~_RGE VAN EPSMETBOD

7he

E PIP H 0 N E INC.
NEW

jJ~ec{4

.

YORK,N.Y.

Through this method I hope to open the door to a new type of harmonic technique and knowledge for the guitar. There has been a shortage of good constructional harmonic material that develops the hand mechanically and increases the knowledge musically. All exercises presented in this volume have been carefully tested through years of teaching. Each one has a definite purpose for development of the hand, no matter how insignificant it may seem to the student. The exercises are given in condensed form to save space and also to encourage and develop independent thinking on the part of the student. They are written in one key but are to be played in all the keys, as shown in the explanations accompanying the exercises. Think of the tonic of every key as "do"; this is called the Solfeggio system. Therefore if you are in E flat, consider the E flat as "do". Through this system all keys are equal and therefore you will not favor any particular key or keys. Some of the exercises in this method are written in whole notes with no dividing bar line but should be practiced at a slow even tempo. Succeeding volumes are in preparation for publication in the near future.
GEORGE

V AN Ers

GENERAL
HOLDING

INSTRUCTIONS
THE GUITAR

Holding the guitar correctly is a point that should be studied very carefully because there are many important factors to be considered, the first of which is comfort. It is almost impossible to work freely if you are trying to support or hang on to the guitar with your hands. The normal technicalities of the instrument are difficult and tiring enough without an awkward posture to make them more so. Here is the correct 'posture. Sit in a straightback chair of medium height and then cross the left leg over the right so that your left knee rests on your right knee at the same time keeping your right foot flat on the floor. Then place the body of the guitar on your lap so that the lower hollow fits the left leg and the upper hollow rests against the right side of your chest. In this position the left leg may go to sleep, at first but this won't bother you for long. The body of the guitar should be on an angle of approximately twenty degrees in relation to your torso and the scroll should be on a level with your shoulder, but slightly forward. Never lean back in the chair, lean slightly forward always, as this helps to hold the instrument securely. After following these instructions the guitar should balance on your lap by itself. (Fig. No. 1.) -2-

THE

PICK

AND

WRIST

ACTION

Bring the right arm up until the elbow rests very lightly on the top edge of the body. The end of your hand should now be half way between the bridge and the end of the fingerboard. under, but not so far as to have them touch the palm of the hand. The inside of the wrist should be approximately two inches above the string level. Fold the fingers of the right hand For example, wrap "[hefingers of the After doing this right hand around a broom handle, bending the fingers from the first and second joint. No. (2.) Now place the pick on the first joint of the first finger so that the horizontal axis is parallel to the back of your hand. Then place the end of your thumb (approximately 3/4 inch) on the pick so that there is a half inch of the pointed end showing. Do not hold the pick too tightly as it must be allowed to oscillate rather than bend. In a complete wrist action the wrist imitates a twisting motion with each stroke, very much like flicking something off your hand. See that you use a quick and accurate stroke, eliminating aU excess movement because you want the notes to sound simultaneously, not one by one. When playing on inside strings use the next highest string as a pick-stop. the highest note as the top note should predominate. The axis of your wrist should be directly over In other words if you are picking the B, D, and G

remove the handle and notice the position of the fingers. The result should be the correct curve. (Fig.

strings as a triad, the axis should be over the B string with' the result that the D string will sound softly, the G string a little louder, and the B string will be the loudest, which is dynamically correct.

- 3- •

THE
in the explanations of the exercises. situations do.

LEFT HAND
do not change in the different exercises, but the (slowly

In studying this book it is necessary to bear the following factors in mind as they will not be mentioned The fundamentals There is only one correct way to place the fingers on the fingerboard. Drop your left hand until your thumb touches the neck halfw:ay between the body and the nut. one-third of the way around the neck from the bass side. Never Now place your

down alongside your body entirely relaxed. Now bring it up slowly leaving the fingers curved twisting it counter-clockwise) The thumb must ride approximately

let your thumb extend above the fingerboard level) and never let it travel more than halfway around the curve of the neck. Your knuckles should be almost parallel to the side of the neck. fingers on the fingerboard in an arched position) not trying to finger anything) just letting them rest there. Slide your hand slowly up the neck toward the body. your elbow should be next to your torso. just half the speed of your hand. neck. When your hand touches the body of the instrument Now slide along the neck slowly with your elbow traveling at

This principle is similar to the hour and minute hand of a clock.

If

this is properly applied you will notice the position of the hand wiU change very little in relation to the This is of gre-at importance in the development of mechanical perfection.

The fingers must be arched until just the tips rest on the strings so that they work up and down hammer-fashion seating just back of the frets) not in between and. not on top. Bend your left thumb back slightly so that only the ball or fleshy part touches the neck. Do not hug the neck with the inner part of the hand. It is necessary to keep the fingers suspended over the fingerboard at all times. Do not let them stand up straight, curl under the fingerboard, or wander in any fashion. The correct place is approximately one-half inch above the strings for in this position they are always ready to operate. This greatly improves accuracy of the fingers. Here is a practical example of this principle. If you suspend an object above a designated spot and dropped it, wouldn't your accuracy be far greater than if you stood a .few feet away and threw the object at the spot? The wrist must be kept straight at all times except when executing .a very long reach. Your hand is like a piece of machinery which can develop mechanical trouble if thrown into odd positions. Those little push-rods in the back of the hand that operate the fingers must have a straight course if expected to work properly. Besides being correct, the straight-wrist posture is more comfortable and natural when you get used to it. (Fig. No.3.) - 4-

the pressure must be released as quickly as it was applied because a slow release produces a bad buzzing sound. Do not stint the value of the notes in order to give yourself time to make the next formation. the notes must be given their full value and must be connected with no pause between them. like a trigger releasing a strong spring. Eliminate all waste motion with the fingers. To fret a note or chord before picking it produces a poor tone and limits the speed of the hand. hand arrives at the location before forming the fingers. In the exit of a note or chord. on a formation get used to forming the next position while the hand is in motion. This saves time and naturally goes hand in hand with The reason legato is being stressed so much is because it is the hardest form of phrasing for the guitar. The closer they are to the fingerboard. THE ATTACK AND . is the natural form and therefore the easiest one. not rush the tempo.It is important to remember that the exercisesin this book should be practiced very legato. the less time it takes to place them. the legato principle. do After releasing the pressure Do not wait until the Plant your fingers solidly and firmly on the fingerboard. the reverse.EXIT A clean smooth technique depends upon a good firm attack which IS accomplished only when both hands work in perfect unison. of these exerciseshave been carefully planned and tested. effect will be The pressure release must be straight up off the fingerboard and not slanting in the direction of the next position. In order to do so. Do not slide around holding the pressure. In the correct attack the pressure is applied the instant the pick strikes the string. Stacatto. yet do not go to the The mechanics extreme by lifting the fingers too far off the strings during the change. The changes from formation to formation must be executed in the least amount of time. -5- . otherwise a slurring the result. In practicing legato remember to re-apply the pressure for each formation. Always apply the pressure quickly with a deliberate snap. In making these quick shifts. especially when working on the lower strings.

