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Kinematics

Kinematics

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08/31/2011

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Kinematics

Main article: Kinematics Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics devoted to the study of motion, but not the cause of the motion. As such it is concerned with the various types of motions. Two classes of motion covered by kinematics are uniform motion and non-uniform motion. A body is said to be in uniform motion when it travels equal distances in equal intervals of time (i.e. at a constant speed). For example, a body travels 5 km in 1 hour and another 5 km in the next hour, and so on continuously. Uniform motion is closely associated with inertia as described in Newton's first law of motion. However, most familiar types of motion would be non-uniform motion, as most bodies are constantly being acted upon by many different force simultaneously, as such they do not travel equal distances in equal intervals of time. For example, a body travels 2 km in 25 minutes but takes 30 minutes to travel the next 2 km. Types of motionThere are four basic types of motion in mechanical systems:

y y y

Rotary motion is turning round in a circle, such as a wheel turning. Linear motion is moving in a straight line, such as on a paper trimmer. Reciprocating motion is moving backwards and forwards in a straight line, as in cutting with a saw.

y

Oscillating motion is swinging from side to side, like a pendulum in a clock. Types of motion 



Simple harmonic motion ± (e.g. pendulum). Linear motion ± motion which follows a straight linear path, and whose displacement is exactly the same as its trajectory. 

   

Reciprocating (i.e. vibration) Brownian Motion (i.e. the random movement of particles) Circular motion (e.g. the orbits of planets) Rotary motion ± a motion about a fixed point ex. the wheel of a bicycle Curvilinear Motion ± It is defined as the motion along a curved path that may be planar or in three dimensions. 

[Rotational Motion ] - ( e . g .[ferris wheel ]) 

A simple harmonic oscillator is attached to the spring, and the other end of the spring is connected to a rigid support such as a wall. If the system is left at rest at the equilibrium position then there is

According to Newton's first law of motion. the net restoring force vanishes. external forces such as gravity and friction will cause objects to deviate from linear motion and can cause them to rest at a point.a restoringelastic force which obeys Hooke's law is exerted by the spring. According to Newton's first law of motion.[2]. objects that not subjected to forces will continue to move uniformly in a straight line indefinitely. Once the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position. made up of two parts: magnitude and direction.[ . objects that not subjected to forces will continue to move uniformly in a straight line indefinitely. the momentum of the mass does not vanish due to the impulse of the restoring force that has acted on it. the restoring force F is given by where F is the restoring elastic force exerted by the spring (in SI units: N).no net force acting on the mass. Uniform Linear motion. Under every-day circumstances.   Mathematically. At the equilibrium position. compressing the spring. As a result. Non Uniform Linear motion. until its velocity vanishes. it experiences a net restoring force. which varies with t (time). a restoring force which obeys Hooke's law tends to restore the system to equilibrium. whereby it will attempt to reach equilibrium position again. Under every-day circumstances. For any simple harmonic oscillator:  When the system is displaced from its equilibrium position. at x = 0. with constant velocity or zero acceleration. the velocity and acceleration should be described as vectors. A net restoring force then tends to slow it down. k is the spring constant (N·mí1). if the mass is displaced from the equilibrium position. The motion of a particle (a point-like object) along a line can be described by its position x. external forces such as gravity and friction will cause objects to deviate from linear motion and can cause them to rest at a point. the restoring force decreases. As long as the system has no energy loss. The direction part of these vectors is the same and is constant for linear motion.[1] Linear motion is the most basic of all the motions. Linear motion is the most basic of all the motions. For linear motion embedded in a higher-dimensional space. Therefore. However. simple harmonic motion is a type of periodicmotion. Linear motion is also called as rectilinear motion. with variable velocity or non-zero acceleration. the mass will continue to oscillate. An example of linear motion is that of a ball thrown straight up and falling back straight down. However.  Linear motion is motion along a straight line. and x is the displacement from the equilibrium position (in m). and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. The linear motion can be of two types. the mass continues past the equilibrium position. Thus. it accelerates and starts going back to the equilibrium position. When the mass moves closer to the equilibrium position.

