Linking Words for essays

Giving examples
For example For instance Namely The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance. Namely refers to something by name. "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

Adding information
And In addition As well as Also Too Furthermore Moreover Apart from In addition to Besides Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. "We discussed training, education and the budget." Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing." You can use also with not only to give emphasis. "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition." We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this… As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence. "As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." "We are interested in costs as well as the competition." Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. "They were concerned too." "I, too, was concerned." Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to. "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." 1

Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making. "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

Summarising
In short In brief In summary To summarise In a nutshell To conclude In conclusion We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

Sequencing ideas
The former, … the latter Firstly, secondly, finally The first point is Lastly The following The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points."Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term." Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on. The following is a good way of starting a list. "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that Owing to / owing to the fact that Because Because of Since As 2

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks." If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that. "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." "We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive." Since / as Since and as mean because. "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result
Therefore So Consequently This means that As a result Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. "The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff." So is more informal.

Contrasting ideas
But However Although / even though Despite / despite the fact that In spite of / in spite of the fact that Nevertheless Nonetheless While 3

" (In spite of the fact that it was cold. "In theory." "Unlike in the UK. The following words are useful for developing linkage in your writing: When you want to add to your argument or emphasise a statement 4 . whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other.""He works hard. "Although it was cold. highlight differences. However. Nonetheless. despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. he doesn't earn much. she went out in shorts. but he went swimming nevertheless." Although. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb. "The sea was cold.) "The company is doing well." In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence. you must have two halves of a sentence. You will also be required to point out similarities." Academic writing Linking words When writing academic essays you will be expected to present coherent arguments by linking ideas together." "Taxes have gone up. they often don't have enough time. With these words. you must use the fact that. but in practice." Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to.Whereas Unlike In theory… in practice… But is more informal than however. mine are brown. teachers should prepare for lessons. the USA has cheap petrol. They must be followed by a noun." Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. "He works hard. they aren't going to expand this year." While. she went out in shorts. whereas social security contributions have gone down. "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly.""In spite of the cold. but he doesn't earn much. justify statements and provide examples and conclusions. "While my sister has blue eyes. they took on extra employees.

. Some verbs are neutral: • • Smith (2004) describes.for example. for all that.for this reason.as. this demonstrates. so that. even so. thirdly. since. in other words. as a result. Jones (1999. in addition. in the same way. to this end.. consequently.. as a consequence. When you want to show differences or similarities . hence. to summarise.and... otherwise.as has been noted.. despite.. When explaining results .. in conclusion. in other words. as well as. secondly. despite... 5 . p 3) states. When you want to make comparisons ... likewise. thus.. so. moreover. therefore.. Reporting verbs When introducing references into the text (citing) you should choose suitable 'reporting' verbs as these can: • • strengthen the arguments you are presenting help the reader understand why the source is relevant. on the contrary. however. so.yet. such as. furthermore. also... When providing examples .similarly. because.. in brief. equally.. even so. When you want to highlight contrast . When drawing conclusions . When providing reasons . additionally. therefore... but. further. inevitably. next. accordingly.although. notwithstanding. by way of illustration. in short.. for instance. finally. conversely. yet. for this purpose.

.. Some verbs highlight the author's viewpoint: • • • Brown (2001) believes....... Church (1998) evaluated.... Jackson (2003) conceded.. Other useful reporting verbs (use present or past tense as appropriate) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • analyse/analysed compares/compared comments/commented concludes/concluded criticises/criticised demonstrates/demonstrated discusses/discussed illustrates/illustrated indicates/indicated notes/noted observes/observed points out/pointed out reports/reported shows/showed suggests/suggested validates/validated verifies/verified Plagiarism What is plagiarism? 6 . McAllister (1996) recognised. Some verbs draw attention to the author's viewpoint: • • • Harris (2001) argues.. Some verbs give information about the author's work: • • • Holmes (2000) investigated. McColl (2002) estimated....... Smith (2004) predicted.• Green (2002) defines.. O'Neill (1997) disputed.

