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17465353-Brahmavihara-Dhamma

17465353-Brahmavihara-Dhamma

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E-mail: bdea@buddhanet.net
Web site: www.buddhanet.net
Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.
Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw
Tni Vi:in.nii M.n¯si S.v¯t.v
lts||c».|o·- |· l·.||-n
¡. As|\»v¯-» St..»
!. lt·o»·|·.»|- o| \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o·
1. lo|»on»··» St..»
1. To N|ss¯·» v|» .n| Nos|| l|.n.|o|o l».n
¯. ls»c.|c»| B»-|c lx|sc|-|-
e. ls»c.|c»| \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o· lx|sc|-|-
/. \||»--»·¯ ÷ S||s|.t»| l·-|.n.
°. A·»..»|»||n»·» St..»
-. Bn¯s» St..»
¡ð. B|o.s»|n\ o| V»n¯-| S»\¯o»w
¡¡. C0|¯v|o»||» St..»
¡!. Dn»··» D¯\¯o» St..»
¡1. H|·»v».» St..»
¡1. V»n¯-| Asso»o ÷ |»s. ¡
¡¯. V»n¯-| Asso»o ÷ |»s. !
¡e. V»|t·|\»|t..» St..»
¡/. 0· .n| N».ts| o| N|ss¯·» (N|ss¯·»|».| S»·\t..» K».n»)
¡°. lts|o-| o| ls»c.|-|·. K»··»..n¯·» V|o|.».|o·
¡-. l».|cc»-»·t||oo»
!ð. lts»sn|o» St..»
!¡. S»||»|».n» St..»
!!. S».||»..n¯·» \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o· ÷ Cs|.|c|-· c k|||||-
!1. S»··»|»s|ss»(»·|\»
!1. S»||||n» St..»
!¯. S».||»..n¯·» \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o·
!e. S||»v»·.» St..»
!/. Ttv».»|» St..»
!°. \»·|||» St..»
!-. Tn| wn||| o| Dn»··»
1ð. Bs»n·»v|n¯s» Dn»··»
Btoon» S»-»·» Nt..»n» 0s.»·|z».|o·
V»n»-| S»-»·» Y|||.n»
k»·.oo·
Bn.nx.vin¯n.
Dn.xx.
Tni
Vi:in.nii M.n¯si S.v¯t.v
ci
Btnx.
TransIalod by I Min Svo
(Min Kyav Tlu)
Iirsl prinlod and pubIislod in llo SociaIisl RopubIic of llo Inion of Burma
}uIy, 1985.
i
;IJTMÇWNÇ*WV\MV\[
los|woso ............................................................................................................................................................................ ¡1
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç0
ls||to| .o .n| Dn»··» .............................................................................................................................. ¡-
8fYdqla[YdÛklYl]e]flÛg^Ûl`]Ûe]Yfaf_Ûg^Ûe]llêÛ  Û !ð
V»||·. ls||»s».os\ Ass»·.|·|·.- ....................................................................................... !!
S|..|·. lo-.ts| w|.n l|.- Cso--|o .............................................................................................. !1
V|o|.».|·. s\ T»||·. L| A|| 1 ls|\¯|».n»- os lo-.ts|- .......................... !1
w||.n|·. t| .n| lso- c Co·- .............................................................................................................. !¯
Tn| l»t|. o| A·.|s ............................................................................................................................................... !/
Tn| V»··|s 0| D|v||o||·. V|..¯ ........................................................................................... 11
How .o D|v||o| .n| ¯!° K|·o- o| V|..¯ ........................................................................... 1/
Tn| V»··|s o| D|v||o||·. V|..¯ s\ A-n|· Sts0.| .......................................... ¯ð
Dn»·»·|n¯·| c V|..¯-|n¯·» .............................................................................................................. ¯¡
Tn| l||v|· Aov»·.».|- o| V|..¯ .................................................................................................. ¯/
Tn| S.os\ o| \|-¯|n» Tn|s| ...................................................................................................................... eð
Tn| S.os\ o| L..»s¯ ............................................................................................................................................ ee
D|v||o||·. V|..¯ c \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o· |· co·s|·».|o· ............... /¯
ii
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç00
w»\ o| -|..|·. co·|os.»s|\ ..................................................................................................................... /°
l|s-o·- .ow»so- wno· V|..¯ -not|o ·o. s| o|v||o||o ». .n|
|·|.|»| -.».| .................................................................................................................................... °ð
l|s-o·- t|o· wno· V|..¯ -not|o ·o. s| s|-.ow|o ....................................... °¡
l|s-o·- .ow»so- wno· V|..¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o ||s-. c
|os|·o-. .............................................................................................................................................. °1
How }n¯·» |- »cn||v|o .................................................................................................................................... °/
V|.noo o| s||||c.|o· .o -tsot| »·.|s ............................................................................... -¡
Tn| ·»··|s o| s||||c.|o· »ccoso|·. .o .n| T|· \|s-|- ........................... -¯
How .o -tsot| »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o· K»··» »- o·|'- ow·
|so||s.\ |· |o--|--|o· ..................................................................................................... -°
How .o -t||s|-- »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o·
.n| »..s|st.|- o| .n| Boon|-»..» ................................................................. --
How |».||·c| w»- |x|sc|-|o s\ Kn»·.|v»o|, » .s|». n|s·|. ............ ¡ðð
Tn| S.os\ o| Dn»··»|¯|», .n| \ot·. |»o ................................................................. ¡ðe
Tn| ·»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. |».||·c| s\ Cn»oo»·.» ......................................... ¡ð-
lx|sc|-|·. |».||·c| .nsot.n ·|·o|t|·|--
»- |x»·|||o s\ \|·. lo··» ................................................................................. ¡¡¡
lx.|·.t|-n|·. »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o· .n| |||·|·.-
»|.|s »·»|\-|·. .n|· .................................................................................................. ¡¡1
How »·.|s |- -tsot|o s\ » '.|v| c .»||' |o||c\ .................................................... ¡¡e
How S|·¯-»·sn|o» (»· |¸t»| -|s|»o o| ·|..¯) occts- ......................... ¡¡°
How V|..¯-}n¯·» |- »cn||v|o ......................................................................................................... ¡!ð
iii
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç000
V|..¯ |- »|-o .n| w»\ .o |·n»·c| D¯·», os »|·--.|v|·.. .................. ¡!!
ls|||·|·»s\ C¯.n¯ (\|s-|) o| .n| V|..¯ St..» ................................................... ¡!1
Tn| D||.||- .|ss||\ .n| ||v| nt·os|o Bn|||nt- .................................................... ¡!¯
Tn| Btoon» .»t.n. .n| V|..¯ St..» .o o|.|s o||.||- |so·
c»t-|·. os|»o|t| -|.n.- c .|ssos ........................................................... ¡!°
l. |- ·o. »o|¸t».| oo|·. .n| s|c|.».|o· o·|\,
o·| »|-o ·||o- .o |s»c.|-| .................................................................................. ¡1ð
Tn| V|..¯ St..» l»s|..» ........................................................................................................................... ¡1¡
1.Û DmklÛZ]Û[YhYZd]Ûg^ÛhjY[lakaf_ ............................................................................... ¡1¡
2.Û¬Û3.Û DmklÛZ]Û^jYfcÛYf\Û`gf]kl ........................................................................................ ¡1¯
4.Û J`gmd\ÛZ]Û\g[ad]ÛgjÛ\akhgk]\ÛlgÛ[gehdaYf[] ............................................ ¡1°
5.Û DmklÛZ]Û_]fld] ..................................................................................................................... ¡1ð
6.Û J`gmd\ÛfglÛZ]Û`Ym_`lq ................................................................................................. ¡1¡
7.Û J`gmd\ÛZ]Û]YkadqÛ[gfl]fl]\ ...................................................................................... ¡1!
8.Û J`gmd\ÛZ]Û^jm_Yd ................................................................................................................. ¡1°
9.Û J`gmd\ÛZ]Û[Yj]^j]] ............................................................................................................. ¡1-
1O.Û KgÛZ]Ûl]eh]jYl]ÛafÛl`]ÛoYqÛg^Ûdanaf_ ............................................................. ¡¯ð
Û J`gmd\ÛYdkgÛlYc]ÛYdgf_Ûl`]ÛZgodÛYf\ÛoYl]j¤kljYaf]j ..................... ¡¯¡
Û @Û^gmf\ÛalÛfglÛZmj\]fkge] ....................................................................................... ¡¯1
11.Û J`gmd\Û[mdlanYl]Û@f\jaqYÛ([Ydef]kk) .............................................................. ¡¯1
12.Û I]^d][lan]Ûcfgod]\_]ÛemklÛZ]ÛeYlmj] ......................................................... ¡¯¯
iv
S|v|· S»||¯\»- os o|-|s»s|| .n|·.- ......................................................................................... ¡¯/
Û JYll`YcYkYehYbêfYù ............................................................................................................. ¡¯/
Û JYhhêqYkYehYbêfYù .............................................................................................................. ¡¯°
13. J`gmd\ÛZ]Û^j]]Û^jgeÛjm\]f]kk ........................................................................................ ¡¯-
14. KgÛZ]Û^j]]\Ûg^ÛYllY[`e]flÛlgÛZgl`ÛeYd]Û¬Û^]eYd]ÛZ]f]^Y[lgjk ....... ¡e!
15. K`]ÛdYklÛ^mf\Ye]flYdÛjmd]Ûg^Û[gf\m[l ................................................................... ¡ee
0so|·»s\ w»\ o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ ....................................................................................... ¡e°
How .o o|v||o| V|..¯ s\ o|v|o|·. |. |·.o ! os 1 |»s.- ............................ ¡/ð
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ s\ -||»s».|·. |·.o ! |»s.- .................... ¡/¡
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ -||»s».|·. |·.o 1 o|-.|·c. |»s.- ... ¡/!
Tns|| ·|.noo- o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯
s\ ».»|· o|-.|·.t|-n|·. |·.o ! |»s.- .................................................... ¡/e
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ -o »- .o s| |s||
|so· t··|s|.|o ·|-|s\ .............................................................................................. ¡°¡
How .|·t|·| V|..¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o ÷ A· |||t-.s».|o· ..... ¡°-
How .o o|v||o| V|..¯ sso»o|\, w|.not. ||·|. .................................................... ¡-!
T|·| c |o-.ts| |s|-cs|s|o |os o|v||o||·. V|..¯ ............................................. ¡-¯
l|v|·. |· .n| |x|sc|-| o| |ots ·os|| |o-.ts|- c»|||o \|n¯s» ....... ¡-/
A||»·»··» c Bs»n·»cos» ................................................................................................................. ¡-°
ls»c.|-| .o |-c»|| |so· s|s|s.n os |·.|s|·. |·.o
» ·o.n|s'- wo·s (.»ssn»-|\\») s\ s|||c.|·. D|..n| .... ¡--
V»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. .o .|. A..»o|..n| s|||c.|o ........................................... !ð1
How .o |s»c.|-| .o s| ||s|s».|o |so· C»ssn»-|\\¯
os |·.|s|·. |·.o » wo·s ....................................................................................... !ð-
v
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç0=
S|co·o V|..¯ St..» ........................................................................................................................................ !¡1
Tn| S.os\ o| ko|»·»||» .............................................................................................................................. !!ð
L B» H.t'- V|..¯ .................................................................................................................................................. !!1
Tn| S.os\ o| S¯·¯v».| .................................................................................................................................... !!1
Tn| S.os\ o| S|n»s¯nt .................................................................................................................................. !1¡
Tn| S.os\ o| Stv»··»-¯·» .................................................................................................................... !11
How .o co·.|·||».| »ccoso|·. .o .n| S|co·o V|..¯ St..» ........ !1/
l·||s·»·|·c| (A·|cc»), cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| l·||s·»·|·c| c
.n| co·.|·||».|o· o| l·||s·»·|·c| ÷
A·|cc¯·t|»--»·¯ ............................................................................................................... !¯ð
Dt||n», cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| Dt||n» c Dt||n¯·t|»--»·¯ ................ !¯1
A·»..», cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| A·»..», c A·»..¯·t|»--»·¯ ...................... !¯e
Co·.|·t».|o· o| .n| S|co·o V|..¯ St..» ................................................................... !¯-
Tn| l|s-. V|..¯ St..» ................................................................................................................................... !e!
To co·.|·||».| \||»--»·¯ wn||| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ ..................................... !e-
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç=
wn». |- ·|»·. s\ K»st·¯ ...................................................................................................................... !/¡
Tn| Boon|-»..»'- K»st·¯ ......................................................................................................................... !/1
Tn| Btoon»'- .s|». co·|»--|o· ...................................................................................................... !/°
vi
l|s-o· .ow»so- wno· K»st·¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o ||s-. ................ !°ð
How .o o|v||o| K»st·¯ »ccoso|·. .o .n| |ns»-|
ºS»ss| S»..» Dt||n» Vtcc»·.t" ............................................................. !°e
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. ¡1! ||·o- o| K»st·¯ ........................................................... !°/
How |·ow||o.| o| V»n¯|»st·¯-»·¯|»..| occts- .................................... !-!
Co·-.»·. woss\ |- ||.|»s|| ................................................................................................................... !-1
l. |- ||.|»s|| |os s||·. »|-o c»ss||o »w»\ .o o|o ».|,
-|c|·|-- c o|».n ................................................................................................................. !--
K»st·¯ .n». n»o o·c| occtss|o wn|· l w»- » ·ov|c| ·o·| ...... 1ð¡
l. |- ||.|»s|| ·o. n»v|·. »·\.n|·. .o o|||·o t|o· ........................................ 1ð¯
Tn| Btoon» cot|o o·|\ T|»cn c |o|·. .n| w»\ ................................................. 1ð°
To »s»·oo· |v|s\.n|·. |- ||.|»s|| ............................................................................................ 1¡ð
Tn| S.os\ o| K|·. S|s|on»··¯-o|» ........................................................................................ 1¡!
B||·. » -|»v| .o T»·n¯ |- |·o||o ||.|»s|| ...................................................................... 1¡e
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç=0
B||·.- »s| s||·. |||sc|o s\ »ssow- .......................................................................................... 1!!
Tn| ·»··|s o| .|..|·. s|o o| »· »ssow s\ co·.|·||».|·. c
·o.|·. .n| Dn»··» ..................................................................................................... 1!°
l··|-n|o |· T»·n¯ c os||.|·. |· .n| ctss|·. o| T»·n¯ ................... 11°
C»t.n. |· .n| ·|. o| D|..n|, c
os||.|·. |· .n| ctss|·. o| D|..n| ........................................................... 11ð
vii
B||·. co·-t·|o s\ ||s| ................................................................................................................................. 11¯
Tn| ·»··|s o| o|v||o||·. Vto|.¯ ........................................................................................... 1¯¯
)ZIPUI^QPÖZIÇ+PIUUIÇ 7IZ\Ç=00
wn». |- L||||n¯` ................................................................................................................................................. 1/1
l- |. ·o. s»o .o s| |·o||||s|·. .o .n| w|||»s| o| o.n|s-` .................... 1/1
k||||c.|·. o· .n| |so- c co·- ........................................................................................................ 1/e
lsox|·|.\ o| L||||n¯ .................................................................................................................................... 1//
C0|»|»··»v|sn»·.» St..» ................................................................................................................. 1°¡
Qt|-.|o·- s»|-|o s\ Stsn» ...................................................................................................................... 1-1
Tn| loso Btoon»'- »·-w|s ..................................................................................................................... 1-e
K»··|c c»t-| o| -nos. c |o·. |||| .......................................................................................... 1ð1
K»··|c c»t-| o| o|-|»-| c .ooo n|»|.n ......................................................................... 1ð°
Tn| S.os\ o| l0.|.»..».|--» Tn|s» ............................................................................................ 1ð-
K»··|c c»t-| o| t.||·|-- c |»|s co·|||x|o· ........................................................... 1¡¯
K»··|c c»t-| o| ||w os ·os| »..|·o»·.- ................................................................... 1¡/
K»··|c c»t-| o| |ov|s.\ c »|||t|·c| ............................................................................... 1¡/
Tn| S.os\ o| A·»·o¯, .n| ·||||o·»|s| ................................................................................ 1¡-
K»··|c c»t-| o| |ow os n|.n s|s.n ......................................................................................... 1!¯
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. ¡1! ||·o- o| L||||n¯ .......................................................... 11ð
viii
K»··|c c»t-| o| |»c| o| |·ow||o.| c
c»t-| o| n|.n|s |·.||||c.t»| |ow|s ................................................... 11¯
A|t-»|» wn|cn |- ·o. o|-|sv|·. o| s|||»·c| c
wn|cn -not|o s| »vo|o|o ....................................................................................... 11ð
Kt-»|» wn|cn -not|o s| s||||o t|o· c ||s|os·|o ........................................ 11!
Tn| ·»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. ·|o|.».|o·
.o .»|· \||»--»·¯-|t-»|» ..................................................................................... 111
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·., c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| -|||·. ............................................................................................................... 11/
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| n|»s|·. ........................................................................................................ 1¯ð
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| -·||||·. ...................................................................................................... 1¯!
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| |».|·. .............................................................................................................. 1¯1
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| co·.»c. ........................................................................................................ 1¯¯
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|- ». .n|
·o·|·. o| |·».|·|·. c |·ow|·. ............................................................. 1e!
Kt-»|» wn|cn -not|o s| s||||o t|o· c ||s|os·|o
(co·.|·t».|o·) ....................................................................................................................... 1ee
lx||»·».|o· .|v|· |· .n| ||.n. o| .n| |s|-|·. K»··» .......................... 1e/
K»··» c |.- ||||c.- ÷ cs|.|c»| co··|·. |· co·c|t-|o· .................... 1/ð
Co·c|t-|o· c B||--|·. ................................................................................................................................ 1/¯
8Û9ag_jYh`a[YdÛJc]l[` .................................................................................................................................. 1/e
13
los|woso
Tlis ¨Bralmavilãra Dlamma¨ (Divino Abidings) ox-
poundod by llo Ialo VonorabIo Malãsi Sayãdav, rovoaIs llo
syslomalic mollod of dovoIoping Mcii¯, Ioving-kindnoss
lovards aII boings and llo vay lo Ioad a Iifo of loIinoss.
Tlo slyIo of prosonlalion and llo informalivo maloriaIs
conlainod lloroin sland vilnoss lo llo dopll and voaIll
of spiriluaI and scripluraI knovIodgo of llo ominonl
aullor. Tlo varmll and sympallolic undorslanding
of llo luman naluro vill vlicl llo aullor is movod,
rofIocls llo nobIo quaIilios of a lruo discipIo of llo Buddla
vlo vas commillod lo llo voIfaro of aII Iiving boings.
And vlo lad llrougloul lis Iifolimo from llo limo of
His Supromo EnIigllonmonl, dovolod lis compassionalo
skiII lo llo aid of ollors for lloir omancipalion from voos,
vorrios and sufforings.
A carofuI roading of llis Dlamma or loaclings, foIIovod
by an unfaiIing praclico of modilalion llal las boon cIoarIy
prosonlod in llis loxl viII, I boIiovo, amounl lo sloring a
forluno in llo slapo of lappinoss in llo prosonl Iifolimo as
voII as liglor spiriluaI allainmonl.
Buddlism, as a vorId roIigion, las provon lo bo a guiding
forco lo luman civiIisalion and lo aII mankind vlo aro
14
in misory. Iifo, in facl, is fuII of sufforings, and vlal is
soomingIy pIoasurabIo is in roaIily misorabIo. Il vas onIy
aflor llo appoaranco of Buddlism, vlicl incuIcalos moraI
discipIino, and mcii¯, Ioving-kindnoss llal llo poopIo viII
find a lappior and poacofuI vorId. Tlo vay lo cuIlivalo
mcii¯ and compassion (|crun¯) las boon vividIy slovn
in llis Bralmavilãra Dlamma aparl from ollor finor
quaIilios, vlicl a luman boing slouId possoss and
pracliso for llo sako of ono's ovn bonofil and of ollor
sonlionl boings. IuII inslruclions aro givon in llis loxl
of Dlamma lo dovoIop llo nobIo praclicos parlicuIarIy
llo four Bralmavilãra, namoIy, mcii¯, |crun¯, mu!ii¯ and
upc|||¯ according lo vlal las boon laugll by llo Buddla
in a sublIo and profound vay vill Groal Compassion
fIoving frooIy lovards aII Iiving croaluros. Buddla couId
soo lov aII boings aro sufforing and boaring llo burdon
of lloir ||cn!|cs for so Iong as lloy aro drifling aIong in
llo lido of scmscr¯. Tlo Dlamma las laugll us lo lavo
aIso (|crun¯) compassion, for ollors in dislross incIuding
animaIs from minulo onos lo onormous croaluros. Tlis
las boon oIucidalod by llo VonorabIo Malãsi Sayãdav lo
onabIo us lo cIoar avay llo dusl in our oyos lo discorn llo
lrull.
Tlis loxl of Dlamma is onriclod vill a numbor of
anocdolos vlicl go lo iIIuslralo vill Iucidily llo vaIuo of
dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss, compassion and rojoicing in
15
ollors' prosporily and lappinoss, and aIso lov lo conlroI
angor, avoid onvy, pracliso palionco and soIf-roIianco and
ollor virluos. Il las boon omplasisod llal luman Iifo
is vuInorabIo lo pain and sufforing. Iifo is a procoss of
clango from llo simpIo lo llo compIox, birll lo doall, from
boginning lo ond. Nolling ovor romains llo samo in a man,
vlicl is composod of rùpc and n¯mc vlicl aro arising and
vanisling al ovory momonl of sooing, loaring, smoIIing,
lasling, conlacling and imagining. Tlo appoaranco
and disappoaranco of vibraling manifoslalions aro llo
bocoming and cossalion procoss of rùpc-n¯mc, vlicl aro
lransionl by naluro. Tlis facl of ¨impormanonco¨ brings in
ils vako discomforl, pain, iIInoss and unlappinoss as aIso
vlal is orronoousIy considorod as joy and pIoasuro, vlicl
aro in facl, su||c-.c!cn¯. Iroacling las boon mado llal a
porson vlo is nol discipIinod in moraIily viII Iack visdom,
and in consoquonco, ovon a lriviaI oviI commillod by lim
viII Ioad lim lo llo slalo of misory. Buddla las laugll us
lo pavo our ovn vay for saIvalion, i.o., lo praclico nobIy
and diIigonlIy lo gol rid of aII misorios. Buddla couId
onIy loacl us llo vay lo lappinoss. ¨Iurily and impurily
dopond on onosoIf, no ono can purify anollor¨, says llo
Buddla. Tlis brings us lo llo Iav of |cmmc. Wo aro llo
loirs of our ovn |cmmc, good and bad aclions of vlal vo
lavo dono in llo pasl and vlal vo aro doing nov. In llo
mallor of dovoIoping |crun¯ (compassion) lovards a boing
vlo is sufforing, and in oxlromo misory boyond succour,
16
ono viII lavo lo nurso a fooIing of oquanimily ÷ upc|||¯.
In ossonco, il is lo viov llo falo of llal boing as ¨|cmmcssc|c¨
i.o., ovory Iiving boing las onIy |cmmc as lis ovn porsonaI
proporly in possossion. Good |cmmc producos good and
bad |cmmc producos oviI, o.g., ¨gonorosily¨ yioIds voaIll,
¨moraIily¨ causos ono lo bo roborn in nobIo famiIios in
slalos of lappinoss, ¨angor¨ causos ugIinoss, and so on.
Tloso lavo boon slovn ciling roIovanl slorios, vlicl aro
aullonlic as laugll by llo Buddla.
Raro indood is llis Dlamma vlicl las boon so oIaboraloIy
oxpoundod by llo aullor, llo VonorabIo Malãsi Sayãdav
llal our loarlfoIl graliludo goos lo llo Sayãdav and aIso
lo I Tloin Han, a rolirod }udgo and a Exoculivo Mombor
of llo Buddla Sãsana Nuggala Organisalion, for making
lapo rocordings of llis nobIo Dlamma proaclod by
llo VonorabIo Malãsi Sayãdav. Tloso rocordings voro
lranscribod and llo manuscripl vas prosonlod lo llo
Sayãdav for scruliny, rovrilings and approvaI boforo llo
finaI drafl vonl lo llo pross.
Iifo las boon doscribod as a conlinuous bocoming (||c.c)
Iiko a vlooI moving on and on upon llo viIdornoss
of samsarã. Ono is born, ono grovs and suffors, and
ovonluaIIy dios lo bo roborn and conlinuos llo ondIoss
journoy caIIod '||c.c' ÷ Iifo oxislonco. Buddla las
poinlod oul llal insigll knovIodgo, caIIod visdom can bo
17
gainod onIy by vay of aclioving si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯
(moraIily, conconlralion and visdom) llrougl llo NobIo
EigllfoId Iall. Wisdom, lloroforo, conslilulos llo groal
accompIislmonl for an aspiranl. Ono vlo aspiros slouId
knov llo lruo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic
(impormanonco, sufforing or unsalisfaclorinoss, and
nol-soIf) llrougl sorious conlompIalion on and noling,
vlicl viII finaIIy Ioad lovards compIolo Iiboralion from
sufforings aflor allainmonl of mcggc-p|c|c-ñ¯nc (pall and
fruilion knovIodgos). Tlo VonorabIo Malãsi Sayãdav las
givon us guidoIinos lo acliovo llal insigll visdom by llo
praclico of vipassanã ovon vliIo dovoIoping mcii¯, |crun¯,
olc. Impormanonco of aII llings aro ovidonl. Wlon vo aro
young, vo aro onIy vaguoIy avaro of lloso llings. Il is
bocauso of Iack of visdom llal loaIll and vigour acl as
barriors againsl llo onsIauglls of Iifo. Will llo passago
of limo as vo grov oIdor vill groy lairs and ollor signs
of docay, vo como lo soo vlal is acluaIIy lapponing lo us
in lruo porspoclivo, and llo significanco of llo coasoIoss
clango occurring in us and llings around us. Buddla's
loacling is as vilaI and roIovanl loday as il vas vlon lo
Iivod conlurios ago.
I lavo lransIalod llis vondorfuI Dlamma vill as mucl
scloIarIy accuracy as possibIy, and vill my lumbIo
spiriluaI porcoplivonoss llal is villin my praclicaI
knovIodgo of llo Dlamma vlicl I lavo boon abIo lo
18
acquiro undor llo guidanco of my spiriluaI loaclors.
May llis vork conlribulo lovards a vidor knovIodgo
of llo Dlamma and a doopor approcialion of Buddlism,
vlicl is liglIy pragmalic. May llo conslanl praclico of
llo Dlamma on llo Iinos indicalod in llis loxl provonl
c|usc|c (unvloIosomo slalos of mind) and uIlimaloIy
doslroy aII llo follors llal koop us avay from our finaI
goaI, Nibbãna.
Mi: Svi (Mi: Kv.v Tnt)
Sicni+.nv
Btttn. S¯s.:. Ntcc.n.
R.:ccc:, Btnx..
Iinnt.nv 5, 1983.
19
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. |
´ N.xc T.ss. Bn.c.v.+c An.n.+c S.xx¯ S.xntttn.s.
ls||to| .o .n| Dn»··»
Today is llo IuII Moon day of Wãso, 1327 n.i. Slarling from
loday, I viII givo loaclings on llo Bralmavilãra Dlamma.
In llo plraso or group of vords ÷ ¨Bralmavilãra¨, llo
vord ¨Bralm㨠moans ¨NobIo¨. Tlis vord, if proporIy
pronouncod in IãIi slouId bo rocilod as ¨Biralma¨. In
Burmoso, il is lo bo roprosonlod and rocilod carrying a
vocaI sound as ¨Bralmã¨. Tlis can bo oasiIy undorslood.
Tlo vord ¨Vilãra¨ convoys llo moaning of ¨DvoIIing¨, or
¨Abiding¨, or ¨Iiving¨. Honco, ¨Bralmavilãra¨ purporls
llo moaning of ¨NobIo Iiving¨, or rallor, ¨Iiving in llo
oxorciso of goodviII.¨
Tlo oxprossion ¨Bralmavilãra¨, if anaIysod, viII incIudo
mcii¯, friondIinoss or Ioving-kindnoss, |crun¯, compassion,
mu!ii¯, goodviII or rojoicing vill ollors in lloir lappinoss
or prosporily, and upc|||¯, oquanimily or indifforonco lo
pain and pIoasuro. Tloso aro llo four kinds of 8rc|mc.i|¯rc.
´ TransIalion: Homago lo Him, llo ExaIlod, llo Worlly, llo IuIIy EnIigllonod Ono.
2O
Il las lovovor boon monlionod in Malãgovinda Sulla
as ¨8rc|mcccriµc.¨ Tloroforo, Bralmavilãra Dlamma is
commonIy namod as ¨8rc|mcccrc¨ Dlamma. 8rc|mcccriµc
moans Iifo of HoIinoss or Iiving a Virluous Iifo. Tlis can
lloroforo bo aIso caIIod 8rc|mcccrc D|cmmc from nov
onvards.
Tlon aIso, in llo Ablidlamma !cscn¯, llo Bralmavilãra
Dlamma las boon oxpIainod as cppcmciic, llo lorm llal
is dorivod from llo vord ¨infinilo¨ or ¨boundIoss¨. Il las
boon so namod as cppcmciic bocauso vlon dovoIoping
mcii¯, Ioving-kindnoss, il couId bo dono vill unIimilod or
porfocl oxorciso of llo quaIilios of friondIinoss ÷ mcii¯ olc.,
lovards aII boings.
AnaIyticaI statcmcnt nI thc mcaning nI mcttã
Of llo four kinds of Bralmavilãra Dlamma, mcii¯
moans Iovo, |crun¯ moans compassion, mu!ii¯ moans
lappinoss or joy, upc|||¯ moans oquanimily. Oul of lloso
four moanings lransIalod inlo EngIisl, onIy llo moaning
of llo vord 'compassion' is cIoar and prociso villoul
mingIing vill any ollor sonso or lorminoIogy. Tlo lorm
¨Iovo¨ may convoy llo sonso of cIinging or allaclmonl
vill r¯gc, luman passionalo dosiros. ¨Happinoss¨ aIso
concorns rojoicing for fuIfiIImonl of ono's ovn dosiro or, in
connoclion vill Dlamma. ¨Equanimily or Indifforonco¨
21
covors various aspocls of monlaI sonsalions, olc. As sucl,
if llo moanings of llo lorms: mcii¯, mu!ii¯ cn! upc|||¯ aro
rondorod in EngIisl as Iovo, lappinoss and oquanimily, il
vouId appoar lo lavo roIalod lo ollor moanings of difforonl
slados, oxlranoous lo vlal is roaIIy inlondod lo convoy.
Honco, il vouId bo moro obvious, if lloy aro oxprossod in
ordinary IãIi usago, as mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, |crun¯ ||¯.cn¯, and
upc|||¯ ||¯.cn¯. So vo slaII uso llo IãIi Ianguago, vlicl
is moro comprolonsivoIy cIoar lo doIivoring llis loacling.
Mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ moans nolling bul lo dovoIop ono's mind
vill Ioving-kindnoss lovards ollors. Wlon a llougll
occurs visling prosporily and lappinoss lo ollors, il is bul
a virluous llougll. Wlal is moanl by |crun¯ ||¯.cn¯ is lo
dovoIop compassionalo fooIing lovards ollor boings. Evon
ordinariIy, if ono fooIs pily lovards llo ollor visling lim
oscapo from sufforings, il is a virluous llougll of |crun¯.
As rogards ¨mu!ii¯¨, il convoys llo sonso of joy or rojoicing
vill ollors in lloir conlinuod lappinoss and prosporily.
Rogarding llo lorm upc|||¯, il is a fooIing of indifforonco or
oquanimily vill no inlorosl or vorry in anollor's lappinoss,
slalo or condilion ÷ laving a noulraI sonsalion ÷ llinking
llal lloso llings lavo inovilabIy lapponod according lo
|cmmc, llo consoquonliaI offocls of good or bad morils. Of
lloso four sorls of |rc|mc.i|¯rc, firsl and foromosl, I slaII
doaI vill llo dovoIopmonl of mcii¯ |rc|mc.i|¯rc.
- If you nood loIp vill llo IãIi lorms, pIoaso rofor lo llo IãIi-EngIisl GIossary.
22
V»||·. ls||»s».os\ Ass»·.|·|·.-
In llo Visuddli Magga (Tlo Iall of Iurificalion ÷ a loxl
on modilalion), boforo oxpIaining llo mannor as lo lov
conlompIalion slouId bo mado on pci|c.i |csinc, (llo oarll
|csinc), llo subjocl of proIiminary arrangomonls (pcri|cmmc)
lo bo dono, las boon oIaboralod quilo oxlauslivoIy. To
pul il in a nulsloII as lo vlal is mosl ossonliaI, priorily
slouId bo givon lo llo propor obsorvanco of moraIily, llo
purily of si|c, and llon lo compIoloIy sollIo anylling lo
bo dono vlicl may causo lindrancos (pc|i|c!|c) or croalo
a fooIing of vorry in rogard lo llo rosiding monaslory.
Tlo noxl poinl is lo accopl vill faill and confidonco llo
inslruclions givon roIaling lo llo mollod of dovoIoping
Ioving-kindnoss (mcii¯), vlicl ono inlonds lo lako up from
a compolonl modilalion loaclor (|cmmcii|cn¯c¯riµc). Tlis
is llo mollod I am nov going lo proscribo. Il is nocossary
lo slay in an approprialo monaslory, or rallor, a rolroal
conlro, and sollIo aII anxiolios IikoIy lo croop in, sucl as,
slaving llo load and culling off llo lairs on llo load and
cIipping llo fingor and loo naiIs and carrying oul ollor
lriviaI mallors. Ialor, lako a rosl for a vliIo aflor moaIs lo
avoid sIuggislnoss or inorlia. OnIy aflor finisling up aII
odd jobs llal nood lo bo porformod, clooso a quiol spol or
a pIaco of soIiludo, and llon lako up a silling posluro vill
oaso and comforl.
23
S|..|·. lo-.ts| w|.n l|.- Cso--|o
Silling vill oaso and comforl moans lo oblain a comforl-
abIo vay of silling so llal ono can sil for a Iong limo villoul
inlorforing vill lis or lor conlompIalion. To bogin lraining,
llo bosl vay is lo sil orocl cross-Ioggod so as lo bocomo
comforlabIo. Tloro aro llroo kinds of silling posluros.
(1) Tlo mannor of silling posluro found in Buddla
imagos or slaluos. Tlis is nol vory oasy for llo
Burmoso poopIo lo imilalo.
(2) Tlo vay blikklunïs or nuns usod lo sil villoul
inlorIocking llo Iogs, is nol suilabIo. Tlis posilion
is gonoraIIy adoplod by many. Il is lo koop llo Iogs
paraIIoI vliIo silling villoul prossing ono againsl
llo ollor. Il may bo foasibIo sinco, llo posluro viII nol
bIock llo bIood fIov running llrougl llo voins.
(3) Tlo silling posluro adoplod by blikklunïs, vlicl
is bosl, i.o., llo silling posluro vill laIf llo Iongll
of llo Iogs crossod. Any ono of lloso llroo lypos of
silling posluros, bosl suilod lo you, may bo closon.
IomaIos aIso may sil as lloy pIoaso. Tlo mannor of
laking a silling posluro as slalod, is roquirod onIy al
llo primary slago of modilalion. Tloroaflor, silling
posluros vill knoos up or vill Iogs slrolclod, may
bo lakon up according lo circumslancos.
24
V|o|.».|·. s\ T»||·. L| A|| 1 ls|\¯|».n»- os lo-.ts|-
Modilalion can bo dono vliIo vaIking, or slanding, or
silling, or Iying dovn, vlicl aro llo four usuaI posluros.
Il is cIoarIy ovidonl llal modilalion oxorciso can bo mado
by adopling any ono of llo four posluros as slalod in llo
Mollã Sulla in llo foIIoving vords:
¨1iii|cm ccrcm nisinnc .¯, scµ¯nc µ¯.ci¯ssc
.iicmi!!|c cicm sciim c!|iii|cµµc.¨
Tlo moaning of llis IãIi plraso is:
1iii|cm ÷ oillor in llo acl of slanding, ccrcm ÷ or in llo
acl of vaIking, nisinnc .¯ ÷ or vliIo silling, scµ¯nc ÷ or
vliIo Iying dovn, µ¯.ci¯ ÷ for llo duralion of llal poriod,
.iicmi!!|c ÷ i|c mind viII bo froo from sIoll or sIoopinoss,
cssc ÷ and il viII so lappon. Y¯.ci¯ ÷ for llal parlicuIar
Iongll, of limo, cicm sciim ÷ llis praclico of mindfuInoss
vlicl arisos aIong vill Ioving-kindnoss, c!|iii|cµµc
÷ slouId bo dovoIopod by fixing llo mind upon il and
Iolling onosoIf romain in llis slalo of mind.
Il las boon cIoarIy inslruclod lo conlompIalo and nolo
by vay of assuming llo four usuaI posluros nol onIy in
rospocl of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, bul aIso in rogard lo praclising
25
sciipcii|¯nc .ipcsscn¯ roIaling lo vlicl il las boon proaclod
as gccc|cnic .¯ gccc|¯miii pcj¯n¯ii¨, olc.
Honco, aIllougl inslruclions lavo boon givon lo lako
up a silling posluro cross-Ioggod al llo iniliaI slago of
modilalion, aII of llo four iriµ¯pci|cs or posluros can bo
adoplod as may bo considorod approprialo in dovoIoping
mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, i.o., modilalion lo cuIlivalo mindfuInoss
on Ioving kindnoss. Tlo ossonliaI poinl is lo dovoIop
conlompIalion on Ioving-kindnoss on aII occasions or
rallor conlinuousIy, Ioaving asido aboul four lours al llo
limo of midnigll or six lours limo for sIoop. Wlon going
lo bod al aboul 9 or 1O p.m. vliIo Iying in bod boforo faIIing
asIoop, il slouId bo so dovoIopod.
w||.n|·. t| .n| lso- c Co·-
Aflor laking up llo cross-Ioggod posluro, llo fauIls of
angor or maIico and llo advanlagos of palionco slouId bo
imaginod and rofIoclod upon. If lloso lavo boon aIroady
rofIoclod upon oarIior, il vouId bo quilo sufficionl. Tlis
las boon accordingIy inslruclod in as mucl as bonofils
viII bo accruod by rofIoclion. Il is nol oxlromoIy imporlanl
llougl. If modilalod vill inlonso faill and onllusiasm,
26
bonoficiaI rosuIls vouId bo dorivod. NonolloIoss, if ono
is going lo undorlako any kind of vork or businoss, lloro
may bo llings vlicl aro lo bo rofIoclod upon or fuIfiIIod.
Rojoclion can bo mado onIy vlon ono soos llo fauIl. Ior
oxampIo, lako llo caso of a porson svooping and cIoaning
a room in a louso or a monaslory, vill a broomslick. Ho
vouId pick up and llrov avay scraps of papor, cIoll or
brokon piocos of slick if lloy aro considorod by lim as
moro lrasl or vorllIoss sluff lo bo discardod. If sucl
lrasl or vaslo mallor aro kopl or pul asido in llis or llal
pIaco insido llo room, llo room cannol possibIy bo froo
from rubbisl. In llo samo vay, if llo fauIl of angor is
nol porcoivod, ono is IikoIy lo accopl llal 'angor' villoul
rojocling il. Tloro is ovory possibiIily llal sucl a slalo of
affairs or condilion vouId provaiI.
