What is HRM?

Human resources management is a term used to refer to how people are managed by
organizations. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and System Theory. Human resources have at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production although this perspective is changing as a function of new and ongoing research into more strategic approaches at national levels. This first usage is used more in terms of 'human resources development', and can go beyond just organizations to the level of nations. The more traditional usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a firm or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as 'human resources management'. This article addresses both definitions.

HR is an acronym for human resources, that element within a company which deals with the human aspects/needs of workers. Many companies have an HR department, which may provide a broad range of services to its employees. Some who work in HR are considered part of the department, but many people outside of such a department may have something to do with not just the financial aspects of work, but also “the human element” of employing workers.

For instance, even though technically not part of an HR department, a supervisor or manager may be responsible for hiring or firing workers, writing employee reviews, giving day to day feedback on work, and encouraging and supporting workers. This is all potentially human resource work. Yet in large companies, a large human resources department may not have much day-to-day contact with the same employees. So managers or supervisors do part of the work involved in human resources, and members of the HR administration may oversee their work. In small companies with only a couple of employees, no formal human resources department exists, and managers or owners handle all the duties of such a department. Some standard responsibilities of a human resources department include the following:
• • • • •

Securing, offering and explaining benefits, like health insurance or 401ks. Managing on-the-job health and safety issues. Offering information or advice on special work programs, like reimbursement for continuing education or smoking cessation programs. Advertising available jobs, screening applicants, setting up interviews and potentially hiring applicants. Handling all paperwork related to the hiring or firing of employees.

• • • • •

Distributing paychecks and bonuses (though paycheck disbursement may be outsourced to another company). Helping workers apply for family leave, maternity leaves sabbaticals or disability payments. Possibly participating in motivational company wide events. Approving performance reviews and assessing raises or promotions. Handling complaints about employer abuses, sexual harassment, discrimination or hostile work environment charges.

It is often a critique that large companies and sometimes even small ones lack a sense of humanity in regards to caring for their workers. Though HR departments do get pressured by those in finance departments to keep their costs low, most of its workers are keenly interested in helping to see to employee needs and encouraging workers to do their best. If you work in a relatively large and “impersonal” company, it can be a great thing to get to know the folks in your human resources department. In a way, HR department employees may already know you better than you think. If you’ve worked for a company for a long time, Chances are human resource employees already knows when you had your children, if you had to take leave because your mom was sick, how well you’ve performed in the company, and when you’ve participated on teams. Workers often make the mistake of thinking that the HR department is in it impersonal, but most of its employees would beg to differ. They really are working not only for the employer but the employees. Knowing these folks by name personalizes your relationship with people who already know a considerable amount about you. When you’re starting work at a new company, seeking the counsel and advice of human resource departments is also an excellent plan, as again, these people may know you more intimately than anyone else you work with. The definition of human resource management emphasizes the sphere of influence to encompass 'the strategic approach to manpower management in an organization'. The process calls for a coherent objective to retain and increase employee head-count, any organization's most valued asset. This specialized study and application has come in the wake of realization that the employees of an organization, individually and collectively, are the main contributors to the achievement of business objectives. The management of people hired by an organization involves employing people, designing and developing related resources and most importantly, utilizing and compensating their services to optimize business profitability via employee performance. Today, Human Resource Management operates in tune with other essential organizational requirements and co-exists with the topmost management cadre. Managing human resources within a company calls for a liaison between the organization's management personnel and the administration of the executive rungs. It thrives on the strength of the relationship between the management and workers of the company.

Its features include:

• • • •

Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Industrial management

But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even employee and industrial relations are confusingly listed as synonyms, although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process. Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organizations.

Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:

It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and wellmotivated employees. etc. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.• • • • • • • • • It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. economics. It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: The scope of HRM is very wide: 4 . Its focus is on results rather than on rules. It is all about people at work. It is a multi-disciplinary activity. utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology.

Part of this improvement will come from organizations becoming more efficient and effective. The better our organizations work. People are the common element in every organization. The scope of human resource management outlined below includes an outline of transformation and development issues. 5 . grievance and disciplinary procedures. health and safety. cr?ches. There are many challenges facing organizations today. housing. Today's human resource issues are enormous and appear to be ever expanding. The human resource manager faces a multitude of problems ranging from a constantly changing workforce to coping with ever increasing government rules and regulations. they are receiving increased attention from upper levels of management. One slogan on an American factory expressed it this way: Assets make things possible. Now such advertisements are very common and encompass significant organizational responsibilities. While there are many definitions of HRM. its primary purpose is to improve the productive contribution of people within an organization. productivity etc. Until the last few years the discipline was known as personnel management. rest and lunch rooms. etc. as well as the roles of a human resource management practitioner (line management and HRM professionals). remuneration. collective bargaining. training and development. their staffs are its human resources. It used to be rare to see job advertisements for human resource managers. It can be said that the central challenge we face in society is to continually improve the performance of our organizations in both the private and public sectors. even though these relationships may not be expressly stated in each case. It is these goods and services that contribute to our standard of living. Because of the critical nature of human resource concerns. recruitment. layoff and retrenchment. The study of HRM describes what human resource managers do and what they should do. people make things happen. selection. transport. joint consultation. From an organization’s perspective. promotion. education. This requires the effective management in these organizations. recreation facilities. the assumption is made that roles are inter-linked and interdependent. Now the term 'human resource management' is increasingly used in recognition of the importance of an organization’s workforce in contributing to the goals of that organization. With regard to the latter. placement. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations. etc. transfer. settlement of disputes. incentives. It is people like you who produce the goods and services that create wealth. the easier it is for society to meet the present and future threats and opportunities. medical assistance.Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning. tentative generic skills required in performing HRM roles.

The failure of organizations to use their resources for society's benefit may result in restrictions. For example. To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. societies may pass laws that limit human resource 6 .Objectives of HRM: Objectives are benchmarks against which actions of an HRM department are evaluated. The following is one listing of these objectives: Societal objective.


Organizational objective:
To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.

Functional objective:
To maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands. A department's level of service must be appropriate for the organization it serves.

Personal objective:
To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organization.

In order to achieve the objectives of an organization, the HRM section or department must carry out a number of functions. The key functions of HRM can be summarized as the acquisition, maintenance, development and termination of employees.

This is the 'getting' phase of HRM. It includes estimating both the future demand and supply for human resources and integrating these resources into a total human resource strategy. In other words, the objectives and future directions of the organization must be known before any reliable forecasts of people needs can be made. The acquiring process includes recruiting, selection and the socialization or induction of new employees.

This is the 'keeping' function and involves providing benefits, services and working conditions that are needed if individuals are to remain committed to the workplace.

This encompasses the whole domain of training and development, which has become a major area of concern and expense for organizations. Developing also includes the concepts of organizational change and development and how these processes impact upon employees.

This is the 'saying goodbye' activity and is sometimes known as the separation phase of employment. It involves such issues as retirement, redundancy, resignation and dismissal. These issues have become of major importance in organizations in recent years. The HRM functions are broad sweeping. Within each of these functions there are a number of activities that human resource specialists must carry out if these functions are to be fulfilled. Human resources activities are those actions taken to provide and maintain an appropriate workforce for the organization. The five most common activities of HRM personnel in organizations are identified as: Planning for human resource needs Staffing identified personnel need Performance management and remuneration for employees Improving employees and the work environment Establishing and maintaining effective working relationships.


Human resources management comprises several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.

Workforce planning:

).Strategic Workforce Planning is the business process for ensuring that an organization has suitable access to talent to ensure future business success. and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. For some components of the recruitment process. insightful assessment of the strategy's attendant business risk is prudent. predisposition and ability to undertake required activities including decisions making. changing business activities to modify the types of talent required. Implementation and execution follow. However. Induction. contracting out. niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing and in-house recruitment. Access to talent includes considering all potential access sources (employment. Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection): Recruitment refers to the process of attracting. partnerships. This means identifying the critical talent needs that if not met can materially adversely impact business success. Attention to periodically reviewing the "sanity" of the current plan is prudent.and largesize organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. Assessing current internal capability and assessing its relative position when it will be called upon in the future. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods. knowledge. This role also looks at multiple sources for access and similar risks to those mentioned above. the use of employees to meet talent needs carries with it unique risks that can be mitigated using alternative access sourcing arrangements. mis-deployed talent on the organization's business priorities. Speculating on future sourcing options and identifying the preferred sourcing option. and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews. The process for starting out Strategic Workforce Planning is link with the organization's strategy. recruitment websites and job search engines. Orientation and Onboarding: 10 . screening. By talent is meant the skills. Strategic Workforce Planning is analogous to the treasurer role which is concerned with ensuring the organization has suitable access to working capital. Strategic Planning considers the business risks concerning insufficient. etc. Once the business risks are fully appreciated then attention turns to schedule and timing. One of the more restrictive and potentially dangerous assumptions is that Strategic Planning is only about talent in the form of employees. The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies: employment agencies. "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment. mid. disrupted. Regardless of the access source used. Hiring is a strategy for accessing talent and will often be the superior one.

