What is HRM?

Human resources management is a term used to refer to how people are managed by
organizations. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and System Theory. Human resources have at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production although this perspective is changing as a function of new and ongoing research into more strategic approaches at national levels. This first usage is used more in terms of 'human resources development', and can go beyond just organizations to the level of nations. The more traditional usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a firm or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as 'human resources management'. This article addresses both definitions.

HR is an acronym for human resources, that element within a company which deals with the human aspects/needs of workers. Many companies have an HR department, which may provide a broad range of services to its employees. Some who work in HR are considered part of the department, but many people outside of such a department may have something to do with not just the financial aspects of work, but also “the human element” of employing workers.

For instance, even though technically not part of an HR department, a supervisor or manager may be responsible for hiring or firing workers, writing employee reviews, giving day to day feedback on work, and encouraging and supporting workers. This is all potentially human resource work. Yet in large companies, a large human resources department may not have much day-to-day contact with the same employees. So managers or supervisors do part of the work involved in human resources, and members of the HR administration may oversee their work. In small companies with only a couple of employees, no formal human resources department exists, and managers or owners handle all the duties of such a department. Some standard responsibilities of a human resources department include the following:
• • • • •

Securing, offering and explaining benefits, like health insurance or 401ks. Managing on-the-job health and safety issues. Offering information or advice on special work programs, like reimbursement for continuing education or smoking cessation programs. Advertising available jobs, screening applicants, setting up interviews and potentially hiring applicants. Handling all paperwork related to the hiring or firing of employees.

• • • • •

Distributing paychecks and bonuses (though paycheck disbursement may be outsourced to another company). Helping workers apply for family leave, maternity leaves sabbaticals or disability payments. Possibly participating in motivational company wide events. Approving performance reviews and assessing raises or promotions. Handling complaints about employer abuses, sexual harassment, discrimination or hostile work environment charges.

It is often a critique that large companies and sometimes even small ones lack a sense of humanity in regards to caring for their workers. Though HR departments do get pressured by those in finance departments to keep their costs low, most of its workers are keenly interested in helping to see to employee needs and encouraging workers to do their best. If you work in a relatively large and “impersonal” company, it can be a great thing to get to know the folks in your human resources department. In a way, HR department employees may already know you better than you think. If you’ve worked for a company for a long time, Chances are human resource employees already knows when you had your children, if you had to take leave because your mom was sick, how well you’ve performed in the company, and when you’ve participated on teams. Workers often make the mistake of thinking that the HR department is in it impersonal, but most of its employees would beg to differ. They really are working not only for the employer but the employees. Knowing these folks by name personalizes your relationship with people who already know a considerable amount about you. When you’re starting work at a new company, seeking the counsel and advice of human resource departments is also an excellent plan, as again, these people may know you more intimately than anyone else you work with. The definition of human resource management emphasizes the sphere of influence to encompass 'the strategic approach to manpower management in an organization'. The process calls for a coherent objective to retain and increase employee head-count, any organization's most valued asset. This specialized study and application has come in the wake of realization that the employees of an organization, individually and collectively, are the main contributors to the achievement of business objectives. The management of people hired by an organization involves employing people, designing and developing related resources and most importantly, utilizing and compensating their services to optimize business profitability via employee performance. Today, Human Resource Management operates in tune with other essential organizational requirements and co-exists with the topmost management cadre. Managing human resources within a company calls for a liaison between the organization's management personnel and the administration of the executive rungs. It thrives on the strength of the relationship between the management and workers of the company.

Its features include:

• • • •

Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Industrial management

But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even employee and industrial relations are confusingly listed as synonyms, although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations.

Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:

It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.• • • • • • • • • It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology. It is a multi-disciplinary activity. economics. It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. Its focus is on results rather than on rules. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and wellmotivated employees. both as individuals and groups. SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: The scope of HRM is very wide: 4 . etc. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. It is all about people at work.

transport. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens. their staffs are its human resources. incentives. etc. education. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations. medical assistance. settlement of disputes. From an organization’s perspective. joint consultation. The study of HRM describes what human resource managers do and what they should do. the easier it is for society to meet the present and future threats and opportunities. There are many challenges facing organizations today. 5 .Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning. the assumption is made that roles are inter-linked and interdependent. With regard to the latter. health and safety. productivity etc. One slogan on an American factory expressed it this way: Assets make things possible. housing. even though these relationships may not be expressly stated in each case. selection. It can be said that the central challenge we face in society is to continually improve the performance of our organizations in both the private and public sectors. training and development. Today's human resource issues are enormous and appear to be ever expanding. cr?ches. recreation facilities. layoff and retrenchment. Now such advertisements are very common and encompass significant organizational responsibilities. collective bargaining. tentative generic skills required in performing HRM roles. It is these goods and services that contribute to our standard of living. rest and lunch rooms. The human resource manager faces a multitude of problems ranging from a constantly changing workforce to coping with ever increasing government rules and regulations. While there are many definitions of HRM. It used to be rare to see job advertisements for human resource managers. The scope of human resource management outlined below includes an outline of transformation and development issues. as well as the roles of a human resource management practitioner (line management and HRM professionals). transfer. placement. etc. remuneration. People are the common element in every organization. grievance and disciplinary procedures. they are receiving increased attention from upper levels of management. promotion. Until the last few years the discipline was known as personnel management. Now the term 'human resource management' is increasingly used in recognition of the importance of an organization’s workforce in contributing to the goals of that organization. recruitment. Because of the critical nature of human resource concerns. people make things happen. The better our organizations work. This requires the effective management in these organizations. its primary purpose is to improve the productive contribution of people within an organization. Part of this improvement will come from organizations becoming more efficient and effective. It is people like you who produce the goods and services that create wealth.

Objectives of HRM: Objectives are benchmarks against which actions of an HRM department are evaluated. For example. To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. societies may pass laws that limit human resource 6 . The failure of organizations to use their resources for society's benefit may result in restrictions. The following is one listing of these objectives: Societal objective.


Organizational objective:
To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.

Functional objective:
To maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands. A department's level of service must be appropriate for the organization it serves.

Personal objective:
To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organization.

In order to achieve the objectives of an organization, the HRM section or department must carry out a number of functions. The key functions of HRM can be summarized as the acquisition, maintenance, development and termination of employees.

This is the 'getting' phase of HRM. It includes estimating both the future demand and supply for human resources and integrating these resources into a total human resource strategy. In other words, the objectives and future directions of the organization must be known before any reliable forecasts of people needs can be made. The acquiring process includes recruiting, selection and the socialization or induction of new employees.

This is the 'keeping' function and involves providing benefits, services and working conditions that are needed if individuals are to remain committed to the workplace.

This encompasses the whole domain of training and development, which has become a major area of concern and expense for organizations. Developing also includes the concepts of organizational change and development and how these processes impact upon employees.

This is the 'saying goodbye' activity and is sometimes known as the separation phase of employment. It involves such issues as retirement, redundancy, resignation and dismissal. These issues have become of major importance in organizations in recent years. The HRM functions are broad sweeping. Within each of these functions there are a number of activities that human resource specialists must carry out if these functions are to be fulfilled. Human resources activities are those actions taken to provide and maintain an appropriate workforce for the organization. The five most common activities of HRM personnel in organizations are identified as: Planning for human resource needs Staffing identified personnel need Performance management and remuneration for employees Improving employees and the work environment Establishing and maintaining effective working relationships.


Human resources management comprises several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.

Workforce planning:

and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews. Implementation and execution follow. For some components of the recruitment process.). Assessing current internal capability and assessing its relative position when it will be called upon in the future. Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection): Recruitment refers to the process of attracting. mid.and largesize organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. Orientation and Onboarding: 10 . Access to talent includes considering all potential access sources (employment. This means identifying the critical talent needs that if not met can materially adversely impact business success. Regardless of the access source used. predisposition and ability to undertake required activities including decisions making. insightful assessment of the strategy's attendant business risk is prudent. recruitment websites and job search engines. Hiring is a strategy for accessing talent and will often be the superior one. "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment. knowledge. changing business activities to modify the types of talent required. the use of employees to meet talent needs carries with it unique risks that can be mitigated using alternative access sourcing arrangements. and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. One of the more restrictive and potentially dangerous assumptions is that Strategic Planning is only about talent in the form of employees. etc. Speculating on future sourcing options and identifying the preferred sourcing option. However. contracting out. disrupted.Strategic Workforce Planning is the business process for ensuring that an organization has suitable access to talent to ensure future business success. This role also looks at multiple sources for access and similar risks to those mentioned above. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods. The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies: employment agencies. By talent is meant the skills. mis-deployed talent on the organization's business priorities. screening. niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing and in-house recruitment. Once the business risks are fully appreciated then attention turns to schedule and timing. The process for starting out Strategic Workforce Planning is link with the organization's strategy. Strategic Workforce Planning is analogous to the treasurer role which is concerned with ensuring the organization has suitable access to working capital. Induction. Strategic Planning considers the business risks concerning insufficient. partnerships. Attention to periodically reviewing the "sanity" of the current plan is prudent.