Ior inslanco, novadays poopIo vlo boar grudgo againsl
somoono or lavo griovanco againsl ollors for laving
dono somolling vrong lo lloir dolrimonl, may bo said lo
lavo boon larbouring llo angor or maIico. An aggriovod
porson vlo las so bocomo angry, may fooI bad or sour
ovon if ollors vouId appoaso lis angor by comforling
lim vill nico vords. And llon, lo migll ovon considor
il pIoasurabIo lo onlorlain llis bIooming angor, or ovon
bocomo infurialod or fIarod up vlon somoono lrios lo
sobor lim dovn. Moroovor, il is IikoIy llal lo vouId ovon
bIamo ollors for bossing lim. Tlis rosombIos a porson
27
vlo koops a vonomous vipor in lis poucl luckod up al
lis vaisl accopling llo angor nol roaIising llo disaslrous
consoquonco or llo fauIl of il. Honco, lo bo abIo lo rojocl
llo angor, ono slouId rofIocl upon llo fauIly naluro of llis
angor or llo spilofuI fooIing. Tlo mannor of rofIoclion lo bo
dono according lo llo loxls of Dlamma, las boon slovn
as foIIovs: Al ono limo, on boing askod by a vandoring
ascolic, Iaribbãjako, by llo namo of Clanna, as: ¨Ior vlal
kind of fauIl llal is inloronl or apparonl in r¯gc, !csc and
mc|c, las il boon proaclod and proscribod for rojoclion, or
rallor, lo gol rid of llom`¨, llo VonorabIo Aslin Anandã
Tlora gavo llo ropIy as slalod loroinaflor.
Tn| l»t|. o| A·.|s
A.usc ÷ O, my friond Clanna, !uii|c ÷ a vicious porson
vlo is boaring iII-viII or bocoming angry, !cscnc c||i|ùic
÷ boing ovorvloImod vill angor, nay, ovorpovorod by
angor or rosonlmonl, pcriµ¯!¯ncm ciiic ÷ vlicl las usod
up or vipod off aII nobIo-mindodnoss or virluous llouglls,
nay, villoul goodviII bocauso of angor, ciic.µ¯p¯!cµ¯pi
ccicii ÷ pIol lo cruoIIy causo limsoIf lo suffor misory,
pcrc.µ¯p¯!cµ¯pi. u||cµc.µ¯p¯!cµ¯pi ccicii ÷ carry oul
pIans lo iII-lroal limsoIf as voII as ollors, and bring aboul
misorabIo condilions. K¯µ¯nc ÷ plysicaIIy, !ucccriicm
28
÷ bad doods, sucl as kiIIing, olc., ccrcii ÷ aro commillod,
.cccrc ÷ vorbaIIy (and) mcncs¯ ÷ monlaIIy, !ucccriicm ÷
ullor abusivo vords, visling ollors' ruin or doslruclion in
Iifo and proporly and so on. In ossonco, il is lo rofIocl and
oxorciso roslrainl basod upon llis Dlamma so proaclod.
Tlo mannor of rofIoclion and oxorcising roslrainl or
kooping ono's mind undor conlroI is:
Wlon giving riso lo aggrossivo angor, il is obvious llal
ono bocomos misorabIo. IooIing of joy or lappinoss vlicl
proviousIy porvados lim immodialoIy disappoars. MonlaI
dislross lakos pIaco vlicl llon clangos lis Iooks lo
bocomo grim and dislorlod causod by unlappinoss. Ho
vouId bocomo fidgoly, and llo moro lo bocomos furious,
llo moro lo is dislrossod and ombarrassod boll plysicaIIy
and monlaIIy. Angor may incilo lim lo commil murdor or
ullor obscono vords. If lo makos a rolrospoclion of lis pasl
oviI doods, lo viII, in llo Ioasl, fooI sorry and lumiIialod
by boing conscious of lis ovn guiIl, or llal, if lo las
commillod a crimo, lo viII dofiniloIy suffor aII al onco in
rocoiving duo punislmonl for lis crimos. Iurllormoro,
in lis noxl oxislonco lo can doscond lo llo cp¯µc roaIm
vloro lo viII invariabIy lavo lo undorgo immonso
sufforing and misory. Tlis is jusl a briof doscriplion of
lov angor viII bring aboul diro consoquoncos. Sucl
incidonls can bo porsonaIIy oxporioncod and knovn by
moro rolrospoclion.
29
Misory causod lo ollors by angor is moro obvious. In llo
Ioasl, making ollors fooI unlappy by vord of moull is
fairIy common. A porson vlo is raiIod al may fooI avfuIIy
dislrossod and suffor monlaI pain. Angry mood may
roIogalo lo llo IovoI of kiIIing ollors or causing sovoro
sufforing monlaIIy. Evon if no lorribIo consoquonco may
nol lako pIaco in llo prosonl Iifolimo, an angry porson
viII Iand in llo nollor vorId in lis fuluro oxisloncos.
If al aII lo is roborn in llo vorId of luman boings by
virluo of lis vloIosomo |usc|c |cmmc, lo viII bo groalIy
landicappod vill a slorl span of Iifo, oxuboranl disoasos
and ugIinoss in lis porsonaI appoaranco. Angor cul boll
vays ondangoring boll llo porson vlo is angry and llo
aggriovod. I vouId nol proposo lo iIIuslralo furllor ciling
roIovanl slorios roIaling lo llo mannor of rofIoclion on llo
fauIls of angor sinco lloro is lardIy any limo al my disposaI
lo londor my loaclings on lov mcii¯ can bo dovoIopod.
Tn| B|·|||c|»| lst|.- o| l».||·c|
Noxl, in llo mallor of rofIocling on llo morils or fruils
of 'palionco', ||cnii. Ialionco or forboaranco is basicaIIy
llo Dlamma conlrary lo angor, vlicl, in ollor ucr!s, is
c!csc ÷ absonco of angor. Il is simiIar lo llo ossonco of
mcii¯, Ioving-kindnoss. In parlicuIar, vlal is said lo lavo
palionco, is lo bo abIo lo onduro any kind of provocalion
3O
and lo romain caIm villoul angor and doing oviI. Mcii¯ or
Ioving-kindnoss is moro significanl or rallor, far-roacling
in moaning llan palionco. Il imbibos llo quaIily of goodviII,
rojoicing vill ollor poopIo's lappinoss. Tlo advanlagos of
palionco lavo boon doscribod in llo Visuddli Magga (Tlo
Iall of Iurificalion) in llo mannor slalod boIov.
¨K|cnii pcrcmcm icpc iiii|||¯¨ vlicl moans ¨Ialionco is
llo liglosl or bosl dovolion¨. Il is llo nobIosl and pious
praclico of virluo.
¨K|cnii|c|cm |c|¯ni|cm¨. Il connolos llal sinco palionco las
ils ovn slrongll, il slouId bo undorslood as proaclod
by llo Buddla llal llo bonoficiaI fruils of palionco by
symboIising llo allribulos of a nobIo porson ÷ |r¯|mcnc,
lavo llo forco of slrongll vlicl is bul palionco. Wlal is
acluaIIy moanl by llis Dlamma is llal llo slrongll or
vigour of palionco capabIo of provonling angor rosombIos
a forco of army vlicl is abIo lo dofoal llo onomy. Buddla
las lloroforo proaclod llal a porson vlo is oquippod vill
llis slrongll of palionco is a Brãlmana, a NobIo Ono.
¨Sc!cii|cpcrcmc cii|¯, ||cnir¯ ||iµµc nc .ijjcii.¨ Tlo gisl of llis
IãIi plraso is llal of aII llo advanlagos, ono's ovn bonofils
or inlorosls, is llo nobIosl. Among llo bosl advanlagos,
nolling oxcoIs llo bonoficiaI rosuIls of forboaranco or
31
onduranco. Tlo advanlagos of palionco slouId bo roaIisod
as lad boon slalod by llo King of Dovas ÷ Sakka, cilod
abovo.
As slalod in llo forogoing Dosanãs, palionco is llo nobIosl
and llo bosl praclico. Il is mosl nobIo and admirabIo bocauso
ono vlo las palionco viII bo abIo lo loIoralo aII crilicisms
or irrilaling romarks vlicl vouId ordinariIy incilo rolorl
or rofulalion, and by virluo of llis nobIo allribulo, lo viII
oarn rospocl and approbalion from ollors. Ho viII aIso
rocoivo loIp and assislanco vlon occasion arisos and can
bring aboul cIosor inlimacy bolvoon limsoIf and ollor
frionds. Nobody vouId lalo lim. Tloso advanlagos or
bonofils aro quilo conspicuous.
If rolaIialion is mado againsl any vorbaI allacks, lol
conlrovorsy viII onsuo bolvoon llo lvo parlios and
quarroI viII broak oul. IooIing of lalrod and animosily
viII croop in and llo parlios may bocomo anlagonislic
lo ono anollor vill maIico and aIso bocomo onomios for
Iifo. If no loIoranco or palionco is praclisod, ono viII bo
incIinod lo causo larm lo anollor, maybo, llrougloul
llo onliro Iifolimo. If, lovovor, palionco is clorislod or
nursod, il vouId bring aboul a vorId of advanlagos. Tlis
can bo cIoarIy knovn by rolrospoclion. Honco, llo ExaIlod
Ono lad proscribod in llo form of P¯iimc|||c, llo Codo of
Conducl for monks.
32
Il las boon proaclod as: ¨||cnii pcrcmcm icpc iiii|||¯
ni||¯ncm pcrcmcm .c!cnii 8u!!|c¨, olc. Tlis las boon
monlionod oarIior. Ni||¯ncm ÷ llo mosl NobIo and
Virluous. Il vas laugll as sucl by llo Iord Buddla
simpIy bocauso aII praclicos for llo dorivalion of morils
can bo carriod oul succossfuIIy onIy if lloro is palionco.
Wlon donalion is offorod on a magnificonl scaIo vill
llo groalosl gonorosily, il slaII bo porformod vill groal
palionco. In praclising si|c, moraI procopls, spiril of
loIoranco roquirod lo bo borno by a porson bocomos moro
prominonl. In praclising and dovoIoping modilalion, i.o.,
||¯.cn¯, il bocomos prodominanl. AII bodiIy sufforings
and misorabIo condilions viII lavo lo bo loIoralod,
and onIy by conlompIaling and noling vill palionco,
conconlralion and visdom or knovIodgo can bo gainod.
If clangos in llo bodiIy posluros aro froquonlIy mado
on accounl of minor discomforls, sucl as, sliffnoss,
lolnoss and pain, il viII bo difficuIl lo onlanco ono's
ovn povor of conconlralion ÷ scm¯!|i. Tlis viII mako
il lardor lo acliovo .ipcsscn¯ insigll knovIodgo. OnIy
vlon ono conlompIalos and nolos vill palionco and
onduranco, j|¯nc scm¯!|i can bo allainod. Tlon onIy,
spociaI knovIodgo of vipassanã or llo liglor avakoning
consciousnoss of llo Dlamma aIong vill mcggc-p|c|c-
ñ¯nc, i.o., KnovIodgo of llo pall and fruilion, can bo
roaIisod. As sucl, il may bo slalod llal palionco is llo
nobIosl and liglosl praclico.
33
A viso oId saying, ¨Ialionco viII carry ono lo Nibbãna¨
is mosl approprialo. In praclising for llo fuIfiImonl of
lon forms of p¯rcmii¯s, or lon porfoclions, il can bo fuIIy
acliovod if ||cnii or palionco is appIiod. Among lloso
p¯rcmii¯s, dolorminalion, oxorlion and knovIodgo (pcññ¯)
aro proximalo lo llo allainmonl of Nibbãna. OnIy if
roIonlIoss and porsislonl offorl is mado as originaIIy
inlondod lo roacl Nibbãna vill a firm dolorminalion,
vipassanã knovIodgo and criµc-mcggc-ñ¯nc viII bo fuIIy
accompIislod. If so diIigonlIy praclisod vill palionco
aralalslip viII bo allainod. Sucl an aralal is said lo bo a
nobIo 8r¯|mcnc vlo is fuIIy ondovod vill llo slrongll of
palionco. Tlal is vlal Buddla las said. Il is indood a nobIo
praclico vlicl can Ioad lo Nibbãna. Wlon dovoIoping mcii¯,
praclico of palionco is ossonliaIIy fundamonlaI. OnIy in llo
absonco of angor, and by praclising palionco, mindfuInoss
and mcii¯ viII bocomo dovoIopod. Tlis is llo roason vly
il las boon inslruclod lo rofIocl upon llo advanlagos of
palionco prior lo dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss or mcii¯.
Tn| V»··|s 0| D|v||o||·. V|..¯
Il is slalod llal mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod in ordor lo
mako llo mind froo from llo iIIs of angor by rofIocling
upon ils fauIls or oviIs as voII as upon llo advanlagos
of palionco so as lo conjoin palionco by Iolling il run
paraIIoI. Ono vay of dovoIoping mcii¯ is lo gain porfoclion,
34
i.o., p¯rcmii¯, and aIso moril. Anollor vay is lo dovoIop
mcii¯ for llo allainmonl of j|¯nc scm¯!|i. Tloro aro lvo
kinds as jusl slalod. Visuddli Magga las anaIylicaIIy
and dislinguislabIy commonlod upon in oxpIaining llo
mollod of dovoIoping mcii¯ for llo acliovomonl of j|¯nc
scm¯!|i, as lo vlo slouId bo omillod al llo iniliaI slago
of dovoIoping and lransmilling mcii¯, and vlo slouId bo
onliroIy oxcIudod in dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss. As limo
doos nol pormil al prosonl (loday) lo oxpIain llo difforonco
in lloir dislinclivo foaluros, I am incIinod lo spoak aboul
llo mannor of dovoIoping mcii¯ for llo purposo of gaining
porfoclion and moril, firsl and foromosl.
In llo mallor of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl
modilalion, il can bo oxorcisod and dovoIopod by
conlompIalion, dvoIIing llo mind on aII luman boings or
ollor sonlionl boings (Iiving boings) vlo may bo soon or
loard, or vlo may appoar in llo mind's oyo. Tlo mannor
of dovoIoping vill a fooIing of bonovoIonco as slalod in
Sullanla IãIi and Alllakallã, vlicl say, ¨May ono gain
lappinoss,¨ or ¨May aII bo lappy and loaIlly,¨ i.o. ¨Su||ii¯
|cniu,¨ or ¨Sc||c scii¯ ||c.cniu su||iicii¯.¨ ¨May aII boings
bo pIoasod and lappy.¨ BriofIy pul, goodviII slouId bo
imparlod in llo foIIoving vay:
¨May aII bo bIossod vill lappinoss¨
(To bo ropoalod lvico).
35
Tloroforo, vlollor ono is rosiding in lis ovn quarlors or
vlollor ono is moving aboul or vorking, if a porson or
any Iiving boing is soon or loard, Ioving-kindnoss slouId
bo dovoIopod vill a sincoro and sympallolic fooIing as
¨May lo find lappinoss! May lo find lappinoss!¨. In llo
samo mannor, il is lo pul llo spiril of Ioving-kindnoss in
llo bollom of your loarl monlaIIy, saying, ¨May aII boings
bo lappy¨, in caso a Iargo galloring of poopIo or a numbor
of ollor boings aro soon or loard. Tlis is quilo an oasy
and oxcoIIonl vay of radialing mcii¯ sinco ovory boing
vislos lo bo lappy. Tlis mollod of dovoIoping Ioving-
kindnoss is mcii¯ mcnc|cm, llo nobIosl fooIing springing
from llo mind. Al llo momonl vlon monks and Iaily
aro vorslipping and paying lomago lo llo Iord Buddla,
lloy usod lo dovoIop Ioving-kindnoss by ulloring ¨Sc||c
scii¯ c.cr¯ |cniu,¨ olc., i.o., ¨May aII boings bo froo from aII
dangors.¨ Il is caIIod ¨mcii¯ .cci|cm¨ as llis fooIing of mcii¯
is oxprossod by vord of moull. If llo vords ¨May aII bo
lappy¨ aro ullorod vorbaIIy, il is aIso ¨mcii¯ .cci|cm¨.
In llis rogard, bosidos dovoIoping mcii¯, monlaIIy and
vorbaIIy, spociaI caro slouId bo lakon lo aIso rondor
plysicaI assislanco lo ollors, vlonovor possibIo, so as lo
mako llom fooI lappy. On llo ollor land, il vouId bo
moaningIoss in fosloring Ioving-kindnoss, if ono causos
misory lo ollors oillor plysicaIIy, or vorbaIIy, or monlaIIy.
Il is lloroforo ossonliaI lo do good lo ollors, and by doing
36
so, llo acl of dovoIoping mindfuInoss on Ioving-kindnoss,
may bo said lo bo gonuinoIy offoclivo. Ior inslanco, vliIo
Ioving-kindnoss is radialod from lis loarl lo a porson vlo
is coming faco lo faco vill lim in a narrov Iano visling
lim lappinoss, il vouId aIso bo nocossary lo givo vay lo
lim, if lo is vorlly of rospocl. Sucl a bolaviour vouId
llon amounl lo lonouring lim vill a virluous llougll
and vouId bo in consonanco vill ono's ovn innor fooIing
of mcii¯
Ho vlo dovoIops Ioving-kindnoss lo ollors, vliIo
lravoIIing, vouId bo roquirod lo mako room for ollor
foIIov lravoIIors vlo may bo Iooking for accommodalion
in llo samo carriago, providod of courso, lloro is
avaiIabIo spaco. Ho slouId assisl ollors as far as possibIo
if lo lappons lo find llom ovorburdonod vill a loavy
Ioad. In connoclion vill businoss affairs, il amounls lo
oxorcising Ioving-kindnoss (mcii¯) by inslrucling anollor
porson in mallors vill vlicl lo is nol acquainlod. Spoak
gonlIy and svoolIy, and accord a varm rocoplion vill
a fino gosluro and a smiIing svool faco. HoIp a porson
lo llo bosl of ono's ovn abiIily. Tloso aro llo gonuino
manifoslalions of goodviII and Ioving-kindnoss. To
spoak vill a svool voico is mcii¯ .cci|cm. Giving plysicaI
loIp lo ollors is mcii¯ |¯µc|cm.
37
How .o D|v||o| .n| ¯!° K|·o- o| V|..¯
Wlal las boon slalod in llo Ialisamblidã Magga IãIi llal
528 kinds of mcii¯ aro dovoIopod, rofors lo llo mannor of
dovoIoping mcii¯ by lloso vlo lavo acliovod mcii¯ j|¯nc.
Al llo prosonl limo, lovovor, il is usuaI lo dovoIop mcii¯,
as a binding duly by monks, lo do llo rocilalion for llo
acliovomonl of p¯rcmii¯ and |usc|c. Tlo IãIi diclum usuaIIy
clanlod is llo samo as llo rocilalion dono by rolo by llo
majorily of llo poopIo. I vouId firsl of aII rocilo llo diclum
in IãIi for llo purposo of oIucidalion and onumoralion.
Sc||c scii¯, sc||c p¯nc, sc||c ||ùi¯, sc||c puggc|¯, sc||c
ciic||¯.cpcriµ¯p¯nc. Ip lo llis, lloso fivo plrasos donolo aII
sonlionl boings villoul dislinclion and Iimilalion. Honco,
llo oxprossions: sc||c scii¯ ÷ aII croaluros, sc||c p¯nc ÷ aII
lloso boings vlo broallo, sc||c ||ùi¯ ÷ aII Iiving boings,
sc||c puggc|¯ ÷ aII lloso individuaIs or porsons, and sc||c
ciic||¯.cpcriµ¯p¯nc ÷ aII lloso individuaIs or porsons
vlo lavo llo allribulos of a boing or ||cn!|c, convoy llo
samo moaning. Eacl and ovory oxprossion monlionod
abovo, rofors lo aII boings.
Tlon comos: sc||¯ iii|iµc, aII fomaIos, sc||c puris¯, aII
maIos, sc||c criµc aII NobIo Onos, sc||c cncriµ¯, aII lloso
38
pui|ujjcnc or ordinary vorIdIings, sc||c !c.c, aII lloso
dovas or coIosliaI boings, sc||c m¯nusc, aII lloso luman
boings, sc||c .inip¯ii|c, aII lloso boings boIonging lo llo
four cp¯µcs. Tloso oxprossions donolo llo difforonl lypos of
sovon spocios of boings, namoIy, a pair of maIos and fomaIos,
a pair of criµcs, Worlly Onos, and vorIdIings (pui|ujjcnc),
and llroo groups of boings, viz.: Dovas, luman boings
and boings boIonging lo cp¯µcs. Ioving-kindnoss llal is
dovoIopod radialing lovards llo sovon groups sovoraIIy
and individuaIIy idonlifying llom in lloir rospoclivo
difforonl idonlilios is knovn as c!|isc mcii¯. Tlo firsl fivo
plrasos oarIior slalod laving no Iimilalions vill roforonco
lo aII boings, is caIIod cnc!|isc mcii¯, vlicl moans mcii¯
villoul any dislinclion and Iimil.
In dovoIoping mcii¯, lloso lvo groups forming lvoIvo (12)
aplorisms slouId bo rocilod or ullorod in combinalion
vill llo four plrasos, viz.: A.cr¯ |cniu ÷ May oscapo
from aII dangors, c.µ¯pcjj|c |cniu ÷ May bo froo from
monlaI dislross or sufforing, cnig|¯ |cniu ÷ May bo froo
from bodiIy sufforing or injury, su||i cii¯ncm pcri|crcniu
÷ May lavo llo fuII accompIislmonl vill compIolo
lappinoss, or rallor, bo abIo lo lappiIy slouIdor ono's ovn
bodiIy-soIf. Tlo Iasl diclum convoying goodviII: ¨May
lavo llo fuII accompIislmonl vill compIolo lappinoss
and bo abIo lo slouIdor ono's ovn bodiIy soIf or ||cn!|c¨
is vory significanl and moaningfuI. AII boings aro prono
39
and oxposod lo oxlornaI dangors of aII sorls. Tloro aro aIso
dangors of disoasos and sufforings ÷ !u|||c .c!cn¯s ÷ in
llo maloriaI body ilsoIf. Moroovor, for llo sako of ono's ovn
good loaIll and propor IivoIilood, ovorylling possibIo
slouId invariabIy bo dono and acliovod. OnIy vlon froo
from dangor and larm llal may bofaII a man, and vlon
nocossilios of Iifo aro adoqualoIy oblainod, llon lappinoss
viII bo dorivod boll plysicaIIy and monlaIIy. If llo burdon
of ||cn!|c can bo succossfuIIy slouIdorod, il can bo said lo
bo salisfaclory from llo poinl of vorIdIy affairs. Tlal is
llo roason vly dovoIopmonl of mcii¯ slouId bo soriousIy
mado vill a bonovoIonl framo of mind by ulloring llo
vords. ¨May ono bo abIo lo slouIdor and suslain ono's
ovn bodiIy-soIf ÷ ||cn!|c, vill lappinoss.¨
If mcii¯ is dovoIopod saying, sc||c scii¯ c.cr¯ |cniu: May
aII boings bo froo from dangor and larm, olc., vlicl
compriso 5 plrasos of cnc!|isc (mcii¯) combinod vill four
(4) kinds of dovoIoping mcii¯, il viII como lo (5 x 4) = 2O.
Tlis is cnc!|isc mcii¯, lvonly in numbor. Noxl, if furllor
dovoIopmonl of mcii¯ is praclisod, ulloring, ¨sc||¯ iii|iµc¨
÷ aII fomaIos, olc., comprising 7 plrasos of c!|isc (mcii¯)
aIong vill llo oxprossion of sonlimonl ÷ ¨May aII bo
froo from dangor, olc.,¨ vlicl doscribo llo mannor of
dovoIoping mcii¯ in 4 plrasos, il comos lo (7 x 4) = 28. Tlis
is c!|isc mcii¯, lvonly-oigll in numbor. If addod vill 2O
cnc!|isc mcii¯, il viII como lo a lolaI of 48. Tlis modo of
4O
dovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ villoul diroclion-viso as lo llo
rogion of llo oarll is caIIod !is¯ cnc!|isc mcii¯.
SimiIarIy, dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards aII boings Iiving in
llo Easl ÷ purcii|im¯µc !is¯µc, as: ¨sc||c scii¯ c.cr¯ |cniu¨,
i.o., ¨May aII boings bo froo from dangor and larm, olc.¨,
vouId mako up a sum of 48. In llo samo vay, llo rosl
of llo cardinaI poinls of compass indicaling diroclion
of llo rogions by llo magnolic noodIo, viz, llo Wosl (48)
in numbor, llo Norll (48) in numbor, llo Soull (48) in
numbor, vill llo addilion of llo four cnu!is¯s or .i!is¯s
viz.: llo Soull-oasl (48), llo Norll-vosl (48), llo Norll-
oasl (48), llo Soull-vosl (48), and aIso logollor vill llo
lvo, namoIy, |cii|im¯µc !is¯µc (48) and upcrim¯µc !is¯µc
(48), llo Nadir and Zonill ÷ (aII six) vlon addod up vill
llo lon !is¯s (rogions) oacl laving 48, viII amounl lo a lolaI
of forly-oigll muIlipIiod by lon (48 x 1O) = 48O. Tlis boing
llo vay of dovoIoping mcii¯ rogion-viso of llo Inivorso
according lo vlal is indicalod by llo compass noodIo, is
knovn as !is¯ c!|isc mcii¯. If llis '48O' is addod lo 48 of !is¯
cnc!|isc il viII roacl llo lolaI figuro of 528 kinds of mcii¯.
In ordor lo lavo an idoa of llo numoricaI unils of llo 528
kinds of mcii¯, Iol us dovoIop Ioving-kindnoss by rociling
as foIIovs,
1. May aII boings bo froo from dangor, from
monlaI dislross (misory), from bodiIy sufforing,
41
and bo abIo lo slouIdor llo burdon of ono's
ovn ||cn!|c vill boll plysicaI and monlaI
lappinoss (4 kinds).
2. May aII boings vlo lavo Iifo and broall, i.o.
vlo broallo, bo froo from dangor, from monlaI
dislross, from bodiIy sufforing, and bo abIo lo
slouIdor llo burdon of ono's ovn ||cn!|c or
maloriaI body vill boll plysicaI and monlaI
lappinoss (4 kinds of mcii¯).
Aflor llo rocilalion of llo vords, ¨May bo froo from
dangor¨ in llo courso of dovoIoping mcii¯, llo mind llal
conconlralos and llo voico of ulloranco immodialoIy como
lo coaso. Tlis cossalion of mind and mallor, n¯mc and
rùpc, musl aIso bo conlompIalod. If conlompIalion is mado
as sucl, mcii¯ scmci|c logollor vill vipassanã bocomo
dovoIopod in pairs. Tlo conlinuous conlompIalion of
samalla and vipassanã in pairs is caIIod µugcnc!!|c
.ipcsscn¯. Iol's rocilo and dovoIop mcii¯ by appIying llis
mollod of µugcnc!!|c.
3. May aII conspicuous Iiving boings bo froo from
dangor, from monlaI dislross, from bodiIy
sufforing, and bo abIo lo slouIdor llo burdon
of ono's ovn ||cn!|c vill boll plysicaI and
monlaI lappinoss (4 kinds).
42
4. May aII individuaIs bo froo from dangor, olc.,
olc. (4 kinds).
5. May aII lloso vlo lavo llo maloriaI ||cn!|c,
llo bodiIy-soIf, bo froo from dangor, olc., olc.
(4 kinds, 5 x 4 = 2O kinds).
1. AII fomaIos (llo uso of llo oxprossion ¨fomaIos¨
is svool lo llo oar, il incIudos fomaIo dovas or
divino maidons, fomaIo animaIs, sucl as covs,
fomaIo buffaIoos, fomaIo polas, fomaIo asuras,
and fomaIos of cp¯µc (loII, olc.) May aII lloso
fomaIos bo froo from dangor, from monlaI
dislross, from bodiIy sufforing, and bo abIo lo
slouIdor llo burdon of lloir ovn rospoclivo
||cn!|c vill plysicaI and monlaI lappinoss
(4 in numbor).
2. AII maIos (llo lorm ¨maIos¨ Iikoviso sounds
svool lo llo oar, il aIso incIudos aII maIo dovas
and maIo animaIs, olc.). May aII lloso maIos
bo froo from dangor, from monlaI dislross, olc.
(4 kinds).
3. May aII Ariyas, NobIo Onos, bo froo from
dangor,. vill boll plysicaI and monlaI
lappinoss (4 kinds).
43
4. May aII pui|ujjcncs, common vorIdIings, bo
froo from dangor, olc., (4 kinds).
5. May aII dovas, coIosliaI boings, bo froo from
dangor, olc., (4 kinds).
6. May aII luman boings bo froo from dangor, olc.,
(4 kinds).
7. May aII cp¯µc boings (boings in loII) bo froo
from dangor, from monlaI dislross, from bodiIy
sufforings, and bo abIo lo slouIdor llo burdon
of ono's ovn klandla vill boll plysicaI and
monlaI lappinoss (4 kinds), (7 x 4 = 28 kinds).
Tloso aro llo lvonly-oigll (28) c!|isc mcii¯. If lloso aro
addod lo lvonly (2O) of cnc!|isc mcii¯ monlionod in llo
forogoing, il vouId como lo 48 kinds of mcii¯. Tloroaflor,
Iol us rocilo and dovoIop mindfuInoss on mcii¯ in llo
foIIoving mannor boginning vill llo Easlorn rogion,
oacl plraso laving 48 kinds. Tlis mannor of dovoIoping
mcii¯ appoars accoplabIo lo ovory Buddlisl. Il is oasy. Evon
lloso vlo lavo no adoqualo knovIodgo can undorsland.
Iol's bogin clanling.
1. May aII boings in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.,.
44
May aII porsons vlo broallo or aro aIivo
llrougl rospiralion in llo Easlorn rogion,
bo froo from dangor, olc.,
May aII lloso porsons vlo obviousIy oxisl in
llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo from dangor, olc.
May aII individuaIs in llo Easlorn rogion bo froo
from dangor, olc.,
May aII lloso vlo possoss llo maloriaI ||cn!|c
or bodiIy-soIf, in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor and bo abIo lo slouIdor llo
burdon of ||cn!|c, olc.,
May aII fomaIos in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.,
May aII maIos in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.,
May aII criµcs in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo from
dangor, olc.,.
May aII pui|ujjcncs in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.,
May aII dovas in llo Easlorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.,
May aII luman boings in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.,
45
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, monlaI dislross, bodiIy
sufforing, and bo abIo lo slouIdor lloir ovn
rospoclivo ||cn!|c vill boll plysicaI and
monlaI lappinoss.
Iikoviso, il is lo bo rocilod and dovoIopod in rospocl of
llo romaining nino rogions. Ior llo limo boing, il vouId
bo sufficionl onougl lo rocilo and dovoIop llo firsl and
llo Iasl plraso or oxprossion (of vords). Iol's do llo
rocilalion.
2. May aII boings in llo Woslorn-rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Woslorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.
3. May aII boings in llo Norllorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Norllorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.
4. May aII boings in llo Soullorn rogion, bo froo
from dangor, olc..
46
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Soullorn rogion,
bo abIo lo slouIdor lloir ovn burdon of
rospoclivo ||cn!|c, olc.
5. May aII boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion,
bo froo from dangor, olc.
6. May aII boings in llo Norll-Woslorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc..
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Norll-Woslorn
rogion, bo froo from dangor, olc.
7. May aII boings in llo Norll-Easlorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Norll-Easlorn
rogion, bo froo from dangor, olc.
8. May aII boings in llo Soull-Woslorn rogion, bo
froo from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Soull-Woslorn
rogion, bo froo from dangor, olc.
47
´9. May aII boings in llo Nadir bo froo from dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo Nadir bo froo from
dangor, olc.
1O. May aII boings in llo Zonill bo froo from
dangor, olc.
May aII cp¯µc boings in llo zonill bo froo from
dangor, olc.
´ A quoslion may ariso as lo vlo aro llo ariyas, dovas and lumans in llo
Nadir, and simiIarIy, as lo vlo aro llo poopIo and cp¯µc boings in llo Zonill.
Sucl a quoslion may bo ansvorod and oIucidalod as foIIovs:
If a porson rosiding in llo uppor-sloroy of a louso or monaslory, olc., vliIo
dovoIoping and radialing or sonding mcii¯, lloro can bo ariyas, dovas and
lumans in llo Iovor sloroys or in ollor simiIar pIacos. WliIo dovoIoping mcii¯
from llo lop of a mounlain, olc., lloro can bo ariyas, dovas and lumans in pIacos
al llo fool of llo mounlain or Iov Iying aroas, sucl as vaIIoys. If llo porson vlo
dovoIops mindfuInoss of mcii¯ slays in llo Iovosl IovoI or surfaco of llo oarll,
lloro can bo lumans, dovas and ariya-dovas Iiving on llo surfaco of llo vido
oxpanso of valor in llo ocoan. In llo doop boIov llo surfaco of valor, lloro can
bo dovas, and ariya-dovas. In llis connoclion, rocoIIoclion may bo mado of llo
boIiof onlorlainod by somo poopIo llal Aslin Ipagupla is rosiding in llo soa.
In mucl llo samo vay, if mcii¯ is dovoIopod vliIo romaining on llo surfaco of
llo oarll, lloro can bo luman boings on llo liglor IovoI of llo oarll, on llo
oIovalod pIanos, on llo liIIs or mounlains, or on llo uppor-sloroys of llo louso or
monaslory. Moroovor, animaIs sucl as, insocls, birds, olc., may bo prosonl in lloso
pIacos liglor up ÷ or in llo firmamonl. In llo Claplor roIaling lo llo slory of
Vinila of Iourll Iãrãjika paragrapl of llo RuIos of DiscipIino and in llo Nidãna
Vagga Iakklana Sanyulla IãIi, il las boon slalod llal lloro aro polas in llo sky or
llo firmamonl running aboul billorIy crying in groal pain. Tlis boars loslimony
lo llo prosonco of cp¯µc boings in llo liglor rogion up in llo sky. In rogard lo
insocls, fIios, birds and ollor animaIs vill vings moving llrougl or fIying in llo
air up in llo sky or loavon, lloy can bo cIoarIy soon ovon vill llo nakod oyo.
48
Wlal las boon rocilod and dovoIopod is a briof bul
comprolonsivo accounl of llo 528 kinds of mcii¯. Tlis
is llo mannor in vlicl porsons vlo aro accompIislod
vill mcii¯ j|¯nc, lavo immorsod llomsoIvos in a lranco
of j|¯nc. In any caso, lloso vlo lavo nol yol acliovod llo
j|¯nc, couId aIso radialo mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ in llo samo mannor
as slalod. Tloso vlo lavo spociaI porfoclion or p¯rcmii¯s
may ovon allain mcii¯ j|¯nc vliIo dovoIoping mcii¯. Tlon,
in llo ovonl of faiIing lo acliovo j|¯nc, bonoficiaI rosuIls
viII bo undoublodIy accruod as monlionod boIov.
8|i|||c.c ÷ O, Monks! 8|i|||u ÷ a monk, Mcii¯ ciiicm
÷ by boing abIo lo onlorlain or dvoII upon llo nobIo
llouglls of Ioving-kindnoss for llo sako of anollor's
lappinoss, ovon for a fIick of a socond (|cc|cr¯µ¯scng|¯ic
mciicmpi) ÷ (Roforonco Angullara Ekakanipãla 53 Sulla),
and if sucl llougll voro borno in lis mind vill allonlivo
conconlralion (Rof.: 54 & 55 of llal Sulla), llo monk vlo
las so dovoIopod lis mind in imparling mcii¯ lo ollors, is
doomod lo bo a porson nol dovoid or divoslod of j|¯nc, or a
porson vlo slriclIy conforms lo llo praclico as inslruclod
and admonislod by llo BIossod Ono. Iurllormoro, lo is
aIso a porson lruIy dosorving of accopling villoul vanily
llo gifl of moaIs offorod by llo poopIo of llo counlry or
cilizons. Honco, lov il couId bo said llal lloso monks vlo
lavo froquonlIy praclisod and dovoIopod llo fooIing of
Ioving-kindnoss, vouId lavo boon doprivod of j|¯nc` Tlis
49
is llo proacling of llo Buddla, and as sucl, lloro is lardIy
any doubl llal dovoIoping mcii¯ is liglIy advanlagoous.
According lo llis !cscn¯, ovon if llo fooIing of mcii¯,
Ioving-kindnoss, is foslorod for a vory briof duralion of a
spIil-socond, lo vlo oxorcisos llis goodviII or bonovoIonl
fooIing lovards ollors may bo said lo bo a porson vlo is
nol dovoid of j|¯nc-conlompIalion. Ho slaII bo doomod a
porson vlo las lruIy praclisod in compIianco vill llo
duo admonilion of llo BIossod Ono. If lo voro a monk, lo
is dosorvodIy vorlly of onjoying llo moaIs offorod by lis
bonofaclors. Ho may bo rogardod as laving onjoyod llo
moaIs or food so offorod lloro by making llo donor gain
morils or bonofils. Il is bocauso if llo moaIs aro lakon by
llo monks villoul soIf-oxaminalion or conlompIalion, i.o.,
pcccc.c|||cncm, il vouId amounl lo accopling and laking
moaIs on doforrod paymonl of Ioans. Tlo roason boing llal
if a monk nol boing accompIislod vill si|c, oal llo moaIs
vlicl slouId bo lakon or consumod by a monk fuIIy
accompIislod vill aII four moraI procopls, il is simiIar lo
laking llo moaIs on crodil syslom, saying llal lo vouId
onIy Ialor ropay il by fuIfiIIing llo roquirod si|c, moraIily
or procopls. AIso, fuII bonofils viII onIy bo dorivod by llo
aIms-givor if lo offors anylling in clarily lo a monk vlo
is fuIIy accompIislod vill llo four si|cs. Tloroforo, llo
Commonlarios lavo said llal llo onjoymonl or parlaking
of llo four kinds of proporly, sucl as moaIs, olc., villoul
5O
rofIocling vill lis inloIIigonco and villoul considoralion,
viII amounl lo laking llings on Ioan for vlicl lo viII
lavo lo accounl for.
A monk vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards ollors ovon for
a momonl, slaII bo doomod lo lavo accoplod llo gifls in
llo roIo of a roaI ovnor. Ho is Iiko ono vlo inlorils llo
proporlios. Tlal is llo roason vly il may bo conslruod as
consuming or parlaking of llings or food offorod, villoul
vanily or fuliIily. Alllakallã goos lo say llal ¨(scng|c)
!inn¯ !¯ncm¨ ÷ llo gifl llal is givon, or rallor, offorings
boslovod on llo Ordor of monks ¨mc|¯i|iµcm |cii
mc|¯pp|c|cm¨ ÷ lavo groal rovard. Ior boing bonoficiaI
as sucl, il may bo said lo bo consumod villoul fuliIily.
Tn| V»··|s o| D|v||o||·. V|..¯
s\ A-n|· Sts0.|
Tlo oxorciso of mindfuInoss on mcii¯ can bring aboul
mucl bonofil parlicuIarIy in llo inlorosl of llo donors.
