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VISION

ANAM

MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

ANAM NEW CITY MASTER PLAN

1 MAY 2011

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VISION

ANAM

MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

ANAM NEW CITY MASTER PLAN

1 May 2011

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VISION VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

From all walks of life, throughout Nigeria and across the world, Anam people have joined together to build a new city.
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ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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VISION VISION

Africa has the highest rate of urbanization in human history. Nigeria is the most populous nation on the continent today.

ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

But poor facilities, congestion and health hazards in cities degrade quality of life and the environment.
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ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

5

VISION VISION

Our men and women, young and old, are drawn to cities for better opportunities,

ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

while our rural communities are neglected, with deteriorating infrastructure.
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Our challenge is to create opportunity at the local level, without destroying the natural environment and traditional ways of life.

VISION VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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VISION VISION

Anam New City is an emerging model for sustainable development in Africa.

ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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VISION VISION

Off grid, dynamic, and integrated with our unique ecology.

ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

Transforming historical challenges into future innovations.
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MOBILITY APPENDIX

VISION VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

Quality social services for our collective progress, and a stronger local economy for our present and future generations.
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ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

A model respective of our traditions and rooted in our cultural heritage

VISION VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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Together with pride in our community,

VISION VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

we will create a brighter future for our children.
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APPENDIX

VISION
VISION

Anam

GOALS ANAM HISTORY COMMUNITY APPROACH LOGIC & PARAMETERS SYSTEMS & APPROACH AGROPOLITAN MODEL LAND USE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AGRICULTURE WATER USE FLOODING WATER QUALITY SOCIAL & CULTURAL SEED PROJECTS URBAN DESIGN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MARKET VALUE ADDED CHAIN SYSTEM RENEWABLE SOURCES DISTRIBUTED ENERGY NETWORK WASTE TO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION MODES VIAS ADDENDUM GLOSSARY KEY SITE TERMS (IGBO)
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Contents 23
ANAM ANAM

Model

53

MODEL MODEL

Land

77
LAND LAND

Water

105

WATER WATER

Social Design

123

SOCIAL SOCIAL

Economy

153

ECONOMY ECONOMY

Energy

161

ENERGY ENERGY

Mobility

179

MOBILITY MOBILITY APPENDIX APPENDIX

193

20

21

ANAM

Context

VISION ANAM ANAM MODEL

Nigeria

LAND WATER

Anam
Anambra State 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Overview Goals The Anam Model Background A Brief History Regional Context Demographics & Economy Life in a Riverine Area Environmental Setting Community Approach What would you do with 5,000,000 naira? 12. Design & Planning Process 13. Regulatory Network

SOCIAL

Ejiri atumatu di mkpa na obodo were ruputa obodo Anam. Ezigbo ndu maka ndudugandu nke otu mba uwa niile. Obodo Anam ga eji oke technonzu were chekwa obodo ha, makwa weta aku na odimma maka mmadu nile.
MOBILITY ENERGY ECONOMY

ANAM CITY

Anam City is a new city for the Rebirth of Anam. It is built on the history, culture and tradition of Anam people. It considers present needs and depends on everyone to help build a better life for future generations.

APPENDIX

Agropolitan Region

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ANAM

VISION

Overview
The Master Plan
This Master Plan presents the guiding vision for Anam New City (ANAM), a new settlement to be designed and constructed in Anambra State, Nigeria. This document is a strategic framework that will lead best development practices over the next generation. As a new model for African development, this Master Plan provides an actionable structure that supports justice for both natural resources and human society. While the Master Plan will guide the immediate community in their current process of urban restructure, it also addresses a universal goal for self-sufficiency, and can serve two main purposes:
1. 2. To establish development principles for the new ANAM city beginning in Anambra State, Nigeria. To present a model for sustainable African development to the global public.

Goals
1. Establish development principles for the new ANAM city beginning at Ebenebe, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2. Present a model for sustainable African development to the global public.
? nam ld A i bu to
COMM UNIT Y CO NSU LTA TIO N
Phasing, labor, scheduling and incremental development

ANAM ANAM MODEL LAND WATER

URBAN SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

Action-Oriented: It is designed to provide community leaders, residents and other stakeholders with guidance for decision-making. Value-Based: It is embedded in values of social progress aimed at improving the lives of the community, and building a stronger resilient society. Long Range: It is based on a time frame that extends beyond the present and anticipates future opportunities and problems.
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FEASIBILITY STUDIES & RESEARCH
International best practices & local knowledge

What to design in Ana m?

Master Planning Process for Anam City

Y +C NIT

The Master Plan is an active document, intended to evolve in response to continued research, policy development and the needs of the communities and stakeholders involved. Nevertheless, this visioning document will be used to ensure cohesiveness and continuity over the future development horizon. Therefore, this document is the foundation against which future planning projects can be evaluated for consistency; such a framework for decision-making will help support the success of their initiatives. The ANAM New City Master Plan should be viewed as general, actionoriented, value-based and long range: General: It establishes policies that anticipate the future through general principles and objectives, but does not address specific details concerning every issue or location.

Ho w

M ob ode fra jec l, st me tive rat wo s a egi rk nd es, s

n Anam? esig od yt Wh

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

THE MASTER PLAN

COMMUNITY CONSULTATION & SURVEYS

y, ve ur l S s, ica oup st r ati g ns St cus atio Fo alu Ev

SOCIAL ECONOMY

FE FOUN HI

O DATI N +
COMMU
ANAM CITY
SOCIO & ECONOMIC STUDIES

Plans and form based zoning

URBAN DESIGN

Seed businesses, demographics and projections

ENERGY

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Flo

n, tio , rta ter , po a al, an ns y, W oci rb Tra erg , S c, U En aste omi W on Ec nd La

od ing an isk dr s

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MOBILITY APPENDIX

ANAM

VISION

Logics
The work is a synthesis of recommendations from the partner consultant, The Dr. Aloy & Gesare Chife Foundation and their interdisciplinary design team composed of urban planners, architects and engineers. The proposal in aggregate reflects the needs and opportunities as assessed through best practice research, site analysis and consultation with Anam leadership councils, community members and regional and international professionals.

ANAM ANAM

Anam Sustainability Framework

MODEL

The Anam Model

SOCIO
LAND

The Master Plan is organized around a structure that includes Logics, Principles, Objectives, Recommendations and Indicators. Logics: The conceptual basis for the ANAM model and framework of sustainability perspective.

ECO

TECHNO
WATER

Principles: Value embedded goals that guide the realization of the vision. Strategies: Elements of each system that illustrate more detailed
components.
SOCIAL

Recommendations: Statements that describe actionable methods or
means of achieving the principles and objectives.

PRINCIPLES
ECONOMY

Indicators: Quantifiable metrics for evaluating the success of the recommendations.
Due to the integrated character of the ANAM model, there are many synergies found between the systems and principles; this is represented under each section subheading. It is natural that we find the repetition of similar objectives throughout the Master Plan as well, only to reinforce the unity of the model.

ENERGY

STRATEGIES

INDICATORS

RECOMMENDATIONS

MOBILITY APPENDIX

The components in the Anam Master Plan

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ANAM

VISION

Background
ANAM ANAM

A Brief History of the Anam Community
Present day Anam is a collection of at least eight small settlements in the region that all have traditional leadership councils and town unions, and who frequently collaborate politically and hold cultural celebrations together. As with many places around the world, these communities are more and more influenced by the global economy. Today as a group with regional influence, the Anam people have joined together to bring positive change to the lives of the people. They have initiated a movement called Anam Re-Birth with the goal of emerging as a reorganized Anam society that is more resilient through improved infrastructure, social services and a stronger economy. The new city project is one of their partnerships, and it is being led by the Umuoba Anam community, who have granted their land (Ebenebe) for the first phases of the city. While all the 8 Anam communities are motivated by urban land shortages and unsuitable infrastructure, Umuoba Anam is able to develop this area of their traditional land they presently live largely in the town of Otuocha (approximately 5 km from Ebenebe) where they purchased land from nonAnam people in the early 19th Century. In the 1970s, confusion over the land transfer led to conflicts, and now peaceful cohabitation of three distinct peoples in the small town. Since the initial settlement, Umuoba Anam has exceeded their population capacity for their portion of Otuocha, and find themselves in overcrowded conditions competing for already limited and insufficient resources. Further, the Umuoba Anam continue to travel by boat to their traditional lands to farm, and recent aquatic invasions of water hyacinth have made this journey an intense struggle. Realizing the limitations of the local and federal governments to aid with their situation, they depend on their local Development Council to spearhead the transition of the community back to their traditional land at Ebenebe. As such, the Umuoba Anam Development Council has engaged the Chife Foundation to consult with the community and offer recommendations for the design, construction and operation of a new settlement at Ebenebe. This Master Plan is the first and foundational document in that process.
1 The people of the Anam region come from a rich history deeply rooted in their locale and respective of the larger Igbo people of Nigeria, as documented by Gabriel Nnazor in Anam Tradition and Culture, the most comprehensive chronicle of Anam settlement. . 52

Nmiata

Umoaba Iyora

MODEL

ANAM
Umuem Oroma OTUOCHA Umueze AGULERI

LAND

Umudora Umuikwu

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

ASABA ONITSHA

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

A Map of the Anam region, showing the eight (8) Anam communities

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ANAM
< 25K 1. Onoia: 19,000 2. Nsugbe : 20,000 3. Orania Otu : 21,000 4. Umuleri : 22,000 5. Aguleri : 22,000 6. Isbariam : 22,000 7. Isinyi-Nando : 22,000 8. Otuocha : 24,500

VISION

3 12 6 11 7

ANAM ANAM

Though there remain key historical components such as traditional governance and family structures, there is a fluid integration with the State and National governing structures, inter-regional economies and modern social constructs. Understanding these complexities is crucial to the success of the new city. Therefore, much of the planning has been and will be informed by community meetings and regional surveys beyond what is presented here. Bound by the unity of the community, this is a landmark planning initiative that is driven and supported by the people who it will affect most, and whose hope is to create real change for their families and future generations.

13
25-30K 9. Umudora Umukwa : 26,000 10. Oroma Eliti : 27,000 11. Nmiata : 28,000 12. Nzam : 28,500 13. Umuenwelum : 28,500

ANAM CITY CITY
13 9

8 4

5

NANDO
89 000

17

MODEL

10 2

15 14
LAND
UMUINYA
88 000

16

Regional Context
The major settlements in close proximity of the site are: Otuocha, Onitsha, Asaba, Awka and Enugu. Otuocha headquarters the Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State. It is an important town in Nigeria serving as the food basket to the South Eastern States. Major communities living in the town of Otuocha are the Aguleri, Umuleri Anam and Umuoba Anam people. Otuocha has a viable market which is a major yam transit point in East of Niger River. Onitsha is a commercial centre and river port on the eastern bank of the Niger River in Anambra State. It is one of the most important Nigerian cities in the south eastern part of the country. Located on ground and water transportation routes, Onitsha is a gateway to eastern Nigeria. Onitsha’s major commercial products include nuts, corns, fruits and vegetables. Other significant trade produces include tires, petroleum products, nails and bearings. Asaba is the capital of Delta State, located on the west bank of the Niger River (opposite Onitsha) and along the Benin City road. The Niger Bridge connects Asaba to Onitsha. Asaba has a textile factory and post secondary schools. Akwa is the capital of Anambra State. It lies along roads leading from Owerri, Umuahia, Onitsha, and Enugu. Awka is an agricultural trade centre for the Igbo people of the surrounding area and trades in yams, cassava, taro, maize, palm oil and kernels. Nnamdi Azikiwe University is located in Awka.
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ANI NKWA ANAM
188 000

19

OGBUNIKE
211 000

WATER

ASABA
400 000

20

1
SOCIAL ECONOMY

21

500 000 (1M METRO)
50-100K 14. Nkwelle Ezunaka : 50,000 15. Nteje : 50, 000 16. Umuinya : 88,000 17. Nando : 89,000 >100K 18. Ani Nkwa Anam: 188,000 19. Ogbunike : 211,000 20. Asaba : 400,000 21. Onitsha : 500,000 (1M metro)
ENERGY

ONITSHA

MOBILITY APPENDIX

The population of neighboring settlements in the Anam Region

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ANAM

VISION ANAM ANAM

Enugu is the capital of Enugu State which is the eastern neighbor of Anambra State. Nicknamed “the Coal City” in the early 1900s, Enugu became a major center for the mining of the coal discovered by Albert Ernest Kitson in the Udi plateau. As of 2007, coal mining is no longer the major source of income, however very small quantities are transported south by rail to Port Harcourt for export. The city’s economy has diversified in recent years and is largely dominated by trading, commerce, and small-scale industry.

MODEL

FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY

ABUJA

LAND

Demography & Economy
The people of Anam are predominantly farmers with large families (6.25 people per household) living in multi-family houses. While there is a lack of statistical census for the immediate area, for the purpose of setting planning benchmarks. Much of what is documented comes from a 100-person community survey completed in April 2010 in the Umuoba Anam settlement of Otoucha, Anambra State statistics and Federal Nigerian census profiles. The state population is 4.1 million, and Anam people are estimated to represent about 3% of that total. Anambra State is one of the most highly urbanized areas in Nigeria (second after Lagos State), a condition that provides an interesting contrast to the large portion of very low density agricultural land. Nigeria as a whole is rapidly urbanizing and the growth rate is one of the highest in the world. As such, demographic trend analysis shows an overwhelming demand for urban infrastructure and housing throughout the country. Balancing the significant demand for such a city with the actual capacities within the specific land boundaries, a preliminary population of 20,000 people has been established for initial planning purposes. It is anticipated that over time the city’s boundaries will expand and that a larger population of 100,000 people will inhabit the agropolitan region. Agriculture and fishing are the two major economic activities on and around the project site. The main agricultural products are maize, cassava and peanuts. Beyond these activities, the Anam population remains predominantly poor in income but wealthy in land resources, providing nearly 70% of the agriculture resources in the Anambra State. It is the hope of the ANAM project to facilitate the creation of a more diversified economy for the region.
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WATER

6 hrs
SOCIAL

BENIN CITY
EDO STATE

ANAM CITY
3 hrs
1 hr
45min

ECONOMY

2 hrs

ASABA
DELTA STATE

Onitcha
Anambra State

ENUGU
ENUGU STATE

6 hrs

ENERGY

3 hrs

LAGOS
LAGOS STATE

PORT HARCOURT
DELTA STATE

MOBILITY APPENDIX

Several airports make the area easily accessible by air, including the newest in Asaba, only 1 hour away.

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ANAM
uj Ab To

Individual farmers transport their goods by land and water to bring them to markets.
a

VISION

Major Economic Flows
Housewife 1% Retired 1%

$ RE

MIT

TAN C

ANAM ANAM

ES $
Nmiata

ANAM
B To en C in
Umuem

Teacher 1% Building Trade 3% Misc 6% Health Provider 7% Sales 7% Civil Servant 8% Professional 12%

Oroma

Umueze

Umudora Umuikwu

+ +
Umoaba Iyora

MODEL

ity
To La gos

LAND

OTUOCHA AGULERI

WATER

LOW

S

ONO

Youth & Farming

MIC F

ASABA

ONITSHA

Trade 26% (includes agricultural trade)

+
INCR

Almost 60% of Anam people are involved somehow in agriculture. 50% of the population is under the age of 20 and now immerging into the job market with weak opportunities. As a result the youth leave the area for oil jobs in Delta State or Lagos or even the country for education in Ghana S OW or the U.K. FL
INC A RE SIN C G E ON OM IC

SOCIAL

EASIN

G EC

ECONOMY ENERGY

Farmers 30%

Anam City hopes to enhance quality and and profitability of agriculture so it can be a desirable employment choice for the youth. In addition to agro-industry, the city can also create a greater diversity of employment options for the future of the Anam People.

MOBILITY APPENDIX

The farming of yam, cassava and potato dominates the Anam region.

Economics flow outwards from the Anam region along the rivers as agricultural sales travel to the markets.