Plagiarism is defined in the Assessment Regulations as 'the deliberate and substantial unacknowledged incorporation in a student’s work of material derived from the work (published or unpublished) of another'. How is plagiarism detected? The most common triggers are: • • • • • • Changes in writing style and syntactic (word arrangement) structure usually of a higher standard Undue relience on one source Use of sources not recognised by the (subject expert) marker References to sources not readily verifiable use of American spellings. In other words it means passing someone else’s work off as you own. If you are off campus (or using a browser other than Internet Explorer) you will need to log in to this tool using your domain login (caledonian\user id) and password. phrases and contexts Overall level of language and argument and consequent mark much higher than expected from previous work (giving due consideration to any development in the writer's abilities over time) PLATO For more information on plagiarism view PLATO: Plagiarism Teaching On-line. deliberate use of commissioned material presented as the student's own work. This includes material from books. The regulations are summarised in the plagiarism guide. This offers a basic introduction to plagiarism teaching on-line. journals and the web. copying the work of another student with or without that student's knowledge or agreement. the summarising of another person's work by simply changing a few words or altering the order or presentation without acknowledgement. as well as from your friends or others. the substantial and unauthorised use of the ideas of another person without acknowledgement of the source. The University regards plagiarism as a very serious offence and you’re strongly advised to study the Assessment Regulations in full. Examples of plagiarism include: • • • • • the extensive use of another person's material without reference or acknowledgement. How can I be sure what plagiarism is? 7 .

By and large. even though few mothers can afford to do so.588) points out. women acknowledge May's original ideas. As Elaine Tyler May (1997. Furthermore. 8 . Adapted from A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation (Capital Community College) Four students read the following text and used it in their essays in slightly different ways. child-care facilities in the United States remain woefully inadequate’ Student A wrote: Verdict: Plagiarism. that many single mothers (women earn less than men. Which would count as plagiarism? Elaine Tyler May's (1997. many single cannot earn a decent living. Verdict: Plagiarism. ‘Barren in the Promised Land : Childless Americans and the Pursuit of Happiness’ Harvard University Press ‘Because women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage. Thus many single mothers cannot support themselves and their children adequately. Even if May were acknowledged this is still plagiarising because the lack of quotation marks indicates that it has been put into the students's own words. this still borrows too much language. our economy still operates on It shows good paraphrasing of wording and the mistaken notion that men are the main sentence structure. since work is Although the writer now cites May. And because work is still organized around the assumption that mothers stay home with children. Thus.Try this exercise. but May uses this adequate day care is not available in the to make a specific and original point. Also. facilities for child care remain woefully inadequate in the United States. Furthermore. ‘women's wages often continue to reflect the fiction that men earn the family wage’. This May's points are common knowledge means. There is no acknowledgment (citation) of May’s work. The writer changes some words. Student B wrote: There is too much direct borrowing of sentence structure and wording. in effect. p. but does not breadwinners in the family. Some of continue to earn lower wages than men. and adds some new language. because work is still based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children. but the whole text closely resembles May's. single mothers rarely earn enough to support themselves and their children adequately. Since women's wages often continue to reflect the mistaken notion that men are the main wage earners in the family. Student C wrote: Verdict: Borderline plagiarism. USA because of the mistaken assumption that mothers remain at home with their children. drops one phrase. single mothers rarely make enough to support themselves and their children very well. mothers live in poverty).

keep to it throughout. Once you have decided on the system.. Reference Lists . References .a list of works you refer to plus any texts you have consulted. p. different subject/professional areas use different systems and styles within these systems. Elaine Tyler May (1997. Women today still earn less than men — so much less that many single mothers and their children live near or below the poverty line. Smith (1998) argues. as is a later paraphrase of another of May's ideas. 9 .. facilities for day care in this country are still ‘woefully inadequate. Additionally.In your essays you will be required to provide a detailed description of your source using a Referencing System such as the Harvard or Numerical Referencing System. Bibliography . as well as this website. references should be shown in the form of a Reference List or Bibliography. immediately following information taken from another source. but acknowledges May's original conclusion and does not try to pass it off as his or her own. The writer makes use of the common knowledge in May's work. you should consult your module handbooks and the tutor who set the work. What does referencing include? • • • • Citing . Citing & referencing Citing means acknowledging the source you have read by adding the name of the author and the year of publication in the text of your written work e. This is known as citing (or referencing). PLEASE NOTE: Glasgow Caledonian University does not use just one referencing system.588) argues that this situation stems in part from ‘the fiction that men earn the family wage’ May further suggests that the American workplace still operates on the assumption that mothers with children stay home to care for them.’ Student D wrote: Verdict: No plagiarism.g. Before deciding whether you are using Harvard or Numeric. References should be provided within the text.When you use someone else's ideas you are required to acknowledge the source in your assignment. If you are submitting an article to a journal/serial/periodical or writing a book you should take advice from the editor (often found in ‘notes for contributors’ in journals and on publishers’ websites).based on the assumption that mothers stay home with children. The quotation is properly cited.include all the sources you refer to in your writing.