alphabetical. but are referred back to previous exercises for the fingerings. Some of the exercises have no markings.finger on the second fret of the D string. or sets (see the chart). either numerical. FINGERBOARD Showing the different The x's designate CHART sets of strings and their symbols. or both. the open G string. the strings used in each set. Set. and finger markings remain good until changed. E A D NUT 1 G B E 1st set of 3 (113) 2nd set of 3 (213 ) 3rd set of 3 (313 ) 4th 1st set of 3 (4!3 ) set of 4 (114) 2nd set of 4 (214) 3rd set of 4 (314) 1st set of broken 2nd set of broken 3rd set of broken broken broken broken 1st 1st 3 (11B3 ) 3 (21B3 ) 3 (3B13 ) set of 3 (B113 ) 2nd set of 3 (B213 ) 3rd set of 3 (B313 ) 4 (1IB4) 4 (2!B4) 2 (1IB2) 2 (2IB2) 2 (3IB2) 2 (4!B2) set of broken 2nd set of broken 1st set of broken 2nd set of broken 3rd set of broken 4th (All) (AI2) (AI3) set of broken VI V IV III II I . and for each set there is a symbol. can be played in three different positions using the same voicing. pick.6- . In exercises where the second half is fingered in reverse of the of the first. This system has to be used because of the many different locations to play the same notations. the C major triad with the first finger on the second fret of the B string. and the second . For example.EXPLANATION OF THE STRING CHART In this method the strings are listed in groups. markings will appear only in the first half.

written and referred to. This gives you time to think of all the points thus establishing the foundation for a good. which is not the desired course.WARNINGS Remember to treat all the exercises. never dropping an exercise. Another important point is [he fact that learning and practicing a study are two different things. which is the real practice. providing you follow the rules just mentioned. To start with.Increase to forty-five minutes after a month's time. A mistake is a bad habit because it makes you conscious of that particular place wherever it may have occured. After a concentrated hour of prac- rice your miad. After that time you start practicing to perfect what you have learned. . It is natural to concentrate your efforts on that one place and by doing so. Keep building this way. This can only be had by practicing slowly and gradually increasing the tempo. as well as your fingers and hand. -7- . Take three exercises {forms) per week as regular lessons. Each week take three more. mistakes may be made in other places. etc. as separate studies. while still practicing the preceding exercises. Three hours a day of the right kind of practice is sufficient. You derive the most benefit from an exercise when you can practice it for ten or fifteen minutes without a break and with comparatively few errors. clean technique. do not rush through this book. should be tired. Do not skip over any • of them because you will only have to come back to them later on. Never practice more than an hour in one period. as the mind becomes dull after that time and is no longer receptive. though ~ time will not hurt. practice an exercise very slowly for a long time. and in five month's time. To avoid this. When learning an exercise you are teaching the fingers their respective locations. your practice periods would be a half-hour in the morning and a half-hour in the afternoon. Build your practice time up so that after tbra: months you are practicing in three forty-five minute periods. at the same time never practicing an exercise faster than you ~~p1ay it correctly. In on:Ier to obtain the best results. as you will need the technical as well as the musical knowledge contained in all these studies to have a ready technique. in three one -hour periods per day.

made possible by the six different fingerings.Q. This first exercise is written in whole notes with no division of bars because the notes are of equal value and should be practiced very slowly.o. second and first sets of three strings.P:g~~B 2/a 8 ~li \1 lla a 09.a. ire- t8 '8 2" 4. FORM 1 t . The fifth form is more condensed and the sixth form is the most condensed form of this harmonized scale.. 1 See before EX. ! 8 U' 8 2/3 :1 8 II -8- .WITH EX. 48 MAJOR CHORDS The first exercise is a harmonized major scale in triads using six different fingerings. ~8 ~n: 8 II-&- .) The second form of Ex. and should be practiced as separate exercises. The notation in all the forms of the first exercise is the same but the fingerings are different in each one. 1 and all its forms should be played in all the keys. The fourth form is on the third. 8 1t 8 t8 jj S jj 213 :11 ii II FORM t 41:1* a 2 21a !ii 8 Is 8 tf! to lR 3:! 1} I 113 .0.. The third form is played on the second and first sets of three strings but varies from the first form because the cross-over is on a different note of the scale. 2e- . as follows: 1st form-from 2nd form-from 3rd form-from 4th form-from 5 th form-from C up to F C up to C sharp (D if possible) C up to F A flat up to D flat (D if possible) A flat up to E F sharp up to C sharp 6th form-from It is necessary to become familiar with all these forms as they will be referred to often..Q 0 jj ii ii :11 S II jj FORM 1 .0.. 1 is played entirely on the second set of three strings. (See notations below the staff. 1 ate long forms which cover quite a bit of the fingerboard. You will notice that the first four forms of Ex.. The first form is on the second and first sets of three strings.o.. Ex.IHi is s 10 21a a.

as you might it sI. :[.oQId Lave a smooth but deliberate effect. 2 is a preparatory exercise.. will kaow that you're not "pulsating" properly. This form of picking is termed arpeggio picking. OIl To get ac- quainud with this form for the right hand. usin& the pulsation t1iG _ .. at once. tflt zla 3. No. it is used on open strings so that you have to concentrate only the pick :and wrist action. iii . 8 !8 21a jj 8 B :11 8 II 31a FOR..Il6 fIlii EX.. If and when you do strike two strings to- ~.. bighrsr motioa.. use the next saiac In the up strokes. hi Ujj ~(. 2 is difficult as we do not actually pick each string individually. It should be developed to sound even dynamically and steady rhythmically.1 The pick each string and accents it with a slight kick.hi :.. you will not need a stop as the pick returns in in upward • fi iJ ir n n V n " IF J or r n n F lar oj oj or I F J J r II -9- .J. as a pick stop. In for.. 311 . which is more of a pulsation.0.n lIii .. . ijj ala 21a B :11 8 II FORM Ii t .l.this is dtu strike other . 8 ~ 3 jj ala 21a 8 ii :II 8 II 4:la 4:1 a Ex. The reason principle you will be able to maintain a steady tempo and you will not do if you were just forcibly pushing the pick across the strings.FORM 4: t. OYer- To 01. if at all.n to lla lIe- 2« .. In the down strokes. 2 f • as Is ~m "Ii ala 21a ~8 :9 Ita a. the pick and wrist action in Ex.