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ANAM

VISION

Historical Timeline
ANAM ANAM

Ejiri atumatu di mkpa na obodo were ruputa obodo Anam
ANAM is designed from cultural knowledge and community values
[1965] Niger River Bridge at Onitsha constructed [1976] Anambra State is formed [1900] Umuoba Phase 1 Settlement along Ezichi River [1700] Modern day Lagos founded as Eko by Bini Kingdom [1967-1970] Biafran War [1998] Beati cation of Blessed Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi by Pope John Paul II [2008] UN Habitat publishes that Lagos is the fastest growing city in Africa [2010] Asaba Airport Opens

MODEL LAND WATER

[4,500 BC] Date of oldest archeological pottery found in Igboland

[1990] Umuoba purchases land in Otuocha [1999] Second land con ict in Otuocha

SOCIAL

B.C. 4,500

400

A.D. 800

[2008] Anam City Design & Development Process [2008] Rebirth Council forms

ECONOMY

1472

1800

1900

1970

1980

1990

2008
[1991] Abuja becomes Capital of Nigeria

2011

ENERGY

[945-1911] Kingdom of Nri in Igboland [400 BC] Benin City founded as Igodomingodo [1800] First recorded settlement in Anam region

[1980] Building of Abuja [1970] Land con ict in Otuocha between Umuoba, Aguleri and Umuleri

MOBILITY

Construction for Anam City Begins

[1472] Portuguese explorers land on Nigerian coast

[1850] British establish presence in Lagos

[1960] Nigerian Independence from Britain

APPENDIX

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VISION

ANAM ANAM

MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

62

ANAM

Life for Anam people is dominated by the river, and the natural cycles that occur annually. These cycles exist first with the land and water, in the flooding and weather, and therefor impact the cycles of agriculture and harvest. Social events, such as festivals, and school sessions also correspond to the natural cycles as well, generating an entire culture that is in sync with the land. Yet there are some negative impacts to these cycles as well that have contributed to a more difficult lifestyle. For example, due to the heavy rains, many Anam farmers can only live close to their farms during the dry season, and have to relocate to stay with relatives during the peak flood.
NE W YE A RS CE LE
yam fruits river level rain fall cassava shing harvest wind season

JANUARY

BR

bamboo [continuous growth & harvest] garden egg vegetable leaves

AT I

Life in a Riverine Area
ON

School In Session
FEBRUARY
ground nut

Moist SW Wind
MARCH
pepper potato okro

M AJ

OR

FI

SH

FE OB A

ST

IV AL @

TI

TL

PO ND

APRIL

S ET AK IN G

RAINY SEASON

MARKET DAYS [EVERY 4 DAYS] ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................

.
Long Vacation

[3

DA YS ]

MAY JUNE JULY
IG BO M DA AJ Y OR FI SH

.

HA OT I

RV ST TE M AJ

AUGUST SEPTEMBER

OR

M AR

KE

T

DA Y

[B E

GI N

HA RV ES

FLOOD
major bamboo cutting

T]

OCTOBER

Harmattan

NOVEMBER

School In Session

DECEMBER

N [E ZIR ND IA OF NI F HA EST RV IVA ES L T]

ANAM

VISION

Environmental Setting
ANAM ANAM

ANAM City will begin on present day Ebenebe, a rural site in the tropical rainforest belt of Anambra State, East Nigeria. Future developments will expand within the Anam Region, located in the low plain to the northwest of Anambra River. Ebenebe extends on the western banks of the Ezichi River and covers about 76.8 hectares (189.8 acres). It is bounded by Mmiata Anam on the north, Umueze Anam on the south, Ezichi River on the east, and UmuezeMmiata Anam State Road on the west. The project site currently consists of wetlands, forest and agricultural land. The only constructions on the site are traditional huts made of mud and bamboos where farmers live seasonally. On the western border of the site is a state road (Umueze-Mmiata Anam Road) that is currently under construction. The area falls within the Guinean forest-savannah mosaic belt (deciduous forest) of Nigeria with annual rainfall of about 1,400 – 2,000 millimeters. The climate on the project site is characterized by two main seasons; rainy season (March to October with two peaks in July and September), and the dry season (December to February). The rainy season is associated with prevalence of moisture laden maritime southwest trade wind from the Atlantic Ocean. This season is also known for heavy thunderstorms. The dry season is influenced by the dry wind blowing from the Mediterranean Sea across Sahara desert and down to southern Nigeria. This also causes harmattan, which precedes the dry season. The main ecological hazards on the project site are flooding and minor erosion. Soil degradation, rapid deforestation, flooding and consequent erosion along the riverbanks, have effected agricultural activities. In the peak of rainy season, high precipitation often results in excessive flooding, such that the undulations occupied by settlements are marooned for some months. The people use canoes and boats as their primary model of movement and transportation. Extensive wetland ecologies complement the farming activities, providing natural and seasonal irrigation to the plots.

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

The setting is the Guinean Tropical Rainforest Mosaic, which is a mixture of savannah grasslands and forest

Several traditional huts (wattle and daub) are scattered in the landscape as seasonal housing for farmers.

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ANAM

VISION

Community Approach
ANAM ANAM

Tall trees with thick undergrowth and numerous climbers exist in the clustered forests. The trees have luxuriant forage and the presence of climbers, epiphytes, bamboos. Persistent interference of human activities, such as agriculture and settlements, has affected a significant portion of the thick forest, limiting it to reduced portion of the site. Upon its completion, Umueze-Mmiata State Road will mark the most dominant structure around the project site. Apart from these major routes, there are several tracks running across the site between the river and the state road. The development of this state road was a dominant factor in the site selection process, as it will provide good access during construction that can compliment the aquatic modes.

The process for the conceptual and physical development of ANAM New City is based on an open and interdisciplinary approach that includes a range of research, consultation and open-source design methods. Rather than a linear progression, the process has been concurrent, iterative, and fundamentally an evolution of hybridity due to the unique nature of this project. The methodology incorporates phases that balance the many scales of influence as well as the diversity of stakeholders that will be integrated with the new urban system. Local cultural knowledge, site specific realities, international standards and continental concerns each informed the scope of research and final recommendations. The results of this process are owned by the stakeholders and open to the world.

MODEL LAND WATER

ANAM REBIRTH COUNCIL ELDERS COUNCILS
Flooded farmland and grassy wetlands dominate the landscape for two months a year.

SOCIAL

ANAM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY

WOMEN & MEN’S UNIONS

THE AN

COM AM
ANAM CITY

ECONOMY

NITY MU

YOUTH GROUPS
ENERGY

The Parasite Tree in a wooded grove. Existing vegetation will be preserved through the Master Plan.

PROFESSIONAL CONSULTANTS

MOBILITY

RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS

CHIFE FOUNDATION

APPENDIX

Water hyacinth in the Ezichi River is a major hardship for people in Anam.

Stakeholders in the Anam community

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ANAM ANAM

VISION ANAM ANAM

Yam Vendor Victor, Fish Farmer

Shopping in the market

Fish farmer at Ebenebe

Man in Otuocha Market

Youth at Otuocha Landing

John Paul, Research Assistant

Fish vendor

Farmers

MODEL LAND WATER

Several years of community discussions have identified priority seed projects of: a school, a hospital, a market, an illo (public square), and a community bank.
Victor, Owner of Anam Fish Farm Anam youth Anam man discussin Anam City Anam Fisherman Anam woman in Otuocha Market Potato vendor

SOCIAL ECONOMY

Tony and Mother

Yam farmers

Anam youth in the market

Vendor in Otuocha market

Cassava farmer

Kazim and Mopo, driver and security

Activity on the Ezichi for market day

Vendor in Otuocha

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

Ekeke, farmer and canoe driver

Advertising in the market

Fish vendor

Leader of the yam area of the market

Anam youth

Bamboo and cassava at Ebenebe

Children in Umueze

Student

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ANAM
Spend half towards education expenses, use the other half to start a business. Sell groundnuts and expand in order to trade to Abuja and Lagos.

VISION ANAM ANAM

Invest in pepper and trade it in Lagos. During the rainy season, sell sand.

MODEL

Invest in a grocery store business.

Keep some for savings and start a poultry farm business.

Build better roads with proper drainage.

Spend half towards education expenses, use the other half to start a business.

LAND WATER

Stock my store with drinks to sell and invest in groundnuts.

SOCIAL

Save half and invest the other half in businesses or loans.

ECONOMY ENERGY

What would you do with 5 million naira?
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MOBILITY APPENDIX

ANAM

VISION

Design & Planning Process
ANAM ANAM

[December] SWOT Analysis [June] Umuoba Anam initiate new city project [August] Preliminary Community Consultations [April] Community Presentations

[October] Peak ood mapping
MODEL

[June-August] Internship Program [November] Website and Project Launch [December] Elders and Rebirth Councils review Urban Design

2008

2009

2010
[November] Preliminary Site Assessment

2011
[January] Start of Phase 1 Construction [November] Master Plan Development [July] Focus Groups, Presentations to Development Council and Anam Rebirth Council

LAND WATER

[June] Umuoba appoints Dr. Aloy Chife as custodian of the Ebenebe land

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

Community Presentation

Rebirth Council Meeting

MOBILITY APPENDIX

A Women’s Focus Group

A Men’s Focus Group

Breaking of Kola Nuts with Community Elders

Development Council Meeting

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VISION

Regulatory Network
ANAM ANAM

In partnership with the Chife Foundation, the Anam Development Council and the Rebirth Group will ultimately review, approve and oversee the implementation of recommendations for the new Anam City. In addition, as custodians of the land, the councils will seek approval from State and Federal Authorities and create and official authority to manage, operate and enforce regulations in the new city.

Anambra State
[L.G.A.]
Urban Planning Policies

Federal Government*
Nigerian Land & Waterways Act

MODEL LAND

8 ANAM COMMUNITIES

UMUOBA-ANAM NMIATA- ANAM ORAMA-ANAM UMUEMU-ANAM

ANAM

Federal Environmental Protection Agency Decree 86 (1992) National Urban Development Policy (1997) Urban & Regional Planning Law (1992)

ELDERS, & UMUIKWU-ANAM MMEGHES
UMUDORA-ANAM IYIORA-ANAM UMUEZE-ANAM

ANAM REBIRTH COUNCIL
1
ANAM DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL

Anambra West Local Government Authority

WATER

Universal Building Code Anambra State Environmental Protection Board and Impact

SOCIAL

4
NIGERIAN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

2
Town Planning Authority

3
State Planning Authority

ECONOMY

ANAM New City is from inception a public and private partnership. Building on key historical precedents of traditional governance, there is a fluid integration with the State and National governing structures, inter-regional economies and modern social constructs. Much of the design and planning has been and will be informed by community meetings and regional surveys. Bound by the unity of the community, this is a landmark development initiative that is driven and supported by the people who it will affect most, and whose hope is to create real change for their families and future generations.

[*Federal Government passes planning authority to the state who passes powers to local government
authorities.]

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

C o m m u n i t y
. 74 .

G o v e r n m e n t

75

MODEL

Framework

VISION ANAM MODEL MODEL LAND WATER

Model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Logics Values & Goals Systems Agropolitan Concept Superblock Parcel

SOCIAL

Obodo Anam bu kwa obodo nwere obi umala na udi nile obula. Ani, ike, ezigbo, mmili na ihe ndi ozo. Udi njikota n’mgbanwe jikotara ndi oru niile n’uzo ohuru amaegosi ndi Africa.
Anam City is a city of flexible systems: Land, Energy, Social, Water and more. These systems connect, change together and work together in a new way to improve Africa.
ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX ECONOMY

. 22

. 23

MODEL

VISION

Logics
ANAM

The urgent need for sustainability today demands new systems of thinking and new approaches to problem solving — new spheres of logic. Societies are no longer considered outside of or independent of the natural environment, and neither can exist outside of the influence of technology. The Logic of the ANAM model is the conceptual basis and theoretical underpinning of our sustainability perspective which lives in the confluence of three spheres: Sociologic, Ecologic and Technologic (SET). The three spheres together form a regime of sustainability in which all three interactively control performance, viability and outcome. Each strategy within the Master Plan is assessed by these mutually reinforcing logics.
Sociologic-Ecologic-Technologic SET*

MODEL MODEL

SOCIO

LAND WATER

SOCIOLOGIC: a strategy that is culturally relevant, collectively improves human quality of life and encourages responsible citizenship. A truly sustainable urbanism is facilitated and manifested through its social roots. It must be grounded in cultural heritage, both in practice and form. ECOLOGIC: a strategy that is a balanced and respectful management of natural resources that meets human needs, enhances natural beauty and mitigates natural hazards. The local ecology has been a source of physical sustenance, creative inspiration and a struggle for survival. These three experiences are independently significant but must be fairly and simultaneously addressed. TECHNOLOGIC: a strategy that is a practical, problem-solving application that supports resilience, optimizes processes (time, money, resources), and applies indigenous knowledge systems while advancing innovation. Appropriate technology facilitates solutions that are readily implementable, scalable and able to yield tangible results for the present generation.
*Economics, typically understood as the third sphere of sustainability, is excluded from this SET not as a devaluation of the global phenomena, but to advance the assertion that a system of production of material wealth is not central to, but results from the collective endurance and progress of humankind as derived from this SET. The model posits the Logical SET of interrelationships as the basis for articulating a truly sustainable city.

ECO

TECHNO

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

SET Sustainability Framework

. 24

. 25

MODEL

VISION

Value & Goals
COMMUNITY COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY

1: BUILD COMMUNITY
ANAM

1
DIVERSITY

=
MOBILITY

+
PROSPERITY

1

%
VITALITY

X

>

N

!

Community Development: Given that the attribute Anam people most laud is total unity of the community, the general mandate to build a cohesive community is the primary goal. Collective Progress: Community viability and unity correlate to human security and access to opportunity. If persons with shared means for self-improvement tend toward cooperation, then collective progress is an effective method to stabilize community. Cultural Heritage: The character and nature of all urban spaces within ANAM New City reflect traditional aesthetic values and spatial patterns. Culture should be legible in the image of the city, while building on indigenous knowledge systems.

MODEL MODEL LAND

Parameters: 8 shared values

Community, Equity, Productivity, Quality, Diversity, Mobility, Prosperity and Vitality are considered the eight shared values to maximize in the ANAM New City model (8 parameters). Together they convey a SET of general goals with respect to the nature of the Settlement, People and Mandate associated with this Master Plan document.

WATER

EQUITY

2: PROMOTE EQUITY Equality: The customary Anam practice of unimpeded production, protection and transfer of equity for all persons should remain enshrined. Platforms created to ensure equal access encourage active participation and value input. Shared Ownership: Anam community should act as stakeholders and shareholders with equity in the overall enterprise as well as component activities and businesses. 3: GENERATE PRODUCTIVITY
SOCIAL

=

ECONOMY ENERGY

PRODUCTIVITY

+
. 26 .

Pro-Productivity: ANAM New City adds to the Anam culture of agricultural and productive landscapes -- i.e. the dedication to cultivating Anam-administered lands and historically produce foodstuffs in excess of consumption -- to a broad commitment to productive lifestyle.

27

MOBILITY APPENDIX

MODEL
QUALITY

4: STANDARDIZE QUALITY Quality of Life: The primary driver behind ANAM city is to rapidly elevate quality of life to measureable worldclass standards and extend across future generations. The value of quality with respect to the new city should be broadly apparent in real and perceived quality of products, goods and services circulating and originating in ANAM; operation of urban amenities at international standards of quality; and standard delivery of high quality of life. Quality Infrastructure: Noting that shoddy and degraded buildings and environments devalue their urban context, high quality infrastructure and building construction should be demonstrated, promoted and supported by a culture of maintenance.

PROSPERITY

7: Propagate PROSPERITY Economic Growth: Economic success drives the viability of any city. Therefore, ANAM wi.. serve as a pro-business platform to support a culture of entrepreneurship from microenterprises to international commerce and medium and large-scale industry. Agriculture and agro-industry are of particular note for their prime significance within this economic structure. Promotion of a strong local economy will also be supported with intergenerational access to and transfer of assets. 8: Emanate VITALITY

VISION

%

N

ANAM MODEL MODEL LAND

VITALITY

DIVERSITY

5: Cultivate DIVERSITY City for Everyone: The factor of diversity can have a multiplying effect on the output of the city. In order to generate a dynamic urbanism, interaction and hybridity should be privileged over homogeneity. Thus, while zoning should be strictly enforced, mixed-use development and mixed-income neighborhoods should be encouraged. Resiliency: Diversity as applied to greenspace, urban design, land use as well as within demographics of ANAM New City’s permanent and transient population should draw inspiration from the ecological concept of resiliency in which greater heterogeneity of an ecosystem correlates to higher resistance to external stresses.