Sucl boing llo caso, Aslin Subûli Tlora, an aralal, usod
lo onlor inlo a lranco of j|¯nc mcii¯ vliIo slopping a
vliIo in fronl of ovory louso vlon going round for aIms.
OnIy aflor arising from llis mcii¯ j|¯nc, lo accoplod llo
offoring of food. Tlis is dono so vill a viov lo bosloving
51
bonoficiaI rosuIls on llo maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors. Tlo
said Aslin Subûli Ialor rocoivod llo liglosl approbalion
from llo Buddla and vas conforrod upon vill llo pro-
ominonl lilIo of cic!cggc (foromosl) of aII llo nobIo discipIo-
donoos ÷ rocipionls of aIms. Novadays, on llo occasion of
roIigious funclions loId in connoclion vill llo offorings of
gifls in clarily, llo Mollã Sulla Iarillã is rocilod by monks
for llo bonofil of llo donors. Honco, vloro clanling mcii¯
pcriii¯ as a bIossing on any sucl occasion, il slouId aIso bo
proporIy and soriousIy rocilod by dovoIoping mcii¯.
Il is imporlanl lo nolo llal dovoIoping mcii¯ vliIo Iisloning
lo llo sormon is roaIIy advanlagoous. Mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ noods
lo bo dovoIopod as and vlon opporlunily affords, and al
any pIaco vlorovor you may bo. In llo Ioasl, il slouId bo
dovoIopod immodialoIy aflor vorslipping llo Buddla as
mucl as limo pormils. If circumslancos aro favourabIo,
mcii¯ j|¯nc can bo acliovod soon ovon vliIo mcii¯ is boing
dovoIopod llrougl modilalion. Il is simiIar lo llo caso of
Dlanañjlãni, a Bralmin, as narralod boIov.
Dn»·»·(n¯·| c V|..¯-Jn¯·»
Wlon Dlanañjlãni, llo Bralmin, vas on llo llrosloId of
doall in lis sick-bod, a roquosl vas mado al llis inslanco
52
lo invilo Aslin Sãripulla. Aslin Sãripulla rospondod lo
llo invilalion and camo ovor lo soo Dlanañjlãni. Aslin
Sãripulla askod lim lov lo vas golling on, or lo pul il
in anollor vay, vlollor lo vas fooIing bollor or nol, and
llon, proaclod as foIIovs:
To a quoslion llal vas firsl pul as: ¨Wlicl of llo lvo,¨
viz.: HoII or animaI roaIm is bollor llan llo ollor, olc.`
Dlanañjlãni ansvorod, ¨iirccc|¯nc¨ i.o., animaI is bollor
llan loII, olc. Quoslions and ansvors vlicl foIIovod
lloroaflor, roIalod lo llo comparisons mado bolvoon
animaI and pola, pola and luman. Human boings and
c¯iummc|¯r¯ji|c, olc., and llon llo convorsalion vonl on
oxlonding up lo llo pcrcnimmiic.csc.ciii, llo liglosl of
dovaIokas. Ialor, a quoslion vas pul as lo vlollor llo Iifo of
dovas in llo Abodo of pcrcnimmiic.csc.ciii vas bollor llan
BralmãIoka or nol. On loaring llo namo of 'BralmãIoka',
Dlanañjlãni bocamo oncouragod and askod vill an
oxuIlanl fooIing, ¨Do you, my Rovorond Aslin Sãripulla,
roaIIy moan lo say 'BralmãIoka'`¨. Tlis quoslion mado
Aslin Sãripulla roaIiso llal Dlanañjlãni vas monlaIIy
incIinod lovards BralmãIoka, and lloroforo, lo slalod
llal lo vouId oxpIain llo praclico of llo pall Ioading lo
BralmãIoka, and llon slarlod proacling as foIIovs:
¨|!|c D|cncñj|¯ni ||i|||u mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯
c|cm !iscm p|crii.¯ .i|¯rcii. 1cii|¯ !uiiµcm.
53
1cii|¯ iciiµcm. 1cii|¯ cciuii|cm. |ii u!!|cmc!|c
iiriµcm sc||c!|i sc||ciici¯µc s¯||c.cnicm |c|cm
mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ .ipu|cnc mc|cggcicnc
cppcm¯ncµnc c.crcnc c.µ¯pcpjc|cnc p|crii.¯
.i|¯rcii. Aµcm ||c D|cncñj|¯ni |rc|m¯ncm
sc|c.µci¯µc mcggc. ¨
(Majjlima Iannãsa ÷ 4O5)
D|cncñj|¯ni ÷ Dlanañjlãni Bralmin, |!|c ||i|||u ÷ a
monk in llis nobIo Sãsana, ÷ mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ ÷
vill llo mind vlicl occurs vill a fooIing of mcii¯ llal
radialos lappinoss, nay, vill a mind voII-visling ollors
lo bocomo lappy, c|cm !iscm ÷ lovards ono rogion, nay,
lovards aII boings Iiving in ono rogion or pIaco, p|crii.¯
.i|¯rcii ÷ romains slodding lis Ioving-kindnoss. 1cii|¯
!uiiµcm ÷ Iikoviso romains sproading lis fooIing of mcii¯
lo llo socond rogion. 1cii|¯ iciiµcm 1cii|¯ cciuii|cm ÷ and
in llo samo vay radialos llo Iigll of mcii¯ lo llo llird
and fourll rogions. |ii ÷ In llis mannor, u!!|cm ÷ ic
aII boings in llo liglor rogion, c!|c ÷ ic aII boings in
llo Iovor rogion, iiriµcm ÷ lo aII boings in llo opposilo
diroclions of llo cornors of llo four rogions, sc||c!|i
÷ and in aII rogions, sc||ciici¯µc ÷ and rogard aII sucl
boings as lis oquaI, vill ovory Ioving-llougll llal arisos,
54
sc||c.cnicm |c|cm ÷ lo aII ollor boings in llo onliro
univorso, mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ ÷ dovoIops llo mind
visling lappinoss lo ollors, .ipu|cnc ÷ and sproad llo
mind covoring aII aroas oxlonsivoIy, mc|cggcicnc ÷ vill
llo Iofly mind of mc|cggciic j|¯nc, cppcm¯ncµnc ÷ vlicl
is boundIoss or unIimilod, c.crcnc ÷ and vill llo mind
froo from lalrod, c.µ¯pcjc|cnc ÷ aIong vill llo mind
froo from unpIoasanlnoss, p|crii.¯ .i|¯rcii ÷ radialos
Ioving-kindnoss. D|cncñj|¯ni ÷ Dlanañjlãni Bralmin,
cµcm ÷ llo praclico of diffusing or radialing mcii¯, Ioving-
kindnoss, |rc|m¯ncm sc|c.µci¯µc ÷ is for llo purposo of
slaying in llo company of Bralmãs as a companion, nay, il
is a pall ÷ mcggc ÷ Ioading ono lo bocomo a Bralmã.
Tlo gisl of il is llal radialing llo fooIing of mcii¯, Ioving-
kindnoss, lo aII boings in llo icn rogions is llo vay or
llo pall of praclico lo ascond lo llo Bralmã WorId. Tlo
mannor of slodding llo Iigll of compassion ÷ |crun¯,
rojoicing vill ollors lappinoss ÷ mu!ii¯, and iIIuminalion
of llo fooIing of indifforonco ÷ upc|||¯, las boon proaclod
in llo samo mannor. Aflor bonovoIonlIy proacling llo
said Dlamma, Aslin Sãripulla rolurnod lo llo monaslory.
Ialor, lo rospoclfuIIy informod llo Iord Buddla of llo
spoocl and proacling doIivorod by lim lo Dlanañjlãni.
Tloroupon, llo ExaIlod Ono roprimandod Aslin Sãripulla
as: ¨Is llis llo vay you lavo inslruclod Dlanañjlãni so as
lo onabIo lim lo ascond lo BralmãIoka vlicl is obviousIy
55
inforior as comparod lo Nibbãna, and llon, mado your vay
back loro dospilo llo facl llal lloro is a bollor mollod of
praclico lo bo oxorcisod lo acliovo criµc-mcggc-p|c|c vlicl
is mucl nobIor llan llo |rc|m¯-.i|¯rc-j|¯nc`¨ Buddla llon
vonl on lo say llal Dlanañjlãni vas nov doad and gono
and lad aIroady roaclod llo BralmãIoka aflor lis domiso.
Having rocoivod llis admonilion from llo Buddla, Aslin
Sãripulla vas said lo lavo visilod llo Abodo of Bralmãs
and doIivorod lis sormon lo Dlanañjlãni Bralmã. Irom
llal limo onvards, vlon proacling vas mado roIaling lo a
g¯i|¯ or vorso, consisling of four slanzas, il las boon slalod in
llo commonlary llal il vas aIvays dono villoul doparluro
from, or rallor, villoul omilling llo Iour NobIo Trulls.
In llis connoclion vlal is roaIIy inlondod lo bo knovn is
llal Dlanañjlãni, llo Bralmin, lad boon askod lo dovoIop
mcii¯, olc., and lad lloroby allainod j|¯nc villin a slorl
limo of aboul laIf-an-lour boforo lis doall. By virluo of
llis j|¯nc, lo lad roaclod llo WorId of Bralmãs. Il slouId
lloroforo bo romomborod llal in llo absonco of any ollor
spociaI |usc|c, morils, on vlicl ono can mako roIianco on
llo vorgo of doall, llo dovoIopmonl of mcii¯ viII provo lo
bo an assol or a virluo on vlicl roIianco can bo mado. Tlo
bosl is, of courso, lo conlompIalo and nolo, and bocomo
avaro of aII obvious plonomonaI occurroncos as in caso
of lloso vlo aro bonofilod by llo Vipassanã mollod of
conlompIaling on mindfuInoss.
56
Iurllormoro, llo liglIy bonoficiaI offocl of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯
÷ dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl modilalion ÷ lad boon
oxpIainod by llo Buddla in llo Nidãna Sanyulla Okkla
Sulla (455) in llo mannor doscribod boIov:
DovoIoping your mind vill mcii¯ for a briof poriod of
limo invoIvod in miIking a cov onco in llo morning, onco
in daylimo and onco al nigll limo, or smoIIing a fragranco
for onco onIy, is far moro advanlagoous llan llo offoring
of moaIs by cooking a lundrod big pols of rico, onco in
llo morning, onco in llo daylimo and onco al nigll limo,
vlicl vouId, of courso, lanlamounl lo fooding aboul 3,OOO
poopIo in aII.
Il is lloroforo quilo ovidonl llal dovoIoping mcii¯ onIy for
a momonl and doriving mucl bonofil lloroof, is roaIIy
procious and invaIuabIo villoul incurring oxponso and
villoul invoIving limo and Iabour.
Moroovor, llo advanlagos of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ lavo boon
laugll in llo Angullara IãIi Ekadasanipãla Mollã Sulla
(542) as loroin aflor monlionod.
¨Mcii¯µc ||i|||c.c ccic.imuiiiµ¯ ¯sc.ii¯µc
||c.ii¯µc |c|u|i|ci¯µc µcni|ci¯µc .cii|u|ci¯µc
cnuii|ii¯µc pcricii¯µc suscm¯rc!!|¯µc
c|c!cs¯niscms¯ p¯ii|cn||¯|c. Kcicmc c|c!csc,
57
su||cm supcii, su||cm p¯ii||ujj|cii, nc
p¯pc|cm supincm pcsscii, mcnuss¯ncm piµc
|cii, cmcnuss¯ncm piµc |cii, !c.ci¯ rc|||cnii,
n¯ssc cggi.c .iscm .¯ sci|cm .¯ |cmcii, iu.cicm
ciiicm scm¯!|iµcii, mu||c.cnnc .ippcsi!cii,
cscmmù||c |¯|cm |crcii, uiicri cppcii.ijj|cnic
|rc|mc|c|ùpcgc |cii.¨
Tn| l||v|· Aov»·.».|- o| V|..¯
BriofIy slalod, llo oIovon advanlagos of mcii¯ llal aro
vorlly of nolo and romombranco aro llo slalos of mind
vlicl lavo boon dovoIopod, obsorvod and dopondod
upon sovoraI limos, simiIar lo llo volicIos or carriagos llal
lavo boon mainlainod proporIy and kopl in roadinoss for
uso. Tloy aro lloso vlicl lavo boon proporIy praclisod
and firmIy oslabIislod. Tlo fooIing of mcii¯ slouId bo froo
from ni.crcncs, obslacIos, sucl as iII-viII olc. OrdinariIy,
mcii¯ is lo bo rogardod as moro Ioving-kindnoss. Hovovor,
from llo poinl of viov of ccic.imuiii, i.o. llo soronily of
mind omancipalod from luman passions, il slouId bo
lakon as llo j|¯nic mind. Il las boon oxpIainod as sucl in
llo commonlary.
Tlo oIovon advanlagos, if onumoralod, may bo slalod as
(1) Il givos a sound sIoop or rallor, an uninlorruplod
58
sIumbor. Tloso vlo aro Iacking in llo praclico of
modilalion aro roslIoss boforo faIIing asIoop in lloir
sIooping-coucl or bod. Tloy may porlaps bo snoring. On
llo ollor land, a porson oquippod vill mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ las
a poacofuI sIoop vill an undislurbod mind. Wlon faIIon
asIoop, lo sIoops al poaco and lappiIy jusl Iiko a porson
vlo las immorsod limsoIf in a lranco of scm¯pciii. Tlis is
llo firsl advanlago.
And noxl (2) Su||cm pcii||ujj|cii ÷ lappiIy rousos from
sIoop. Wlon vaking up from sIoop somo lavo slirrod up
vill a grumbIo. Somo may lavo lo sving and slrolcl lloir
arms and Iogs, or may lavo lo mako ollor bodiIy movomonls
or roII on boforo golling up from bod. Tloso vlo go lo
sIoop aflor dovoIoping mcii¯ viII nol suffor sucl misorabIo
condilions, and lloy rouso from sIoop lappiIy and as frosl
as llo bIooming Iolus fIovors. According lo Dlammapada
vorsos: Suppc|u!!|cm pc|!ujj|cnii sc!¯ Gcicmc s¯.c|¯, µcscm
!i.¯ cc rciic cc, nicccm |u!!|cgcic scii, olc., i.o., lloso vlo aro
praclising modilalion, sucl as, dovoIoping conlompIalion
of 8u!!|¯nusscii ÷ MindfuInoss on llo NobIo Allribulos
of llo Buddla, lavo llo advanlagos of sound sIoop and
joy or lappinoss vlon vaking up from sIoop. Il slouId bo
nolod llal spociaI omplasis las purposoIy boon mado on
llo pocuIiar claraclorislics of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ bocauso of ils
quaIilios in doriving sucl bonofils.
59
(3) P¯pc|cm supincm ÷ oviI or bad droams viII nol prosonl
llomsoIvos in sIoop. Tloro aro inslancos vloro a vision
may appoar in ono's sIoop as if lo las faIIon dovn from a
vory ligl aIliludo, or las boon iII-lroalod by ollors, or las
sufforod from snako-bilo, olc. A porson dovoIoping mcii¯
viII nol lavo sucl voird or frigllfuI droams, bul viII lavo
pIoasanl and svool droams, as if lo is vorslipping llo
Buddla, or is fIying llrougl llo air vill j|¯nc, or Iisloning
lo llo sormon and llo Iiko vlicl givo lim doIigll.
(4) Mcnusscncm piµc |cii ÷ Ollors viII adoro lim or lavo
affoclion for lim bocauso of lis accompIislmonl of llo
nobIo allribulos. Ho viII bo sproading lis Ioving-kindnoss
lo ollors and viII novor causo larm lo ollors. Tloso vlo
aro noar and doar lo lim viII nol find fauIl vill lim.
Ho is loIoranl loo, and laving llo soronily of mind vill
compassion for ollors, lo is Iovod and rospoclod by aII
vlo como inlo conlacl vill lim. DovoIoping mcii¯ from
llo bollom of lis loarl is llo bosl allribulo vlicl invokos
or causos lo invilo affoclion and rospocl from ollors.
(5) Am¯nusscncm piµc |cii ÷ Ho is aIso Iovod by dovas.
Tlo fourll and llo fifll advanlagos indicalo llal lo is
Iovod, by aII luman boings and dovas. An inslanco las
boon slovn in llo Visuddlimagga as lo lov Iovo and
rospocl lavo boon boslovod upon by dovas.
6O
Tn| S.os\ o| \|-¯|n» Tn|s|
Al ono limo, lloro Iivod a ricl man by llo namo of Visãkla
in llo cily of IãlaIipulla. WliIo rosiding in IãlaIipulla, lo
lad loard of llo novs of llo oxislonco of many Buddlisl
slrinos and pagodas in llo isIand of CoyIon (nov Sri
Ianka), so numorous llal lloy rosombIod a nockIaco of
fIovors. Tlo onliro pIaco vas said lo bo gIoving vill llo
brigll coIour of llo yoIIov robos donnod by monks. Evory
pIaco vas safo and socuro and ono couId poacofuIIy rosido
and spond llo nigll anyvloro villoul monaco. Woallor
vas favourabIo and conducivo lo good loaIll. IIoasanl
voro llo monaslorios vlicl vonl in larmony vill llo
fino and gonlIo bolaviour of llo poopIo, boll plysicaI and
monlaI, vlicl lloroby croalod a congoniaI almosploro for
Iisloning lo llo sormons vill poaco of mind and dovolion.
Tloso favourabIo circumslancos lad causod lim lo rofIocl
llal il vouId bo foasibIo for lim lo procood lo CoyIon
and onlor inlo llo monklood. Will llis bonl of mind,
lo lransforrod aII lis businoss onlorpriso and proporlios
lo lis vifo and cliIdron. Aflor laving dono so, lo Iofl
lis lomo vill onIy ono (rupoo) kyal in lis pockol. Al
a soaporl lovn, lo lad lo vail for a monll lo sol off on
lis journoy by a soa-going vossoI. In lloso oId days, soa-
going vossoIs voro nol llo prosonl lypo of sloam-slips
61
bul big boals vill saiIs (saiIing boals). Boing ondovod
vill llo gifl of businoss acumon, lo slarlod induIging
in lrading, buying and soIIing goods by moving aboul
from ono pIaco lo anollor vliIo vailing for llo boal lo
arrivo. Ho oarnod a llousand rupoos by IogaIIy buying
and soIIing goods insido a monll. Trading in a IogaI vay
moans buying arlicIos or commodilios, paying vlal is
roaIIy vorll, and soIIing llom al a corrocl prico. In ancionl
limos, a margin of profil of onIy lvo picopyas vas usuaIIy
lakon on a capilaI oulIay of ono rupoo. Buying and soIIing
goods by fair moans vill corrocl prico is caIIod .cmmi|c
.¯nijic vlicl moans lrading according lo Iav lonoslIy.
Carrying on lrado in a Iogilimalo vay for ono's IivoIilood
as monlionod, is scmm¯ ¯ji.c, rigll IivoIilood. Hovovor, il
appoars llal il vas nol llo inlonlion of Visãkla, llo ricl,
lo doaI in sucl businoss lransaclion for lis subsislonco. Il
sooms lis naluraI incIinalion llal lad acluaIIy spurrod
lim lo doaI in lrading businoss. Tlis is ovidonl from llo
facl llal lo lad Ialor discardod aII lis monoy dorivod from
llo said businoss vonluro.
Tloroaflor, llis ricl man Visãkla Iofl llo porl and roaclod
CoyIon vloro al Malãvilãra monaslory, lo mado a
roquosl lo bo ordainod a monk. On lis vay lo llo Sim¯,
ono llousand rupoos (kyals) in casl vlicl lo carriod in
lis poucl luckod up al lis vaisl, sIippod oul accidonlaIIy.
Wlon llo sonior priosl vlo lad oscorlod lim lo llo Sim¯
62
inquirod of lim as lo vlal voro lloso moanl for, lo ropIiod,
¨Your Rovorond, llis is my ovn monoy vorll ono llousand
rupoos.¨ On boing inslruclod by llo Malãlloras as: ¨O,
Ipãsakã! (dovoul Iayman). Indor llo RuIos of DiscipIino,
from llo limo of your bocoming an ordainod monk, you
cannol possibIy landIo and manago llo casl, and as sucl,
you may mako your ovn arrangomonls lo disponso vill
llis monoy rigll nov.¨ Visãkla rospondod, ¨I do, nol
visl lo soo aII lloso vlo vouId favour mo vill lloir
prosonco al my Ordinalion, rolurn lomo omply-landod.¨
So saying, lo llrov avay aII ono llousand rupoos lo Iol
llom faII scalloring among llo crovd of dovoloos oulsido
llo procincls of llo Sim¯ (1|cin). OnIy aflor laving dono so,
lo rocoivod ordinalion.
Tlis ricl man vas namod Aslin Visãkla in llo roIo of
a priosl. Ior fivo yoars, lo slrovo lo sludy and look lis
lraining in llo fioId of Vinaya RuIos and Irocopls caIIod
Dvomãlikã. Aflor compIolion of fivo Vcss¯, lo look up
Kammalllãna modilalion praclico for four monlls oacl
al four difforonl monaslorios. WliIo praclising as sucl, lo
onco mado lis vay lo a forosl, romainod in ono soIilary
pIaco, and llon mado a joyous ulloranco of lymn rofIocling
upon lis nobIo allribulos, as foIIovs:
¨Y¯.ci¯ upcscmpcnnc, µ¯.ci¯ i!|c ¯gcic.
|ii|cnicrc ||c|iicm ncii|i, c|c |¯||c ic m¯risc.¨
63
Y¯.ci¯ upcscmpcnnc ÷ from llo limo of my firsl onloring
inlo priosllood, Y¯.ci¯ i!|c ¯gcic ÷ unliI I arrivod al llis
foroslod aroa, cii|cnicrc ÷ during llis poriod of inlorvaI,
||c|iicm ÷ faiIuro in llo obsorvanco of moraI procopls
concorning llo priosls, ncii|i ÷ lad novor lapponod or
lakon pIaco. M¯risc ÷ O, VonorabIo Visãkla, ic ÷ your,
|¯||c ÷ gains and advanlagos roIaling lo llo moraIily of
priosls, c|c ÷ voro indood vondorfuI!
Ialor, Aslin Visãkla procoodod lo ono monaslory on
CillaIa mounlain silualod al llo oxlromo ond of llo
soullorn rango. On lis vay, lo roaclod a junclion of llo
road vloro lo sloppod for a vliIo, lis mind vavoring
as lo vlicl roulo lo slouId rosumo lis journoy. Al llis
juncluro, a guardian angoI of llo mounlain appoarod and
diroclod lim poinling llo land lovards llo pall saying,
¨Tlis is llo roulo you slouId lako.¨ Aflor four monlls lad
oIapsod sinco lis arrivaI al CillaIa monaslory, ono day al
davn lo vas Iying dovn pIanning lo Ioavo llo monaslory
for anollor pIaco. WliIo lo vas llus rofIocling, a ru|||c-
!c.cic, guardian angoI of a lroo, caIIod ManiIa, vlicl
slood al llo load of llo lorraco, vas said lo lavo boon
found silling on a slop of llo slairs, and crying.
Visãkla Tlora llon askod, ¨Wlo aro you and vly aro you
vooping`' Tlo guardian angoI ropIiod, ¨I'm llo guardian
spiril of llal '1|c|µc' lroo.¨ To llo quory as lo vly lo
64
vas vooping, llo ropIy givon vas llal lo vas crying
fooIing sorry and dojoclod for llo imminonl doparluro of
Visãkla Tlora from llis pIaco. Visãkla llon quoslionod
lim, ¨Wlal nobIo advanlagos you aII lavo dorivod by
my sojourn loro`¨ Tlo guardian spiril said in ropIy, ¨Sir,
your prosonco loro las brougll aboul a fooIing of Ioving-
kindnoss among us ÷ llo Dovas, and if you aro going lo
Ioavo llis pIaco, quarroI viII broak oul among llo Dovas
vlo viII aIso ullor larsl vords lurling ono anollor's
fooIings.¨ Visãkla llon said, ¨If my slay loro viII bring
lappinoss lo you aII, I viII lavo lo slay on.¨ Ho conlinuod
lo rosido al llo monaslory for anollor four monlls.
SimiIar incidonls lapponod again and again al llo ond of
ovory four monlls, and Visãkla vas forcod lo slay on and
on al llis CillaIa monaslory unliI llo limo of lis doall
÷ Pcrini||¯nc. Tlis pioco of anocdolo is a cIoar and saIionl
oxampIo iIIuslralod in llo Visuddlimagga sloving lov a
porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ is Iovod and rospoclod by
llo Dovas.
Tlon comos No. (6): ¨Dc.ci¯ Rc|||cnii¨ ÷ proloclion is
givon by llo ncis (Dovas). Tlo mannor of giving proloclion
or guard is slalod lo bo simiIar lo llo kind of proloclion
givon by llo paronls lo lloir onIy son llrougl Iovo. If
llo ncis aro going lo rondor loIp and proloclion, ono
viII dofiniloIy bo froo from dangors and viII aIso gain
lappinoss.
65
(7) Assc ÷ In rogard lo a porson vlo is dovoIoping
mcii¯, cggi .¯ .iscm .¯ sci|cm .¯ ÷ oillor firo, or poison,
or 'dal' (a kind of svord vill ono-odgod bIado), or any
ollor dangorous voapon llal can causo plysicaI larm,
|cmcii ÷ viII nol bofaII lim. In ollor vords, no dangor,
sucl as, firo, poison, and IollaI voapons Iiko dals, spoars,
arrovs, olc., can causo bodiIy injury lo an individuaI vlo
is dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss. Iiroarms, bombs, missiIos
and sucl ollor modorn voaponry vlicl can infIicl bodiIy
larm lo a porson may bo rogardod as boing incIudod in
llo Iisl of IollaI voapons. Tloroforo, vlon any kind
of dangor bocomos imminonl, il vouId bo advisabIo lo
soriousIy dovoIop mindfuInoss on mcii¯. In llis connoclion,
Visuddlimagga las cilod a numbor of inslancos, sucl as,
llo caso of a fomaIo dovoloo by llo namo of Illarã vlo
lad oscapod scaIds from llo burning oiI, or llo caso of
CûIasiva Tlora, a famous scloIar of Samyulla Nikãya
vlo vas immuno from poison, or llo caso of Samkicca,
Sãmanora vlo lad oscapod from llo doadIy offocls of
slarp voapons. Bosidos, a slory of a cov vlicl lad
bocomo invuInorabIo againsl llo piorcing bIovs of a spoar
vas cilod as an iIIuslralion. Al ono limo, a cov vas fooding
an infanl caIf. A lunlor lriod lo lil llis cov sovoraI limos
vill lis spoar. Hovovor, ovory limo llo slarp-poinlod
spoar-load slruck llo body of llo cov vlon pIungod, llo
poinlod odgo of llo spoar lvislod or coiIod up Iiko a paIm
Ioaf insload of ponolraling llrougl llo skin. Tlis lad so
66
lapponod nol bocauso of upcc¯ cppcn¯ j|¯nc bul bocauso of
lor puro and inlonso Iovo for lor young son llo caIf. Tlo
infIuonco of mcii¯ is indood povorfuI ovon lo llal oxlonl.
Among lloso slorios, llo ono roIaling lo Illarã is quilo
oulslanding as il is conlainod in llo Dlammapada. A briof
accounl of il viII bo quolod as an oxcorpl.
Tn| S.os\ o| L..»s¯
Maung Ionna vas llo namo of Illara's fallor. Ho vas al
firsl a poor man in llo ompIoy of ono Sumana, a miIIionairo
from llo cily of Rãjagala. Ono day, lo donalod a pioco of
llin slick of a pIanl, a kind of looll-brusl usod by monks
for cIoaning llo looll (caIIod !cmpu) and cIoan valor for
vasling llo faco lo Aslin Sãripulla Tlora vlo lad jusl
arison from Scm¯pciii. His vifo aIso on llo samo day, on
lor vay lo llo pIaco vloro lo vas pIougling llo fioId
bringing a packol of rico moaI for lim loo camo across
Aslin Sãripulla. Will an ovorvloIming gonorosily al llo
sigll of llo VonorabIo Aslin Sãripulla, slo offorod llo
packol of rico-moaI lo llo Aralal and slarod lor morils
vill lor lusband. By virluo of lloso morilorious doods,
il is said llal llo onliro pIol of Iand pIouglod by Maung
Ionna lad suddonIy lransformod inlo a fioId of puro goId.
67
Al llo prosonl day, llis kind of incidonl may bo considorod
Iudicrous ÷ as a sorl of ¨BoIiovo il or nol¨ slory. Hovovor,
in lloso ancionl limos, spociaI and pocuIiar advanlagos
lad boon dorivod doponding upon llo moraI quaIilios of
corlain oulslanding porsons or donoos, vlo possossod,
spociaI nobIo allribulos. Tloro is roason lo boIiovo so,
judging llo naluro of quoor invonlions of vondorfuI
oIoclronic moclanicaI dovicos sucl as compulors, missiIos
and saloIIilos vlicl vouId ordinariIy bo considorod
unboIiovabIo. IocuIiar and aslonisling lapponings migll
lavo lloroforo occurrod in lloso oId days.
Sinco lis pIol of cuIlivabIo Iand lad lurnod inlo puro soIid
goId, llo poor Maung Ionna bocamo fabuIousIy ricl. Al
somo fuluro dalo, llo voaIlly Sumana soIicilod I Ionna
lo givo lis daugllor Illarã in marriago lo lis son. I Ionna,
lis vifo and lloir daugllor Illarã lad aIroady bocomo
Sci¯pcnncs aflor Iisloning lo llo sormon doIivorod by llo
Buddla sinco llo limo of llo oponing coromony of lloir
nov rosidonco, loId immodialoIy aflor Maung Ionna lad
acquirod lis immonso voaIll and forluno. On llo ollor
land, llo vloIo famiIy of Sumana, llo ricl man, vas
of difforonl roIigion and nono of llo mombors of lloir
lousoloId vas a Buddlisl. Ior llis parlicuIar roason, llo
proposaI mado by Sumana vas nol accoplod by Ionna,
llo miIIionairo. Ho vas quilo oulspokon in loIIing Sumana
llal Sumana's son lad lis faill in lorolicaI doclrino
68
vloroas, lis daugllor, boing a dovoul Buddlisl couId
nol loIp laking lor rofugo in llo TripIo Gom and llal llo
proposod marriago vouId lloroforo bo incompalibIo. Ior
llis simpIo roason lo vas unabIo lo givo lis consonl lo llo
proposaI mado by Sumana. Hovovor, on boing advisod by
many of lis frionds vill a roquosl nol lo gol oslrangod in
lis roIalionslip vill Sumana, lo finaIIy acquioscod, and
llon Illarã vas ovonluaIIy givon in marriago lo Sumana's
son.
On llo IuII Moon day of Wãso, Illarã lad lo accompany
lor lusband lo llo lomo of Sumana's famiIy. Sinco llo
day of lor arrivaI al lor lusband's louso, slo lad lad
no opporlunily lo sook lor rofugo in, and pay lomago
lo Sanglas and Blikklunïs. Noillor lad slo oblainod
any clanco lo do any acl of clarily or !¯nc, and lo Iislon
lo llo nobIo Dlamma. Tlis slalo of affairs laving Iaslod
for lvo and a laIf monlls, Illarã vas compoIIod lo sond
informalion lo lor fallor aboul lor pIigll. Wlal slo lad
convoyod in lor mossago vas: ¨Wly slouId I bo Iockod up
and kopl undor dolonlion` Il vouId porlaps bo bollor lo
docIaro mo oulrigll llal I am lloir moan sIavo. Il appoars
unjuslifiabIo lo Iol mo bo liod dovn and marriod lo a lorolic,
nay, a man loIding a lorolicaI viov. Sinco my arrivaI loro
up liII nov, I lavo boon doprivod of llo opporlunily lo soo
or pay my rospocls and lomago lo sanglas and monks
and porform any kind of morilorious acls.¨
69
Having loard llis novs, lor fallor foIl vory mucl
doprossod, and Iamonlod, ¨Wlal a pily! My daugllor is
undoublodIy sufforing misory.¨ Ho lloroforo sonl a sum
of fifloon llousand rupoos (kyals) lo lis daugllor Illarã.
Al llal limo, lloro Iivod a voman of somo ronovn by llo,
namo of Tlïrimã in llo cily of Rãjagala. Slo oarnod lor
Iiving by proslilulion, laking a foo of ono llousand rupoos
for ovory nigll sponl by lor vill a man. Tlis girI Tlïrimã
vas lirod for a sum of fifloon llousand rupoos lo Iook
aflor and mako Illara's lusband lappy for a poriod of 15
days. Tlo monoy sonl lo Illarã by lor fallor vas lo onabIo
lor lo do morils ÷ |usc|c ÷ frooIy villin a spaco of 15
days. Slo llon summonod Tlïrimã vlo, aflor consuIlalion,
agrood lo bo lirod lo Illara's lusband. Will llo oxpross
consonl of Tlïrimã, slo vas lakon lo Illara's lusband
from vlom pormission vas sougll by Illarã llal for a
poriod of 15 days slo vouId Iiko lo frooIy dovolo lorsoIf
lo porformanco of morils and llal llis Tlïrimã vouId in
llo moanlimo Iook aflor lim proporIy. Hor lusband boing
doIigllfuIIy improssod vill Tlirima's boauly and clarm
roadiIy agrood lo abido by llo lorms prosonlod by Illarã.
Commoncing from llal day, Illarã daiIy accordod lor
invilalion lo llo sanglas loadod by llo Buddla and
offorod moaIs in aIms al lor rosidonco. Slo aIso Iislonod lo
llo sormons and llon porsonaIIy managod in proparing
moaIs, olc., for llo sanglas. On llo 14ll, Waxing day of
7O
Tladingyul, lor lusband vlon Iooking al llo kilclon
dovn boIov llrougl llo vindov of lis rosidonliaI
buiIding, sav lis vifo Illarã porsonaIIy managing and
suporvising llo vork of cooking food and proparing moaIs
for llo sanglas. Slo vas porspiring and Iooking dirly
vill sool on lor faco. Iinding lor in sucl a prodicamonl,
lo bomusod, ¨O, vlal a fooIisl croaluro! Slo cannol find
onjoymonl in llo Iuxury and comforls of llis subslanliaI
and voII furnislod buiIding. Hov surprising is il llal
slo couId onIy find lor salisfaclion and pIoasuro in doing
sorvico lo lloso baId-loadod monks!¨ Ho llon rolroalod
lis slops from llo vindov smiIing.
Wlon Tlïrimã found lim voaring a smiIo on lis faco,
curiosily lad arousod in lor vanling lo knov llo roason
for lis domoanour. Slo lloroforo vonl lovards llo vindov
and on obsorvalion boing mado, sav Illarã in llo kilclon. A
fooIing of joaIousy llon cropl up in lor and slo llougll lo
lorsoIf as: 'O, llis son of a miIIionairo sliII sooms lo lavo lis
cIoso connoclion vill llis bIooming baso fomaIo croaluro.¨
MarvoIIous indood! Slo considorod lorsoIf as llo roaI
IandIady and ovnor of llo big mansion aflor lor sojourn for
onIy 15 days. In facl, slo lad onliroIy forgollon llal slo vas
Iiving in llal pIaco on liro. NovorlloIoss, slo bocamo onvious
and rosonlfuI againsl Illarã. Aparl from llal, slo boro
grudgo againsl Illarã. Honco, vill lor iII viII lo mako Illarã
misorabIo, slo camo dovn llo slairs. Tlon making lor vay
71
lo llo kilclon, slo look a cup of boiIing bullor and vonl cIoso
lo Illarã lo do miscliof. Sooing Tlïrimã, Illarã immodialoIy
rofIoclod and bogan dovoIoping a fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss
and said lo lorsoIf in soIiIoquy: ¨My friond Tlïrimã las
dono a Iol of bonofils lo mo. Tlo Inivorso is comparalivoIy
narrov as comparod lo llo vorId of advanlagos boslovod
upon mo by Tlïrimã. Tlo advanlagos aro immonso, and il is
bocauso of lor caro and allonlion givon lo my lusband llal I
lavo boon abIo lo porform llo clarilabIo doods and Iislon lo
llo Dlamma. If I lavo larbourod any fooIing of rosonlmonl
or angor, may llis scorclingIy lol bullor-oiI vlicl Tlïrimã
is carrying vill lor causo mo larm by scaIding. If, on llo
conlrary, I lavo no fooIing of animosily or angor againsl lor,
no larm or injury may bofaII mo.¨ Slo soIomnIy look oall of
llo lrull of lor nobIo-mindodnoss in llo mannor slalod, and
radialod lor Ioving-kindnoss, mcii¯, lo Tlïrimã. Tlo burning
lol Iiquid of bullor vlicl Tlïrimã cruoIIy pourod upon lor
lad llo rovorso offocl of cooInoss of frosl valor.
Tlïrimã llon rofIoclod, ¨Tlis croam of bullor vlicl las
moIlod appoars golling coId.¨ Slo lloroforo again vonl off
and folclod anollor cupfuI of boiIod lol bullor from llo
frying pan. Iinding lor doing vlal vas considorod lorribIo,
llo maids allonding on Illarã noarby bocamo indignanl
and ullorod, ¨Go avay. you fooIisl bilcl. Don'l pour
llis burning oiI on our Mislross.¨ Tloy simuIlanoousIy
llroalonod lor, gavo lor a good boaling and kickod lor
72
aboul. Tlis mado Tlïrimã faII fIal on llo ground. Illarã
inlorvonod lo dolor lor maids from causing bodiIy larm
lo Tlïrimã bul lo no avaiI. Al llis juncluro, Illarã askod
Tlïrimã vill a fooIing of roprobalion, ¨O, Tlïrimã, vlal
las mado you commil sucl an avfuI and sorious crimo,
olc.¨ So saying, slo immodialoIy causod lor lo bo givon a
varm ball and anoinlod ÷ vill an oxlromoIy sofl groaso
or joIIy (Iubricanl) lo roIiovo lor pain and sufforing.
OnIy llon, roaIisalion camo lo Tlïrimã llal slo vas
rondoring lor sorvico on liro and londorod lor apoIogy,
bogging Illarã lo forgivo lor. Illarã llon inslruclod
Tlïrimã lo mako an apoIogy lo and bog for pardon from
lor ¨fallor¨, llo Iord Buddla. BriofIy slalod, as arrangod
by Illarã, Tlïrimã procoodod lo llo Buddla and His
discipIo ÷ Sanglas, paid lor oboisanco, offorod moaIs in
donalion, and londorod lor apoIogy. Buddla llon gavo
an oxlorlalion, proacling llo Dlamma in llo form of a
vorso vlicl, in ossonco, convoys llo moaning ÷ ¨Mako a
conquosl of an angry man by 'palionco' villoul spilo and
golling angry.¨ Aflor laving loard llis sormon, Tlïrimã
logollor vill ollor fivo lundrod fomaIos allainod
Sci¯pcnnc. Tlo significanl poinl inlondod lo bo slrossod
in llo slory nov cilod is llal Illarã, llo fomaIo dovoloo,
lad oscapod from llo burning loal of llo boiIing bullor-
oiI pourod upon lor by virluo of conlompIaling and
dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss (mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯).