. the reverse.fl~. descending. Ex. 4 is to be practiced later on using the arpeggio picking. 'r il Lr r r I(i r J F r ISr j r r hi r J J r :. Also make sure that the notes are of equal value. -10- : II 113 213 . Practice all six forms as separate exercises. as the tendency is to skip' over the last note in each measure in order to get to the next position in time.Ex.. ascending. til r ~ j r 1 218 EX. This is also to be practiced using the five other fingerings as found in Ex. 1. then. the first of which is shown in the exercise. Practice all these exercises as legato as possible. 4 In this exercise the major scale (harmonized in common triads) is shown in sequence form.IFf~Flf~. which will necessitate a quick accurate shift I from one position to another. 1. on the second triad. etc. 3 This is the harmonized scale combined with the arpeggio picking and it should be practiced in six fingerings. The other five are to be found in the forms of Ex. This shows that it is a chord formation and is not a single string fingering. and in all the keys. Practice this exercise in all its forms slowly. Practice it very slowly and maintain an even tempo. . three steps up and return on the first triad. You will notice that at the beginning of each measure you will find a triad in parenthesis combining the notes in that measure. ffF'I'Ff.

Also practice in all the fingerings found in the Ex. to Ex. and in all the keys. II -11- . ~ 511:g8 n 213 1 (i) us 1 r J rr 2 t I 8 :11 EX.EX. 5 Care must be taken in maintaining an even tempo. but crossing over the sets of strings to jump the ocuve presents a different problem as this must be done cleanly. Later employ arpeggio picking. Care should be taken in making sure that the fingers light surely and firmly. 1. as every other measure is in arpeggio picking and the natural tendency is to hurry the whole notes. in the fact that it is arpeggio picking combined with the whole note The same principles are to be applied. Count four beats for the first measure just as you would for the second measure. 7 This exercise develops judgement of distance with the left hand. 1. IF J J F 1 213 jj I r J J F : II EX. 6 This exercise is similar triad. J. In the condensed form you do not have the haz- ard of a long jump between first and second triads. This is to be played in all six fingerings and in all the keys as found in Ex. Note that the gap between the first :and the second triad is an octave which when played in the long form is a long jump.

In the last measure the second triad set of three strings and also the fourth set. but also with Barres of the third. second and first fingers alternately. In the seventh measure of this exercise.EX. I~ IF .'. 8 A rhythmic form of the scale. ~I~. ~. . Note that the scale goes through a rhythmic cycle. should be practiced using the third picking.. !. IF~ I' IT I. I~ ~ I.. which is very fine practice as the "half-time" provides a breathing spell before the next burst of speed. . F I I (3hlI:Ut) ~j. IF' I r 113 . the second triad shou1d be played not only with a Barre of the fourth finger as marked.'ifl. . . F . Ii~:. I' i . .¥ Iif" ~f' ~[ft f i If' R I II (also 3rd .. F .. F l. 4.iFFI~. ~ 1." I. 9 Another sequence form of the ha~monized scale-the ·reverse of Ex.I' ~ I' rlfffil"Fl=lliO r' I'~ EX.i r I I:11 8 i~1 I I " 213 ...'il'r 213 8 'II:!.~ 213 113 213 1. I' F .t. Ii. Fir'.=~~I. To be practiced in all the different fingerings and keys. When practicing bear in mind all the previous explanations and warnings. If' r . i.~tI. .iF ~['. i I I.3 213 113 . . -" . 113 213 113 213 -12- ...2nd & 1st fingers) . Later employ arpeggio 9 '11:t~ . j I. IF. JI I:.

arpeggio picking. :8 -113 3 :& I. After all the forms have been perfected join them up with the harmonized scale an octave higher and practice without a break. 2\3 ~. 10 T.3 i§ 3 3 ILl R -130 II FORK 3 t2 II %i3 # 2\3 i 89 :1 . paying strict attention FORM t to the markings.It I::.his exercise should be practiced carefully as it is very confusing because of the fingering changing within itself.R :II Si 318 FORK Z LH ~.11 FORM 2 11 'I::. -e- n EX.~· tl3 t[-9- ~n. t\3 :[i EX.EX. 12 (Three forms) This exercise is in two sharps because that is the lowest form of the harmonized scale o~ the guitar. !i u'''h !ii 'it I:!jj iii U~ 12 313 8 3 ~§ I[a ]) lJ I. Later employ arpeggio picking. FOJU( t You will then be able to run two octaves in the harmonized scale. Later employ arpeggio picking. 313 26 3 418 II § :118 :118 .' Practice in all keys. Later employ . :~ 10~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. 8H ii . 11 'I::.o. 11 (Two forms) To be practiced very slowly.

