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How to Do Chemistry Labs Using Micro-Chemistry Techniques and Recycling

How to Do Chemistry Labs Using Micro-Chemistry Techniques and Recycling

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Published by Paul Schumann
Advantages of Microscaling:
Preparation and cleanup: Teachers, especially those in a self -contained situation, have great demands upon their time, and the time spent in setting up and cleaning up a lab activity can be a reason to avoid science activities. Microscale techniques are more time efficient, therefore the bulk of their time can be spent in an instructional setting.


Waste disposal: The generation and proper disposal of waste is an overwhelming task facing many teachers. They often do not have the background and knowledge to comply with the many regulations set by the federal, state, and local governments. Since very small amounts of chemicals are used and waste products are minimal, many of the substances used can be safely disposed down the drain.


Cost: The science budgets in many schools are quite small and getting smaller every year. Simply reducing the amount of material used in each lab can significantly decrease the cost of doing a lab activity. This does not mean you do not need some basic equipment. I strongly advise that you use electronic balances, digital thermometers and some good glassware in small sizes when it is needed. The electronic balances save valuable time. The students can share. Also the electronic balances and digital thermometers give you greater accuracy. You need this because you are using much smaller amounts. Also, you do need chemicals. You simply use them in smaller amounts.


Availability: The equipment that is used on larger scale laboratory experiments is often not available to middle school teachers. Very often when the lab is scaled down to a micro sized activity, more common materials can be used.


Safety: There are many lab activities that are very interesting to teachers, but since they utilize bulk quantities of hazardous materials, they are simply not appropriate. Since much smaller amounts are used when microscaling, the risk of spills and the hazards are reduced Even in microscaling, proper safety rules and procedures should be followed. Chemicals are still being used. Remember goggles and aprons
Advantages of Microscaling:
Preparation and cleanup: Teachers, especially those in a self -contained situation, have great demands upon their time, and the time spent in setting up and cleaning up a lab activity can be a reason to avoid science activities. Microscale techniques are more time efficient, therefore the bulk of their time can be spent in an instructional setting.


Waste disposal: The generation and proper disposal of waste is an overwhelming task facing many teachers. They often do not have the background and knowledge to comply with the many regulations set by the federal, state, and local governments. Since very small amounts of chemicals are used and waste products are minimal, many of the substances used can be safely disposed down the drain.


Cost: The science budgets in many schools are quite small and getting smaller every year. Simply reducing the amount of material used in each lab can significantly decrease the cost of doing a lab activity. This does not mean you do not need some basic equipment. I strongly advise that you use electronic balances, digital thermometers and some good glassware in small sizes when it is needed. The electronic balances save valuable time. The students can share. Also the electronic balances and digital thermometers give you greater accuracy. You need this because you are using much smaller amounts. Also, you do need chemicals. You simply use them in smaller amounts.


Availability: The equipment that is used on larger scale laboratory experiments is often not available to middle school teachers. Very often when the lab is scaled down to a micro sized activity, more common materials can be used.


Safety: There are many lab activities that are very interesting to teachers, but since they utilize bulk quantities of hazardous materials, they are simply not appropriate. Since much smaller amounts are used when microscaling, the risk of spills and the hazards are reduced Even in microscaling, proper safety rules and procedures should be followed. Chemicals are still being used. Remember goggles and aprons

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Published by: Paul Schumann on Aug 30, 2011
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Background

Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, either liquid or gas. It is often
thought of “thickness” of a .liquid. A liquid, which is viscous, does not flow easily. A less
viscous liquid will flow easily. Viscosity is a physical property of a liquid or a solution. Vis-
cosity is primarily due to intermolecular forces that result from asymmetrical distribution of
electrons around molecules.

The density of a substance is also an indication of the number of intermolecular forces.