73
RoIaling lo llo slory of CûIasiva Tlora vlo bocamo
invuInorabIo from poison, no oIaboralod accounl vas
found in llo prosonl Alllakallã and Tikãs. In rogard lo
llo ovonls concorning Samkicca S¯mcncrc, il las aIroady-
boon monlionod in llo Tuvalaka Sulla (Burmoso vorsion)
al pago 9O vloroin roforonco is onIy mado lo llo facl llal
lo lad pIungod limsoIf in j|¯nc. Il vas nol obvious as
lo vlal kind of j|¯nc lo lad dovoIopod. In llo prosonl
inslanco, lovovor, according lo vlal las boon slalod in
llo Visuddlimagga, il is lo bo rogardod as dovoIoping
mcii¯ j|¯nc. Tlis vouId moan llal immunily vas gainod
from llo dangors of firo, poison and ollor IollaI voapons,
sucl as a svord or a !c|.
(8) ¨1u.cicm scm¯!|iµcii¨, vlicl moans llal llo mind
aIso quickIy bocomos slabiIisod and caIm. To dovoIop
mindfuInoss visling ollors lappy is approprialo and
oasy inasmucl as ovorybody is viIIing lo gain lappinoss.
Honco, llo mind is vory IikoIy lo bocomo lranquiI villin a
slorl limo.
(9) Tlo noxl advanlago is ¨Mu||c.cnnc .ippcsi!cii¨, i.o. llo
compIoxion of llo faco can bocomo cIoar. As slalod oarIior,
il slouId bo dovoIopod as may bo considorod approprialo.
Il is oasior, of courso. Tlis viII undoublodIy bring cIoar
compIoxion of llo faco.
74
(1O) Tlo noxl is: ¨Ascmmù||c |¯|cm |crcii¨. Tlal is lo say
¨Doall lakos pIaco villoul boviIdormonl or porpIoxily.¨ Tlis
is roaIIy imporlanl. Wlon ono is approacling doall, lo is
IikoIy lo dio villoul boing abIo lo gain propor conconlralion
and mindfuInoss bocauso of vory sovoro pain, aclo or
lirodnoss vlicl lo las lo suffor, or is IikoIy lo pass avay
vill a fooIing of grood or angor, or undor doIusion vill a
mislakon viov imagining aII sorls of orronoous llouglls.
Tlis is lov doall usuaIIy comos upon a porson vill llo
mind porpIoxod riddon by aII kinds of onlangIomonls. Wlon
doall occurs lo ono in llo mannor as slalod, il is aImosl
corlain llal lo is doslinod for llo four Ap¯µcs or Nollor
WorId. Hovovor, in somo casos vloro ono is in a slalo of
coma or somi-consciousnoss, llo mind may impingo on or
slick lo sonsalions roIaling lo morils, or on nimiiics (omons)
concorning Sugcii, i.o. llo abodo of Dovas and llo luman
vorId, fairIy al oaso. In llal caso, a porson can lopo lo roacl
Sugcii, an oxislonco vloro lappy condilions provaiI.
(11) Tlis is llo Iasl kind of advanlago oxprossod in IãIi as:
¨Uiicri cppcii .ijj|cnic,¨ Il goos lo say llal if crc|ciic p|c|c, llo
Iruilion of Aralalslip, is nol roaIisod or allainod boyond,
or rallor, oulsido llo rango of mcii¯ j|¯nc, or in ollor
vords, if crc|ciic p|c|c vlicl is suporior lo mcii¯ j|¯nc
cannol bo acliovod, |rc|m¯|c|ùpcgc ÷ Bralmã WorId viII
bo roaclod. An ordinary vorIdIing can roacl llo Abodo
of Bralmãs if lo las acliovod mcii¯ j|¯nc, Solãpannas
75
and Sakadãgãmis may bo roborn in llo Bralmã WorId.
Of courso, an Anãgãmi is IikoIy lo bo roborn in llo abodo
of Suddlãvãsa in llo WorId of Bralmãs. If j|¯nc is nol
allainod and if onIy ocslalic conconlralion approacling
llo allainmonl of j|¯nc (upcc¯rc scm¯!|i) is acliovod, lo
can roacl llo vorId of luman boings, and DovaIoka vlicl
aro oxisloncos knovn as Sugcii. Dlanañjlãni, llo Bralmin,
vloso caso lad boon oarIior monlionod, lad roaclod llo
Bralmã WorId for laving acquirod virluo by dovoIoping
mcii¯, olc., villin aboul laIf an lour boforo lis doall. Tlis
is parlicuIarIy vorlly of nolo. Il aIso dosorvos omuIalion.
Having givon loaclings on llo Bralmavilãra Dlamma in
a fairIy comprolonsivo vay, I slaII nov conlinuo lo laIk
somolling aboul Vipassanã.
D|v||o||·. V|..¯ c \||»--»·¯ V|o|.».|o· |·
co·s|·».|o·
A porson aflor aclioving j|¯nc by dovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯
can roacl llo slago of crc|ciic p|c|c if lo conlinuos lo
conlompIalo Vipassanã doponding on llal mcii¯ j|¯nc as
a basis. Evon if faIIing slorl of crc|ciic p|c|c, lo can roacl
cn¯g¯mi-mcggc-p|c|c and bocomo an Anãgãmi. Tlo vay lo
conlompIalo is lo firsl onlor inlo mcii¯ j|¯nc, and vlon llis
jlãnic mind coasos, il is lo conlompIalo on llal j|¯nc. Tlis
76
mollod of pIunging in j|¯nc and llon conlompIaling j|¯nc
in lurn by dovoIoping and conlompIaling Samalla and
Vipassanã in pairs, is caIIod ¨µugcnc!!|c¨, i.o., oquipping
onosoIf vill modilalion in pairs. Tlo mollod of modilaling
Vipassanã is llo samo as llo mollod of conlompIaling and
noling by llo prosonl Yogïs. Il is lo conlompIalo and nolo
vlal las boon soon, or loard, or conlaclod, or imaginod
as ¨sooing¨, ¨loaring¨, ¨conlacling¨, or ¨imagining¨, as llo
caso may bo. In llo samo vay, aflor llo occurronco of llo
jlãnic-mind, llis jlãnic-mind viII lavo lo bo conlompIalod
and nolod. Tlo onIy difforonco is llal a porson vlo las
allainod j|¯nc, conlompIalos llo jlãnic-mind, vloroas llo
prosonl Yogïs, nol boing ondovod vill llo jlãnic-mind,
slouId conlompIalo and nolo llo mind or consciousnoss
llal is avaro of vlal las boon soon, olc.
Wlal slaII bo dono nov according lo llo mollod of
µugcnc!!|c conlompIalion, is lo dovoIop mcii¯ rociling as:
¨May aII bo lappy¨. Tlon, conlompIalo vill mindfuInoss on
Ioving-kindnoss in lurn. DovoIoping mcii¯ aIong vill llo
conlompIalion of mcii¯-mindfuInoss in pairs, is llo mollod.
If so conlompIalod, llo mind llal is inlondod lo radialo lo
a parlicuIar porson vliIo rocilalion is mado, rùpc ÷ llo
maloriaI oIomonl vlicl ullors, llo sonso-objocl of voico
vlicl sounds, and llo mind-consciousnoss vlicl dvoIIs
in lis loarl vliIo rociling as: ¨May aII bo lappy¨, viII
aII bo found vanisling inslanlanoousIy and conlinuaIIy.
77
Sucl roaIisalion or avaronoss is llo gonuino Vipassanã
insigll knovIodgo vlicl knovs llo claraclorislics of
impormanonco. Tlis is slalod as, ¨||cµcii|cnc cnicccm¨
(laving coasod or vanislod in a momonl, il is impormanonl).
Iol us boar il in mind and conlompIalo in llo courso of our
rocilalion in llo foIIoving mannor:
May aII lloso monks, individuaIs and Yogïs
rosiding in llis modilalion conlro bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII boings in llis modilalion conlro bo
lappy. (ropoal)
May aII monks and individuaIs villin llis
lovnslip bo lappy. (ropoal)
May aII boings in llis lovnslip bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII poopIo Iiving in llo Inion of Burma
bo lappy. (ropoal).
May aII boings bo lappy. (ropoal)
Evory limo il is rocilod as: ¨May aII bo lappy¨ vill con-
sciousnoss, llo mind llal is pul inlo llis consciousnoss, and
llo mind llal inlonds lo rocilo, llo bodiIy bolaviour, and llo
sonso objocl of llo voico vlicl ullors, immodialoIy vanisl.
78
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. ||
On llo IuII Moon day of Wãso, I oxpIainod lov lo dovoIop
mcii¯. Mosl of llo loaclings I gavo llon, roforrod lo llo
dorivalion of p¯rcmii¯ and |usc|c by vay of dovoIoping
mcii¯. Irom llo poinl of viov of llo Visuddlimagga
(Tlo Iall of Iurificalion) vo lavo so far onIy covorod llo
mannor of rofIocling on llo fauIls of llo ¨angor¨, and llo
advanlagos of ¨palionco¨. So I slaII nov conlinuo lo laIk
aboul lov lo dovoIop mcii¯ commoncing from vloro vo
lad sloppod.
w»\ o| -|..|·. co·|os.»s|\
Wo may add a IillIo moro according lo llo loaclings of llo
Buddla roIaling lo llo mannor of assuming a comforlabIo
silling posluro for modilalion.
Tlo EnIigllonod Ono las diroclod, ¨Arcññcgcic .¯¨ oillor
by going inlo or rosiding in a forosl, nr, ¨ru|||cmù|cgcic .¯¨
÷ by approacling or occupying a posilion undor llo slado
of a lroo or cIoso lo llo lrunk ond of llo body of a lroo,
or, ¨suññ¯g¯rcgcic .¯¨ ÷ by slaying in a monaslory, or a
79
louso, or a buiIding vloro lloro aro no poopIo, nay, vlicl
slands in a soIilary pIaco, ¨nisi!cii¨ ÷ slouId sil dovn or
bo soalod. ObviousIy our Iord Buddla in His inslruclions,
las givon priorily lo praclising modilalion oxorciso in a
foroslod aroa. OnIy vlon ono is unabIo lo procood lo a
forosl, lo is advisod lo lako lis soal and modilalo al llo
fool of a lroo in a quiol pIaco. Tlon again, if il is impossibIo
lo do so, lo pracliso modilalion in a monaslory, or a louso,
or a buiIding uninlabilod by poopIo, il vouId bo llo
bosl lo soIocl a socIudod pIaco vloro lloro is poaco and
lranquiIIily. If, lovovor, lloro is any ollor porson vlo
is induIging in modilalion in llo samo aroa il vouId bo
bollor if llal porson is of llo samo sox. In any caso, llo bosl
vouId bo a socIudod spol in a romolo aroa vloro lloro is
no ollor porson oxcopl llo modilalor.
Tlo mannor of silling posluro lo bo adoplod is slalod as
¨Pc||cn|cm ¯||ujii.¯,¨ i.o., lo sil cross-Ioggod. I lavo aIroady
oxpIainod aboul il in fuII. Iurllormoro, al llo limo of
silling, llo inslruclion givon is: ¨Ujjum|¯µcm pcni!|¯ya¨
i.o., llo uppor porlion of llo body abovo llo vaisl slouId
bo kopl orocl, slraigll and porpondicuIarIy. If ono sils
dovn IoosoIy bonding lis back or lvisling lis body, llo
slrongll of lis oxorlion or offorl viII bo voakonod. Tlal is
llo roason vly il is nocossary lo sil orocl kooping llo body
abovo llo vaisl porfoclIy uprigll. Aflor laking a silling
posluro as doscribod, llo inslruclion givon lo bo foIIovod
8O
is: ¨Pcrimu||cm scicm upci|cpcii.¯¨ ÷ vlicl moans lo
fix ono's llouglls 'onIy on llo objocl of sonsalion (sonso-
objocl) and lo ongago onosoIf in aclivo modilalion vill
fixod conconlralion villoul Iolling llo mind go aslray.'
In llo prosonl caso of praclising mcii¯-Kcmmcii|¯nc, llo
mind slouId bo diroclod lovards poopIo for vlom Ioving-
kindnoss is inlondod lo bo dovoIopod. Il is ossonliaI lo
knov and undorsland from llo vory boginning as lo vlo
aro lloso in vloso favour Mcii¯ slouId nol bo radialod or
dovoIopod firsl, and vlo aro lloso nol vorlly of rocoiving
Mcii¯.
l|s-o·- .ow»so- wno· V|..¯ -not|o ·o. s| o|v||o||o
». .n| |·|.|»| -.».|
Mcii¯ slouId nol bo dovoIopod al llo boginning of llo
oxorciso lovards: (1) porsons vlo aro losliIo and unfriondIy,
or vlo dosorvos lalrod (cppiµc), (2) porsons vlo aro
doarosl lo you or your boIovod onos, llal is, lloso vlo,
lavo cIoso affinily vill llo modilalor llrougl doop Iovo
(ciippiµc), (3) porsons vlo dosorvo noillor Iovo nor lalrod,
i.o., noulraI porsons, and (4) porsons vlo aro onomios.
}uslificalion for nol dovoIoping mcii¯ al llo boginning from
sucl poopIo is bocauso il vouId bo difficuIl lo pormoalo
81
llo fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss, or rallor, il vouId bo
incongruous lo sond your mcii¯ lo ono vlom you lalo. Il is
aIso rallor lard or avkvard lo lransmil your mcii¯ firsl lo
ono's boIovod onos Iiko ÷ your cliIdron, brollors and sislors.
for vlom you lavo inlonso Iovo and allaclmonl. Noillor
viII il bo oasy lo dovoIop Ioving-kindnoss for poopIo, sucl
as, your ovn pupiIs or discipIos and ollor noulraI porsons.
Il is bocauso, if porsons for vlom you lavo doop Iovo and
affoclion aro found lo lavo bocomo a bil misorabIo or lavo
sufforod, lroubIo and misory, you vouId probabIy bocomo
liglIy doprossod or dojoclod. Noxl, il vouId aIso bo difficuIl
lo pul a slrangor or a noulraI porson, vlo is unfamiIiar vill
you, in llo roIo of a boIovod, porson. Yos, indood. Il is voII-
nigl impossibIo lo conslanlIy radialo Ioving-kindnoss lo a
compIolo slrangor. Ioavo asido omilling Ioving-kindnoss lo
an onomy. As rogards an onomy, llo momonl you romombor
lim, fooIing of angor viII ariso rocaIIing llo pasl incidonls
or momorios of lis vrong doings or fauIls. Tloy aro llo four
kinds of poopIo in vloso favour or for vlom ono slouId
nol dovoIop mcii¯ ÷ al llo iniliaI slago of llo pracliso of
Ioving-kindnoss modilalion.
l|s-o·- t|o· wno· V|..¯ -not|o ·o. s| s|-.ow|o
Iorsons lovards vlom mcii¯, Ioving-kindnoss, slouId nnt
bo dovoIopod aro:
82
(1) Iorsons nol boIonging lo llo samo sox ÷ mcii¯ slouId
nol bo dovoIopod and lransmillod in parlicuIar lo porsons
of a difforonl sox.
(2) Iorsons vlo aro doad and gono ÷ mcii¯ slouId nol
bo dovoIopod lovards sucl porsons.
Tlo roason for llis abslonlion is llal bolvoon llo lvo
porsons vlo aro nol of llo samo sox, say, of llo lvo
porsons ÷ a maIo and a fomaIo ÷ if a maIo or a man is
parlicuIarIy dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards a fomaIo or a voman,
or, vico vorsa, i.o., if a fomaIo is ospociaIIy dovoIoping mcii¯
lovards a maIo, sonsuaI or luman passionalo dosiros
(r¯gc) is IikoIy lo occur. In llo Iong limo pasl, a son of a
govornmonl minislor askod lis Malãllora, lis spiriluaI
loaclor, ¨Your rovorond Sir, on vlom slouId I boslov my
Ioving-kindnoss by dovoIoping mcii¯¨. Tlo Malãllora
ropIiod llal lo slouId dovoIop lis mcii¯ in rospocl of
a porson vlom lo Iovod and adorod. Tloroupon, llo
minislor's son, boing vory fond of lis vifo, aflor kooping
obsorvanco of llo nobIo oigll-foId si|cs (cii|cngc-si|c)
i.o., moraI procopls, on ono day, look lis soal on llo
sIooping coucl in a cIosod bodroom al nigll limo, and
dovoIopod mcii¯ radialing lis spiril of Ioving-kindnoss lo
lis darIing vifo vill conconlralod conlompIalion. WliIo
llus porforming, lo bocamo infalualod vill oxlravaganl
passion (r¯gc). Ho lloroforo mado an allompl lo go lo lis
83
vifo. Indor llo inspirod infIuonco of lis sonsuous dosiros,
lo onliroIy forgol aboul llo door and in moving aboul
viIdIy Iosing conlroI of limsoIf, lil llo vaII many a limo.
Bocoming so angry and bIindod by lis passion, lo slruck
llo vaII ropoalodIy vill lis land and kickod il. Il sooms
llal llis lad lapponod nol for a vliIo or a fov minulos. Il
las boon slalod in llo Visuddlimagga as: ¨sc||crciicm¨ ÷
llrougloul llo vloIo nigll, ¨||iii|iµu!!|cmc|¯si¨ (lo) vas
al var vill llo masonry vaII and fougll againsl il. Tlo
Visuddlimagga las aIso monlionod llo upsurgo of r¯gc
as boing an inlrusion mado by r¯gc ilsoIf onlicing undor
llo guiso of mcii¯. As allaclmonl of r¯gc las a londoncy
lo lako pIaco vill vigour, mcii¯ slouId nol bo dovoIopod
in a mannor dislincl from ollors lovards a porson of
llo opposilo sox. Hovovor, lransmission of mcii¯ for llo
purposo of gaining p¯rcmii¯ and |usc|c for aboul four, fivo,
or lon limos appoars nol prolibilivo.
Il is slalod llal if mcii¯ is dovoIopod lovards a porson
vlo vas doad, noillor cppcn¯-j|¯nc-scm¯!|i, i.o. boundIoss
and porfocl conconlralion, by conlompIalion, nor, upcc¯rc-
scm¯!|i, i.o. inforior lypo of proximalo conconlralion, can
bo acliovod. A Iong limo ago, a young Blikklu vas said
lo bo dovoIoping mcii¯ dvoIIing lis mind on lis spiriluaI
loaclor. Ho vas, lovovor, unabIo lo roacl llo slago of
j|¯nc-scm¯pciii vlicl lo lad onco succossfuIIy praclisod
and allainod by induIging in ocslalic modilalion. Wlon
84
lo mado onquirios aboul lis faiIuro lo allain llo said j|¯nc
as advisod by a Malãllora, lo found oul llal lis spiriluaI
loaclor lad aIroady passod avay. Tlonco, lo dovoIopod lis
mcii¯ lovards anollor porson vill lis usuaI conconlralion.
OnIy llon vas lo abIo lo allain mcii¯-j|¯nc. Tloroforo,
mcii¯ slouId nol bo dovoIopod in rospocl of or lovards a
porson vlo lad aIroady passod avay.
l|s-o·- .ow»so- wno· V|..¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o
||s-. c |os|·o-.
In dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards ollors, priorily slouId bo givon
lo ono's ovn soIf. Il is slalod llal firsl and foromosl mcii¯
slouId bo dovoIopod lovards ono's ovn soIf giving voico
lo ¨May I bo lappy and froo from misory.¨ Or, ¨May I bo
froo from dangor, monlaI dislross, bodiIy sufforing, and bo
abIo lo. slouIdor llo burdon of ono's ovn ||cn!|c (maloriaI
body) vill lappinoss.¨ In dovoIoping mcii¯ for ono's ovn
voII-boing, llo inlonlion, of courso, is nol lo acquiro
morils. Nor is il dovoIopod lo gain scm¯!|i (conconlralion).
Il is moanl lo sorvo as an oxampIo by comparison llal
ollors aIso visl lo bo lappy Iiko lo limsoIf vislos lo
bo. Ono may bo dovoIoping mcii¯ as: ¨May I bo lappy for
yoars and yoars, nay, for a lundrod or llousand yoars, bul
85
lloro is no possibiIily of aclioving cppcn¯-scm¯!|i. If ono
is dovoIoping mcii¯ for lis ovn voII-boing oxprossing lis
ovn sonlimonl, ¨May I bo lappy¨, il vouId sorvo as an
ovidonco, or rallor, sland vilnoss lo llo facl llal ollors
vouId aIso visl lo bo lappy, or, lo Iivo lappiIy and bo
aIivo and aIso bo froo from misory as lo limsoIf vislos lo
bo so. Tlal is llo roason vly inslruclion las boon givon
lo dovoIop mcii¯ lovards ono's ovn SoIf, or ono's ovn voII-
boing iniliaIIy vlon boginning vill llo oxorciso. Tlo
Visuddlimagga las said so. Tlo EnIigllonod Ono las
mado an oxposilion by proacling a Vorso as quolod boIov
vlicl indicalos llal a porson Iovos lis ovn soIf llo mosl.
Sc||¯ !is¯ cnupcrigcmmc ccics¯ nc.cjjj|cg¯
piµcicrc mciicn¯ |.cci. |.cm piµc pui|u ciic
pcrcµs¯m, icscm¯ nc |im sc pcrcmciic|¯iimc.
Sc||¯ !is¯ ÷ aII lon rogions or pIacos, ccics¯ ÷ vill
imaginalion or llouglls, cnupcrigcmmc ÷ going round
and round in soarcl of, ciicn¯ piµcicrcm ÷ a porson vlo
dosorvos moro Iovo and affoclion llan ono's ovn SoIf, |.cci
÷ in any pIaco or anyvloro, nc.c cjj|cg¯ ÷ cannol bo found.
|.cm, SimiIarIy, pcrcµs¯m ÷ ollor poopIo aIso, pui|u ciic
÷ vill roforonco lo lloir ovn rospoclivo SoIf, piµc ÷ Iovo
(limsoIf) llo mosl. 1cscm¯ ÷ Inasmucl as ovory boing
Iovos lis ovn SoIf llo mosl, ciic|¯mc ÷ ono vlo Iovos lis
ovn SoIf, nay, vlo caros mosl of lis ovn voIfaro or for
86
lis ovn good, pcrcm ÷ viII nol causo anollor porson, nc
|im sc ÷ suffor, misory, nay, slouId dovoIop mcii¯ villoul
causing misory lo ollors.
Aflor dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards ono's ovn soIf laking ono
from llo oulslanding oxampIo cilod abovo, mcii¯ is lo bo
dovoIopod lovards oillor a loaclor vlo is vorlly of Iovo
and rospocl, or lovards llo grandfallor, fallor, uncIo, olc.
Or, in llo caso of fomaIos, lovards llo grandma, mollor,
aunl and so on. Tlo mannor of dovoIoping mcii¯ may bo
doscribod as: ¨May llo Sayãdav bo lappy and froo from
misory. Or, ¨May llo grandfallor, fallor, and uncIo bo
lappy. (In llo caso of fomaIos) ¨May llo grandma, mollor
and aunl bo lappy and froo from sufforing and misory.¨ In
llis vay, mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod aboul onco ovor llroo
soconds. Mcii¯ can aIso bo dovoIopod lovards any ollor
porson dosorving of affoclion and rospocl, if nol lovards
your loaclor, grandparonls, mollor, fallor and so on.
Tlo mind slouId bo bonl upon llo rocipionl of mcii¯, Ioving-
kindnoss, vloovor lo may bo, and llon lransmil llis
fooIing of mcii¯ as ¨May lo bo lappy¨ for lundrod limos
(llousand, lon llousand and lundrod llousand limos)
conlinuousIy. If ono's objoclivo is for llo acliovomonl of
j|¯nc-scm¯!|i, mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod aII llrougloul day
and nigll villoul a broak oxcIuding llo limo for sIoop as
an inlorvaI for a rospilo. WliIo dovoIoping, llo mind may
87
fIirl. Tloso vandoring llouglls aro c|usc|c domorils, knovn
as ni.crcncs. Tlo momonl you bocomo mindfuI of sucl
llouglls or imaginalions, lloso slouId bo rojoclod, and llon,
conlinuo lo go on dovoIoping mcii¯, conlinuousIy. Wlon
llo povor of conconlralion, scm¯!|i bocomos slrong, sucl
vandoring llouglls viII graduaIIy Iosson. If scm¯!|i is fuIIy
slrongllonod, llo mind viII coaso lo vandor and romain
fixod on llo porson lo vlom mcii¯ is lransmillod. Tlis is llo
roaIisalion of upcc¯rc-scm¯!|i vlicl is froo from ni.crcncs.
How }n¯·» |- »cn||v|o
Wlon llis upcc¯rc-scm¯!|i bocomos slrong and koon, llo
mind viII dvoII fixodIy on llo rocipionl of mcii¯ if il is
drifling and fIoaling aIong llo slroam of sonsalions in a
droam. Hovovor, llo mind may slay on onIy for a momonl
in llo firsl inslanco. Wlon conlinuous dovoIopmonl of
mindfuInoss on mcii¯ is furllor carriod on, il may slay pul
on llo sonso-objocl for a duralion of ono minulo or moro,
up lo ovon ono lour or so.
Wlon llus, absorbod in mindfuInoss of mcii¯ dospilo llo
onvironmonlaI offocls of sonsalionaI objocls, llo mind
doos nol mako slorl fIiglls lo lloso sonsalions bul viII
romain firm, slabIo and gols impIanlod on llo porson
vlo rocoivos llo mcii¯ visling lim lappinoss. Raplurous
88
fooIing viII aIso bocomo conspicuous. Viic||c and .ic¯rc,
rofIoclion on llo mind and invosligalion of vlal is
going on vill a bonl lovards llo rocipionl of mcii¯ viII
bocomo slrongllonod and obvious. Tlo vloIo body viII
bocomo ovidonlIy buoyanl, Iigll and comforlabIo. Tlo
slabiIisod mind bocomos lranquiI villoul going aslray.
Tlis lranquiIIily of llo mind (c|cggci¯) vill parlicuIarIy
obvious manifoslalions of .iic||c, .ic¯rc, piii and su||c is
parl and parcoI of llo nobIo allribulos of llo firsl j|¯nc.
AII lloso nobIo quaIilios aro caIIod llo firsl j|¯nc. If sucl
an acliovomonl is dorivod, il is llo allainmonl of firsl
j|¯nc. Tlis is llo roason vly llo Visuddlimagga las
said llal sucl a porson can allain cppcn¯-j|¯nc ovon vliIo
dovoIoping mcii¯ using llo oxprossion ÷ ¨|.crùpc cc
puggc|c |¯mcm cppcn¯ s¯mpcjjcii.¨
Tlis firsl j|¯nc laving imbibod or incIudod llo allribulos
of .iic||c vlicl rofIocls on llo sonsalion, and of .ic¯rc
vlicl invosligalos inlo llo naluro of sonsalion, is nol as
slrong and vigorous as il slouId bo. Evon in llo courso
of absorplion in j|¯nc, if larsl sounds and slriII voicos
slriko llo oar-baso of llo sonsalion of loaring, llo mind-
consciousnoss may riso from j|¯nc and llon roaclos
llo sound vlicl is llo sonso-objocl. Tlal is vly mcii¯
slouId bo ropoalodIy dovoIopod lovards llo porson on
vlom llo mind is usuaIIy mado lo dvoII, lo croalo llo
lranquiI ¨j|¯nic-min!¨ villoul incIusion of .iic||c and
89
.ic¯rc. Wlon scm¯!|i gols slrongllonod oxlromo joy or
rapluro logollor vill llo caImnoss of llo mind vlicl
aro far moro incroasingIy bollor, viII occur villoul
making offorl lo Iol llo mind incIinod and rofIoclod
lovards llo sonsalion, and aIso villoul making
invosligalion inlo llal sonsalion. Tlis is llo acliovomonl
of socond j|¯nc. Ai llo momonl of absorplion in a lranco
of llal j|¯nc, inlonso doIigll or ocslasy is of llo liglosl
dogroo. If llis oxlromoIy raplurous fooIing ÷ piii is nol
dosirabIo, conlinuous dovoIopmonl and lransmission
of mcii¯ slouId bo mado lovards llo usuaI rocipionl
of mcii¯, Wlon conconlralion gols fuIIy dovoIopod
and slrongllonod, oxcoIIonl monlaI lappinoss and
lranquiIIily of mind villoul rapluro (piii) viII bocomo
obvious. Tlal is llo llird j|¯nc. Tlis j|¯nc is llo mosl.
oxaIlod or llo liglosl j|¯nc among mcii¯-j|¯nc.
Eillor aflor aclioving llo j|¯nc jusl monlionod, or, boforo
acliovomonl of llal j|¯nc, if il is dosirabIo lo dovoIop mcii¯
oquaIIy baIancod lovards aII boings, il may bo dovoIopod
and radialod on llo mosl affoclionalo porson as ¨may sucl
ono bo lappy, olc.¨ Il vouId bo mucl bollor lo dovoIop
and lransmil mcii¯ aflor llo allainmonl of j|¯nc rallor
llan boforo llo allainmonl. Iurifiod form of mcii¯ can
occur oasiIy. Honco, aflor mcii¯-j|¯nc las boon acliovod
in rospocl of llo mosl affoclionalo porson, dovoIopmonl
of mcii¯ may bo mado dirocling lovards, or in favour of
9O
a noulraI porson. Aflor sucl an acliovomonl of j|¯nc for
llo sako of a noulraI porson, mcii¯ may bo dovoIopod and
boslovod upon a porson vlo is an onomy, if lloro is any.
In radialing mcii¯ lovards difforonl rocipionls ono aflor
anollor, difforonl kinds of fooIing or monlaI consciousnoss
of mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod onIy aflor firm and gonlIo
mind las boon brougll aboul and clorislod. Tlis is vlal
llo Visuddlimagga las slalod.
Tlo slalomonl llal llo mind or monlaI consciousnoss
las boon brougll aboul lo bocomo or and gonlIo, in facl,
rofors lo llo acquiromonl cj upcc¯rc-scm¯!|i in llo Ioasl.
Tlo bosl mollod is lo clango llo courso of dovoIoping
mcii¯ onIy aflor aclioving llo j|¯nc. Of aII llo various
oxprossions, llo slalomonl: ¨Mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod
lovards any onomy¨ is inlondod for llo Yogï vlo las an
onomy. Tloroforo, from llo vory oulsol, I lavo slalod as:
¨.a porson vlo is an onomy, if lloro is any.¨ A Yogï, if
lo las no onomy, slouId nol bollor aboul llo onomy in
dovoIoping mcii¯ aflor lo las dovoIopod Ioving-kindnoss
lovards a noulraI porson.
Angor is IikoIy lo occur, romomboring llo vrong dono
by a porson vlo is an onomy, vliIo a Yogï is dovoIoping
mcii¯ lovards lim. Wlon sucl an incidonl lappons, mcii¯-
j|¯nc vlicl las boon proviousIy acliovod in rospocl
of any ollor porson boforoland may bo rocaIIod and
91
ropoalodIy pIungod in, and llon, by dovoIoping mcii¯
lovards llis parlicuIar onomy aflor rousing up, off and
on, from llo monlaI slalo of absorplion in j|¯nc, lo slouId
dispoI or oxlinguisl llo fiory angor. In rogard lo lloso
oxprossions, sinco llo Visuddlimagga las slalod as:
¨Mciicm scm¯pcjjii.¯ .uii|c|ii.¯¨, il is cIoar onougl llal
mcii¯-j|¯nc las boon allainod in rospocl of ollor porson
oxcopl llo onomy. Honco, I lavo slalod llal dovoIoping
mcii¯ by slifling on lo anollor aflor allainmonl of j|¯nc in
rospocl of llo formor porson, is llo bosl.
V|.noo o| s||||c.|o· .o -tsot| »·.|s
Aflor ropoalodIy absorbing in j|¯nc llal las boon roaIisod
in radialing mcii¯ lo porsons monlionod in llo forogoing,
and llon, by dovoIoping mcii¯ lovards an onomy aflor
arising from llal j|¯nc, if llo angor cannol as yol bo lolaIIy
oradicalod or roprossod, advico is givon lo oxlinguisl
llo burning angor by rofIocling and boaring in mind llo
oxlorlalion llal las boon mado by llo Buddla ciling a sav
as an oxampIo, olc. Tlo mannor of rofIoclion lo bo dono is:
¨Ol, my doar indignanl Yogï! Is il nol lruo llal llo ExaIlod
Ono las givon oxlorlalion as ÷ O, monk! If ono, (for
laving sufforod badIy in llo lands of llo bandils, robbors
and dacoils by boing cruoIIy doprivod of lis bodiIy Iimbs,
92
sucl as, lands and fool vlicl lavo boon cul off vill a
doubIo-odgod sav fixod vill a landIo al boll onds), gols
angry and las dono vrong in rolaIialion againsl llo
viIIains vlo lavo iII-lroalod lim, is, I say, a rocaIcilranl
rosisling my duo admonilion¨.
Noxl, if rolaIialion is mado in angor on provocalion againsl
a porson in vlom angor las firsl arison or slarlod, llo
raging angor vlicl subsoquonlIy lakos pIaco in anollor as
a roaclion, is vorso llan llo angor llal las firsl occurrod.
(Il is bocauso llo porson vlo Ialor bocomos angry las
knovingIy foIIovod llo vrong foolslops of llo firsl man
vlo gols angry). Is il nol lruo, as admonislod by llo
Buddla, llal ¨a porson vlo can loIoralo an angry man
rofraining limsoIf from golling angry, is a viclor in ballIo
vlicl is lard lo bo von`¨
And llon, il las aIso boon proaclod llal if a Blikklu,
vlo can romain caIm or in monlaI poaco villoul boing
angry aIllougl fuIIy avaro of llo facl llal llo ollor
(vlo provokos) is in an angry mood, may bo said lo bo a
discipIinod porson for llo bonofil of limsoIf as voII as for
llo bonofil of llo ollor.
Iurllormoro, pulling il in a nulsloII, oul of llo sovon kinds
(of bolaviour) vlicl llo onomy vouId bo pIoasod lo soo,
llo firsl is (1) a clango in llo faciaI oxprossion of an angry
93
porson vloso Iooks suddonIy bocomos ugIy. Tlis is ono
vlicl llo onomy vouId find il agrooabIo. (2) A porson vlo
is infIamod vill angor viII nol lavo a sound and poacofuI
sIoop. Tlis is aIso ono of llo Iiking of llo onomy. (3) A
porson loalod vill angor is IikoIy lo Ioso lis businoss doaI
vlicl migll bo advorsoIy affoclod. Tlis is ono vlicl an
onomy viII find il amusing. (4) A porson vlo is dominalod
by angor may bo Iacking in riclos, or rallor, may nol lavo
onougl of voaIll and possossions. Tlis loo is ono vlicl
an onomy Iikos lo soo. (5) A porson vlo is of a fiory naluro
and is prono lo volomonl angor is IikoIy lo lavo a slorlago
in llo numbor of porsonaI allondanls or rolinuo. An onomy
is rojoicod lo find sucl a slalo of condilion. (6) A porson
of angor viII nol lavo a vido circIo of frionds. Tlis aIso
brings doIigll lo an onomy. (7) A porson vlo is sonsilivo lo
angor and is furious cannol possibIy bo roborn in sugcii (an
oxislonco vloro lappy condilions provaiI) aflor lis doall.
Tlo gisl of llis admonilion is llo advico givon lo nurluro
llo spiril of palionco by ropoIIing llo forco of angor so llal
llo Iiking or llo vislos of llo onomy may nol bo fuIfiIIod.
Noxl, is il nol aIso lruo llal loaclings las boon mado
llus: ¨}usl as llo firovood vlicl is usod in. disposing of
corpsos by burning al llo limo of cromalion, is vorllIoss
for uso in boll llo ruraI and urban aroas, a Blikklu vlo
is avaricious and commilling vicos vill angor and maIico
boing doprivod of boll llo bonofils of onjoying sonsuaI
94
pIoasuros (|¯mcgun¯), and of llo accompIislmonl of
moraIily, viII nol bo vorlly of rospocl and viII sorvo no
usofuI purposo in llo roIo of a Blikklu boll in lovns and
viIIagos, i.o. in urban and ruraI aroas.¨
In viov of llo abovo facls, if you, a Yogï, is in angor, you
viII bo rogardod as a porson vlo is disobodionl lo llo
nobIo inslruclions givon by llo ExaIlod Ono. You viII bo
Iiko a vanquislod, in a ballIo vlicl is difficuIl of vinning
a viclory, and viII aIso bo moro vicious llan llo porson
vlo iniliaIIy bocomos angry vill iniquily. Ono slouId
lloroforo rofIocl and llink ovor soriousIy by loacling and
roforming limsoIf, and llon, oxorciso ovor lis angor.
If by rofIocling as sucl, angor cannol as yol bo supprossod
or oxlinguislod, do nol llink of and pondor upon llo
bad bolaviours of llo onomy, bul insload, Iol your angor
subsido by rofIocling on llo good poinls in lis plysicaI,
monlaI and vorbaI bolaviours.
And sliII, if by rofIoclion as slalod, fooIing of angor cannol as
yol bo subduod, rofIocl upon vlal is going lo bo slalod nov,
and pul oul llis fiory angor vlicl las arison. Tlo mannor
of rofIoclion is onIy monlionod in llo Visuddlimagga and
is nol lo bo found in ollor IãIi Alllakallãs. Tlo roIovanl
vorsos aro oxaclIy lon in numbor. I slaII conlinuo on and
oxpIain lloso vorsos vory briofIy.
95
Tn| ·»··|s o| s||||c.|o· »ccoso|·. .o .n| T|· \|s-|-
(1) In llo caso of an onomy visling lo causo misory and
sufforing, injury can onIy bo infIiclod by lim on your
plysicaI body. No larm can bo dono againsl llo mind. In
spilo of llis vly do you vanl lo do llings lo llo Iiking
of llo onomy and causo monlaI dislross, vlicl llo onomy
limsoIf is incapabIo of doing`
(2) Wly can'l you discard or rojocl llo angor vlicl is
IikoIy lo bring disaslrous offocls and no bonoficiaI rosuIls,
dospilo llo facl llal you lavo donnod llo yoIIov robos and
lavo bocomo a Blikklu aflor abandoning aII your frionds
capabIo of giving you a Iol of advanlagos`
(3) Wly do you onlorlain and caross llo spilofuI angor
vlicl is capabIo of viping or clucking oul foar and
slamo, palionco, Ioving-kindnoss and compassion, vlicl
aro llo basic fundamonlaIs of moraIily (si|c), vlicl you
lavo porsonaIIy obsorvod` Wloro can sucl a fooI as you
aro, bo found` Il moans lo say llal you aro llo mosl siIIy
porson sinco you lavo onlorlainod llo angor vlicl can
doslroy and rool oul your ovn moraIily.