15 (Two forms) This is practically the same as Ex.l~I ql[~ FORM 2 ~ 3\3 213 ~ ~2 1J I II'FD' 1 * -~ H~ I ~. The second form is difficult in the high register and therefore good practice. I J i ~ 1 J B~ _14 I i~·I ~¥ bid Ii~t~~ :11 alB 4\a J 313 413 31a 41a a -14- . 31a 3 218 I b~=' I M~b:':11 ~2 b\.: Ii 21a FORM 2 : II 21a 14 ~ FORM II: ~~ a ala 41a I [~ ti a :II : II 14 'lis:. 14. 14 (Three forms) 213 This exercise has a definite purpose and should bepracticed very slowly and carefully. tll:I.. 3\3 i' JJuJ· I ala EX. _j 9 r! V J2J flI.. Practice all three forms equally as the purpose throughout this method is balanced technique . 13 (Two forms) The first form was especially designed for strengthening the third and fourth fingers.i4 I b~[i ft~ ~.:. . FORM 1 r! r. Practice in all keys.J II~·JI'BI~#:J Ii.EX. Make sure they sustain their full value. FO RM 1 15 Z 11::[i' 1'[2 . The upper (melodic) line is in half notes while the two lower voices are in whole notes. Go from one key to another without a stop. the difference being that in this exercise we modulate a half tone up and a half tone down at each two-bar phrase.& .e- 13 ~ 11::&tLR la n :II R" :II R t:\ -e- -e- t:\ II 13 FORi' II: iii 2\a EX.

d ld :II : II 4.J.d l. Do not skip over this principle as it is very important. It should be a fast. . Do not slide the left hand in the modulation.thesecond the added note. H . in the first and last measures. The pressure should be released for just a fraction of a second during the change. Ian 1 8 2[J I l.brl b~ :B -!! 213 :11 -15- . 16. maneuver because the finger that is doing the flattening finger to produce In It is a very difficult must sustain another note during the process. which brings this principle into the classification df a fifth finger. The same principles should be applied. 17 (Two forms) This is the modulating form of Ex. accurate change. In the first form at the second and third measures. 16 (Three forms) This exercise must be practiced very carefully as we introduce a new principle iinthe first two forms which is the "breaking" (or flattening from an arched position) of the first joint of the fingers. you flatten the first joint of .J n ld =1 2[.8 EX. in all keys. and should The Practice very slowly. third form does not employ this principle but should be practiced just as carefully..J.EX. 4J i:~ :r. This flattening principle must be practiced methodically as it must be reliable rhythmically be done with a snap. making sure that the point of modulation is clean and distinct.d. Practice b~ I 21". the third finger does the flattening which is also very difficult. the second form.

ld 1:° I!i5. 20 A variation of the major scale with the top voice in quarter notes and the bottom voices in whole . M 3t 213 I' . 18 (Four forms) This exercise. 118 218 113 31a t. ~ t[~ t.11 Ie !J Iii~ : g 4.J li~U :g 4. 413 - l[f tl3 • t~ • 33 Z8 . a combination of exercises 14 and 16.J1J I J J I -16- id iJ JJ :1 . This exercise should be practiced in all keys. 2!3 M I t. There are no markings in this exercise because it should be practiced using the four different forms found in Ex. 18. without slurring. ~. I ~F~[' :.! ~== _. •• ZI3 • EX. 19 A major arpeggio study in triads which takes in all the consecutive sets of three strings.Is 4IS 213 Z EX._ t. ing.. Be very careful in this exercise as the finger flattening principle will be doubly hard Practice in all keys. ~ I in I:i.. :!~[' 313 213 113 4 3 To be played in all keys. ~ 1. The two lower voices' must sustain for their full value. r:i.J IIIliJ : I 4.'. Watch the markings carefully as the fingerings are constandy chang- t9 rt iJ 'h.EX.notes. and later employing arpeggio picking. 213 tl3 313 . II:~J J J I ~J J J I ~JJJ 1~4J~1 iiJ~J I r. Pnctice as legato as possible.J I:i lJ 'I 213 313. 213 . produces the major scale built on the tonic chord..til .

2-8- 218 . be practiced utilizing the fingering found in Ex. I::. l[-eB -e- q. 21 This is a lower form of the major scale built on the tonic chord.~ 1:3 oJ I:J.d. 25 A variation of Ex.JJ I i4 ~ li~ti ~ Ii~rl I:~~ ~!J tis to I i~t!}J I i~iIiuj~ t!! II~: I EX.t}.JJJ: I. just as you did in in 25 'III ~. 24 above.14~.EX. 21. lM ~ . keys. 23. 24. £Ii " " II::E.. forms found in that exercise.J I tn·J I:rft sJ lEd ld l:qtlJ I. 23.. -17- . 218 2 -e- 81s 3~ ~ ~ EX.J.1JI !tJ~tt~1 'rl~J.J IilJJ J ItJJJ IJUJU:I ~ ~ # To be practiced in all Apply the same principles. FOR. It should be practiced up to the key of C. in which the same principles are to be applied. FORM t M 21 ~ FORM 2 23 . 113 213 tl3 : II : II t.I. 22 A variation.I. 23 (Three forms) This major exercise was especially designed to strengthen the fourth finger. Key of F 21 . 8 23 .l1~~~l.. 24 A modulating form of Ex.!tld I:J d :. 22~~ I: • JHJ IltJJ J IItJJ JI ftJ JJ I ~J J. of Ex.:ijIJJ. Ex. SII : II Practice using all the EX. EX.

"ii 'ii 3\3 213 113 213 -18- . Watch the movement of all the fingers closely. Pay dose attention to the markings in these forms as they are very confusing and difficult. such as arpeggio picking. Practice in all keys. Give this exercise the same treatment as Ex. lIn 1lin·[.. etc. FORM 6' 28 $I: ~§fB!! e 'iBi tLb. 1. 26 MINOR CHORDS Starting a harmonized minor scale study in six different forms.WITH EX.

-19- . as Ex.EX. Practice in all keys. Always bear in mind the legato practice and the use of the six different fingerings. 27 (Six forms) This is a different form of the harmonized minor scale and should be given the same treatment 26.

813 418 "U" -Q- g: II EX.. . 28 = II: ~ FORM 2 FORM ~t . 11:. 0 ic e t [0-4 2"O'S 413 ~ . ~R 8 :40 I 28' 2 8-8 413 ~ sO' 3 . Practice very carefully as some of the fingerings. gs h2 ~_§ iDs tR lU 8 -e-4 813 !~jj:. d .Q.& i~ft 2U 41s -e- is :[li ilIU!!'jj~[s '0 !§2 ! s-oSl8 418 § it ! lilt! :11 :if t:'\ t:'\ I it '0'" 418 8 #In :11 ~ 'U" -n- 0 I -20- . Practice this also with the arpeggio picking and in all keys.''Me 1 di rmnor sea 1 aseen. 29 (Three forms) Another low form of the harmonized minor scale.. 28 (Three forms) This is a lower form (in pitch) of the harmonized minor scale.harrnonrc deseen d . It should be given the same treatment as Ex. FORM t 29~ II: ~[lJg#llt ~s.EX. 28. are confusing.tI'§!U!!f~jj'G ~jj:§!! s g U 8 413 318 an 8 § FORM 2 29 . though correct. ) .