!

X

Balance: Comfort and health are among the most important characteristics of any urban environment. Since the preservation of natural habitats and ecology within the urban development is a key consideration, these same spaces should be used strategically to balance biological systems, regulate microclimate, weave greenspaces strategically into and throughout the city, and beautify the urban landscape. Creativity: Ultimately, this strategic synergy should not only maximize each of the above shared values within ANAM New City, but also crystallize as a creative nexus that allows for a uniquely vibrant urbanism that activates new possibilities by energizing people, landscapes and relationships.

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

MOBILITY

6: Expand MOBILITY Future-Oriented: Free movement of all people and goods throughout the full extent of the city is for the greater good of urban performance and access. Navigability: Make urban layout easy to understand and navigate. Create a hierarchy of transportation that begins with pedestrians. TOD: Organize Transit-Oriented Development around programmatic and high use nodes.
. .

>

MOBILITY APPENDIX

28

29

MODEL

VISION

Systems
ANAM

E HE RITA GE MICR O-FIN AN FOOD SECU CE RITY

The design of the city and its supporting systems is modeled after natural ecosystems. It contains modular and eco-dynamic subsystems to sustainably manage the demand and supply of the region within which it exists. The holistic, closed-loop design approach considers a balance of inputs and outputs both from natural and man-made sources. In order to generate a dynamic urbanism, interaction and hybridity is privileged over homogenity.
T

ECONOMY
MODEL MODEL
TY M ICI OP TR EL EC DEV CY L R E ED IEN LA NT IC SO ORIE EFF GY IT NS ENER RA T EN

INF

OR

SOCIA L CA PITA L

MA T SM ION T AR EC T G HN RID OLO

GY

PEOPLE-POWERED

LAND

SYSTEM

ATTRIBUTES

Outcomes

ENERGY
LAND · · · · · · · · · · COLLECTIVE OWNERSHIP HERITAGE LANDSCAPE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE OPTIMIZED DENSITY MODULAR SCALABILITY CONSTRUCTIVE IMPACT FLOOD INTEGRATION RAINWATER HARVESTING WATER TABLE RETENTION WATER JUSTICE
Community owns all land, individuals own improvements to it Respect sacred and historic sites in perpetuity Use ecology to manage environment Balance sprawl and overcongestion with walkability Design in pieces that allow for growth Improve the environment instead of degrading it
BIOG AS WAS TE T

LAND

SCAP

MOBILITY SOCIETY
PUBLIC PARATRANSIT RURBAN CULTURE

WATER

COLL ECT LAND IVE OWN ERSH REGIS IP COM T MUN RATION ITY B PROD ANK UC ING AGR TIVE LA O IND NDS CAPE US WAT ER T TRY ABLE RECH ARG E

Collect as much rainwater as possible Recharge the water table commensurate with use Guarantee everyone access to clean water Combine the best of urban and rural ways of living Actively promote total unity of the community Amplify the ethics (and economics) of local productivity Strive to use less energy than produced Convert sunlight into energy Build a decencentralized smart grid of energy sources Exploit closed loops to extract energy from waste Invest in people Focus on agriculture-based industry for job growth Ensure that the community can feed itself locally Engineer early businesses to grow secondary businesses Recycle inputs and outputs across businesses Build the city both physically and digitally in real time Prioritize human-powered modes of transportation Leverage technology for feedback and iterative improvement

RA

INW

AT

ER

HA

SOCIETY

· RURBAN CULTURE · UNIFIED PUBLIC · LOCAL PRODUCTION · · · · · · · · · ENERGY POSITIVE SOLAR FARMING DISTRIBUTED NETWORKS WASTE = ENERGY SOCIAL CAPITAL AGRO INDUSTRY FOOD SECURITY SEED PROGRAMMING LIFECYCLE RE-SOURCING

RV

ES

TIN

WAT

WATER

TS KE AR RKS L M TWO A UR NE D LT ICU UTE GR RIB A T DIS

ER T

RAN

SIT

WAT ER J

SOCIAL

O EN ERG Y

USTIC E

ECONOMY

G

LAND

ENERGY

FLOOD INTEGRATION RURBAN CULTURE MULTI-MODAL TRANSIT GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

WATER

ENERGY

ECONOMY

MOBILITY

MOBILITY

· REALTIME DIGITAL · PEOPLE-POWERED · CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

APPENDIX

. 30

. 31

VISION

ANAM

MODEL MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

A CELL OF URBANISM

MODEL

. 32

.

33

MODEL

VISION

ALA OBI Illo Housing Markets School Agro-industry

Pa th of th eR

ALA + AGROPOLITAN TERRITORY
i

ANAM MODEL MODEL

un gS sin

IS AX AL GIC OLO EC
U

LAND

ALA ULO Hospital Community farms Wetland park Erosion control Groundwater recharge

WATER

BA R

NA

XIS

AL

B AO AL

I O G AA U
AGROPOLITAN TERRITORY
In Igbo tradition, ala (land) is conceptualized as literally living according to a gradient of three tiers:

L AU AL

SOCIAL ECONOMY

ALA AGU Fish ponds Hunting Ecological sinks Preservation areas Ecotourism

ENERGY

ILLO

ALA OBI - residential or domestic space ALA ULO - transitional farmland ALA AGU - wild or natural environment Taken at a different scale, this approach to spatial zoning can describe an agropolitan territory for living, in which inhabitants of any settlement must not only actively produce their own food, but also mediate the space of their collective living with the natural environment.

MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 34

.

35

MODEL

VISION

Concept Diagrams
ANAM

DENSIFY

In order to preserve avoid sprawl, Plan development that is compact by building for density, but designing for people. Overtime the city should become more vertical than horizontal to maximize efficient access and transportation corridors, as well as preserving farm and wetlands.

DECENTRALIZE

Plan for decentralized systems that are smaller, more numerous and scalable. This allow for more affordable, more efficient and sustainable technology types that are flexible as populations and needs change over time.

MODEL MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL

ACCRETE

Accretion means a very gradual addition of land mass. In the case of Anam City, this relates to the water and flooded edges where land will be increased to mitigate erosion and protect the ecologic systems in conjunction with creating more stable ground protected from flooding.

SEED

Plant seeds within the city to invite and encourage economic and social development. Plant seeds of Anam City in other existing cities nearby to provide a framework for community infrastructure development at the local level and contextual to Africa.

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 36

. 37

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
MODEL
VISION

Superblock
ANAM

3.1 ha ala ulo 7.2 ha ala obi 3.1 ha ala ulo

‘Superblock’ is the urban module of a given agropolitan territory. This single unit of urbanism operates in isolation or as part of a larger network. In place of centralized infrastructure, superblocks feature smaller decentralized systems that are more costeffective, scalable, and able to be deployed on demand. A chain of superblocks forms a linear spine of urbanism with 400 meter (5 minute) walking radii.

MODEL MODEL LAND

400 m

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

4 km
. 38 .

39

APPENDIX

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

MODEL

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

VISION

Superblock
Program

225 housing units 1000 residents 250 commercial units 500 workers
*represents a maximum planned density potential

Users

25 housing units 118 residents 68 workers

32 housing units 32 residents 144 workers

ANAM

a

b
PARATRANSIT

b d
PARATRANSIT

a c

14 housing units 68 residents 32 workers

MODEL MODEL

c f e
12 housing units 108 residents

LAND

34 housing units 159 residents 102 workers
PARATRANSIT PARATRANSIT

e
14 housing units 72 residents

f
WATER

PARATRANSIT

PARATRANSIT

Dimensions
30 m 30 m 30 m
450 m2

3,600 m2

Community center / utility block Commercial corridor Housing Paratransit routes and mobility hubs Bioswales for stormwater management Floodwater interchange Greenspace and infrastructure Ala ulo farm and wetland buffer
40 .

120 m
30 m

60 m

.

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
9m 18 m 9m
2,700 m2 2,700 m2 1,800 m2

SOCIAL ECONOMY

63 m

3m 12 m

ENERGY

3,600 m2

213 m

60 m

3m

3,600 m2

30 m

12 m

60 m

120 m

MOBILITY

3m

30 m 90 m 336 m 90 m 60 m

41

APPENDIX

MODEL

VISION

Superblock
ANAM

1-D CHAIN

CLUSTER

MODEL MODEL LAND

2-D TILE

WATER SOCIAL

CONSTELLATION

ECONOMY

BUFFERED
ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 42

. 43

MODEL

VISION

Parcels
ANAM

Initially, each land transfer will pass two equal 15x30m parcels to Anam families. This will allow them to build a self sufficient home on one parcel, and then to preserve the second parcel, either as an income generator or for use by future family.

MODEL MODEL

permeable laneway

LAND

solar power future expansion

WATER SOCIAL

domestic garden bioswale filtration garden
tra ns

rainwater storage

biogas shared courtyard

ECONOMY

po

rta

tio

n

vacant lot under cultivation

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 44

. 45

Systems

ANAM MODEL URBAN LAND LAND WATER

Land
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Land Ownership Context Map Growing a New City Mapping the Land Ecological Urbanism and Ruban Development Process and Drivers of Land Use Land Use Green Infrastructure Public Spaces

ENERGY

N’ime Anam, ani dika oge egburu egbu n’ihe niile obula, supuru ha ma kekwara ya ndi obodo niile. Obodo ohuru Anam ga arukwa ulo maka ebe mepere emepe na kwa ebe na emepeghi emepe maka emume odimma ndi mmadu.
METRICS MOBILITY ECONOMY

In Anam, land is a timeless element, respected and shared by the entire community. Anam New City will make room for urban and rural programs so different people can benefit.

APPENDIX

. 76

. 77

LAND

I conceive that land belongs to a vast family of which many are dead, few are living and countless yet unborn.
Elesi of Odogbolu
A Nigerian chief to the West African land commission in 1912

ANAM MODEL URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY MOBILITY METRICS APPENDIX

. 78

. 79

LAND

ANAM

Land Ownership
COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

THE ANAM COMMUNITY

1

=

+

%

X

>

N

!

Strategies
In Africa, access and rights to land is a critical element in economic development, poverty alleviation and security. Thus, rules that govern how land is allocated and used, and who benefits from its product is an important political and socio-economic concern. A secure right to land is often a precondition for investment and stakeholdership. Community All land is communally held and initially allocated through traditional leadership councils overseeing a Community Trust Fund. Land is viewed as a common asset and resource, usable by and reaping benefits for all members of the community. Thus, over time, increased demand for land, together with public investment in infrastructure, will increase land value and create revenue for the entire community and support additional public improvements. Farmers & Families Farmers with secure or long-term land rights are more likely to invest their full effort or make long-term improvements to the land, increasing productivity and their prospect of wealth creation. All residential plots of land in rurban Anam are sized to provide space for future building expansion, subdivision for generational transfer and/or small farms. This creates a greater social safety net and improves food security for households. Entrepreneurs & Developers A well-functioning land institution and market improves the investment climate where transferable land titles can be used as collateral in accessing credit. Because land is community-owned, developers own improvements only and agree to lease terms established by the community’s leadership council. All businesses are required to contribute 10% of their profits to a community trust fund each year.

Consistent with traditional practice, land is viewed as a communal asset and resource, usable by and reaping benefits for all members of the community.

FAMILIES & FARMERS

MODEL

Small land holdings are designed for use by families or farmers to encourage longterm tenancy and security for individuals for the future growth of their family and farms.

URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY MOBILITY

DEVELOPERS

Because land is communityowned, developers own the improvements to the land only and agree to lease terms established by the community’s leadership council.

ENTREPRENUERS

METRICS

* The Federal Nigerian Government claims all petroleum and mineral resource extraction rights in Nigeria and can acquire anyone’s land for this purpose. There is currently no plans for mineral exploration or extraction.

A mixed-use urban area, the city will support a diverse range of businesses who may use land with permission from the community and are required to return 10% of their profits to the community.

APPENDIX

. 80

. 81

ANAM

MODEL

URBAN

LAND LAND

WATER

ENERGY

ECONOMY

MOBILITY

METRICS

APPENDIX

Context

LAND

. 82

.

83

LAND

ANAM

How can we grow a new kind of African city in Anam?
MODEL

Starting with small beginnings the Anam process plants several seed projects into the landscape in order to germinate growth and innovation. In many ways Anam City can be considered a nursery; a nursery of economic growth, for technology and innovation in efficient and sustainable ways to live in Africa. Thus the city is not a transplanted population or an all-to-once construction, but something that will be seeded, planted, and cultivated organically over time. The urban design and land use plans have been crafted to inspire proliferation. Planting seed projects and infrastructure systems in distributed nodes they can self-propagate and expand, setting in motion a chain of reactions both physically and socioeconomically as new supporting housing, businesses and infrastructures are needed.

URBAN LAND LAND WATER

H
health clinic

ENERGY

school

ECONOMY

+

fish farm

MOBILITY

+
poultry farm

+
brick factory

illo
METRICS

We will plant seed projects.
. 84 .

85

APPENDIX

LAND

ANAM

Mapping the Land
MODEL URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY

gps_water landing gps_water-edge gps_water

gps_plant gps_infrastrucutre gps_building

gps_traditional site gps_infrastrucutre gps_road

gps_walk gps_misc gps_land

With the range of online and digital tools available for mapping, the Anam City design team has developed an accessible approach to converting site data into a workable design format. Engineering surveys can be costly and time consuming, so for a non-profit community-based project, purchasing a third-party survey was not feasible at this stage in the project. With a handheld GPS any community can execute their own mapping project for local development and planning initiatives. GPS data helped to generate existing conditions and to produce site adaptive urban design drawings based. As the city develops, individual buildings and infrastructure can be created in Google Sketchup and submitted to the Google Earth online database.

MOBILITY METRICS APPENDIX

. 86

. 87

ANAM

Ecological Urbanism
MODEL

The existing ecological systems on the Anam land have played a significant role in defining the urban design and infrastructure systems for Anam City. The landscape gradient from aquatic to wooded areas of the land match with existing land use practices throughout the history of this area. A healthy city will operate in balance with the natural ecosystems and develop its own systems that are based on ecology or that enhance existing ecologies on the land.

URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY MOBILITY

PONDS

EBENEBE TREES

WET MEADOWS

DOMESTIC GARDENS

SAVANNAH

WOODLANDS

BAMBOO THICKET

FOREST MOSAIC

AGRICULTURE
Wetlands are currently dominated by extensive yam & cassava farming.

RIPARIAN
Soft edge of Ebenebe with a mix of large and small trees provides varying levels of erosion control.

AQUATIC
METRICS

Low lands on Beautiful, Tall grasses are Food, medicinal the western invaluable and home to extensive and decorative boundary become resilient through wildlife including plants buffer ponds collecting flooding, the birds, frogs, houses from rainwater as well insects and when uninhabited as an extensive Ebenebe tree is the spaces. waterway during embodiment of the flooded, fish. land itself. the flood.

Scrub brush, Lush swads of grasslands are wooded forests thickly wild areas on the highest part of the land, inhabited by containing large bush rodents trees for food, and birds. shade, and sacred deities. .

Bamboo clumps Large trees of various sizes and wooded create pleasant clumps dot the interruptions to the agricultural area, forest. creating a diverse and interesting landscape. .

The Ezichi river is a throughway for people and is home to a diversity of aquatic plants & animals.

APPENDIX

88

89

LAND
nic cli

ANAM

How does it work?
ab er, at . f w und o ro w flo ow g l ze riti be io o an ve d
arm hf fis
block factory market

+
ts

o ho sc l

MODEL

+

+

illo

Pr 1.

Pla 4.

se nt

ed

ec roj p

URBAN

+ +

+

LAND LAND

+
ize ral d d no es

WATER

+

Bu 2.

i

on ld

hi

g

ro h g

u

nd

+
ec f d o ain

en

t

ENERGY

+ +
N 5. urt ch a ure

+

ECONOMY MOBILITY

ork d w an ints ms a far nstr & o ds tal c an n etl me e w ron erv envi ns Co ithin 3. w
. 90 .

op Pr 6.

a ag

g te

t row

h f

d no m ro

es

91

METRICS APPENDIX

LAND

ANAM

Land Use
MODEL
COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

1

=

+

%

X

>

N

!