(4) You aro angry againsl anollor for laving dono vrong
lo you. Is il nol lruo llon, llal you vlo lavo so bocomo
angry, is pIolling lo offond lim in llo samo mannor as las
boon dono lo you, in rolaIialion`
96
(5) il is mosl IikoIy llal any disagrooabIo acl dono lo you
by anollor is lo slir up your angor, or rallor, lo mako you
angry. Sucl boing llo caso, is il nol lruo llal by yioIding
lo your angor, il vouId amounl lo fuIfiIIing llo dosiro of
anollor porson`
(6) Il is nol quilo suro llal you vlo aro angry, viII
dofiniloIy mako your onomy misorabIo. Honco, is il nol
lruo llal ovon nov, al prosonl, you aro iII-lroaling yoursoIf
by slirring up angor and causing misory lo yoursoIf`
(7) As llo onomios aro fooIislIy foIIoving llo pall of vico
vlicl is unprofilabIo, as provokod by angor, viII lloro bo
any juslificalion for you lo commil vrongfuI acls oul of
angor foIIoving llo foolslops of your onomios`
(8) If any doloslabIo and disagrooabIo dood is dono lo you by
your onomy basod upon angor, you slouId dispoI or ovorcomo
llis angor. As a mallor of facl, vly do you unnocossariIy
causo slrain lo yoursoIf vill an angry fooIing lovards an
individuaI luman boing vlo is nol dosorving of spilo and
lalrod. (Il moans llal you lavo dono somolling vrong onIy
al llo diclalos of ¨angor¨ lo vlom you lavo bocomo a sIavo.)
Honco, llis angor ilsoIf noods lo bo rojoclod.
(9) Rùpc and n¯mc, mallor and mind, aro lransionl by
naluro and aro occurring onIy for a momonl, foIIovod by
97
dissoIulion inslanlanoousIy. Sucl rùpc and n¯mc vlicl
aro soomingIy llougll as laving dono vrong lo you,
lavo aIroady dissoIvod inlo llin air in an inslanl. Tloso
rùpc and n¯mc aro no Iongor lloro. Tloy lavo disappoarod
aIlogollor. Tlus, al llo prosonl couId you pinpoinl
llal 'mallor and mind' in llo porson of llo onomy vill
vlicl you aro angry` Nov rùpcs and n¯mcs vlicl lavo
subsoquonlIy occurrod aro nol doing any vrongfuI acl or
larm lo you. Tloso vlicl aro considorod as laving dono
larm lo you lavo vanislod. Honco, lloro is no moaning
in boing angry vill rùpc and n¯mc. (Il moans lo say llal
rùpc and n¯mc vill vlicl you aro quarroIIing no Iongor
oxisl).
(1O) If ono is causing misory lo llo ollor, boll llo door
limsoIf and llo ono vlo suffors aro llo primo faclors,
vlicl bring aboul or produco llo offocl of misory. In ollor
vords, boll of llom aro rosponsibIo for llo causalion of
misory. If llal is so, sinco you yoursoIf aro nol froo from
bIamo for llo causo of misory, vly aro you angry vill llo
'door' onIy
Tlo abovo is llo summarisod slalomonl of llo lon vorsos
÷ g¯i|¯s, lransIalod in pIain Ianguago, as monlionod in
llo Visuddlimagga. Tlo mannor of rofIoclion Iaid dovn
lloroin is oxlromoIy profound. RofIoclion may lloroforo
bo mado as slalod lo oxlinguisl llo fIamo of angor.
98
How .o -tsot| »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o· K»··» »- o·|'-
ow· |so||s.\ |· |o--|--|o·
If by rofIoclion as indicalod in llo lon vorsos, angor cannol
as yol bo subduod or oxlinguislod, il slouId bo rofIoclod
upon |cmmc, llo rosuIlanl offocls of aII good and bad aclions
dono by you, as your ovn proporly in possossion on vlicl
roIianco is lo bo mado lo oradicalo llo angor. Tlo mannor of
rofIoclion may bo slalod llus: ¨Ol Yogï you aro dovoIoping
llo praclico of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯. WliIo boing angry vlal is your
inlonlion lo do againsl llo ollor` Is il nol lruo llal, vlalovor
aclion, you lavo dono basod upon angor viII in consoquonco,
bring aboul oviI or bad offocls lo your dolrimonl` Yos, indood.
Your |cmmc (llo rosuIlanl offocls of good and bad aclions
you lavo dono) is nolling bul llo 'causo' of your ovn doing.
Kcmmc is llo onIy ono vlicl you roaIIy ovn or possoss. You
aro suro lo inloril llis |cmmc vlicl conslilulos aII kinds of
viIfuI aclions, vlollor monlaI, vorbaI or plysicaI, llouglls,
vords and doods, oillor good or bad, dono by you on your
ovn voIilion. Kcmmc is your ovn roIalivo and rofugo. Tlo
kammic offocl vlicl occurs or lakos pIaco doponding upon
angor viII nol con lribulo lo your aclioving mcggc-p|c|c.
Noillor viII il do good lo you lo bo roborn in llo vorId of
lumans and Dovas vloro lappy condilion's provaiI. Il viII
nol rondor loIp bul viII onIy causo you lo suffor misory in
loII, olc. If you commil llo oviI |cmmc of angor, il viII bo
Iiko ¨a porson vlo firsl suffors llo burns and gols avfuIIy
99
dirly by loIding and carrying in lis lands llo burning lol
coaI, and disgusling fiIll or oxcromonls, vill vlicl lo is
going lo causo injury and misory lo llo ollor.¨
}usl imagino a porson vlom you rocogniso as an onomy.
Wlal larm couId possibIy bo dono by lim vill lis angor`
WiII nol llis angor llal is gonoralod in lim bo lo lis ovn
disadvanlago` Ho loo las lis ovn |cmmc (aclion ÷ moraI
and immoraI voIilion) as lis roaI oslalo. Ho is llo inlorilor
of lis ovn |cmmc dono by limsoIf on lis ovn voIilion,
olc. Tlo onomy vlo las dono oviI |cmmc by boing angry,
viII suffor ils larmfuI offocls ¨jusl as a porson on vlom
llo dusl viII faII back by llo forco of vind if lo sprinkIos
or llrovs llo dusl lo slovor upon anollor man, slanding
againsl llo vind on llo Ioovard sido from an advorso
posilion.¨ Tlo Buddla las lloroforo oxlorlod.
¨If a corlain fooI commils vrong againsl a
nobIo porson of purifiod conducl, llis vrong
doing viII roacl upon lim as a rolribulion, olc.¨
How .o -t||s|-- »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o· .n| »..s|st.|-
o| .n| Boon|-»..»
If angor is nol yol abalod or subduod by rofIoclion as slalod
in llo forogoing, il slouId bo supprossod by rofIocling
1OO
on llo nobIo quaIilios or llo allribulos of llo Buddla
in lis various slalos of oxislonco provious lo allaining
Buddlalood. Tlo mannor of rofIoclion is:
¨Ol, nobIo Yogï, llo Buddla's discipIo! Your Toaclor, llo
Iord Buddla, in lis capacily as a Bodlisalla, i.o. in lis
oxisloncos prior lo allainmonl of lis EnIigllonmonl, for a
poriod of four Ascn||cµµcs (aoons) and a Iakl Kcppcs vliIo
roIonlIossIy oxorcising llo virluos roquirod of a Bodlisalla
lo accompIisl llo p¯rcmii¯s (porfoclion), lad praclisod
forboaranco or palionco villoul poIIuling llo mind vill
angor ovon againsl aII sorls of murdorors vlo voro lis
onomios. Tlo vay of praclising palionco is iIIuslralod in
llo Visuddlimagga boginning from llo slory of Si|c.¯ as
an oxampIo. Bul nov vo slaII cilo an oxampIo of praclising
palionco llal can bo found in llo K|cnii.c!i j¯ic|c slory.
How |».||·c| w»- |x|sc|-|o s\ Kn»·.|v»o|, » .s|».
n|s·|.
Al ono limo in llo ancionl days, during llo roign of King
KaIãbu in llo cily of Bonaros, llo Bodlisalla, born of a
ligl caslo Bralmin (Brãlmana), vas a muIlimiIIionairo
possossing oiglly croros of rupoos. Wlon lis paronls
diod Ioaving bolind aII lloir voaIll and proporlios, il lad
occurrod lo lim llal lis paronls voro unabIo lo lako aIong
1O1
vill llom vlal lloy plysicaIIy ovnod on lloir domiso,
llougl lloy voro abIo lo accumuIalo immonso voaIll. On
lis parl, considoring llal lo slouId lako llom vill lim
on lis doall, lo gonorousIy gavo avay aII lis possossions
in clarily lo lloso vlo dosorvod. Tloroaflor, lo vonl inlo
a rolroal in ono of llo foroslod aroas of llo HimaIayas
assuming llo roIo of a lormil. Ho Iivod onIy on fruils
vlicl voro avaiIabIo in llo forosl. Tloro vas lovovor, no
saIl for consumplion. In ordor, lloroforo, lo lavo propor
and adoqualo nourislmonl, lo mado lis vay lo viIIagos
vloro lloro voro poopIo, lo procuro saIl and sour fruils
for lis ovn porsonaI consumplion. EvonluaIIy, lo roaclod
llo cily of Bonaros. Wlon going round for aIms in llo
cily, llo Commandor-in-Cliof of lloy finding lim vorlly
of rovoronco, rospoclfuIIy invilod lim lo lis rosidonco lo
accopl llo offor of moaIs. Ialor, lo vas roquoslod lo rosido
in llo pIoasanco of llo king's royaI gardon. Tlis roquosl
vas accoplod by lim. Ho conlinuod lo slay in llal royaI
gardon as lis pIaco of rolroal.
WliIo lo vas so rosiding on ono day, King KaIãbu visilod
llo royaI gardon in llo company of lis quoon and maids-of-
lonour logollor vill a Iargo rolinuo lo loId a coromonious
funclion. Tlo coromony vas loId comprising a sorios of
porformancos of music, baIIol, olc., on a magnificonl and
spacious marbIo sIab villin llo procincls of llo royaI
gardon. Tlo king onjoyod llo foslivilios valcling llo
1O2
dispIay of music, songs and dancos aflor laking a Iying
posluro vill lis load rosling on llo lligl of a damsoI
vlom lo adorod. Morry-making incIuding llo danco
vill accompanying music formod parl of llo coIobralions
lakon parl by profossionaI arlislos and maids-of-lonour
from llo royaI paIaco. WliIo Iisloning lo llo sofl music,
llo svool moIody lad IuIIod llo king lo sIoop. Iinding llo
king in doop sIumbor, llo lroupo of fomaIo singors and
dancors sloppod pIaying music for a momonl and roamod
aboul llo gardon sigll-sooing. WliIo llus making a
rambIing oxcursion, lloy camo across llo groal lormil, llo
Bodlisalla. Tloy llon approaclod lim visling lo Iislon lo
llo proacling vlicl lo migll bo incIinod lo givo. Al lloir
roquosl, llo groal lormil doIivorod a sormon approprialo
lo llo occasion.
Al llal limo llo maid-of-lonour on vloso lligl llo king
lad roslod lis royaI load, manouvrod lor Iimbs lo vako
up llo king. Tlo king vlon arousod from lis sIoop found
nono of lis rolinuo and maids noar lim. Wlon inquirod
as lo vloro lloy lad gono lo, llo maid vloso lligl lad
sorvod as a cuslion for llo king's load, ansvorod llal llo
vloIo crovd lad gono lo llo groal lormil. On loaring llo
novs, llo royaI monarcl bocamo furious vill joaIousy.
Ho llon pickod up lis svord and lurriod lis vay lo llo
lormil, ulloring vill an unconlroIIabIo angor llal lo
vouId givo llo lormil a good Iosson.
1O3
Sooing llo king raging vill angor, ono of llo maids-
of-lonour cIoso lo lim caugll loId of lis svord and
lriod lo caIm lim dovn. Hovovor, King KaIãbu's angor
romainod, unconlroIIabIo, lo askod llo lormil vlal
vas llo Doclrino vlicl lo, llo lormil, profossod. Tlo
groal lormil ropIiod llal lis lonol vas llo Doclrino of
||cnii (palionco), saying llal loIoranco, oxorcisod by ono
villoul fooIing angry againsl lloso vlo provokod, raiIod
and ravod, is caIIod ¨palionco¨. Tlo king llon loIIing llo
lormil llal lo vouId pul lim lo a cruciaI losl lo find oul
if lo vas roaIIy accompIislod vill palionco, ordorod lis
sorvanl, llo Exoculionor, in llis mannor. ¨You bollor puII
dovn llis viIIainous lliof, llo lormil, Iay lim proslralo
on llo ground and punisl lim vill lvo llousand Iaslos
by vlipping vill a lvislod cano fixod vill slarp-poinlod
pins, on aII four sidos of lis body.¨
Tlo oxoculionor gavo llo lormil lvo llousand Iaslos as
ordorod by llo king. OrdinariIy, a porson vouId suroIy
succumb lo llo injurios rocoivod if lo las lo undorgo a
ponaIly of 2,OOO Iaslos. CuriousIy, llo groal lormil vas
found sliII aIivo, possibIy bocauso of lis nobIo quaIilios
of ||cnii or of roIaxod or sIack forco pul in al llo limo of
vlipping ÷ no ono can say. Hovovor, llo llick oulor and
innor llin Iayor of skin covoring llo fIosl of llo onliro
body of llo lormil vas griovousIy lorn. IIosl vas aIso
lorn lo bils. BIood fIovod oul profusoIy. }usl imagino lov
1O4
sovoro llo pain and sufforing vouId bo llal llo said lormil
lad lo undorgo. In spilo of llis forocious iII-lroalmonl,
llo groal nobIo lormil larbourod no angor, iII-viII or
grudgo oillor againsl llo king or llo oxoculionor. Tlis is
llo cruoI punislmonl imposod villoul rlymo or roason
or fauIl vlalsoovor. OrdinariIy, sucl a lroalmonl vouId
induco angor and maIicious fooIing. Tlis kind of palionco
indood caIIs for llo spiril of omuIalion from Yogïs vlo aro
dovoIoping mcii¯.
Iinding llo groal lormil sliII aIivo, llo king askod lim
vlal doclrino lo vas praclising. Tloroupon, llo Rovorond
Hormil ropIiod, ¨I firmIy loId llo Doclrino of Ialionco O,
King, do you llink llal llis 'palionco' ÷ (||cnii) can bo
lracod in llo skin of my body` Il is nol undornoall llo
Iayors of llo skin. 'Ialionco' rosidos in my loarl of loarls
and novor runs oul. Infurialod by llis monlaI alliludo,
King KaIãbu ordorod llal lvo lands of llo lormil bo cul
off and aIso llal llo Iovor oxlromilios ÷ llo lvo fool, llo
oars, and llo noso bo sIicod off. Tlo Exoculionor slriclIy
compIiod vill llo king's ordors and cruoIIy cul off lloso
bodiIy Iimbs vill an axo. Evory limo a Iimb vas sovorod,
a quoslion vas pul as lo vlal vas llo kind of Doclrino
accoplod by llo lormil. Tlo ropIy givon by llo groal lormil
ropoalodIy lo llo quoslions, vas llo samo as boforo, llal
lo lad loId firmIy lo llo doclrino of palionco vlicl found
ils abodo in lis loarl. EvonluaIIy, llo king aflor ulloring in
1O5
disgusl as: ¨You cunning lormil. Bollor Iivo on invoking
or loisling your ovn ||cnii fouIIy kickod llo lormil in
llo broasl vill lis fool and llon doparlod. Aflor lis
doparluro, vlon lo roaclod llo galo of llo royaI gardon,
llis King KaIãbu vas svaIIovod dovn by llo oarll. Il las
boon monlionod in llo Alllakallã (Commonlary) llal llis
vickod king vas draggod dovn lo A.ici ÷ loII, onvoIopod
in burning fIamos.
Tloroaflor, llo Commandor-in-Cliof of llo army camo
ovor lo llo groal lormil and londorod lis apoIogy nol
lo fooI angry and boar maIico againsl llo Slalo (counlry).
Tloroupon, llo Rovorond Hormil gavo lis ropIy as
foIIovs:
¨Yc mc |cii|cµ cc p¯!c cc, |cnnc n¯scñ cc c|c!cµi.
Circm ji.ciu sc r¯j¯, nc |i |ujj|cnii m¯!is¯.¨
Scn¯pcii ÷ Ol, Commandor-in-Cliof! Yc ÷ Ho vlo is
King KaIãbu, (las causod), mc ÷ my, |cii|cµ cc ÷ lands
and p¯!c cc ÷ fool, |cnnc n¯scñ cc ÷ llo oars and llo noso,
c|c!cµi ÷ lo bo cul off. So rcjc ÷ Tlis King KaIãbu, circm
ji.ciu ÷ may Iivo Iong. Hi ÷ Ior boing abIo lo dovoIop
mcii¯ villoul golling angry, m¯!is¯ ÷ nobIo and virluous
porsons Iiko mo, nc |ujj|cnii ÷ aro nol usod lo golling
angry, nay, aro abIo lo dovoIop mcii¯ vill bosl vislos and
goodviII and nol boing accuslomod lo golling angry.
1O6
O, doar Yogï vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl modilalion
in accordanco vill llo loaclings of llo Iord Buddla!
Your onomy vlo las dono vrong lo you viII nol bo as bad
as King KaIãbu. Isn'l il llon propor for you lo bo palionl
villoul golling angry jusl as llo groal K|cnii.c!i lormil
vas abIo lo onduro, vill palionco and vill no angor,
llo affIiclions of llo loinous crimo commillod by King
KaIãbu`
Tn| S.os\ o| Dn»··»|¯|», .n| \ot·. |»o
Al ono limo in llo pasl oId days, Malãpalãpa vas llo
ruIing monarcl in llo counlry of Bonaros. Al llal limo
Bodlisalla onlorod llo vomb of llo cliof quoon Candã
Dovï vlo Ialor gavo birll lo a son. Bodlisalla, llo novIy
born baby vas givon llo namo of DlammapãIa. Wlon
llis young princo DlammapãIa vas sovon monlls oId,
lis mollor, llo quoon, aflor balling lor cliId and drossing
lim vill fino coslumos, vas carossing and joviaIIy
pIaying vill llo infanl vill Iovo. Al llal momonl, llo
quoon vloso joyous llouglls voro momonlariIy rivolod
on lor bonny son, boing so doIigllod llal slo faiIod lo gol
up and pay rospocl lo lor lusband, llo king, vlo lad by
llon como ovor lo llo pIaco vloro llo mollor vas moIIy-
coddIing llo cliId.
1O7
Tlo king on sooing llo mollor fondIing lor son, imaginod,
¨Evon nov llis voman is bocoming svoII-loadod and
concoilod, roIying on lor son. Wlon llo cliId bocomo a
grovn-up, il is aImosl corlain llal slo viII suroIy nogIocl
mo. Iorlaps, il vouId bo bollor lo gol rid of llo son nov.¨
Will a fooIing of disappoinlmonl vlicl lad rofIoclod on lis
faciaI oxprossion, lo Iofl llo pIaco and procoodod lo lis royaI
clambor vloro llo llrono lad slood. Ho immodialoIy sonl
for llo Exoculionor and gavo ordors llal llo infanl cliId bo
brougll boforo lis prosonco. }udging from lis Iooks from
llo vory oulsol, llo quoon knov llal lor lusband, llo king,
lad onlorlainod lis rosonlmonl againsl lor. RoaIising llis
unlappy slalo of affairs, llo quoon vas slodding loars
vliIo foIding llo baby lo lor broasls.
WliIo slo vas llus vooping, llo Exoculionor appoarod
and snalclod avay llo cliId DlammapãIa from lor. Slo
foIIovod from bolind llo Exoculionor vill a ponsivo
mood. On lloir arrivaI boforo llo king, llo cliId vas pul
on a voodon sIab. Ordors voro immodialoIy givon by llo
king lo clop off llo lands of llo poor IillIo unforlunalo
cliId. Tlo quoon Candã Dovï onlroalod llo king llal llo
cliId vas innoconl and llal onIy slo lad llo fauIl. Slo
pIoadod ropoalodIy llal lor lands bo cul off insload of llo
lands of lor innoconl soiI bul lo no avaiI. Tlo Exoculionor
lad lo oboy and oxoculo llo ordors of llo king. Tlo
1O8
lands of llo sovon monlls' oId infanl DlammapãIa voro
lloroforo cruoIIy cloppod off vill an axo. Tlo lvo smaII
londor lands voro dismomborod as if a doIicalo sproul of
a bamboo pIanl is sovorod. Tlo young infanl, Bodlisalla,
lovovor, did nol fIincl or cry bul romainod sliII vill
palionco. Honco, llo commonlary goos lo say:
Sc ÷ Tlis young cliId DlammapãIa, |cii|csu c|ijjcm¯ncsu
÷ vlon cul off lis lands, i.o. vliIo lis lands voro
cloppod off, nc.crc!i ÷ noillor ullorod a cry, nc pcri!cµi
÷ nor vaiIod or Iamonlod, ||cniiñcc ÷ oxorcising llo
spiril of palionco, and, mciiincc ÷ visling lappinoss lo
llo ollor, purcc¯ri|cm |ci.¯ ÷ guidod by llo llouglls of
Iovingkindnoss, c!|i.¯scsi ondurod llo pain and sufforing
by rosigning limsoIf lo llo silualion (falo).
Tlo mollor ÷ quoon Candã Dovï aflor picking up llo sofl
liny lands llal lad boon sovorod, foIdod llom cIoso lo
lor bosom and vas billorIy sobbing. Tloroaflor, llo fallor
Malãpalãpa king again ordorod llo Exoculionor lo cul off
llo lvo fool and llon, llo load of llo cliId. Tlo quoon vonl
on rolroaling lor lusband lo pardon llo innoconl cliId bul
lo no purposo. Tlo Exoculionor llon sovorod llo cliId's
load as ordorod by llo king and ovon lossod up llo IillIo
doIicalo body of llo cliId in llo air and on faIIing dovn,
caugll il up vill llo slarp-poinlod svord and pIayod vill
il as if il voro a vroall of fIovors. Il is aImosl unboIiovabIo
1O9
llal lloro vas sucl kind of fooIisl, vickod and loarlIoss
fallor villoul a lingo of morcy in lim. Hovovor, lloro
is ovory possibiIily of finding sucl a morciIoss man from
among llo vorIdIy poopIo vlon ono bocomos a sIavo lo
¨Angor¨. Bocauso of llis possibiIily, llo caso of llis vickod
King Malãpalãpa, fallor of DlammapãIa, las boon cilod
as an oxampIo. Tlo quoon diod of a brokon-loarl on llo
spol vliIo vooping and vaiIing. By a curious coincidonco,
King Malãpalãpa aIso foII dovn from lis llrono and
droppod on lo llo fIoor firsl, and ovonluaIIy roaclod llo
IovoI of llo oarll boIov vloro lo vas svaIIovod dovn
lo doall. Il vas slalod llal lo lad gono dovn lo c.ici loII,
ono of llo oigll Ncrc|cs.
As for llo young cliId DlammapãIa, il vas slalod llal lo
passod avay poacofuIIy vliIo oxorcising palionco villoul
any angor vlicl lad nol arison liII llo limo of lis doall.
Considoring llis opisodo, il migll bo possibIo for a Yogï
vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ lo onduro pain and sufforing
villoul boing angry, jusl as llo young cliId DlammapãIa
lad praclisod forboaranco.
Tn| ·»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. |».||·c| s\ Cn»oo»·.»
Monlion is mado in llo Visuddlimagga lo rofIocl as lo
lov palionco vas oxorcisod by Claddanla, llo King of llo
11O
EIoplanls, our Bodlisalla in ono of lis provious oxisloncos,
villoul angor and iII-viII vlon Sonollo, a lunlor, slol al
lim vill a poisonous arrov.
Malakapi, a lugo monkoy onco savod llo Iifo of a man vlo
lad accidonlaIIy faIIon inlo a doop ravino. Aflor laving
boon roscuod from llo dangor of doall, llis man cruoIIy
slruck llo load of lis Saviour vill a big slono vlon llo
Iallor lad faIIon asIoop llrougl oxlauslion. Hovovor, llo
nobIo-mindod monkoy boro no rosonlmonl and grudgo
againsl lim and ovon rondorod lis assislanco lo llis man
by oscorling lim lo roacl llo zono of safoly vloro luman
boings Iivod.
Tlon aIso, lloro voro inslancos of lvo Bodlisalla
dragons ÷ ono by llo namo of Buridalla, and llo
ollor, Campoyya, a Nãga Cliof, vlo voro caplurod
aIivo and iII-lroalod by a snako-clarmor, vliIo lloy
voro obsorving llo nobIo procopls (si|c). Tlo snako-
clarmor look lloso snako-dragons (N¯gcs) lo lovns
and viIIagos vloro lo dispIayod an oxlibilion of lloso
lvo nobIo croaluros making llom danco lo llo luno of
music pIayod by lim. Tloso Nãgas possossod inloronl
supornaluraI povors and voro so liglIy poisonous and
polonl llal by jusl Iooking al llo porsons vill spilo
and omilling fiory fIamos, poopIo vouId bo roducod lo
111
aslos or kiIIod. Hovovor, llo said lvo Nãgas ondurod
llo misory brougll aboul by lloir onomy, llo snako-
clarmor. Tlo mannor in vlicl lloy praclisod palionco
rofraining llomsoIvos from angor, may bo rofIoclod, as
oxpIainod in llo Visuddlimagga.
lx|sc|-|·. |».||·c| .nsot.n ·|·o|t|·|-- »- |x»·|||o
s\ \|·. lo··»
Al ono limo, VonorabIo Ionna, a nalivo of Sunãparanla
counlry, onlroalod llo ExaIlod Ono lo doIivor a loacling lo
lim in a conciso vay. Tlo Buddla, lloroforo, laugll lim
as boIov:
¨O, my son Ionna! Tloro aro pIoasurabIo and agrooabIo
siglls and sconos, or sonso-objocls vlicl can bo porcoivod
and knovn by llo oyos. Tloso pIoasurabIo sonso-objocls aro
aIso concornod vill ono's ovn dosiros. Tloy aro aIso prono
lo sonsuous allaclmonls. If llo sonso-objocls or rùpc llal
como inlo your viov, aro accoplod vill pIoasuro and Iookod
upon as boing agrooabIo vill admiralion, or aro ombracod
and graspod or rolainod in your possossion, il vouId causo
rojoicing in you, caIIod ¨Ncn!i¨. O, my son Ionna! I say llal
misory viII lako pIaco bocauso of llis doIigll and pIoasuro.¨
112
(SimiIarIy, loaclings voro givon in rospocl of llo sonsalions
of sound, smoII, laslo, loucl and llouglls.)
¨O, my son Ionna! Tlo vay lo ond misory, or rallor, lo mako
misory como lo a cossalion is nol lo accopl or onlorlain llo
difforonl sonsalions arising from difforonl sonso-objocls
vlicl viII causo lo gonoralo a fooIing of doIigll and
pIoasuro. If il is dono so, lloro viII bo no opporlunily for
Ncn!i lo occur. O, my son Ionna! Bocauso of llo cossalion of
pIoasurabIo condilions and fooIings, misory and sufforing
viII onliroIy coaso.¨
¨O, my son Ionna! I lavo aIroady givon duo admonilion lo
you in a briof mannor. You, vlo lavo loard and rocoivod
llis admonilion may nov Iol mo knov llo pIaco vloro you
aro going lo rosido.¨ To llis quory, Von. Ionna ropIiod: ¨My
Iord, I'm rosiding in Sunãparanla slalo in llo voslornmosl
parl of llo Conlinonl of India, vlicl is caIIod }ambûdipã.¨
¨O, my son Ionna! Tlo cilizons of Sunãparanla aro rudo,
rougl and poluIanl. If lloy scoId you Iand ullor abusivo
vords al you, lov vouId you fooI.
¨My Iord, if lloy abuso and raiI al mo, I vouId boar in mind
in llis mannor: O, lloso cilizons of Sunãparanla aro nol al
aII bad. Tloy onIy ullor abusivo vords and robuko, and
113
lavo nol yol mado any plysicaI assauIl on mo,¨ ansvorod
Von. Ionna.
Buddla furllor inlorrogalod lim as: ¨If lloy givo you a
boaling and allack you plysicaIIy, lov vouId you fooI`¨
Ho llon ropIiod, ¨I vouId forboar il vill a fooIing of
loIoranco llal Sunãparanla cilizons aro onIy doing larm
lo mo vill lloir lands. Sinco lloy lavo nol causod injury
lo mo by llroving slonos al mo, lloy viII bo considorod as
laving conduclod llomsoIvos fairIy voII.¨
Quoslions llon foIIovod as lo lov Von. Ionna vouId roacl
or rospond if lo voro assauIlod plysicaIIy vill slonos,
slicks, and svords (!c|s) nol lo llo oxlonl of causing lim
doall. Tlo ropIy givon lo ovory quoslion pul vas llal
lo vouId loIoralo and considor llom as nol bolaving
badIy. Tlon llo quoslion aroso as lo lov lo vouId boar
in mind and fooI if lo voro kiIIod by boing cul vill a !c|.
Tlo rosponso givon vas llal laving loard of an incidonl,
vloro somo of llo Blikklus from among llo discipIos of
llo Iord Buddla lad ovon gol lo find for a IollaI voapon
sucl as a !c| lo commil suicido for boing disguslod vill
lloir ovn maloriaI body and Iifo oxislonco, lo vouId rofIocl
on llo said incidonl and considor limsoIf Iucky onougl lo
bo kiIIod by anollor porson villoul llo nood lo Iook for a
IollaI voapon ÷ a !c| ÷ vlicl can causo doall.
114
Tlis VonorabIo Ionna Ialor mado lis vay lo Sunãparanla
counlry and carriod on praclising modilalion. Ho vas said
lo lavo bocomo an Aralal ovon boforo llo ond of lis firsl
Vcss¯.
As sucl, lloro is ovory IikoIilood of a Yogï lo bo abIo lo
oxlinguisl lis angor by rofIocling on llo mannor in vlicl
VonorabIo Ionna lad borno in mind or lis monlaI alliludo,
as cilod in llis Sulla.
If angor cannol as yol bo oxlorminalod by rofIocling on llo
nobIo allribulos and moraI conducl of llo Bodlisalla, llo
Visuddlimagga las slalod llal llo oIovon advanlagos of
mcii¯ slouId bo rofIoclod as las boon onumoralod oarIior.
O, Yogïs, if you aro dovoIoping mcii¯ and cannol dispoI
llis 'angor' by so doing, you slouId cIoar il by rofIocling
llal you vouId ollorviso Ioso aII llo advanlagos of mcii¯.
lx.|·.t|-n|·. »·.|s s\ s||||c.|·. o· .n| |||·|·.-
»|.|s »·»|\-|·. .n|·
Il is slalod llal if angor cannol bo subduod as yol by
ompIoying llo mollods cilod abovo, il slouId bo rofIoclod
aflor oxamining llo oIomonls anaIylicaIIy. Tlo mannor of
rofIoclion lo bo mado is:
115
O, Yogï, you, vlo aro dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl modilalion
÷ vlal aro you angry vill in llo ollor porson` Aro you
golling angry vill lis lair on llo load, or againsl lis
urino` Iulling il in anollor vay, sinco llo lair is mado up
of four consliluonls viz.: llo oIomonls of oarll, valor, firo
and air, aro you angry vill pci|c.i!|¯iu, or ¯pc!|¯iu, or
icjc!|¯iu, or .¯µc!|¯iu` In ollor vords, vlo is your onomy`
Inasmucl as lo is dopondonl upon llo fivo ||cn!|cs and
llo lvoIvo ¯µcicncs (llo six organs of sonso and llo six
objocls of sonso ÷ llo inlornaI and oxlornaI sonsos or
proporlios) and llo oiglloon !|¯ius`
Aro you angry vill llo rùpc, mallor, from among llo
||cn!|cs, olc.` Or, vill .c!cn¯, Or, scññ¯` Or, scn||¯rcs`
Or, mind-consciousnoss, llo .iññ¯nc` Or, cc|||cµcicnc
(llo oyo), Or, rupcµcicnc (sig|i), Or, mcncµcicnc (mind), Or,
!|cmmcµcicnc, idoas or sonsalions` Or, cc|||u!|¯iu (llo
oIomonl of oyo), Or, cc|||u.iññ¯nc!|¯iu (llo oIomonl of oyo-
consciousnoss ÷ vision), Or, mcnc!|¯iu (monlaI rofIoclion
or llo mind llal accopls), Or, !|cmmc!|¯iu (idoas or
objocls), Or, mcnc.iññ¯n!|¯iu (monlaI consciousnoss)`
If anaIylicaI obsorvalion of llo !|¯ius (oIomonls) is mado, il
viII bo convincingIy roaIisod llal angor las no abodo in llo
luman body, jusl as a liny grain of muslard sood viII lavo no
pIaco vlon roslod upon a vory smaII pinpoinl, or, jusl as lloro
is no pIaco in llo sky for coIouring-mallor lo bo painlod.
116
How »·.|s |- -tsot|o s\ » '.|v| c .»||' |o||c\
If a porson is incapabIo of making an anaIylicaI obsorvalion
of llo !|¯ius (oIomonls), clarily or aIms-giving slouId bo
mado. Ono's ovn porsonaI proporly or any ollor lling
slouId bo. offorod in donalion lo llo porson vlom ono
rosonls or lalos. Iroporly or goods bo aIso accoplod in
rolurn from llal lalofuI porson. Hovovor, if llo porson
vlom you lalo las no proprioly of conducl in making lis
IivoIilood, you slouId onIy offor your proporly. If sucl a
¨givo and lako¨ poIicy is adoplod, fooIing of animosily or
vongoanco viII suroIy bo oradicalod. Evon rosonlmonl or
lalrod borno by an onomy in lis pasl oxislonco llal las
rosuscilalod in llis prosonl Iifo oxislonco, viII, il is slalod,
bo oxlinguislod. An inslanco may bo cilod in llis rogard.
On a mounlain knovn as CillaIa vloro Iindapãlika Tlora
rosidod, an oId Tlora vlo boro an involoralo lalrod againsl
llo formor, mado llroo allompls lo ousl lim from lis pIaco
of rosidonco. In a Scng|i|c monaslory, i.o. a monaslory vlicl
las boon boslovod on llo Sangla as a gifl, llo Blikklu
vlo is youngor in slalus is rosponsibIo lo offor llo pIaco
or mako room for llo sonior Blikklu lo rosido. Conlrary
lo llis ruIo of discipIino, llo alliludo of llo oId Tlora
amounlod lo causing annoyanco lo Iindapãlika Tlora. Will
a viov lo oxpoI llo fooIing of vongoanco borno by llo ollor,
Iindapãlika Tlora offorod llo ollor a bovI slaling: ¨Sir, llis
117
is llo bogging bovI vorll oigll kyals vlicl my mollor
lad donalod lo mo. You may pIoaso accopl il and mako uso
of il so llal my mollor, llo donor, viII dorivo morils.¨ Sinco
llo limo of accoplanco of llo gifl of llo said bovI, fooIing
of animosily and vongoanco lad lolaIIy subsidod in llo oId
Tlora. Honco, llo Commonlalors lavo slalod:
¨A!cnic!cm¯ncm !¯ncm, !¯ncm
sc||cii|cs¯!|c|cm, D¯ncnc piµc.¯c¯µc,
unncmcni ncmcnii cc.¨
D¯ncm ÷ clarily or acl of aIms-giving, c!cnic!cm¯ncm
÷ can mako a rudo porson bocomo civiIisod, or in ollor
vords, can lamo an unruIy porson. D¯ncm ÷ llo acl of
donaling gifls, sc||cii|cs¯!|c|cm ÷ viII accompIisl aII
llo advanlagos, or rallor, viII carry vill il fuII bonofils.
(In llo SïIakklanda Commonlary, il is slalod as ¨c!¯ncm
!cnic!ùsc|cm¨ vlicl, in facl, convoys llo moaning llal if
a porson vorlly of rocoiving llo offor of donalion is nol
givon a gifl, il couId ÷ bring aboul oslrangomonl bolvoon
lim and a rofinod porson vlo is friondIy lo lim and las
oarnod lis rospocl.) Il conlinuos lo say llal by offoring gifls
vill a fooIing of gonorosily and by spoaking svoolIy in
a gonlIo mannor, llo porson vlo makos offorings vill a
svool longuo viII bo onlancod in lis prosligo. And aIso, llo
roIalionslip bolvoon llo rocoivor of gifls vlo loars llo laIk
and llo givor vlo spoaks, viII bo cordiaI and in larmony.
118
How S|·¯-»·sn|o» (»· |¸t»| -|s|»o o| ·|..¯) occts-
As slalod in llo forogoing, if angor vlicl las arison
againsl an onomy, or rallor, a losliIo porson, las subsidod
or boon supprossod, fooIing of mcii¯ or Ioving-kindnoss
viII aIso conslanlIy occur in sucl a losliIo porson jusl as
llo fooIing of mcii¯ occurs in rospocl of (1) an affoclionalo
porson vorlly of rospocl and Iovo, (2) a boIovod porson
or a porson on vlom doop Iovo is boslovod, (3) a noulraI
porson vlo is noillor doar nor lalofuI. Al llo samo limo
vliIo dovoIoping mcii¯ ropoalodIy, llis Ioving-kindnoss
slaII bo lransmillod lo aII four kinds of porsons, viz.:
lis ovn soIf, llo ono vlom lo doarIy Iovos, llo noulraI
porson, and llo losliIo porson vill lis oquaIIy baIancod
mind pul on oacl and ovory ono of llom by incuIcaling a
spiril of goodviII, visling llom lappinoss. By so doing,
il vouId amounl lo avoiding discriminalion bolvoon
difforonl kinds of porsons lo vlom goodviII is lo bo
imparlod oquaIIy visling llom lappinoss. Tlis is caIIod
¨Sim¯scm||c!c.¨ In ollor vords, llo Iino of domarcalion
dravn, or, llo boundary markod oul bolvoon difforonl
individuaIs slouId bo orasod.
Tlo mannor of cancoIIing oul or nuIIifying llo Iimil of
difforonlialion bolvoon individuaIs is:
119
Iol us say llal a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ logollor
vill llo porson vlo dosorvos Iovo, i.o. ono vlo is doar
lo lim, llo noulraI porson, and llo onomy (a losliIo
porson), aII four of llom, aro Iiving in llo samo pIaco,
and Iol's assumo llal vliIo Iiving logollor as slalod, a
numbor of viIIains and lliovos camo ovor and askod llo
porson dovoIoping mcii¯ vill an uIlimalum lo land
ovor lo llom any ono of llo four, so as lo onabIo llom
lo offor lim as a sacrifico lo propilialo a god in llo
porformanco of a riluaI. Wlon domandod as sucl, if a
vavoring llougll arisos imagining as lo vlicl of llo
four porsons slouId bo offorod, il viII nol yol amounl lo
acliovomonl of llo quaIily of sim¯scm||c!c. Il is simpIy
bocauso il vouId bo lanlamounl lo discriminalion or
donying llo inlorosls of llo porson (viclim), vlo is
closon lo bo lakon avay.
In roaIily, onIy if a fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss occurs,
sproading oul mcii¯ oquaIIy on aII four porsons incIuding
limsoIf, visling oacl and ovory ono lo bo lappy, villoul
visling lo land ovor anyono of llo four, llon, il is said
lo lavo amounlod lo sim¯scm||c!c. Il moans llal no
dislinclion las boon mado bolvoon limsoIf and ollors.