}U (~lX torms) A different harmonization of the minor To be given the same treatment as Ex. 1.nx. -21- . scale which. like the other scale studies. is in six forms.

-22- . as harmony. it is written in the key of D minor (using accidentals).EX. 31 (Six forms) The harmonized minor scale built on the tonic chord. Practice each form carefully as each fingering presents different hazards. using the tonic triad only. To explain this more clearly in case of doubt. This exercise is to be practiced in all keys.

A lower form of the harmonized minor scale built on the tonic chord. Apply the same principles in -23- . this exercise as in the previous ones.

!'" II~ <l .. chromatically.J... . ~ - 2#9- 21a 4 1Jj. :11 818 218 M. . :II -24- .j 213 al8 J -eo- .i ~ . Practice the fingerings in Ex.d J • ~ • :. ll3 :.J.J ~}l JI8 2 I ala . which means that Practice in all keys. 33 is in one form and Ex. 34.J 8 al8 213 I!J I#.J J I~:! ld I # ~ ~ IIBm' I~o .J 813 21a i~ . FORM 2 4 -e1 J Q 11ft:!~ Ih2 ~ Ill! ~ 1:1• ~J! II~ oJ ~ 413 2 "e4a II:.1~ tis t4 ~ :R"II:.J.30J I 2-9uil<lISrl ~ Iii:. II:J ~6 4:~2t1'-9. II:. 4~2..!oJ I. tJ lile -II:. 4#: 2 43 . 33 using the same no- :£ 83 ~ II:gi j I tftl J I i!=' I~It lira y ~ 2 ~ oJ •.Ilg 2#-&18 4 ."~ 4\3 FORM 4: tal Iut til Ilft~~ lih. tation as in Ex.!J..~1:. 34 is in four forms.rl J 213 -e- I.~.• I tf I Bl J 'II :.41a j J ~ .e.. descending the second and fourth triads in the measure are played with up-strokes.J ~ I 2~ 818 EX. . These exercises cannot be played in all the keys in their original form but can be moved up and down the fingerboard by leaving out the first measure when descending (if too low) and leaving out the fifth measure when ascending (if too high). I B~ ~ .J 181e -I': I. 33 & 34 Built on the seventh arpeggio which takes in the entire fingerboard. Pay special atte~tion to the markings as this exercise uses alternate picking.. You will notice that the fingerings in this exercise fall right under the hand. 35 A short seventh arpeggio in triads. . Ex. • ~ 8 FORM 8 M.WITH SEVENTH CHORDS EXS.

jilt liB :\2 ~o =#8 3 413 2-9- ~#n .." ._ ' 2.!~ 21a tl3 -e- .·ii~~§~§~*ii~~:~: IIBs . start practicing them with alternate picking.. 35. then with arpeggio picking.-Go 8 Iii 00 I~: 10 If .0. ~ 4#-& 4 40 FOR~ 87 i I:.. When the fingerings in all three forms are learned. This is the first exercise a brobn set of three strings.! tb :11 ..1t . :#. ..EX.tt us 213 313 aM 86 ~ -e'21_ 1:8 .e- 311 'i Iii 3.0 !:: ~-& §:: -25- . 37 (Two forms) This is the fust of a series of stretching exercises. lf~ ~ I" . .. Also practice with arpeggio picking. as in Ex..: ... a • :. Practice in all keys in straight down strokes.& 3~ ~ M & !I=& '.e- . You will notice that the middle note remains the same while the other two voices move around the middle voice in chromatic tenths. Be careful in the baa...~- ~i~:~: ~::~~ ~~ .: .0.a This must be done smoothly.! 29- !Iu til 21. (See page 6). 87 ~~i.a ZlB3 : :: . p'ii Ii Is . -eo- Iii I!! Iii 21a IX 18 1"3" -& . Pay close attention to the set markings under the staff in aD dIae ea:rc:ists. 36 (Three forms) A long seventh arpeggio in triads. II:~_0 4.as you have to jump over a string with the pick. j! 18 :11 ala EX. 3# i •4.0. :1· on usia& FORllI I!- In I" Iii 1.

1-& 39 . qe2 . e- 3#0- :Ig 1 'tJ iltQg 1#:& ' llg 1 FORM 2 31B3 -n ::: 2e- :. ularly in the first form. 38 is in one form and Ex. 41 (Two forms) This is related to Ex. II: 1!! :18 1 "l') gQ8 1 2-&2:B3 #-e- :13 1U t :: 2.o.:($ !I! tf~! . . FORM! Practice in all t:\. II: t: M M M . II: II: 20)0 113 M ~#H qJl #0 :lB«O g[§R 4 3~-& fg 'i :1 ~ in 213 4(~)~ :1f!o i~<p f§U -e- 2 4& ii:: ifi :II m II I The same princi- ~ FORM 2 41j~EI~I::i~~~i~i#~n~~§le~~I. Constant practice of these two forms will definitely increase the spread of the fingers.~#U" 2-9- 1#g '3 2iB3 qu- B[§g I #-e- ~#g 3 qu r :: :. 38 & 39 Ex. sible by the two forms.EXS.e- :11 #0- :: II t:\. 39 is in two forms. it is correct. ples are to be applied. :II :: II 1#" t#" :II:: II ~-&- t:\. Observe all markings carefully. ~. 40 inasmuch as it is a stretching exercise with similar structure. B:.hi R313 413 :~! :11* II ~I! t:\.n.~5 ?Iii 313 !~8 1~8 -26- :~5 U!· :llt~ B2/S B21a II 42 ~ . ~'! .:: .~n~2~~§~hi§~b~E~~ig~:I~I~ 213 U IHI~i b:u 313 EX. #& §:.e- EX. 40 (Two forms) Contrary motion is introduced in this stretching exercise. 40 FORM 2 40 EX. FORM 1 U! : 10. 42 (Two forms) Contrary motion is again employed in this exercise. 2& ~e- This comes more under the heading of hand Practice in all keys which is made pos- gymnastics. 42 ~ FORM 2 II: II: tii B213 il! . FORM I 39 * II:::: . 37 38 Give these exercises the same treatment as given Ex. FORM 1 * & ~ . t:\. Practice in all keys. keys. particThough dissonant in spots.