New employee orientation frequently includes spending time doing the jobs in each department to understand the flow of the product or service through the organization. referring to "aligning" other members of the management to the need for revising new hiring procedures to include an onboarding process). accommodating. 11 .onboarding can be defined as the process of acquiring. An organization should be prepared to handle this specific task. and build shared corporate culture.d. integration." process of "acclimation. Another refers to a four step "a. Various writers have devised their own system of mnemonics when describing what an onboarding manager should remember and the sequence in which the methods should be carried out. New employee orientation. the organization chart and anything else relevant to working in the new company. or letting the employee learn on his or her own by trial and error.. because onboarding done right can improve productivity and employee retention. Effective onboarding of new employees can be one of the most important contributions any hiring manager. One description refers to a four step process of "acquiring. generally contains information about safety. the new job description. assimilating and accelerating" new hires (and includes a fifth "a". dialogue and expectation management". a period which has been described as being 90 days or 100 days. culture or methodology. direct supervisor or human resources professional can make to long-term organizational success. Onboarding is a core personnel and management skill. and emphasize the importance of making the most of the "honeymoon" stage of a hire. assimilating and accelerating new users into a system. organizational and role risks in complicated situations when they don't have formal onboarding assistance. New employee orientation is the process you use for welcoming a new employee into your organization. the work environment. company culture.e. or a similar title reflecting specific responsibility for new hires. company history.Once an employee is selected and placed on an appropriate job. In a generic usage . benefits and eligibility. accommodating. because it may be difficult for individuals to uncover personal. New employee orientation often includes an introduction to each department in the company and training on-the-job. Onboarding may be especially valuable for executives transitioning into complex roles. the process of familiarizing him with the job and the organization is known as induction. Proponents have described the process as being more than orientation. Rather than delegating the job of training the newcomer to a co-worker (called the "Just follow Joe around" method by one commentator) or having the employee watch a video presentation. Onboarding or "on-boarding" is a business management term used for the process of handling new employees to obtain the best results from them. often spearheaded by a meeting with the Human Resources department. proponents of onboarding advocate assigning the process to a person designated as an "onboarding manager". Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins the company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and starts work.i.

Training and development: In the field of human resource management. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job roles require. Technological change alters the fundamental structure of firms and calls for new organizational approaches and management skills. training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in 12 . techniques and tools of a specific area. and a grading system. develop ideas. with a definition of what it means to be at particular level for a given skill. Managers interact and cooperate with employees. and certainly when their skill sets have changed. developing and deploying people and their skills. and solve problems creatively.) To be most useful. telecommunications). also known as a competency framework or skills matrix. new global industries are being created (for example. or by third party institutions. the skills of individual employees. Skills management systems record the results of this process in a database. As the pace of change accelerates and diverse technologies converge. managers must be skilled. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: technical. technical skill deals with things. and conceptual skills. and any gap between the two. Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with people. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their area of specialty. In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles.Skills management: Skills Management is the practice of understanding. This consists of a list of skills. see the Skills Framework for the Information Age. a technical IT skills framework owned by a British not-for-profit organization. A manager's level in the organization determines the relative importance of possessing technical. Conceptual skills are used in planning and dealing with ideas and abstractions. and conceptual skill has to do with ideas. All levels of management need human skills in order to interact and communicate with other people successfully. and allow analysis of the data. and conceptual. These updates should occur at least as frequently as employees' regular line manager reviews. human skill concerns people. Managers understand abstract relationships. human. They are usually defined in terms of a skills framework. The skills involved can be defined by the organization concerned. Managers use the processes. skills management needs to be conducted as an ongoing process. Top level managers need conceptual skills in order to view the organization as a whole. with individuals assessing and updating their recorded skill sets regularly. human. Conceptual skill involves the formulation of ideas. (For an example of a mature skills framework. Thus.

Laws pertaining to wrongful dismissal of employees must also be adhered to or a business could find itself in a lawsuit. It has been known by several names. human resource development. activities: Training: This activity is both focused upon. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. knowledge. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training. assessing. companies usually work at retaining them. or customer. 13 . and is almost impossible to evaluate. People are considered the most important resource a business has. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Employees must be organized in a way that gets the work done. including employee development. and evaluated against. As long as employees are striving to be efficient in completing their employment responsibilities. And the providers are specialists in the field. and is evaluated against those jobs. peer. Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future. Organization is a large part of personnel administration. developing and retaining employees. Talent. Line managers are responsible for coaching. they encompass three separate. Keeping good employees saves the time and expense of replacing them. Personnel administration: Personnel administration is more commonly called human resources (HR) management. selecting. may partake in the future. or that the individual is part of. and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The clients of training and development are business planners. and learning and development. and development. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. resources. which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. to practitioners.organizational settings. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. although interrelated. and performance. HR or personnel administration refers to the areas of recruiting. education. The human resources department of a company instructs managers on proper conduct toward employees. the job that an individual currently holds. However.

employees may be evaluated by managers who use assessment forms created by the company's personnel administration. During their employment. Following laws that apply to safe working conditions.Recruiting and selecting successful employees at the start is a main objective of personnel administration. The personnel department must always keep thorough records of all employees. Correct procedures and actions must be followed by the company or it could face legal consequences if employees take the matter to court. discrimination or sexual harassment complaints. HR staff will conduct initial telephone interviews for advertised jobs to try to weed out unsuitable job applicants. Personnel administration handles issues in the workplace such as violence. In many companies today. they may take part in training programs that have been developed or approved by HR personnel. A manager then has a lower number of higher qualified applicants to interview for the advertised position. Once employees are hired. Time management: 14 . Performance reviews are often conducted before a raise in pay is considered. A performance review allows a manager to evaluate an employee’s overall job performance and suggest any improvements. The personnel department must work within the law — therefore an understanding of laws pertaining to conduct in the workplace is important. minimum wage and overtime work is also crucial for personnel administration to focus on. Most companies use assessment forms during employees' performance reviews.

which is an unmanageable continuous resource". Second generation: planning and preparation based on calendar and appointment books. setting goals. allocating. Some authors offered a categorization scheme for the hundreds of time management approaches that they reviewed • • • • First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches. Third generation: planning. analysis of time spent. scheduling. includes setting goals. but with computer implementation possible. Initially time management referred to just business or work activities. 15 . to make sure that they are accomplished within the available or allocated time. can be used to alert a person when a task is to be done. tools. controlling (using a personal organizer. and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks. delegation. This approach implies spending some time in clarifying values and priorities.Time management refers to a range of skills. monitoring. places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and favors importance over urgency. projects and goals. other paper-based objects. tools and techniques. organizing. Some of the recent general arguments related to "time" and "management" point out that the term "time management" is misleading and that the concept should actually imply that it is "the management of our own activities. A time management system is a designed combination of processes. prioritizing. but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities also. or computer or PDA-based systems) activities on a daily basis. Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above tools. and prioritizing. and these include planning. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities.

TM should not be confused with the work of a traditional Travel Agency. 16 . car rental. procrastination Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM): Travel management is the function of managing a company’s strategic approach to travel (travel policy).g.Time management literature paraphrased: "Get Organized" .paperwork and task triage "Protect Your Time" .natural rhythms. In other words TM decides on the class of service that employees are allowed to fly. they are the implementing arm of what the corporation has negotiated and put forth in policy. rail. HR. client gifts. ferry/boat.insulate. hotel. As this function touches on all of these areas in some form and represents such a major corporate expense. For most companies “travel & entertainment” (T&E) costs represent the second highest controllable annual expense. etc. and is commonly higher than IT and/or real estate costs. While agencies provide the day-to-day travel services to corporate clients.that attract actions automatically "Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus" .set goals and prioritize "Use Magical Tools to Get More Out of Your Time" . gratuities. the negotiations with all vendors. taxi fares. isolate. e. The agency on the other hand makes the actual reservation within the parameters given by the corporation.recovery from underlying psychological problems. it stand to reason that this function should have equal ranking within a corporation as any other major division and not be seen as a sub-set of existing departments. The management of these costs is usually handled by the Corporate Travel Manager. a function that can be part of the Finance. negotiate corporate fares/rates with airlines and hotels as well as set forth the use of the corporate credit card. traveler safety & security as well as credit card and overall travel data management. credit-card management and T&E data management. etc.motivational emphasis • • • • • "Work in Priority Order" .depends on when written "Master the Skills of Time Management" "Go with the Flow" . supplies (office supplies and/or services).) but include all costs incurred during travel such as staff & client meals. Procurement or Administrative Services Department. Eastern philosophy "Recover from Bad Time Habits" . T&E costs are not only limited to travel (airline. exceeded only by salary & benefits. delegate "set gravitational goals" . day-today operation of the corporate travel program. Furthermore this area often included meeting management. traveler safety & security.