Strategies
Land use planning is concerned with the allocation and arrangement of land to achieve efficient and desired development. Land use and zoning practices not only shape the city residents’ lifestyle and quality of life, but also have a major impact on the natural resources. Therefore it is the objective of the ANAM land use plan to create an efficient and flexible way to use land while minimizing the impacts of the development on natural resources. Another major concern is to create a pleasant and distinct urban character that reflects and fosters the unity of Anam people.
Health Node
s

URBAN

Ol

o

u gw

log

E wu

d

a uc

tio

na

a l F

r

& ms

o P

nd

LAND LAND

Education Node

WATER

Technopole

ENERGY

Fish Farm Node

Otosi Bamboo Preserve

Agropolitan territory for farming
illo Node Agroindustrial Node Poultry Farm Market Node

#1 THE FISH FARM NODE IS PHASE 1
ECONOMY

Hotel Resort & Marina
rito or ry f far

min

g

#1 THE BRICK FACTORY IS PHASE 1
Market Access Corridor

City Wetland Park

Elopu Farm & Wetland Area

Ag

rop

an olit

ter

MOBILITY

Node + Seed Project
METRICS

Neighborhoods Farmland Regional Connector Roads

APPENDIX

. 92

. 93

LAND

ANAM MODEL

The ANAM land use plan aims to achieve these objectives by incorporating:

• Urban nodes • Mixed-use corridors • Self-contained neighborhoods • A continuous green system Recommendations • Integrate the natural features of the site to the Master Plan as green • • • • • • • • •

Unlike many new cities, the agropolitan area will evolve organically over time, rather than all-to-once. In this way it can continue to grow, be tested and evaluated, and change over time and as needed. The systems are also designed to grown in this way, scalable and decentralized to adjust to fast or slow variations in population. Key seed businesses can inspire economic activity and propagate ecological connectivity between urban systems, while providing the most basic offering

URBAN

fingers, preservation areas, agricultural areas, and Create a dynamic and flexible plan to accommodate future growth Develop a land use scheme that encourages mass transit and walking Promote self-contained neighborhoods of 5,000 people with localized service centers and some shared major social facilities Include development of mixed-use centers at various levels (regional, community, neighborhood) Encourage mixed-use development corridors, especially along major transit routes Apply energy conservative land use practices Ensure affordability and residential diversity Encourage mix of housing densities throughout the city Enhance the waterfront as a social and commercial amenity

LAND LAND

Anam City is

WATER

445 hectare
agropolitan territory in Southeastern Nigeria
KA ME AA BAT AG

8 ha
ENERGY

O UYW OGO
9 ha

21 ha

Indicators • Population that does not exceed 25,000 people within the agropolitan • • •

ECONOMY

territory. Additional population will be located in planned satellite communities. Neighborhoods that do not exceed 5,000 people Neighborhood centers and social facilities within 15 minutes walking distance operating at or below maximum capacity Maximum 15 minutes walking distance to transit and green infrastructure

OTOSI

ELOPU

I IRUAN

SA ALO

39 ha
MOBILITY

ANAM NEW CITY

Site Selection
Though unique as a site for an urban area, the location for the first phase of ANAM CITY was selected by the community for their new settlement because it is their land. It was not feasible for them to consider the purchase of new property elsewhere. The Anam people have a tradition of establishing new settlements, and Anam City will be their fourth of such initiatives, and is considered PHASE FOUR in their history.
. 94 .

95

METRICS APPENDIX

LAND

ANAM

Land Use
MODEL

72% AGROPOLITAN TERRITORY (farmland + wetlands) 28% URBAN AXIS CORE 9% 10% 12% 15% 18% 33%

URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY MOBILITY METRICS APPENDIX

9% Agroindustrial 10% Special Culture Zones 12% Green Infrastructure + Roads 15% Urban Core High Density Zone 18% Hybrid Medium Density Zone 33% Neighborhood Low Density Zone
. 96 .

URBAN AXIS CORE

97

LAND

ANAM

Green Infrastructure
MODEL
COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

1

=

+

%

X

>

N

!

Strategies
ANAM’s green infrastructure describes the network of multifunctional natural resources and ecosystem in the region including essential features.The key components of ANAM’s green infrastructure include the Ezichi River, dense forestry, seasonal wetlands, parks, open spaces, productive landscapes, and recreational areas. Since the preservation of natural habitats and ecology within the urban development is a key consideration, these same spaces will be used strategically to balance biological systems, regulate micro-climate, weave greenspaces strategically into and throughout the city, and beautify the urban landscape. Strategies to integrate, preserve and optimize the green infrastructure within the master plan include:
• • • Integrated green spaces, wetlands, ponds and agricultural areas for productive and decorative purposes within urban fabric A continuous and accessible system of environmentally significant areas Enhanced waterfront as a social and commercial amenity

URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY ECONOMY

bioswale

MOBILITY METRICS APPENDIX

. 98

. 99

Green Infrastructure means......
Recommendations • • • • • •
Integrate the natural features of the site to the Master Plan as green fingers, preservation areas, agricultural areas Preserve and enrich key ecosystems Create a continuous and accessible system of environmentally significant areas Enhance the waterfront as a social and commercial amenity Ensure public access to green spaces within walking distance of every building Integrate urban agriculture to the green network scheme

ANAM MODEL

Recharging the water table with permeable surfaces and percolation infrastructure Building streets with bioswales for drainage instead of concrete gutters Using low impact designs that mitigate erosion on slopes Increasing tree cover to cool the air and create shade Including parks, farms, wetlands and landscape as part of the city Designing beautiful habitats for people and animals

URBAN LAND LAND

Indicators • • • • • •
At least 70% of city preserved as multi-functional open space with productive and recreational green infrastructure Prohibited/limited development away from waterfront, swamps and wetlands Extensive public access to green walkways and spaces Increased diversity in the fauna and the flora Decreased flooding Reduced impervious spaces as compared to traditional urban developments

WATER ENERGY ECONOMY

native vegetation that can tolerate dry and very wet conditions water run off from hard surfaces gravel underlayer to maximize water absorption and facilitate drainage (optional) underdrain perforated pipe

MOBILITY METRICS

bioswale
100

APPENDIX

.

. 101

LAND
E. Learning Landscape

ANAM

Public Spaces

D1. Waterfront Edge: Dynamic Waterfront Condition
A waterfront park that performs urbanistically but also negotiates the soft edge between the city and the river/canal - which changes in elevation by 20-30 feet annually.

A. Half House/Half Farm C1. Public Landscape Axis: Transit Node
Transit Node: A multimodal transit axis that connects a riverfront (or canal) dock/landing to the urban node and public paratransit stop at the community utility block (“m. illo”). Develop a concept for the paratransit and/or water taxi stop, to understand the relationship of road to bioswale to sidewalk to trees/urban green infrastructure and wetlands. Landscape design for a house representing a basic module for affordable housing. The House (compound & incremental) is sited on a 15x30m lot, with an adjacent 15x30 m lot for future expansion. The House is fully “off-the-grid” - and the “yard” incorporates systems of rainwater collection, biogas, solar & a garden for graywater. Additional green infrastructure can include planted privacy walls, green screens, porous paving, and using landscape to choreograph communal living.

An outdoor classroom that is a park around the school and may extend into adjacent wetlands or riverfront. Consider a playground that could produce edible food, but also be an extension of the school itself with shaded/sheltered spaces that allow outdoor exploration in hot/rainy weather. Learning landscape is also connected to technology hub, facilitating information flow, access and advancement for multiple users.

MODEL URBAN LAND LAND WATER ENERGY

B. Fish Farm as Public Park
As a floating public greenspace with a private center; the fish farm will be built on a section of the river which floods seasonally. Berms will surround the fish farm to help regulate water levels as well as provide an above-water pedestrian path for people to dock their boats and access the city proper. The berms will also be planted with bamboo to help secure the soil profile, and mixed with other trees (plantain, banana) to provide food and shade the fish ponds.

ECONOMY MOBILITY

F. Agro-Industrial: Working Waterfront:
This waterfront edge is part of the larger ‘ecological/industrial’ polyculture that connect demand and outputs(waste) from the various businesses. Highly resilient to heavy human impacts the edge may also function as a market space, and home to smaller cottage industries or kiosks.

D2. Waterfront Edge: Civic Waterfront C2. Public Landscape Axis: Pocket Parks
A park typology that can be deployed throughout the city and has some added function (like collecting or filtering water, or solar panels as shade structures). This could also be a greenway/parkway. An “urban” waterfront and highly impacted landscape near the convention center/hotel that is ‘ecological’ but resilient to both heavy human traffic and the seasonal water fluctuation. Programmatically it can includes a marina, boardwalks, outdoor furniture, small vending kiosks and public gathering spaces.

METRICS APPENDIX

. 102

. 103

WATER

Systems

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER WATER

Water
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bioregional Approach Healthy Watershed Water Supply Water System Rainwater Harvesting

SOCIAL

Mmili buka ngosi ma bukwalu ihe isi ike di n’ime Anam. Imeputa ihe n’mmili Anam icho ihe di n’ime ya mma, nakwa imepe ya na oge, na iru kwa ihe achoro iru nakwa iku ihe ga ano ogo logo oge n’ebe mmili gas esi na aga n’ebe mmili ozizo ga esi agasi ike unwata unwa n’okiri kiri obodo a hu.
Water is both a blessing and a hardship in Anam. The Anam water system will strategically design water infrastructure, so that the annual flooding and heavy rainfall can be a positive natural force in the cycles of the city.
MOBILITY APPENDIX ENERGY ECONOMY

. 104

. 105

WATER

VISION

A Bioregional Approach
Yenisey Yukon

Kolyma Lena

ANAM

1.
Mackenzie

WORLD

Ob

MODEL

Nelson

St. Lawrence

Danube

Amur Volga
LAND

2.
Mississippi
NIGER RIVER WATERSHED

CONTINENT

Euphrates & Tigris

3. BIOREGION 4.
COUNTRY STATE

Ganges

Huang He

WATER

DRINKING & DOMESTIC USE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION ENERGY GENERATION AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION RECREATION

5.
ANAMBRA RIVER WATERSHED EZICHI RIVER WATERSHED

Yangtze Nile Indus

6. REGION 7. AGROPOLITAN

SOCIAL

8. ANAM CITY
Amazon

9. COMMUNITY 10. NEIGHBORHOOD 11. ECOSYSTEM 12. BLOCK 13. PARCEL

Lake Chad Basin Congo Zambezi

The NIGER RIVER BASIN is located in western Africa and covers 7.5% of the continent, spanning ten countries, including Nigeria.
Total area of the country (km2) = 923,770 Area of the country within the basin (km2) = 584193 As % of total area of basin (%) = 25.7 As % of total area of country (%) = 63.2 Average annual rainfall in the basin area (mm) = 535 min., 2845 max., 1185 mean
[Source: FAO Land and Water Development Division]

ECONOMY ENERGY

Paraná

Orange

Murray Darling

MOBILITY APPENDIX

Major Rivers and Watersheds of the World

.

. 107

106

WATER

Sahara Desert

VISION

The Niger River Watershed Covers 62% of Nigeria

MALI NIGER

ANAM MODEL

NIGER RIVER BASIN
GUINEA SIERRA LEONE BURKINO FASO BENIN

LAND WATER WATER SOCIAL

NIGERIA

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

Niger River Delta ATLANTIC OCEAN
Niger River Watershed and Flood Plain spans eight countries.

CAMEROON

APPENDIX

. 108

. 109

WATER

VISION

Healthy Watershed
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY VITALITY

=

+

%

X

>

!

Living with Flooding
The Niger & Anambra River Basin is home to the Anam people. The eight traditional communities of Anam are currently spread across the region generally known as a river flood plain. For more than three months each year, this area is transformed into pervasive marshlands due to low elevation and flat terrain. During the rainy season, the region can receive up to 200cm of rainfall. At its peak, water levels rise can rise up to 3 meters in some areas and farmers are forced to leave their farms to stay at highland settlements with relatives. Roadways are cut off forcing schools, farming and other activities to be suspended until the floodwaters recede.

MODEL

FEB: lowest water level of Anambra & Ezichi Rivers LAND

The Challenge of Balance
Annual flooding has become a part of life for the Anam people and they travel throughout the region from farm to market on the rivers by canoe to conduct trade. They respond to the natural hydrological systems for their survival and have innovated many solutions for managing their resources during the floods. On farm settlements, farmers build flexible farm storage and construct mounds and hummocks near their housing for protection. The wetland condition resulting from the floods are a critical contributor to regional biodiversity and ecological strength. The seasonal floodwaters serve as natural irrigation and deposits nutrient-rich sediments on to farmlands. However, increasing population and urbanization creates pressure on the hydrologic system in this riverine area. Conventional development causes wetland areas to be reduced, which damages water supply and quality. A depleted flood plain also increases risk of flooding in other areas of the region as water rushes in during the rainy season and as water levels rise in response to global climate change.

WATER WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

JUN: rainy season starts

A Community Wide Response
While the flooding offers many benefits to agriculture and the ecology, it creates great hardship to the people of Anam, forcing a subsistence lifestyle and cutting them off from social services. The Anam communities are faced with the challenge of balancing environmental protection with an urgent need to improve human quality of life. An ecologically balanced response with integrated watershed management is needed to ensure that both humans and the environment survive. In a rare regional and crosscommunity collaboration, leaders from the eight traditional Anam settlements have joined together to address their development needs in a broader, more cohesive manner. With this approach, the Rebirth Council is embarking on a remarkable community-led process, a model at the forefront of best practices in Regional Planning & Development.
. 110

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

SEPT: major flooding begins Water levels in the Anam region change drastically over the year

OCT: peak flooding

. 111

WATER

VISION

Causes of Water Pollution
Bottles & Cans Smoke & Exhausts Oil & Petroleum

ANAM

Watermarks
Number of Nigerian impacted by flooding each year in the Niger River Basin: 1,000,000
[African Institute for Applied Economics]

Agricultural Fertilizers Plastic Bags Pesticides Human Body Waste Trash

MODEL

Millimeters (inches) of rainfall annually in Anam: 1400-2200 (55-78)
[Laser Engineering & Resource Consultants]

Toxic Chemicals Plastic & Rubber

Average number of miles walked by women in Africa to collect water: 4
[LivingWaterCanada.Org]

LAND

Current number of Nigerians under danger from erosion and flood disaster: 50 million
[Federal Government of Nigeria]

Percent of Nigerians who depend on purchased satchet water from outside sources: 70

Soaps & Detergents

WATER WATER

Death by Water Illness Death by War
0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000

80% of industries in Nigeria discharge liquids, solids, and gaseous wastes directly into the environment without adequate treatment that meats the basic standards.

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

Percent of Nigerians using improved drinking water in 2008:

MOBILITY

58%

APPENDIX

. 112

. 113

WATER

VISION

Water Supply
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY VITALITY

=
Strategies

+

%

X

>

!

MODEL

Outside of agriculture, water is the most significant ecological feature of the city and presents both a unique advantage and a design challenge. The site of Anam city is conveniently sited near the Ezichi River (which feeds into the Anambra and then Niger rivers), and receives abundant rainfall each year and has access to a large regional aquifer. However, due to its low elevation, the region is prone to flooding every rainy season. Therefore, water strategies is concerned with:

75 liters a day per resident for drinking and non-drinking uses [washing, irrigation, toilets]

LAND

• • • • •

Quality urban water provision Flood & storm water management Balance of natural hydrological cycle of water Water conservation and Autonomous small-scale systems.

WATER WATER SOCIAL

WATER WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY HANDCART OR BIKETRAILER TO HOUSES

ECONOMY ENERGY

Each WATER BOREHOLE with a solar pump can supply potable water for approximately 1,600 people per day
. 114 .

115

MOBILITY APPENDIX

WATER

VISION ANAM

Recommendations • • • • • • • • •
Prioritize recharge of groundwater table and aquifers through percolating pits, recharge wells, sand ponds and porous paving. Require dual piping systems in each unit to allow for potable and grey water delivery. Install shared water boreholes at community utility blocks with on site storage and treatment/filtration (UV units and micron filters) as main potable water provision. Require rainwater catchment systems as a supplemental water source on each unit. Restrict landscaping & fire protection water demands to rainwater (or untreated well water). Maintain on site rainwater treatment systems to deliver potable water to units. Install water-conserving fixtures in all buildings (i.e. low flow faucets & toilets, shower aerators). Utilize shared small- cale water treatment plants to support grey s water recycling for large buildings or institutions. Incorporate creative installation of utilities within landscape (i.e. children’s play pump or landscaped parking lots). Design all buildings and urban spaces to be resilient through annual flooding and 100 year flood levels.

