A v i Mor, 1 Weston T. Hester, 1 and Ben C.

Gerwick 1

Fatigue of Submerged Concrete under Low-Cycle, High-Magnitude Loads

REFERENCE: Mor, A., Hester, W. T., and Gerwick, B. C., "Fatigue of Submerged Concrete under Low-Cycle, High-Magnitude Loads," Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, Vol. 17, No. 3, May 1989, pp. 157-166. ABSTRACT: A procedure for testing submerged, reinforced concrete beams subjected to reversible fatigue loading is presented. The procedure focused on the use of simplified systemsfor reversibleloading and effective submersion of the concrete. These systems helped to reduce substantially the cost associated with fatigue testing of reinforced concrete beams. Degradation of the beam was measured continuously by analyzing deflection without halting the cyclic loading. Extensive tests on accompanyingspecimensand post-failure tests were performed. The program also utilized a computerized, highly automatic system for test control, data acquisition, and analysis of data. KEY WORDS: bond, concrete, data acquisition, fatigue, reinforced concrete, submerged concrete, testing Nomenclature HCP LVDT LWA NWA LWSF NWSF Hardened Cement Paste Linear Variable Differential (or Displacement) Transdueer Light Weight Aggregate Normal Weight Aggregate Light Weight aggregate concrete with Silica Fume Normal Weight aggregate concrete with Silica Fume

Introduction Fatigue failure occurs when a concrete structure fails after being exposed to a large number of stress cycles. These stresses may be lower than stresses for which the structure was designed, and failure may be sudden and catastrophic. Fatigue failure of concrete is a problem which many designers tend to ignore, since sound design practice will usually compensate for fatigue loading. However, under severe cyclic loading conditions fatigue may become the limiting factor in design. Extensive work has been done by other researchers on fatigue performance of unreinforced low and moderate strength concrete subjected to high-cycle loading, such as that experienced by machine bases and railroad ties. Limited research has been done on large reinforced/prestressed concrete specimens, high-strength concretes, and submerged concrete. UnManuscript received 3/4/88; accepted for publication 11/18/88. L Doctor of Engineering, AssociateProfessor, and Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Dr. Mot is currently with AMMB, 9217 Alcott St., Los Angeles, CA 90035.
© 1989 by the American Society for Testing and Materials

fortunately, the lack of a well established test procedure for evaluating fatigue makes it difficult to correlate or extend these published test results. It is now particularly critical to develop a consistent approach for measuring and assessing fatigue capability, because it is possible and attractive to design and use concretes with compressive strength substantially greater than that previously considered in earlier fatigue tests and envisioned in current codes. Concrete marine structures using these high-strength concretes are being designed and built, and some are already in use and exposed to severe environments. Concretes with compressive strength exceeding 69 MPa (10 000 psi) are being used for many applications; in some specialized areas (mainly high-rise buildings) strengths of up to 138 MPa (20 000 psi) have been specified and used. The use of these special concretes in the marine environment raises new questions about their ability to resist cyclic loading, since it is difficult to extrapolate previously published data to these conditions. Concrete marine structures, including piers and offshore drilling platforms, are increasingly using these special concretes as a basic building material; therefore more detailed design criteria are needed. Structures exposed to ocean waves will experience a large number of high-frequency, reversible, low-to-medium magnitude loading cycles during their lifetime. They will also experience a relatively small number of very high-magnitude excitations caused by extreme storms or collisions. Thus a typical structure may see 2 × 108 loading cycles of relatively low magnitude (up to 50% of ultimate strength) to a few thousands loading cycles of high magnitude (over 65% of ultimate strength). These low-cycle, high-magnitude fully reversible loads may cause cracking and increasingly severe degradation, especially when these cycles are in the tensile cracking range. Lightweight Aggregate (LWA) would be the material of choice for most floating marine structures, even if the only benefit would be the reduced weight. Other superior properties of LWA concrete make it highly desirable for use under marine conditions. These properties include excellent durability, reduced microcracking due to the compatibility of its components, and high thermal strain capacity. In this paper the authors describe in detail in apparatus that may be used to test reinforced/prestressed concrete, in air or submerged, under fully reversible loading. The apparatus is simple to construct and operate. The test results fully document the fatigue performance and can be compared with other previously published data. The authors tested high-strength reinforced concrete beams under low-cycle, high-magnitude reversible cyclic loading. Half of the
0090-3973/89/0005-0157502.50 157

Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

Fatigue testing of large specimens is expensive and long term. indicating debonding next to the major structural crack. and the other half were tested in air. Sparks [3] and Hatano and Watanabe [4] found that higher frequencies increased the apparent fatigue capacity of concrete tested in air. 2. 4. Even at the rapid rate of 10 cycles per second (cps) a specimen may require more than 107 cycles (or 270 h) of loading. The main results of that program were: 1.). modulus of elasticity. Fatigue capacity is measured as the number of cycles to failure under different stress levels. thus tests should be performed at the expected frequencies. However. The large spread of the results of a limited number of tests makes it difficult to analyze the data using statistical methods. and temporary enhancement of strength properties. but this accelerated rate of loading is not representative of the low cycle loading experienced by the structure. but fatigue capacity was enhanced under lower frequencies in submerged concrete. Submersion of high strength (dense) concrete in water did not shorten its fatigue life. and analytical procedures. Most researchers maintain the desired maximum stresses by loading the specimens to a predetermined deflection.2 to 3 Hz for submerged concrete. the effect is complex and not very well understood. The stresses are carried across the crack by the steel and transferred to the concrete through the bond between concrete and steel adjacent to the crack. Step 3--Continued cyclic loading below the ultimate strength of the reinforced concrete element causes microcracks to form and propagate. 7. mechanical controls. The fatigue life of high-strength reinforced concrete appears to be a function of the bond between the concrete and reinforcing steel. magnitude and rate of loading. The possibility that fatigue life of submerged concrete is different from the fatigue life of air-dry concrete created the need to test submerged specimens. It may be difficult to correlate the results of pure compression or pure tension with the more severe situation of reversible loading. Tests by Cornelissen [11] showed that saturation of plain concrete was sufficient to reduce its fatigue life. Arthur et al. materials. ExperimentalTechnique The authors developed an apparatus and test procedure for loading a standardized specimen with a low-cycle. The addition of silica fume to LWA concrete increased its fatigue life by 60 to 80% compared to LWA and NWA concrete of similar strength. or one of the nondestructive sonic methods. The cumulative number of cycles to the specimen's collapse under a given load is the commonly accepted standard measure for fatigue capacity. The variations in fatigue life do not appear to be attributable to variations in compressive strength. Initial tests were conducted in big tanks of water (Waagaard [8]. 6. specimens degrade over time and make it difficult to maintain a consistent loading with deflection control techniques. possible reduction in void sizes.25 mm (0. a material model for fatigue degradation and failure of reinforced concrete was defined. reversible fatigue loading. The model is summarized below: four-point (third-point) loading. Test methods differ by type and size of specimen. No further reproductions authorized.158 JOURNAL OF TESTING AND EVALUATION beams were tested submerged. This assessment can take the form of measured deflection under a static load. . 5. The addition of silica fume to LWA concrete improved its bond with the bars by up to 100% at a slip of 0. [9]) and showed that submerged concrete exhibited shorter fatigue life. Testing of submerged concrete required that large tanks were used to submerge both specimen and loading frame. with application of cyclic loads until failure. Step 4--Where a structural crack intersects a reinforcing bar all stresses are transferred to the steel at that point. flexural strength. Roper et al. The process forces the steel bar to carry larger portions of the stresses as the bond deteriorates. 3. and the concrete relaxes away from the bar. resulting in complete loss of load carrying capacity at that location. On the concrete's surface this step is recognized by the formation of a fanshaped area of fine cracks. 3. or one complete Background Several methods have been used in testing the fatigue capacity of concrete. Limitations of previously described procedures were minimized by a number of technologies. The result is a progressive decrease in applied load as the specimen loses stiffness. It also results in a varying load when the new stroke (deflection) value is determined by trial and error. resulting in an extremely complex and expensive setup. any interruption (rest period) has an influence on specimen's performance [7]. and results may be found in the published report [•]. 5. The same effect was not evident in NWA concrete. 4. [5] found no frequency effect in air. 6. Step 6--The steel reinforcing bar fails suddenly in fatigue when it reaches its fatigue capacity after the loss of bond causes a major portion of the load to transfer to the steel. Paterson [•0]). A comprehensive description of the test program. with some local void concentrations under aggregates and reinforcing bars due to bleeding. Specimens were cycled at a rate of 1 Hz. relaxing the stresses in the concrete in the direct vicinity. Obviously. or density. With existing test procedures most researchers interrupt the cyclic loading periodically to assess the specimen's condition. Therefore it is desirable to measure deterioration without having to stop cycling. 2. gradually converging into structural cracks. tensile strength. Flexural elements are usually tested by loading beams in Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).01 in. Further tests in a pressure chamber confirmed that depth (water pressure) was not a factor (Waagaard [8]. However. Waagaard [6] found no clear connection between fatigue capacity and load frequencies in the range 0. A model for fatigue of reinforced concrete has been developed. Step 2--Limited cyclic loading of the concrete in its elastic zone induces stress relaxation. Step /--Newly cast concrete contains various small voids dispersed throughout the material. Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. These results agree with data published by Robins and Austin [2]. Step 5--Continued cyclic loading causes gradual degradation of the bond between the concrete and the reinforcing bar as microcracks form and propagate in the interface. The principal difficulties with correlating and extrapolating the fatigue performance of large specimens include: 1. including: 1. Fatigue life of high-strength Lightweight Aggregate (LWA) concrete was similar to or better than the fatigue life of Normal Weight Aggregate (NWA) concrete of similar strength. those that affected the fatigue life were identified. Accompanying unreinforced specimens were tested for all major properties of the concrete. Based on the test results from this program and others.