and deductions for all employees. It Improves your employee retention capabilities by offering innovative employee benefit packages with world-class employee benefit administration services and solutions. Employee benefits administration services offers innovative plans and solutions to keep your staff happy. Personnel cost planning: Personnel Cost Planning (PCP) draws on both establishment and employee details to form base data for the salary budget. run reports or both functions. withholdings. PCP is only available for use by authorized staff and dependant upon your role in the budget you may have access to create scenarios. Our Benefit administration services philosophy is to let our clients focus on primary business initiatives and not to worry about the cost. and compliance issues. Happy employees make successful organizations. To ensure privacy of staff information the following must be adhered to: 17 . for a given pay period. Staff authorized to gain access to the system will have the PCP role available in their SAP ‘User Menu’ and will show only those transaction available to them. It offer total employee benefits administration services and benefit management services to help our clients meet the challenges of the ever-growing global human resource marketplace. This information is reviewed and adjusted as required. Our expertise in this arena enables us to offer comprehensive employee benefits Management solutions with superior quality service in claims administration and management of corporate employee benefit plans.Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM): Payroll is the record of employee salaries and hourly wages. compatibility. It should be noted that information provide by PCP is confidential and must not be distributed. Employee benefits administration: One of our main concerns is to ensure that your employees have access to comprehensive employee benefit plans & solutions available in the market through our Employee Benefit Administration programs.

cost. Most reports now have variants that can be selected from the tool bar. These variants allow reports to be viewed and printed in different reporting formats. employee appraisal. It is the process of obtaining analyzing and recording information about relative worth of an employee to the organization. quantity. disciplinary actions. bonuses. the aims of a performance appraisal are to: • • • • • • • Give a employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases. etc. and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. promotions. not Occupant when reviewing reports and determining the correct costing of a position. The Basic Data Report has been upgraded to provide additional reporting information. performance review. PCP access to data restricted to authorized users. It must be remembered that the salary budget is by Position.No separate records to be kept outside of SAP – PCP. A common error with costing relates to the treatment of staff on maternity leave. or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. Performance appraisal: A performance appraisal. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and administration Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements FUNCTIONS OF HRM: The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities. and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent 18 . Working papers detailing salaries must be destroyed. Working papers must be locked in a secure location when not being used. Costing your position to the maternity leave account means you are not providing a budget within your own accounts. FTE and increment date to assist in ensuring the position data is correct. it now includes the current occupants Classification. • Generally. Maternity Leave is budgeted centrally within Uni wide and costing a position against this account is incorrect even though the occupant may be.

Many years ago. compensation and relations. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part. career development. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations. e. training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.g. including. they should always ensure that employees have—and are aware of—personnel policies which conform to current regulations. Those people might include HRM in HRD. a profession).g. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development. e.. dealing with performance issues. organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing.contractors or hire employees to fill these needs. development." mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. However. All these functions are 19 . ensuring they are high performers. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation. which all employees have.. employee records and personnel policies. large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department. OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS OF HRM: The operative functions of personnel management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz. organization development. etc. recruiting and training the best employees. "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20–30 years. training. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals. explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations.. More recently. employment.or full-time help.

non-profit and household sectors. human resources planning. placement. It is the first operative function of HRM. generally with the intention of generating a profit. one being the employer and the other being the employee. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions. An employee may be defined as: "A person in the service of another under any contract of hire. and the employee contributes labour to the enterprise. express or implied. selection. where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed. recruitment. oral or written. Employment: Employment is a contract between two parties. To the extent that employment or the economic equivalent is not universal. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. Employment also exists in the public. usually in return for payment of wages. induction and internal mobility. the employer conceives of a productive activity. unemployment exists. It covers the functions such as job analysis." In a commercial setting. 20 .interacted by managerial functions.

selection systems. promotion criteria. When a job analysis is conducted for the purpose of valuing the job (i. or without. [2] The field of vocational rehabilitation uses job analysis to determine the physical requirements of a job to determine whether an individual who has suffered some diminished capacity is capable of performing the job with. including: definition of a job domain. In the fields of Human Resources (HR) and Industrial Psychology. such as "task analysis") to determine the elements of the domain which must be sampled in order to create a content valid exam. The main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. developing performance appraisals. and/or compensation. describing a job. determining the appropriate compensation for incumbents) this is called "job evaluation." It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. and compensation plans. training needs assessment. Professionals developing certification exams use job analysis (often called something slightly different. The general purpose of job analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. classification.e. some accommodation. job analysis is often used to gather information for use in personnel selection. It includes: 21 . training. Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later improvements..Job Analysis: Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job.

Human Resources Planning: It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons. facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men.1. and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements. * Calculation of net human resources requirement based on present inventory of human resources. 22 . machines and materials. * Taking steps to mould. information. * Preparation of action programs to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees. It involves * Estimation of present and future requirement and supply of human resources basing on objectives and long range plans of the organization. plans and basis for job design and for all operative functions of HRM. 2. levels and quantum of human resources. Collection of data. performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. change. Providing the guides. 3. available at proper times. Preparation of job description. job specification. job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature.

It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. mid.Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting. (d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources. The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies: employment agencies. "headhunters" for executive and professional recruitment. It deals with: (a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them. (c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods. screening. recruitment websites and job search engines. and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews. 23 . (b) Creation / Identification of new sources of applicants.and largesize organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing and in-house recruitment. and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. For some components of the recruitment process.

experience. Certain employment laws such as anti-discrimination laws must be obeyed during employee selection.Selection: The process of interviewing and evaluating candidates for a specific job and selecting an individual for employment based on certain criteria. skill. (d) Checking of references. (g) Sending letters of appointment and rejection. (f) Line manager decision. (b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques. This function includes: (a) Framing and developing application blanks.. Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job in terms of job requirements. (c) Formulating interviewing techniques. It is matching of employees specifications with job requirements. (e) Setting up medical examination policy and procedure. of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job appraising. (h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty. This function includes: 24 . Employee selection can range from a very simple process to a very complicated process depending on the firm hiring and the position. It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications. knowledge etc.

orders. minimum periods 25 . opportunities. policies. if sustained. if any. and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments.. directing. appraising employee performance in order to determine employees’ adjustment with the job. culture etc. market share. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive. (b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peers. purposes and people etc. (c) Correcting misplacements. and controlling. (c) Mould the employee attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS OF HRM: Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning. objectives. company history. organizing. policies. (a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy. career planning and development. of the organization. consultation. All these functions influence the operative functions Manpower planning: The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly.(a) Counseling the functional managers regarding placement. (b) Conducting follow-up study. social and community standing. • • Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and specialization. Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices. customers and profits. supervisors and subordinates. product.

of notice. new health and safety requirements Changes in Government policies (investment incentives. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. For that reason some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection.) Variations. those who recruit and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants. substitution. selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. organizational change. etc. what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage. • • • In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process). However. which respond to new legislation.g. overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e. the 'cost' of poor selection is such that. productivity.e. etc. Employee motivation: To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise.e. even for the mundane day-to-day jobs.g. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of 26 .g. flexibility of labor as a result of training. use of subcontractors or agency staffs. regional or trade grants. Equally some small organizations exist to 'head hunt'. i. hiving-off tasks. Changes in employment practices (e. work study. new motivations. Future staffing needs will derive from: • • • • • • Sales and production forecasts The effects of technological change on task needs Variations in the efficiency. Effectively. payroll taxes or their abolition. etc. buying in. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess. etc Recruitment and selection of employees: Recruitment of staff should be preceded by: An analysis of the job to be done (i. Very importantly. e.

to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills. and 2. i. (c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service.local negotiations and details (e. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. To identify potential. are difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between: (a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups. but (about annually) two key questions should be posed: What has been done to improve the performance of a person last year? And what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?).g. while a recognizable and legitimate objective for an organization. etc.e. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels. As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation. To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. employee benefits.e. welfare. Employee evaluation: An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons: • • • • To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers. Industrial relations • • • • Good industrial relations. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment. Provision of employee services: 27 . i. (b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations). organizations and their representatives). but is based on the same assessment). trade union.

The maintenance of disablement statistics and registers (there are complicated legal requirements in respect of quotas of disabled workers and a need for 'certificates' where quota are not fulfilled and recruitment must take place). social. it involves planning of human resources requirement. and for the alerting of all levels to new requirements. Clearly define the target / goal in writing. hobbies. For a comprehensive business plan. The forms this welfare can take are many and varied. It also involves forecasting of personnel needs. It is prepared after careful and extensive research. selection. Provision of canteens and other catering facilities. In other words. activities of many kinds which are work related.. Essentials of planning Planning is not done off hand. management has to 1.Attention to the mental and physical well-being of employees is normal in many organizations as a means of keeping good staff and attracting others. Provision of information handbooks. The location of the health and safety function within the organization varies. Planning is determination of personnel programs and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals. changing values attitude and behavior of employees and their impact on organization. Among the activities regarded as normal are: • • • • • • • • • • Schemes for occupational sick pay. training etc. 28 . The rehabilitation of injured/unfit/ disabled employees and temporary or permanent move to lighter work. Possibly assistance with financial and other aid to employees in difficulty (supervision. extended sick leave and access to the firm's medical adviser. Care for the welfare aspects of health and safety legislation and provision of first-aid training. Provision of financial and other support for sports. Running of pre-retirement courses and similar fringe activities. recruitment. Schemes for bereavement or other special leave. from loans to the needy to counseling in respect of personal problems. of an employee managed benevolent fund or scheme). maybe. Commonly a split of responsibilities exists under which 'production' or 'engineering' management cares for the provision of safe systems of work and safe places and machines etc. but HRM is responsible for administration. training and education in awareness and understanding of the law. Planning: It is a pre-determined course of action.