Materials

• Liquid samples (glycerol, water, corn syrup, solutions of 75%, 50%, 33% and 20%
corn syrup in water. Use a 200ml -300 ml beaker to make glycerol solutions. Meas-
ure and mix in beaker.
• 7 plastic weighing cups (condiment cups)
• 1 3-ml syringe or 7 3-ml syringes Color code the syringes barrel and plunger with col-
ored nail polish. I used as follows: glycerol–green,water-blue,75%-red, 50%-aqua,
33%-pink,20%-lavender
• 1 syringe tip cap
• Balance

Procedure:

1. Fill the 3 ml syringe with one of the liquids. Adjust the level of the liquid in the syringe
so that the liquid is exactly at the 3 ml mark.
2. Place the syringe tip cap firmly on the syringe.
3. Remove the plunger from the syringe.
4. Weigh the cup. Record this mass in your data table as the BEGINNING MASS in the
data table.
5. Hold the syringe in a vertical position above the weighing cup.
6. Using a clock with a second hand or a stop watch, note the time (to the nearest sec-
ond) when the liquid starts to flow out of the syringe or count “one thousand one, one
thousand two, etc”.
7. Remove the syringe tip cap from the syringe allowing the liquid to flow into the weigh-
ing cup and measure the time in seconds that it takes for the liquid level to reach the
0.5 ml mark on the syringe.
8. Record the elapsed time in your data table.
9. Weigh the cup with the liquid and record its mass as FINAL MASS in your data table.
10. Clean the syringe with warm water or use new marked syringes and repeat steps 1
through 10 for each liquid or use new marked syringes.

* Adapted by Eva Lou Apel from a lab by Roger D. Ford and Michael R. Mayfield in the
1987 Curriculum Module of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemis-
try institute, MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY

39

Barbara J. Schumann

The Viscosity and Density of Liquids

Report Page

Data Table

Calculations:

1. Calculate the mass of your sample by subtracting the initial mass from the final mass.
2. Calculate the density of your sample by dividing its mass by its volume (Mass/volume).
3. Plot a graph with time as the vertical dimension and density as the horizontal dimen-

sion.

4. Plot a graph with time as the vertical dimension and the % concentration of the corn
syrup on the horizontal axis. (water = 0% and pure corn syrup as 100%)

Sample

Time
(sec)

Volume
(ml)

Mass Begin
(g)

Mass Final
(g)

Density
(g/ml)

Glycerol

Water

20% Corn
Syrup
33% Corn
Syrup
50% Corn
Syrup
75% Corn
Syrup

100% Corn
Syrup

40

Barbara J. Schumann

The Viscosity and Density of Liquids

Questions:

1. What is the apparent relationship between viscosity of your sample, as indicated by
flow time, and its density?
2. How does the time of flow relate to the concentration of a solution?
3. Which material do you think would flow the fastest (a) water or (b) alcohol (density
= .79 g/ml)? Why?

Teacher’s Notes

Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, either a liquid or gas. In the minds
of many students it is often thought of “thickness”. Viscosity is primarily due to intermo-
lecular forces that result from asymmetrical distribution of electrons around molecules.

The density of a substance is an indication of the number of intermolecular forces, while
the dielectric constant is an indication the strength of these forces.

The graphs that are produced from these data should indicate a relationship between vis-
cosity (as indicated by flow time) and density and between viscosity (as indicated by flow
time) and solution concentration. There appears to be little effect between molecular
weight and viscosity for these small molecules.

This exercise is intended to be multi-leveled; that is, it has applications appropriate for
both beginning and advanced classes. At the most elementary level, student objectives
include manipulation apparatus, skills in calculation, and graphing. At the advanced 1evel
topics for discussion can also include the nature of intermolecular forces, polarity of
bonds, structure of molecules and functional groups. For advanced students, an addi-
tional consideration can be the effect temperature on viscosity; this can be measured by
cooling the samples an ice water bath before conducting the measurements.

Extensions

Engine oils are often classified by their viscosity. The Society of American Engineers
(SAE) has devised a system for classifying oils according to their viscosity. Repeat this
experiment with several grades of SAE rated oils. What is the relationship between SAE
grade and viscosity?

An alternative method for determining the viscosity of a liquid would be to determine the
time it takes a BB or other metal sphere to fall through equal depths of each liquid.

This lab could be introduced by a demonstration of “The Great Ketchup Race.”