. several aggregates. subsequent finish with steel trowels.. fifteen standard 74 by 147 mm (3 by 6 in. 2 ft" 2 ft 8 fl 2 fl i 1 ft -J FIG.305 m).. since it was felt that the effect of quality and quantity of HCP was very important. and to alert us to errors when the results for the two specimens disagreed substantially. but under the existing constraints they were used to provide a reasonably good indication of trends. 1).4 mm).. -(3- -v- -~ #3 Reinforcing rebars #9~tirnln~(~ Rin Load [ S .5In Support FIG. No corrections were required once a load level was established. The slender. J 8 7~ [ ~ 0. so as to evaluate the effects of each parameter on the overall behavior. and six standard 147 by 147 by 147 mm (6 by 6 by 6 in. Two specimens may not qualify as a statistical sample. The plates were placed on the concrete and leveled with Hydrostone (high-strength gypsum) to achieve a smooth transfer of stresses to the concrete. The rollers were not prevented from rolling with the movement of the beam as it was cycled. 2--Concrete beams were loaded in flexure under the "Third Point" loading configuration (ASTM C 78) (l f t = 0.) cubes for the pull-out test. Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. The total amount of cementitious materials in each mix was kept similar... Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). thus unnecessary rest-periods were eliminated.. This number. 3. Small steel plates were used to spread the load at the line of contact between the roller and the concrete surface. l--Detail of reinforced concrete beams used in fatigue tests {1 in. 6... Extensive post-failure evaluation of the concrete in the beams was done with non-destructive sonic tests. twelve 74 by 74 by 245 mm (3 by 3 by 20 in. sometimes referred to as "fourpoint" loading) (Fig.) unreinforced concrete beams. and manipulating the water/cement ratio. Fully reversible loading was imposed on symmetrically reinforced concrete beams. then filled to the top with the same type of vibration. very close to actual wave frequency.) wider than the rollers. Specimens were tested under load control (e. The rollers were centered on the supports with the help of roller guides. Two wide flange steel beams were attached with stressing bars into the floor of the test bay and used for end supports to the concrete beams. 4. At that time they were moved into the main testing area and allowed to air-dry in its controlled environment. all specimens that were to be tested submerged were immersed in a seawater-filled tank to ensure complete saturation. At least The support frame was designed to restrain the concrete beam in the vertical direction at the supports to allow for reversible loading.. and locked in place by the apparatus shown in Figs. The 2440 mm (8 ft) concrete beams were tested over a 1830 mm (6 ft) span. steel rollers were stressed against the beam from top and bottom. 4a and 4b (Section A-A)... 5. At the end supports.. but remained centered on the support.. .g. so that a length of 305 mm (1 ft) on each side was not subjected to any load during the test and supplied additional control data for concrete strength. No further reproductions authorized. t .. compressive strength tests of extracted cubes.. Support Frame Fatigue Testing Procedures Specimens Four types of specimens were used: five main reinforced concrete beams (Fig. In this program both concrete composition and environmental parameters were systematically changed and monitored. and microscopic evaluation of cracking. which were welded to the supports perpendicular to the concrete beam. without restraining beam movement in the horizontal direction. Gradual degradation of the specimen was evaluated by measuring deflection of the specimen under load without stopping the cycling. leaving a space that was 3 mm (1/8 in. Muguruma [•2]).. ON FATIGUE OF SUBMERGED CONCRETE 159 compression and tension cycle per second.. two weeks before testing. A flexible water-jacket was used to simulate fully submerged conditions. 2.MOR ET AL.) cylinders. the automatic hydraulic controller used feed-back from a load-cell to apply a constant maximum load). 2). Two identical specimens were tested for each test condition. I 1 ft ~.. high-strength bolts were hand-tightened with wrenches. All molds for the specimens were filled halfway and consolidated by vibration. The compressive strength of the concrete was kept constant for all specimens by the use of admixtures. Neglecting to ensure smooth transfer of loads would result in stress concentration and premature failure with cracks initiating at that point. Loading Configuration The concrete beams were loaded reversibly in flexure under a third-point loading (ASTM C 78.. Initial finish was done with wooden trowels. All specimens were stripped after 48 h and stored in a fog room for 60 days. and their flexibility allowed them to bend with the beam and keep loads vertical. Figure 3 shows a top view of the testing bay with all the components of the testing set-up. was used in some recent tests (Waagaard [6]. = 25.