Various writers have devised their own system of mnemonics when describing what an onboarding manager should remember and the sequence in which the methods should be carried out. the new job description.i. and build shared corporate culture. generally contains information about safety. the organization chart and anything else relevant to working in the new company. because onboarding done right can improve productivity and employee retention. often spearheaded by a meeting with the Human Resources department. company history. because it may be difficult for individuals to uncover personal. accommodating. benefits and eligibility. assimilating and accelerating new users into a system." process of "acclimation. Onboarding or "on-boarding" is a business management term used for the process of handling new employees to obtain the best results from them. referring to "aligning" other members of the management to the need for revising new hiring procedures to include an onboarding process). One description refers to a four step process of "acquiring. New employee orientation frequently includes spending time doing the jobs in each department to understand the flow of the product or service through the organization. organizational and role risks in complicated situations when they don't have formal onboarding assistance. 11 . integration.onboarding can be defined as the process of acquiring. In a generic usage . assimilating and accelerating" new hires (and includes a fifth "a". the work environment. Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins the company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and starts work. or a similar title reflecting specific responsibility for new hires. New employee orientation is the process you use for welcoming a new employee into your organization. Onboarding is a core personnel and management skill. New employee orientation. a period which has been described as being 90 days or 100 days. dialogue and expectation management".Once an employee is selected and placed on an appropriate job. culture or methodology. Proponents have described the process as being more than orientation. Another refers to a four step "a..d. and emphasize the importance of making the most of the "honeymoon" stage of a hire. Onboarding may be especially valuable for executives transitioning into complex roles. Rather than delegating the job of training the newcomer to a co-worker (called the "Just follow Joe around" method by one commentator) or having the employee watch a video presentation. the process of familiarizing him with the job and the organization is known as induction. Effective onboarding of new employees can be one of the most important contributions any hiring manager. An organization should be prepared to handle this specific task. proponents of onboarding advocate assigning the process to a person designated as an "onboarding manager". New employee orientation often includes an introduction to each department in the company and training on-the-job.e. company culture. accommodating. direct supervisor or human resources professional can make to long-term organizational success. or letting the employee learn on his or her own by trial and error.

training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in 12 . human. and a grading system. This consists of a list of skills. They are usually defined in terms of a skills framework. with a definition of what it means to be at particular level for a given skill. the skills of individual employees. and conceptual skills. and certainly when their skill sets have changed. The skills involved can be defined by the organization concerned. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their area of specialty. and solve problems creatively. human. All levels of management need human skills in order to interact and communicate with other people successfully. human skill concerns people. Technological change alters the fundamental structure of firms and calls for new organizational approaches and management skills. Managers understand abstract relationships. Top level managers need conceptual skills in order to view the organization as a whole. Conceptual skills are used in planning and dealing with ideas and abstractions. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with people. also known as a competency framework or skills matrix. and allow analysis of the data. new global industries are being created (for example. A manager's level in the organization determines the relative importance of possessing technical. In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: technical. develop ideas.Skills management: Skills Management is the practice of understanding. and conceptual. Managers use the processes. As the pace of change accelerates and diverse technologies converge. and conceptual skill has to do with ideas. These updates should occur at least as frequently as employees' regular line manager reviews. with individuals assessing and updating their recorded skill sets regularly. see the Skills Framework for the Information Age. or by third party institutions. Skills management systems record the results of this process in a database. developing and deploying people and their skills. telecommunications). managers must be skilled. Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job roles require. Thus. technical skill deals with things. techniques and tools of a specific area.) To be most useful. Training and development: In the field of human resource management. Conceptual skill involves the formulation of ideas. (For an example of a mature skills framework. and any gap between the two. skills management needs to be conducted as an ongoing process. a technical IT skills framework owned by a British not-for-profit organization. Managers interact and cooperate with employees.

People are considered the most important resource a business has. they encompass three separate. The human resources department of a company instructs managers on proper conduct toward employees. or customer. and learning and development. Line managers are responsible for coaching. to practitioners. and is almost impossible to evaluate. or that the individual is part of. However. including employee development. resources. 13 . and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior. peer. the job that an individual currently holds. and performance. assessing. education. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training. It has been known by several names." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. developing and retaining employees. Laws pertaining to wrongful dismissal of employees must also be adhered to or a business could find itself in a lawsuit. And the providers are specialists in the field. Personnel administration: Personnel administration is more commonly called human resources (HR) management. companies usually work at retaining them. Employees must be organized in a way that gets the work done. and development. activities: Training: This activity is both focused upon. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. may partake in the future. Organization is a large part of personnel administration. The clients of training and development are business planners. although interrelated. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. As long as employees are striving to be efficient in completing their employment responsibilities.organizational settings. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations. Talent. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual. and evaluated against. selecting. Keeping good employees saves the time and expense of replacing them. Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. and is evaluated against those jobs. HR or personnel administration refers to the areas of recruiting. knowledge. human resource development. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses.

minimum wage and overtime work is also crucial for personnel administration to focus on. The personnel department must always keep thorough records of all employees. A performance review allows a manager to evaluate an employee’s overall job performance and suggest any improvements.Recruiting and selecting successful employees at the start is a main objective of personnel administration. Performance reviews are often conducted before a raise in pay is considered. Once employees are hired. Following laws that apply to safe working conditions. they may take part in training programs that have been developed or approved by HR personnel. HR staff will conduct initial telephone interviews for advertised jobs to try to weed out unsuitable job applicants. During their employment. Time management: 14 . A manager then has a lower number of higher qualified applicants to interview for the advertised position. employees may be evaluated by managers who use assessment forms created by the company's personnel administration. Personnel administration handles issues in the workplace such as violence. Correct procedures and actions must be followed by the company or it could face legal consequences if employees take the matter to court. The personnel department must work within the law — therefore an understanding of laws pertaining to conduct in the workplace is important. In many companies today. discrimination or sexual harassment complaints. Most companies use assessment forms during employees' performance reviews.

which is an unmanageable continuous resource". Second generation: planning and preparation based on calendar and appointment books. to make sure that they are accomplished within the available or allocated time. Third generation: planning. Some authors offered a categorization scheme for the hundreds of time management approaches that they reviewed • • • • First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches. and these include planning. prioritizing. tools and techniques. 15 . Some of the recent general arguments related to "time" and "management" point out that the term "time management" is misleading and that the concept should actually imply that it is "the management of our own activities. organizing. A time management system is a designed combination of processes. but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities also. and prioritizing. other paper-based objects. places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and favors importance over urgency. can be used to alert a person when a task is to be done. Initially time management referred to just business or work activities. projects and goals. scheduling. This approach implies spending some time in clarifying values and priorities. allocating. monitoring. tools. delegation.Time management refers to a range of skills. setting goals. includes setting goals. and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks. or computer or PDA-based systems) activities on a daily basis. analysis of time spent. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities. but with computer implementation possible. Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above tools. controlling (using a personal organizer.

For most companies “travel & entertainment” (T&E) costs represent the second highest controllable annual expense. a function that can be part of the Finance.g. 16 .that attract actions automatically "Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus" . procrastination Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM): Travel management is the function of managing a company’s strategic approach to travel (travel policy).insulate. delegate "set gravitational goals" . exceeded only by salary & benefits. car rental. the negotiations with all vendors.TM should not be confused with the work of a traditional Travel Agency. traveler safety & security as well as credit card and overall travel data management.Time management literature paraphrased: "Get Organized" . rail.natural rhythms. Procurement or Administrative Services Department. they are the implementing arm of what the corporation has negotiated and put forth in policy. taxi fares. As this function touches on all of these areas in some form and represents such a major corporate expense. ferry/boat. day-today operation of the corporate travel program. While agencies provide the day-to-day travel services to corporate clients. and is commonly higher than IT and/or real estate costs. T&E costs are not only limited to travel (airline. etc. The management of these costs is usually handled by the Corporate Travel Manager. isolate. etc. gratuities.depends on when written "Master the Skills of Time Management" "Go with the Flow" . client gifts. negotiate corporate fares/rates with airlines and hotels as well as set forth the use of the corporate credit card. credit-card management and T&E data management. Eastern philosophy "Recover from Bad Time Habits" . Furthermore this area often included meeting management. HR. supplies (office supplies and/or services).paperwork and task triage "Protect Your Time" .) but include all costs incurred during travel such as staff & client meals. In other words TM decides on the class of service that employees are allowed to fly.motivational emphasis • • • • • "Work in Priority Order" . it stand to reason that this function should have equal ranking within a corporation as any other major division and not be seen as a sub-set of existing departments.recovery from underlying psychological problems. e. hotel. traveler safety & security. The agency on the other hand makes the actual reservation within the parameters given by the corporation.set goals and prioritize "Use Magical Tools to Get More Out of Your Time" .