ANAM REGIONAL GROUNDWATER DATA FOR BOREHOLES
Alluvial Plains Borehole level Typical Borehole yield Static water levels Water Table Aquifer Screen position 40 m (average) 4 L/sec 10 m

MODEL LAND

5.5 m 30 m

WATER WATER

Est. Full Day Water Pumping

115,200 L/8-hr day

Each Borehole (1 per superblock)

1536 people served/day (75L/person/day)
SOCIAL ECONOMY

Indicators • • • • • •
Reduced water usage per capita – 50% less than international average Increased rainwater catchment and use – at least 80% of annual rainfall collectible over catchment area Decreased potable water demand through increased greywater recycling – 100% grey water recycle or filtration Decreased commercial & agro-industrial water demand Increased urban storm water infiltration and ground water recharge – at least 50% of urban space will be pervious Increased usable land area through decreased flood zones

ONE (1) BOREHOLE PER SUPERBLOCK
50 METERS
WATER BOREHOLE & POTABLE WATER SUPPLY PERMEABLE SURFACE FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 116

. 117

WATER

VISION

Water System
MAXIMUM WATER CONSUMED PER PERSON • 75 LITERS PER DAY MAXIMUM IMPERVIOUS SURFACES • NOT TO EXCEED 10-20% ROOF AREA DESIGNED FOR RAINWATER HARVEST • MINIMUM 90% SEWAGE TREATMENT ONSITE • 100% VIA BIOGAS WITHIN 30 METERS
e rg velop
RU N O FF

t
(p

e et m rg elop a de v

% 4 35 nt

5%

)

re

P VA E

O

I AT R

O

N

IN 14 FA 00 m LL la -2 nn 00 ua 0 lly

RA

ANAM

3 RAINWATER HARVEST
MODEL

YOUR HOUSE
(pre development 100%)

LAND

target 80-90%

BOREHOLE

WATER WATER

e ed (pr

ta

0 n t 1 me

0% ) -2 t <5%

PERMEABLE
% 45 45 5% )

SURFACES & BIOSWALES

p rg lo TE ta deve IN (p re

5- nt 3 t 3 me e

L RF

O

W

1

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

4 RECYCLE & CONSERVE

SOCIAL

2
ECONOMY

RIVER 1
GROUNDWATER RECHARGE: Recharging underground aquifers takes primary importance in securing a sustainable access to safe water. In Anam city, the groundwater table is directly related to the river level. Thus, polluting one effects the other. Soil filtration through permeable surfaces, percolating pits and recharge wells mitigate erosion and allow stormwater to filter through earth medium and refill groundwater sources. BOREHOLES): Distributed boreholes will be the primary source of potable water in Anam city. Due to the easily accessible water table and aquifers, boreholes can be cost-effectively installed at the community utility block of each superblock. With a solar pump, one borehole can supply water to more than 1,600 people per day. . 118

GROUND WATER TABLE
3
RAINWATER HARVEST With over 150cm of rainfall each year, Anam households are able to harvest enough rainwater for more than 80% of their annual demand. Each building in the city will be designed to enable rainwater harvesting. Collecting rainwater also reduces stormwater runoff and erosion while providing a backup water source at the point of use.

ENERGY MOBILITY

2

4
.

RECYCLE & CONSERVE: The hydrological cycle in nature teaches the importance of recycling the precious resource of water. Thus, at the unit-scale in the city, smart water management is encouraged through dual piping for recycling grey water, installing low-flow fixtures and incentives for reduced use.

119

APPENDIX

WATER

VISION

Rainwater Harvesting
ANAM MODEL LAND WATER WATER

Rooftops can capture 80% of annual household water demand in Anam
70,000 51,920 47,760 52,500 36,000 31,840 35,000 15,920 17,500 4,880 28,400 16,640 40,160

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

11,760 liters
MOBILITY

0

-6,880

-18,640

1 square meter
120

=

1400-2000 L of water (annually)
. .

-17,500

Estimated Rainwater Storage Capacity in excess of Consumption Estimated Monthly Consumption per Household (washing, irrigation, toilet ONLY)
-35,000 January February March April May June July August September October November December

APPENDIX

Calculations of rainwater storage capacity and consumption in Anam City

121

SOCIAL DESIGN

Systems

VISION ANAM

Heal Earn

MODEL

Educate
Grow

Design
Build

Celebrate

Social Design
1. 2. 3.

LAND WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL

Meet

4. 5. 6. 7.

Work

8.

Play
Farm .
122

Social & Cultural Development SEED: Earth Block Factory SEED: Affordable Housing SEED: Anam Academy SEED: ILLO SEED: New Anam Wellness Center Urban Design & Zoning Model: Green, Agroindustrial, Neighborhood, Hybird, Core, Public, Special Phasing & Incremental Growth

Icho ihe mmana akowaputa eweputa ihe ngosi nke puru iche na udi oru di iche iche n’Anam. Anyi, ya a husi oru dika oku azu, oru ugbo ulo akwukwo na ulo ogwu na obodo ana emepe, n’enye kwa ha obi obodo ana emepe emepe, na emeputa ihe ha choro iru gasi dika igwu akwukiro n’ihe ndi ozo ya diri ha mre nakwa ichekwa ebelile ha binche.
Design means creating a positive social goal for each project in Anam. We will seed projects, such as the fish farm, school and hospital, in Anam City to encourage urban development and start the creation of jobs, educational opportunities, and environmental protection.

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 123

SOCIAL DESIGN

ecologic
community composting

sociologic
brick factory

technologic
biogas

heritage
otosi shrine

VISION

Social & Cultural Development
COMMUNITY EQUITY QUALITY DIVERSITY VITALITY

water borehole

community nursery

H h

hospital

warehouse/agriculture storage

ologwulogwu

health clinic

wi hotspot

alaosa

ANAM

1

=

canoe dock and water access point reuse & recycling center

poultry farming

learning center

parasite tree

%

X

!

sh farming

community tech center workers cooperative union solar panel banks

sacred tree

Strategies
Social and cultural development in ANAM applies measures aimed at improving the quality of life and helping achieve a higher and socially inclusive economic growth through the use of local resources and affordable services. It recognizes the cultural values, heritage, knowledge, creative initiative and aspirations of the community members and its relevance to shaping a cohesive social environment. ANAM will build a social network that supports a vibrant community of residents and visitors propelled by institutionalization, training opportunities, cultural and recreational activities. Early seed programs include the provision of needs-based services and facilities that contribute to a higher quality of life. Achieving a coordinated social network considers:

bamboo grove

IF

information fountain

elopu

MODEL

shaded pubic space

school

erosion mitigation

illo

biogas public restroom communication beacon

retention pond

market

habitat zone

community bank

cell phone charging station

LAND

football pitch

h
IF

H
WATER

• • • • •

SOCIAL SOCIAL

Stakeholder Consultation and Participation Provision of Community Services and Facilities Public Spaces for Everyone Community Safety Recognition and development of indigenous culture and heritage

IF

h

ECONOMY

IF

h
ENERGY

h
IF

h
IF

DENSITY LEVEL
XS LOW DENSITY S MEDIUM DENSITY M MEDIUM DENSITY L HIGH DENSITY

FLOOR AREA
(square meters)

POPULATION
7,060 17,197 30,171 54,308

NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS
1129.6 2751.6 4827.4 8689.2

MOBILITY

247,806 603,630 1,059,000 1,906,200

APPENDIX

. 124

. 125

SOCIAL DESIGN
SCHOOL AFFORDABLE HOUSE ILLO - PLAZA

VISION ANAM

Recommendations • • • • • • • •
Establish institutions and facilities for providing and managing social services in a time frame that responds adequately to changes in population and community needs Develop quality educational infrastructure and programs across generations Comply with national regulatory requirements and authorities for public health Promote positive interaction and understanding between new and existing communities in Anam and facilitate the sharing of benefits and opportunities of the development Promote quality tourism products and supporting services Integrate traditional art and heritage into public spaces Encourage the participation of all persons and groups in community work as a sense of civic duty Employ community security system as a deterrent and for rapid reporting to security personnel

HOSPITAL

H

FISH FARM MARKET
MODEL

BRICK FACTORY

LAND

POULTRY FARM

WATER

Indicators • • • • • •
Effective & efficient city administrative body Availability of quality social infrastructure (police post, health centre, school) Reduced travel time to access health care Increased education rate Low infant mortality rate Low crime rate

SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

Key Seed Projects
. 126 .

127

APPENDIX

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

Brick Factory
ANAM

SEED PROJECT located in ELOPU AREA

MODEL LAND

Building materials production complex with a focus on Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks. The primary objectives of this project are to: • Produce & supply bricks, pavers and related building units for new city construction and outside clients • Create in a state-of-the-art efficient and modular facility incorporating sustainable design • Serve as a center for research and development of innovative, sustainable building technology • Build local capacity in earth construction and provide job opportunities

Description

WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

1

3

MOBILITY

6 4 5

7

2

N

APPENDIX

8
. 128 .

8

129

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

School
ANAM

SEED PROJECT located in AGBATA EMEKA

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL

Educating future leaders committed to excellence, good character and public service. Proposed facilities would include:

Description

ECONOMY

• • • • • • • • •

[ 2 ] classrooms per grade level with 1 shared office between [600 people] capacity Auditorium / Multipurpose room Cafeteria (exterior) Library - The Onuwa Dike Memorial Library (2) Play Fields Teacher’s Quarters (rooms) -- > can be temporary workers’ housing during construction Biogas Plant Future: zoning for additional quarters/boarding hostels

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 130

. 131

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

ILLO
ANAM

SEED PROJECT located in ELOPU AREA
The illo is a public space for gatherings, ceremonies and recreation. Much like a city square or plaza it has many uses in a single flexible space. The space will be designed with shaded areas, open areas and places for seating and temporary market stalls.

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 132

. 133

SOCIAL DESIGN

Affordable Housing
SEED PROJECT located SITE-WIDE
Solar electricity and solar hot water...

There will be many different sizes and types of houses in Anam New City, but they will all feature the sustainable technologies of solar electricity, biogas production and rainwater harvesting
Rooftop water tank recharged from underground tank by a solar pump

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER

Houses built with unfired bricks of local Anam clay — capitalizing on community assets — while reducing cement and cost Average household size 6 people

SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

Vegetative green screen for privacy and cooling micro-climate Biogas digesters to convert human and kitchen waste into cooking fuel

Garden to recycle and clean rain and graywater
MOBILITY

Underground rainwater collection supplemented by a community bore hole well

APPENDIX

. 134

. 135

SOCIAL DESIGN

New Anam Wellness Center
The Community & the State of Health Care
Like many neglected rural areas, the Anam region currently has meager health services, combined with growing medical problems and increased occurrence of chronic and transmissible diseases. The rigorous lives of farmers exacerbate many physical problems as well, and overcrowding in urban areas means that residents, and especially children are extremely vulnerable to exposure to the spread of disease. Sickle cell disease, HIV/ AIDS, malnutrition and malaria are all on the rise in Anam and currently there are no programs in place that can mitigate or alleviate the worsening of poor health and illnesses. While there is a single private hospital in the Otuocha area, 99% of people cannot afford the services, costing in the tens of thousands of Naira for even the most minor treatments. Other health options are available in Onitsha, but require a long drive, making care impossible for many. International standards for health care recommend 1 doctor per 400 people. In this community there may be 1 doctor for 100,000 people.

H
• • • • •
Immunization and well- baby programs to enable health workers to track babies from birth, monitor their weight, progress and ensure proper immunizations and nutrition. Antenatal programs - Obstetrician will care for pregnant mother to identify possible at risk pregnancies and treat them, monitor progress to ensure a positive outcome, which is the delivery of a healthy baby and mother. Education programs for specific disease prevention and treatment such as diabetes, hypertension, HIV etc. Nutrition education programs aimed at prevention of common childhood malnutrition diseases such as kwashiorkor and rickets. Sanitation programs

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND

Services
Providing quality and affordable health care to the community through:

WATER

Strategy
To make the greatest impact, Anam New City will have a new health center to address the various the health needs of the current and future community. The new facility will provide much needed health services and education in a cost-effective and affordable manner for this rurban community. Treatment services will include:

• • • • •

Primary Care Pediatric Care Pharmaceutical Obstetrics & Gynecology Ambulance & Lifeboats

SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY

Facilities • • •
Clinic Hospital Wellness Center OTHER AMENITIES Modern Lab & Medical Equipment Comfortable guest & patient spaces Beautiful, Therapeutic Interior Design Tranquil Garden & Relaxation Spaces

• • • • • • •

Basic Emergency care for trauma and sick patients 50 bed admission capacity including a children’s ward, maternity ward, baby nursery Laboratory service Radiation department with X-ray room In house pharmacy Theatre - with capacity for minor operations and C-sections Full maternity ward including labor room, delivery room and baby nursery

ENERGY

• • • •

MOBILITY

The center would not only providing immediate inpatient and outpatient needs both also administer community health programs aimed at disease prevention. Outreach programs will include:
. 136 .

137

APPENDIX

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

Urban Design
ANAM
COMMUNITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

1

%

X

>

N

!

MODEL LAND

...a city that has well layed out streets and is easy to get around either walking or bus.

...houses that are designed to accomodate my large family, and my children’s families. I like that we are close to our neighbors, but it would be better to have a little more space for air and plants.

...outdoor and public spaces where we can hold meetings, festivals, celebrations, and ceremonies.

Strategies
The ANAM city urban design references Igbo aesthetic and spatial culture while regulating character and micro-climactic performance of urban spaces through form-based urban design guidelines and controls. Given that ANAM is a greenfield development, it is imperative that the character of the urban spaces – how they look and feel – reference traditional aesthetic values and spatial patterns. Culture is therefore legible in the image of the city, while simultaneously reinvented for the 21st century. Noting that shoddy and degraded buildings and environments devalue their urban context, high quality infrastructure and building construction will be demonstrated, promoted and supported by a culture of maintenance.

....jobs, farms, and houses should be close to each other and mixed in the same area so that people don’t have to travel far to between work and home.

WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

GREEN
138

AGROINDUSTRY

NEIGHBORHOOD

.

HYBRID

.

URBAN CORE

PUBLIC

SPECIAL

139

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION ANAM

The key urban design strategies are to: Prioritize navigability: Among the inefficiencies of most African cities is the difficulty inherent in finding a specific location within the city. While a rational street grid combined with designated addresses can help in this regard, uniformity can also make the city alienating. Consequently — as complement to rationalized urban morphology — landscape features including microwatersheds, waterways and water catchment ponds should inform the fundamental structure of urban districts and neighborhood communities. Maximize the public nature of all urban places: In order to safeguard the spirit of community living, any and all aspects of public urban space such as plazas or illo, sidewalks, streets and parks, as well as their relationship to private buildings, should be organized so as to ensure a sense not only of order, but also inclusiveness. Encourage active streetscapes: Streets should be more than simple routes for circulation. They should perform additionally as conduits of the public sphere, places that foreground social interaction, commercial activity and the life of the city in the form of an outdoor and participatory theater. Promote optimized density of urban fabric: Relative adjacency of activities, buildings and networks of circulation is by definition central to production of an urban environment and can be balanced with the need for light and air. Both over-congestion and sprawl should be avoided. Synthesize diverse uses, activities, demographics and sizes of development: In order to generate a dynamic urbanism, interaction and hybridity should be privileged over homogeneity. Thus, mixed-use and mixed-income neighborhoods should be encouraged. Diversity as applied to retail, residential, commercial, office and all other sectors should draw inspiration from ecological concept of resiliency in which greater heterogeneity of an ecosystem correlates to higher resistance to external stresses. Promote green building practices: In order to harmonize with the natural environment, avoid unchecked destruction of natural resources and minimize energy loads in buildings, climate-responsive design and use of low-impact, locally-fabricated building materials should be the foundation of architectural production. General guidelines can be developed over time to facilitate local
. 140

knowledge-sharing and technology transfer in this regard.