9 3 AIt'--' i EX 46 (Two forms) :.n: 'r 114 II II it! ill tt! ~lfIJ! . Z top Contrary motion is again employed. 46. Practice in all keys.pI~J.. :_!: trag 3 ~-& t [~-a2 Il #~ lEt g 3 4:qn.. . 42. This exercise starts on the seventh triad. 44 (Two forms) 113 7ft!! :II:§!!" Bt\3 4-e- t:\.x. . 44.tl: i':== _. therefore it will develop accuracy with the pick.. 114 tlB4 kg :: te ~. Apply the same principles. Observe all markings it!~U: :111. II I~._. FORM t 44 .F-n JJ. 2lB4: -27- . Note the new set markings under the staff. carefully and practice slowly in all keys.:f W! ~~ j. They refer to the chart on page 6. but an octave higher. (Two forms) 7 The lower three notes of this exercise are identical with Ex. Although this exercise is written in 8th triplets. V 4 q4: #3 #3 # ~4 1#3 n* 41B2A13 r M qi "---" 9 21B2 3 "---" 9 IT mEEli JL.r. This is the same notation as Ex. II 47 FOR~ iI:~4r H:! h! /~ . 45 45 'I:DFfnar r-C[ DiEI All"""'" 9 Same notation as in Ex..t~~ f:\.~j J :II~ iII J V ~ n V ~ "3" ~ ~ ~ -a' ~ r-I r-I 1 Al2 21 ~ FORM 2 44' I: oJ] Als • V~V n J':daJ 3 a\B2 q 2~ 2 q 2 1 AI2 q ~3 -~ij ] J i~nJ 31§till #tQ4-~ijJ Ja~8JJ :11 ~lll t ~ 3 ~ 33M '~ ~ 7' EX.. II Introducing a new type of picking which is very hard to gauge.~J3~J J l§ub. Pay special attention to the mechanics of this exercise. goes through a progression which resolves to a more open voicing of the same seventh and retracts. 43 43 .. Practice in as many keys as possible. II: f{§{!!" :#!'! nus 4: -e- r-I 2 ~n. EX.:J.n. 4: ~.. :_g 2~n. i 2~3 2~ Practice slowly in all keys.I: Slr:~3 FOR.t!! i[t: hf i·~ ~[~:t~: :UB.: . but we have added a stati?nary note on which makes it necessary for this to be prac ticed as a new and separate exercise.~ H! t-l t_ 1_j I. . aa SIBa ala EX. practice very slowly at first. U: . but an octave higher. J!__ r r-rf fDCEIW§r II t:\.

but suspended a little above the string.. not riding it. . II:j#lg M i##H tis fig 21s 3 ern 4# c@= ~ 2 ~8 4 #. Practice slowly. Therefore it is necessary to have a good foundation in order to judge the distance between triads. fin&a" is poml just above to You may have to spend a lot of time on these first two diminished aacises get the two idle fingers to lie in readiness. 48 tis EX. 48 except for the finger . Vnh the exercise can be played very legato. with the up-strokes falling on the 50 . mains the same throughout this exercise. II! EX. look out for slides. 48 Starting the diminished study of this volume. but this fingering make sure there are never four notes sounding not even for a fraction of a second. In other words. Those exercises are combined in this one. These first two exercises on the diminished triad are You will notice the fingering reAs you know the diminished chord repeats itself every four frets. Down strokes should be used throughout until thoroughly acquainted with the exercise. second and third fingers do the work. 50 :11 You will notice in this exercise why the finger training in Exs.-etl8 1#2 218 4#-e- . The first and fourth fingers should alternate like the ends of a rocker arm.# ne-e2 3 21s tl8 i##~II I: 21s 4 e:### tla :~ 218 2B2 -28- 4 #-ei8 tis 218 il2 218 i~" : II tl8 . In other words the first finger should remain down until the fourth comes down. The first finger should rest just above the fourth string. This is important and must be practiced until perfect. This time the first. The jumps should be fast and accurate with the fingers solidly implanted each time. 48 and 49 is necessary. in a one foe one order. very important.WITH DIMINISHED CHORDS EX. Observe all markings carefully and practice slowly.D 113 :'1: 213 . which is re- versed. second and fourth triads.SUSP"aAnn. after which time alternate picking should be used. and the fourth the first string. 49 :11 The same principles apply in this exercise as in Ex.

the same in Markings will be found in the first cycle only as the set and fingering markings are until thoroughly acquainted with the exerPractice slowly . employ alternate picking.. and the third cycle is the reverse of the second a half tone higher. which is in cycles with seven triads in each cycle.: II 4 . 51.: . 50. ?j :11 I~ I §eu kt!! -29- bRii bkii s #8 .51 ~ Nile IW it' Iii '" i"!! #121#2 #2/0 #i Iii I!! #2 1 218 lUI 218 . Practice also with arpeggio picking. a bQ..#~ .tii 113 Is I 8 #8 Sf 213 ft Iqt2 ~!! ¥m ~ ~I!!-a. 51 Our previous diminished fingerings play an important part in this exercise. 52 &. Practice with down-strokes cise.~ ..I § . I!! I#t:= a#rr . . Fingerings will be with #I! i. the second cycle is the reverse of the first a half tone higher. The first cycle goes up the scale.0.q~n& It -&- I k~ ~-e- b~ ~~iibY.EX. as explained in Ex. then use alternate picking.2 Iii Ie. . as the rest use the same as these. 12 EX. found in the first two cycles only. the result being chromatic diminished arpeggios.! n. 11ft I~ #1 ~g. t: . I!! . ~t!! lb.~ t#! Brn :11 ~ #a #t: I!! 112 I!! Iii #jj: Iii I!! II! Note the similarity to Ex. the rest of the cycles. When thoroughly acquainted The cycles in this exercise are divided by a bar line. Iii . this exercise.~ k.