• The equipment and specimens must be centered in order to eliminate undesirable secondary stresses. and through it attached to the loading ram with highstrength steel bolts through a second load transfer beam (Section B-B). No further reproductions authorized. so as to isolate it from vibrations and deflections of that frame. . These movements can introduce large stresses if allowed to develop. Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. At the center loading points. Loading Frame The loading frame was designed with the following goals in mind: • The concrete beam should not be restrained by the loading frame. shown in Figs. 5).160 JOURNAL OF TESTING AND EVALUATION D iI Steel Columns stressed to the Floor Load Transfer Bolts tying actuator to loading frame Concrete Beam Tie-down beam iiil < . The frame consisted of two pairs of steel columns independently attached with stressing bars to the floor of the testing bay. The hydraulic actuator (ram) was suspended from a steel beam. • The frame should accommodate enough gages to supplement any that fail during testing without having to stop the cycling. resulting in a free hanging vertical position. Later it was decided that this configuration would be too difficult to control.. and a light steel bridge between them (Fig. This configuration ensured that no inter- Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). and the second steel beam was left as a stiffener. 3--Testing bay (top view oJ"test setup). The design included two load transfer beams to be able to test more than one concrete beam at a time. The steel bridge could be moved freely to cover any point of the concrete beam and could be locked securely in place. The two frames were welded to a square steel beam.~ :::::::::::::::::::::: ~::~i~i~ Support frame Measuring frame Rods stressing oolumns to floor Loading frame D FIG. 4a and 4b (Section C-C). Both ends of the hydraulic ram were free to pivot around a universal ball joint. stainless steel rollers were stressed against the concrete beam from top and bottom. • It should be possible to measure deflections continuously. Deflection Measuring Frame The deflection measuring frame was designed with the following goals in mind: • The measuring frame should be separate from the loading frame.. even when the beam is submerged. 5). centered over the concrete specimen (Fig. The steel beam was bolted to two steel columns which were attached with stressing bars to the floor of the testing bay. These joints were helpful in eliminating undesirable stresses which can develop when the concrete beam deflects against a stiff ram. • The hydraulic actuator (ram) should be free to align itself to compensate for small irregular movements during the test.~.

'. No further reproductions authorized. 610 mm (2 I1) i•.'.MOR ET AL. 4a--Longitudinal section through testing setup. 610 mm (2 ft) 1830 mm (6 h) . p~ 1 Hoor . 4b--Sections through end-support and loading point of testing setup. . Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement.'~'~\V I__ /915 mm (3ft) Section B-B FIG. B I -'1 Servo-controlled Hydraulic Actuator Load transfer beams weld / L | ~m • \ ~th bolt ~ength belt Concrete beam Roller guides \ Stainless Steel Roller Section C-C ~ing rod beam to floor Section A-A FIG. ON FATIGUE OF SUBMERGED CONCRETE 161 t / Serve-controlled Hydraulic Actuator A load-transfer steel beams tie-down beam Concrete Beam Roller guides A 610 mm (2tl) m.n. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).