Tloro viII onIy bo ono sploro of aclivily vlicl is confinod
soIoIy lo bringing aboul lappinoss, and llis moans llal
lloro is no sucl dislinguisling Iimil (knovn as Sim¯),
vlicl is, in facl, cancoIIod oul.
12O
How V|..¯-}n¯·» |- »cn||v|o
Evon if a fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss occurs visling ollors
lo gain lappinoss vill lis mind ovonIy baIancod aflor llo
acliovomonl of simcs¯m||c!c, a Yogï, vliIo dovoIoping
mcii¯ llrougl modilalion, oxporioncos nimiiicm, llo firsl
sign of monlaI iIIuminalion. Ho or slo aIso roaIisos llo
upcc¯rc-j|¯nc. Tlon aflor lis roaIisalion of upcc¯rc-j|¯nc-
scm¯!|i, if lo conlinuos praclising by dovoIoping sovoraI
limos llo sonsalion arising oul of nimiiic, cppcn¯-j|¯nc
viII soon bo acliovod. Tlis is according lo vlal las
boon slalod in llo Visuddlimagga. Tlis cppcn¯-j|¯nc
is nolling bul llo llroo kinds of j|¯ncs as monlionod
oarIior.
Aflor allainmonl of aII lloso j|¯ncs, 528 kinds of mcii¯
can bo dovoIopod conlinuousIy in soquonco llrougl llo
monlaI facuIly of mcii¯-j|¯nc.
IrosonlIy, boforo vinding up llo socond parl of llis
loaclings vo slaII dovoIop mcii¯ lo gain |usc|c (morils)
and p¯rcmii¯ (porfoclion). Wo viII lloroforo procood lo
conlompIalo on llo vanisling of .cicc-rùpc in llo courso
of our rocilalion vill a sincoro and loarly fooIing lovards
aII boings for lloir voIfaro and lappinoss.
121
May aII Blikklus, Yogïs and poopIo in llis modilalion
conlro bo lappy. (ropoal llroo limos).
May aII Dovas in llis Modilalion conlro bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII boings in llis Modilalion conlro bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII Blikklus and poopIo in llis lovnslip bo
lappy. (ropoal)
May aII Dovas in llis lovnslip bo lappy. (ropoal)
May aII boings in llis lovnslip bo lappy. (ropoal)
May aII cilizons of llo Inion of Burma bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII Dovas in llo Inion of Burma bo lappy.
(ropoal)
May aII boings vlorovor lloy aro, bo lappy. (ropoal)
And may aII lloso vlo aro rospoclfuIIy Iisloning lo llis
Dlamma on llo Bralmavilãra, spoodiIy allain Nibbãna.
122
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. |||
Toacling viII bo givon basod fundamonlaIIy on llo Mollã
Sulla, vlicl is quilo famiIiar lo a majorily of llo poopIo
loro. Tlo Mollã Sulla is of paramounl imporlanco for
llo Buddlisls in Burma. Il las bocomo an indisponsabIo
Sulla vlon rociling prayors and various kinds of lymns
or incanlalions (pcriii¯s) vlicl aro usuaIIy clanlod al
roIigious funclions lo vard off llo infIuonco of oviI spirils
and imparl Ioving-kindnoss lo aII boings, lloroby affording
us aIso a conlomporary mossago of goodviII or bIossing.
V|..¯ |- »|-o .n| w»\ .o |·n»·c| D¯·», os »|·--.|v|·..
If offorings of gifls voro accoplod vliIo rociling llo Mollã
Sulla, and by dovoIoping mcii¯ al llo samo limo, immonso
advanlagos can bo dorivod by llo bonofaclors vlo aro
donors. Il is, lloroforo, nocossary for llo Blikklus (monks)
lo soriousIy sludy llo loxl so as lo grasp llo moaning and
significanco of llo Mollã Sulla. Iraclico slouId bo mado
so as lo bo abIo lo rocilo llis Sulla corroclIy and procisoIy
vill a smooll fIov and villoul making any orrors. Tlon,
vliIo rociling llis Sulla, mcii¯ slouId aIso bo dovoIopod.
123
So by dovoIoping mcii¯ in llis vay il viII of bring bonofils
lo llo rocilor and aIso llo donors.
I slaII nov mako a cIoar oxposilion of llo Mollã Sulla,
commoncing from llo firsl slanza in llo body of llis
Sulla.
ls|||·|·»s\ C¯.n¯ (\|s-|) o| .n| V|..¯ St..»
(a) Ycss¯ nu||¯.cic µc|||¯,
nc.c !csscnii ||iscncm.
Ycm|i cc.¯nuµuñjcnic,
rciiin!i.c mcicn!iic.
(b) Su||cm supcii suiic cc,
p¯pcm |iñci nc pcsscii.
|.cm¯!igunùpcicm,
pcriiicm icm ||cn¯mc |c.
(a) Hc ÷ Ol, nobIo porsonagos, µcssc ÷ In rogard lo
llis Mollã Sulla Iarillã, ¯nu||¯.cic ÷ bocauso of ils
supornaluraI povors or officacy, µc|||¯ ÷ llo guardian
angoIs of llo lroos (viII rofrain from dispIaying), ||iscncm
÷ llo droadfuI or lorribIo sonsalions, (and) nc.c !csscnii,
i.o. viII nol mako llom manifoslod. Cc ÷ Bosidos, µc|mi
c.c ÷ if llis Mollã Sulla (voro rocilod), rciiin!i.cm ÷ boll
day and nigll, cicn!iic ÷ villoul Iazinoss or indoIonco,
124
cnuµuñjcnic -ono vlo is dovoling onosoIf lo llo rocilalion
of llis Sulla.
(b) Su||cm ÷ viII lavo a lappy or comforlabIo, supcii -
sIoop. Suiic cc ÷ vliIo sIooping loo, |iñci p¯pcm ÷ nol a
singIo bad or lidoous droam, pcsscii ÷ ui|| como inlo lis
sIooping vision. |.cm¯!igunùpcicm ÷ (boing) accompIislod
or ondovod vill sucl advanlagos and nobIo allribulos,
icm pcriiicm llis Mollã Sulla Iarillã or lymn (bo rocilod),
mcµcm by us, ||cn¯mc ÷ (and) vo slaII nov bogin lo
rocilo. In ollor vords, ¨icm ||cn¯mc |c¨ i.o. Tloroforo, vo
slaII rocilo llis Mollã Sulla.
Tloso lvo slanzas or vorsos aro llo proIiminary lymns of
praiso composod by llo Sayãdavs ÷ loaclors of llo ancionl
limos, and aro landod dovn lo us by lradilion. Tloso aro
oxprossod in vorsos lo bo ullorod or rocilod in llo form of
a univorsaI bonodiclion vill a rlyllm simuIlanoousIy, by
lloso individuaIs vlo viII do llo rocilalion.
Tlo proIoguo lo llis Sulla aIso conlains vords of praiso
ouIogising ils nobIo allribulos. Moroovor, llis ouIogy sorvos
as an inlroduclion lo llo Sulla indicaling llal by virluo of
llo allribulos of llis nobIo Sulla, llo guardian Dovas of llo
lroos viII noillor mako a dispIay of lorribIo sonsalionaI
sconos nor slriko lorror inlo llo loarls of llo poopIo. Hov
il lad onco lapponod may bo oxpIainod as foIIovs:
125
Tn| D||.||- .|ss||\ .n| ||v| nt·os|o Bn|||nt-
Al ono limo, vliIo llo Iord Buddla vas rosiding al
}olavana monaslory in llo cily of Sãvallli, fivo lundrod
Blikklus, aflor laking inslruclions from llo Buddla on
llo mollod of praclising Kammalllãna modilalion, vonl
oul in soarcl of a suilabIo monaslory and a viIIago vloro
aIms-givors or donors couId bo found. Tloy llon roaclod
a mounlain vloro Iakos voro in abundanco al llo fringo
of llo HimaIayas. Tlo pIaco vas cIoan and rofroslingIy
cooI and poacofuI. Tloy slayod for ono nigll al llis pIaco.
EarIy llo noxl morning, lloy visilod a viIIago in llo
noiglbourlood lo sook for aIms. Il vas slalod llal llis
viIIago vas fairIy Iargo vill ono llousand dvoIIing lousos.
Tlo viIIagors boing gonorous and lospilabIo offorod moaIs
lo aII fivo lundrod Blikklus and aIso roquoslod llom lo
spond lloir Vcss¯ al lloir pIaco. Tloy aIso donalod a smaII
monaslory lo aII of llo Blikklus lo onabIo llom lo Iivo
in poaco and modilalo singIy, and providod llom vill
bonclos and foolslooIs for silling, valor pols, olc.
On llo foIIoving day, lloy procoodod lo anollor ViIIago.
Tlo inlabilanls of llal viIIago simiIarIy roquoslod llo
Blikklus lo rosido al lloir pIaco for a poriod of Vcss¯
aflor lloy lad offorod llo moaIs. Tloy agrood lo slay as
roquoslod making a romark in passing llal il vouId bo
126
bollor if llo pIaco voro froo from dangors. Ialor, lloy carriod
on praclising modilalion day and nigll conlinuousIy al a
grovo in llal foroslod aroa silualod in cIoso proximily lo
llo viIIago. Oving lo llo infIuonliaI offocl of llo povors of
llo Blikklus vlo voro ondovod vill moraIily (si|c), llo
guardian angoIs of llo lroos in llo foroslod aroa darod nol
rosido in lloir abodos from vlicl lloy doscondod, laking
aIong vill llom lloir young cliIdron, and lad lo bo
moving aboul lillor and llillor. Tlo Nals or llo doilios
voro, lloroforo, valcling oul from a good dislanco vill
ombarrassmonl as lo vlon lloso nobIo Blikklus vouId
bo Ioaving llo pIaco.
Ialor, il lad occurrod lo llom as: ¨Tloso Blikklus vouId
no doubl bo slaying for a poriod of llroo monlls during
llo Vcss¯ (Rains Rolroal). Wo, vill our cliIdron, cannol
possibIy romain oulsido our abodos for a Iong limo. Il
vouId, lloroforo, appoar advisabIo lo croalo lorror, and
droadfuI sonsalionaI siglls lo frigllon llom avay.¨
IllmpIomonling lloir llouglls inlo aclion, ru|||c-!c.cs,
llo guardian Dovas of llo lroos, croalod llomsoIvos in llo
guiso of ogros during nigll-limo vliIo llo Blikklus voro
modilaling, and slood in llo prosonco of llo Blikklus
making, llomsoIvos visibIo causing voird sounds and
lidoous noiso. Having loard lloso uncanny sounds and
soon lorribIo siglls, llo Blikklus voro aII slrickon vill
foar. Tloir loarls llrobbod and lloir compIoxion lurnod
127
paIo. Tlo mind bocamo roslIoss vill vorry and frigll.
WliIo bocoming misorabIo as slalod, fouI smoII voro
omillod by llo doilios. Tlis slalo of condilion lad causod
llo Blikklus groal ombarrassmonl and sufforing. Il vas
monlionod in llo Commonlary as ¨1cnc !uggcn!|cnc
nimmci|iµcm¯ncmi.c mcii|c|ungcm c|csi¨. Tlis oxprossion
comos vory cIoso lo llo viov of llo prosonl day Woslorn
modicaI doclors. Il may, lloroforo, bo said llal lloy lad
sufforod sovoroIy from loadaclo. Dospilo llis pain
and sufforing, lloy romainod mulo vill groal palionco
villoul Iolling ono anollor knov aboul vlal lad roaIIy
lapponod.
Ono day, on boing askod by llo oIdosl Malã Tlora, oacl
and ovoryono of llo Blikklus mado a candid discIosuro
of lloir ovn rospoclivo porsonaI oxporionco lloy lad gono
llrougl. Tlo oIdosl of llo Blikklus, Malã Tlora, llon
oxprossod lis opinion, ¨If llal is llo caso, llis pIaco may
bo considorod as unsuilabIo for us lo slay and conlinuo
praclising modilalion. Iol us. lloroforo procood lo llo
Iord Buddla and rospoclfuIIy appriso Him of llis slalo
of affairs, and llon vo slaII slifl our pIaco of rosidonco lo
somo ollor suilabIo spol for llo rosl of llo poriod of Vcss¯.
Tloroaflor, lloy aII camo ovor lo llo EnIigllonod Ono
from vlom lloy sougll inslruclion lo dirocl llom lo a
suilabIo and propor pIaco vlicl vouId bo moro congoniaI
lo pracliso modilalion.
128
Tn| Btoon» .»t.n. .n| V|..¯ St..» .o o|.|s o||.||-
|so· c»t-|·. os|»o|t| -|.n.- c .|ssos
RofIocling as lo vlicl pIaco vouId bo mosl approprialo
for lloso Blikklus, il vas slalod llal llo Buddla found
no pIaco villin llo vloIo rogion of }ambudïpa suilabIo
for llo purposo of modilalion ollor, llan llo pIaco vloro
lloy voro rosiding. Tloroforo, llo Buddla ordorod llom
lo rolurn lo llo forosl rolroal from vloro lloy lad como.
Tlo advico givon by llo Buddla vas: ¨You slouId Ioarn
llo Mollã Sulla Iarillã if you aII visl lo oscapo from
llo dangors brougll aboul by llo doilios. Tlis Mollã
Sulla vouId sorvo as a dolorronl lo llo poriIs causod by
lloso doilios. Il aIso loIp lovards bollor roaIisalion of llo
Dlamma in llo praclico of Kammalllãna (modilalion).¨
Iurllormoro, il las boon oIucidalod in llo Commonlary
as slalod boIov:
|mcñcc suiicm ÷ Tlis Mollã Sulla aIso, m¯scssc ÷ during
ono monll, cii|csu !|cmmcsc.cnc!i.cscsu ÷ for a poriod
of oigll days vliIo occupiod in proacling and Iisloning
lo llo sormon (il moans vaxing and vaning days of llo
fifll, oiglll, fourloonll, and fifloonll ÷ aIlogollor oigll
days in a monll), gcn!im ¯|cici.¯ ÷ boal llo voodon drum,
uss¯rci|c ÷ ullor incanlalions, !|cmmc|ci|cm |crci|c ÷ go
on proacling, s¯|ccc|ci|c ÷ mako doIiboralions, cnumc!ci|c
129
÷ and llis Iarillã bo oxprossod vill cnumc!cn¯ ÷ groal
rojoicing. |!cmc.c |cmmcii|¯ncm ÷ llis mcii¯ modilalionaI
oxorciso, as ¯sc.ci|c ÷ bo roIiod upon, ||¯.ci|c ÷ bo
dovoIopod, ||c|u|i|crci|c ÷ (and) bo dono or porformod
sovoraI limos. 1cpi cmcnuss¯ ÷ lloso Dovas or doilios aIso,
Yc ÷ viII causo you, icm ||crc.¯-rcmmcncm ÷ no sucl
droadfuI siglls and sonsalions, nc !csscnii ÷ (and) viII
nol mako a dispIay, ncµ, i.o. viII nol slriko lorror inlo your
loarls. Tlis advico vas givon by llo EnIigllonod Ono in
passing.
Aflor laking inslruclions from llo Buddla, llo Blikklus
rolurnod lo lloir formor pIaco in llo forosl, noar lloir
monaslory. Tloy slayod on in llal pIaco praclising
modilalion and rociling llo Mollã Sulla according lo llo
loaclings of llo Iord Buddla. Tloso Dovas or doilios
laving foIl llal ¨lloso NobIo Onos aro sympallolic and aro
roaIIy bonl upon bosloving upon us a Iol of advanlagos by
dovoIoping Ioving-kindnoss¨, voro so pIoasod and lappy
llal lloy ovon assislod llo Blikklus in ovory vay possibIo
lo fuIfiI lloir noods. Indor lloso favourabIo circumslancos,
aII lloso Blikklus aflor dovoIoping Mcii¯ and induIging
in llo praclico of Vipassanã basod upon mcii¯-j|¯nc, voro
said lo lavo allainod Aralalslip roacling llo slago of
crc|ciicp|c|c during llal poriod of Vcss¯. As sucl, al llo
commoncomonl of llo vorso ouIogising llo virluos of llis
Mollã Sulla, il las boon monlionod llal in viov of llo
13O
povorfuI infIuonco of llo nobIo allribulos of llis Mcii¯-
pcriii¯, llo Guardian. Dovas of llo lroos lad rofrainod
llomsoIvos from dispIaying or oxlibiling lorribIo siglls
and sonsalionaI objocls lo frigllon llo Blikklus.
l. |- ·o. »o|¸t».| oo|·. .n| s|c|.».|o· o·|\, o·| »|-o
·||o- .o |s»c.|-|
Tlo llird Iino in llo firsl slanza conlains llo vord
¨cnuµunjj|cnic¨ vlicl donolos ¨praclising¨. Tlis oxprossion
in ilsoIf doos nol convoy llo sonso lo jusl do llo rocilalion
of llo Mollã Sulla. Tlo inlonlion probabIy is lo rofor lo llo
praclising of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, i.o. dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl
praclicaI modilalion. Il is bocauso in llo Mollã Sulla, vloro
oIovon advanlagos of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ aro onumoralod, il las
boon oIucidalod llal lloso aro llo advanlagos of mcii¯
ccic .imuiii. Tlo oxprossion ¨mcii¯ ccic .imuiii¨ couId nol
possibIy lavo roforonco lo moro roquiromonl of rocilalion
onIy. OnIy cppcn¯-j|¯nc is mcii¯ ccic .imuiii. Tlis las boon
cIoarIy oxpIainod in llo Angullara Commonlary (p. 37).
Honco, if advanlagos, sucl as su||cm supcii, i.o. las llo
bonofil of a sound sIoop, olc., aro dosirabIo, mcii¯ or Ioving-
kindnoss modilalion slouId aIso bo dovoIopod in addilion
lo llo rocilalion. Nov ono or lvo slanzas (vorsos) of llo
Mollã Sulla in IãIi viII bo rocilod and oIucidalod.
131
Tn| V|..¯ St..» l»s|..»
1. Kcrcniµc mcii|c|usc|cnc,
µcmicm scnicm pc!cm c||iscmiccc.
Sc||c uju cc su|uju cc,
su.ccc cc´ssc mu!u cnciim¯ni
Scnicm ÷ bIissfuI, pc!cm ÷ Nibbãna, c||iscmiccc ÷ if
dosirous of acliovomonl and roaIisalion, cii|c|usc|cnc
÷ a porson vlo knovs or roaIisos llo dosirabIo advanlagos
vlicl aro ossonliaIIy roquirod, µcm ÷ llis praclico of si|c,
scm¯!|i and pcññ¯, |crcniµcm ÷ noods lo bo oxorcisod and
porformod. 1cm ÷ llis praclico (|cium ÷ for llo purposo of
oxorcising il), sc||c cc ÷ is capabIo of, cssc ÷ acliovomonl.
1. Must bc capabIc nI practising
Tlo gisl of il is: If a porson vlo fuIIy knovs llo roaI
advanlagos llal can bo accruod, if dosirous of aclioving
and roaIising llo bIissfuI Nibbãna, musl invariabIy
induIgo limsoIf in llo praclico of si|c (moraIily), scm¯!|i
(conconlralion), and pcññ¯ (insigll visdom). Ho musl bo
capabIo of laking up llis praclico. Wlal is indicalod by
llis oxprossion is llal if ono vislos lo bo Iiboralod from
aII misorios and lribuIalions, lo slouId lavo llo abiIily lo
132
pracliso si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯ villoul any rogard for lis
ovn soIf or maloriaI body lo llo oxlonl of sacrificing lis
ovn Iifo.
To ampIify a bil moro, il may bo slalod as rosombIing a
vorIdIing vlo, roaIising llo vorIdIy advanlagos llal
can bo dorivod, is slriving lo acquiro llo bosl advanlago
undor llo givon circumslancos oillor by vay of oarning
lis IivoIilood as an agricuIlurisl, or a lrador, or a paid
pubIic sorvanl. }usl as goId, siIvor and ollor kinds of
proporlios viII bo of bonofil lo lim in llo pursuil of
lis vorIdIy businoss affairs, si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯
aro roaIIy llo bosl advanlagos lo bo gainod in lis
Iong journoy llrougl scms¯rc. Tloso aro llo ossonliaI
llings lo bo praclisod and acquirod. In llo Ioasl, if ono
is accompIislod in lis si|c, moraI conducl, lo viII nol
doscond lo llo roaIm of cp¯µc, and insload, lo is. suro lo
roacl llo vorId of luman boings and of Dovas, vloro
pIoasanl and favourabIo condilions provaiI. If lo couId
allain j|¯nc-scm¯!|i, lo viII bo oIovalod lo a lappy Iifo
oxislonco in llo abodo of Bralmãs, vloro llo Iifo-span
Iasls for aoons. If ono is accompIislod vill Vipassanã
insigll knovIodgo and las fuIIy acliovod sci¯pciii mcggc-
p|c|c, lo viII forovor bo omancipalod from Ianding in llo
four apayas. Ho viII Ialor onlor inlo Iarinibbana on lis
domiso aflor allainmonl of Aralalslip and aflor laving
boon roborn in llo abodo of sugali for nol moro llan
133
sovon oxisloncos. If accompIislod vill crc|ciic-mcggc-
p|c|c-ñ¯nc, lo viII lolaIIy oscapo from llo voos and
vorrios of Iifo oxisloncos, i.o. lloro viII bo no moro fuluro
Iifo-oxislonco for lim. Tlal is llo roason vly si|c, scm¯!|i
and pcññ¯ aro llo roaI advanlagos insofar as scms¯rc is
concornod. Tloso allribulos slouId bo gainod llrougl
llo praclico of modilalion.
Sucl boing llo caso, ono vlo is llorouglIy proficionl in
llo praclicos of si|c, olc., slouId bo capabIo of oxorcising
Vipassanã modilalion vill compIolo undorslanding. Il is
a praclico vlicl slouId invariabIy bo porformod villoul
any misgiving llal lloso liglor moraIily and Ioarnings
aro lard lo bo praclisod. Ono slouId nol fooI disappoinlod
llal roaIisalion of insigll knovIodgo is nol villin lis roacl.
Noillor slouId lo find fauIl vill il nor fooI llal il vouId
porlaps bo bollor and lappior for lim lo avoid laking a
lraining in llo oxorciso, and llal llo praclico of scm¯!|i
||¯.cn¯ is difficuIl and lirosomo. Ono slouId nol givo il up
llrougl indoIonco and voaknoss. IoIIov llo Mollo:
¨Gonuino advanlagos of si|c, scm¯!|i and
pcññ¯ fuIIy graspod vill koon proficioncy.
Having undorslood as sucl, ono slouId bo
capabIo of praclising modilalion Ioading lo llo
acquiromonl of advanlagos.¨
134
Tlo slalomonl ¨Gonuino advanlagos. bo fuIIy graspod
vill koon proficioncy¨ is in consonanco vill vlal las boon
slalod as ¨cii|c|usc|cnc¨. Ono musl lloroforo bo compolonl
lo rosorl lo llis nobIo praclico. To onabIo ono lo do so, ono
musl lavo sc!!|¯ (conviclion) and .iriµc (porsovoronco or
oxorlion). OnIy if ono las absoIulo faill vill a firm boIiof
llal llo advanlagos or bonofils aro suro lo dorivo, lo viII
bo incIinod lo lako up llo praclico of Vipassanã modilalion,
vlicl viII ovonluaIIy Ioad lo llo allainmonl of Nibbãna
aflor aclioving mcggc-p|c|c.
On llo ollor land, lloso vlo lavo no faill in llo Buddla's
Dlamma viII nol bo abIo lo pracliso si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯.
Somo of lloso vlo prolond lo bo roaI Buddlisls lavo said
llal lloso praclicos aro nol roquirod lo bo oxorcisod, and if
praclisod, il viII onIy ond in misory., Tlis sorl of indiscrool
romark is moro vislfuI llinking. Tloy aro llo poopIo
vlo lavo no faill or boIiof in llo Doclrino of llo Buddla.
Sucl poopIo lavo no incIinalion lo induIgo llomsoIvos in
llo praclicos of si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯. If lloy faiI lo do
so, sinco il las boon proaclod as ¨|crcniµcm¨ i.o. ¨slouId
bo praclisod villoul faiI¨, (and) ¨sc||c¨ ÷ ¨musl aIso lavo
llo abiIily lo pracliso¨, lloy slaII bo doomod lo lavo loId
dissonling viovs conlrary lo llo Toaclings of llo Iord
Buddla. As a mallor of facl, lloy aro absoIuloIy Iacking in
si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯, jusl Iiko a piliabIo ponniIoss porson.
Tloy aro doslinod for llo Nollor WorId.
135
Moroovor, unromilling offorl is ossonliaI. If Iacking in
diIigonco, il bocomos difficuIl lo fuIIy mainlain llo
allribulos of si|c (moraIily). Tlus, il viII bo aII llo moro
burdonsomo lo pracliso scm¯!|i and pcññ¯. Somo aro ovon
roIuclanl or Iazy lo Iislon lo llo sormon on llo subjocl of
llo praclico of Vipassanã modilalion. To a porson vlo is
diIigonl, nolling is difficuIl or burdonsomo. Ho viII mako
lis roIonlIoss offorl lo acliovo fuIIy in anylling vlicl
noods lo bo accompIislod. Honco, ¨ulmosl ondoavour
slouId bo mado lo pracliso for llo acliovomonl of si|c.
Ho musl lavo llo abiIily lo pracliso and porform llo
oxorciso vill vigour and onllusiasm.¨ To bo capabIo of
doing so, faill and oxorlion is ossonliaIIy roquirod lo bo
accompIislod. Tloroforo, il is of paramounl imporlanco
lo carry on llo praclico of si|c, olc., diIigonlIy, aflor laving
accompIislod onosoIf as slalod.
2. & 3. Must bc Irank and hnncst
Noxl, ujju cc ÷ lonosl, cssc ÷ lo musl bo, su|uju cc ÷
oxlromoIy slraigllforvard and lonosl, lo slouId bo. Wlon
firsl bocoming an ordainod Blikklu, llougl lo may bo
lonosl al llo iniliaI slago of praclising modilalion by llo
slrongll of lis faill and conviclion, al a Ialor slago vlon
llo slrongll of faill (sc!!|¯) and oxorlion (.iriµc) is al a Iov
136
obb, as lo bocomos sIack and dofoclivo concorning lis or
lor moraIily, ¨su|uju¨ llo quaIily of oxlromo lonosly viII
dolorioralo. OnIy by praclising villoul dofocl llrougloul
llo Iifolimo, ¨su|uju¨ viII romain inlacl. To pul il in anollor
vay, if frood from lroaclory or craflinoss villoul any
prolonsion of laving possossod llo allribulos vlicl lo is
nol roaIIy ondovod vill (s¯i|cµµc) lo slaII bo doomod lo bo
slraigllforvard (uju). If froo from llo dofocl of prolonsion
as slalod, lo may bo rogardod as oxlromoIy lonosl. In ollor
vords, if nol cunning and lroaclorous from llo poinl of
viov of plysicaI and vorbaI bolaviour, ono slaII bo rogardod
as boing lonosl and slraigllforvard (uju). Il is ¨su|uju¨, if a
porson is nol crafly or cunning. Tlo Iasl mollod is llal if
rofrainod from rovoaIing llo lrull of llo allribulos vlicl lo
doos nol roaIIy possoss, il vouId amounl lo boing lonosl (uju).
If no accoplanco is mado of llo offorings or donalions givon
by ollors llrougl rovoronco undor llo faIso improssion of
llo allribulos vlicl lo (a Blikklu) doos nol roaIIy possoss,
lo slaII bo doomod lo bo vory lonosl and uprigll (su|uju).
In praclising modilalion, llo quaIilios of lonosly and
uprigllnoss aro fundamonlaIIy imporlanl. If spokon
undor llo prolonco of laving possossod llo allribulos of
llo SpociaI Dlamma vlicl ono las nol yol acliovod, or in
ollor vords, if a faIso assorlion of a cIaim is mado villoul
acluaIIy possossing llo allribulos, il is a cIoar caso of
dislonosly. Sucl a porson vlo makos a faIso cIaim undor
137
prolonco, viII lavo no clanco of making progross in lis
modilalion praclico. Tlo spiriluaI loaclor viII aIso find il
difficuIl lo mond lim, or rallor, pul lim on llo rigll Iinos.
If ono doos nol lruIy admil lis fauIls and doos nol knov lis
rosponsibiIily lo loII llo lrull, lo is dovoid of llo quaIily
of ¨su|uju¨. If llo mind vandors or fIirls, lo musl oponIy
admil as sucl and loII vlal las acluaIIy lapponod in lis
oxorciso. Ollorviso, lo viII nol bo rogardod as boing vory
lonosl. OnIy if lo loIIs llo lrull of vlal las lakon pIaco,
or in ollor vords, onIy if lo rovoaIs lis incompolonco or
faiIuro lo acliovo llo SpociaI Dlamma lrullfuIIy, il vouId
amounl lo accompIislmonl of llo allribulos of ¨uju¨. OnIy
vlon lo is candid and lonosl, viII llo spiriluaI loaclor
bo abIo lo pul lim on llo rigll lrack. If lo sincoroIy and
rospoclfuIIy modilalos as guidod by lis spiriluaI loaclor,
scm¯!|i-ñ¯nc, ponolraling knovIodgo (by conconlralion),
viII soon bo dovoIopod vill progross. If il is dono
so, lroaclorous fooIing, if any, may bo vipod oul, and
lonosly may bo rovivod. In parlicuIar, vlon roacling llo
slago of u!cµc||cµc-ñ¯nc, pcssc!!|i ÷ caImnoss, logollor
vill |c|ui¯ ÷ buoyancy, mu!ii¯ ÷ gonlIonoss of mind,
|cmmcññci¯ ÷ adaplabiIily or roadinoss lo do vlal is lo
bo dono, pcgcññci¯ ÷ obsorvalion and famiIiarily, and aIso
uju|ci¯ ÷ lonosly of purposo, may bocomo conspicuous.
Il is slalod llal al ono limo, vlon a fomaIo modilalor lad
roaclod llal slago in progrossivo insigll knovIodgo, slo
138
mado a confossion lo lor spiriluaI loaclor as: ¨I lavo dono
vrong lo my lusband in llo pasl. Irom nov onvards, I
viII novor commil sucl fauIls or offond lim.¨ Il is roaIIy
ossonliaI llal a porson vlo is nov dovoIoping mcii¯
slouId bo roaIIy frank and lonosl. Somo, of courso, vill
a faIso prido, mako an oxaggoralion cIaim of lov lloy aro
dovoIoping mcii¯. Tlis kind of bolaviour, boll monlaI and
vorbaI, is a cIoar ovidonco of a porson's dislonosly and
rofIocls lis claraclor. Honco, lloro is food for llougll in
rogard lo poopIo giving a faIso improssion of boing Iofly
and nobIo in claraclor by pulling on airs vill ornamonlod
or big slrings of boads.
4. ShnuId bc dnciIc nr dispnscd tn cnmpIiancc
Noxl, su.ccc cc ÷ mook or obodionl or in roadinoss lo compIy,
cssc ÷ lo slouId bo. Ono vlo is slubborn or nol amonabIo
lo laking good advico or admonilion is an unruIy porson
knovn as ¨Du||ccc¨. Sucl a porson is obslinalo and pig-
loadod and is nol roady lo Iislon lo llo bonovoIonl advico
givon by ollors. Ho is in llo labil of spoaking counlor lo
vlal ollors lavo said vill a londoncy lo loId a conlrary
opinion. Ho may llink of llo ollor as boing bossy. Wlon
lo is admonislod or robukod by lis loaclors, lo bolavos or
roacls badIy and vlon askod, lo rofusos lo admil lis ovn
fauIl. If lo romains siIonl, il vouId causo monlaI dislross
139
or annoyanco lo ollors. Evon llougl a porson may admil
lis ovn fauIl llon and lloro, lo may Ialor conlinuo lo do
miscliof villoul amonding limsoIf. Tlis aIso amounls lo
disobodionco or non-compIianco. Tlo Commonlary goos
lo say llal sucl a porson is romolo, or rallor, miIos aparl
from aclioving SpociaI Dlamma.
A porson, vlo is mook and miId (su.ccc) and is roady lo
compIy vill or abido by llo inslruclions givon, viII accopl
any kind of good advico or sincoro varning vill pIoasuro.
Ho viII aIso roform limsoIf. Tlo Commonlary lad said llal
sucl a porson is cIoso lo allainmonl of SpociaI Dlamma.
IrosonlIy, Yogïs vlo compIy vill llo inslruclions of lloir
'spiriluaI loaclors, aro found lo lavo mado groal slridos
lovards llo rogion of progrossivo insigll.
A porson vlo is incIinod lo disoboy duo admonilion givon,
is IikoIy lo bocomo angry villoul boing abIo lo dovoIop
mcii¯, boing prodominalod by an offonsivo. fooIing againsl
llo ollor vlo londors good advico or roprobalo. Il is roaIIy
ossonliaI for a Yogi lo bo dociIo and obodionl. If proporIy
rofIoclod, vlal ollors lavo said vill llo bosl of molivos
is for lis ovn bonofil. Ior inslanco, a porson vloso faco is
slainod vill sool viII bo a Iaugling-slock if lo goos lo a
pubIic funclion or a coromony. If anollor porson vlo las
soon lim vill dirl on lis faco, las mado lim knovn of
llis facl, lo can vory voII vasl and cIoanso llo dirl on lis
14O
faco. If lo goos lo llo funclion aflor cIoaning llo dirl on
lis faco, lo viII oscapo ridicuIo. If any slorlcomings of a
porson is poinlod oul by llo ollor, ono slouId bo gralofuI
lo llo voII-vislor. Tloroforo, ono slouId gIadIy roclify
lis ovn fauIl or mislako if lis allonlion is dravn lo il by a
friond or a roIalivo. RãluIa, vlon lo vas sovon yoars oId,
piIod up a mound of sand and ovon prayod oarnoslIy llal
lo migll rocoivo admonilion many a limo, or, as mucl as
lloro voro grains in llo loap of sand. Il is imporalivo for
a porson vlo is praclising mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ or ollor kinds of
modilalion lo bocomo a ¨Su.ccc¨ individuaI.
5. Must bc gcntIc
Noxl, mu!u cc gonlIo and pIianl, cssc ÷ lo slouId bo.
Hovovor, il is nol pormissibIo (for llo Blikklus) undor llo
RuIos of DiscipIino lo spoak or offor llings or do any acl
lo ingralialo onosoIf vill llo maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors
and lo oarn lloir rovoronco, in a mook, miId and gonlIo
mannor. NovorlloIoss in mallors nol conlrary lo llo RuIos
of Vinaya, il vouId bo propor for a Blikklu lo spoak and
doaI vill lis bonofaclors miIdIy, gonlIy and amiabIy.
Moro imporlanl, lovovor, is lo bolavo in an agrooabIo and
conciIialory mannor villoul boing bIunl and indoIonl in
mallors roIaling lo llo praclico of Ialipalli.
141
6. ShnuId nnt bc haughty
Tlon comos, ¨cnciim¯ni cc¨ ÷ nol lo bo concoilod and
arroganl, cssc ÷ as lo slouId bo. A Blikklu slouId nol
bo proud and lauglly roIying upon lis Iinoago and llo
allribulos of lis knovIodgo and acliovomonl in llo fioId
of Iariyalli and Ialipalli and of llo nobiIily of lis socl. Ho
slouId nol bolavo in a rudo mannor and undoroslimalo
ollors vill arroganco. If lo sIiglls ollors, laking prido in
limsoIf or assumos a nonclaIanl alliludo, il viII bo difficuIl
for lim lo succossfuIIy dovoIop gonuino mcii¯ ÷ Ioving-
kindnoss. Somo aro Iacking in doforonco lo ollors vlo aro
vorlly of rospocl simpIy on llo ground llal lloy boIong lo
a difforonl socl. Il viII bo lard for lim lo nurso a fooIing of
gonuino Ioving-kindnoss. Iooking al il from llo viovpoinl
of mundano affairs, ono may mool vill lroubIo and dangor
by boing discourloous lo ollors vlo migll appoar lo lim
as ¨laving no apliludo and inilialivo¨. Tlo disaslor vlicl
camo upon llo royaI famiIy of Sakya CIan brougll aboul by
Vidûdabla vas llo consoquonliaI offocl of nogIigonco and
concoil. Honco, ono slouId bo gonlIo in mind villoul boing
arroganl and quarroIsomo. In llis rogard llo Commonlary
las poinlod oul llal ¨ono slouId lumiIialo limsoIf jusl as
llo VonorabIo Aslin Sãripulla las incuIcalod llo labil of
lumbIonoss Iiko a mondicanl.¨ Tlo monlaI disposilion of
llo VonorabIo Aslin Sãripulla doscribod in Tuvalaka Sulla
(on pago 38 of llo Burmoso vorsion) is as slalod boIov:
142
A boggar, vlollor a boy or a girI vill an oarllonvaro
conlainor in land and vill slabby cIollos on, vlon
onloring a viIIago, praclisos lumiIialion. Tlo VonorabIo
Aslin Sãripulla rospoclfuIIy pul lo llo EnIigllonod Ono
llal lo lad submillod limsoIf lo lumiIialion Iiko llis
boggar boy or girI bogging for food. Tlis is roaIIy vondorfuI
considoring llo facl llal Aslin Sãripulla llougl born of
a ligl caslo Bralmin lad condoscondod lo llal Iov IovoI.
Ono slouId, lloroforo, omuIalo lis oxompIary bolaviour.
Iol us go on llo socond slanza:
2. Scniussc|c cc su||crc cc,
cppc|iccc cc sc||c|u|c.uiii.
Scniin!riµc cc nipc|c cc,
cppcgc|||c |u|csu cncnugi!!|c.
7. ShnuId bc casiIy cnntcntcd
Scniussc|c cc ÷ oasiIy conlonlod, cssc ÷ as ono slouId
bo. To bo conlonlod moans (1) lo bo salisfiod vill
vlal is avaiIabIo, (2) lo bo salisfiod vill vlal can bo
oblainod villin ono's ovn abiIily, (3) lo bo salisfiod vill
vlal is suilabIo or propor. Tloso aro llo llroo kinds
of ¨Conlonlmonl¨. If il is muIlipIiod vill four kinds of
roquisilos (nocossilios) for a monk, |3 x 4], il viII como lo
lvoIvo |12]. Ono slouId bo conlonlod in llo Iigll of lloso
lvoIvo quaIilios of conlonlmonl.
143
Will roforonco lo llo modo of conlonlmonl monlionod in
No. (1) abovo, a Blikklu slouId conlonl limsoIf vill llo
four kinds of nocossary llings or proporlios, viz.: moaI,
robos, monaslory or dvoIIing pIaco, and modicino, as
may bo avaiIabIo undor any circumslancos. As rogards
moaI (food), llo Iord Buddla lad givon oxlorlalion lo
llo bikklus from llo limo of lloir firsl onloring inlo
Bikklulood as: ¨Pin!iµ¯ |cpc ||cjcncm nisscµc pc||cjj¯,
icii|c ic µ¯.cji.cm uss¯|c |crcniµc.¨ Il moans, a Blikklu
slouId lruIy mainlain lis obsorvanco of llo procopls as a
Blikklu by moroIy doponding upon llo food ÷ may bo
a spoonfuI, or a landfuI ÷ oblainod from llo rospoclivo
louso of llo faillfuI donor by going in porson for aIms.