You may have difficulty in fonning the as- To avoid this. then reverses and remains the same descending until the starting I If! I . ~~ ~ IF r F 114 ~1 ~1 b r ~~ib~~. the ascending fingering is difficult and the third finger may be sluggish. jJ J #. Don't depend on your "ear". fingering is less -difficult. F ~J b! J I~fi Je bJ ~~d : F i l F ~J ~. explanation of the preceding exercise is to be applied. 1 I ~~i J I 4 J ~ #J I ql 1 i: ~J~~ I =F ~ -OF. Don't be alarmed if the first joint of the second finger aches slightly while it is learning to bear the strain. 54 ~ £ ~ . over-spread rather than under-spread your fingers. 55 The diminished scale which ascends differently than it descends.j 'zCb1#JI'It2~J'"a2~J I_. f= ~f= ~ OF · Read the notes carefully as they I EX.#J #J ~J ~2 Iii bJ II~ IJ I :II The EX. 53 A rather unusual fingering is introduced in this exercise which will have to be practiced rationally as it is tiring at first. Make sure that all the fingers except the second are arched. so practice this form very slowly to provide time for concentration on the movement of that . IHili .EX.J_ In/i Ii . cending formation. #rl Ita I B!! . point is reached. The fingering remains the same ascending until the octave is reached. 54 A variation and development of Ex. The descending In the second form. 53 in which you go up and down the scale chromatically. may sound wrong at first.

21B4 -31- . This can be done by making the movesliding or slurring. 21B4: "i. ly and observe all markings. 58 4 II: IfF ..J a I J n V n n V n ••J " h~ a I~~ 2 . lay fiat when it should be arched. Jj JJ #'± L 4_ #g 4-. ment very fast without The difficulty here is in making these two notes sound as though they were fingered with two fingers instead of one.{ . 57 411:wJ ~ J IlibJ~41 :!44#~#~14ti~ ~#d1:!4J#JtI~ I/iJyJ:11 114: EX.Ii IIr ~ld-J E ~J I E JI DB~" d ~J ~J r a I ~ :11 In this exercise the top line is in quarter notes and the harmonic structure is in whole notes.' J' II I 9 I ~ ~#= . 57 j UJI J #~ 4.e. This is taken 'care of by the fingering.-3##! . but the left hand linger does not let it sound clearly.. J8 (Two forms) This is the first diminished chord exercise in open voicing. For instance. This exercise increases the reach of the fourth finger. This finger will have a tendency to This may be a strain at first but it can be developed through work. Make sure the whole notes are held for their full value. in the first form the D string (IV) is stopped from viPractice slowbrating with the second finger while that finger is used for the note on the A (V) string. inasmuch as you have to play two notes in: succession with the first finger. The pick strikes that string. Practice slowly. Check once in a while to make sure all three notes in the triad are sounding. )0 The chromatic diminished scale in this form is one of the most difficult exercises so far. It is necessary to *udeaden" a string.LA.~ ~ = E EX.

60. Use a complete wrist action. 59 This exercise combines open voicing with closed voicing. and stop its vibration. EX. which presents a difficulty as the up-stroke must pick the middle note while the two outside notes are sounding. Make sure you do not This is accomplished as follows: After the down -stroke the pick should travel in a small returning arc around the upper string so you will not touch it Then with the descending backward motion the pick will strike the middle note safely. 61 The general structure of this exercise is identical to Ex. 60 (Two forms) In this exercise the moving voice is in the middle of the structure. Apply the same principles. Observe all markings and practice slowly. and the fingering. The difference lies in the moving voice -32- .EX. EX. deaden either of the sustaining voices with the up-stroke.

61 except that it is on the second "broken set of three" instead of the third set and therefore pitched higher .• . very slowly and make sure the middle voice is clear and crisp. 64. 65 ~ I: iftll:iJ .ftJ I~· BJ 1. 63 411:1ti oj lie uaa j Ift:f ~ I~ ~ I:~~ I#. covering the entire finger-board..J 113 n V J I q~:dII J I~ -33- .f ~J q~ I:! ~j I#~.EX.except that it is on the first 'tbroken set of three".J :11 Practice EX. try changing the cross-over points. 3[B3 The moving voice is again found in the middle of the structure. 62. After this exercise is well practiced and you EX. 64- The preceding three exercises are combined in this one. 62 This is the same in every respect to Ex. are thoroughly familiar with it. 62 ~ II: 3~ ra. be applied. 65 By now you should be familiar with this type of picking.J IBE §d#~ ~~ li~ :11 The same principles to EX.1 21B3 J l:e d 11~ ~~ l#j. Apply the same principles. making this exercise similar to Ex. 63 This is the same as Ex.

67 (Two forms) IE rlf I'r war :11 You should be familiar with the first half of each measure in this exercise.nd notes in the measure. have the fingers Give the notes their full formed before the two fingers drop and make sure they come down together firmly. ~~ I I ~J ~ ~- I I JU . After you have sounded the first and seco... 6'7 -v ~ 213 31B3 ~J n V FORM 2 ~J ~ 2 113 21B3 I I 6'7 BIB3 '1 t. Do not merely lay them down but snap them down hammer-fashion simultaneously with the pick stroke. vnlue and practice slowly. 66 A great amount of accuracy for the right hand is developed in this exercise through the type of picking employed..E@f 113 V n n ~'¥2~f EX. In other words. 66 ~ 11:'fir .J al 2~ I 213 4. practice the whole exercise as an entirely new study.~ J 19- ~ arsa -34- . FORM L~ n ~ 2 1-= I' V ~ n I VI . n ~ I .. . the third and fourth fingers of the left hand should be right above the frets ready to drop into place. 01 I ~ . Even when you are familar with both groups it will still take considerable practice to combine them correctly. .EX. but inasmuch as the second half in new.

going from a closed to an open form of major chord. 10 ~ FORM 2 II: j! n n 313 y_ nI t~ J n 213 ~1#1 ltB1 n n V l~ ~J n n V ~~ n V 3~ 10 ~ II: I~ J V l~ sJ n I h~ n J V ~~ n ~ '~ri= n V 213 n I V 11' :11 n n I :$~ 'fflr i ~EI =1 313 . 7th maj. and then returning. FORM 1 In the Make sure all three notes sound. !8 I~§ 4W§ i#!! i~'!8 ~ #-:1-0- min. 69 This exercise is in contrary motion. Practice slowly. -35- . third and fourth fingers alternately. Do not apply this in the s~cond Practice slowly in all keys. culty in sustaining the bass note while the other fingers are performi~g. 67 and should be given the same treatment. last half of the second measure the middle triplet triad is sounded with an up-stroke. 68 This is practically the same as Ex.do this is to use the fourth finger the first time through. second. You may have diffiThis is overcome by concen- EX. etc.EX. dim. the first triplet in the last half of the second measure should be pracThe proper way to . agility.o70 (Two forms) This study is beneficial in more ways than one as it develops accuracy. In the first form. 7th 9th major 1 -021B4 1~ 2#-e- 1 -u214 :11 1 ~ i"u 1":\ II 214 EX. and timing. 69 4 II: i~iiriB ~ 214 2 ~ major n dim. tration and a little more pressure on that one note. It offers" great amount of variety in finger formation which develops accuracy and agility. the third finger the second time. form because the fingering will not match. ticed using the first. Practice chromatically up and down the fingerboard.

