologies use radio waves, including low-frequency microwaves. All these technologies use radio waves, including high-frequency microwaves. All these technologies use a combination of infrared waves and high-frequency microwaves. Microwave ovens emit in the same frequency band as some wireless Internet devices. The radiation emitted by wireless Internet devices has the shortest wavelength of all the technologies listed above. All these technologies emit waves with a wavelength in the range 0.10 to 10.0 . All the technologies emit waves with a wavelength in the range 0.01 to 10.0 . Correct

The frequency band used in wireless technology is strictly regulated by government agencies to avoid undesired interference effects. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for assigning specific radio frequency bands to different wireless communication systems. Despite their extensive applications in communication systems, radio waves are not the only form of EM waves present in our atmosphere. Another form of EM radiation plays an even more important role in our life (and the life of our planet): sunlight. The sun emits over a wide range of frequencies; however, the fraction of its radiation that reaches the

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earth's surface is mostly in the visible spectrum. (Note that about 35% of the radiation coming from the sun is absorbed directly by the atmosphere before even reaching the earth's surface.) The earth, then, absorbs this radiation and reemits it as infrared waves. Part C Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct? Hint C.1 Relation between frequency and wavelength Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a shorter wavelength. The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a longer wavelength. The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a lower frequency. The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a higher frequency. Correct

Even though our atmosphere absorbs a very small amount of visible light, it strongly reflects and absorbs infrared waves. Therefore the radiation emitted by the earth does not leave the atmosphere. Instead, it is reflected back into it, contributing to a warming effect known as the greenhouse effect.

Part D A large fraction of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the sun is absorbed by the atmosphere. The main UV absorber in our atmosphere is ozone, . In particular, ozone absorbs radiation with frequencies around 9.38×1014 Hint D.1 . What is the wavelength of the radiation absorbed by ozone?

Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed

Hint D.2

Meters and nanometers Hint not displayed

Express your answer in nanometers. ANSWER: = 320 Correct

**± Charges at Rest on a Standing Wave
**

An electromagnetic standing wave in air of frequency 750 apart. is set up between two conducting planes 80.0

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Part A At how many positions between the planes could a point charge be placed at rest so that it would remain at rest? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem

A point charge will remain at rest only if it is placed where the electric field is always zero. This is true at any node on a standing wave. Thus you need to find the number of nodes between the plates. Hint A.2 Formula for a standing wave

The magnitude of the electric field in a standing electromagnetic wave can be expressed in the following form: , where is the wavenumber, is the wavelength, and where is the frequency (750

in our case).

Hint A.3 Take

Locate the nodes to be the location of the first conductor, and take that satisfies the equation to be the location of the , the electric field is zero there for

second conductor. At any point all points in time. The point at

is one value that satisfies this equation. This is important because do you

the electric field inside a conductor is always zero. Using the fact that the electric field inside a conductor is always zero, at what other value of expect to find a node no matter what the frequency or wavelength of the standing wave is? Express your answer in centimeters. ANSWER: = 80 Answer Requested

Note that we now have a boundary condition in which any standing wave that exists between the two conductors must have a node at the conductor walls. This limits the number of standing waves to those that have a frequency and wavelength that satisfy these boundary conditions. Hint A.4 Find the distance between nodes , the distance between two adjacent nodes on a standing wave?

In terms of the wavelength , what is

Express your answer as a multiple of ANSWER: = Answer Requested

Hint A.5

Find

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Using

with

, determine

.

Express your answer in centimeters. ANSWER: = 40 Answer Requested

ANSWER:

3 All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Poynting Flux

An electromagnetic wave is traveling through vacuum. Its electric field vector is given by , where Part A If is the amplitude of the magnetic field vector, find the complete expression for the magnetic field vector of the wave. Hint A.1 Relative orientation of and for a wave in vacuum Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Orientation of and relative to the direction of propagation Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Determine the direction of propagation of the wave Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Phase relationship between and Hint not displayed is the unit vector in the y direction.