Smith (5).. Referencing systems There are two main systems of linking references in the text to the full bibliographical details at the end of your work. diagrams and statistics. They are identified either in brackets or as a superscript number: • • ‘In a recent study. tables. There are two main parts to citing references: 1.. You need to make references when you • • • • quote . The kinds of information you use will vary and may include: theories. charts or maps When you write academic assignments you are expected to refer to ideas and material produced by others. how you list your sources at the end of your work in the reference list or bibliography. and consult the sources used. Referencing makes sure that you avoid plagiarism and shows the reading you have done.sum up someone else's arguments or ideas paraphrase . how you acknowledge your sources in the text. 2.use illustrations such as: diagrams..' Harvard System – in the text Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's name and year of publication.put another author's material into your own words copy . research. in either of the forms shown below (depending on the sentence structure): 10 . You have to acknowledge the author of each source. • • Numeric (sometimes called Vancouver or Footnote) Harvard Numeric System – in the text Cited publications are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text.Why reference? To do sound written research you need to cite references honestly and professionally. Smith5.use someone's exact words summarise .’ or ‘In a recent study.. viewpoints. This lets the reader check quotations and data.

( Sayers 1948. This tells the reader that the error is the writer's and not yours.g. cited in Barrass. Smith (2002) . Smith (1966.... year and page number should come from the text you have read e. arguing and expressing one's conclusions to be picked up by the [scholars as they go along... cited in Fletcher. For the sole true end of education is simply this: to teach [people] how to learn for themseleves... 57) reported that '. however. 2005 p.' 11 . use single line spacing with no quotation marks and add the author's name and date at the end. reference your sources in the same way as for quotations (author's name. This example does not use italics.23) noted that '.• • In a recent study. 2005.g. You can use this device to ensure that your writing stays grammatically correct when using quotations.. If you do use quotations over 50 words. Try and avoid using quotations. as above. If you leave words out of a direct quotation use three dots to mark the omitted words: e.. Depending on your programme some use italics and some programmes do not use it. In a recent study (Smith. You can add words [which help in] making the meaning clearer. p3) When you use diagrams. McIntosh (2001. graphs or illustrations. 2002) . date of publication). You can include the word 'sic' in square brackets [sic] after the quoted material if there is an error in the words you are quoting. and whatever instruction fails to do this is effort spent in vain...Teachers] are doing for their pupils the work which pupils themselves ought to do. including any grammatical or spelling errors. leaving the method of thinking.. Some rules for using quotations • • • • • Quotes must be exact. p. You do not 'have to use complete quotations. When quoting from a secondary source the authour. Introducing quotations When you use quotations you should use quotation marks and note the author. Long quotations. Modern education concentrates on teaching subjects. When you do this put your own words in square brackets... Quotes should be used sparingly to make significant points and should fit well with the rest of your text. should rarely be used.. as the lecturer wants to hear 'your voice' . year and page number. any unnecessary words can be omitted'. there is no difference between multiplayer high compression.students' academic work was enhanced by citing sources correctly'.

Note: Be careful of using work with unknown authors. in a newspaper article. p4) When there are three or more authors use: 'et al': An additional theory was developed (Hughes et al. Note: For Psychology. When the author is unknown use 'Anon': It has been argued (Anon. (The Herald. Jones (1997b) also argued that. then use the name of the paper instead.. 1998.... A recent study describes... put both the surnames with an ampersand (&) and publication date in brackets. help the reader understand why the source is relevant. for example.. 12 .Citing references in the text Reporting verbs When introducing references into the text (citing) you should choose suitable reporting verbs as these can: • • strengthen your arguments. You should cite all sources you refer to. (In your references at the end. Ways of introducing references into text You can introduce references into the text in various ways.. 2002) supporting the teaching methods identified above. 'b' for second and so on. list both sources if possible) When there is no author.. Certain rules apply. When the author's name does not occur naturally in the sentence.. ideally this should not break up the flow of the writing. Note: When the names are part of the text use 'and': Harris and Jones (2001) have commented on. • • • • • • • When the author's name occurs naturally in the sentence put the year in round brackets Piaget (1999) has argued that... In his first article Jones (1997a) suggests . all the authors' names are mentioned the first time they appear in the text there after they can be referred to using et al When you refer to different work by the same author in the same year make this clear by adding letters after the date: 'a' for first.. When you read the source in another text and are paraphrasing refer to the primary source and link by using the words 'cited in': Burnham (1888 cited in Smith 2000) pointed out that. 2001). 1995) that.. The full stop should appear after the bracket: It is acceptable to use both short and long quotes in academic assignments (Harris & Jones.