It offer total employee benefits administration services and benefit management services to help our clients meet the challenges of the ever-growing global human resource marketplace. for a given pay period. Personnel cost planning: Personnel Cost Planning (PCP) draws on both establishment and employee details to form base data for the salary budget. It should be noted that information provide by PCP is confidential and must not be distributed.Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM): Payroll is the record of employee salaries and hourly wages. Our Benefit administration services philosophy is to let our clients focus on primary business initiatives and not to worry about the cost. Employee benefits administration: One of our main concerns is to ensure that your employees have access to comprehensive employee benefit plans & solutions available in the market through our Employee Benefit Administration programs. Employee benefits administration services offers innovative plans and solutions to keep your staff happy. To ensure privacy of staff information the following must be adhered to: 17 . It Improves your employee retention capabilities by offering innovative employee benefit packages with world-class employee benefit administration services and solutions. PCP is only available for use by authorized staff and dependant upon your role in the budget you may have access to create scenarios. Happy employees make successful organizations. Staff authorized to gain access to the system will have the PCP role available in their SAP ‘User Menu’ and will show only those transaction available to them. and deductions for all employees. and compliance issues. Our expertise in this arena enables us to offer comprehensive employee benefits Management solutions with superior quality service in claims administration and management of corporate employee benefit plans. compatibility. run reports or both functions. This information is reviewed and adjusted as required. withholdings.

It is the process of obtaining analyzing and recording information about relative worth of an employee to the organization. Most reports now have variants that can be selected from the tool bar. promotions. Costing your position to the maternity leave account means you are not providing a budget within your own accounts. etc. the aims of a performance appraisal are to: • • • • • • • Give a employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases. These variants allow reports to be viewed and printed in different reporting formats. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. It must be remembered that the salary budget is by Position. The Basic Data Report has been upgraded to provide additional reporting information. and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent 18 . cost. it now includes the current occupants Classification. employee appraisal. or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality. Performance appraisal: A performance appraisal. PCP access to data restricted to authorized users.No separate records to be kept outside of SAP – PCP. Working papers must be locked in a secure location when not being used. bonuses. Maternity Leave is budgeted centrally within Uni wide and costing a position against this account is incorrect even though the occupant may be. • Generally. not Occupant when reviewing reports and determining the correct costing of a position. disciplinary actions. quantity. Working papers detailing salaries must be destroyed. performance review. A common error with costing relates to the treatment of staff on maternity leave. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and administration Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements FUNCTIONS OF HRM: The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities. FTE and increment date to assist in ensuring the position data is correct.

employee records and personnel policies.. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations. training.g. which all employees have. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part. employment. etc.. a profession). recruiting and training the best employees. e.. Those people might include HRM in HRD. organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing. More recently. All these functions are 19 . However. e. explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations." mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. organization development. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals.g.or full-time help. including. Many years ago. training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department.contractors or hire employees to fill these needs. ensuring they are high performers. dealing with performance issues. they should always ensure that employees have—and are aware of—personnel policies which conform to current regulations. compensation and relations. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development. development. career development. "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20–30 years. OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS OF HRM: The operative functions of personnel management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz. and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation.

usually in return for payment of wages. one being the employer and the other being the employee. Employment: Employment is a contract between two parties. the employer conceives of a productive activity. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. 20 . generally with the intention of generating a profit. unemployment exists. recruitment. To the extent that employment or the economic equivalent is not universal. induction and internal mobility. oral or written. non-profit and household sectors. selection. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions. and the employee contributes labour to the enterprise. placement." In a commercial setting. express or implied. An employee may be defined as: "A person in the service of another under any contract of hire.interacted by managerial functions. Employment also exists in the public. It is the first operative function of HRM. where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed. It covers the functions such as job analysis. human resources planning.

.Job Analysis: Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. classification.e. When a job analysis is conducted for the purpose of valuing the job (i. In the fields of Human Resources (HR) and Industrial Psychology. or without. job analysis is often used to gather information for use in personnel selection. The general purpose of job analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. some accommodation. and compensation plans. describing a job. training needs assessment. The main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. and/or compensation. Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later improvements. developing performance appraisals. It includes: 21 . including: definition of a job domain. promotion criteria. such as "task analysis") to determine the elements of the domain which must be sampled in order to create a content valid exam. [2] The field of vocational rehabilitation uses job analysis to determine the physical requirements of a job to determine whether an individual who has suffered some diminished capacity is capable of performing the job with. training." It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. selection systems. determining the appropriate compensation for incumbents) this is called "job evaluation. Professionals developing certification exams use job analysis (often called something slightly different.

Preparation of job description. * Preparation of action programs to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees. levels and quantum of human resources. It involves * Estimation of present and future requirement and supply of human resources basing on objectives and long range plans of the organization. * Taking steps to mould. information. plans and basis for job design and for all operative functions of HRM. Providing the guides. job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature. change.1. facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men. 2. job specification. 3. Human Resources Planning: It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons. performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. machines and materials. * Calculation of net human resources requirement based on present inventory of human resources. available at proper times. and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements. 22 . Collection of data.

It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. For some components of the recruitment process. (c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization. niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing and in-house recruitment.Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods. and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment. and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews. recruitment websites and job search engines. The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies: employment agencies. (d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources. mid. screening. (b) Creation / Identification of new sources of applicants. It deals with: (a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them. 23 .and largesize organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies.

(f) Line manager decision. (h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty. (d) Checking of references. This function includes: (a) Framing and developing application blanks. Certain employment laws such as anti-discrimination laws must be obeyed during employee selection. (e) Setting up medical examination policy and procedure. (g) Sending letters of appointment and rejection. knowledge etc. experience. of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job appraising.Selection: The process of interviewing and evaluating candidates for a specific job and selecting an individual for employment based on certain criteria. skill. (b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques. It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications. This function includes: 24 . Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job in terms of job requirements. Employee selection can range from a very simple process to a very complicated process depending on the firm hiring and the position. (c) Formulating interviewing techniques. It is matching of employees specifications with job requirements..

product. minimum periods 25 . orders. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive. purposes and people etc. customers and profits. policies. company history. policies. (a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy. appraising employee performance in order to determine employees’ adjustment with the job. culture etc. opportunities. • • Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and specialization. if any. (b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peers. Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices. career planning and development. organizing.(a) Counseling the functional managers regarding placement. social and community standing. and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments. market share. (c) Correcting misplacements. directing. supervisors and subordinates. All these functions influence the operative functions Manpower planning: The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly. (b) Conducting follow-up study.. objectives. (c) Mould the employee attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment. if sustained. and controlling. consultation. of the organization. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS OF HRM: Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning.

the 'cost' of poor selection is such that. use of subcontractors or agency staffs. substitution. which respond to new legislation. what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage. Equally some small organizations exist to 'head hunt'.g. Employee motivation: To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. new health and safety requirements Changes in Government policies (investment incentives.) Variations. etc.g. However. Very importantly. selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. Future staffing needs will derive from: • • • • • • Sales and production forecasts The effects of technological change on task needs Variations in the efficiency. e. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of 26 . etc. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. For that reason some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection. new motivations.e. i. organizational change. those who recruit and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants. regional or trade grants. overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business.of notice. buying in. etc. productivity. Changes in employment practices (e. work study. Effectively. flexibility of labor as a result of training.e. etc Recruitment and selection of employees: Recruitment of staff should be preceded by: An analysis of the job to be done (i. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess. even for the mundane day-to-day jobs. • • • In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process). hiving-off tasks. payroll taxes or their abolition.

which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. etc. but is based on the same assessment). i. trade union. i.local negotiations and details (e. Employee evaluation: An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons: • • • • To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation. Industrial relations • • • • Good industrial relations. (c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service. As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. welfare. to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills. Provision of employee services: 27 . To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. but (about annually) two key questions should be posed: What has been done to improve the performance of a person last year? And what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?). (b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations). employee benefits. while a recognizable and legitimate objective for an organization. To identify potential.e. and 2. organizations and their representatives).g. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment. are difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between: (a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels.e.

Planning is determination of personnel programs and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals. It is prepared after careful and extensive research.. Planning: It is a pre-determined course of action. but HRM is responsible for administration. The rehabilitation of injured/unfit/ disabled employees and temporary or permanent move to lighter work. The location of the health and safety function within the organization varies. It also involves forecasting of personnel needs. Provision of information handbooks. from loans to the needy to counseling in respect of personal problems. changing values attitude and behavior of employees and their impact on organization. management has to 1. 28 . In other words. hobbies. maybe. Among the activities regarded as normal are: • • • • • • • • • • Schemes for occupational sick pay. activities of many kinds which are work related.Attention to the mental and physical well-being of employees is normal in many organizations as a means of keeping good staff and attracting others. extended sick leave and access to the firm's medical adviser. Provision of canteens and other catering facilities. For a comprehensive business plan. Possibly assistance with financial and other aid to employees in difficulty (supervision. The forms this welfare can take are many and varied. Care for the welfare aspects of health and safety legislation and provision of first-aid training. The maintenance of disablement statistics and registers (there are complicated legal requirements in respect of quotas of disabled workers and a need for 'certificates' where quota are not fulfilled and recruitment must take place). training and education in awareness and understanding of the law. and for the alerting of all levels to new requirements. selection. Commonly a split of responsibilities exists under which 'production' or 'engineering' management cares for the provision of safe systems of work and safe places and machines etc. Essentials of planning Planning is not done off hand. Provision of financial and other support for sports. of an employee managed benevolent fund or scheme). Clearly define the target / goal in writing. Running of pre-retirement courses and similar fringe activities. Schemes for bereavement or other special leave. recruitment. it involves planning of human resources requirement. training etc. social.