448 N). No further reproductions authorized. Testing was done under load control for all fatigue tests. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Section D-D FIG. with total travel that could exceed 50 m m (2 in. . ing d a t a ~ ' . Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. acquisitionand ~ [L reduct. 6--Schematic layout of controls and data acquisition systems in beam test (1 lbf = 4. action existed between the loading frame and the measuring frame. Steel wire was used to connect the gages to the concrete beam. An MTS controller was used to control the hydraulic system. measuring up to S0 m m (2 in. 6).~ I1! Ill ACQUISmON SYSTEM ] Strok~ iopol IF 'co and Plotso~ ~ . no corrections were required as the beam softened and deflected. S--Section of testing setup including measuring frame and loading frame.Keithly.L ..) deflections during the test.DAS500 "~ I High-speed | DataAcquisition J I input J FIG.). t r t [ Deflections from . H 50000Ibf • ydraulicActuato~l Hydraulic System A 22 MPa (3200 psi) high-capacity system supplied the hydraulic pressure for the test. including two backups. The ability to use the load control facility built into the controller simplified the test and. The use of three gages..L.) were secured to the bridge with small clamps. save for occasional checks to ensure that the system was stable.162 JOURNAL OF TESTING AND EVALUATION m - .. _ uppo . Three linear potentiometers (elongation gages) with a total measurable travel of ___75 m m (3 in. Static tests were done under stroke control.onprograms~ (IBM AT. It was easy to refer from one gage to the other and to compare deterioration of different beams even when one gage was lost. proved to be a safe practice since occasionally steel wires or springs snapped in fatigue or the gage failed. The controller had a function generator and responded to feedback from a load cell and L V D T (for stroke control) which are part of the actuator assembly (Fig. The high capacity valves allowed the smooth cycling at a rate of one complete cycle per second (fully reversible). [~ LinearPotentiometers " MTS Controller cr-r-n Iq-lqq Stroke i n p u t Force controlsignals Force input m ~/ t • Amplifiersfor Deflections DATA ~1 .

resulting in a very low-cost alternative to submerging concrete for fatigue testing. This preset limit was used very successfully while starting the hydraulics with the concrete beam already attached to the actuator. so as to stop the hydraulic system when the deflection exceeded a predetermined value. r I Section D-D FIG. A line of caulking compound was applied to the concrete beam at its point of contact with the fabric and clamps. These were used by the controller to control the actuator and by the data acquisition system to determine the load at any time. Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. with enough clearance to permit unrestricted movement of the beam. 6). Each fabric jacket was used only twice before it was discarded. the beam might have been cracked or even destroyed on start-up. 7). The holes were kept shallow to minimize damage to the concrete.4 ram). Loads were read from the hydraulic actuator. Data Acquisition Five gages were used for all the specimens.MOR ET AL. Each potentiometer read the deflection from a steel dowel that was epoxied in a hole drilled 13 mm (0. This feedback proved to be extremely valuable on several occasions when the beam failed and the controller (under load control) tried to push the remains of the beam through the floor. . 8--Deflection of the concrete beam was measured f r o m three points (I in.. The special setup consisted of a flexible watertight fabric. The use of more than one gage per rebar was physically difficult (on #3 bars) and very expensive. two specially designed clamps which were used to seal the jacket against the concrete beam. tests were done under load control. 7--Immersion jacket and f r a m e were used to simulate submerged conditions. Since the fatigue Wires leadingto Linear Potentiometers Load Load . The combination of sealing methods worked well when applied properly. even when set for low loads. The deflection data were fed directly into the data acquisition system. Deflection of the concrete beam was measured by three linear potentiometers suspended from the measuring bridge above the concrete beam. ON FATIGUE OF SUBMERGED CONCRETE Immersion Frame and Jacket 163 A special flexible jacket was designed to allow a test of a concrete beam immersed in water (Fig. the stroke data were used for limit control only as safety mechanism. and the concrete was cleaned with a wire brush around the line of contact. Weldable strain gages were applied to the bars in one set of concrete specimens. may occasionally introduce large loads on startup. Three dowels were used because one or more might be dislodged once the concrete started to crack. The limit control stopped the hydraulic action before any damage occurred. The stroke of the hydraulic actuator was also read from the built-in LVDT and monitored by the controller. Hydraulic systems are not stable when started and. To prevent the additional load of the water from being imposed on the beam.) into the concrete cover (Fig.~. the frame and its fabric jacket were supported independently. All these safeguards were developed during a trial testing period in which seven beams were tested and destroyed. but proved to be too limited to give any conclusive information. No further reproductions authorized.I 1 Short bolts epoxied to the concrete I _ Load 24 in Load t ~_ FIG. and a wooden pedestal with supporting frame. three of which measured deflection of the beam. Without a limit control to prevent these loads from reaching the concrete beam. The data supplied by these gages were read into the data acquisition system. However. : 25. Concrete I ~ 8ea. the other two measuring load and stroke of the actuator (Fig. thus backups were considered essential.. The fabric was stretched carefully at the line of contact to prevent any creases that might serve as points of leakage. The wooden pedestal with supporting frame was designed to support the jacket after it was filled with water. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). l ~ x [ ~ ealer \ Fabric ac. 8). The fabric was cut to fit the beam. The jacket's weight at that point could reach more then 90 kg (200 lb).5 in. A limit control was set up to prevent the system from applying extreme loads. A foam window sealer (pro-glued on one side) was applied to the inside of the aluminum clamp before it was locked on the fabric and the concrete.