Referencing at the end of your work In both systems. the name of the book or journal and so on. RefWorks For larger projects you might find RefWorks useful.org/about. 1993. it goes after the journal's title and before the volume or part number. pp. Websites The Business Continuity Institute ( 2006) Mission Statement [online]. you have to identify the author(s). Models and critical pathways in clinical nursing: conceptual frameworks for care planning.thebci. M. 2nd ed. (5). NB: • • References . Vol. British Journal of Nursing.. F.. Bibliography . 2006]. In journal references. You may be asked to produce a reference list or a reference list and a bibliography. whether or not you referred to them in the text.) This is a Web-based citation and bibliography management tool that lets you 13 . In the Harvard system: • • references appear alphabetically in order of authours' names underlining can be used instead of italics if bibliography is handwritten The following examples are using the Harvard system: Book Walsh. Patient controlled analgesia. 1998. Available from World Wide Web: http://www. In the Numeric System: • • references are numbered in the order you quote them in the text the date of publication goes at the very end of a book reference. Journal Dening.a list of works you consulted. (You need an Athens username and password. the date of publication.a list (usually at the end of a piece of work) that includes all documents you refer to in your writing. 274-277.htm [accessed 11 April. London: Bailliere Tindall.2. the Harvard and Numeric.

S. 4. awards and progression regulations . (2001) Teaching study skills and supporting learning. Allen Lane. Changing your RefWorks account to your new Athens password. Glasgow Caledonian University. R. 189–201.. as well as creating them manually. & Shapiro.. Holzworth. Journal of Advanced Nursing.. Cottrell. R. Baren-Cohen. C. P. number 1.A. J. H. Research in Nursing and Health. Winter 2006 pp. Journal of Access Policy and Practice.import references directly from some online databases. Barnes. (2000) An analysis of efficiency. Taylor. S. A. N. 14 . Foundation studies for nursing using enquiry based learning. & Rimmer. London.. Foster. Bristol Institute of Learning and Technology.. London. McAllister. undergraduate frameworks. C.cros. Long. S.pdf#search=%22belief %20questions%20%20Barnes%202001%22 Accessed on 30 August 2006. Vol. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. In: Grandis. Hart. pp. University of Paisley. Figg. R. T. [online] http://www. pp. S. (2001) Doing a literature search. Glasgow. In: Lowe.15-47.a developmental model in practice. Donovan.39-52. P. (2003) Limit-setting and decision-making in the management of aggression. Knox. (2006) Effective Learning service .uk/question_design. Donovan. Wellman. Glasper E.22. P.. (2003) The essential difference: men. G. pp 154-61. Remember: In the Numeric System the date is placed • • (for books) right at the end of a reference (for journals) after the journal title. C. You can use these references in writing papers and to create a bibliography automatically. Some of the details may vary in different interpretations of Harvard. Palgrave. Lifelong Learning Research Group .41(2). K. (2001) Questionnaire design and construction. Houston M. Abbott.modern universities in the UK. London: Sage. Sample reference list This is an example of a reference list using the Harvard System. Vol.Occasional Papers 1.. (2003) Insights into maternal health. Paisley. (1999) Nurses' judgements regarding seclusion and restraint of psychiatric patients: a social judgement analysis. Vol. women and the extreme male brain..ac. (2002) Surviving first year access retention and value added. & Wills.