Identify all the main issues which need to be addressed. 6. concerned with defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources to be used in order to attain those goals.Thus. Review past performance. organization establishes relationships among the employees so that they can collectively contribute to the attainment of company goals. What are requirements and how will they be met? 7. The planning helps to achieve these goals or target by using the available time and resources. Purpose or importance of organization: Helps to achieve organizational goal 29 . It should be specific. The goal should be realistic. What will be the likely length of the plan and its structure? 8. 9. To minimize the timing and resources also require proper planning. identifies relationships and integrates its activities towards common objective. Strategies for implementation.It should be set by a person having authority. Acceptability Easily measurable 2. Decide budgetary requirement. Review periodically. 10. an organization is a structure and a process by which co-operative group of human beings allocated its task among its members. Identify shortcomings in the concept and gaps. In organizations Planning is also a management process. Focus on matters of strategic importance. managers may develop plans such as a business plan or a marketing plan. The concept of planning is to identify what the organization wants to do by using the four questions which are “where are we today in terms of our business or strategy planning? Where are going? Where do we want to go? How are we going to get there? Organizing: An organization is a means to an end . To meet the goals. 3. Planning always has a purpose. The purpose may be achievement of certain goals or targets. Complex relationships exist between the specialized departments and the general departments as many top managers are seeking the advice of personnel manager . 4. 5.It is essential to carry out the determined course of action In the words of JC Massie.

Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. Human treatment of employees: Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees an must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization. Facilitates growth and diversification: A good organization structure is essential for expanding business activity. machine and method. it is necessary to design an organization properly. A set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments. Organizing. 1. 2. Now. Organization focuses attention of individual’s objectives towards overall objectives. in company’s point of view. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments. Organizing. Staffing. 30 . is the management function that usually follows after planning. resources are deployed. organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach. Optimum use of resources: To make optimum use of resources such as men. money. including lines of authority. Structure: The framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided. number of hierarchical levels and span of managers control. the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority and allocation of resources across the organization. And it involves the assignment of tasks. Formal reporting relationships. To perform managerial function: Planning. Directing and Controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization. Work should be divided and right people should be given right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization. Organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line. 3. and departments are coordinated. material. decision responsibility.

and specifies who reports to whom. responsibility. The superior issues orders and is responsible for the result—the subordinate obeys and is responsible only for executing the order according to instructions. With too much specialization. Delegation: Delegation is the process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below them. Managers often find delegation difficult Types of authority (and responsibility): Line authority managers have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates. the Production Manager may have the line authority to decide whether and when a new machine is needed but the Controller demands that a Capital Expenditure Proposal is submitted first.Work specialization: Work specialization (also called division of labour) is the degree to which organizational tasks are sub-divided into individual jobs. or. This authority would not be functional but it would rather be staff authority if such interference is "advice" rather than "order". Delegation can improve flexibility to meet customers’ needs and adaptation to competitive environments. issue orders. Responsibility means an employee's duty to perform assigned task or activities. 31 . Many organizations enlarge jobs or rotate assigned tasks to provide greater challenges. Organizations today tend to encourage delegation from highest to lowest possible levels. showing that the investment will have a yield of at least x%. o o Unity of Command . tiny. a legal department may have functional authority to interfere in any activity that could have legal consequences. and accountability: • • • Authority is a manager's formal and legitimate right to make decisions. For instance. and allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes.one employee is held accountable to only one supervisor Scalar principle .clearly defined line of authority in the organization that includes all employees Authority. employees are isolated and do only a single. boring job. Chain of command: The chain of command is the unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in an organization. Functional authority is where managers have formal power over a specific subset of activities. Accountability means that those with authority and responsibility must report and justify task outcomes to those above them in the chain of command.

recommends. 1. 5.The location of decision making authority near lower organizational levels.to accomplish specific tasks Network . It is not a real authority in the sense that a staff manager does not order or instruct but simply advises. 2. Centralization. 2.Staff authority is granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. Little time is required in non-supervisory activities such as coordination with other departments or planning. 6. 7. 8.departments are independent providing functions for a central core breaker Importance of organizing: • • • Organizations are often troubled by how to organize. Support systems and personnel are available for the managers. Work performed by subordinates is stable and routine. Subordinates are highly trained and need little direction in performing tasks. Span of management Factors influencing larger span of management. 3.common product. and formalization: • • • Centralization . 5. particularly when a new strategy is developed Changing market conditions or new technology requires change Organizations seek efficiencies through improvements in organizing 32 . Departmentalization: The basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into total organizations. program or geographical location Matrix . It has an influence that derives indirectly from line authority at a higher level. 1. Subordinates are concentrated in a single location. Managers' personal preferences and styles favor a large span. and counsels in the staff specialists' area of expertise and is responsible only for the quality of the advice (to be in line with the respective professional standards etc) It is a communication relationship with management. Rules and procedures defining task activities are available. Formalization . Functional .combination of Functional and Divisional Team .The location of decision making authority near top organizational levels.The written documentation used to direct and control employees. Approach options include. Decentralization .by common skills and work tasks Divisional . decentralization. 4. Subordinates perform similar work tasks. 4. 3.

affect more people and greater resources than do those taken by ourselves in the course of our daily and private lives. of what is happening. machine and money. indeed the country in which we wish to live and the kind of government we prefer. leading and activating people . directing morale surveys. Here we are discussing the work of managers and administrators. but there is much common ground.The willing and effective co-operation of employees for the attainment of organizational goals. We all make decisions which affect ourselves and our family. Controlling: After planning. the performance is to be verified in order to know that thee personnel functions are performed in conformity with the plans and directions. is possible through proper direction. the community in which we live. which affect the people with whom we come in contact. by those who head enterprises and by those who govern. Auditing training programs. whether to change one's job.Directing: The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan . Very basic is an understanding of what is going on. commanding. Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. 33 . what kind of school.Personnel management function should also be co-ordinate with other functions of management like management of material. identification of deviations if any and correcting of identified deviations. verifying and comparing of the actual with the plans. Tapping the maximum potentialities of the people is possible through motivation and command. what kind of trade or profession. Thus. of the problems of the day. The personnel manager has to co-ordinate various managers at different levels as far as personnel functions are concerned . choosing between alternative medical treatments such as drugs or surgery. What kind of an education. whom to marry. Controlling also involves checking. conducting separation interviews are some of the means for controlling the personnel management function. organizing and directing the various activities of the personnel management. They are often extremely important decisions. starting with those who direct their own companies and larger organizations. analyzing labor turnover records. the enterprise which employs us. Thus. The decisions taken. So we begin by having a look at the sort of things which are taking place all around us. Directing is something all of us do throughout our lives. all these are decisions which we make and which have to be made again and again as we direct the course of our lives within the choices open to us. action and operation are adjusted to pre-determined plans and standard through control.The basic function of personnel management at any level is motivating. direction is an important managerial function in building sound industrial and human relations besides securing employee contributions.

an employee's leaving) within the organization usually determines a need to hire a new employee. Transfer: The permanent lateral movement of a staff member from one position to another position in the same or another job class assigned to the same salary range. or both . or demotion of an employee. however all staff members of the department must be made aware of the vacant position and be given consideration. Promotions and Transfers: A department official may promote or transfer a qualified staff member in h is/her department to a vacant position within his/her department. the job description can be referenced for specific job related qualifications to provide more detail when advertising the position-either internally. assuming all Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) requirements are met.g. an employee requisition must be submitted to the HR department that specifies the job title. The University Human Resources 34 . externally. Reclassification: The permanent movement of a position's title and/or salary grade assignment. The final say in selecting the candidate will probably be the line manager's. Demotion: The permanent movement of a staff member from one position in one job class to a position in another job class of decreased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a lower salary range..Staffing: Both the job description and the job specification are useful tools for the staffing process. In large organizations. Reclassification may result in a promotion. without posting of the vacancy through the Employment Opportunities Bulletin. the first of the seven HR functions to be discussed. the department. Transfer & Promotions: Promotion: The permanent movement of a staff member from a position in one job class to a position in another job class of increased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a higher salary range.. Someone (e. transfer. From there. but it also assists in screening candidates' resumes and bringing those with the proper qualifications in for an interview. a department manager) or some event (e. Other ongoing staffing responsibilities involve planning for new or changing positions and reviewing current job analyses and job descriptions to make sure they accurately reflect the current position.Not only must the HR department attract qualified applicants through job postings or other forms of advertising. and the date the employee is needed.g.