-- > 305mm T T Load Load FIG.o. Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. Data were collected at a rate of one reading per second and were used later for plotting of load versus deflection.18 Beams with Silica Fume 3600 7200 I 0. A value of 2720 kg (6000 lb) (80% of 3400 kg [7500 lb]) was calculated and used for the subsequent fatigue loading. lO--The crack pattern was traced on the beams during the test. FIG. The data were immediately reduced and analyzed on a microcomputer using programs developed at the University of California. The raw data were then reduced and the extreme load and deflection values for that cycle were automatically extracted by another program.air-dry NWSF B. It was decided initially to cycle the beams to maximum loads. 1 inch = 25.!y - 1 . Fatigue Tests Fatigue tests were conducted on uncracked beams at a constant basic frequency of at 1 Hz.. / \ beam~ 24 / / \ < > / < ~t~ 610ram J~ 305mm. The test was started at about 64% of the yield load as determined in the static test.'"'~ 3""E 1 ! : 006 0. In all beams with concrete compressive strength of 62 to 69 MPa (9000 to 10 000 psi)...164 JOURNAL OF TESTING AND EVALUATION beam 23 in the future it may prove desirable to measure strain and stresses at the rebar level in order to evaluate the bond. This was done only for beams that were tested in air... At that level the beam is still in its elastic range. 12). and the beam was cycled under that load for 1 h (3600 cycles). [] v --~ E] ~" z/ 1 6000 12000 18000 24000 30000 36000 42000 48000 54000 60000 66000 Cycles. a basic property of the beams. LWSF . N I . The yield point was defined as the point at which the slope of the line changed from the linear (Fig. From each batch of concrete (five beams total) one beam was tested in static loading. and later copied.submerged LWSF . air-dry LWSF ] ] NWSF .o=-o3 ~t /~11-- ~o' """ [] ..). In addition. This method allowed the peak values of loads and deflections to be obtained without stopping the cycling.4 ram./' 0 .. The extreme values were printed and appended to a file for saving and backup.16 0.10 0.08 :. The heavy lines mark the failure crack. 10). ._. The maximum and minimum loads were changed twice during the test (Fig. Berkeley.12 0. 9).04 . initiating Deflection [inch] 0. This rate covered a full loading cycle (at 1 Hz). but the load is large enough to qualify as high-magnitude loading. Every 10 min (600 cycles) the system scanned all channels 100 times at a rate of 90 scans per second. A high-speed data acquisition system (Keithly DAS 500) was used to collect the data from all gages. Determination of Static Load Capacity Static load capacity. For the static loading the beam was locked into its loading frame in the same way as that used for the fatigue tests. The load was increased slowly for about 15 min until the beam failed or deflection at midspan exceeded 50 mm (2 in. which are 80% of the yield load of the beam under static loading.submerged NWSF o. 9--Deflection at center of reinforced concrete beam versus number of load cycles. Loads Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). For beams tested in water it was not possible to draw the cracks during the test and all cracks were traced after the failure (Fig. These extreme values were used later to plot the fatigue behavior as deflection versus number of cycles (Fig. 11). was used in determining the load to be used for fatigue testing.Lightweight concrete with Silica Fume. the crack development was drawn on the beam's surface with multicolored pens and traced on tracing paper after the failure. that yield point was close to 3400 kg (7500 lb).14 0.D.Normalweight concrete with Silica fume . No further reproductions authorized.