blackwell-synergy. J.McAllister. Shapiro. 2003.html Transitional and Linking Words used in multiple paragraph essays Add Information: again besides moreover another for insurance together with and likewise as well furthermore additionally along with also for example equally important further Conclude or Summarize: in short finally consequently due to accordingly to sum up 15 . Further reading • • • • • • Excellent list of examples in Harvard.1046/j.uk/student/coursework/writing/linking. Central Queensland University Citing References . C. Numeric and NMHR from Leeds University Harvard and Numeric explanations.13652702. Roe.The Harvard System.12 (3). Walsh. the Harvard system. Paper presented at Forum for the advancement of Continuing Education Conference.00744. University of Thames Valley Guide to citing references.. 2.x/full/ [Accessed 1st May 2003]. Scottish Executive.2003. Bournemouth University http://www. Huntington.4 July 2004. (2003) Supporting people. University of Sussex Guidelines on reference listing. (2003) Delivering a different kind of Primary Care? Nurses working in personal medical service pilots Journal of Clinical Nursing [online]. (2004) Developing learners at Glasgow Caledonian University: the Effective Learning Service response. University of Birmingham Referencing – the Harvard System. B.ac. Edinburgh HMSO. supporting independent living.. Vol.gcu. A. Available from: http://www. N.com/links/doi/10.

in summary in conclusion all in all as a result thus therefore Contrast two things or show a difference: but otherwise even though conversely even so yet however counter to on the other hand as opposed to in the meantime on the contrary nevertheless still Emphasize a point: again indeed to repeat truly in fact to emphasize for this reason with this in mind Show similarities: in the same manner in the same way also likewise like both as similarly Clarify: that is in other words put another way stated differently to clarify for insurance Show location: 16 .

above across against along alongside amid in front of near among around away from back of behind below inside off beneath beside between beyond by down into onto on top of throughout outside to the right over under Show time: about after at first second third prior to subsequently until meanwhile today tomorrow before soon later afterward immediately finally during in conclusion next in the meantime as soon as then TRANSITION WORDS To improve your writing you need to make sure that your ideas. For continuing a common line of reasoning: consequently clearly. Certain words help continue an idea. or sum up a conclusion. One way to do this is by using transitions words or phrases or techniques that help bring two ideas together. Check the following list of words to find those that will pull your sentences and paragraphs together. then furthermore additionally 17 . stick together or have coherence and that the gap between ideas is bridged smoothly. Transitional words and phrases represent one way of gaining coherence. indicate a shift of though or contrast. both in sentences and paragraphs.

and in addition moreover because besides that in the same way following this further also pursuing this further in the light of the.. it is easy to see that To change the line of reasoning (contrast): however on the other hand but yet nevertheless on the contrary For opening a paragraph initially or for general use: admittedly assuredly certainly granted no doubt nobody denies obviously of course to be sure true undoubtedly unquestionably generally speaking in general at this level in this situation For the final points of a paragraph or essay: 18 ..

finally basically...... also.. pursuing this further. finally in the first place.. as well To signal conclusion: therefore this hence in final analysis in conclusion in final consideration indeed To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way: in other words point in fact specifically Sequence or time after afterwards as soon as at first at last 19 . just in the same way. additionally....... to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically: first.finally lastly Transitional chains.... generally.. finally to be sure. similarly.. second..... third.. lastly in the first place... lastly in the first place... furthermore....

.. in contrast. likewise.). as a result Reformulation: or rather. however..e.. second. all in all. that is (i. Listing: first. therefore.. so. on the other hand 20 . . on the one hand. to begin with. to put it another way... too. in addition. firstly. thus. in the same way Summary/Conclusion: then. three (esp.). in the second place. in spite of that. one. second. hence. on the other hand Contrast: on the contrary. secondly. for instance. two..g. thirdty . then.before before long finally first. in the first place. for one thing. b. to start with.. for example (e. by contrast. third in the first place in the meantime later meanwhile next soon then Linking Words for Essays.. to conclude. to sum up Exemplification: namely. on the other (hand) Concession: besides.then. Papers. that is to say Result: consequently. .. (and) for another (thing). a. though. (esp. third . similarly.. in academic and technical use). c. next. in conclusion. what is more Comparison/Similarity: equally. furthermore. in other words Alternative: alternatively. last(ly).. finally. in academic and technical use). nevertheless. etc. above all. moreover. last but not least Adding/Reinforcing: also. Reports. still..