(b) Has been employed in his/her current position for a minimum period of six (6) consecutive months (the Director of Human Resources may approve exceptions to this provision.Department will determine if the staff member is qualified for the position before a commitment to transfer or promote the individual is made. on the approval of the Director of Human Resources. a new 6 months probationary period is established. to continue employment when a layoff is imminent. to a level at which he/she will be able to meet performance requirements. Demotions: A department official may demote a staff member by reassigning him/her to another position. A staff member who wishes to apply for one of these vacant positions must do so through the University Human Resources Department. 35 . A staff member's expressed interest in a position will not jeopardize his/her current position or future opportunities. In the event the Director of Human Resources approves a promotion or transfer prior to completion of the 6 months probationary period and the staff member is hired into a new position. or for other reasons. (c) Has a satisfactory record of performance in his/her current position. A notice of all jobs available (Employment Opportunities Bulletin) will be posted weekly on campus bulletin boards and on the Human Resources Webpage. All staff position vacancies must be listed with the University Human Resources Department for five working days as outlined in the University's Staff Employment Policy Exceptions may be allowed for promotion/transfers of current hourly or regular staff within the employing department. to apply disciplinary action for misconduct. Staff members who meet the following requirements may make application and be considered for a promotion or transfer: (a) Meets the minimum qualifications for the job or has clearly demonstrated the ability to perform the job. A staff member may request a demotion to start training in another occupation. particularly if a staff member is being forced to seek another job due to circumstances beyond his/her control or if an internal departmental promotion or transfer is involved). or for other reasons. or by reclassifying the staff member's position. Promotion and Transfer Opportunities Program: The purpose of the Promotion and Transfer Opportunities Program is to enhance the career advancement opportunities of staff members by providing each staff member the opportunity to apply and receive consideration for promotion or transfer.

is not eligible for a base salary increase. Transfer or Demotion Authority: The Director of Human Resources is responsible for insuring that the Promotion. availability of funds. Transfer: In order to discourage indiscriminate transfers. Promotion. if within the salary range of the new position. This approval is required for review of the nomination. however. a staff member who transfers laterally to another position having the same or a different title. Normal notice is two weeks. Transfer or Demotion Policy is uniformly and equitably administered. and compliance with University policies. A staff member is not required to notify his/her present supervisor when applying for a promotion or transfer. or his/her designee prior to any commitment being made and prior to the effective date of the proposed change of status. Involved. and unfair competition between departments. All promotions. However. the employee's employment record and job performance. A supervisor may not limit the number of interviews scheduled outside of the regular work schedule of the staff member. whichever is the higher amount. or may be adjusted to an appropriate level within the new salary range as agreed upon by the department official concerned (chair or director) and the Assistant Vice President Human Resources. job hopping. Pay Rate Adjustments upon Promotion. 36 . or demotions must have the prior approval of the Director of Human Resources. transfers. the staff member must have the approval of his/her present supervisor if he/she schedules appointments. a staff member's salary may remain unchanged. The new pay rate shall be determined by consideration of the circumstances related to the demotion. Time that is approved by the supervisor for interviews is not docked or otherwise charged against accrued leave. and the same salary range. Demotion: Upon demotion or downward reclassification of a staff member's current position.5% above the staff member's salary before promotion. Such scheduling should be at a time when it will cause the least disruption of work and may be limited to a reasonable number of interviews by his/her supervisor. and subject to the approval of the appropriate Vice President or the President. The effective date of a promotion or transfer will be determined jointly by the two departments. interviews. he/she will receive a salary adjustment either to the entry level of the salary range of the new position or to a salary rate which is at least 3. and provided that funds are available. Transfer or Demotion Promotion: When a staff member is promoted to a position of increased responsibility or complexity of duties requiring a change of title and having a higher salary range. during regular work hours. etc.A staff member who makes application for a promotion or transfer may be required to take jobspecific testing. a staff member's salary rate may not exceed the maximum salary rate for the new class.

employers increasingly emphasize safe working conditions and work habits that reduce the risk of injuries. And while safety on job sites has come a long way. and a rainy day means a days wage is lost. In response. Consequently. Many South Asians are employed in the construction industry. Workers who do roofing.3 rates for the entire private sector. employees wear safety clothing. Sometimes the contractors had insurance and would pay the medical bills. individuals placed in an acting status or who are required to assume significant additional responsibilities for an extended period of time may be entitled to a temporary salary increase upon approval by the Vice President and/or Chancellor. but occasionally some would not: Workers complain saying that the contractors pay workers from the money they get from developers. To avoid injury. Construction workers often work with potentially dangerous tools and equipment amidst a clutter of building materials. they are more prone to injuries than are workers in other jobs. Safety is one of the most dynamic areas of the construction business. many people still die on construction sites every day. as day laborers and an injury can be double jeopardy for the worker. weekends. cases of work-related injury and illness were 7. A day laborer is hired by the day. and working in cramped quarters. which is significantly higher than the 5. use the money to buy their own houses and cars and they don’t pay their laborers. such as gloves and hardhats. and many work over 40 hours a week. bending. Construction workers may sometimes work evenings. However. and holidays to finish a job or take care of an emergency. Workers in this industry need physical stamina because the work frequently requires prolonged standing. Working Conditions: Most employees in this industry work full time. Construction work is dangerous. They also may be required to lift and carry heavy objects. Probably this is one among the many unresolved complaints of 37 . he doesn’t get paid.1 per 100 fulltime construction workers. In 2002. siding. and sheet metal work experienced the highest injury rates. Exposure to weather is common because much of the work is done outside or in partially enclosed structures. mouth. about 1 in 5 construction workers worked 45 hours or more a week.Temporary Assignments: Assuming other duties for a brief temporary period of time does not constitute a promotion and generally would not entitle the employee to additional compensation. In 2002. and some when they get paid. or hearing. because without work. some work on temporary scaffolding or at great heights and in bad weather. and sometimes devices to protect their eyes. stooping.

almost the entire worker class from janitors to street vendors. To understand any working condition better we must know about the earnings of the concerned sector. Low wages and long hours are endemic. crossing the cultural and racial divide. 38 . The conditions are very bad because many of the workers don’t have documentation. However. frequently they don’t speak English (many a times not even the national language) and they are not necessarily aware of their rights as workers either. gas station attendants. Dominican. It is equally widespread among Mexican. It is always a problem in terms of the power that they have to challenge unfair decisions made by their employers. It is part of a larger pattern and South Asian community activists are striving to join forces with other workers. which have even a higher proportion of blue-collar workers. So on concluding we will just do the same. Their access to justice and remedies when they are treated unfairly has always been a difficult issue. Hispanic and other immigrant communities. Immigrant communities are always at risk for discrimination. domestic workers and restaurant staff. this exploitation of undocumented and low wage-workers is by no means limited to the South Asians. New immigrants are often concentrated in low wage industries.

some of the benefits of human resource management have been explained. motivating them as well as workplace communication. The most valuable resources of any establishment are its employees. In this article. workplace safety. The last few decades have seen drastic changes in the human resource management strategies employed by companies.Benefits of Human Resource Management: The benefits of human resource management are numerous. and much more. Good human resource management strategies make a lot of difference in the output given by the employees. performance appraisals. human resource management can now be described as all the procedures required for the management of the people working in an organization. training them. The benefits of these functions have been discussed here in detail: 39 . as they play a crucial role in the accomplishment of the aims and objectives of any business. Earlier. human resource management was confined to paperwork related to hiring and payment of the staff in an organization. However. The key functions of human resource management include recruiting people.

equipment. upgrade and update skills throughout working life. documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. observers of the labor-market recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain. using the actual tools. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. When required. occupation or profession. capacity. In addition to the basic training required for a trade. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job: • • On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what 40 . to work according to his potential and also helps him increase his potential. The human resource managers work out plans and strategies of hiring the right kind of people. all the necessary information regarding their performances and also defines their respective roles from time to time. An organization cannot build a good team of working professionals without the help of a good human resource management team. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. They design the criteria suitable for a specific job description. Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training and development. and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. the contract of an employee with the organization is developed. This helps the employee to form an outline of their anticipated goals in much clearer terms and thereby. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. The management team communicates with the employees. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability. Based on these two factors. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Their responsibilities also include formulating the obligations of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. helps them execute the goals with best possible efforts. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. Training differs from exercise in that people may dabble in exercise as an occasional activity for fun. Performance Appraisals: Human resource management encourages every individual in the organization. they also provide training to the employees according to the requirements of the organization. and performance. Performance appraisals taken from time to time also help in motivating the employees.Recruitment and Training: This is one of the most important responsibilities of the human resource management team. skills.

If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured. Any organization. Managing Disputes: There are several issues on which disputes may arise between the employees and the managers in an organization. Sometimes. Developing Public Relations: The responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the human resource management to a great extent.you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. In organizational development (OD). In such a scenario. it is the human resource department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out the issues in an effective manner. if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development. A congenial atmosphere gives the employees job satisfaction as well. seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in order to establish relationships with other business sectors. the effectiveness of management is recognized as one of the determinants of organizational success. 41 . It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. Maintaining Work Atmosphere: The performance of an individual in an organization is largely driven by the work atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual’s performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. Therefore. Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs. A good environment can bring out the best in an employee. the human resource department plays an active role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organization too. without a proper setup for human resource management is bound to suffer from serious problems while managing its regular activities. For this reason. Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. a lot of stress is given these days for the setup of an effective human resource management system. A good work environment is one of the benefits employees can get from human resource management. investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization. They organize business meetings.