It should be specific. Decide budgetary requirement. To meet the goals. 5. To minimize the timing and resources also require proper planning.It is essential to carry out the determined course of action In the words of JC Massie. organization establishes relationships among the employees so that they can collectively contribute to the attainment of company goals. The concept of planning is to identify what the organization wants to do by using the four questions which are “where are we today in terms of our business or strategy planning? Where are going? Where do we want to go? How are we going to get there? Organizing: An organization is a means to an end . 4. What will be the likely length of the plan and its structure? 8. The planning helps to achieve these goals or target by using the available time and resources. Focus on matters of strategic importance. In organizations Planning is also a management process. managers may develop plans such as a business plan or a marketing plan. 3. an organization is a structure and a process by which co-operative group of human beings allocated its task among its members.Thus.It should be set by a person having authority. Acceptability Easily measurable 2. Purpose or importance of organization: Helps to achieve organizational goal 29 . The goal should be realistic. Strategies for implementation. Identify shortcomings in the concept and gaps. Review periodically. Planning always has a purpose. What are requirements and how will they be met? 7. identifies relationships and integrates its activities towards common objective. Review past performance. 9. The purpose may be achievement of certain goals or targets. 10. Complex relationships exist between the specialized departments and the general departments as many top managers are seeking the advice of personnel manager . 6. concerned with defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources to be used in order to attain those goals. Identify all the main issues which need to be addressed.

the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority and allocation of resources across the organization. Directing and Controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization. And it involves the assignment of tasks. including lines of authority. in company’s point of view. decision responsibility. number of hierarchical levels and span of managers control. 3. A set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments. Staffing. Human treatment of employees: Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees an must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization. Now. Organization focuses attention of individual’s objectives towards overall objectives. Optimum use of resources: To make optimum use of resources such as men. material. organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach. Organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line. is the management function that usually follows after planning. money. Organizing.Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. and departments are coordinated. Work should be divided and right people should be given right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization. To perform managerial function: Planning. it is necessary to design an organization properly. 30 . Formal reporting relationships. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments. 1. Structure: The framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided. Organizing. machine and method. 2. resources are deployed. Facilitates growth and diversification: A good organization structure is essential for expanding business activity.

Organizations today tend to encourage delegation from highest to lowest possible levels.Work specialization: Work specialization (also called division of labour) is the degree to which organizational tasks are sub-divided into individual jobs. The superior issues orders and is responsible for the result—the subordinate obeys and is responsible only for executing the order according to instructions. 31 . showing that the investment will have a yield of at least x%. and specifies who reports to whom. Functional authority is where managers have formal power over a specific subset of activities. employees are isolated and do only a single. Managers often find delegation difficult Types of authority (and responsibility): Line authority managers have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates. boring job. issue orders. and accountability: • • • Authority is a manager's formal and legitimate right to make decisions. and allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes. Delegation: Delegation is the process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below them. or. the Production Manager may have the line authority to decide whether and when a new machine is needed but the Controller demands that a Capital Expenditure Proposal is submitted first.clearly defined line of authority in the organization that includes all employees Authority. Many organizations enlarge jobs or rotate assigned tasks to provide greater challenges. For instance. Chain of command: The chain of command is the unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in an organization. responsibility. o o Unity of Command . tiny. Responsibility means an employee's duty to perform assigned task or activities. a legal department may have functional authority to interfere in any activity that could have legal consequences.one employee is held accountable to only one supervisor Scalar principle . With too much specialization. Accountability means that those with authority and responsibility must report and justify task outcomes to those above them in the chain of command. This authority would not be functional but it would rather be staff authority if such interference is "advice" rather than "order". Delegation can improve flexibility to meet customers’ needs and adaptation to competitive environments.

3. 5. 2. 8.The location of decision making authority near top organizational levels. Centralization.by common skills and work tasks Divisional . Span of management Factors influencing larger span of management. Approach options include. 4. It is not a real authority in the sense that a staff manager does not order or instruct but simply advises. recommends. 2. 5. Subordinates are concentrated in a single location. Decentralization . decentralization. and counsels in the staff specialists' area of expertise and is responsible only for the quality of the advice (to be in line with the respective professional standards etc) It is a communication relationship with management.departments are independent providing functions for a central core breaker Importance of organizing: • • • Organizations are often troubled by how to organize.to accomplish specific tasks Network . Support systems and personnel are available for the managers.Staff authority is granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. program or geographical location Matrix .common product. 1. Formalization . Departmentalization: The basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into total organizations. 4. 7. 1.The location of decision making authority near lower organizational levels. It has an influence that derives indirectly from line authority at a higher level. Functional . Little time is required in non-supervisory activities such as coordination with other departments or planning.combination of Functional and Divisional Team . Subordinates are highly trained and need little direction in performing tasks. and formalization: • • • Centralization . Managers' personal preferences and styles favor a large span. Rules and procedures defining task activities are available. Work performed by subordinates is stable and routine. particularly when a new strategy is developed Changing market conditions or new technology requires change Organizations seek efficiencies through improvements in organizing 32 . 6.The written documentation used to direct and control employees. Subordinates perform similar work tasks. 3.

So we begin by having a look at the sort of things which are taking place all around us. leading and activating people . commanding. conducting separation interviews are some of the means for controlling the personnel management function. Directing is something all of us do throughout our lives. whom to marry. action and operation are adjusted to pre-determined plans and standard through control. the enterprise which employs us. the community in which we live. is possible through proper direction. They are often extremely important decisions. The decisions taken. organizing and directing the various activities of the personnel management. but there is much common ground. choosing between alternative medical treatments such as drugs or surgery. the performance is to be verified in order to know that thee personnel functions are performed in conformity with the plans and directions.Personnel management function should also be co-ordinate with other functions of management like management of material. We all make decisions which affect ourselves and our family.The basic function of personnel management at any level is motivating. Thus. direction is an important managerial function in building sound industrial and human relations besides securing employee contributions.The willing and effective co-operation of employees for the attainment of organizational goals. What kind of an education. what kind of trade or profession. of what is happening. Very basic is an understanding of what is going on. Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. which affect the people with whom we come in contact.Directing: The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan . starting with those who direct their own companies and larger organizations. of the problems of the day. Tapping the maximum potentialities of the people is possible through motivation and command. all these are decisions which we make and which have to be made again and again as we direct the course of our lives within the choices open to us. Here we are discussing the work of managers and administrators. directing morale surveys. Auditing training programs. The personnel manager has to co-ordinate various managers at different levels as far as personnel functions are concerned . by those who head enterprises and by those who govern. 33 . indeed the country in which we wish to live and the kind of government we prefer. machine and money. verifying and comparing of the actual with the plans. Thus. whether to change one's job. Controlling: After planning. affect more people and greater resources than do those taken by ourselves in the course of our daily and private lives. what kind of school. identification of deviations if any and correcting of identified deviations. analyzing labor turnover records. Controlling also involves checking.

Other ongoing staffing responsibilities involve planning for new or changing positions and reviewing current job analyses and job descriptions to make sure they accurately reflect the current position. the first of the seven HR functions to be discussed. In large organizations. or demotion of an employee. an employee's leaving) within the organization usually determines a need to hire a new employee. Promotions and Transfers: A department official may promote or transfer a qualified staff member in h is/her department to a vacant position within his/her department. or both . the job description can be referenced for specific job related qualifications to provide more detail when advertising the position-either internally. assuming all Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) requirements are met.g. Demotion: The permanent movement of a staff member from one position in one job class to a position in another job class of decreased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a lower salary range. Transfer: The permanent lateral movement of a staff member from one position to another position in the same or another job class assigned to the same salary range. externally. The University Human Resources 34 . From there. however all staff members of the department must be made aware of the vacant position and be given consideration.. Someone (e. a department manager) or some event (e. Reclassification may result in a promotion. the department. Reclassification: The permanent movement of a position's title and/or salary grade assignment.Not only must the HR department attract qualified applicants through job postings or other forms of advertising. an employee requisition must be submitted to the HR department that specifies the job title. The final say in selecting the candidate will probably be the line manager's.. Transfer & Promotions: Promotion: The permanent movement of a staff member from a position in one job class to a position in another job class of increased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a higher salary range.Staffing: Both the job description and the job specification are useful tools for the staffing process. without posting of the vacancy through the Employment Opportunities Bulletin. but it also assists in screening candidates' resumes and bringing those with the proper qualifications in for an interview. and the date the employee is needed. transfer.g.