" Too goes either at the end of the sentence." You can use also with not only to give emphasis. you can use In addition." "Besides Rover. In a list. "We also spoke about marketing. was concerned. education and the budget. we are the largest sports car manufacturer. or after the subject and means as well.And In addition As well as Also Too Furthermore Moreover Apart from In addition to Besides Ideas are often linked by and. or In addition to this… As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence." We don't usually start a sentence with also. but not before and. too. you put a comma between each item. "We discussed training. "Apart from Rover. we are concerned by the competition." Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also. 21 . "They were concerned too. or in addition to. "We are concerned not only by the costs. we are the largest sports car manufacturer. "As well as the costs." Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as. but also by the competition." "I." "We are interested in costs as well as the competition." Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis.

The following is a good way of starting a list. secondly. try the first point." Giving a reason Due to / due to the fact that Owing to / owing to the fact that Because 22 ."Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market." Firstly. Sequencing ideas The former. the third point and so on. Moreover. "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters. the second point. C Jones and A Owen. … the latter Firstly. Instead. It's rare to use "fourthly". they tell us about the competition." Summarising In short In brief In summary To summarise In a nutshell To conclude In conclusion We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written. … secondly. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term. finally The first point is Lastly The following The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points. … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas. "Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. or "fifthly".

" "We believe in incentive schemes. we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks. "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen." "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike. "Because it was raining. the match was postponed." Since / as Since and as mean because. "Since the company is expanding." Giving a result Therefore So Consequently This means that As a result 23 ." Because / because of Because of is followed by a noun. the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." "Owing to the demand.25%." Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence." If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject. the company has been unable to fulfil all its orders. the inflation rate rose by 1.Because of Since As Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. verb and object). we need to hire more staff. because we want our employees to be more productive. we need to hire more staff. "Because of bad weather. For example. you must follow the words with the fact that." "As the company is expanding. "Due to the rise in oil prices. the football match was postponed.

he doesn't earn much. "The sea was cold. "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly. but he went swimming nevertheless." 24 .) "The company is doing well. they are taking on extra staff. Contrasting ideas But However Although / even though Despite / despite the fact that In spite of / in spite of the fact that Nevertheless Nonetheless While Whereas Unlike In theory… in practice… But is more informal than however. but he doesn't earn much.Therefore. you must use the fact that. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence. With these words. "He works hard. despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast." Although. consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way." Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. she went out in shorts. she went out in shorts. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result. Nonetheless." "He works hard. they took on extra employees. they aren't going to expand this year. "The company are expanding." (In spite of the fact that it was cold." "In spite of the cold." Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb. so. They must be followed by a noun." So is more informal. However. you must have two halves of a sentence. "Although it was cold.

however. in brief.com/grammar/linking-words/ To Show: Addition Comparison/similarity Concession Contrast/Exception Emphasis Example Generality Result/Cause and Effect Summary/Conclusion Time sequence Use these Expressions: In addition. as an illustration. additionally. in fact. in fact In general. on the contrary. accordingly. namely. specifically. whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other. afterwards. likewise. therefore Today. even so. in short. on the other hand. consequently. tomorrow. whereas social security contributions have gone down. for the most part. now. on the whole. further In the same way. eventually. naturally. truly For example. furthermore. but in practice. nevertheless. on the whole. certainly. second. to illustrate. so. thus. yesterday. in the end." In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. therefore. yet Of course. usually. in conclusion. of course In contrast. typically As a result. for this reason Finally.english-at-home. equally important. for instance. instead. similarly Granted. mine are brown. then. meanwhile. indeed. besides. then. also." "Taxes have gone up. subsequently. teachers should prepare for lessons. otherwise. they often don't have enough time. moreover.While." "Unlike in the UK. hence. a case in point. at last Useful Linking Words and Phrases For Essays To indicate a contrast: however on the other hand alternatively in contrast 25 . in other words. still. third. finally. "While my sister has blue eyes. first. in summary. once." http://www. as a general rule. "In theory. thus. too. the USA has cheap petrol.

instead rather another possibility despite this for all that conversley in comparison but in spite of yet on the contary better/worst still nevertheless although infact notwithstanding all the same To provide an illustration for example that is in other words namely typical of this/such including cheifly on such especially mainly that is to say such as a typical/particular/key example not least most importantly To extend a point simirlarly equally furthermore Indeed besides above all likewise in the same way as well also in addition thus resulting from To show cause and effect/conclusion: so therefore then in this/that case for this reason it follows that this in conclusion in short To show the next step: first(ly) second(ly) place first and foremost another next finally as result/consequence consequently owing to/due to the fact this suggests that it might be concluded from this to conclude to begin/start with first and most importantly then afterwards ultimately accepting/assuming this implies in all in the first/second first after then lastly 26 .