41

Barbara J. Schumann

Conservation of Mass

Introduction

Combustion and many other chemical reactions produce invisible gases and seem to
make solids and liquids disappear. Here we describe a simple setup for demonstrating
conservation of mass in gas forming reactions and for correcting this common misunder-
standing. The setup uses a hook to separate reactants in a closed soda bottle and can be
made in less than ten minutes for virtually no cost. Also, the setup does not require the
buoyancy correction needed when a balloon is used to close the system' nor a high preci-
sion balance to show that a significant mass of gas has been formed. Multiple runs can be
carried out with a single setup to show the reproducibility and generality of conservation of
mass for these reactions.

Assembly of setup

The materials needed are: a one-, two- or three-liter soda bottle with a cap that has an
easily removed soft plastic seal (a wide mouth bottle is best); needle and thread; and a
paperclip. The hook setup is sketched in Fig. 1 and is made by removing the plastic seal
from the cap, passing the thread up and down through the seal, and then tying the ends of
the thread in a knot to form a loop about 3-5 cm (1-1 /2 to 2 inches) long. A hook is made
by bending the outer arm of the paper clip out. The setup is completed by putting the seal
back in the cap and hanging the paper clip from the loop.

Demonstration procedure

1. To carry out a reaction under closed conditions, the liquid component of the reaction
mixture is poured into the bottle
2. A package (the package can be made from a piece of tissue and tape) containing solid
state reactants and/or catalyst you choose is suspended from the hook and inserted into
the bottle.,
3. The system is closed by turning the cap tight. Mass by putting on balance very care-
fully.
4. Invert the Bottle. After the reaction has stopped, mass the bottle..
5. To show that a significant quantity of gas has been produced, open the bottle and mass
the system-bottle + cap.
6. Some examples of reactions that can be used are in table 1. All of the reactions are
nontoxic and can be flushed down the drain..

Safety

Running a gas producing reaction in a capped soda bottle requires that the pressure in-
crease from the reaction not burst the bottle. The pressure increase is controlled by the
limiting reagent, and Table 1 identifies and gives quantities of limiting reagents that yield a
pressure increase of one atm. (15 pounds per square inch) for a one-liter bottle at a tem-
perature of 25 degrees C (a warm room). With this pressure increase, a mass difference
of one gram or more has been observed between the opened and closed bottle. To check
the margin of safety, a soda bottle was fitted with Definer's valve cap3 and the pressure in
the soda bottle was increased by pumping to 6.5 atm (100 pounds per square inch) with-
out bursting the bottle. This result indicates that the margin of safety for a one atm pres

* Adapted from Chem 13 News ( Pat Ruff and Charles Malerich)

42

Barbara J. Schumann

Conservation of Mass

sure increase is a minimum of a factor of six and that the capped soda bottle setup will
work.

Materials:

1, 2 or 3 liter plastic soda bottle, bottle cap, plastic seal, thread, paper clip hook, Kleenex
and tape

Fig. 1. Sketch of cap and hook setup.

Table 1. Quantities of limiting reagents for producing one liter of gas at one atm and 250C

Reaction and chemical equation

Quantity of limiting reagent

Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by
yeast catalyst
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2

100 ml 3% peroxide

Baking soda and vinegar
NaHCO3 + HC2H3O2 → CO2 + H2O +
NaC2H3O2

50 ml vinegar or 3.4 grams

Washing soda and citric acid
3Na2CO3 + 2H3C6H507 → 3CO2 + 3H20 +
2Na3(C6H5O7)

5.2 grams of citric acid or
4.4 grams washing soda

Alka-seltzer or baking soda and citric acid
3NaHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 →
Na3(C6H5O7) + 3H2O + 3CO2

3 Alka-seltzer tables or
2.62 grams citric acid and 3.5 grams bak-
ing soda

43

Barbara J. Schumann

Conservation of Mass

Baking soda or vinegar may be used as the limiting reagent for this reaction. The calcula-
tion assumes a 5% acidity vinegar. The other reactant can be used in greater quantity
safely.

Citric acid should be the limiting reagent for these reactions. The quantity of washing soda
or baking soda is the minimum that should be used with the given quantity of citric acid.
Also, 100-200 ml of water was used as solvent in testing these reactions.

44

Barbara J. Schumann

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