ANSWER:

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Correct

Part B What is the Poynting vector , that is, the power per unit area associated with the electromagnetic

wave described in the problem introduction? Hint B.1 Definition of the Poynting vector Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of some or all of the variables direction of the Poynting vector using the unit vectors ANSWER: = Correct , , , , , , and . Specify the

, , and

as appropriate.

**Polarization of Light and Malus's Law
**

Learning Goal: To understand polarization of light and how to use Malus's law to calculate the intensity of a beam of light after passing through one or more polarizing filters. The two transverse waves shown in the figure both travel in the +z direction. The waves differ in that the top wave oscillates horizontally and the bottom wave oscillates vertically. The direction of oscillation of a wave is called the polarization of the wave. The upper wave is described as polarized in the +x direction whereas the lower wave is polarized in the +y direction. In general, waves can be polarized along any direction. Recall that electromagnetic waves, such as visible light, microwaves, and X rays, consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The polarization of an electromagnetic wave refers to the oscillation direction of the electric field, not the magnetic field. In this problem all figures depicting light waves illustrate only the electric field. A linear polarizing filter, often just called a polarizer, is a device that only transmits light polarized along a specific transmission axis direction. The amount of light that passes through a filter is quantified in terms of its intensity. If the polarization angle of the incident light matches the transmission axis of the polarizer, 100 of the light will pass through, so the transmitted intensity

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will equal the incident intensity. More generally, the intensity of light emerging from a polarizer is described by Malus's law: , where is the intensity of the polarized light beam just before entering the polarizer, is the intensity of the

transmitted light beam immediately after passing through the polarizer, and

is the angular difference

between the polarization angle of the incident beam and the transmission axis of the polarizer. After passing through the polarizer, the transmitted light is polarized in the direction of the transmission axis of the polarizing filter. In the questions that follow, assume that all angles are measured counterclockwise from the +x axis in the direction of the +y axis. Part A A beam of polarized light with intensity . What angle and polarization angle strikes a polarizer with transmission axis ?

should be used in Malus's law to calculate the transmitted intensity

This process is illustrated in the figure , where the polarization of the light wave is visually illustrated by a magenta double arrow oriented in the direction of polarization, the transmission axis of the polarizer is represented by a blue double arrow, and the direction of motion of the wave is illustrated by a purple arrow.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B What is the polarization angle of the light emerging from the polarizer?

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ANSWER:

Correct

Part C If = 20.0 , = 25.0 , and = 40.0 , what is the transmitted intensity ?

Express your answer numerically in watts per square meter . ANSWER: = 18.7 Correct

If the polarization axis of the incident light and the transmission axis of the filter are aligned (so ) or if they point in exactly opposite directions (so ), then Malus's law, indicating that 100 of the incident intensity will be transmitted.

in

Most natural light sources emit "unpolarized" light, perhaps better described as "randomly polarized" light. These light sources emit numerous brief bursts of light whose polarization directions are unrelated, so on average the resulting beam has all polarization angles equally represented. When unpolarized light with intensity passes through a polarizer, its intensity is cut in half, regardless of the orientation of the transmission axis of the polarizer: .

Part D One way to produce a beam of polarized light with intensity unpolarized light with intensity How large must and polarization angle would be to pass .

through a polarizer whose transmission axis is oriented such that

be if the transmitted light is to have intensity ?

Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol . For example, if , enter 0.25 * I.

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ANSWER:

= Correct

Part E A beam of unpolarized light with intensity falls first upon a polarizer with transmission axis , where then

upon a second polarizer with transmission axis second polarizer?

(in other words the of the light beam emerging from the

two axes are perpendicular to one another). What is the intensity

Hint E.1

How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Hint E.2

Determine the intensity of light between the two polarizers Hint not displayed

Hint E.3

Determine the angle to be used in Malus's law Hint not displayed

Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol 0.25 * I_0. ANSWER: = Correct

. For example, if

, enter

Adjacent polarizers with perpendicular transmission axes are said to be "crossed." No light can get through both polarizers, regardless of the light's initial polarization state.