There are seven coordinating conjuctions. These are: • • • • • • • and but so or for nor yet.Linking words Linking words are used to link ideas when writing. They are used to join two parts of a sentence together are generally in the middle of a sentence. 27 . order. sequence ideas. There are three main types of linking words: • • • conjunctions sentence connectors subordinators. data etc. They are used to introduce. Conjunctions Conjunctions are the most common form of linking word. The following table lists useful connectors. Example Sentence connectors Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give paragraphs coherence. theory. They enable the writing to flow from one idea to the next in a logical and cohesive way. contrast. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at the beginning of a sentence.

Subordinators Subordinators are linking words that are used to join clauses together. ---. secondly.have clear goals in mind. ---.Useful sentence connectors Logical / sequential order • • • • • • Order of importance • • • • • Firstly. last.reward yourself when the job is done.there are several useful strategies that can be used to improve your time management skills. ---. There are two types of clauses: • • independent clauses . Secondly.these make no sense by themselves. A clause is a group of words that must contain a subject and predicate. thirdly etc Next. Careful planning will enable you to keep on top of your work and avoid stress. Firstly. They are used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. finally In addition Furthermore Also At present / presently Most / more importantly Most significantly Above all Primarily It is essential / essentially Contrast • • • • • Result • • • • • • However On the other hand On the contrary By (in) comparison In contrast As a result As a consequence Therefore Thus Consequently Comparison • • • Hence Reason • Similarily Likewise The cause of • The reason for Also Activity 1 Time management skills are essential for study success. 28 . In fact. Finally.plan your time by using a yearly and weekly planner.these can stand alone as a sentence by themselves dependent clauses . ---.

third / thirdly etc Next. Comparison & Contrast • • • • • • • • • Cause / effect • • • Time • • • • • Although Though Even though While Whereas Since So that Because After When Until Whenever Before Possibility if as if whether unless Place & manner • • • Wherever Where How Linking words and phrases Although some of these words have already been mentioned as sentence connectors.Example Common subordinators Below are some examples of commonly used subordinators. they can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph. Print off this page to keep as a reference of useful linking words and phrases. last. finally In addition. moreover Further / furthermore Another Undoubtedly Indeed Obviously Generally Admittedly In fact Particularly / in 29 . second / secondly. Sequence • Result • • • • • • Emphasis So As a result As a consequence (of) Therefore Thus Consequently • • • • • • • • • • • First / firstly. that is linking one idea / argument to another.

The ‘next’ button will appear when the answers are correct. the team leaders did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency was compromised. 30 . in more than half of these. Furthermore.but also On the contrary Activity 2 Click on the linking words/phrases in the following extract from an essay. for instance. Do teams in organizations need leaders? How and why the leader was selected also appears to affect the leader’s effectiveness. However.• • • Also In conclusion To summarise • • Hence Due to • • • particular Especially Clearly Importantly For example For instance That is (ie) Such as Including Namely Addition • • Reason • • • • • Example • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • And In addition / additionally / an additional Furthermore Also Too As well as For Because Since As Because of Contrast However Nevertheless Nonetheless Still Although / even though Though But Yet Despite / in spite of In contrast (to) / in comparison While Whereas On the other hand Comparison • • • • • • • • • • • Similarly Likewise Also Like Just as Just like Similar to Same as Compare compare(d) to / with Not only. Smith (1996) notes that more than 60% of 500 workplace teams studies operate with team leaders chosen by middle or upper management. there is more likelihood of an effective working relationship between team members. There are 4 to identify.. asserts that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team.. Addison (1996).

most of us can learn the skills to do things more intelligently by learning actively. Active learning means being aware of what we do not know and having the skills to find out. However apart from their intrinsic abilities.Linkers Because While Next Importantly Consequently For instance Similarly Furthermore Category reason contrast sequence emphasis result example comparison addition Activity 2 Have you ever wondered how some people seem to learn and remember things effortlessly and others struggle? Are these students more intelligent than the others? They may well be. While also as well as however 31 . As well as the skills to study and learn intelligently. we also need the skills to become life long learners. these students probably study intelligently. While some people are more gifted than others.

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