Demotions: A department official may demote a staff member by reassigning him/her to another position. A notice of all jobs available (Employment Opportunities Bulletin) will be posted weekly on campus bulletin boards and on the Human Resources Webpage. 35 . particularly if a staff member is being forced to seek another job due to circumstances beyond his/her control or if an internal departmental promotion or transfer is involved). A staff member may request a demotion to start training in another occupation. (b) Has been employed in his/her current position for a minimum period of six (6) consecutive months (the Director of Human Resources may approve exceptions to this provision. or for other reasons. Promotion and Transfer Opportunities Program: The purpose of the Promotion and Transfer Opportunities Program is to enhance the career advancement opportunities of staff members by providing each staff member the opportunity to apply and receive consideration for promotion or transfer. on the approval of the Director of Human Resources. to apply disciplinary action for misconduct. In the event the Director of Human Resources approves a promotion or transfer prior to completion of the 6 months probationary period and the staff member is hired into a new position. or for other reasons. a new 6 months probationary period is established. All staff position vacancies must be listed with the University Human Resources Department for five working days as outlined in the University's Staff Employment Policy Exceptions may be allowed for promotion/transfers of current hourly or regular staff within the employing department. (c) Has a satisfactory record of performance in his/her current position. A staff member's expressed interest in a position will not jeopardize his/her current position or future opportunities. Staff members who meet the following requirements may make application and be considered for a promotion or transfer: (a) Meets the minimum qualifications for the job or has clearly demonstrated the ability to perform the job. to a level at which he/she will be able to meet performance requirements. A staff member who wishes to apply for one of these vacant positions must do so through the University Human Resources Department. or by reclassifying the staff member's position. to continue employment when a layoff is imminent.Department will determine if the staff member is qualified for the position before a commitment to transfer or promote the individual is made.

whichever is the higher amount. Transfer or Demotion Authority: The Director of Human Resources is responsible for insuring that the Promotion. or demotions must have the prior approval of the Director of Human Resources. Transfer or Demotion Policy is uniformly and equitably administered. and compliance with University policies. etc. the employee's employment record and job performance. The new pay rate shall be determined by consideration of the circumstances related to the demotion. Such scheduling should be at a time when it will cause the least disruption of work and may be limited to a reasonable number of interviews by his/her supervisor. This approval is required for review of the nomination. Transfer or Demotion Promotion: When a staff member is promoted to a position of increased responsibility or complexity of duties requiring a change of title and having a higher salary range. Pay Rate Adjustments upon Promotion.A staff member who makes application for a promotion or transfer may be required to take jobspecific testing. and provided that funds are available. Transfer: In order to discourage indiscriminate transfers. or may be adjusted to an appropriate level within the new salary range as agreed upon by the department official concerned (chair or director) and the Assistant Vice President Human Resources. is not eligible for a base salary increase. Time that is approved by the supervisor for interviews is not docked or otherwise charged against accrued leave. however. and the same salary range. he/she will receive a salary adjustment either to the entry level of the salary range of the new position or to a salary rate which is at least 3. A staff member is not required to notify his/her present supervisor when applying for a promotion or transfer. or his/her designee prior to any commitment being made and prior to the effective date of the proposed change of status. Normal notice is two weeks. if within the salary range of the new position. a staff member's salary rate may not exceed the maximum salary rate for the new class. during regular work hours. transfers. the staff member must have the approval of his/her present supervisor if he/she schedules appointments. Promotion. job hopping. A supervisor may not limit the number of interviews scheduled outside of the regular work schedule of the staff member. Demotion: Upon demotion or downward reclassification of a staff member's current position. However. a staff member's salary may remain unchanged. and unfair competition between departments. interviews. a staff member who transfers laterally to another position having the same or a different title. and subject to the approval of the appropriate Vice President or the President. Involved. availability of funds. All promotions. The effective date of a promotion or transfer will be determined jointly by the two departments.5% above the staff member's salary before promotion. 36 .

stooping. and a rainy day means a days wage is lost. Construction workers often work with potentially dangerous tools and equipment amidst a clutter of building materials. and many work over 40 hours a week. Safety is one of the most dynamic areas of the construction business. bending. about 1 in 5 construction workers worked 45 hours or more a week. or hearing. such as gloves and hardhats. Consequently. Workers who do roofing. weekends. some work on temporary scaffolding or at great heights and in bad weather. In 2002. employees wear safety clothing. Sometimes the contractors had insurance and would pay the medical bills. and sheet metal work experienced the highest injury rates. In 2002. siding. Construction workers may sometimes work evenings. but occasionally some would not: Workers complain saying that the contractors pay workers from the money they get from developers. Exposure to weather is common because much of the work is done outside or in partially enclosed structures. They also may be required to lift and carry heavy objects. use the money to buy their own houses and cars and they don’t pay their laborers.3 rates for the entire private sector.Temporary Assignments: Assuming other duties for a brief temporary period of time does not constitute a promotion and generally would not entitle the employee to additional compensation. as day laborers and an injury can be double jeopardy for the worker. Probably this is one among the many unresolved complaints of 37 . To avoid injury. And while safety on job sites has come a long way. and some when they get paid. which is significantly higher than the 5. because without work. individuals placed in an acting status or who are required to assume significant additional responsibilities for an extended period of time may be entitled to a temporary salary increase upon approval by the Vice President and/or Chancellor. employers increasingly emphasize safe working conditions and work habits that reduce the risk of injuries.1 per 100 fulltime construction workers. Many South Asians are employed in the construction industry. In response. and holidays to finish a job or take care of an emergency. and sometimes devices to protect their eyes. and working in cramped quarters. many people still die on construction sites every day. mouth. A day laborer is hired by the day. they are more prone to injuries than are workers in other jobs. However. Construction work is dangerous. Working Conditions: Most employees in this industry work full time. cases of work-related injury and illness were 7. Workers in this industry need physical stamina because the work frequently requires prolonged standing. he doesn’t get paid.

this exploitation of undocumented and low wage-workers is by no means limited to the South Asians. It is always a problem in terms of the power that they have to challenge unfair decisions made by their employers. Their access to justice and remedies when they are treated unfairly has always been a difficult issue. It is part of a larger pattern and South Asian community activists are striving to join forces with other workers. Low wages and long hours are endemic. Immigrant communities are always at risk for discrimination. Dominican. gas station attendants. It is equally widespread among Mexican. The conditions are very bad because many of the workers don’t have documentation. frequently they don’t speak English (many a times not even the national language) and they are not necessarily aware of their rights as workers either.almost the entire worker class from janitors to street vendors. which have even a higher proportion of blue-collar workers. crossing the cultural and racial divide. domestic workers and restaurant staff. So on concluding we will just do the same. New immigrants are often concentrated in low wage industries. However. 38 . To understand any working condition better we must know about the earnings of the concerned sector. Hispanic and other immigrant communities.

The most valuable resources of any establishment are its employees. Earlier. workplace safety. The key functions of human resource management include recruiting people. some of the benefits of human resource management have been explained. The benefits of these functions have been discussed here in detail: 39 . as they play a crucial role in the accomplishment of the aims and objectives of any business. human resource management was confined to paperwork related to hiring and payment of the staff in an organization. human resource management can now be described as all the procedures required for the management of the people working in an organization. motivating them as well as workplace communication. training them.Benefits of Human Resource Management: The benefits of human resource management are numerous. However. Good human resource management strategies make a lot of difference in the output given by the employees. and much more. performance appraisals. The last few decades have seen drastic changes in the human resource management strategies employed by companies. In this article.

Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. Performance appraisals taken from time to time also help in motivating the employees. they also provide training to the employees according to the requirements of the organization. The management team communicates with the employees. upgrade and update skills throughout working life. Performance Appraisals: Human resource management encourages every individual in the organization. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge. all the necessary information regarding their performances and also defines their respective roles from time to time. and performance. the contract of an employee with the organization is developed. Based on these two factors. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. They design the criteria suitable for a specific job description. occupation or profession. The human resource managers work out plans and strategies of hiring the right kind of people. documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. In addition to the basic training required for a trade. and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. to work according to his potential and also helps him increase his potential. When required. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. observers of the labor-market recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. An organization cannot build a good team of working professionals without the help of a good human resource management team.Recruitment and Training: This is one of the most important responsibilities of the human resource management team. using the actual tools. This helps the employee to form an outline of their anticipated goals in much clearer terms and thereby. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training and development. Their responsibilities also include formulating the obligations of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him. helps them execute the goals with best possible efforts. skills. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job: • • On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation. capacity. equipment. Training differs from exercise in that people may dabble in exercise as an occasional activity for fun. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what 40 . Training has specific goals of improving one's capability.

it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individual’s performance. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. For this reason. In such a scenario. They organize business meetings. investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured. Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations. 41 . Any organization. A good work environment is one of the benefits employees can get from human resource management. without a proper setup for human resource management is bound to suffer from serious problems while managing its regular activities. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. A good environment can bring out the best in an employee. a lot of stress is given these days for the setup of an effective human resource management system. Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs.you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Maintaining Work Atmosphere: The performance of an individual in an organization is largely driven by the work atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. A congenial atmosphere gives the employees job satisfaction as well. the effectiveness of management is recognized as one of the determinants of organizational success. Managing Disputes: There are several issues on which disputes may arise between the employees and the managers in an organization. seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in order to establish relationships with other business sectors. Sometimes. if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development. it is the human resource department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out the issues in an effective manner. the human resource department plays an active role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organization too. Therefore. In organizational development (OD). Developing Public Relations: The responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the human resource management to a great extent.