. constraints and interests Identify which new skills and knowledge you want to develop Research career opportunities Formulate a careers action plan with contingencies Up to 5 years ahead Check the careers action plan for realism From 5 to 10 years ahead Long-term planning These two cycles of short-term and long-term planning run in parallel and should be reviewed regularly. it is from these competencies that managers can be assessed and development needs determined. personal goals and constraints. The term 'leadership' is often used almost interchangeably with 'management' Leadership which deals with emotions is an important component of management which is about rational thinking. knowledge. You don't always have control over outside factors such as health and family issues. Career planning Career planning incorporates short-term and long-term career goals.What management development includes: • • • structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills executive education: which might range from courses for (perhaps prospective) junior managers or team leaders o Team Leading o First Line Management o Management and Leadership o Strategic Management and Leadership o MSc/MA in management or Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees. your planning process should incorporate the following stages: Short-term planning Assess your skills. knowledge and liabilities to improve organizational mechanisms. but as far as possible. 42 . To enhance the skills. The Management Standards Centre set out management competencies for management. values. these competencies are now part of UK management qualifications.

job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment. as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives : for simply staffing jobs. Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills. increasing challenge. usually for a management position. for preventing job boredom. by adding increased responsibilities. with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility. and have a variety of skills and competencies. and reducing boredom or burnout. Fulfill agencies' goals for a dynamic and effective workforce Job Rotation: Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization.Career Development: Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. Besides being used as a means of management training. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track. for orienting new employees. where they are expected to perform a variety of duties. job rotation goes beyond this. finally. Job rotation is often confused with cross training. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement is defined as increasing the number of tasks a worker performs. and is also sometimes referred to as ``horizontal job 43 . for training employees and enhancing their career development. In this process: The purpose of career development is to: • • • Enhance each employee's current job performance. and.

task significance. These two employees must also work closely together. Job enlargement and job enrichment can both be used with plateaued workers or workers who are experiencing burnout. or more marketable in the job search. duties. These two interventions may be used in conjunction with each other. and with management. and communication among themselves and other departments in the organization. Both interventions provide the employee with increased skills. Job enrichment allows you to expand your responsibilities or change your role to develop new competencies without leaving your current position or the organization altogether. Job sharing offers advantages over part-time work in that employees are able to maintain their professional status as well as some of their job benefits. task identity. a sense of significance and information concerning performance. to co-ordinate hours. job sharing is used by parents or adults caring for their parents. if a job provides a sense of responsibility. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment involves increasing a worker's responsibility and control over his or her work. Benefits to the employer include having ``two heads instead of one''. Most often. autonomy and feedback. because the job share partners cover for each other. Phased Retirement: 44 .loading'' . making him or her more valuable to the company. and is also called ``vertical job loading''. a full-time job is split between two employees. The two employees share the duties and responsibilities. Be careful not to confuse job enlargement with job enrichment. the employees will be internally motivated to high levels of performance. and with especially high achievers. as well as the salary and benefits of the job. According to this perspective. Job enrichment is also used as an effective motivational technique. or with other career development interventions such as job rotation and temporary assignments. One example of the advantage over flextime situations is that with flextime. Employees pursuing further education or a second career may also use job sharing. which will be discussed later. The key to creating this situation is to enrich jobs so they provide five core characteristics: task variety. retaining valued and experienced employees. Job Sharing: With job sharing. and down time due to vacation or sickness is reduced. parents may still require extended day care hours. and affords employees a better balance between their work and personal lives.

organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and viability. lowering the risk of economic insecurity. The term "Organization Development" is often used interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness. Compensation: Job Evaluation: 45 . it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. workers gradually taper their work schedules until they reach full retirement. values. although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. Benefits to employees include a greater sense of control over the transition from work to retirement. OD is neither "anything done to better an organization" nor is it "the training function of the organization". Organization development is a growing field that is responsive to many new approaches including Positive Adult Development. Kurt Lewin (1898 . Retirees may work part time and serve as mentors or trainers to their successors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences now a the leading journal in the field. markets. In the UK." using behavioral science knowledge as well as organizational reflection. and self-analysis. which moved to Michigan after his death. The employer benefits by retaining valued talent and minimizing labor shortages.1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD. attitudes. and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. Organization development: Organization development (OD) is a planned. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics. During phased retirement. from which the T-group and group-based OD emerged. and challenges. especially when used as the name of a department within an organization. Lewin founded the "Research Center for Group Dynamics" at MIT. Phased retirement is one intervention that workers and employers can use at the latter end of the career cycle. and more social support. RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL). Institutionally. the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was important in developing systems theories. system improvement. planning. The joint TIHR journal Human Relations was an early journal in the field. OD can involve interventions in the organization's "processes. it is referred to OD as a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs. and structure of organizations so that it can better adapt to new technologies. Other career development interventions such as flextime and job sharing are typically incorporated into phased retirement arrangements.Organizations typically devote far more energy to recruiting and retraining than to phasing out workers.

Job evaluation is a practical technique. It is possible to use it for all grades of personnel. and happy employees are more productive and work better with each other and your clients. even senior management. patronized. This scheme evaluates job responsibilities in the light of three major factors . e. Most factors that contribute to this job pressure. appear dismissive. The two most common methods of job evaluation that have been used are first. have a look at your pay-scale. When evaluations are carried out on all hourly paid personnel the technique’s uses include establishing relative wage rates for different tasks. where jobs are taken as a whole and ranked against each other. Before considering an Incentive Program. Steps to building a good program: Communication ~ Pick a Reward ~ Suggestions ~ Goals Communication: Incentives on their own aren't enough. Opening up the lines of communication is the major goal for managers and upper management. designed to enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of one job relative to others. problem solving and accountability. Ask the employee what resolution they suggest. Job Evaluation is concerned with measuring the demands the job places on its holder. knowledge of mathematics required. Incentive Program Basics: Every company needs a little extra motivation now and then. An employee must know they can discuss work issues with 'the boss' without fear of being ignored. or hearing about it later from someone whom it doesn't concern. The second method is one of awarding points for various aspects of the job. but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs. If an employee comes to you with a concern. Don't ignore their concern. get directly to the heart of the matter.g. Incentive programs or Appreciation programs can assist you in helping your employees enjoy their job a bit more. If an employee feels underpayed. physical strength required. Make sure they know you will consider your options for solving the 46 . an Incentive Program is not the answer for motivation.know how. or tell them it will pass. whole job ranking.the higher the educational requirements of the job the higher the points scored. It does not directly determine pay levels. are assessed and the result is a numerical estimate of the total job pressure. In the points system various aspects or parts of the job such as education and experience required to perform the job are assessed and a points value awarded .

Think of how many people consider a year-end bonus as part of their normal pay. Work towards open communication between all your departments . not to spend more. People who are happy while at work enjoy their work more and everyone benefits. If a company pays its workers fairly. is sometimes the most sincere reward Treat your employees with respect. There are only so many gold stars you can give out before a gold star doesn't mean anything anymore. suggest an incentive program and make a list of possible rewards. Below is a list of some possible reward ideas. Don't throw the rewards around aimlessly. Pick a Reward: Once your communications are open. Suggestions: • • • • • A simple 'Thank You' .situation. It may win you a new hire. Pay attention to the voting. productivity. Find out what procedures they think could be changed for efficiency. Have your employees vote to determine which rewards they would like to receive. few care. cash is rarely good motivation. The least expensive motivational tool is giving your employee more say in his or her assignments. but current and long-standing employees prefer appreciation and rewards which don't seem like a paycheck or bonus. Giving them a 'cute' reward might go over well in one business. Some you can use to make your own list for your employees to choose. They will see the incentives as a carrot on a stick. possibly a nice diner or cafe Set up a secret pal for the holidays or any employee special days 47 . especially in a personal note. To motivate them you need more. Give your employees more freedom in their work environment and make changes only when real problems begin. but something that can't be tossed in with a paycheck.appreciation of good work. and you may have other issues to resolve with your employees before implementing the program. Incentives and rewards will be completely disregarded if your employees believe management doesn't care what they think. If few employees vote.staff and workers . or ease and see if it's possible to make those changes.and try including workers in management meetings to show there are no 'secret agendas'. but in another be seen as demeaning A program for rewarding employees who do volunteer work outside of the company Staff meetings anywhere but the office.