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Part F

A Sparkling Diamond II

ANotice that a polarizer modifieson the surface of a diamond to Malus's law .and also reorients the beam of white light is incident the light intensity according at an angle Since the index of refraction polarization angle of the beam to match its own transmission axis. Hence it is possible for light to pass depends on the light's wavelength, the different colors through a pair of crossed polarizers if a third polarizer is inserted between them with an intermediate that comprise white light will spread out as they pass transmission axis direction. What is the new intensity of the light emerging from the final polarizer in Part through the diamond. For example, the indices of E if a third diamond are figure light and refraction in polarizer (Polarizer A in thefor red ), whose transmission axis is offset 45 from for blue light. Thus, blue light and red each of the others, is inserted between the original light are refracted at different angles inside the two polarizers? diamond, as shown in the picture. The surrounding air has . Note that the angles in the figure are not to scale.

Part A Now consider , the angle at which the blue refracted ray hits the bottom surface of the diamond. If is Hint than How to approach the problem not be refracted out into the air, but instead it will be totally largerF.1 the critical angle , the light will Hint . internally reflected back into the diamond. Find not displayed Hint F.2 A.1 Relate refracted angle when Find the to Hint not displayed Hint F.3 A.2 Relate Snell's law to Apply Hint not displayed Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees to four significant figures. to Hint F.4 Relate ANSWER: = 24.09 Hint not displayed Correct Express your answer as a decimal number times the symbol 0.25B * I_0. Part A diamond is cut such that the angle between its top surface and its bottom surface is ANSWER: the largest possible= value of the incident angle bottom surface. . For , find . For example, if , enter

such that the blue light is totally internally reflected off the

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Hint B.1 Determine Polarizing filters for visible light are made of Polaroid, which contains long molecular chains that have Hint not displayed been aligned by stretching the material during production. Polaroid is commonly used in sunglasses because it reduces the intensity of unpolarized sunlight light by 50 . Glare is often at least partially polarized, so Polaroid sunglasses, when properly oriented, can selectively reduce glare by even more Hint B.2 Apply Snell's law than 50 .

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Hint not displayed Hint B.3 When is maximized? Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees to four significant figures. ANSWER: = 60.97 Correct

The angle at which a diamond is cut plays an important role in how brightly it sparkles. The proper choice for will ensure that a large fraction of the light gets totally internally reflected back toward your eyes, maximizing the diamond's "fire." Generally is chosen to be between 39 and 42 . For more information on the physics of diamonds, check out http://www.folds.net/diamond/.

Birefringence in Calcite

Calcite ( ) is a crystal with abnormally large birefringence. The index of refraction for light with electric field parallel to the optical axis (called extraordinary waves or e-waves) is 1.4864. The index of refraction for light with electric field perpendicular to the optical axis (called ordinary waves or o-waves) is 1.6584. Part A Find the critical angle Hint A.1 Snell's law Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Definition of critical angle Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees to four significant figures. ANSWER: = 42.28 Correct for e-waves in calcite.

Part B Find the critical angle for o-waves in calcite.

Express your answer in degrees to four significant figures. ANSWER: = 37.08 Correct

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Part C Assume that the optical axis of the crystal is oriented horizontally (perpendicular to the direction of the incident ray). If unpolarized light shines into the calcite crystal shown and strikes the far side with which of the following pictures correctly shows what will happen? ,

Hint C.1

Thinking about angles Hint not displayed

Please make sure you know which circle corresponds to which figure. ANSWER:

Correct

Because the difference in index of refraction is based on polarization, the two rays are both polarized. Part D

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Is the transmitted ray (the one that passes into the air) polarized parallel to or perpendicular to the optical axis? ANSWER:

parallel perpedicular Correct

Part E Now assume that the optical axis of the crystal is vertical (parallel to the direction of the incident ray). (The same figure still applies; just assume now that the optical axis is vertical.) Which of the following figures shows what would happen to the incident ray from Part C?