Recommendations
MODEL

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Design for a dynamic city that will rapidly expand its density and physical territory Organize districts and neighborhoods around micro-watersheds, new and existing waterways and water catchment ponds Implement a dual (superimposed) naming system of (i) numerical addressing and (ii) Igbo names for natural features (landmarks, water catchment ponds) Use visual connections to sequence spatial continuity along an open space chain, ranging from neighborhood-scale visibility to large-scale urban view corridors Restrict height and degree of visual obstruction of perimeter walls and encourage planted boundaries instead of constructed fences Reference Igbo aesthetic and spatial culture, including illo, courtyards, uli, etc. Regulate character and micro-climactic performance of urban spaces through form-based urban design guidelines and controls Advocate, demonstrate and facilitate green building practices: Integrate architecture with energy, water and waste management systems Prioritize optimal solar orientation of all buildings Maximize natural ventilation by means of operable windows, permeable wall sections Exploit daylighting to reduce energy demand associated with lighting Utilize passive solar and cooling techniques, including solar shading devices and vegetative green screens to reduce solar heat gain Incorporate low-carbon, renewable and locally-sourced building materials Support introduction and adoption of low-/zero-VOC paints and nontoxic coatings Design open, flexible and adaptable buildings that can be re-purposed with minimum environmental impact

LAND WATER SOCIAL SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 141

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

GREEN

AGROINDUSTRY

T1_Green
NEIGHBORHOOD HYBRID

URBAN CORE

PUBLIC

SPECIAL

GREEN

AGROINDUSTRY

NEIGHBORHOOD

T2_Agroindustrial
HYBRID URBAN CORE PUBLIC SPECIAL

ANAM

Description

The Green Zone is one of the largest areas of the city, composing over 70% of overall land use, and 12% of the urban axis land. It is primarily considered land for common use, but there will also be reserve land for conservation, watershed or heritage purposes. Sacred heritage sites, water catchment areas, irrigation, food storage areas will be regulated by the community in order to maintain high quality resources. Circulation paths, roadways and boardwalks will be included and regulated through this zone, as to encourage these spaces to perform with relationship to the environment, mitigate erosion and the impacts of the yearly floods. Green spaces will have controlled uses and infrastructure, focusing on public park space, supporting agricultural structures and pathways, and landscape that provide ecological services, such as filtration, habitat or climate quality.
else else else neighborhood else

Description

MODEL LAND WATER

While Anam City is designed as a thoroughly mixed-use and integrated city, a zone has been designated for certain agricultural and light industrial uses to enhance the quality and character of both these aspects of the city and the city as a whole. It can be undesirable to be near agricultural production and processing, energy provision, waste management will be the main components of this zone. It will also include other businesses that may cause excessive noise, smells, smoke or pollution. Further by grouping certain business types together they can create chains of integrated resource use, recycling and waste processing. The design of structures and landscape in this area will be have more variety than other parts of the city to create flexible and economic spaces for business that require both large spaces and other businesses that require small spaces.
else green neighborhood

12%

green

12% 9%

else neighborhood

33%

33%

9%

neighborhood

SOCIAL SOCIAL

% of land use Example Agroindustrial Typlogy ECONOMY The Green Zone
else else else neighborhood else

The Agroindustrial Zone

else neighborhood

Includes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

15%

10%

15% 18%

else neighborhood

neighborhood

10%

neighborhood

neighborhood

Notes
1

18%
Composting, biogas or an integrate resource approach to waste is required of all agroindustrial businesses Large warehouse type buildings should collect rainwater or managed a minimum of 80% of their stormwater on site Buildings should address the street front and setback at least 2m and no more than 5m from bioswale Owners are required to construct a public sidewalk at least 1 meter in the front setback Un-built lot space should be landscaped with trees, grass and/or farms. Vacant Lots should be farmed if unoccupied Goods movement and truck access should not obstruct street traffic, and therefore should be from sides or alley

Bioswales, Permeable walkways, Pavement and Streets Urban Forest, Orchards, and Street Trees Bamboo Preserves and Plant Nurseries Water Retention Ponds, Percolation Pits, and Wells
green else

ENERGY

2
else green

Wetlands, Wet Meadows, and flood mitigation infrastructure

3

MOBILITY

72%

Erosion Mitigation Agriculture Terracing & Erosion Control Boardwalks and floodable infrastructure Shade structures, outdoor furniture, waste collection bins Parks, outdoor educational and recreational spaces

72%

4

5

APPENDIX

6

.

. 143

142

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

AGROINDUSTRY

NEIGHBORHOOD

HYBRID

T3_Neighborhood
URBAN CORE PUBLIC SPECIAL

GREEN

AGROINDUSTRY

NEIGHBORHOOD

HYBRID

T4_Hybrid
URBAN CORE PUBLIC SPECIAL

ANAM

Description

The Neighborhood Zone is a particular urban ecosystem that bridges typical African compound housing with self-sufficiency measures and urban design strategies. While it is common for Nigerian houses to be surrounded by large privacy walls, it is the goal of these neighborhoods to use living walls exclusively (above 1m) and to bring houses closer to the street to create a more walkable and neighborly community. Anam people have emphasized the need for more space in contrast to their existing conditions, thus this Neighborhood zone carefully balances breathing room both socially and 12% microclimatically with the density and accessibly of a pedestrian friendly area. Special consideration has developed adaptive housing strategies that can support mutli-generational housing options. This zone also requires 100% of stormwater be managed (filtered/percolated) on site.
else green else else neighborhood

Description

MODEL LAND

else green

else neighborhood

33%

The Hybrid Zone fuses and creates a transition between the Neighborhood and Core Zones. The Hybrid zone is a diverse and flexible area that is higher density and site coverage than a Neighborhood, but less dense than Core. It is comprised of smaller primary structures that address the street with smaller secondary structures in the rear. The primary structure may be more commercial than residential in appearance, with open shop frontages. Generally residential uses may be in second floors or in rear secondary structures. Buildings should not exceed 30m in length to allow for 9% connectivity and air flow between the buildings. Shading structures should be included to create pleasant public spaces. Street trees, and rear yards can be heavily landscaped to enhance cooler climates, clean air and beautiful spaces.
else neighborhood else neighborhood

WATER

else else

33%

9%

neighborhood

15%

neighborhood

10%

neighborhood

SOCIAL SOCIAL

18%

Example Agroindustrial Typlogy ECONOMY The Neighborhood Zone
else neighborhood else neighborhood else green

else

The Hybrid Zone

Notes
1

10%

neighborhood

Privacy walls of any material are limited to and may not exceed 1 meter above grade on any side of the lot. Vegetation or living fences may exceed the 1 meter restriction. Rear and side yard setbacks are 1.5 m Frontyard setback should be 3 m minimum (5m max), including a 1.5 m wide sidewalk public right of way Due to bioswales, parking access should be off the alleyway or on side streets. Buildings should not exceed 4 floors/stories. 1/3 of the property should remain un-built, as 100% of stormwater should be managed onsite with zero discharge. Pavement and walkways should be porous.

18% 72%

DIMENSIONS
1 2 3 Privacy fencing/walls is only permitted at rear and side yards. Follow Neighborhood height restrictions. Rear and side yard setbacks are 1.5 m Frontyard setback should be 3 m maximum, including a 1.5 m wide sidewalk public right of way. May be less. Due to bioswales, parking access should be off the alleyway or on side streets. Buildings should not exceed 6 floors/stories. 1/4 of the property should remain un-built, as 75% of stormwater should be managed on site with zero discharge. Pavement and walkways should be porous. A continuous street frontage of 70% of the lots width is required.

ENERGY

2
else green

3

4 5 6 7 8

MOBILITY

4 5 6 7

APPENDIX

. 144

. 145

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

HYBRID

URBAN CORE

T5_Core
PUBLIC SPECIAL

GREEN

AGROINDUSTRY

NEIGHBORHOOD

HYBRID

URBAN CORE

PUBLIC

SPECIAL

T6_Special

ANAM

Description

The Urban Core Zone is similar to a traditional city, with an emphasis on the provision of public amenities than create a pleasant pedestrian and successful mixed use neighborhood. The Core also introduces a diversity of spaces for all use types, but can be especially appropriate for cultural and social amenities, such as markets and indoor shopping, educational or religious spaces, as well as larger offices or commercial business activity. Similar to Hybrid Zones there is an emphasis on the creation of a street experience through retail storefronts, wide sidewalks and weather protection 12% 9% for rain and sun. Breezeways will also bring people into interior courtyards 33% that can be used for small public illos (or plazas), restaurants, recreational spaces or temporary markets.
else else else green neighborhood

Description

MODEL

The Special Zone is intended to designate several key areas in the city (and seed projects) that will have a unique urban condition unlike any other area in the city. They will be uniquely designed with the community and stakeholders in order to create special moments within the city that perform various functions.. Some of these areas are listed below in the table.
else else else neighborhood

LAND

12%

green

neighborhood

33%

9%

neighborhood

WATER

else else else else neighborhood else else neighborhood

15%

neighborhood

10%

15%

neighborhood

10%

neighborhood

neighborhood

18%

18%

SOCIAL SOCIAL

Example Agroindustrial Typlogy ECONOMY
else

The Core Zone

else green green

The Special Zones

Notes
1 2

Special Areas
72%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Wellness Center Education Campus

Lot should be 30x30 m minimum

72% Parking is required on-site at .5 stall per unit
(commercial or residential) and pavement should be porous. Building height is minimum 3 levels. This zone encourages a range of heights, but is not likely to exceed 10. 3m porous sidewalk is required adjacent to streets. Breezeways or tunnels should be designed every 30m of a building frontage for airflow. With otherwise continuous street frontage. Buildings should cover a minimum of 50% of the site. Weather protection and shading is required for 50% of a street frontange with public overlay

ENERGY

Anam School Stilts Villages Technology Conference Center Aloasa Townhouses

3

4

MOBILITY

Anam Hotel & Resort Anam Main Market

5

6

APPENDIX

7

. 146

. 147

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

RBAN CORE

PUBLIC

SPECIAL

T8_Public Overlay
TCUDORP LANOITACUDE KSEDOTUA NA YB DECUDORP

ANAM

SIDEWALKS

TCUDORP LANOITACUDE KSEDOTUA NA YB DECUDORP

The Public Overlay is a way to designate certain spaces that exist in other zones but that may be required to fulfill a public need or amenity. It is also a way to allocate space to utilities and smaller urban occurrences (such as waste bins, kiosks, street furniture). Because the climate is such that outdoor activities is feasible, it is good to encourage this through the environment and infrastructure. Below are examples of allowable infrastructure within the Public Overlay.

Description

Each lot will be required to construct and maintain a sidewalk in the public easement zone of a minimum 1 meter in the residential zone, and 3 meters in the Core Zone. This sidewalk should be constructed of local pavers and/ or porous pavement materials to allow the maximum water absorption. Sidewalks should be kept clear of debris and maintained for good use by the occupier of the house.
TCUDORP LANOITACUDE KSEDOTUA NA YB DECUDORP

MODEL

UTILITY EASEMENTS

LAND

A 1.5 meters utility easement will be required at the rear of each property for biogas, solar or other utility related infrastructure. This easement is a nobuild zone, but can include driveway, parking or landscaping.

WATER

STREET TREES

Street trees should be planted at a minimum of 15 meters apart along every street in Anam City. It is recommended that the tree be planted in line with the property line. Trees and planting in excess of this requirement are highly encouraged, per the Anam Community Nursery and Edible Urban Forest Plan.

SOCIAL SOCIAL

An Example of the Public Overlay Zone

DIMENSIONS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Underground utility lines Transportation or roadways Lighting Public Toilets Shade Structures Public furniture, wastebins

Kiosks (not to exceed 3x3m) Sidewalk Cafes or outdoor seating Public art Landscape Signage, Informatics, Wifi or charging stations

148

TCUDORP LANOITACUDE KSEDOTUA NA YB DECUDORP

EGAROTS EKIB

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

Example of temporary kiosk with solar . .

149

SOCIAL DESIGN

VISION

Phasing & Incremental Growth
ANAM
COMMUNITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

1

%

X

>

N

!

TIME
0 . . 10 . . 20 . . 30 . . 40 . . 50 . . 60 . . . . 100 . . . . .
.

The seed projects will be phased to allow for organic growth based on the following time line:

CONSTRUCTION ACCESS ONLY
[LAYOUT & STAKING OF PLAN] Initiate Linkages
“Preparing for Accommodation” Temp. Workers Hsg.

OCCUPANCY BEGINS

MODEL

Immediate Future

POPULATION

FISH FARM BLOCK FACTORY ILLO/CITY SQUARE MAIN ROAD ACCESS DOCKS PLANT NURSERY FIRST PHASE AFFORDABLE HOUSES HEALTH CLINIC ANAM SCHOOL

A

LAND

BLOCK FACTORY
CANAL EXCAVATION

BLOCK BUILDING

FISH FARM EXCAVATION

WATER

[CLINIC, OFFICE, SECURITY]

B
Money

FISH FARM BUILD POULTRY FARM BUILD

SOCIAL SOCIAL

Near Future

MARKET LUXURY HOTEL & RESORT WETLAND PARK POULTRY FARM ANAM HOSPITAL

SCHOOL/HOSPITAL

* ENERGY SOURCE
[Management reviews private development requests]
* CAPACITY IMPLICATIONS

ECONOMY

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EDUCATIONAL CAMPUS TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE CENTER TOWNHOUSING MARINAS STILTS HOUSES

Long Term Future

WASTE SYSTEM
ENERGY

C

WATER SYSTEM
CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING AND SHOPS

MARKET
MOBILITY

WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED IN ZONES

D
.

RESIDENTIAL BLOCKS DEVELOP
DRAINAGE SEWAGE/WASTE SIDEWALKS ROADS UTILITIES STREETSCAPE HOUSES PARKING

APPENDIX

150

151

ECONOMY

Systems

VISION ANAM

+
150

MODEL LAND

+ +
15

WATER

+ + + +
300

Economy
1. 2. 3. Economic Development Agricultural Markets Value Chains & Wealth Creation
30

SOCIAL

15

100

Ma iko ihe ga ejide mpuru oru, obodo Anam ga enwe onye ga anijia ihe onyinga ga enye nsogbu ebe ahu, ga ejikwa ya nwere na oruputa afia ga ejike, enwe gasiri oru, aga aruputasi ahu. Onye ga enekota ihe aga aruputa ka onwere n’ebulbu ogologo oge, ma nwekwa ezigbo nyeyachi n’ike Anam ma kweye kwa na omenaala nke Anam ma na ahazi ihe a ga eme na Anam.
With the planting of key seed projects, Anam City can have a diverse local economy that creates strong markets, many jobs, and improve agriculture. The responsible use of local resources will maximize the long term economic strength of Anam, and support a culture of Anam entrepreneurs.

ECONOMY ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 152

.

153

ECONOMY

VISION

Economic Development
COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY VITALITY

Plantains

ANAM

1

=

+

!

Plantains

Strategies
ANAM enjoys a strategic location and abundant resources that can facilitate a lively economic environment. In order to provide economic and social well being for its residents, ANAM’s economic development plan aims to create an open, diverse, vibrant and creative economy that builds on local resources and human capital. In addition, a local currency to strengthen the local economy, instill community pride, raise the quality of life and promote collective progress by enabling an alternative form of exchange across all income levels Foster productivity at all levels (city, neighborhood, individuals)

Beans Millet Guinea Corn Maize

Rice

Melon Cotton (Old)
Melon
MODEL

Cocoyam Groundnuts
LAND

Cotton (Old)
WATER

Recommendations • • • • • • • • •
Reinforce agriculture as a major economy and advance a robust industry through technology and financial incentives Create a balanced scheme of employment through micro-enterprises, small, medium and large scale economic activities Foster cooperation with various institutions and organizations to provide skill building opportunities Integrate information and communication technologies to the economic development schemes Provide financial services (e.g. savings, loans, insurance) for low-income residents Facilitate the involvement of women Ensure the integration of green practices to economic activities Promote tourism as a medium for economic development Integrate common production, common marketing models
Cocoyam

SOCIAL

Yams

Indicators • • • • •
Decreased poverty rate High employment level High literacy rate Low infant mortality Low cost of living
Distribution of main agricultural crops in Nigeria (2008)

Cassava

Currently the supply of yams and cassava dominates the agricultural market in Anam. As it is also the main crop for the country, there Groundnuts is a large supply and prices can be lower because there is so much competition in the national marketplace. These starches are also the foundation of the Nigerian diet. It may be possible Rice however to consider augmenting the current agricultural crop system to experiment with new crop types that may be more competitive on the larger scale or even global market place. It would also be more resilient to have a more Beans diverse agricultural system in Anam.