'8 . This procedure kept the effect of rest period uniform for all the tests. Load Control ! . Extraction was done with a slow-action. This problem was resolved by the effective use of limit switches. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). pulse velocity.llllllll@l Iit . Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. then it was raised to its maximum value of 80% of yield load for the duration of the test. Deflection (inches) 1:2 114 FIG. ON FATIGUE OF SUBMERGED CONCRETE 165 Load (kilO) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 I yield point .11111111 . where the load was increased in small increments toward the desired value. . The drawing shows the effect of changing m o m e n t (M) and shear (S) on the pulse velocity in the concrete. After an overnight break of 16 h. the controller was set and the load maintained automatically throughout the test. the tests resumed at the maximum level and continued until the beam failed. Time [hours] FIG. Another practical reason was the concern about initial instability in hydraulic systems which could cause the load to exceed the given maximum level under load control. No further reproductions authorized. there were no stops exceeding 1 min. ! 3 jl I T-1 ! "f -80 II I T-2 Stresses in the beam were not uniform (Fig. around aggregates. and it was expected that a variation in concrete deterioration would be evident in different sections. After 1 h. That required a trial-and-error approach. = 25. All fatigue tests required at least two days to complete and.nt ft/sec. 12--Specimens were cycled up to 64% o f yield load in the first hour (3600 cycles). which corrected any drift from the desired load. 1 kip = 4. and up to 8 0 % f o r the remainder of the test.2 b . and a computer was used to convert the input of the gages into load and deflection values instantly.'6 . ! 1 .. The present authors checked the effect of loading under lower stresses for the full number of cycles by extracting a nonreinforced concrete beam segments from four of the reinforced beams after their fatigue failure. and compressive strength of small concrete cubes cut from that beam. Microscopic investigation of slices taken along the beam revealed the effect of stress level on the crack development in the concrete. since it would require adjusting the stroke to the changing rigidity of the specimen in both directions simultaneously. Since the specimens were tested under reversible loading. = 0 3 0 4 8 m/see. 8 10 I 2 4 6 12 14 16 Beam Section -o B04 NW-2a o " B14 LW-2a q~ B33 L W S F . oil-cooled diamond saw which limited damage to the concrete. Tests by others [13-15] indicated that partial cyclic loading (small number of cycles) could enhance temporarily the strength of concrete without affecting the overall fatigue performance. up to 67% in the second hour. +67. Pulse Velocity [~sec] Pulse Velocityof sections extractedfrom Beams I J'!-most of the cracks. it was possible to trace the degree of degradation of the concrete under different stress levels (Fig. the load was raised to 67% for another hour. 13--Ultrasonic pulse velocity readings were taken f r o m unreinforced cubes extracted f r o m the concrete beam after failure.w. The yield point was def i n e d as the point at which the slope of the line changed f r o m the linear (Beam 5). except for the overnight break in testing.. +64- -64 -67 .ooo 13500 13000 0 I "\!. 13). Our principal reason for starting at a lower load level was to watch and monitor the crack development in the beam as it moved from lower to higher stresses. Test Beam Shear Mo m. One difficulty involved in using load control is that the controller presents its data as a percentage-of-capacity value and expects input in the same method. A load cell incorpo- FIG. Post-Failure Tests Load % of Yield Load +80. but the loading sequence was still adopted.MOR ET AL.'2 . Once the desired load value was achieved. it was also necessary to achieve a balance between the pull and push portions of the cycle. rated in the actuator supplied load feedback to the controller. Using stroke control would have made that type of loading nearly impossible.4 mm. By comparing the density.448 k N = 454 kgD.4 . and next to the bars. I 1--Deflection at center of reinforced beam under static loading (1 in. 2). Jl[ _S L----_-------- I Fatigue tests were performed under load control using an MTS controller with a built-in function generator.