Hint E.1

A property of light waves Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

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Correct

Diffuse Reflection

The law of reflection is quite useful for mirrors and other flat, shiny surfaces. (This sort of reflection is called specular reflection). However, you've likely been told that when you look at something, you are seeing light reflected from the object that you are looking at. This is reflection of a different sort: diffuse reflection. In this problem, you will see how diffuse reflection actually arises from the same law of reflection that you are accustomed to for reflections from mirrors. Part A Consider a spotlight shining onto a horizontal mirror . If the light from the spotlight strikes the mirror at an angle to the normal, what angle to the normal would you expect for the reflected rays? Express your answer in terms of .

ANSWER:

= Correct

This simple rule of reflection no longer seems to hold for diffuse reflection. Consider the same spotlight but now reflecting from the surface of a table . Unlike the light reflected from the mirror, the light reflected from the table seems to go in all directions. If it didn't, then you'd only be able to see tables when you were at a specific angle to the lights above you! To understand why the light reflects in all directions, you must first look at a slightly simpler problem. Consider a flat surface, inclined downward from the horizontal by an angle . The red line represents the surface and the red dotted line indicates the normal to this surface (the normal line). The two blue dashed lines represent horizontal and vertical. The angle

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between the incoming ray and the vertical is Throughout this problem, assume that than but smaller than

.

is larger

. (If you wish, you can

determine the correct sign rules to generalize your results later.)

Part B Find the angle Hint B.1 between the reflected ray and the vertical.

How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

Hint B.2

Find the angle between the normal line and vertical Hint not displayed

Hint B.3

Find the angle between the incoming ray and the normal line Hint not displayed

Hint B.4

Find the angle between the normal line and the reflected ray Hint not displayed

Express the angle between the reflected ray and the vertical in terms of ANSWER:

and

.

= Correct

Part C Suppose that the spotlight shines so that different parts of the beam reflect off of different two surfaces, one inclined at an angle (from the horizontal) and one inclined at an angle . What would the angular separation angle be between the rays reflected from the two surfaces? Assume that the light comes at an to the vertical. Finding the angular separation , just

Hint C.1

You already know the angle between the reflected ray and the vertical for the surface tilted at an angle . To find the angle between the reflected ray and the vertical for the surface tilted at an angle

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substitute

for

in the formula from the previous part. The difference between these two angles will be

the angular separation between the two reflected angles. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the angles ANSWER: , , and .

= All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Most surfaces are not smooth like the surface of a mirror. Instead, on a microscopic scale, they are covered in ridges and pits. Thus, when light from a spotlight (or any other source) strikes a seemingly flat surface, the light is reflected in all directions. You can see that if and (the negative angle indicates that the second surface is inclined above the horizontal), then the angular separation between the reflected rays would be 180 . In most surfaces, the roughness can be represented as a large number of small, flat surfaces inclined at different angles to the horizontal. In this way, light reflects in all directions, frequently sending rays that began very close to one another in very different directions. This microscopic roughness is why most surfaces do not form images as mirrors do.

Huygens' Principle

Huygens' principle (first described by the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens in 1678) uses geometry to determine the shape of a wavefront at a time , given some initial wavefront at an earlier time. This can be constructed by imagining that the initial wavefront is a source of wavelets that propagate from each point at the speed of light. From this principle, one can determine the angles of reflection and refraction by considering the speed of light at each point on the wavefront. In this problem, we will explore some of these concepts. Part A First, let's look at a plane wave that is incident on a flat piece of material with an index of refraction . Part of the light is transmitted through the material and part of it is reflected. For the moment, let's just look at the part that is transmitted. At time , the wavefront is a distance away from the surface of the material . At time , the wavefront is at the position of the material interface . Use the Huygens' principle to determine how far into the material ( ) the wavefront has propagated by time .

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Hint A.1 refraction

Speed of light in a material of light in a material is less than the speed of light in a vacuum. The index of is defined by the relation . Use this relation to find the speed of light in a material,

Recall that the speed

which you will need to answer this part. Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = Correct , , and the speed of light in a vacuum .