let the group with the goal choose the event Casual lunch with staff to gauge how things are going within their unit Setting Goals: The first rule to setting a goal for your employees is make it obtainable. production. notepads and mugs with the company name. bowling alley. Where an employee exchanges (cash) wages for some other form of benefit. Have employees put the name of a fellow employee who went beyond the call to help them. raising the mark too quickly or in too large steps will only discourage your employees. Fringe benefits: Employee benefits and benefits in kind (also called fringe benefits. most kinds of employee benefits are taxable to at least some degree. In most countries.• • • • • • • • • • Make a 'Thanks for your help' box. as a whole. Draw a name monthly for a reward Start a birthday program. Rent out a skating rink. shirts. or reserve tables at a great restaurant Reward perfect attendance with time off certificates Praise a job well done Give company swag . Rewarding the person with the most sales may pit the sales staff against each other. perquisites. Keep in mind. A positive. those are better for your clients One-on-one meetings if an employee seems unhappy Employment anniversary cards . Let your employees get a bit comfortable on every level they reach. and work with them to decide if a new goal is simply too high. There is sometimes a limit beyond which employees. Remember. this is generally referred to as a 'salary sacrifice' arrangement.paper or electronic greeting card Event tickets when a goal is reached. jackets with the company name or logo. more productive. enjoyable work atmosphere can be the best motivation. while rewarding the sales staff for customer service and working with each other may make the group. and the company suffer.hats. Setting a series of smaller goals to reach a higher goal will sometimes be best. setting the wrong goal can backfire. Don't give pens. Have a gift delivered to each employee the week of their birthday Have employee 'field trips' at least once a year. 48 . perqs or perks) are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries.

retirement benefits. perks are given to employees who are doing notably well and/or have seniority. EMPLOYEE AND LABOUR RELATIONS 49 . in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structures Upwards communication. tuition reimbursement. dental. It originated in the 1920s' Hawthorne studies. daycare. Common perks are take-home vehicles. Companies need their employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information. stationery. social security. The purpose of the benefits is to increase the economic security of employees. to be open to others' feelings. hotel stays. rather than as interchangeable parts. those in management positions and the customer can maintain more compatible relationships. as well as vice versa. and—when multiple choices exist—first choice of such things as job assignments and vacation scheduling.Some of these benefits are: housing (employer-provided or employer-paid). Often. allowances for lunch. "The hallmark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions. etc. funding of education. and to be able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions. They may also be given first chance at job promotions when vacancies exist. The teaching of these skills to employees is referred to as "soft skills" training. in particular workplace groups. free refreshments. By acquiring these skills. motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. leisure activities on work time (golf. the employees. and other specialized benefits.). Cohesive and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent making it has become a concern of many companies to improve the job-oriented interpersonal skills of employees. to be able to interpret others' emotions. profit sharing. vacation (paid and non-paid). group insurance (health. which examined the effects of social relations. from worker to chief executive. sick leave. by which communication is two way. The term perqs or perks is often used colloquially to refer to those benefits of a more discretionary nature.). life etc. Human Relations: Human Relations refers to those researchers of organizational development who study the behavior of people in groups. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies." The following are some points: Natural groups. disability income protection.

the contract. working conditions.Just as human resources developers make sure employees have proper training. job security. and increased wages. Unions have been around since the time of the American Revolution. there are groups of employees organized as unions to address and resolve employment-related issues. The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions. Some of the outcomes of union involvement include better medical plans.to increase wages and/or to eliminate conditions. unions remain a controversial topic. The contract defines employment related issues such as compensation and benefits. individuals' rights. but they are also responsible for resolving issues-namely. Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire non-union workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired. Collective bargaining involves management and the union trying to resolve any issues peacefully-before the union finds it necessary to strike or and/or management decides to institute . extended vacation time. 50 . the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. Those who join unions usually do so for one or both of two reasons. discipline procedures. Today. management's rights. and contract length. Not only do HR managers deal with union organizations. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act.

justify budget allocations. the HR function was often viewed as an expense-generator and administrative function and not as a value-added partner. justify budget allocations. and reductions. Furthermore. describes the outcomes of respective categories of HR practices. organizations will be able to utilize the information to determine how particular HR practices correlate with better business results. hence. to show how HR creates value. describes the outcomes of the respective category of HR practices. and employee commitment as outcomes of HR efforts. organizations will be able to utilize the information to determine how particular HR practices correlate with better business results. and proposes a framework for assessing HR. and perceptions with assessments. What value does the HR function contribute to the bottom line of the organization? Over the years. turnover. This article examines the strategic role of HR and its main practices. Ultimately. explains the critical reasons for measuring HR's efforts. to utilize information to increase investments in specific HR strategies and eliminate ineffective investments. and be more accountable for each dollar spent within the organization.Effectiveness of HRM: This article examines the strategic role of HR and its main practices. but demonstrates the value of the activity and. Traditionally. and proposes a framework for assessing HR. HR professionals could talk generally and conceptually about employee morale. hence. Ulrich (1997b) reiterated that to fulfill the business partnership role of HR. and reductions. the opportunity to determine if it is a worthwhile investment and strategy for creating a competitive advantage. expansions. ideas with results. The framework proposed does not merely explain the cost for each major HR activity. expansions. the opportunity to determine whether it is a worthwhile investment and strategy for creating a competitive advantage. and to serve as a critical resource in strategic business planning and budget 51 . The framework has proven its effectiveness at many companies. determine potential areas for investments. tremendous emphasis has been placed on making HR practitioners strategic business partners and a value-added source within organizations. concepts need to be replaced with evidence. The framework proposed does not merely explain the cost for each major HR activity. and be more accountable for each dollar spent within the organization. Ultimately. explains the critical reasons for measuring HR's efforts. determine potential areas for investments. but demonstrates the value of the activity and.

which are the driving force that motivate the employees to move ahead." In this management system. the human resource department does much more than just recruiting employees for the company. are some of the priorities. A new and constantly evolving branch in the field of human resource management. is mentioned below. Strategic Human Resource Management refers to: "The pattern of planned human resource activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals. This point is considered during the planning phase and included in the policies devised for meeting goals. "A human resource system that is tailored to the demands of the business strategy. the importance of human resources still holds the key to the development and progress of a company. Using the human resource effectively in order to give the company a competitive advantage and completing the set targets. Advantages of Strategic Human Resource Management: There are many advantages and benefits that strategic human resource management offers. in terms of profits. 52 . core competence and other goals. Strategic Human Resource Management: In this age of rapid technological development. transportation.allocation." According to Wright & McMahan. Strategic human resource management is a new approach. The companies include Fortune 500 and smaller companies from retail. and financial industries. human resource is given due importance while planning goals and long term strategies. goals and the overall approach of companies. 1992. The definitions of the term 'Strategic Human Resource Management' as per Miles & Snow. The values inherited and the policies devised by firms are based on the mission statements. Nowadays. which helps in aligning the skills present in the employees with the goals to be achieved by the company. 1984. The skills that are necessary to meet the organizational goals are developed in employees. Strategic Human Resource Management deals with utilizing human resources in a manner that enables a firm to reap long term benefits. The mission statements reflect the strategies.

It helps determine the weaknesses and strengths of the company. from the point of view of the company. The diversity of workforce that makes it difficult for the management to handle them accordingly. It is possible to develop strategies and have a vision for the future. • • • • • • • • Resistance to change from the bottom line workers. 53 . Development and maintenance of competency among employees. It also performs the important task of motivating employees. Changes that take place in the organizational structure. which is of utmost importance in strategic planning.• • • • • • • • It helps analyze the opportunities and threats that are crucial. Inability of the management in communicating the vision and mission of the company clearly to the employees. Conflict among the employees over the issue of authority and the related fear of victimization. It helps keep a check whether the expectations of employees are addressed properly. is fulfilled by means of implementing strategic human resource management. Interdepartmental conflict and lack of vision among the senior management in implementing the HR policies. if strategic HRM is implemented properly. The changing market scenario which in turn creates pressure on the effective implementation of strategic HRM. If implemented efficiently. The resistance from institutions such as the labor unions. Limitations of Strategic Human Resource Management: The process of strategic HRM is a complicated one and barriers in the growth of employees and in turn the company. The need for competitive intelligence. strategic human resource management helps in improving the productivity of employees and utilizes their expertise in meeting the company goals. thereby enabling the management to take appropriate measures. Following are some commonly observed problems. is the most important benefit offered by strategic HRM. are created if strategic HRM is not implemented properly. Business surplus is achieved by making the employees competent enough to deliver the goods. The attrition rate can be reduced.

The provision for voluntary and involuntary redundancy. The HRM policies are general statements that serve to guide decision making. As guides rather than as hard and fast rules. policies are somewhat flexible. 54 .HRM POLICIES: Whatever the size of the organization and however the HRM function is structured and located. there will be a need to communicate to employees their terms and conditions of employment. Some potential policy statements that affect HRM would be: the provision of a safe place for employees to work the encouragement of all employees to achieve as much of their human potential as possible the provision of remuneration that will encourage a high level of productivity ensuring that current employees are considered first for any vacancy that might occur. requiring interpretation and judgment in their use. These employment guidelines are usually reflected in the HRM policies.

These include: • • • • • • • Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each employee’s job). training.How HRM functions are changing business environment? Human Resources Management is defined as policies and practices Involved in carrying out the “people” or human resource aspects of a management position. rewarding and appraising. screening. including recruiting. Planning labour needs and recruiting job candidates Recruitment Selecting job candidates Orienting and training new employees Managing wages and salaries (compensating employees) Providing incentives and benefits 55 .