H. J. pp. 1986. "Fatigue Strength of Offshore Concrete Structures. K. S. The success of these tests resulted in the following conclusions: 1... E. Fully reversible cyclic loading of concrete beams can be performed efficiently under load feedback control. National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. ACI. 13. W. Since load level and rate have a substantial effect on results of fatigue testing. Vol. 0 0 6 . "Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Plain Concrete Subjected to High Repeated and Sustained Loads. [2] Robins. H. May 1979. pp.. When cycling at the load levels used in this test. Degradation of specimens can be evaluated by measuring deflections under load during the cyclic loading.001 . Division of Concrete Structures. A." National Sand and Gravel Association.166 J OURNAL OF TESTING AND EVALUATION Accompanying Specimens Tests Standard concrete cylinders were tested for compressive strength at 7. it is necessary to define a standard which will allow comparison of results from different programs. [1l] Cornelissen. 19 pp. March 1984. E. "Bond of Light-Weight Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Condensed Silica Fume. 26-30. . 1987. and Muir. T. Detroit. 419-435." Fatigue of Concrete Structures. University of California at Berkeley. H. Detroit. nl 0 . Vol. Results and Conclusions The purpose of this paper was to present detailed information on a procedure for testing low-cycle.. W. B. Nov. National Sea Grant College Program. Part 1. [5] Arthur. it was possible to prevent the explosive type of failure associated with failure of high-strength concrete and to obtain complete stress-strain curves which included the descending portion of the curve (Fig. A. pp. No. M. 14--Stress-strain curves of accompanying concrete cylinders (Lightweight Aggregate concrete) (1 ksi = 6. and Sea Water. 1974. "Some Fatigue Tests of HighStrength Concrete in Axial Compression. No. • . and the modulus of rupture was determined. through the California Sea Grant College Program." in Proceedings. pp. The Netherlands. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Vol. For design purposes it may be necessary to test under various load levels." Fatigue of Concrete. ksi 12. Performance of Concrete in Marine Environment.00S . The Norwegian Institute of Technology. "Stanton Walker Lecture--Fatigue and Fracture of Concrete.. 1 in. ACI. under Grant NA85AA-D-SG140. [3] Sparks." Fatigue of Concrete Structures. 79-1. "The Influence of Rate of Loading and Material Variability on the Fatigue Characteristics of Concrete. Acknowledgments This work is a result of research sponsored in part by NOAA. No further reproductions authorized. "Fatigue Failure of Concrete under Periodic Compressive Load. [•5] Bennett. References [1] Mor. Silica Fume. A. Chloride Solution.. [13] Awad. G. C. 219-224. "Fatigue of Concrete by Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading. E. K. At that time the modulus of elasticity was also measured on 75 by 150 m m (3 by 6 in. J. "Fatigue of Reinforced Concrete in Sea Water. 307-330. pp. 5. 5. pp. Detroit. Carl. and Watanabe. and Austin. Nov. [4] Hatano. "Fatigue Failure of Concrete in Tension. and extensive effort is being put into analyzing the parameters associated with the complete curve and their relation to design considerations. 373-397.. 1982." Bulletin No. [9] Roper. K. Vol. 1982. and Hodgkiess." Concrete (London). Thu Aug 25 15:46:52 EDT 2011 Downloaded/printed by National Instiute of Technology Calicut pursuant to License Agreement. high-magnitude fatigue of reinforced concrete. 26th Japan Congress on Materials Research. 0 0 5 . 0 0 4 . The values used in this program are recommended for comparison between different materials or specimens. E." SP-65. SP-75. ACI. Submerged conditions can be simulated inexpensively by using a flexible water jacket. SP-7S.1 .. O. C. pp. Slag. and 56 days and at the time of fatigue testing (ASTM C 39). 1971. ACI.009 Strain [in/in] FIG. "Fatigue of Reinforced Concrete in Seawater. without interrupting the test. W." Fly-Ash.. it is possible to complete one fatigue test in a week and a complete program in an acceptably short period. SP-91... "Fatigue of Reinforced Concrete Beams in Air. D. 59.. With a stiff testing machine under stroke control.. 1980. Detroit." Heron. "Fatigue Behavior of High-Strength Concrete under Marine Conditions. and Hilsdorf. 4 2 0 . 0 0 7 . April 1981. [7] Kesler. The University of Trondhelm.. St. J." Magazine of Concrete Research. Norway. No. 1982. Detroit. and Watanabe. 14). and in part by the California State Resources Agency. H.) cylinders in accordance with A S T M C 469. F. LW-2a 10 8. 14. and Hetherington. Detroit. J. 113-117. June 1967. [12] Muguruma.. P. 68 pp. 331-342. SP-7S.895 MPa. pp. S. [61 Waagaard. T. 1-14. 4. 4. Delft University of Technology. ACI. 29. H. 28. Unreinforced concrete beams were failed under flexure loading. ACI. 6. The ability to perform these tests on brittle nonuniform material like concrete is new. "Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Offshore Concrete Structures. 218 pp. pp." Doctoral thesis. By keeping the maximum load (and stresses) in the testing machine to no more than 40% of its rated capacity.4 ram). The U. 1970." COSMAR Report PP2-1. 2. 106-107. and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete. R. pp. [14] Holmen. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute for governmental purposes. 66 pp.. 3. 19." Fatigue of Concrete Structures. 1984. = 25. the specimens were loaded slowly to failure. [8] Waagaard. P. 3. and at a low rate of 1 Hz. SP-41. Project R / O E ." Transactions ofJSCE. 1979. "On the Low-Cycle Compressive Fatigue Behavior of Concrete under Submerged Condition.. S. 0 0 2 003 . [10] Paterson. 941-958.S. Department of Commerce. Nov. Stress. P.

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