# Statistics Statistics involves use of sample data to predict, estimate and finally used in managerial decisions.

It refers to scientific methods by which the data are collected, organized, presented and analysed. Quantitative variable A quantitative variable is a numerical datum or observation that represents an amount or quantity. The quantity can be discrete or continuous. Example of quantitative variable: 1. Earnings of fishermen in Terengganu 2. The number of fishermen in Terengganu.
3. The number of Proton Wira cars in the parking lot. 4. The number of wau ordered.

5. The area or size of IIUM’s campus in Gombak.

Discrete and continuous variables A discrete is a countable number of values. The values are generally expressed as integers or whole numbers. A continuous variable is a number that can assume all of the infinitely many values corresponding to a line interval. Qualitative variable A qualitative variable is a non-numerical observation that represents a category of data. Example of qualitative:
1. Colour.

2. Gender, i.e. male or female. 3. Marital status, i.e. single, married, divorced or separated.

Frequency distribution Frequency distribution is a table that contains of data values and its frequency is the number of times a value occurs. Range is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a frequency distribution. Cumulative frequency Cumulative frequency is the total number of data that is less than a particular value (usually the upper class boundary) Mean. Grouped frequency distribution Grouped frequency distribution is displays the data in class intervals and the number of data (frequency) that is included in each class. Mode The most frequently occurring value in frequency distribution. the data elements must be in order. Median The value of the middle element when the size is odd(or the average value of the two middle elements when the sample size is even)in a frequency distribution. median and mode is statistic Mean Mean is the sum of the data in a frequency distribution divided by the number of data elements. To find the median. .

TYPES OF HAND PHONE USED BY PPISMP SEMESTER 1 STUDENTS IN INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU KAMPUS PERLIS. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Class Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan A Pemulihan A Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Sony Ericsson Nokia / / CSL Samsung LG Other .

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani TESL B PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / .

We observe each class by giving them a form to fill.56 57 58 59 60 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 PJ SEMESTER 3 / / / / / Method used in collecting data 1. Observation Our group prepare paper or form to classes and told them to fill the form. That is how our group gather the data. Frequency distribution Types of Hand Phone Sony Ericsson Nokia CSL Samsung LG Other l ll Sum Tally llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll lll Frequency 29 25 3 0 1 2 60 Qualitative Data Types of hand phone Sony Ericsson Nokia CSL Samsung LG Frequency 29 25 3 0 1 .

5 c) Mode = 29 1 2 3 25 29 . MEDIAN AND MODE: a) Mean = x n = 29 + 25 + 3 + 0 + 1 + 2 6 = 60/6 Mean = 10 b) Rearrange the numbers in ascending order: 0 Median = 2 + 3 2 Median = 2.Other Sum 2 60 ANSWER FOR MEAN.

Bar Chart Types of hand phone Sony Ericsson Nokia CSL Samsung LG Other Sum Frequency 29 25 3 0 1 2 60 Pie Chart .

WEIGHT(KG) OF PPISMP SEMESTER 1 STUDENTS IN INSTITUTE PENDIDIKAN GURU KAMPUS PERLIS No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan A Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Pemulihan B Class Weight (kg) 45 40 48 45 79 75 46 46 52 60 77 62 63 85 65 52 44 62 38 43 38 .

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D TESL D Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani Pendidikan Jasmani TESL B Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 52 43 60 52 43 54 68 47 43 46 59 47 70 71 87 70 58 67 49 43 65 59 37 46 55 61 55 51 52 .

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pendidikan Jasmani Semester 3 Pengajian Agama Semester 3 Bahasa Melayu Semester 3 Bahasa Melayu Semester 3 Bahasa Cina Semester 3 Bahasa Cina Semester 3 60 57 57 60 55 50 62 59 57 69 Frequency distribution Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 III IIII IIII IIII II IIII IIII IIII III IIII IIII IIII IIII I II sum Tally Frequency 3 17 18 14 6 2 60 Quantitative data Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 Frequency 3 17 18 14 6 2 .

5 79.5 59.5 Midpoint Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 Midpoint 34.03 f) Lower Boundary and Upper Boundary Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 Lower Boundary 29.5 .30 0.23 0.5 59.5 64.5 49.5 Upper Boundary 39.5 44.5 89.05 0.5 79.5 69.10 0.5 69.5 49.28 0.5 39.sum 60 Relative Frequency Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 sum Frequency 3 17 18 14 6 2 60 Relative Frequency ( f / 0.5 54.

5) + 18(54.03 Midpoint 34.5 39.5 44.10 0.5 U/B 39.28 0.5 79.05 0.5 79.5) + 6(74.5 64.5) + 2(84.5 49.5) + 14(64.5 frequency 3 17 18 14 6 2 Relative frequency 0.5 Cumulative frequency 3 20 38 52 58 60 ANSWER FOR MEAN.5 69.5 Cumulative Relative Frequency Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 L/B 29.70 – 79 80 – 89 74.5 89.23 0.5 59. MEDIAN AND MODE: a) Mean = x = ∑fx∑f Mean = Sum of (midpoint × frequency) Sum of frequency = 3(34.5 69.5 59.5) 60 = 3360 60 = 56 b) Median = LB + N2-ffm c .5 84.5) + 17(44.5 74.5 49.5 84.5 54.30 0.

5 84.5 64.6 = 55.5 69.5 79.5 49.05 0.5 89.5 59.5 49.5 79.5 Cumulative frequency 3 20 38 52 58 60 .56 x 10) = 49.5 frequency 3 17 18 14 6 2 Relative frequency 0.5 59.5 39.30 0.23 0.5 44.5 + 602-201810 = 49.5 U/B 39.5 69.10 0.1 c) Mode class = 50 – 59 Bar Chart Weight (kg) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 70 – 79 80 – 89 L/B 29.5 74.5 + 5.03 Midpoint 34.5 + (0.Median class = 50 – 59 = 49.5 54.28 0.

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