_8 1 1['. r'1 V r'1 V FORM 71 FORM 71 4:11. 71 (Two forms) The first form of this exercise was designed to develop the third and fourth fingers. II:"! I~. Practice slowly at first in all keys.and the second form for the fourth finger alone. You will Make them clear and legato.hJ 2 2. valuable for the hand as you play the exercise without the use of the first finger.41 121 21 . The third form is particularly Practice slowly in· all -36- . 72 This is Ex.. matically up and down the fingerboard. It develops the third and fourth fingers for long range accuracy. in general. 1ql ~J11 J :11 ~J2~1 21 ~J :11 EX. notice that the under structure is in thirds. When speed is developed in these two forms. 71 inverted. keys. The picking is very touchy in this exercise as you have to cross over the triad and sound the D string with an up-stroke. the top line becomes a moderate trill.1~. Practice slowly.EX. 3 3 4 4J 213 12 __ 8 1 Ada ~. Be very Practice chrocareful in placing the fourth finger each time as it may deaden the next string.J_4. 73 (Three forms) This exercise is built on half the scale and is. II:~B .J2. 41 J 11 111 . good for developing the hand. . EX.

71 but an octave lower. but an octave lower. FORM 2 7~ 411:.~ 4:13 V n Y EX. 73 for developing a long and accurate reach. 73. 74 A variation of Ex. 76 (Two forms) Identical with Ex.J .EX. Practice slowly in all keys. EX.rt·~. More pressure has to be applied when playing on the lower strings in order to obtain a clear tone. 75 (Two forms) This is identical with Ex. -37- .. Practice carefully.

V ro~2 t 113 213 FORM' 77 ~Ihr~ oJ 313 ~ V iF . Practice down to key of F.. 76 with this notation.1~. 77 (Four forms) A variation of the last half of the major scale...1/. Practice slowly at first. played on the lower sets.~.1 .J r~. After this is practiced.:[.J ..1 ij'1 :'I~[ii ~. use the fingerings found in Ex. . Forms 3 and 4 are identical in notation but an octave lower than forms 1 and 2. 76 with the fingerings in this exercise.!.EX.1~IUiI I.. Practice •J EX. Practice each form up and down the fingerboard as far as possible without using ::Rijll:![j'l . Practice as legato as possible. 79 i~ . 38 . then use the notation in Ex.J :11 8 ~ V I~r~ oJ iF .:ii' . open strings.1.J 413 F.[i.&Ml ~ V I!¥ IJ.J :11 This is another variation of the major scale.J :'~8 II up-to the key of F• EX. 78 This is a variation of the major scale.

EX. Pay close attention to the fingerings and markings and do not try to practice it too fast. n V n V n h! :11 1br WARNING: In n Go back through the book now. in order to do so. -39- . 82 Individual control of the fingers is developed In this exercise. Benefit is derived from an exercise only when you can go through it without stopping. Form 1 is on one set while Form 2 Practice Form You will notice in Form 2 that the patterns on the fingerboard are all related Practice very legato making the cross-over quickly and accurately.J. smoothly and evenly. Play in all possible keys chromatically up and down the fingerboard.~r ·~J~I il. and closely located. the fourth finger sustains a triad while the first. 2 chromatically up and down the fingerboard.. 82 NOTE them using up-strokes.~~Jj·'~4. J FORM 2 :J :11 113 2/3 EX. In the second measure. taking all exercises in which down-strokes only were used and practice Then practice them using up and down strokes alternately.1 :#:. Be careful that the pressure on the lower notes does not decrease because of this movement of the third and fourth fingers. 80 The augmented chord with the whole tone scale as a melody. Practice slowly so that the last chord in the second measure can be sounded in tempo. 411:~t•• :-. no matter how slowly you have to go 81i~~M ~11:~!~~4J~'1~4J~I~:~~1i~I~.~1~ t 114 Bl13 I1B3 21B3 113 EX.~· 1~:["~F'~bJ~g 213 114 213 ~ . second and third fingers play the lowest voice. takes in all "sets of three". 81 This exercise is very beneficial because of the wide variety of fingerings and hand gymnastics. Try to make them sound alike. make sure the up-strokes are played just as quickly as the down strokes. nil 11~t: . crossing the strings with the pick. In the first measure the third and fourth fingers play the two upper voices in quarter notes while the first and second fingers sustain the lower voices in whole notes.

you will be able to resolve more . Later on when your knowledge and experience has been built up gradually through the construction of the simpler forms.ETUDE exercises in this method. so you will be able to check on your progress. thereby enabling you to study it thoroughly. from the smallest part to the whole exercise. One of the best features of this study is the fact that you can see your composition on paper. Solidity and construction should be the foremost thoughts. After constructing an etude write it out and save each one. 2 •• r"1 4: !II- r-i=i). Try to vary each etude from the rest. 11- V r"1 r"1 r"1 V r"1 r"1 r"1 r ~IB3 V M MM -40- . This study brings out and develops your individuality. varying the value of the notes any way you wish without changing the fingering. at the same time teaching you to write along practical lines for the guitar. STUDY The purpose of this short etude is to show the practical application of some of the fingerings and After studying this etude you will readily see which exercises and fingerings have been combined in forming this etude.. ercisesdry. for if they become too complicated it will be difficult to resolvethem properly. Limit yourself to a certain number of exercises (five or six for example). Do not expect too much at first in developing these studies as it takes time and work to be able to write even a fairly good one each week. as there is always a new way to twist them around. You should try writing one of these every week. Keep them harmonious and melodic. Remember you can not milk any of the exKeep them as simple as possible at first. applying the following rules.difficult situations. You can use any part of the exercises selected.

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