ECONOMY ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 154

. 155

ECONOMY

VISION

Agricultural Markets
ANAM MODEL LAND

95% of jobs in Anam
Market Facilities
Nearby Otuocha and Onitcha offer strong market connections for the Anam farmers. Anam residents have expressed a need for their own market in the new city. The market should be well organized, clean and easy to access by water and land. Standard Uses • Retail traders’ stands • Producers’ stalls • Assembly market sales area • Pedestrian and vehicle circulation area • Parking • Ancillary facilities (public toilets, water & garbage collection etc) • Specialist users’ stalls (women traders, cooperatives etc) • Livestock sales’ areas • Slaughter slabs • Storage Market Design: Land Use Considerations A possible list of different sections of a market in Anam: • Fresh fruit and vegetable retail trading areas, • Temporary sales areas for producers and assembly traders, • Meat, fish, poultry and egg sales, • Sales of grains and spices, • Sales of cooked food, • Other non-food sales, such as clothing and household goods, • General circulation areas (internal and external), • Other uses, such as storage, administration and public toilets. . 156 Access: Mobility Considerations • An access road to one side of the market or a perimeter road around the market site (the typical market square) should be provided. • An internal road system that avoids shortcuts and cul-de-sacs • A road running through the centre of the market area is not recommended: creates the most congestion • Single-lane road width: 3.5 m • One-way road width: 7 m • Two-way road width: 12 m

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ECONOMY ENERGY

Theoretical Urban Market Population Catchments
Population Served Minimum distance apart (kms.)

MOBILITY

City center/main covered market District shopping center/covered market Neighborhood shopping center/open market Group of shops/street market Corner groceries/street barrows

300,000 50,000 10,000 4,000 1,000

16.0 6.5 2.9 1.8 .8

APPENDIX

Source: Markets in rural areas by UN Food and Agriculture Organization .

157

ECONOMY

Value Chains & Wealth Creation
ar
pou
k chic en h es ous

EXPORT SALES

INVESTMENT

VISION ANAM MODEL

Coo

k/Ch

op B

ltry w aste

to s h fe

seed business

seed business

Management & Research 2 Technical Staff 5 Trained Labor per machine 10 Unskilled Labor 10
DVD Sel

Management & Research 5 Technical Staff 15 Trained Labor 50 Unskilled Labor 20

seed business

BRICK FACTORY 150

Cell Phone Credit Kiosk
se ric lls b

ed

ks fo

r

POULTRY FARM 100
supporting

FISH FARM 40
LAND

Management & Research 5 Technical Staff 5 Trained Labor 30

supporting

ler

Sand Supplier Soil Excavators Hardware Store Concrete Vendor

Co

e op

ra

tiv

es

Goods Store

Farmers Distributors Vetrenarians Equipment suppliers Transporters

Farmers Equipment sellers Distributors Transporters

supporting

sells bricks for housing

WATER SOCIAL

Harvest Labor
Cell Pho r ne C edit sk Kio

Market Distributers

Cell Phone Credit Kiosk

seed business

AFFORDABLE HOUSING 100

FARMERS
Traders
Equ
Su

ECONOMY ECONOMY

ANAM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY

ip

nt me

SCHOOL 100
Educators Students Adult learners Nurses Cooks Facility maintenance Researchers Drivers Equipment/materials suppliers

ENERGY

low income

medium income

Se

high income

Construction: 50 Subcontractors (Electricians, Plumbers etc.) Management & Operations: 5 Real estate managers Facilities management Finance officers

ed

HOSPITAL 100
pp lie r
Nurses Doctors Facility maintenance Drivers Cooks Researchers

MOBILITY APPENDIX

Community Based Financing Mechanicsms

158

COMMUNITY MICROFINANCE BANK; FARMING COOPERATIVE; DEVELOPMENT TRUST

.

.

159

ENERGY

Systems

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER

Energy
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Renewable Energy Solar Systems Architecture Integrated Solar Systems Waste to Energy Biogas Options Biogas Public Restroom

SOCIAL

Ike buwa ihe a choro na ndu, nakwa iji ruputa ihe na ulo oru. Chukwa goosiri Anam na nwe ike ihe niile Chineke nyere ha na uwa. Ma ime obodo ohuru ahu ike ya echekwado ma gba gburu gburu ma chekwa oganuru.
MOBILITY ENERGY ENERGY ECONOMY

Energy is required for life and productivity. Anam is blessed with abundant energy from nature. In the new city, energy will come from different sources that protect the environment and secure our future.

APPENDIX

. 160

. 161

ENERGY

VISION

Renewable Energy
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY VITALITY

=
Strategies

+

%

X

>

!

MODEL

Energy provision in Anam is one of the most important areas to make a large-scale sustainability impact. The strategy is to take advantage of the most abundant renewable energy sources while increasing the efficiency of electrical systems through information technologies such as the Smart Grid. Renewable energy sources in Anam include plant matter, solar power, and river (hydro) power. The design strategies ensure that energy provision meets the needs of the present and the future needs through:

LAND

• • •

Autonomy - wherever possible, each unit will generate power from renewable sources for use on location. At the same time, modular Community Utility Blocks will facilitate shared systems that distribute energy loads across a neighborhood-scale network Waste-to-energy - organic matter will be turned into biogas and biofuel through small and large-scale aerobic digesters distributed throughout the city. Energy Monitoring & Conservation - smart building design, point of use technologies and conservation incentives.

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

. 162

. 163

ENERGY

VISION ANAM

SOLAR ENERGY: One of the most important energy sources in ANAM is solar energy. The amount of solar energy measured in kilowatt hour striking a square meter of the surface is 4.5. This energy source is high enough to power both passive and active systems in the city as well as solar hybrid systems. BIOENERGY: Organic materials are a good source for bioenergy, which can be processed as biogas and biofuel. Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is organic material from living and or recently living organisms such as plant matter, waste, human and animal droppings. Biogas and biofuel produced in the city will be used to generate electricity or produce heat. CONSERVATION: The implementation of renewable energy sources is only part of the solution. Energy conservation and use reduction is critical for a truly comprehensive impact.

MODEL LAND WATER

Recommendations • • • •
Incorporate passive solar and energy efficient design in all buildings. Require buildings to generate a majority of electricity demand. Design distributed energy/power systems for incremental growth of the city (unit, urban block or campus scale). Use smart technologies for effective monitoring and consider small community utilities with stock ownership, maintenance and operation by residents or local businesses. As the city expands, the distributed systems can be networked into a cost-efficient two-way intelligent grid for sharing, conserving and monitoring energy across the city. Install alternative power and energy-efficient systems in public spaces (ex: solar powered street & traffic lights) Provide financial incentives for energy conservation and independence through partnerships with municipal and financial institutions

SOCIAL ECONOMY

• •

ENERGY ENERGY

Indicators • • • • •
Reduced energy demand/consumption across all sectors – 30% less than the international average Reduced cooling needs through building design Reduced heat island effect in downtown/commercial spaces Reduced municipal expenditures from public utilities Full transition to renewable energy powered systems – 100% dependence.
. 164 .

165

MOBILITY APPENDIX

ENERGY

Solar Systems
Strategies
The main source of electrical power in Anam city will be from the sun. The goal is to provide an environmentally friendly energy solution and facilitate its implementation from the early stage of the city development. Though implementation will begin with hybrid systems, the long-term goal is for the new city to operate entirely on renewable energy resources on a distributed network of stand-alone and shared systems. Photovoltaic Panels will channel sun directly into electrical power for households and businesses. In addition, Parabolic Systems will concentrate the sun’s heat into solar thermal power for large scale and industrial applications.

1: Centralized System at Agroindustrial Node

2: Dispersed in Farming/ Green Zone

3: Architecture, Buildings & Rooftops

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER

A distributed system of energy modules is readily scalable as the city grows and is more resilient through time.

4: Split System at Agroindustrial Nodes

5: Continuous Chain and Solar Backbone

6: Distributed Chain at Nodes

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

Building will generate energy for use on site.

Possibilities of solar energy distribution in city

. 166

. 167

VISION

ANAM

MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

Architecture Integrated Solar Systems

ENERGY

. 168

.

169

ENERGY

VISION

Waste-to-Energy
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY

=
Strategies

+

%

X

MODEL

The primary objective of waste management for ANAM is to create a balanced and closed-loop system that enables self-sufficiency, promotes environmental stewardship and supports a culture of recycling and reuse. Therefore the strategies include the design and implementation of: • Distributed Treatment Systems - as a departure from the traditional centralized systems, this strategy will reduce treatment loads and costs for the city while ensuring infrastructure resiliency. • Waste-to-Energy systems - The leading method of Waste to Energy is the creation of biogas from human wastewater and organic waste. Converting waste to biomass in order to produce biogas, biofuel, and organic fertilizer not only provides Anam New City residents renewable energy, but it also reduces the total volume of waste, leading to less money spent for treatment and disposal. • Waste Reduction, Recycling & Reuse Programs

LAND WATER SOCIAL

Recommendations • • • • • •
Implement “Living Machine” wastewater treatment systems employing natural treatment processes within ecosystems and providing energy to other living things (i.e. natural or constructed wetlands, fish ponds, infiltration beds) Collect and treat organic waste and human wastewater in distributed biomass digesters at the urban block or building cluster or campus scale. Methane (biogas) and sludge (fertilizer) by-products should be captured and recycled for domestic, commercial or industrial use. Encourage kitchen/yard waste composting while charging for nonrecyclables waste collection Establish a municipal recycling center and centralized collection facility for hazardous waste Ensure adequate and accessible waste & recyclables collection bins in public spaces Initiate or support a recycling & reuse economy through city-wide programs (e.g., exchanging cash/food for recyclables).
. 170 . 171
ECONOMY ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

ENERGY

VISION ANAM

Indicators • • • • • • • •
Increased generation of biogas and hence reduced or eliminated dependence on fossil fuels. Increased production and use of nutrient-rich mulch and subsequent value and cost savings to agriculture industry Reduced emission of greenhouse gases Biodiverse wetlands Revenue generation from exported energy Cost savings and environmental protection through reduced waste directed to landfill Reduced energy footprint of waste treatment plants Improved health and quality of life from cleaner environment and safe waste disposal

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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ENERGY

VISION

Biogas Options
1. Centralized at Superblock

225 housing units 1000 residents 500 workers

ANAM

3. Clustered by Block

MODEL LAND WATER

1 Block = 72 Residents

SOCIAL

2. By Block

4. By Parcel

ECONOMY ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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. 175

No. of male urinal flush events/day Total no. of toilet flush events/day Showers/day/user Total shower events/day

100 50 2 60

URBAN

ENERGY

VISION LAND

TOTAL DAILY WATER USE (L) Equipment

Biogas Public Restroom
Unit no. L/use Events/day L/day

2210

ANAM WATER

Toilets Low-flush toilet 2 6.5 50 Standard toilet 0 13 50 In many rural areas and under-served urban areas, public restrooms Squat toilet 0 (toilets and baths) are non existent or in an unsanitary state. As a rurban Urinal 2 100

Description

650

development occurring in phases, if physical infrastructure for toilets and
300

MODEL ENERGY

Sinks bathrooms is not made readily available in Anam city, human waste will Lavatory, hand wash 2 150

quickly spiral out of control with the increasing population. Such facilities also Shower promote public health by providing a cleaning stations and controlled waste
Bucket shower centers to curb spread of diseases. Pipe-born shower 2 20 60 1200

LAND ECONOMY

Water station Provide a scalable solution to address the need for public bathroom Drinking water (4*0.5 L/use = 2L/day/user) 1 0.5 120 Standing tap facilities.

• •

60

Address the needs of both the general public (low- to mid-intensity) and on-site workers (high-intensity). • Encourage regular usage of public system as additional organic waste Specifications translates to increased biogas production. • Link end use of biogas (output) should with facility maintenance (input): Pump specifications (system conditions): i.e. end user of biogas should be same entity responsible for maintaining • Desired Total Daily Output: 2000 L (min) - 7500 L/day (528-1981 gal/day) Page 1 bathrooms, with maximum biogas output serving as incentive to • Total Dynamic Head: +/- 10 meters (33 feet) sustained facility upkeep. • Sun Hours on Tilt: 4-5 (Jun.), 5-7 (Dec.) • Well Diameter: Per pump specification • Water Condition: sandy Additional electrical load: • Electric lamps (60W C.F. equiv. or LED): 8 no.

WATER MOBILITY SOCIAL METRICS ECONOMY APPENDIX

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176

ENERGY ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

Rendering of biogas public restroom

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Systems

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER

Mobility
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Transportation Street Hierarchy V1_Main V3_Shared V4_Land & Waterways

SOCIAL

I ga obere na a kowaputa udi uzo ha gaesi new na eme ihe ha choro ime, ma gwa ha ihe ha ga neme. Obodo Anam di zikwa na udi icho mma ka enwe bulie ha ma jikota ha ncha onu na onudu ha. Ugbo basikolo, motor ga enyere anyi aka iga okirikiri ime obodo ahu, nakwa ire afia na ime obodo a. O ga onyere anyi aka inweta ihe dika motor mabu ugbo, ozo kwa bu iru uyi o ga ebutare onye obuia.
Mobility means access to places but also to information and opportunity. Anam City has been designed to increase connection at all levels. Boats, bikes and buses will help us move around the city to jobs and markets in the city. This will minimize traffic, pollution, and cost to everyone.

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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.

179

MOBILITY

VISION

Transportation
COMMUNITY EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY PROSPERITY VITALITY

I prefer walking to my favorite places if they are close to home.

ANAM

1

=

+

%

X

>

N

!

Strategies
ANAM’s transportation system builds on the existing values and habits of the current residents whose children run safely in their neighborhoods, farmers navigate rivers to market, and masquerades dance through streets. Reflecting the principle – building for efficiency, designing for people - a multi-modal street network will address the unified Anam desire for a city with an excellent street network. Although Nigeria has a wealth of oil resources, and is one of the world’s largest producers of petroleum, it is recommended that the Anam City avoid dependence on this resource for environmental, social and economic reasons. The main objective is to implement a redundant network of streets and waterways for maximum efficiency of the range of modes of transportation including:

MODEL

We need clean and safe streets, for children and business women.

LAND WATER

• • • • • •

PEDESTRIAN systems and infrastructure NON-MOTORIZED MODES OF TRANSPORT such as bicycles MARINE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for docks and boating to move goods and people PUBLIC AND PARA TRANSIT that provides systems for transporting groups around the city efficiently and in a cost effective manner MOTORIZED AND PRIVATE VEHICLES and sufficient parking facilities TRUCK AND GOODS MOVEMENT to support economic growth and job creation

Having a bike is an affordable option for me.

SOCIAL ECONOMY

Recommendations
ENERGY

• • • • •

Create an interconnected multi-modal transportation system of paths and transfer nodes supporting pedestrian, vehicular and water transport Preserve and enhance the strong aquatic transportation systems on River Ezichi and new urban canal(s) Prioritize non-motorized (pedestrian, bicycle, and boat) routes through the city for mobility of both people and goods Build upon existing waterways and walkways to take advantage of locally identified and efficient paths Design city cores along main transportation corridors and mass transit nodes
. .

Canoes are ideal for moving short distances especially for transporting goods and during the rainy season.

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181

MOBILITY

VISION

• • • • •

Promote social and environmental sustainability as well as a greater sense of community by creating a pedestrian friendly city with safe, accessible and enjoyable streetscapes Regulate commercial drivers and vehicles to maximize safety and minimize pollution Agricultural goods should move by boat and bicycle first, then trucks if necessary Identify specific criteria and regulations by mode type appropriate for Anam New City Design streets for future flexibility

We need safer public transportation that will also reduce traffic and accidents.