Tlo novIy ordainod Blikklu slouId ondoavour lo Iivo
on llis kind of food oblainod from llo donor llrougloul
lis Iifo. Tlo significanl poinl is llal lo slouId go round
for aIms and Ioad a loIy Iifo bofilling a Blikklu villoul
giving lroubIo lo ollors, nay, villoul causing any ollor
porson lo bocomo burdonsomo for lim.
Il vouId bo a vory loavy rosponsibiIily on llo parl of
a bonofaclor if lo or slo voro lo cook moaIs and sorvo
llo Blikklu ovoryday. Nobody viII lavo any lroubIo if
llo Blikklu can oblain food by going round for aIms
lo llo lousos from vloro lo can rocoivo food and ollor
oalabIos as may bo viIIingIy and gonorousIy offorod by
llo bonofaclors. Il is for llo Blikklus lo bo conlonlod vill
144
vlalovor is avaiIabIo. Il viII bo !u||cic, a broacl of sokliya
conducl, of Blikklu if lo asks for food from a porson vlo
is nol a roIalivo, villoul boing invilod, unIoss lo is sick
(a GiIãna). Il viII amounl lo commilling an offonco of
p¯ciiiiµc if, for inslanco, a Blikklu rocoivos casl for food
or asks for doIicious bullorod rico, olc. Evon al llo limo of
sorving llo moaIs, if a Blikklu is nol invilod, lo slouId
nol ask for il. Novadays, ono can como across somo
Blikklus noar a famous slrino, or a crovdod pIaco Iiko
a vlarf or a jolly, asking for casl lo bo donalod lo llom.
Tloso aro a fov inslancos vloro broacl of conducl of
Blikklu is invoIvod. Somo migll offor casl. Evory limo a
Blikklu landIos llo casl llal is offorod il viII amounl lo
commilling Nisaggiya Iãcilliya offonco of Blikklu. Sucl
a fauIly conducl is larmfuI lo llo Sãsana.
Tlis misconducl, according lo llo RuIos of Vinaya, and ils
dograding offocl on llo prosligo of llo nobIo Sãsana aro
duo lo disconlonlmonl. Il viII bo of advanlago lo a Blikklu
if lloro is conlonlmonl. Ho viII bo froo from fauIl and llis
viII bo in llo inlorosls of llo Sãsana. AII good and nobIo
Blikklus slouId bo conlonlod vill vlalovor is avaiIabIo
for, lloir daiIy consumplion of food.
As rogards robos, Buddla lad inslruclod lo bo- conlonl
vill pcmsu|ù|c robos, i.o. robos mado of rags lakon from
a rofuso loap. Iormission las boon granlod lo voar. llo
145
robos donalod by llo bonofaclors of lloir ovn accord and
oul of gonorosily. As sucl, a Blikklu slouId romain in
conlonlmonl vill any kind of robos vlicl lo may rocoivo
in accordanco vill llo RuIos of DiscipIino. If lo sooks for
any ollor kind of robos conlrary lo llo Blikklu's conducl,
lo is doomod lo lavo commillod an offonco.
In rospocl of Iodging and bod, Buddla las inslruclod llo
Blikklus lo slay al llo fool or undor llo slado of a lroo,
or rosido in a monaslory or a buiIding offorod as a gifl. To
romain in conlonlmonl is ossonliaI. If a Blikklu accopls
casl and roquosls llal a buiIding bo conslruclod vill
llal monoy, or if lo rocoivos llo gifl of monoy in porson
and koops il in lis possossion, or if lo porsonaIIy sponds
llis monoy for llo purposo of buiIding a monaslory, lo is
guiIly of llo Blikklu's offonco. Il is aIso againsl llo RuIo
of DiscipIino for Blikklus lo dvoII in sucl a buiIding
oillor by lim or any ollor Blikklu.
Noxl, in so far as modicinos or drugs aro concornod,
Buddla lad Iaid dovn inslruclions for Blikklus lo lako
urino of callIo as modicino, caIIod pùiimuiic. Il is Ioarnl
llal somo poopIo vlo suffor from nourolic pain lavo
boon curod by laking oraIIy llo callIo urino. Modicino
vlicl las boon discardod as rollon and pulrid is caIIod.
pùiimuiic in a vay. Tlis dofinilion caIIs for considoralion
vlollor il is llo roaI inlonlion of llo Buddla bocauso
146
according lo llo prosonl day plarmacoulicaI pIanls or
plarmacoIogisls lloy lavo inslruclod lo avoid laking
modicinos or drugs llo poloncy of vlicl las oxpirod. If
llo slinking and pulrid drugs aro lakon, il may nol lavo
llo dosirod offocl for nol boing officacious lo romody
llo disoaso. AIso, il may bo difficuIl lo soarcl for a
modicino llal las boon discardod. Honco, lloro is food
for llougll as lo vlollor, according lo llo inlorprolalion
of llo grammalicaI lorm ¨pùiimuiic¨, il viII faII in Iino
vill vlal is roaIIy inlondod lo moan by llo Buddla
HimsoIf.
In rogard lo modicino, a sick Blikklu can ask for il from
any porson. Hovovor, il viII bo a Nissaggiya offonco
for a Blikklu if lo asks for a gifl of monoy from ollors,
buys modicino and makos uso of il. Conlonlmonl is aIso
nocossary roIaling lo llo modicino llal is avaiIabIo. If lo
romains in conlonlmonl vill vlal is avaiIabIo, il is knovn
as ¨µci|¯|¯||cscnicsc¨.
Tlon, bocauso of sicknoss, or, gonoraI dobiIily, vlon a
Blikklu makos uso of suilabIo food, robos, monaslory,
bod and modicinos vlicl lo rocoivod in oxclango for lis
ovn proporlios vlicl aro unsuilabIo, il is caIIod ¨µci|¯|c|c-
scnicsc¨. Wlal is moanl by il is: lo bo conlonlod vill vlal
is avaiIabIo lo lim in lis ovn capacily or villin lis ovn
abiIily.
147
And llon, consuming food or voaring robos, olc., vlicl
aro puro in quaIily and vlicl lavo boon rocoivod in
oxclango for lis proporlios llal aro considorod loo good
and impropor for lim lo mako uso of llom is caIIod
¨µci|¯s¯ruppcscnicsc¨. Il moans, ¨lo bo conlonlod or salisfiod
vill proporlios approprialo or suilabIo for llo purposo¨. In
briof, ono slouId lavo onliro salisfaclion vill llo said llroo
kinds of conlonlmonl, and moro broadIy spoaking, vill llo
lvoIvo kinds of conlonlmonl. Ollorviso, ono can bo guiIly
as slalod. In llis mundano vorId, lo lavo salisfaclion vill
ono's ovn Iol is imporlanl. If no conlonlmonl can bo found,
ono can bocomo misorabIo. Boing oagorIy dosirous of
somolling vlicl is nol villin lis ovn roacl, if ono doos
anylling llal ougll nol lo bo dono, lo is IikoIy lo commil
a criminaI offonco. If lo yoarns for a lling vlicl is nol
oblainabIo, oxlromo misory viII bofaII lim. If llo load of
a lousoloId is nol salisfiod vill llo moaIs cookod and
sorvod al lis ovn lomo, lo can bo al Ioggorloads vill llo
lousovifo, or llal lo may pick up a quarroI on llal scoro
vlicl viII lloroby causo misory lo lim. In llo prosonl
day vorId, lloro aro a numbor of muIli-miIIionairos vlo
lavo bocomo misorabIo for nol boing conlonlod vill vlal
lloy ovn and possoss. Hovovor, a porson vlo is Iiving
from land lo moull, if salisfiod vill lis Iol, can find
lappinoss. Tlal is llo roason vly Buddla las proaclod
as: ¨Scniuiii|i¨ ÷ Conlonlmonl is, ¨pcrcmcm !|cncm¨
÷ llo bosl and llo nobIosl gifl (or proporly). Tlis nobIo
148
diclum is vory naluraI. Honco, a porson vlo is praclising
modilalion slouId lavo conlonlmonl in ovorylling.
8. ShnuId bc IrugaI
Tlo noxl vord is: ¨su||crc cc ÷ oasiIy supporlod by boll
maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors, cssc ÷ as il slouId bo. Dospilo
llo facl llal moaIs, robos, olc., offorod as gifls by llo
bonofaclors may nol bo good onougl lo mool ono's laslo or
Iiking, lloso slouId bo accoplod and mado uso of villoul
grumbIo and ulloring' vill grunl. Il is nol for a Blikklu
lo pick and clooso any kind of gifl offorod in donalion.
Ollorviso, il viII bo a burdon lo llo bonofaclors lo supporl
oasiIy. Il vas slalod llal al ono limo during llo Brilisl
rogimo in MouImoin dislricl, lloro vas a Blikklu vlo
rofusod lo lako moaIs villoul a disl of clickon curry. Honco,
lis bonofaclors lad lo bo aIvays vorrying aboul a disl of
clickon curry lo bo providod. And llon vliIo lravoIIing,
if no clickon disl vas avaiIabIo duo lo circumslancos llo
said Blikklu lolaIIy abslainod from laking moaIs for llo
vloIo day. Il is nol undorslood vly lo lad bolavod in
llal odd mannor. Wlollor bocauso lo lad mado a vov
omuIaling llo oxampIo of a S¯mcncrc by llo namo of Pcn!iic
vlo vas dosirous of laking lis moaIs onIy vlon a disl of
¨Ngagyin¨ fisl vas incIudod in llo monu, as monlionod in
llo Dlammapada Vulllu, no ono can say for corlain. Sucl
an alliludo vouId amounl lo !u|||crc insload of 'su|cru'
149
(frugaIily). Il is for Blikklus al llis Yoikllã lo bo salisfiod
vill frugaI moaIs as may bo offorod by llo bonofaclors.
Somo of llo narrov-mindod Blikklus migll bocomo surIy
and mako a vry faco dospilo llo facl llal llo offorings.
mado by llo bonofaclors aro of good quaIily unIoss lloso
aro lo lloir Iiking. Somolimos, in llo prosonco of llo donors,
lo migll givo vonl lo lis angor and grood, bIaming llo
donors clurIislIy and llon parlod vill llo offorings by
giving llom avay lo ollors. Sucl a Blikklu is ono lard
lo bo pIoasod and oasiIy supporlod by llo bonofaclors. A
Blikklu vlo is frugaI accopls vlal is offorod vlollor
good or bad, vill salisfaclion and doIigll vlicl viII bo
rofIoclod on lis faco. A Blikklu vlo is avaricious and nol
frugaI viII find il difficuIl lo dovoIop a fooIing of mcii¯ or
Ioving-kindnoss. Il viII aIso bo difficuIl for lim lo acliovo
roaIisalion of knovIodgo in llo praclico of ollor kinds of
modilalion. Tlal is vly Buddla las givon inslruclions
lo bocomo a frugaI porson lo mako il oasior for llo
dovoIopmonl and allainmonl of gonuino ||¯.cn¯, sucl as,
mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, olc.
9. ShnuId bc carcIrcc
Tlo noxl oxprossion is ¨cppc|iccc cc¨ ÷ laving fov dulios,
or froo from caro, cssc ÷ as il slouId bo. Tlo bosl lling for
ono vlo is oarnoslIy dovoIoping any kind of modilalion,
15O
is lo bo abslomious, or. rallor, lo abslain onosoIf from
porforming ollor dulios, nr, lo koop limsoIf froo from
ollor dulios oxcopl in mallors vlicl aro unavoidabIy
ossonliaI lo bo allondod lo. il las lloroforo boon inslruclod
lo lavo fov dulios (cppc|iccc).
10. Tn bc tcmpcratc in thc way nI Iiving
Tlo ollor vord is: ¨sc||c|u|c.uiii¨ ÷ Iigll or unvioIdy, cssc
÷ as ono slouId bo. In llis rogard, lo lavo Iigll voigll
and lo bo nimbIo moans: ¨lo bo frugaI or conlonlod vill
jusl llo oigll roquisilos of a Blikklu, sucl as robos, bovI,
olc. Iossossing a Iol of porsonaI boIongings viII mako ono
bocomo burdonsomo and prooccupiod vill llo vork of
managing lloso proporlios. If a numbor of llings aro lo bo
carriod vlon procooding lo a corlain pIaco, il vouId causo
a Iol of lroubIo and inconvonionco. Tlo oigll roquisilos of
a Buddlisl Blikklu (pcri|||¯r¯) aro, llo llroo robos, llo
bovI, llo girdIo, a noodIo, a razor, and a valor-slrainor.
Tloso aro nol cIumsy and many lo bo kopl and carod
for al any pIaco of rosidonco, and can aIso bo lakon aIong
porsonaIIy villoul boing burdonsomo. Honco, lo Iivo vill
lloso ossonliaI roquisilos is nol an oncumbranco. Tloso
oigll roquisilos may bo said lo bo unvioIdy or Iigll.
Among lloso oigll roquisilos of a Buddlisl Bliklu, during
lloso days llo noodIo is nol roaIIy ossonliaI for llo Blikklus
151
Iiving in Burma. Tlo robos aro roadiIy avaiIabIo and lloro
is no nood lo bo sovn or slilclod by land porsonaIIy, and
no robos vorn by llo prosonl day Blikklus aro in rags.
As lloso aro in good condilion, il viII novor como inlo
ono's load lo lako aIong a noodIo vlon lravoIIing lo any
ollor pIaco avay from llo rosidonco. Wlon I procoodod
lo Indonosia lo promolo llo Sãsana in llo yoar 1321 n.i., I
onliroIy forgol lo lako aIong vill mo ÷ llo noodIo and
llroad. AII llroo robos vlicl I look vill mo voro aII brand-
nov. Hovovor, al ono limo, il vas found llal in ono of llo
robos, a Iino of slilclos, vlicl vas originaIIy dofoclivo,
lad gono Iooso. Tlon, I lad lo llink of llo vay lov il
couId bo mondod. On consuIlalion, boing mado vill ono
Aslin Ariyavamsa, a CoyIonoso Blikklu, vlo vas vill
us, lo said lo lad vill lim a noodIo and llroad and llal
lo vouId do llo slilcling. I lad lo loII lim llal il vouId
nol bo lroubIosomo for mo lo slilcl il up and roquoslod
lim lo Iond mo lis noodIo and llroad for llo purposo. In
viov of llis incidonl, il las occurrod lo mo llal il vouId bo
advisabIo lo lako aIong a noodIo and llroad vlon lravoIIing
on a Iong dislanl journoy. Carrying a noodIo and llroad is
nol al aII burdonsomo. Il is quilo oasy and Iigll.
ShnuId aIsn takc aInng thc bnwI and watcr-straincr
Novadays, somo of llo Blikklus do nol lako aIong ovon
llo bovI lo avoid inconvonionco, and aIso bocauso food is
152
roadiIy oblainabIo al any pIaco vloro lo roaclos. During
llo Iifolimo of llo Iord Buddla and of llo Commonlalors,
vlon Blikklus vonl lo allond llo Conforonco of llo
Sanglas, or vlon procooding lo allond a coromony for
llo obsorvanco of upcsci|c (sabball), lloy usuaIIy lako
aIong vill llom bovI and llroo robos. Wo lavo, lloroforo,
inslruclod our discipIo Blikklus lo carry vill llom lloir
bovIs vlonovor lloy aro lo go lo a far-fIung pIaco or any
ollor pIaco for a visil or for laking moaIs in rosponso lo an
invilalion. Tlo noxl imporlanl roquisilo is llo valor-slrainor.
If ono procoods lo a pIaco vlicl is aboul laIf a µcjcnc (i.o.
aboul four miIos or so), a valor-slrainor slouId bo carriod,
ollorviso il vouId conslilulo a broacl of llo RuIo of
DiscipIino knovn as !u||cic ¯ppcii i.o. lo vouId bo guiIly
of a prioslIy offonco. Tloroforo, villin llo cily Iimils of big
cilios Iiko Rangoon or MandaIay, if Blikklus lavo lo visil
a pIaco in llo cily on somo businoss, and if llo dislanco is
aboul 4 miIos avay from lloir rospoclivo monaslory, valor-
slrainors musl bo lakon vill llom. If lloro is no propor
valor-slrainor, a landkorcliof may bo lakon aIong boaring
in mind llal il viII bo usod in subslilulo for a valor-slrainor,
vlon nocossary. To say llo Ioasl, il slouId bo borno in mind
llal llo robo vlicl ono voars viII bo mado uso of as a
valor-slrainor vlon llo occasion domands.
A Blikklu vlo is roaIIy bonl upon praclising modilalion
viII nol find il lroubIosomo lo carry vill lim aII llo oigll
153
roquisilos of a Buddlisl Blikklu. Il is nol burdonsomo al
aII and lloso can bo oasiIy carriod jusl Iiko a bird vloso
vings aro aulomalicaIIy borno vlon il fIios. Wlal is
roquirod viII llon bo fuIfiIIod vill lloso oigll roquisilos
of a Buddlisl Blikklu. In llis connoclion, I vouId Iiko lo
rocounl my porsonaI oxporionco.
I Inund it nnt burdcnsnmc
Wlon I lad pul in oigll Vcss¯s, I vonl in soarcl of a
suilabIo modilalion conlro, accompaniod by a companion
Blikklu from MouImoin TaungvainggaIo Monaslory. I
lad no umbroIIa, sIippors, olc. OnIy aboul oigll roquisilos,
namoIy, a bovI, llroo robos, a girdIo, a razor, valor-
slrainor and a noodIo voro carriod vill mo. I lad no
casl for lravoIIing oxponsos. A raiIvay lickol for llo lrain
journoy from MouImoin lo Iaung, a smaII lovn, vas
providod by a Kapiya, a Iay dovoloo from MouImoin. I
look llo lrain onIy up lo llal smaII lovn vlicl las a
raiIvay slalion aIong llo roulo. Tlo rosl of llo journoy
vas moslIy porformod on fool-lramping. Ior somo soclors
of llo journoy, I vas Iucky lo rido on a lrain as lloro vas
a donor by clanco vlo providod a raiIvay lickol as a gifl.
I visilod Kyaiklliyo Iagoda in Tlalon Dislricl on barofool
and from lloro I camo back ovonluaIIy roacling Tlalon
Mingun Zolavun Monaslory, a modilalion conlro, vloro
154
I look up modilalion praclico undor llo guidanco of llo
VonorabIo Mingun Zolavun Sayãdavpayãgyi. Tlis is lov
I lad lravoIIod lo bo abIo lo pracliso Vipassanã modilalion
porsonaIIy. Il vas in consonanco vill llo inslruclions
knovn as ¨Sc||c|u|c.uiii¨.
11. ShnuId cuItivatc Indriya (caImncss)
Tlo noxl oxprossion is ¨scniin!riµc cc¨ ÷ lavo llo moraI
quaIily of caImnoss and soIf-roslrainl, cssc ÷ as ono slouId
bo. In IãIi il is ¨|n!riµc¨. In EngIisl, il moans: ¨llo six
doors of sonsos, viz.: llo oyo, oar, noso, longuo, loucl and
mind.¨ Ono can soo onIy if lloro is an oyo. Wlon an objocl
is soon, il can bo porcoivod as mucl as llo oyo vill ils
slrongll of vision can soo. Tloroforo, llo oyo is govornabIo
insofar as llo facuIly of sooing is concornod. Bocauso il is
so govornabIo, llo oyo is caIIod ¨Cc|||un!riµcm¨. Tlo oar,
olc., in rospocl of ils facuIly of loaring, is aIso govornabIo.
Tlal is vly llo oar, olc., is caIIod ¨Sciin!riµcm¨ AII lloso
|n!riµcs slouId bo kopl undor roslrainl, vill a lranquiI
mind. If good or pIoasanl siglls and sounds aro soon, or
loard as llo caso may bo, a porson vlo is allraclod lo
lloso sonsalionaI objocls viII find llom pIoasurabIo and
llon lo viII bocomo fidgoly. Ho bocomos roslIoss, smiIing
and Iaugling vlon sonsalions ariso from good smoII, fino
laslo, and pIoasurabIo loucl. In llo samo vay, vlon lo soos
155
an ugIy sigll, loars unpIoasanl sound, smoIIs a bad odour,
olc., lo bocomos porlurbod and roslIoss if lo is unabIo lo
loIoralo sucl bad sonsalions. Ho may ovon murmur and
grumbIo.
Honco, il is nocossary lo oxorciso roslrainl and romain
caIm and unporlurbod in connoclion vill boll good and
bad sonsalions. Ho slouId koop lis mind al poaco and
conlroI limsoIf by rofIoclion and aIso by conlompIaling
and noling. Tlo bosl vay is lo koop conlroI of ono's
ovn mind by conlompIaling and noling al llo momonl
of sooing, loaring, and so on. Il viII nol bo oasy lo do
so for lloso vlo lavo no oxporionco in conlompIaling
mindfuInoss. Tloroforo, il viII bo sufficionl onougl for
lim lo romain indifforonl vlollor llo sonsalions aro
good or bad. If lovovor, painfuI sonsalions bocomo
oxlromo, ono slouId lry lis ulmosl lo conlroI llom
llrougl rofIoclion.
12. RcIIcctivc knnwIcdgc must bc maturc
Tlo noxl vord is: ¨Nipc|c cc¨ ÷ prudonl and viso, cssc
÷ as il slouId bo. In rospocl of rofIoclivo knovIodgo, ono
musl bo maluro and fuIIy dovoIopod monlaIIy. Young
cliIdron aro Iacking in malurily. Tlo moro a porson
advancos in ago, llo moro lo bocomos maluro. Tlis is
156
lov ono's imaginalivo povor or knovIodgo bocomos
fuIIy dovoIopod and slrongllonod. In Visuddlimagga,
llo knovIodgo of p¯ri|¯ri|c las boon oIucidalod by an
oxprossion ÷ ¨Nipc|c¨. Tlis knovIodgo of p¯ri|¯ri|c
is nolling bul llo rofIoclivo knovIodgo or sound
imaginalion vlicl is capabIo of carrying oul any lask
lo compIolion. Tlis is llo knovIodgo vlicl rofIocl
vill fuII consciousnoss vlollor vlal ono is doing
is advanlagoous or nol (scpp¯µcscmpcj¯ncm). Tlis
knovIodgo is oxlromoIy usofuI in mallors roIaling lo
boll |c|iµc (lomporaI) and |c|uiicrc (spiriluaI). Tlis is llo
kind of knovIodgo vlicl slouId bo accompIislod. In
llo Commonlary vlicl sorvos as an inlroduclion lo llis
Mollã Sulla, llis knovIodgo las boon markodIy slovn
as: (1) llo knovIodgo llal prolocls llo prosorvalion of
si|c, (2) llo knovIodgo vlicl is capabIo of managing or
vlicl lakos caro of llo robos, (3) llo knovIodgo vlicl
fuIIy undorslands llo sovon kinds of scpp¯µc, i.o. knovn
as lo vlal is suilabIo or profilabIo or advanlagoous. Tloso
aro llo rofIoclivo knovIodgo caIIod p¯ri|¯ri|c. Among
lloso knovIodgos, llo ono vlicl knovs lov lo manago
llings roIaling lo robos, olc., doos nol soom lo bo urgonlIy
roquirod in llo mallor of dovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯.
Hovovor, an insorlion of llis parlicuIar knovIodgo las
boon probabIy mado as il migll bocomo ossonliaI vlon
praclising modilalion (||¯.cn¯) for a considorabIo Iongll
of limo.
157
S|v|· S»||¯\»- os o|-|s»s|| .n|·.-
Tloso aro (1) suilabIo accommodalion vlicl is profilabIo
lo ono vlo is dovoling lo modilalion, (2) suilabIo
viIIago vloro offorings of food or aIms can bo oblainod,
(3) suilabIo or approprialo spoocl, (4) suilabIo loaclor and
companion ÷ Blikklus, (5) suilabIo food, (6) suilabIo or
congoniaI voallor, (7) suilabIo posluro or doporlmonl. Il is
for a Blikklu lo bo accompIislod vill llo knovIodgo llal
can proporIy rofIocl and docido as lo vlicl monaslory is
suilabIo for lim lo rosido, olc., olc.
Satthakasampajãnam
Il is nocossary lo considor vlollor il viII bo propor lo
rosido in a voodon monaslory, or a monaslory mado of
bamboo, or masonry, and vlollor llo pIaco is poacofuI,
lranquiI and congoniaI. In connoclion vill llo viIIago
vloro aIms can bo oblainod, il is lo bo considorod vlollor
offorings of food viII bo rocoivod and vlollor lloro can bo
moIoslalion parlicuIarIy bocauso uncommon or difforonl
kinds of sonsalions may ariso. Il is lo considor as lo vlal
kind of laIk llal is ullorod or loard, can bo larmfuI lo
llo praclico of modilalion. If lloro is nolling in parlicuIar,
llo bosl lling vouId bo lo abslain from laIking anylling
nol roIovanl lo Dlamma. As rogards individuaIs, il is lo
158
rofIocl vlollor lloro is any progross or Iack of progross
roIaling lo Dlamma by roIying upon sucl and sucl a
spiriluaI loaclor or ollor porsons vill vlom lo las lo
doaI. Will roforonco lo food, il is lo considor vlal kind of
food viII bo agrooabIo and bonoficiaI for lim lo dopond
upon from llo poinl of viov of loaIll and of llo Dlamma.
Ono slouId aIso rofIocl as lo vlal kind of posluro viII
bo bosl suilod lo mako progrossivo slridos in llo oxorciso
of lis modilalion. Tlis is llo vay lov maluro rofIoclivo
knovIodgo slouId lako pIaco or las lakon pIaco, vlollor
il viII bo profilabIo or nol, in connoclion vill llo soIoclion
of suilabIo monaslory. Tlo Mollo is:
¨RofIoclion mado as lo vlollor il is profilabIo
and agrooabIo or nol, is s¯ii|c|c¨.
Sappãyasampajãnam
AIllougl advanlagos may bo dorivod, il noods considoralion
vlollor il vouId bo propor (i.o. foasibIo) or nol. If il is
a room in a monaslory, il viII nol bo propor for a junior
Blikklu lo occupy llo pIaco if il, is moanl for llo sonior
or an oIdorIy Blikklu, and .icc .crsc. In rogard lo spoocl,
il vouId bo impropor lo proacl lloso vlo aro busy ovon
if llo proacling on Dlamma viII bo of bonofil lo llom.
Ono slouId voigl and considor if il is propor or nol lo
159
proacl csu||c Dlamma on an auspicious occasion. Tlis
is ¨scpp¯µcscmpcj¯ncm¨. Tlo Mollo is composod in llo
foIIoving oxprossion:
¨RofIoclion vlollor il is propor or nol is scpp¯µc¨.
13. ShnuId bc Ircc Irnm rudcncss
Tlo noxl oxprossion is: ¨cppcgc|||c cc¨ ÷ froo from
impudonco, cssc ÷ as il slouId bo. To bo froo from
impudonco convoys llo moaning of boing impoIilo or
rudo. Tloro aro llroo kinds of inciviIily, viz.: (1) rudonoss
of plysicaI bolaviour, (2) rudonoss of vorbaI bolaviour,
and (3) rudonoss of monlaI bolaviour.
(1) Rudonoss of plysicaI bolaviours manifosls ilsoIf.
undor oigll silualions or condilions. Of lloso oigll, vlal
is gonoraIIy found al llo prosonl limo, noods oIaboralion.
Wlollor in llo midsl of an audionco of sanglas, or amidsl
llo pubIic, lo lako a silling posluro vill knoos up, or
vill llo lligls vidoIy oxlondod, is a cIoar ovidonco of
rudo bodiIy bolaviour, or rallor, unrofinod mannors.
Somolimos, posluro may bo lakon vill oillor ono knoo
up, or boll llo knoos up vill llo lands foIdod across
llo knoos. Sucl silling posluros aIso indicalo rudonoss of
plysicaI bolaviour. If silling or slanding by loucling llo
16O
body of Malã Tloras, or, silling or slanding in fronl of
llom, or on an oIovalod pIaco, or silling by puIIing ovor
llo Iong skirl ÷ ¨|cngµi¨ on llo body from load lo loo,
or, laIking lo ollors in a slanding posluro, or laIking or
clalloring vill goslicuIalion, i.o. oxprossivo molion of llo
Iimbs, aro cIoar inslancos of rudonoss of bodiIy bolaviour.
If ono squoozos limsoIf in a congoslod pIaco vloro young
Blikklus aro silling, or if ono occupios llo soals moanl
for llo Malã Tloras, or if ono ovorlakos llo Malã Tlora
vliIo vaIking, olc., is obviousIy rudo and uncuIlurod.
Ono slouId avoid, aII sucl impoIilo plysicaI bolaviours
and mannorisms.
Al llo prosonl day, il is Ioarnl llal somo oIdorIy Blikklus
undor llo guiso of nobIo porsonagos ovon mako a
prolonlious dispIay of supornaluraI povors by carossing
or making a fondIing loucl on llo load of llo damsoIs
vill lloir lands as if lloy aro bIossing llom. Sucl
indoconl bolaviours aro lolaIIy prolibilod undor llo
RuIos of Vinaya. Il las boon slriclIy Iaid dovn, undor llo
said RuIos llal llo Blikklus slouId nol ÷ ovon givo a
fondIing loucl lo lloir ovn daugllors and mollors. A
condilion las boon proscribod Irolibiling Blikklus from
landIing ovon a doII roprosonling a fomaIo figuro vill
pIoasurabIo sonsalion. Honco, a fondIing loucl mado as
slalod in llo forogoing, may bo said lo bo a rudo bodiIy
domoanour.
161
Anollor lling is llal vliIo sanglas aro laking moaIs, or
vlon laking moaIs logollor vill ollors, omilling nasaI
socrolion, or ojocling plIogm by cougling, or spilling aro
rogardod as unrofinod mannors inasmucl as lloso aro
dospicabIo. Sucl disgusling bolaviours slouId aIso bo
avoidod.
(2) RoIaling lo rudonoss of vorbaI bolaviour, lloro aro
four condilions. In llo midsl of an assombIy of Sanglas
or of poopIo, or in llo prosonco of Malã Tloras, if lloro
is anylling lo bo said, ono slouId spoak onIy aflor
pormission las boon sougll from Malã Tloras. Any
ulloranco mado villoul pormission, is rudonoss of
vorbaI bolaviour. If an oxpIanalion is givon roIaling lo a
probIomalic issuo villoul sooking pormission, il vouId
aIso amounl lo vorbaI misbolaviour. Il is discourloous, or
rallor, rudonoss of vorbaI bolaviour if rosorlod lo making
ullorancos in llo midsl of an audionco of Sanglas, or in llo
prosonco of Malã Tloras, and aIso asking llo bonofaclors
as lo vlollor lloro is somolling lo oal, or vlollor lloro
is any moaI or food, olc., roady lo bo offorod lo lim vliIo
visiling llo lomos of llo bonofaclors. Blikklus slouId
rofrain llomsoIvos from bolaving in llo Iiko mannor,
vlicl, in facl, is in conlravonlion of llo RuIos of Conducl
for Blikklus.
162
(3) Rudonoss of monlaI bolaviour moans: lo bo
disrospoclfuI by llouglls lo lloso vlo dosorvo rospocl.
To llink of a porson suporior in caslo or raciaI slalus as
boing lis oquaI, or imagino a nobIo porsonago ondovod
vill si|c, scm¯!|i and pcññ¯, as boing lis oquaI, or if a
porson vlo is Iacking in knovIodgo or rallor, unIoarnod
in scripluros imaginos an inloIIocluaI porson as lis oquaI,
or if a porson imaginos llo ollor as boing uninloIIocluaI,
nay, unknovIodgoabIo as comparod lo lim, or if a porson
vlo doos nol modilalo imaginos a voII-accompIislod
modilalor as lis oquaI, aro inslancos of rudonoss of monlaI
bolaviour. Tloroforo, ono slouId lolaIIy bo froo from aII
plysicaI, vorbaI and monlaI misbolaviours.
14. Tn bc Irccd nI attachmcnt tn bnth maIc and IcmaIc
bcncIactnrs
Tlo noxl vord. is ¨Ku|csu¨ ÷ among roIalivos ÷ (Tlo
moaning of '|u|c' is givon as 'roIalivo' as lransIalod
ordinariIy in Burmoso). Hovovor, llo vord 'roIalivo' (|u|c),
in facl, doos nol convoy llo sonso of 'kinsman' (roIalivo)
or a raco. Wlal il roaIIy moans is a 'lousoloId' or a famiIy.
Honco, in llis rogard, il sooms as if llo vord ¨|u|csu¨ is
lo bo inlorprolod as mombors of a lousoloId famiIy.
NovorlloIoss, llis inlorprolalion ilsoIf doos nol roaIIy mako
sonso if considorod in roIalion lo Blikklus. As sucl, il
163
vouId bo moro cIoar and convincing lo lransIalo llo vord
¨|u|csu¨ as: maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors in a lousoloId
famiIy. KuIosu ÷ as rogards maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors
boIonging lo a famiIy, cncnug|i!!|c cc ÷ dosirabIo
allaclmonl is aIso gol rid of, cssc ÷ as il slouId bo.
AcluaIIy il moans llal lloro slouId bo no allaclmonl lo
maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors. Wlon a Blikklu is going
round for aIms lo rocoivo offorings of food or ollor llings
from lis maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors, lo slouId mako an
approacl assuming limsoIf in llo roIo of a nobIo porson
vorlly of offorings, caIIod ¨!c||incµµc¨. Tlo bonofaclors
slouId aIso donalo boaring in mind llal llo rocoivor is
a nobIo porsonago vorlly of offorings in ordor lo gain as
voII as lo promolo bollor advanlagos. IamiIiarily slouId
bo avoidod by llo Blikklu rogarding a bonofaclor as
lis ovn kill and kin, or as a cIoso acquainlanco. If cIoso
inlimacy is croalod by a Blikklu, il amounls lo laking
possossion of, or rallor, accopling or soizing llo offorings
vill dosirabIo allaclmonl Iiko an ocIipso of a pIanol (g¯|c).
Il vouId bo somolling Iiko allaclmonl lo limsoIf. In
llal caso, ono is IikoIy lo bocomo oillor rojoicod or sorry.
Tlis moans, if llo bonofaclors bocomo prosporous and
voaIlly, llo Blikklu viII aIso fooI lappy. SimiIarIy, if llo
bonofaclors mool vill lroubIo or any kind of disaslor, llo
Blikklu viII aIso bocomo sorry or dojoclod. Tlis is nol
llo vay a nobIo Blikklu slouId fooI or bolavo. Of courso,
164
llo bonofaclors may fooI gIad if lloir loaclor, llo Blikklu,
slaros lloir fooIing of joy and sorrov. Hovovor, llis is nol
vlal llo Iord Buddla vislos lo lappon. Buddla's visl
is lo soo llo Blikklus fuIIy accompIislod vill si|c, olc.,
and lo proacl llo Dlamma lo lis bonofaclors lo gain llo
nobIo virluo of |usc|c.
Honco, il is for llo bonofaclors lo considor lloir spiriluaI
loaclor and guido as a pIol of Iand vlicl is lo bo
cuIlivalod for llo gorminalion of llo soods of |usc|c and
lo mako offorings lo lim and rovoro lim. Ior llo purposo
of cuIlivaling a Iand, il is roaIIy imporlanl llal llis pIol
of Iand slouId bo forliIo. In llo samo vay, il is ossonliaI
for a Blikklu vlo is rocoiving llo offorings lo lavo
good forliIisors, sucl as Si|c, olc. No financiaI bonofil can
bo dorivod by lim in llo slapo of a considorabIo sum of
monoy by boing sorry or dojoclod or in ollor vords, il doos
nol pay lim lo Iamonl. If lo rondors assislanco, llo mosl
lo may probabIy bonofil is by vay of rocoiving gifls lo llo
vaIuo of onIy a lundrod or a llousand kyals. A Blikklu
vlo is a nobIo Dc||incµµc vill purily of Si|c for nol laving
allaclmonl lo lis bonofaclors, slouId nol oxpocl any lling.
On llo parl of llo bonofaclors for laving gonorousIy
donalod lo sucl a nobIo Blikklu accompIislod vill llo
admirabIo allribulos of a loIy porsonago, lo is suro lo
dorivo |usc|c ÷ morils ÷ vorll miIIions if considorod
in lorms of monoy. A porson by llo namo of Eindaka by
165
virluo of |usc|c offorod a spoonfuI of food lo llo VonorabIo
Aslin Anuruddlã vas roborn as a vory povorfuI Dova in
llo loavonIy abodo of 1¯.ciimsc. Considoring llis facl, il
is quilo obvious llal il is roaIIy nobIo and magnanimous
lo donalo vill a virluous bonl of mind on llo goIdon
allribulos of Si|c, olc., of llo rocipionl Blikklu. On llo
conlrary, if llo bonofaclors rovoro and mako offorings of
gifls lo a Blikklu lroaling lim as a cIoso associalo oxpocling
lomporaI advanlagos, sucl as, voaIll and prosporily, il
vouId amounl lo grasping or soizing pIoasuro (g¯|c). Il is
somolling Iiko laking loId of or, infIuoncing llo Blikklu
as a porsonaI socrolary. Tlo Commonlary las said llal if
lloro is dislonosl roIalionslip bolvoon boll llo Blikklu
and llo bonofaclors, il vouId lanlamounl lo g¯|cg¯|c.
Boll llo loaclor and llo bonofaclor aro llon considorod lo
bo making a soizuro, i.o. llo ono soizos llo ollor, vliIo llo
ollor aIso soizos in rolaIialion.
If llo bonofaclors aro dislonosl dospilo llo facl llal a
Blikklu is doaIing vill llo bonofaclors in llo capacily of
a Dc||incµµc, il vouId amounl lo muiicg¯|c. Tlis moans
llal llo bonofaclors mako a soizuro bul llo Blikklu las
oscapod on lis parl. Tlo offocl vouId bo quilo llo rovorso
if llo Blikklu voro dislonosl. Tlis sorl of lling is fairIy
rampanl. If boll parlios aro doaIing vill ono anollor
lonoslIy, il is ¨Muiic-muiic¨. Tlon, boll aro said lo lavo
oscapod, or rallor, boon roIoasod from ocIipso. Sucl
166
kind of doaIing or roIalionslip is indood vory ossonliaI.
ExpIanalion givon roIaling lo llo socond vorso (g¯i|¯)
appoars sufficionlIy comprolonsivo. Wo slaII go on
loacling llo llird g¯i|¯ (slanza):
3. Nc cc ||u!!cm¯ccrc |iñci,
µcnc .iññù pcrc upc.c!cµµum.
Su||inc .¯ ||cminc |cniu,
Sc||c scii¯ ||c.cniu su||iicii¯.
15. Thc Iast IundamcntaI ruIc nI cnnduct
Cc ÷ moroovor, µcnc ÷ for llal kind of vico, .iññù pcrc
ollor inloIIocluaIs, i.o. ollor mon of visdom, upc.c!cµµum
÷ viII bIamo by poinling oul llo fauIl. K|u!!cm ÷ sucl
an insignificanl and viIo, icm ÷ baIofuI vico, |iñci ÷
ovon anylling llal is a lrifIo, nc ¯ccrc ÷ slouId nol bo
dono or praclisod. Tlis is llo Iasl ruIo of conducl vlicl
ougll lo lavo boon accompIislod Iong boforo, oul of llo
fundamonlaI principIos or ruIos of conducl in llo praclico
of Mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯. To mako il convincingIy cIoar, lloso 15
principIos viII bo onumoralod.