The term 'leadership' is often used almost interchangeably with 'management' Leadership which deals with emotions is an important component of management which is about rational thinking. constraints and interests Identify which new skills and knowledge you want to develop Research career opportunities Formulate a careers action plan with contingencies Up to 5 years ahead Check the careers action plan for realism From 5 to 10 years ahead Long-term planning These two cycles of short-term and long-term planning run in parallel and should be reviewed regularly. personal goals and constraints. values. To enhance the skills. knowledge.What management development includes: • • • structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills executive education: which might range from courses for (perhaps prospective) junior managers or team leaders o Team Leading o First Line Management o Management and Leadership o Strategic Management and Leadership o MSc/MA in management or Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees. it is from these competencies that managers can be assessed and development needs determined. The Management Standards Centre set out management competencies for management. Career planning Career planning incorporates short-term and long-term career goals. You don't always have control over outside factors such as health and family issues. but as far as possible. 42 .. your planning process should incorporate the following stages: Short-term planning Assess your skills. knowledge and liabilities to improve organizational mechanisms. these competencies are now part of UK management qualifications.

for orienting new employees. and. Besides being used as a means of management training. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track. finally. as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives : for simply staffing jobs. job rotation can also be used as a form of job enrichment. where they are expected to perform a variety of duties. with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility. and have a variety of skills and competencies. Fulfill agencies' goals for a dynamic and effective workforce Job Rotation: Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization. and reducing boredom or burnout. increasing challenge. for preventing job boredom. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement is defined as increasing the number of tasks a worker performs. job rotation goes beyond this. While both interventions perform essentially the same service of providing employees with a varied set of skills. Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities.Career Development: Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. for training employees and enhancing their career development. by adding increased responsibilities. In this process: The purpose of career development is to: • • • Enhance each employee's current job performance. and is also sometimes referred to as ``horizontal job 43 . Job rotation is often confused with cross training. usually for a management position.

job sharing is used by parents or adults caring for their parents. These two interventions may be used in conjunction with each other. Job enlargement and job enrichment can both be used with plateaued workers or workers who are experiencing burnout. and affords employees a better balance between their work and personal lives. and communication among themselves and other departments in the organization. or more marketable in the job search.loading'' . The key to creating this situation is to enrich jobs so they provide five core characteristics: task variety. Job enrichment allows you to expand your responsibilities or change your role to develop new competencies without leaving your current position or the organization altogether. and is also called ``vertical job loading''. One example of the advantage over flextime situations is that with flextime. Benefits to the employer include having ``two heads instead of one''. autonomy and feedback. and down time due to vacation or sickness is reduced. making him or her more valuable to the company. Employees pursuing further education or a second career may also use job sharing. duties. task significance. Most often. because the job share partners cover for each other. or with other career development interventions such as job rotation and temporary assignments. to co-ordinate hours. Phased Retirement: 44 . a sense of significance and information concerning performance. task identity. The two employees share the duties and responsibilities. These two employees must also work closely together. and with especially high achievers. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment involves increasing a worker's responsibility and control over his or her work. Job enrichment is also used as an effective motivational technique. parents may still require extended day care hours. According to this perspective. Job Sharing: With job sharing. a full-time job is split between two employees. the employees will be internally motivated to high levels of performance. Be careful not to confuse job enlargement with job enrichment. Job sharing offers advantages over part-time work in that employees are able to maintain their professional status as well as some of their job benefits. as well as the salary and benefits of the job. retaining valued and experienced employees. Both interventions provide the employee with increased skills. if a job provides a sense of responsibility. which will be discussed later. and with management.

and structure of organizations so that it can better adapt to new technologies. and more social support. although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. workers gradually taper their work schedules until they reach full retirement. The employer benefits by retaining valued talent and minimizing labor shortages. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics. values. lowering the risk of economic insecurity. Compensation: Job Evaluation: 45 . Other career development interventions such as flextime and job sharing are typically incorporated into phased retirement arrangements. Lewin founded the "Research Center for Group Dynamics" at MIT. it is referred to OD as a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs. planning. The joint TIHR journal Human Relations was an early journal in the field. Benefits to employees include a greater sense of control over the transition from work to retirement. Organization development is a growing field that is responsive to many new approaches including Positive Adult Development. During phased retirement. attitudes. which moved to Michigan after his death. especially when used as the name of a department within an organization. OD can involve interventions in the organization's "processes. The term "Organization Development" is often used interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness. Organization development: Organization development (OD) is a planned. organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and viability. OD is neither "anything done to better an organization" nor is it "the training function of the organization". In the UK. RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL). Institutionally. and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was important in developing systems theories. Kurt Lewin (1898 . from which the T-group and group-based OD emerged. and challenges.1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD. and self-analysis. markets. system improvement." using behavioral science knowledge as well as organizational reflection. Phased retirement is one intervention that workers and employers can use at the latter end of the career cycle.Organizations typically devote far more energy to recruiting and retraining than to phasing out workers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences now a the leading journal in the field. Retirees may work part time and serve as mentors or trainers to their successors.

If an employee feels underpayed. designed to enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of one job relative to others. Don't ignore their concern. Make sure they know you will consider your options for solving the 46 . where jobs are taken as a whole and ranked against each other. It does not directly determine pay levels. whole job ranking. Incentive programs or Appreciation programs can assist you in helping your employees enjoy their job a bit more. Incentive Program Basics: Every company needs a little extra motivation now and then. Ask the employee what resolution they suggest. physical strength required. Steps to building a good program: Communication ~ Pick a Reward ~ Suggestions ~ Goals Communication: Incentives on their own aren't enough. have a look at your pay-scale. Most factors that contribute to this job pressure. If an employee comes to you with a concern. get directly to the heart of the matter. This scheme evaluates job responsibilities in the light of three major factors . but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs. When evaluations are carried out on all hourly paid personnel the technique’s uses include establishing relative wage rates for different tasks.Job evaluation is a practical technique. An employee must know they can discuss work issues with 'the boss' without fear of being ignored. and happy employees are more productive and work better with each other and your clients. Job Evaluation is concerned with measuring the demands the job places on its holder. or tell them it will pass. are assessed and the result is a numerical estimate of the total job pressure. an Incentive Program is not the answer for motivation. appear dismissive. In the points system various aspects or parts of the job such as education and experience required to perform the job are assessed and a points value awarded .g. The two most common methods of job evaluation that have been used are first. Before considering an Incentive Program.know how. or hearing about it later from someone whom it doesn't concern. The second method is one of awarding points for various aspects of the job. problem solving and accountability. e. knowledge of mathematics required. patronized. even senior management.the higher the educational requirements of the job the higher the points scored. It is possible to use it for all grades of personnel. Opening up the lines of communication is the major goal for managers and upper management.

suggest an incentive program and make a list of possible rewards. Incentives and rewards will be completely disregarded if your employees believe management doesn't care what they think. productivity. Pay attention to the voting. cash is rarely good motivation. People who are happy while at work enjoy their work more and everyone benefits. is sometimes the most sincere reward Treat your employees with respect. and you may have other issues to resolve with your employees before implementing the program. especially in a personal note.staff and workers . not to spend more. but something that can't be tossed in with a paycheck. Some you can use to make your own list for your employees to choose. but in another be seen as demeaning A program for rewarding employees who do volunteer work outside of the company Staff meetings anywhere but the office. There are only so many gold stars you can give out before a gold star doesn't mean anything anymore. The least expensive motivational tool is giving your employee more say in his or her assignments. Work towards open communication between all your departments . To motivate them you need more. Suggestions: • • • • • A simple 'Thank You' .situation. few care. Give your employees more freedom in their work environment and make changes only when real problems begin. It may win you a new hire. Giving them a 'cute' reward might go over well in one business.appreciation of good work.and try including workers in management meetings to show there are no 'secret agendas'. Find out what procedures they think could be changed for efficiency. If a company pays its workers fairly. If few employees vote. Below is a list of some possible reward ideas. Have your employees vote to determine which rewards they would like to receive. They will see the incentives as a carrot on a stick. but current and long-standing employees prefer appreciation and rewards which don't seem like a paycheck or bonus. Pick a Reward: Once your communications are open. Think of how many people consider a year-end bonus as part of their normal pay. or ease and see if it's possible to make those changes. Don't throw the rewards around aimlessly. possibly a nice diner or cafe Set up a secret pal for the holidays or any employee special days 47 .