BUS STOP
ANAM MODEL LAND

Indicators • • • • • • • • • •
Low private car ownership Low incidence of accidents (human/bike/vehicle) Short time between home and workplaces for individuals Maximum 15 minute walk to transit stop and major social amenities Low pollution and clean air locally and regionally Healthy residents High number of bicycles used in the city Small amount of money spent on petroleum products for transportation Proportionally high percentage of vehicles that run on locally produced energy Sufficient parking areas and citizen compliance with parking regulations
There are lots of more efficient ways to move people and goods around the city, like Keke Marwa, Solar Rickshaws and Cargo Bicycles.
WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

Existing Vehicle Ownership By Type(%)
Motorbike Bike Boat None Car

Ocadas (Motorcycle Taxis) are extremely dangerous and not allowed in Anam for the safety of the whole community.

ENERGY MOBILITY MOBILITY

Making Anam locally relevant and globally accessible.

APPENDIX

0

10

20

30

40

50

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MOBILITY

VISION

Street Hierarchy
ANAM

Strategies
The streets in Anam City have been designed with several principle considerations including: • Developing LOOPS in transportation systems, road layout and infrastructure for efficiency of time, distances and resources. • Design for maximum CONNECTIVITY to increased access, but use OFF SET STREETS selectively as a traffic calming design strategy. • SHARED STREETS can be safe and cost effective alternatives to traditional street design for maximum flexibility and adaptability over time. • PARA TRANSIT systems will have designated lanes for their use during designated times to decrease traffic and encourage paratransit as a choice. • Design FLOOD CAPACITY into the streets with porous materials and water retention areas away from houses and businesses. • Use local MATERIALS with low carbon footprints. • Design for maximum FLEXIBILITY for the life of the streets.

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL

Community Utility Block at Node

ECONOMY ENERGY

V1_MAIN V2_18 SHARE V3_9 SHARE V4_LANE

Canoe Landing The State Road Waterways

MOBILITY MOBILITY

NODE IN SUPERBLOCK
. .

APPENDIX

184

185

MOBILITY

VISION

V1A_Main (one-way loop)
Description
The Anam City Main Street is a flexible right of way that has been designed to adapt and change as the city grows. This section shows the long term vision of the road, where traffic is in one direction only, creating a loop. Flexible lanes allow for different uses depending on the time of day or needs of the city.
PUBLIC SIDEWALK EASEMENT PUBLIC SIDEWALK EASEMENT
SEE BIOSWALE ZONE REQUIREMENTS SEE SIDEWALK REQUIREMENTS

V1B_Main (phase 1: two-way street )
ANAM

Description
As the city begins, this 15 meter Main Road will be used in both directions, with the outer lanes as flexible parking, transit or vehicle lanes depending on the traffic demands in the city. Transit lanes should be prioritized over vehicle lanes whenever traffic is heavy.
PUBLIC SIDEWALK EASEMENT PUBLIC SIDEWALK EASEMENT

SEE BIOSWALE ZONE REQUIREMENTS SEE SIDEWALK REQUIREMENTS

MODEL

(VARIES)

(VARIES)

LAND

FRONT YARD SETBACK

FRONT YARD SETBACK

FRONT YARD SETBACK

FRONT YARD SETBACK

WATER

PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

SOCIAL

2.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

BIOSWALE ZONE

FLEX TRANSIT ZONE

LANE

LANE

PARKING FLEX LANE

BIOSWALE ZONE

BIOSWALE ZONE

FLEX LANE FOR PARKING OR TRANSIT

LANE

LANE

FLEX LANE FOR PARKING OR TRANSIT

BIOSWALE ZONE

15.0

A. Four Lane Road
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Right-of-Way Width Number of Lanes Pavement Width Pavement Material On-street Parking Bikeway Type Landscape Type Bioswale Type 4 lanes 10 meters

VIA RIGHT OF WAY (R.O.W.)

A. Four Lane Road
1 Right-of-Way Width Number of Lanes Pavement Width Pavement Material On-street Parking Bikeway Type Landscape Type Bioswale Type 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 lanes 10 meters

15.0

ECONOMY

VIA RIGHT OF WAY (R.O.W.)

18 meters maximum, 15 meters minimum

18 meters maximum, 15 meters minimum

Fired earth pavers and asphalt

Flexible lane for parking and/or paratransit lane depending on time/day Flexible with parking lane. May consider 1 m painted bikeway.

V2

Fired earth pavers and asphalt

Flexible lane for parking and/or paratransit lane depending on time/day Integrated with street

MAINSTREET [ONE WAY]
Shade tree planting every 15 meters 2 x 2 meter minimum bioswale on each side

MAINSTREET [PHASE 1: TWO WAY]
2 x 2 meter minimum bioswale on each side • •

Shade tree planting every 15 meters

V2

ENERGY MOBILITY MOBILITY

Uses Private Public Commercial Goods

Uses

• • •

Private Public Commercial Goods

APPENDIX

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MOBILITY

VISION

V2_18 Shared
Description
A shared street is a type of road that is used more informally by vehicles, pedestrians and bicycles together. This type of streets often allows for balance between public space and circulation, and hildren can play in safety. Bulged planters along the edges can be traffic calming devices. This particular street in the city was designed to be wider as to accommodate potential flooding from the Ezichi or Ogbuani.
SEE BIOSWALE ZONE REQUIREMENTS

V2_9 Shared
ANAM

Description
These small shared streets have a single flexible lane that is shared between pedestrians and vehicles at low speeds. These streets allow access to the laneways and main road ways, but are a tertiary throughway that allows for greater connectivity of both people and cars. The proximity of bioswales (on all streets) will make this street feel like a greenway.

MODEL LAND

SIDE YARD SETBACK

SIDE YARD SETBACK

SIDE YARD SETBACK

WATER

PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

PROPERTY LINE

SOCIAL

1.5
PAVEMENT CHANGE FOR PEDESTRIANS

1.5
PAVEMENT CHANGE FOR PEDESTRIANS

2.0 3.0 2.0

5.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

BIOSWALE ZONE

SHARED LANE

BIOSWALE ZONE

PARKING

LANE

LANE

PARKING

BIOSWALE ZONE

BIOSWALE ZONE

B. Two Lane Road
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Right-of-Way Width Number of Lanes Pavement Width Pavement Material On-street Parking Bikeway Type Landscape Type Bioswale Type

18.0

C. One Lane Road
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Right-of-Way Width Number of Lanes Pavement Width Pavement Material On-street Parking Bikeway Type Landscape Type Bioswale Type 1 lane 5 meters

9.0

ECONOMY

VIA RIGHT OF WAY (R.O.W.)

VIA RIGHT OF WAY (R.O.W.)

9 meters minimum

18 meters maximum, 15 meters minimum 2 lanes minimum, 3 lanes maximum 14 meters

Fired earth pavers and permeable concrete/asphalt grid One fixed parking lane, plus flexible parking lane Shared

Shade tree planting every 10 meters, plus planting in parking lane 2 x 2 meter minimum bioswale on each side

V3

Permeable concrete/asphalt grid None Shared

Shade tree planting every 10 meters 2 x 2 meter minimum bioswale on each side

V4

ENERGY

WOONERF [A]

WOONERF B

MOBILITY MOBILITY

Uses Private Public Commercial Goods

• •

Uses Private Public Commercial Goods

• •

APPENDIX

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MOBILITY

VISION

V4_Lane
Description
The Laneways are designed primarily for rear access to the parcels in Anam City. This facilitaties fewer crossings of the bioswales on the Main Road, and also provides access for utilities or waste systems. These laneways should be considered a throughway in the city, and will have a greenway-like character. All the pavement will be highly permeable to mitigate the impacts of stormwater.

Waterways
ANAM

Description
Water access and transportation is a major feature of Anam City, both as an existing condition and proposed mode in the new development.

MODEL LAND WATER

Permeable Pavement or Grid

SOCIAL

6.0

LANEWAY

ECONOMY

A. One Lane Road
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Right-of-Way Width Number of Lanes Pavement Width Pavement Material On-street Parking Bikeway Type Landscape Type Bioswale Type 6 meters maximum, 8 meters minimum 1 lanes 3 meters

Permeable grid or fired clay pavers n/a n/a

Shade tree planting every 15 meters MOBILITY MOBILITY n/a

V4

ENERGY

WOONERF B

Uses Private Public Commercial Goods

• APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

VISION ANAM

1 May 2011 This document captures a timeless vision for the Anam people, and is exemplary of our tradition of self-determination and desire for collective progress. Like many Africans, the story of our lives demonstrate the wise Igbo saying, “Ora na azu nwa,” meaning it takes a village to raise a child. A proud son of Anam, I am a product of my community’s support and commitment to their future generations. Today, we are honored to witness the rebirth of our people. Anam New City is both a model city and a new model for sustainable development in Africa. It is a project to fundamentally reorganize society for real and lasting change along an alternative paradigm. It combines the benefits of modern urban living with those of rural communities and traditional productive landscapes. It is at its core an initiative to generate local economic opportunity as well as a strategy for using technology to reconceptualize the African city and improve people’s lives in measurable ways. We invite you to connect with our community and participate in our creating collectively a new future for Africa.

MODEL LAND WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

For additional information and current details about Anam New City, please visit the project online at: www.ANAMCITY.com wordpress.ANAMCITY.com twitter.com/anamcity

Dr. Aloy

& Gesare Chife

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND

This visioning document was prepared by the Dr. Aloy & Gesare Chife Foundation with and for the greater Anam community. The Dr. Aloy & Gesare Chife Foundation is a nonprofit organization established to improve the teaching, study and application of technology in Africa. We believe technology is a necessary tool for development and should be a product of its environment. Our vision is a future of livable, self sustaining African communities that are environmentally friendly and economically vibrant. Using appropriate technologies, the Foundation initiates projects that improve regional infrastructure, enhance agricultural production and services, and promote diversification of economies to improve quality of life. The Dr. Aloy & Gesare Chife Foundation also is committed to ensuring that Africa assumes its rightful place in the global community by investing in education. To that end, the Foundation offers scholarships to brilliant students with a propensity to Math and Science who may not reach their potential without financial support. Students are sponsored for attendance at any institution of their choice in their country of residence and required to complete local community and service projects.

Many people both in the Anam community and international community have brought their passion and expertise together to develop this Master Plan vision for a future Anam City. We thank them all. Planning & Design Team: Belgin Gümrü, Abena Sackey, Dk Osseo-Asare, Stacy Passmore with additional credit and thanks to: Kwame Akoto-Danso, Ena Sivcevic, Nuzrat Gymah-Poku, Jay In, Alex Antobre Udenna Clement Onyekwelu, Ikechukwu John Paul Anekwe, Christian Ifechukwu, Morrow Okeke, Anthony Aniekwe, Victor Morba-Omenwa, Nkemakonam Mercy Chukwuemeka, Uchenna Felix Chife, Moses Augustine Chife, Hazel Weir, Emmanuel Chiezie Quilian Riano, Ryan Bollom, Ashley Heeren, Simon Bussiere, Satprem Maïni, Stephen Scribner, Olorunfunmi Ojetayo, Fran Osseo-Asare Umuoba Anam Development Council, Umuoba Anam Elders & Mmeghes and the Anam Rebirth Council, Umuoba Anam Women’s Union, Umuoba Anam Youth Forum

WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

www.ChifeFoundation.org
Facebook: Dr-Aloy-Gesare-Chife-Foundation http://www.youtube.com/user/chifefoundation http://picasaweb.google.com/chifefoundation

MOBILITY APPENDIX APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

VISION

Glossary
ANAM

Sustainable Development

New Anam City is envisioned to be a sustainable development where regionally appropriate design and intelligent resource management fosters economic prosperity, ecological balance, and improved social health quality of life. new city being developed on land presently known as Ebenebe; envisioned to expand into a regional metropolis including other Anam community lands agricultural lands between the west of the Ezichi river and the new Anambra state road in Anambra West LGA; belongs to the Umuoba Anam community Anam community settlement bordering the north of Ebenebe Anam community settlement bordering the south of Ebenebe at the Otosi boundary Town in Anambra East LGA where the majority of Umuoba Anam is currently settled. There are also 2 other non-Anam communities settled here Igbo word for "plaza" or town square (note: in Nigeria and other places in Africa, 'plaza' typically refers to a shopping strip/building) sacred space erected in public or private spaces in respect of a traditional Igbo god; on Ebenebe site, they are usually identified by white strips of cloth hung on a tree or poles an occurrence related to either the dry (Oct-April) or rainy season (May-September) in Anambra significant body of water branching from/connecting to a larger body of water (i.e. river) and characterized by a flow from one direction to another significant, relatively isolated body of water inland (i.e. may be near, but not connecting to another body of water); formed through rain fall, stormwater drainage or river overflowing a dune into a shallow area) Ezichi River; largest body of water near project site proposed inland waterway, designed/engineered to connect Otosi stream to major ponds on site and channel flow in a more linear (north-south), predictable path (flood control).

Ogboani Pond Ekpe Aneke Agbata Emeka

A major seasonal pond A seasonal stream originated from Ezichi River, flows towards west, bounds the Chife property on the south
MODEL

Anam-New City // New Anam City (NAC) Ebenebe

One of the three divisions of the Ebenebe site generally located in the middle of the site; an area with a seasonal stream A depression in the land that floods to become an inlet from a permanent water body; part of the series of ponds&streams An area that is liable to flood - which causes the school to go on vacation during heavy rains Beautiful large tree with parasitic and epiphyte vegetation growing on the trunk and limbs.

Ekpe

LAND

Mmiata-Anam Umueze-Anam Otuocha

Ekpe Akpu Alao Ogbu Parasite Tree Otosi

WATER

Illo

(pond, bamboos, deity) Otosi is the igbo term for "bamboo"; on the Ebenebe site, "otosi" refers to the southernmost stream branching north-westward from the Ezichi into the land and forming part of the southern boundary between Ebenebe (Umuoba Anam) and Umueze Anam land. A sacred shrine believed to be in respect to the "Otosi" god is erected close to the edge of the stream amidst a small bamboo forest One of the three divisions of the Ebenebe site; a large farming area that typically floods

SOCIAL

Shrine

Elopu Area Ogwuyo

ECONOMY

Seasonal Stream

One of the three divisions of the Ebenebe site - of which we do not have a GPS coordinate and too much information yet the people and community of Anam "central community plaza/space used for gatherings, civic events, festivals, etc. "the name given to the traditional designs drawn by the Igbo people of Nigeria. beach/landing settlement along state road below Ebenebe and part of Umueze Igbo name for shrine Umueze land south of Ebenebe

Ndi-Anam illo uli Otu Otupo Alusi Akili

ENERGY

Pond

MOBILITY

River Canal

APPENDIX APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

VISION ANAM

Ogboakwu Aboegbu Ekpe Ogwuyo Echekulaku Pond Nbulau Tree Okpa Oku mmili Mmili Ogene Ori mmili Ologwulogwu Oba Ododalo pond Ekpe Alaoza Elopu Akwuofuibeanu Pond Echuiaku Akpata Bridge Ekpe Aneke Epo Anke Ugili Tree Oji Tree Ebenebe Tree Abuabu Pond Obuluezi Pond Otu Iyora Iruani Okoye

“One who cuts palm nuts” settlement in Umueze, where Dr. Chife was born Phase 1 settlement of Umuoba Anam inlet/road north of Obuani typical near standing water high land with no flooding lake or pond. “water that gathers at a place” river or water (place) seasonal waterway/stream connecting ponds big river e.g. Niger

Ogbono seed Ukpo Iyi Ekpe Ogbu OGWUYO

seed from ugili Niamata land just after refinery pond valley/slope ; where water flows/settles seasonally the parasite tree One of the three major divisions of the Ebenebe site and the northern most part of the land.
LAND WATER MODEL

a pond and diety north of Ogboani yam storage hanging system, can keep yam for 5 years general Ogboani/Ologwu area seasonal inlet named after the Alaoza family who died there

SOCIAL

farm land and flood zone southeast along the Ezichi “one part of egg” pond named of pond and also a specific mound for storage a local bridge seasonal inlet connecting to Ogboani inlet mighty tree mostly planted near shrine big tree e.g Iroko tall strong tree used as building wood; prevalent across site giving name to the location a pond that is wet during the dry season pond

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

a wetland where we can fish even during the dry season landing end of local road most directly leading to Iyora a pond and farm area north of ogwuyo someone born on oye market

APPENDIX APPENDIX

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VISION

ANAM

MODEL

LAND

WATER

SOCIAL

ECONOMY

ENERGY

MOBILITY

APPENDIX

. 200

.

201

. 202