Note that there would be no change in the direction of the wavefront at any point because the waverfront encountered the material interface at the same time at all points. Thus all of the individual wavefronts all propagated at the same speed, thereby maintaining the flat wavefront. Now, instead of having a flat wavefront propagating normal to the material interface we have a flat wavefront propagating toward the material at an angle of relative to the axis perpendicular to the material interface. In this part, we will look at the relative positions of a few points--A, B, and C--on the wavefront to illustrate Huygens' principle. Point C touches the vacuum/material interface at time whereas point B is a distance and point A is a distance away from the interface.

Part B What is the time it will take for point B of the wavefront to encounter the vacuum/material interface?

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Hint B.1

Looking at the direction relative to the axis perpendicular to

Point B propagates along a flat wavefront in the direction that's

the material surface. As a result, one can use standard geometry and the fact that point B is originally only a distance away from the surface. Express your answer numerically to two decimal places in units of a distance ANSWER: in a vacuum). = 1.74 Correct (the time it takes light to travel

It should be noted that the accuracy of the method increases the smaller the distance is before making a new wavefront and redoing the wavelets. If you tried to just draw a large wavelet from point B then it would hit the surface after only traveling a distance . This large wavelet would make it difficult to visualize how to add up all of the other wavelets to make a coherent wavefront. As a result, one should just draw a line perpendicular to the wavefront at point B until it hits the surface, at which point the wavelets will change owing to the new index of refraction. Part C How far did point C go into the material interface in the time that it took for point B to get to the ). interface? For this part we are looking for the distance traversed by the point C in the material ( Give your answer in terms of the time ANSWER: = Correct , , and .

Part D What is the new angle at which point C of the wavefront is propagating (relative to a line perpendicular to

the vacuum/material interface)? Try to use the fact that you have a spherical wavefront propagating from at the point where C met the vacuum/material interface until time when the wavefront at point B reached the interface. Hint D.1 Geometry of the problem Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of inverse trig functions and ANSWER: = All attempts used; correct answer displayed .

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**Refracted Waves in Unknown Materials
**

Part A When monochromatic light passes through the interface between two unknown materials at an angle where , no changes in the direction of propagation of light are observed. What can be said about the two materials? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: The two materials have matching indexes of refraction. The second material through which light propagates has a lower index of refraction. The second material through which light propagates has a higher index of refraction. The two materials are identical. Correct

By simply observing no change in the direction of propagation of light at the interface between two materials, you cannot be certain that the two materials are identical. In fact, different materials with matching indexes of refraction would produce a similar effect. For example, at the interface between glass Pyrex ( ) and glycerin ( ), no relevant change in the direction of propagation of light can be observed. Part B The same monochromatic light passes through the interface between two other unknown materials. This time the transmitted wave is observed to be farther from the normal to the interface than the incident wave. What can be said about these two materials and the light traveling through them? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Law of refraction Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Find how the sines of the angles relate Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Find in which material light travels faster Hint not displayed

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Check all that apply. ANSWER: The second material through which the light propagates has a higher index of refraction. The second material through which the light propagates has a lower index of refraction. As the light passes into the second material, its speed increases. As the light passes into the second material, its speed decreases. Correct

When a ray of light passes into a material having a lower index of refraction, and hence a higher wave speed, the refracted ray bends away from the normal to the interface and will appear closer to the interface than the incident ray.

**Scattering and polarized light
**

The process of scattering of light by a molecule (Rayleigh scattering) is an important physical phenomenon. Instead of thinking of scattering as light simply bouncing off the molecule, one should think of it as an absorption followed by reradiation of light. The probability for light to be scattered is proportional to the inverse of the wavelength to the fourth power, . This means that the shorter wavelengths (toward blue) get scattered more strongly than the longer wavelengths (toward red). Rayleigh scattering can explain why the daytime sky looks blue, the sunset looks red, and clouds are white. In the afternoon you observe mostly scattered light (blue); in the evening you see mostly transmitted light (red). The clouds have higher concentration of water and ice droplets. This means that light gets rescattered many times and all wavelengths get a chance to scatter out of the clouds, adding up to white light. Another effect that can be explained by light scattering is polarization. When you look at the sky with Polaroid sunglasses it appears darker or brighter from different angles. This is because the scattered light is partially polarized. The white light scattered from the clouds is unpolarized, because the light scatters randomly, multiple times. The direction of its polarization becomes random and thus the light is unpolarized. This effect can be useful for making dramatic photographs of the sky. Consider a photographer who wants to take a picture of an interesting cloud formation. To increase the ratio of the clouds' intensity to that of the blue sky the photographer uses a polarizing filter. Part A How would the photographer use the polarizing filter to find out the direction of polarization of the light coming from the blue sky? Her only reference is the polarization axis of the filter. ANSWER:

Rotate the filter until the light's intensity is minimum; light's polarization is along filter's axis. Rotate the filter until the light's intensity is maximum; light's polarization is along filter's axis. Correct

Part B

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Find the angle

between the filter's polarizing axis and the direction of polarization of light necessary to

increase the ratio of the clouds' intensity to that of the blue sky so that it is three times the normal value. Hint B.1 Find the intensity of light from the sky through the polarizing filter Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Find the intensity of light from the the clouds through the polarizing filter Hint not displayed Hint B.3 Ratio Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees to four significant figures. ANSWER: = 65.91 Correct

**Total Internal Reflection Conceptual Question
**

Consider scenarios A to F in which a ray of light traveling in material 1 is incident onto the interface with material 2.

Material 1 ( A B C D E F Part A

)

Material 2 ( water (1.33) air (1.00) air (1.00) quartz (1.46) water (1.33) water (1.33)

)

air (1.00) water (1.33) diamond (2.42) air (1.00) benzene (1.50) diamond (2.42)

For which of these scenarios is total internal reflection possible?

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Hint A.1

Total internal reflection Hint not displayed

Hint A.2

Angle of refraction Hint not displayed

Hint A.3

Determine the role of the indices of refraction Hint not displayed

List all correct answers in alphabetical order. For example, if scenarios A and E are correct, enter AE. ANSWER: BCEF Correct

Part B For the scenarios in which total internal reflection is possible, rank the scenarios on the basis of the critical angle, the angle above which total internal reflection occurs. At this angle, the refracted ray is at 90 from the normal. Hint B.1 Apply Snell's law from the normal. Therefore, Snell’s law can be , where is the angle of the incident ray from the normal, and . is the angle of the refracted ray from the

At the critical angle, the refracted ray is at 90

used to determine the critical angle. Snell's law states that

normal. Solve this equation for the sine of the critical angle Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and .

Since

increases as

increases, the relative ranking of the critical angle , which is equal to .

will be the same

as the relative ranking of

Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

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View Correct

**Wavelength, Frequency, and the Speed of Light in Different Media
**

A beam of light from a monochromatic laser shines into a piece of glass. The glass has thickness of refraction . The wavelength of the laser light in vacuum is and its frequency is and index . In this

problem, neither the constant Part A

nor its numerical value should appear in any of your answers.

How long does it take for a short pulse of light to travel from one end of the glass to the other? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 The speed of light Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the speed of light in the glass Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of the frequency, introduction. ANSWER: = Correct . Use the numeric value given for in the

When light travels from air into another medium, the wavelength changes, but the frequency remains the same. As a result, the speed of the light wave changes (since it is the product of the frequency and wavelength).

**± Light Refracted through a Prism
**

Light is incident along the normal to face AB of a glass prism of refractive index 1.65, as shown in the figure.

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Part A Find , the largest value of the angle such that no light is refracted out of the prism at face AC if the prism is immersed in air. Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Drawing the incident ray and the reflected ray Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Snell's law Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Total internal reflection Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees. Ignore any reflections from the surface BC. ANSWER: = 52.7 Correct

Part B Find , the largest value the angle can have without any light being refracted out of the prism at face AC if the prism is immersed in water (with index of refraction 1.33). Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Express your answer in degrees. Ignore any reflections from the surface BC. ANSWER: = 36.3 Correct

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Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 85.7%. You received 85.66 out of a possible total of 100 points.

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