There is sometimes a limit beyond which employees. 48 . Rent out a skating rink. notepads and mugs with the company name. Remember. enjoyable work atmosphere can be the best motivation. perqs or perks) are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. production. jackets with the company name or logo. and the company suffer. Setting a series of smaller goals to reach a higher goal will sometimes be best. let the group with the goal choose the event Casual lunch with staff to gauge how things are going within their unit Setting Goals: The first rule to setting a goal for your employees is make it obtainable. Have a gift delivered to each employee the week of their birthday Have employee 'field trips' at least once a year. Have employees put the name of a fellow employee who went beyond the call to help them. and work with them to decide if a new goal is simply too high. shirts. most kinds of employee benefits are taxable to at least some degree.paper or electronic greeting card Event tickets when a goal is reached. those are better for your clients One-on-one meetings if an employee seems unhappy Employment anniversary cards . Keep in mind. Rewarding the person with the most sales may pit the sales staff against each other. setting the wrong goal can backfire. or reserve tables at a great restaurant Reward perfect attendance with time off certificates Praise a job well done Give company swag . A positive.hats. while rewarding the sales staff for customer service and working with each other may make the group. Draw a name monthly for a reward Start a birthday program. raising the mark too quickly or in too large steps will only discourage your employees. Where an employee exchanges (cash) wages for some other form of benefit. Don't give pens. more productive. Let your employees get a bit comfortable on every level they reach. bowling alley. In most countries. as a whole.• • • • • • • • • • Make a 'Thanks for your help' box. this is generally referred to as a 'salary sacrifice' arrangement. perquisites. Fringe benefits: Employee benefits and benefits in kind (also called fringe benefits.

Companies need their employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information. "The hallmark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions. dental. motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. hotel stays.). to be open to others' feelings. They may also be given first chance at job promotions when vacancies exist. rather than as interchangeable parts. disability income protection. retirement benefits. leisure activities on work time (golf. as well as vice versa. The term perqs or perks is often used colloquially to refer to those benefits of a more discretionary nature. EMPLOYEE AND LABOUR RELATIONS 49 . and other specialized benefits. Cohesive and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent making it has become a concern of many companies to improve the job-oriented interpersonal skills of employees. funding of education. It originated in the 1920s' Hawthorne studies. profit sharing. allowances for lunch. free refreshments. in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structures Upwards communication. to be able to interpret others' emotions. The teaching of these skills to employees is referred to as "soft skills" training. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies. life etc. sick leave. By acquiring these skills. social security. tuition reimbursement." The following are some points: Natural groups. vacation (paid and non-paid). The purpose of the benefits is to increase the economic security of employees. by which communication is two way. Common perks are take-home vehicles. and to be able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions. stationery. perks are given to employees who are doing notably well and/or have seniority. daycare. Often. those in management positions and the customer can maintain more compatible relationships. which examined the effects of social relations. the employees. group insurance (health. and—when multiple choices exist—first choice of such things as job assignments and vacation scheduling. in particular workplace groups. Human Relations: Human Relations refers to those researchers of organizational development who study the behavior of people in groups. from worker to chief executive.Some of these benefits are: housing (employer-provided or employer-paid). etc.).

Union-shop arrangements permit employers to hire non-union workers contingent upon their joining the union once they are hired. Today. The contract defines employment related issues such as compensation and benefits. Under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act. management's rights. job security. Collective bargaining involves management and the union trying to resolve any issues peacefully-before the union finds it necessary to strike or and/or management decides to institute . The Taft-Hartley Act gives employers the right to file complaints against the union and to express their views concerning unions. and increased wages. Some of the outcomes of union involvement include better medical plans. Those who join unions usually do so for one or both of two reasons.Just as human resources developers make sure employees have proper training.to increase wages and/or to eliminate conditions. Not only do HR managers deal with union organizations. 50 . the contract. discipline procedures. unions remain a controversial topic. there are groups of employees organized as unions to address and resolve employment-related issues. the closed-shop arrangement states employees (outside the construction industry) are not required to join a union when they are hired. individuals' rights. and contract length. but they are also responsible for resolving issues-namely. Unions have been around since the time of the American Revolution. extended vacation time. working conditions.

the opportunity to determine if it is a worthwhile investment and strategy for creating a competitive advantage. explains the critical reasons for measuring HR's efforts. and perceptions with assessments. Traditionally. and reductions. concepts need to be replaced with evidence. explains the critical reasons for measuring HR's efforts. and employee commitment as outcomes of HR efforts. HR professionals could talk generally and conceptually about employee morale. The framework proposed does not merely explain the cost for each major HR activity. but demonstrates the value of the activity and.Effectiveness of HRM: This article examines the strategic role of HR and its main practices. hence. expansions. to utilize information to increase investments in specific HR strategies and eliminate ineffective investments. and to serve as a critical resource in strategic business planning and budget 51 . and proposes a framework for assessing HR. justify budget allocations. tremendous emphasis has been placed on making HR practitioners strategic business partners and a value-added source within organizations. justify budget allocations. The framework has proven its effectiveness at many companies. and proposes a framework for assessing HR. determine potential areas for investments. determine potential areas for investments. the HR function was often viewed as an expense-generator and administrative function and not as a value-added partner. and be more accountable for each dollar spent within the organization. describes the outcomes of the respective category of HR practices. Ultimately. to show how HR creates value. organizations will be able to utilize the information to determine how particular HR practices correlate with better business results. and reductions. ideas with results. Ultimately. The framework proposed does not merely explain the cost for each major HR activity. the opportunity to determine whether it is a worthwhile investment and strategy for creating a competitive advantage. describes the outcomes of respective categories of HR practices. turnover. What value does the HR function contribute to the bottom line of the organization? Over the years. organizations will be able to utilize the information to determine how particular HR practices correlate with better business results. but demonstrates the value of the activity and. This article examines the strategic role of HR and its main practices. Ulrich (1997b) reiterated that to fulfill the business partnership role of HR. and be more accountable for each dollar spent within the organization. Furthermore. expansions. hence.

Advantages of Strategic Human Resource Management: There are many advantages and benefits that strategic human resource management offers. goals and the overall approach of companies. the importance of human resources still holds the key to the development and progress of a company." According to Wright & McMahan. A new and constantly evolving branch in the field of human resource management. the human resource department does much more than just recruiting employees for the company. Strategic human resource management is a new approach.allocation. The definitions of the term 'Strategic Human Resource Management' as per Miles & Snow. 1984. human resource is given due importance while planning goals and long term strategies. core competence and other goals. "A human resource system that is tailored to the demands of the business strategy. Using the human resource effectively in order to give the company a competitive advantage and completing the set targets. Strategic Human Resource Management refers to: "The pattern of planned human resource activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals. is mentioned below. The companies include Fortune 500 and smaller companies from retail. This point is considered during the planning phase and included in the policies devised for meeting goals. transportation. and financial industries. 1992. which are the driving force that motivate the employees to move ahead. in terms of profits. 52 . The values inherited and the policies devised by firms are based on the mission statements. The skills that are necessary to meet the organizational goals are developed in employees. are some of the priorities. The mission statements reflect the strategies. Strategic Human Resource Management: In this age of rapid technological development. Strategic Human Resource Management deals with utilizing human resources in a manner that enables a firm to reap long term benefits. Nowadays." In this management system. which helps in aligning the skills present in the employees with the goals to be achieved by the company.

• • • • • • • • It helps analyze the opportunities and threats that are crucial. It helps keep a check whether the expectations of employees are addressed properly. The resistance from institutions such as the labor unions. If implemented efficiently. The need for competitive intelligence. if strategic HRM is implemented properly. from the point of view of the company. are created if strategic HRM is not implemented properly. • • • • • • • • Resistance to change from the bottom line workers. thereby enabling the management to take appropriate measures. 53 . It helps determine the weaknesses and strengths of the company. strategic human resource management helps in improving the productivity of employees and utilizes their expertise in meeting the company goals. The changing market scenario which in turn creates pressure on the effective implementation of strategic HRM. Limitations of Strategic Human Resource Management: The process of strategic HRM is a complicated one and barriers in the growth of employees and in turn the company. It is possible to develop strategies and have a vision for the future. The attrition rate can be reduced. which is of utmost importance in strategic planning. is fulfilled by means of implementing strategic human resource management. Changes that take place in the organizational structure. Conflict among the employees over the issue of authority and the related fear of victimization. Development and maintenance of competency among employees. Interdepartmental conflict and lack of vision among the senior management in implementing the HR policies. Following are some commonly observed problems. It also performs the important task of motivating employees. The diversity of workforce that makes it difficult for the management to handle them accordingly. Business surplus is achieved by making the employees competent enough to deliver the goods. Inability of the management in communicating the vision and mission of the company clearly to the employees. is the most important benefit offered by strategic HRM.