Technically. includingreciprocating engines and pumps. which always have a finite time scale. with constant angular rate of rotation. The continuing rotation of the crankshaft drives the piston back up. which. The mathematical model of Brownian motion has several real-world applications. The vibrations felt when the engine is running are a side effect of the reciprocating motion of the pistons.[citation needed] A crank can be used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion. which ultimately propels the vehicle or does other useful work. as the crank and connecting-rod usually are not enclosed. also called reciprocation. is a repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth motion. the expansion of burning fuel in the cylinders periodically pushes thepiston down. which is often called a particle theory. and it is a limit of both simpler and more complicated stochastic processes (seerandom walk and Donsker's theorem). or conversely turn reciprocating motion into circular motion. with a changing rate of rotation. or non-uniform. it is often mathematical convenience rather than the accuracy of the models that motivates their use. the reciprocating motion produced by a rotating crank departs slightly from simple harmonic motion due to the changing angle of the connecting rod during the cycle. An often quoted example is stock market fluctuations. Mathematically. The two opposite motions that comprise a single reciprocation cycle are called strokes. which is converted into circular motion of the crankshaft. The rotation around a fixed axis of a three-dimensional body involves circular motion of its parts. This universality is closely related to the universality of the normal distribution. that is. inside an internal combustion engine (a type of reciprocating engine). ready for the next cycle.Reciprocating motion. rather. It can beuniform. particularly horizontal stationary engines and outside-cylindered steam locomotives. is an idealised approximation to actual random physical processes. This is because Brownian motion. Brownian motion (named after the botanist Robert Brown) or pedesis (from Greek: "leaping") is the presumably random drifting of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) or the mathematical model used to describe such random movements. however. For example. In physics. that is. It is found in a wide range of mechanisms. whose time derivative is everywhere infinite. Reciprocating motion is clearly visible in early steam engines. the . however. movements in share prices may arise due to unforeseen events which do not repeat themselves. through the connecting rod. The piston moves in a reciprocating motion. The equations describing circular motion of an object do not take size or geometry into account. Brownian motion is among the simplest of the continuous-time stochastic (or probabilistic) processes. turns the crankshaft. In both cases. circular motion is rotation along a circle: a circular path or a circular orbit. reciprocating motion is approximately sinusoidal simple harmonic motion.

The curved path can be in two dimensions (in a plane). you assume that it is uniform motion. the full generality of rotational motion is not usually taught in introductory physics classes. Uniform Motion If the velocity of an object is the same throughout the entire time. y In the examples you've done so far. Rotational motion. rotation around a fixed axis is typically taught in introductory physics courses after students have mastered linear motion. hammer throw). than for general rotational motion. In practice. an electron moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. are also simpler for rotation around a fixed axis. If two rotations are forced at the same time. they are entirely analogous to those oflinear motion along a single fixed direction. According to Euler's rotation theorem. it has a constant (AKA uniform) velocity. a racecar turning through a curve in a race track. since it is always the same. and in most questions you'll do for now. look at the diver jumping into the water that we saw in the previous chapter. or in three dimensions. The fixed axis hypothesis exclude the possibility of a moving axis. This type of motion is more complex thanrectilinear (straight-line) motion. For example. The kinematics and dynamics of rotation around a fixed axis of a rigid body are mathematically much simpler than those for free rotation of a rigid body. and cannot describe such phenomena as wobbling orprecession. simultaneous rotation around more than one axis at the same time is impossible. and for the forces on the parts of the object. . Uniform motion is the easiest kind of motion to describe and measure. The movement of any object can be described through the combination of translational motion of the object¶s center of mass and its rotational motion about that center of mass. Rotation around a fixed axis is a special case of rotational motion. Examples of circular motion include: an artificial satellite orbiting the Earth in geosynchronous orbit. Curvilinear motion is defined as motion that occurs when a particle travels along a curved path. y y You still use the same formula as for average velocity. the center of massof a body can be considered to undergo circular motion.motion of a point mass in a plane is assumed. and agear turning inside a mechanism. which is not true for free rotation of a rigid body. The expressions for the kinetic energy of the object.deals with the rotation of a body about its center of mass. a new axis of rotation will appear. a stone which is tied to a rope and is being swung in circles (cf. For these reasons.

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