HR’s role is shifting from protector and screener to strategic partner and change agent. And its HR’s job to build that competitive advantages. Manpower planning. ran the payroll department and administrated benefits plans. commitment. Today. employee needs and societal concerns. 56 .• • • • Appraising performance Communicating (interviewing. the growing importance of the functions. Labour relations. organizational are incoming areas. they did not have any prominence in the past. Training and managerial development and personal research have become increasingly important today. That means an upgrading of HR’s traditional role. Earlier. personal people first took over hiring and firing from supervisors. they did not have any they are now going to receive substantially more attention. the changing organizational demands. However. its knowledge. disciplining) Training and developing managers Building employee commitment The scope of HRM has changed over the fast few years. management and administration. Employee benefits and services and worker’s health and safety have always been important personal concerns. counseling. Some HRM Sub-functions seems to be breaking away from HRM. i. Today’s its firm’s workforce. skills and training that provides the competitive advantages for world class companies. other seems to be new sub-areas while still other seem to be changing only in term of their relative emphasis and degree of importance. The job consisted largely of ensuring that procedures were followed.not machine are firms. they are now going to receive substantially more attention. Many of these changes depend on he size of the organization in which the HRM functions occurs. In today’s flattened downsized and highly performing organizations. has somewhat declined in terms of relative emphasis. the managerial philosophies. public relations and plant security are ‘outgoing’ HRM sub areas which have been taken away from HRM department. wage and salary administration. Managerial and organizational development. while the importance of appraisal. trained and committed employees. The metamorphosis of “personal” to “Human Resources” reflects that. this Change has been relatively slow in comparison to the changes in their area of business.e. The new technology in the areas like testing and interviewing began to emerge the promotion.

Role of HRM is becoming all the more important. highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing.Emerging Trends in Human Resource Management: NEW TRENDS IN HR Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems. There is a need for multi skill development. management cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent. Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows: 57 . Personnel directors are the new corporate heroes. Over the years. This calls for future skill mapping through proper HRM initiatives. The name of the game today in business is personnel. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order.

Six. Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. Kodak. more particularly on training. organizations have introduced sixsigma practices.Fair treatment of people and prompt redress of grievances would pave the way for healthy work-place relations. and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable HR policies. reward them equitably. e) Quality Consciousness. e. make people feel like winners.g.Create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal. Lay off workers in a smooth way explaining facts to unions. HR Managers today are focusing attention on the followinga) Policies. Xerox.HR policies based on trust. Telco in trucks etc. 3M in adhesives.• • • The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000 focus more on people centric organizations. 58 . Due to the new trends in HR. With the increase of global job mobility. recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult. initiative and enthusiasm. HR Managers should do the following things to ensure success• • • • • • Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. openness.sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement. in a nutshell the HR manager should treat people as resources. with renewed thrust on HR issues. Motorola is famous for short product development cycles. especially in India. Therefore by creating an enabling culture. development. To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty. Xerox in photocopiers. counseling. Decentralize operations and rely on self-managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times e. Organizations now need to prepare themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the top management.g. organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower. Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training. equity and consensus. These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free product or services at minimum cost. IBM. etc. workers and other affected groups e.g. etc Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area.Commitment to quality in all aspects of personnel administration will ensure success.Prepare workers to accept technological changes by clarifying doubts. b) Motivation. c) Relations. d) Change agent. It has quickly commercialized ideas from its research labs.

59 .

HISTORY OF NIRALI: Nirali started manufacturing in 1985. With a team of over 150 employees. We have had a quality focused approach since inception with a wide range of products. 60 . we are now the number one brand and market leader and have a wide dealer’s network (more than 3000) throughout India. being the first to introduce many innovative products in India.

Plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. so rush in your recipes and send it to us at niralicookware@vsnl. the fundamental requirement for all living organisms. The Logic of being vegetarian! Like all vital energy on the planet ultimately comes from the sun-the center piece of our solar system and the source of all existence. Also. those that are most efficient are closest to the source.com. Or post it to us at our office address. closest to the source of life itself.Today we enjoy a long track record of loyal satisfied customers . logic and research suggests that vegetarian food is the most efficient nutriment for the humans as plants form the base of our food chain. Also is having been a supplier to the Indian Defense Forces for the past 20 years.the sun. and placement in most of the malls in the country. Similarly in the food we eat. We at Nirali Subscribe to this… And dedicate this section to provide and invite vegetarian recipes from across the world. L. 61 .Ltd. seek out water and minerals from the soil – and internally cook the mixture with sunlight to produce glucose.N Engineering Works Pvt. FDA USA approved ISI India certification. To foster this process we offer to publish the contributors name and photograph along with the recipe on our site additionally there are some cool surprising gifts to be won. We have the first DuPont’s License in India since 1985 and are the only licensee to use Platinum coatings in the country. We are expanding new manufacturing facilities with Italian technical know how and plan to capture premium market segments by introducing new and innovative products. It has been proven that off all energy sources.more than 10 million.

Kaliandas Udyog Bhavan Near Century Bazar. Worli Mumbai 400 025. Gaurai Pada.Registered Office: 210.com 62 . Thane. Vasai (E) Dist. Maharashtra. Vasai Taluka Industrial Estates Sector II. India Phone: 91-22-24315500 91-22-24379457 Fax: 91-22-24362543 Email: niralicookware@vsnl. India Factory: 54.

For clerical job or accounting minimum qualification required is 12th or any other qualification related to the job profile. 2) Induction & orientation are done by the HR department or by the concern department of the newly recruited employee? Solution: Induction & orientation are done by the HR department head of the newly recruited employee in the organization.QUESTIONIARE: 1) What is the process of recruitment followed in the organization? Solution: In Nirali non-stick Cookware Company the recruitment process is as follows: For workers. products. policies and procedures. 63 . All new employees and transferring employees are provided with an appropriate introduction to their employment with to cover a basic understanding of the company’s history. The aim is for new employees to be integrated into the work environment as soon as possible. No qualifications and/or skill is required. 2. 3) Which type of training is given to the employees? Solution: Types of Employee Training: 1. The worker is trained in the company as per the manufacturing unit’s requirement. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks.

4) On what basis is wage/salary paid to the employees? Solution: Wage/salary is given on the basis of the job of an individual employee. benchmarking. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment. hazardous chemicals.. etc. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management. Quality Circles.3. 6. today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. It is paid fairly on the activity of an employee. 7. guidelines and standards for quality. 8. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views. etc. etc. require basic training about quality concepts. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. etc. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Training can people to get along in the workplace.. Also. 4. 5) Does the wage/salary structure justify the hard work of the employee? 64 . and includes techniques to value diversity 5. but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. repetitive activities. No incentives are given.

8) What type of methods do you follow for doing the performance appraisal? Solution: Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. . 6) How do you motivate employees when they are demotivated? Solution: Employees are motivated in every possible ways. Managing disputes. 9) How do you judge the performance of your employee & what are the benefits and you provide? Solution: The performance of the employee is judged on the individual employee as well as a team work also. They are given promotions. industrial relations among the employee & employer etc. coordination. As they all work as a team in the organization. Promotions are given every year on the basis of Seniority as well as on the basis of skills too. 7) How is performance appraisal done in your organization? Solution: Performance appraisal is done fairly to all the employees in the organization. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. Employees are paid on the hard work done in the manufacturing unit at different levels & different departments. Maintaining public relations tec. internal transfers. No partiality is done with any employee. Gifts are given to the employees to motivate them. bonus (once in a year).Solution: YES. All the employees are treated equally. skills. Benefits like: Maintaining work atmosphere. Talent. 65 . wage/salary structure is justified.

It is about life not just happening but happening in an orderly way. Indicated from the variety of topics discussed. * Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area. It is both simple and complex. Over the years. highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. * Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. Humans are constantly seeking answers. a way of looking at things that can be applied to a variety of situations. counseling. etc. making plans. one must be familiar with the laws regarding today’s work environment. and financial resources. development. Human Resource Management covers a wide range of topics. Each day presents new challenges. They must also be an effective 66 . Management provides insight into how this occurs. HR Managers should concentrate on the following areas to ensure success: * Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. Individuals are continually confronted with decisions to be made given scarce resources. The greatest future challenge for the field will be the continued integration of management with other theories to address socially relevant issues as life becomes more complex and diverse. What management does is provide a framework. The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent. As a manager. This entry has endeavored to show the basics of the discipline and its application to everyday life. * Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training. * Decentralize operations and rely on self-managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times. and keep up to date on the new laws that develop. More could be said about managing human effort. and pursuing goals that bring desired results. new questions about how life should be and can be. This entry briefly touches the surface of a more than century-old discipline that affects every aspect of daily life. environmental resources.CONCLUSION: Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met.

WEBLIOGRAPHY: www. and alleviate conflict.citehr. Effective Human Resource Managers strive to make the work environment a healthy one.P. They have to deal with hiring new employees. and terminating bad ones. in every conceivable way.wikipedia.niralicookware@vsnl.communicator to able to delegate responsibility.com www. Michael 67 .com www.googloe.com BIBLIOGRAPHY: Kale Ahmed Subha Rao V.com www.

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