These employment guidelines are usually reflected in the HRM policies. there will be a need to communicate to employees their terms and conditions of employment. As guides rather than as hard and fast rules. requiring interpretation and judgment in their use. The HRM policies are general statements that serve to guide decision making. Some potential policy statements that affect HRM would be: the provision of a safe place for employees to work the encouragement of all employees to achieve as much of their human potential as possible the provision of remuneration that will encourage a high level of productivity ensuring that current employees are considered first for any vacancy that might occur. 54 . policies are somewhat flexible. The provision for voluntary and involuntary redundancy.HRM POLICIES: Whatever the size of the organization and however the HRM function is structured and located.

training. screening. rewarding and appraising. These include: • • • • • • • Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each employee’s job).How HRM functions are changing business environment? Human Resources Management is defined as policies and practices Involved in carrying out the “people” or human resource aspects of a management position. Planning labour needs and recruiting job candidates Recruitment Selecting job candidates Orienting and training new employees Managing wages and salaries (compensating employees) Providing incentives and benefits 55 . including recruiting.

employee needs and societal concerns.e. counseling. they did not have any they are now going to receive substantially more attention. Earlier. The new technology in the areas like testing and interviewing began to emerge the promotion. disciplining) Training and developing managers Building employee commitment The scope of HRM has changed over the fast few years. has somewhat declined in terms of relative emphasis. i. trained and committed employees. the changing organizational demands. Employee benefits and services and worker’s health and safety have always been important personal concerns. Labour relations. The job consisted largely of ensuring that procedures were followed. Some HRM Sub-functions seems to be breaking away from HRM. its knowledge. wage and salary administration. while the importance of appraisal. they did not have any prominence in the past. Manpower planning. Today’s its firm’s workforce. the managerial philosophies. management and administration. this Change has been relatively slow in comparison to the changes in their area of business. That means an upgrading of HR’s traditional role. HR’s role is shifting from protector and screener to strategic partner and change agent. other seems to be new sub-areas while still other seem to be changing only in term of their relative emphasis and degree of importance. Managerial and organizational development. commitment. Today. they are now going to receive substantially more attention. the growing importance of the functions. public relations and plant security are ‘outgoing’ HRM sub areas which have been taken away from HRM department. 56 . Training and managerial development and personal research have become increasingly important today.• • • • Appraising performance Communicating (interviewing. And its HR’s job to build that competitive advantages. The metamorphosis of “personal” to “Human Resources” reflects that.not machine are firms. skills and training that provides the competitive advantages for world class companies. personal people first took over hiring and firing from supervisors. Many of these changes depend on he size of the organization in which the HRM functions occurs. organizational are incoming areas. ran the payroll department and administrated benefits plans. In today’s flattened downsized and highly performing organizations. However.

The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent. Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows: 57 . highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Role of HRM is becoming all the more important.Emerging Trends in Human Resource Management: NEW TRENDS IN HR Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. The name of the game today in business is personnel. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years. There is a need for multi skill development. management cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. This calls for future skill mapping through proper HRM initiatives. Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems. Personnel directors are the new corporate heroes.

Xerox in photocopiers. etc. HR Managers should do the following things to ensure success• • • • • • Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. Xerox. Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training. HR Managers today are focusing attention on the followinga) Policies. e) Quality Consciousness. These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free product or services at minimum cost. b) Motivation. 3M in adhesives.g.Prepare workers to accept technological changes by clarifying doubts. Organizations now need to prepare themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the top management. organizations have introduced sixsigma practices. To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty. Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. development.g. make people feel like winners. recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult. Kodak. 58 . organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower. equity and consensus. and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable HR policies. Lay off workers in a smooth way explaining facts to unions. Six.HR policies based on trust. Due to the new trends in HR. in a nutshell the HR manager should treat people as resources. initiative and enthusiasm. e. especially in India. counseling.Commitment to quality in all aspects of personnel administration will ensure success. d) Change agent. Therefore by creating an enabling culture. reward them equitably.g. workers and other affected groups e. openness.Fair treatment of people and prompt redress of grievances would pave the way for healthy work-place relations.• • • The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000 focus more on people centric organizations. more particularly on training. IBM. Telco in trucks etc.sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement. etc Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area. With the increase of global job mobility. with renewed thrust on HR issues. c) Relations.Create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal. Decentralize operations and rely on self-managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times e. It has quickly commercialized ideas from its research labs. Motorola is famous for short product development cycles.

59 .

being the first to introduce many innovative products in India. we are now the number one brand and market leader and have a wide dealer’s network (more than 3000) throughout India.HISTORY OF NIRALI: Nirali started manufacturing in 1985. We have had a quality focused approach since inception with a wide range of products. With a team of over 150 employees. 60 .

seek out water and minerals from the soil – and internally cook the mixture with sunlight to produce glucose. Similarly in the food we eat. those that are most efficient are closest to the source. To foster this process we offer to publish the contributors name and photograph along with the recipe on our site additionally there are some cool surprising gifts to be won. and placement in most of the malls in the country. Or post it to us at our office address. We are expanding new manufacturing facilities with Italian technical know how and plan to capture premium market segments by introducing new and innovative products. so rush in your recipes and send it to us at niralicookware@vsnl. logic and research suggests that vegetarian food is the most efficient nutriment for the humans as plants form the base of our food chain.more than 10 million. It has been proven that off all energy sources. 61 . Plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. closest to the source of life itself. L. We at Nirali Subscribe to this… And dedicate this section to provide and invite vegetarian recipes from across the world.Today we enjoy a long track record of loyal satisfied customers . We have the first DuPont’s License in India since 1985 and are the only licensee to use Platinum coatings in the country. The Logic of being vegetarian! Like all vital energy on the planet ultimately comes from the sun-the center piece of our solar system and the source of all existence. Also is having been a supplier to the Indian Defense Forces for the past 20 years. FDA USA approved ISI India certification.com.N Engineering Works Pvt.the sun. Also.Ltd. the fundamental requirement for all living organisms.

Vasai (E) Dist. India Phone: 91-22-24315500 91-22-24379457 Fax: 91-22-24362543 Email: niralicookware@vsnl. Kaliandas Udyog Bhavan Near Century Bazar.Registered Office: 210. Worli Mumbai 400 025. Thane. Gaurai Pada.com 62 . India Factory: 54. Maharashtra. Vasai Taluka Industrial Estates Sector II.

products. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 3) Which type of training is given to the employees? Solution: Types of Employee Training: 1. No qualifications and/or skill is required. All new employees and transferring employees are provided with an appropriate introduction to their employment with to cover a basic understanding of the company’s history. The worker is trained in the company as per the manufacturing unit’s requirement. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 2) Induction & orientation are done by the HR department or by the concern department of the newly recruited employee? Solution: Induction & orientation are done by the HR department head of the newly recruited employee in the organization. For clerical job or accounting minimum qualification required is 12th or any other qualification related to the job profile.QUESTIONIARE: 1) What is the process of recruitment followed in the organization? Solution: In Nirali non-stick Cookware Company the recruitment process is as follows: For workers. policies and procedures. The aim is for new employees to be integrated into the work environment as soon as possible. 63 . 2.

Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Quality Circles.. Training can people to get along in the workplace. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also. 4. benchmarking. etc. and includes techniques to value diversity 5. 6. hazardous chemicals.3. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment. etc. today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. etc. It is paid fairly on the activity of an employee.. but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. etc. 4) On what basis is wage/salary paid to the employees? Solution: Wage/salary is given on the basis of the job of an individual employee. require basic training about quality concepts. 5) Does the wage/salary structure justify the hard work of the employee? 64 . repetitive activities. No incentives are given. 7. guidelines and standards for quality. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views.

They are given promotions. Gifts are given to the employees to motivate them. Benefits like: Maintaining work atmosphere. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. internal transfers. 9) How do you judge the performance of your employee & what are the benefits and you provide? Solution: The performance of the employee is judged on the individual employee as well as a team work also. Managing disputes. .Solution: YES. No partiality is done with any employee. Talent. 8) What type of methods do you follow for doing the performance appraisal? Solution: Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. 7) How is performance appraisal done in your organization? Solution: Performance appraisal is done fairly to all the employees in the organization. Promotions are given every year on the basis of Seniority as well as on the basis of skills too. As they all work as a team in the organization. wage/salary structure is justified. 65 . Employees are paid on the hard work done in the manufacturing unit at different levels & different departments. Maintaining public relations tec. All the employees are treated equally. bonus (once in a year). 6) How do you motivate employees when they are demotivated? Solution: Employees are motivated in every possible ways. skills. industrial relations among the employee & employer etc. coordination.

highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Humans are constantly seeking answers. a way of looking at things that can be applied to a variety of situations. It is about life not just happening but happening in an orderly way. More could be said about managing human effort. * Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. environmental resources. etc. Human Resource Management covers a wide range of topics. They must also be an effective 66 . and pursuing goals that bring desired results. * Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area. making plans. Over the years. and financial resources.CONCLUSION: Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. * Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training. This entry briefly touches the surface of a more than century-old discipline that affects every aspect of daily life. * Decentralize operations and rely on self-managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times. As a manager. one must be familiar with the laws regarding today’s work environment. and keep up to date on the new laws that develop. Indicated from the variety of topics discussed. Management provides insight into how this occurs. What management does is provide a framework. Individuals are continually confronted with decisions to be made given scarce resources. counseling. new questions about how life should be and can be. It is both simple and complex. This entry has endeavored to show the basics of the discipline and its application to everyday life. The greatest future challenge for the field will be the continued integration of management with other theories to address socially relevant issues as life becomes more complex and diverse. Each day presents new challenges. HR Managers should concentrate on the following areas to ensure success: * Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. development. The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent.

P.googloe. and alleviate conflict. in every conceivable way.com www.com BIBLIOGRAPHY: Kale Ahmed Subha Rao V.niralicookware@vsnl.communicator to able to delegate responsibility. They have to deal with hiring new employees.com www.com www. and terminating bad ones.wikipedia.citehr. WEBLIOGRAPHY: www. Michael 67 . Effective Human Resource Managers strive to make the work environment a healthy one.

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