(1) Sc||c ÷ slouId bo abIo or compolonl lo pracliso,
(2) Uju ÷ musl bo slraigllforvard, (3) Su|uju ÷ musl bo
oxlromoIy lonosl, (4) Su.ccc ÷ slouId bo mook and oasy of
compIianco, (5) Mu!u ÷ slouId bo gonlIo, miId and suppIo,
167
(6) Anciim¯ni ÷ slouId nol sIigll ollors vill soIf-prido
llinking vory liglIy of onosoIf, (7) Scniussc|c ÷ slouId
bo oasiIy conlonlod, (8) Su||crc ÷ musl bo a porson vlo
can bo oasiIy supporlod by maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors,
(9) Appc|iccc ÷ slouId lavo fov dulios and froo from caro,
(1O) Sc||c|u|c.uiii ÷ slouId nol bo cIumsy or burdonsomo
kooping onIy a fov boIongings in lis possossion,
(11) Scniin!riµc ÷ slouId lavo llo moraI quaIilios of soronily
villoul boing affoclod by llo sonsalions arising oul of llo
porcoplion llrougl llo oyo, olc., (12) Nipc|c ÷ slouId
lavo llo maluro rofIoclivo knovIodgo, (13) Appcgc|||c ÷
slouId bo poIilo and modosl and froo from impudonco, (14)
Ancnugi!!|c ÷ slouId bo froo from passionalo allaclmonl
lo maIo and fomaIo bonofaclors, (15) In rogard lo llo
principIos of porsonaI moraI conducl, ono slouId avoid
any kind of vico, no mallor lov lriviaI il may bo, vlicl
mon of visdom vouId find il bIamovorlly. Nolling
slouId bo dono, spokon or imaginod ÷ ovon a vory lrifIo
lling ÷ vill vlicl ollor viso mon vouId find il fauIly
and roprobalo. Hovovor, il vouId, of courso, bo difficuIl
lo compIoloIy conlroI llo imaginalivo mind. Tloroforo, in
llis rogard, il slouId bo rojoclod as far as possibIo.
Aflor lloso fifloon principIos of moraI conducl vlicl
slouId lavo boon accompIislod from llo vory oulsol, llo
mollod of ordinariIy dovoIoping mcii¯ las boon iniliaIIy
slovn as foIIovs:
168
0so|·»s\ w»\ o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯
Sc||c scii¯ ÷ May aII kinds of boing, su||inc .¯ ÷ bo lappy,
and (llo usago of llo vord ¨cc¨ insload of ¨.¯¨, vouId bo
moro approprialo, and lonco, il is conslruod as ¨cc¨ insload
of ¨.¯¨). K|cminc .¯ ÷ mcµ bo froo from dangor, |cniu ÷ cs
lloy may visl lo bocomo. Su||iiciic ÷ boll plysicaI and
monlaI lappinoss, ||c.cniu ÷ may lako pIaco.
In llis rogard, llo vord ¨su||inc¨ slouId bo inlorprolod in
a grammalicaI sonso. Honco, il is lo dovoIop mcii¯ oillor
monlaIIy or vorbaIIy by rociling as: ¨May aII boings bo
lappy and froo from dangor.¨ In llo oxprossion ¨su||iicii¯¨,
llo vord ¨su||iic¨ moans: ¨lo lavo lappinoss¨, according lo
llo ruIo of grammar. ¨Aiic¨ convoys llo moaning of oillor
¨mind¨ or ¨body¨. If il is said lo bo ¨body¨, il can bo lakon
lo moan boll maloriaI rùpc and n¯mc. GrammalicaIIy, il
moans: ¨To lavo boll body and mind accompIislod vill
lappinoss.¨ Il vouId lloroforo moan: ¨boing lappy boll
plysicaIIy and monlaIIy¨. As sucl, according lo llo said
oxprossion, mcii¯ can bo dovoIopod by rociling: ¨May
aII boings bo lappy boll in body and mind, or rallor,
plysicaIIy and monlaIIy. Iol us llon dovoIop mcii¯ by
rocilalion. Iol us rocilo:
¨May aII boings bo lappy, bo froo from dangor and bo
lappy boll in body and mind.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
169
Wlon dovoIoping mcii¯ by rociling as slalod, ovory limo
rocilalion is mado, llo mind vlicl is incIinod lo rocilo,
occurs afrosl ropoalodIy, and llon dissoIvos. Tlo llougll
vlicl is lo bo borno in mind as ¨May bo lappy¨ vill a
fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss, aIso vanislos ropoalodIy. Tlo
plysicaI bolaviour and llo voico vlicl ullors aIso occur
afrosl again and again. Tlis rùpc and n¯mc llal dissoIvo
ropoalodIy and immodialoIy aflor occurronco, slouId bo
conlompIalod ovory limo rocilalion is mado and al ovory
momonl llougll arisos. Tlis mannor of conlompIalion
is Vipassanã K|cµcic .cµcic scmmcsii.¯, i.o. il can bo
acliovod up lo llo slago of Arc|ciic-p|c|c aflor obsorving
and conlompIaling llal il las coasod and disappoarod.
Tlis is cIoarIy slalod in llo Commonlarios. Sucl boing
llo caso, immodialoIy aflor rocilalion las boon dono, boll
llo llougll vlicl is borno in mind, or rallor, llo mind
llal is concoivod and llo ulloranco or rocilalion mado,
slouId bo conlompIalod logollor. Iol us conlompIalo
vliIo rociling.
¨May aII boing bo lappy, olc., olc.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
Inslruclions lavo boon givon by llo lvo vorsos (g¯i|¯) as
lo lov mcii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod by dislinguisling llo
boings inlo lvo or llroo calogorios.
17O
How .o o|v||o| V|..¯ s\ o|v|o|·. |. |·.o ! os 1 |»s.-
4. Yc |cci p¯nc||ùic´ii|i,
ics¯ .¯ i|¯.cr¯ .¯ cnc.cscs¯.
Dig|¯ .¯ Yc mc|cnic .¯,
mcjj|im¯ rcssc|¯ cnu|c i|ù|¯.
5. Diii|¯ .¯ µc .¯ c!iii|c,
µc .¯ !ùrc .cscnii c.i!ùrc,
8|ùi¯ .¯ scm||c.csi .¯,
sc||c scii¯ ||c.cniu su||iicii¯.
1cs¯ .¯ ÷ an individuaI vlo is lrombIing vill foar and sliII
on probalion, i|¯.cr¯ .¯ ÷ and a porfocl and loIy Aralal
vlo is sorono, sloadfasl and foarIoss, µc |cci p¯nc||ùic
÷ and aIso aII Iiving boings villoul dislinclion, cii|i
do oxisl. Anc.cscs¯ ÷ Willoul oxcoplion, aII lloso, |mc
sciic ÷ Iiving boings or croaluros, su||iicii¯ ÷ may vill
lappinoss in boll body and mind, ||c.cniu ÷ bocomo
bIossod and conlonlod.
1cs¯ ÷ TrombIing and slaking vill foar may bo causod by
angor or luman passions, Iusl and dosirabIo allaclmonl
(icn|¯). Tloso vlo aro prono lo frigll aro Iiving boings
vlo aro nol yol froo from angor or lalrod, sucl as,
ordinary vorIdIings, Solãpannas, and Sakadãgãmis.
Tloso boings vlo gol frigllfuIIy affoclod by passionalo
171
dosiros aro common vorIdIings (Pui|ujjcnc), and aIso
incIudo individuaIs vlo aro Solãpannas, Sakadãgãmis
and Anãgãmis. Hov lloy aro soizod vill foar bocauso of
passionalo dosiros (icn|¯) is somolling simiIar lo boings
vlo aro anxious for nol golling or rocoiving vlicl lloy
cravo for, of visl lo oblain. Tloso vloso mind is lranquiI,
unporlurbod and sloadfasl villoul a fooIing of frigll
aro llo nobIo Aralals vlo aro absoIuloIy froo from icn|¯,
luman passions. Tloroforo, ics¯ ÷ lloso boings vlo aro
prono lo foar aro boings vlo aro nol as yol Iiboralod from
passionalo and dosirabIo allaclmonl. 1|¯.cr¯ ÷ boings
vlo lavo absoIuloIy no foar and aro nol approlonsivo,
vill soronily and slabiIily of mind, aro llo NobIo Onos
÷ Aralals. Honco, vill lloso lvo plrasos: ¨1cs¯ .¯ i|¯.cr¯
.¯¨, il las boon dislinguislod inlo lvo parls or calogorios,
viz.: individuaIs vlo aro nol froo from icn|¯, and vlo lavo
onliroIy gol rid of icn|¯. Tloso lvo slouId bo kopl dislincl
and soparalod in dovoIoping mcii¯ by rociling according
lo llo said lvo vorsos. Il slouId bo aIso combinod logollor
vill Vipassanã in praclising conlompIalion. IIoaso foIIov
and join in llo rocilalion.
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ s\ -||»s».|·. |·.o ! |»s.-
¨May aII Pui|ujjcnc Sc|||c individuaIs vlo
aro IikoIy lo gol oasiIy frigllonod for nol boing
172
froo from icn|¯ bo lappy in boll body and
mind.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII NobIo Aralals vlo aro sorono and
sloadfasl villoul any foar for laving boon
fuIIy omancipalod from llo bonds of icn|¯ bo
lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso foarIoss NobIo Aralals as voII
as aII boings vlo lavo foar and oasiIy gol
aIarmod bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ -||»s».|·. |·.o
1 o|-.|·c. |»s.-
Yc !ig|¯ .¯ ÷ Tloso boings vlo lavo a Iong body, and µc .¯
mc|cnic ÷ lloso boings vlo aro big and Iargo in sizo and
slaluro, yo .¯ mcjj|im¯ ÷ and lloso boings or croaluros
vlo aro noillor Iong nor slorl, nor big nor smaII in bodiIy
slaluro, or in ollor vords, vlo lavo modium-sizod body,
µc .¯ rcssc|¯ lloso boings vlo aro dvarfs, or rallor, slorl,
µc .¯ cnu|c ÷ lloso boings vlo aro liny and smaII, µc .¯
i|ù|¯ ÷ lloso boings vlo aro buIky in body and buiIl,
fal, corpuIonl and fIosly, cii|i ÷ do oxisl or aro Iiving.
Anc.cscs!¯ ÷ AII villoul oxcoplion |mc scii¯ ÷ lloso
boings, su||iicii¯ ÷ may vill lappinoss in boll body and
mind, ||c.cniu ÷ bocomo accompIislod and conlonlod.
173
Will llis porlion of g¯i|¯ or vorso (vords), llo Buddla
proscribod llroo mollods by vlicl Mcii¯ slouId bo
dovoIopod aflor dislinguisling llo boings in llroo
difforonl kinds. Tlo firsl mollod slovn las roforonco
lo difforonl kinds of boings according lo llo sizo of lloir
body dimonsion or slaluro, vlollor il is Iong, slorl, or
modium-sizod. Oul of lloso llroo kinds, lloso boings or
croaluros vlo lavo Ionglly bodios aro snakos, dragons,
Iizards, oarllvorms, olc. Croaluros vlo lavo slorl bodios
aro clickons, birds, frogs, olc. Modium-sizod croaluros or
boings aro lorsos, callIo, buffaIoos, pigs, olc. Hovovor, il
is prolly lard lo givo a dofinilo docision on llo mallor
of making a spocific cIassificalion. Iol's dovoIop Mcii¯
lovards lloso llroo difforonl kinds of boings or croaluros.
IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion:
¨May lloso boings vlo lavo Iong bodios bo lappy.¨
¨May lloso boings vlo aro dvarf and lavo slorl
bodios bo lappy.
¨May lloso boings vloso bodios aro noillor Iong
nor slorl, i.o. modium-sizod bo lappy.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vlo lavo Iong, or slorl, or
modium-sizod slaluro bo lappy.¨
:.n. Eacl and ovory mossago of goodviII sucl as
¨bo lappy¨, may bo said llroo limos.
174
Iurllormoro, llo socond mollod oxpIains llo vay lov
lo dovoIop Mcii¯ by dislinguisling llo boings according
lo lloir bodiIy sizo as lo vlollor lloy aro big, or smaII,
or modium-sizod. Of lloso llroo kinds, boings vlo lavo
lugo bodios aro marino mammaIs, sucl as, big fislos,
lurlIos, olc., and lloso animaI boings Iiving on Iand, sucl
as, oIoplanl, dragons, olc. Tloy incIudo gianls or ogros
and aIso Dovas as voII as Bralmãs of immonso bodiIy
dimonsion from llo vorId of Dovas. Anu|c ÷ SmaII and
liny croaluros or boings aro smaII invorlobralo animaIs Iiko
insocls, olc. Human boings, dogs, pigs, fovIs, birds, olc.,
may bo rogardod as boIonging lo llo calogory of modium-
sizod boings. Il vouId aIso bo difficuIl lo givo a dofinilo
docision as lo vlal kind of boings slouId bo incIudod in
llo llroo rospoclivo calogorios as may bo approprialo. Iol
us dovoIop Mcii¯ by dislinguisling llo boings according
lo llo said llroo kinds. IIoaso join llo rocilalion.
¨May aII boings vlo lavo lugo bodios bo lappy.¨
¨May aII boings vlo lavo smaII and liny bodios bo
lappy.¨
¨May aII modium-sizod boings vlo aro noillor
Iargo nor smaII in lloir bodios bo lappy.¨
¨May aII boings vlo lavo big, or smaII, or modium
sizod bodios or plysicaI slrucluro bo lappy.¨
:.n. Tlo vord ¨bo lappy¨ is ropoalod llroo limos.
175
Noxl, llo llird mollod indicalos as lo lov Mcii¯ slouId
bo dovoIopod dislinguisling lovards llo llroo difforonl
kinds of boings, viz.: round, big and fal. boings, liny
croaluros and modium-sizod boings. Of lloso llroo
kinds, llo big, round and fal boings aro fislos, lorloisos,
moIIuscs (oyslors), snaiIs, olc., vloso body slrucluros
aro slorl-vindod, pIump and fIabby. Anu|c ÷ liny and
diminulivo croaluros aro lloso vlicl cannol bo soon by
llo nakod oyo, sucl as vory smaII insocls, gorms and fIoas.
Tlo middIo sizod boings aro lloso croaluros vlicl aro
ordinariIy visibIo and vlicl may bo said lo bo boings nol
loo big or loo buIky or fal. Tloso llroo kinds of boings
aro prolly difficuIl lo bo cIassifiod vill corlainly undor
vlicl calogory lloy vouId faII. Honco, llo Commonlary
las slalod llal in a vay, among llo samo kind of boings,
lloso vlicl aro big and nol loo fal and buIky, as voII as
modium-sizod and liny croaluros or boings, may bo said
lo como undor llo dofinilion of ¨Anu|c¨. According lo llis
slalomonl of oxpIanalion, il may bo considorod foasibIo
lo incIudo porsons vill a loigll of moro llan fivo and a
laIf fool, or six fool, voigling ovor 1OO Ibs in llo calogory
of lloso vlo aro fal, and lo rogard porsons vlo aro lvo
or llroo fool in loigll vill Ioss llan 1OO Ibs. in voigll,
as slorl and smaII boings, and lo considor llo rosl of llo
poopIo as modium-sizod boings. Tlis is aIso difficuIl
lo docido. As sucl, il vouId appoar propor lo dovoIop
Mcii¯ by moroIy noling ordinariIy as big and fal, smaII
176
and modium sizod, villoul procisoIy dislinguisling llo
boings. Iol us lloroforo dovoIop Mcii¯ according lo llo
Iasl-monlionod llroo difforonl kinds. Wo may rocilo as
foIIovs:
¨May aII boings vloso plysicaI slrucluro is
round and fal bo lappy.¨
¨May aII boings vloso plysicaI slrucluro is
vory, liny and smaII bo lappy.¨
¨May aII boings vlo lavo modium-sizod
plysicaI slrucluro bo lappy.¨
¨May aII fal, liny, and middIo-sizod boings bo
lappy.¨
:.n. Tlo vord ¨bo lappy¨ may bo ropoalod
llroo limos.
Tns|| ·|.noo- o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ s\ ».»|·
o|-.|·.t|-n|·. |·.o ! |»s.-
5. Diii|¯ .¯ µc .¯ c!iii|c,
µc .¯ !ùrc .cscnii c.i!ùrc.
8|ùi¯ .¯ scm||c.csi .¯,
sc||c scii¯ ||c.cniu su||iicii¯.
Yc !iii|¯ .¯ ÷ lloso boings vlo lavo boon soon boforo, and
µc .¯ c!iii|c ÷ lloso boings vlo lavo novor boon soon
177
boforo, cii|i ÷ do oxisl. Yc .¯ ÷ Somo boings aIso, !ùrc
÷ in a romolo pIaco, .cscnii ÷ aro Iiving lloro. Yc .¯ ÷
somo boings aIso, c.i!ùrc ÷ in llo noiglbourlood, .cscnii
÷ aro rosiding lloro. Yc ||ùi¯ .¯ ÷ lloso boings vlo lavo
bocomo i.o. como inlo boing, yo scm||c.csi .¯ ÷ lloso
boings vlo aro in llo courso of bocoming, cii|i ÷ do oxisl.
|mc sc||c scii¯ ÷ AII lloso boings, su||iicii¯ ÷ may find
lappinoss in boll body and mind, (and) ||c.cniu ÷ bo
accompIislod.
Tlo firsl pair is llo mannor in vlicl Mcii¯ is dovoIopod
dislinguisling bolvoon boings llal lavo boon soon boforo,
and llo boings llal lavo novor boon soon boforo. Tlis is
quilo cIoar and prociso, and is oasiIy undorslandabIo. Iol
us, lloroforo, dovoIop Mcii¯ roIaling lo llo firsl pair. IIoaso
foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May lloso boings vlo lavo boon mol and soon
boforo bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May lloso boings vlo lavo novor boon mol
and soon boforo bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings vlo lavo oillor boon mol
and soon boforo, or novor boon mol and soon
boforo bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
178
Tlo socond pair aIso indicalos llo mannor in vlicl
Mcii¯ is dovoIopod dislinguisling bolvoon boings vlo
Iivo noarby and afar. In imparling llo fooIing of Ioving-
kindnoss roIaling lo llo pIaco, vlollor il is noar or romolo,
il may bo dislinguislod according lo ono's ovn visl. Iol
us dovoIop Mcii¯ vill roforonco lo llo socond pair. IIoaso
foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII lloso boings vlo aro Iiving noar bo
lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings vlo aro Iiving afar bo
lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings vlo aro Iiving noar and
afar bo lappy. (Ropoal llroo limos)
In llo llird pair, according lo llo oxprossion ¨||ùi¯¨ vlal
is moanl by ¨boings¨, aro llo Aralals vlo viII nol bo
roborn in anollor oxislonco for lloir laving coasod lo
bocomo. ¨Boings¨ vlo aro aboul lo bocomo aro lloso
ordinary vorIdIings (Pui|ujjcnc) and Sokkla individuaIs
vlo viII bo roborn again in llo noxl oxislonco as lloy
lavo nol boon froo from |i|cscs, luman passions or moraI
dofiIomonl. According lo llo grammalicaI sonso, il rofors
lo boings vlo aro sooking (|si) for anollor robirll, or
rallor, frosl oxislonco lo bocomo again (scm||c.c). Tloso
179
boings vlo aro sooking for nov oxislonco aro lloso vlo
viII lavo a conlinuum of Iifo oxislonco. Tloy aro sliII
aboul lo bocomo. Honco, lo bo moro approprialo in llo
usago of llo conjunclivo vord, and lo bo cIosoIy coloronl,
llo oxprossion: ¨Boings aboul lo bocomo¨ las boon usod.
Tloroforo, Iol us dovoIop according lo llis dofinilion.
IIoaso do llo rocilalion as foIIovs:
¨May HoIy Aralals vlo aro said lo lavo coasod
lo bocomo bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May lloso vorIdIings and Sokkla individuaIs
vlo viII again bo roborn and aboul. lo bocomo
bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings vlo lavo aIroady bocomo
or boon in oxislonco, and vlo aro aboul lo
bocomo bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
Iulling il in anollor vay, il moans a porson vlo las onlorod
inlo llo vomb of an oarllIy mollor, i.o. al llo limo of
concoplion (scm||c.csi), sooking for a nov oxislonco. Aflor
boing born, lo is doomod lo bo a porson vlo las bocomo
a Iiving boing (||ùi¯). SimiIarIy, a croaluro aboul lo como
forll from an ogg, is ¨scm||c.csi¨. If llo goslalion poriod
las passod and if aIroady lalclod, il moans: ¨||ùi¯¨. Boings
vlo lavo boon roborn compIolo vill llo maloriaI body,
18O
and boings coming forll doponding on viscous or viscid
slicky subslanco from pIanls, slrubs, grass, vogolalion, or
muciIago, olc., al llo momonl robirll consciousnoss laking
pIaco, aro rogardod as boings or croaluros in llo making,
llal is, aboul lo bocomo. AII lloso vlo lavo bocomo
sonlionl boings causod by |cmmc villoul concoiving in a
vomb and villoul doponding upon anylling, vill llo
suddon appoaranco of a maloriaI body or form, aro said
lo bo ¨scm||c.csi¨. Iurllormoro, il las boon oxpIainod in
llo Commonlary as ¨||ùi¯¨. Iol us dovoIop Mcii¯ lovards
llom and rocilo as foIIovs:
¨May lloso boings vlo aro aboul lo bocomo
and aro concoivod in a vomb bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May lloso boings vlo lavo como lo bo and
lavo aIroady boon born bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings vlo aro aboul lo bocomo and
lavo aIroady como inlo oxislonco bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
Wlal las nov boon slalod doscribos llo mannor of
dovoIoping Mcii¯ vill a viov lo bring aboul prosporily
and voaIll. Tloroaflor, il las boon inslruclod lov lo
181
dovoIop Mcii¯ loping lo gol Iiboralod from unmorilod
misory and sufforings, in llo foIIoving vay.
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. V|..¯ -o »- .o s| |s|| |so·
t··|s|.|o ·|-|s\
6. Nc pcrc pcrcm ni|u||ci|c,
n¯iimcññci|c |cii|cci nc |iñci.
Vµ¯rcscn¯ pciig|cscññ¯,
ncññcmcññcssc !u|||cmicc|cµµc.
6. Pcrc ÷ ono ollor porson, pcrcm ÷ againsl anollor,
nc ni|u||ci|c ÷ slouId nol cloal or pracliso docoplion,
nay, may oscapo from bocoming a viclim of fraud. In
commorciaI or businoss affairs, frauduIonl doaIings or
docoplion may lako pIaco. In roIigious affairs, docoplion
is aIso praclisod. In llo mallor of making a businoss doaI,
criminaI docoplion dono is by vay of docoiving llo buyor by
llo soIIor in lis lransaclion by llo uso of a faIso voigll Ioss
llan llo corrocl voigll by pIacing il on scaIos or voigling-
maclino, or, by using a moasuring cup or vossoI vlicl
loIds Ioss in quanlily of goods or commodilios in. roIalion
lo a slandard conlainor, vossoI or rocoplacIo. Tlis kind of
lrick boing fairIy common is voII-knovn lo llo majorily
of llo poopIo. Anollor lling is found in llo saIo of arlicIos
182
mado of goId or siIvor, and goId or siIvor ingols, vlicl aro
imilalions or spurious, i.o. nol gonuino. Tlis is aIso nol
uncommon. Somolimos, a cloal may poso limsoIf as an
lonosl man. Al ono limo during llo annivorsary of a pùj¯
coIobralion loId in llis Modilalion conlro, il so lapponod
llal a cloal visilod a group of Slan poopIo and pIayod a
docoplion on llom. Il vas discIosod llal aflor llo cloal lad
soon bundIos of curroncy nolos in llo lands of lloso Slan
poopIo, lo porsuadod llom llal if lloso curroncy nolos
voro oxclangod, lloy vouId gol moro monoy. BoIioving lis
vords, somo of llom vlo voro rallor groody, onlruslod llo
cloal vill lloir curroncy nolos. Tlo cloal, aflor promising
llom llal lo vouId bring back moro monoy llan vlal vas
originaIIy vorll, look avay llo monoy.
Somo docoivod ollors inlo boIioving llal lloy vouId
lurn llo originaI voigll of goId inlo a groalor amounl.
CroduIous porsons vill grood visling lo rocoivo moro
goId, landod ovor llo goId in lrusl lo llo cloal. Nol Iong
aflorvards, llis cloal lad disappoarod novor lo rolurn
lo llom again. Tlis is anollor kind of docoil. Tlon aIso,
somo offorod clarms or rallor, magic lrinkols lo bo vorn
so as lo supposodIy bring good Iuck and forluno lo llo
ono vlo voars il. Sucl kinds of docoplion slouId mako
ono rofIocl as lo vlollor il is boIiovabIo or nol. Tloro aro
quilo a varioly of docoplivo praclicos in connoclion vill
businoss doaIings.
183
In mallors roIaling lo roIigion, docoplivo praclicos aro in
pIonly. To proacl faIso doclrinos oslonsibIy as lrull, vouId
causo lo bring disadvanlagos lo ollors vlo lavo accoplod
sucl lorosy. During llo Iifolimo of Iord Buddla, an ascolic
caIIod Iunna vlo vas praclising auslorilios Iiko an ox and
anollor by llo namo of Soniya vlo vas praclising Iiko a
dog, caIIod on llo Buddla and askod vlal advanlagos
couId bo dorivod from induIgoncos of sucl praclicos. Tlo
EnIigllonod Ono provonlod llom lvico from pulling up
llis probIomalic quoslion. On boing askod for llo llird
limo, llo Buddla gavo llo ansvor as boIov:
¨A porson vlo induIgos in llo praclico Iiko an ox or rallor
a buIIock lo llo fuII, viII bocomo an ox aflor lis domiso.
So aIso, a porson vlo las fuIIy praclisod Iiko a dog, viII
bo roborn a dog in llo noxl oxislonco. If llo praclicos
porformod aro incompIolo and nol fuIIy accompIislod,
il vouId amounl lo praclising docoplion undor a faIso
prolonco, and llo porson vlo llus praclisos for laving
accoplod llo lorolicaI viovs, vouId oillor doscond lo llo
Nollor WorId (loII) or bocomo an animaI aflor lis doall.¨
Having loard llo Buddla's ropIy, Iunna and Soniya
vopl billorIy. Tloy vopl bocauso aflor bocoming viclims
of fraud, lloy lad gono llrougl sucl ignobIo and faIso
praclicos for a considorabIo Iongll of limo, boIioving lloir
loaclor's docoilfuI vords llal by praclising oillor as an ox
184
or a dog, lloy vouId roacl an oxislonco in Iifo loroaflor
vloro lappy condilions provaiI.
Anollor inslanco is llal ono TãIapula, an inslruclor by
profossion in llo arl of dancing, rovoronliaIIy askod llo
Buddla, ¨My Iord! I lavo loard vlal ollor loaclors
in succossion lavo said llal a dancor boing capabIo of
giving doIigll and pIoasuro lo llo pubIic, viII, in lis noxl
oxislonco, bocomo a joviaI or cIovnisl Dova caIIod ¨pc|¯sc¨
in anollor pIanol. Wlal llon is your Iordslip's Toacling
in rogard lo llis mallor`¨ Buddla lvico rojoclod llis
quoslion, bul vlon llo samo quoslion vas raisod for llo
llird limo, llo EnIigllonod Ono gavo a calogoricaI ropIy as:
¨Irom llo vory oulsol, llo dancor for laving onlorlainod
vill lis porformancos lo llo doIigll of llo audionco vlo
aro as yol unIiboralod from llo oviIs of grood (|c|c), angor
(!csc) and doIusion (mc|c) las causod lo dovoIop llo iIIs
of grood, angor and doIusion. Honco, in llo noxl oxislonco
aflor lis domiso, il is vory IikoIy llal lo vouId roIogalo lo
loII, caIIod ¨pc|¯sc¨. By firmIy loIding a faIso and bigolod
viov llal if by porforming llo dancos, lo vouId bocomo a
Dova in lis fuluro oxislonco, lo viII probabIy Iand oillor
in loII or bocomo an animaI.¨
Hoaring llis slalomonl, TãIapula, llo cliof Danco
Inslruclor bogan lo cry bocauso lo lad boon docoivod
by lis loaclors aII llrougloul a Iong poriod of limo llal
185
¨by slaging dancing porformancos boforo an audionco lo
mako llom lappy and pIoasurabIo, ono viII bocomo a
'pc|¯sc' Dc.c.¨
Moroovor, lloro aro simiIar inslancos of llis kind of
docoplion. Al llo prosonl limo, a numbor of proaclings
aro boing dono, vlicl run counlor lo llo nobIo visl of
llo EnIigllonod Ono, on an orronoous assumplion of
llo Buddla's Dlamma. AIllougl Buddla las procisoIy
proaclod villoul any ambiguily llal ¨aII c|usc|c
÷ domorilorious acls ÷ slouId bo avoidod, aII |usc|c
÷ virluous doods slouId bo porformod, praclicaI oxorciso
slouId bo mado for llo acliovomonl of si|c, scm¯!|i
and pcññ¯. Samalla and Vipassanã modilalion slouId
invariabIy bo praclisod, llo Eigll-foId mcggcngcs slouId
bo dovoIopod¨, proacling conlrary lo llo Buddla's NobIo
Toaclings aro boing doIivorod. Sucl faIso proaclings mado
aro in llo mannor doscribod boIov.
¨A|usc|c-|i|cs¯ moans impormanonco (cniccc). As sucl, for
nol boing pormanonlIy prosonl, no rojoclion is roquirod lo
bo dono. To mako offorl for llo purposo of kiIIing is moro
difficuIl llan lo rofrain from kiIIing ollors. Il is sufforing
according lo llo !cscn¯ vlicl says sc||c scn||¯rc !u|||c
if morilorious doods aro porformod or if si|c, scm¯!|i and
pcññ¯ praclicos aro oxorcisod, and if ||¯.cn¯, praclicaI
modilalion is rosorlod lo. Iroaclings aro aIso dono llal
186
il vouId amounl, lo praclising ascolicism and llal aII
forms of sovoro oxorcisos causing plysicaI lardslip aro
misorabIo. Tloy go on proacling furllor llal simpIy by
roliring or romaining in socIusion al poaco villoul pulling
in any offorl in llo praclico of modilalion, lappinoss is
gainod, olc.¨ Sucl kind of nonsonsicaI laIks aro obviousIy
conlrary lo llo Buddla's Toaclings. Sucl boing llo
caso, il is quilo corlain llal lloso vlo lavo accoplod
llis vrong faill vill a faIso boIiof in lloso porvorsilios
vlicl aro diamolricaIIy opposilo lo llo NobIo Toaclings
of llo Buddla, viII lavo boon dovoIoping c|usc|c ÷
unvloIosomo acls ÷ villoul gaining morils. EvonluaIIy,
villoul anylling lo bo roIiod upon, lloso poopIo. aro
IikoIy lo bocomo unlappy llrougl lloir ovn porsonaI
oxporionco vlon confronlod vill misory and sufforing,
al ono limo or llo ollor, sinco oviI |cmmc or c|usc|c viII
prodominalo ovor |usc|c vlicl las coasod lo funclion,
for boing subjoclod lo fraud.
As slalod in llo forogoing, a porson vlo las boon
docoivod viII suffor badIy oillor from llo poinl of viov
of lis businoss doaI or of roIigion. Il viII lovovor bo
moro disaslrous if lo is dofraudod in roIigious mallors.
Tloroforo, llo Buddla las inslruclod lo dovoIop mcii¯
as: ¨May bo froo from docoplion¨ oillor in doaIing vill
businoss or roIigious affairs. Iol us rocilo according lo llal
inslruclion.
187
¨May ono bo abIo lo rofrain limsoIf from
cloaling llo ollor porson and aIso oscapo
from bocoming a viclim of fraud.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
Tlo noxl plraso is: ¨|cii|cci¨ ÷ al any pIaco or anyvloro
vlollor in a lovn or a viIIago or in a pubIic pIaco, |iñci
÷ any ono porson, ncm ÷ as againsl anollor porson, nc
ciimcññci|c ÷ may nol disrogard or sIigll, nay, may bo froo
from bocoming discourloous lo or ignoring llo ollor. If llo
ollor porson is sIigllod or ignorod by ono vill ogoism, il
vouId bo sinfuI lo llo porson vlo sIiglls or ignoros. Tlis
kind of alliludo viII lavo an advorso offocl on lim al ono
limo or llo ollor. A porson vlo is sIigllod viII fooI bad
and vory mucl doprossod. Somo of llo sonior officors may
ignoro or sIigll an oulsidor or ovon a junior officor if llal
porson caIIs on lim on duly. Somo of llo Malã Tloras aro
IikoIy lo nogIocl or ignoro llo junior monks. Tloso vlo
aro llus sIigllod or nogIoclod may fooI oxlromoIy unlappy.
Tloro is lardIy any doubl llal llo porson vlo sIiglls llo
ollor las no Ioving-kindnoss lovards llo ollor for laving
faiIod lo pul limsoIf in anollor's sloos. Tlal is probabIy
llo roason vly Buddla las givon inslruclions lo dovoIop
mcii¯ vloroby llo occurronco of misorabIo fooIings in
boll parlios viII bo provonlod. If cordiaI roIalionslip voro
oslabIislod. bolvoon llo lvo parlios villoul sIiglling
ono anollor, llo vloIo vorId vouId bo a vory congoniaI
188
pIaco for ovorybody lo Iivo in. IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion
in dovoIoping mcii¯ according lo llo givon inslruclions.
¨May nol ono faiI in courlosy or rospocl lo any
ollor porson.¨
¨May ono bo froo from llouglls lo sIigll llo
ollor and bo friondIy lovards ollors.¨
Tlo noxl oxprossion is: Vµ¯rcscn¯-.µ¯rcscn¯µc ÷ by causing
bodiIy larm, and by llroaloning llo ollor vorbaIIy and
by iII-lroaling, pciig|cscññ¯-pciig|cscññ¯µc ÷ cn! vill a
fooIing of angor, cññcmcññcssc ÷ muluaIIy lovards oacl
ollor, !u|||cm ÷ misory, nc icc|cµµc ÷ may nol occur and
bo dosirabIo, nay, may nol bo Iongod for.
If ono porson plysicaIIy assauIls llo ollor or, abusos or
incilos llo ollor lo do larm and causo injury, or is pIolling
lo cruoIIy iII-lroal llo ollor, sucl a porson viII lavo
commillod a vico. In fuluro, vlon circumslancos bocomo
unfavourabIo, lo viII mool vill various kinds of sufforing
for llal c|usc|c, bad doods, lo las commillod. Tlo porson
vlo is subjoclod lo iII-lroalmonl, of courso, prosonlIy
suffors. Il las, lloroforo, boon inslruclod lo dovoIop mcii¯
lovards ollors lo bo froo from sucl misorios by avoidanco
of llo said misdoods. To dovoIop mcii¯ according lo llal
inslruclion, Iol us rocilo as foIIovs:
189
¨May ono bo froo from iII-viII lo causo misory
lo llo ollor by making an assauIl plysicaIIy.¨
¨May ono bo froo from iII-viII lo causo misory
lo llo ollor by vord of moull.¨
¨May ono bo froo from iII-viII lo causo misory
lo llo ollor by oviI llouglls.¨
¨May ono bo froo from iII-viII lo causo misory
lo llo ollor by lis plysicaI aclion, spoocl and
llouglls.¨
Wlon dovoIoping mcii¯ in llo abovo mannor, il is nol jusl
lo rocilo porfuncloriIy. Ono musl bo roaIIy sincoro and lavo
profound Ioving-kindnoss lovards llo ollor visling lim
or lor lappinoss al llo samo limo. Tlis is iIIuslralod in llo
foIIoving oxampIo.
How .|·t|·| V|..¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o ÷
A· |||t-.s».|o·
7. M¯i¯ µci|¯ niµcm puiicm,
¯µus¯ c|cpuiicm cnurc|||c.
|.cmpi sc||c||ùicsu,
m¯ncscm ||¯.cµc cpcrim¯ncm.
M¯i¯ ÷ llo mollor, niµcm puiicm ÷ in rospocl of lor ovn
fIosl and bIood, c|cpuiicm ÷ llo onIy boIovod son, ¯µus¯
÷ al llo sacrifico of lor ovn Iifo, cnurc|||c µci|¯ ÷ viII
19O
aIvays bo guarding or Iooking aflor lim. |.cmpi ÷ in
llo samo mannor, sc||c||ùicsu ÷ in rogard lo aII kinds
of boings, cpcrim¯ncm ÷ boundIoss or immonso, m¯ncscm
÷ mcii¯ or Ioving-kindnoss, visling llom lappinoss,
||¯.cµc ÷ may bo ropoalodIy dovoIopod.
In llis vorso, llo mannor of roIalionslip bolvoon mollor
and son las boon parlicuIarIy cilod as an oxampIo. GonoraIIy,
mollor's affoclion and Ioving-caro for sons and daugllors far
surpassos llal of llo fallor. Tlal is llo roason vly llo mollor
las boon cilod as an oxampIo. Ioving-caro and affoclion
may nol bo boslovod upon adoplod cliIdron by llo paronls
as sucl as lloy vouId confor on lloir ovn cliIdron. Honco,
an oxampIo of ¨llo onIy boIovod son¨ is cilod. Hovovor, if
lloro aro many sons, llo dogroo or slrongll of affoclionalo
fooIing and Ioving-caro may nol bo groal dospilo llo facl
llal lloy aro lloir ovn fIosl and bIood. IsuaIIy, boundIoss
Iovo is boslovod upon llo onIy son in a famiIy. Tlal is vly
comparison las boon mado lo ¨llo onIy son¨. Tlo dogroo
of Iovo for llo onIy son is voII knovn lo mollors vlo lavo
sons of lloir ovn. Tlis noods no oIaboralion. Tlo mollor
viII sacrifico lor ovn Iifo for lor onIy son, llo onIy cliId of
lor ovn, vlon occasion domands. SimiIarIy, in dovoIoping
mcii¯, il las boon inslruclod llal ono slouId lavo ulmosl
Ioving-kindnoss and compassionalo fooIing lovards aII
boings rogardIoss of onosoIf. Tlo oxampIo llal las boon
iIIuslralod is roaIIy doop and profound.
191
I lavo monlionod aboul lov ¨sim¯scm||c!c¨ lakos pIaco
as oxpIainod in llo Visuddlimagga in llo socond parl of
llis loxl of Dlamma. In llis connoclion vlal las boon
slalod is llal vliIo a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ is
Iiving logollor vill llo porson vlo is doar lo lim and
porson vlo is noulraI, and aIso an onomy ÷ a losliIo
porson, lo slouId nol accodo lo llo visl of llo viIIains
vlo domandod any ono of llom lo bo landod ovor lo llom
for llo purposo of offoring lim as a gifl lo propilialo a god
in porforming a. riluaI. Evon if lo surrondorod limsoIf as a
viclim, il viII nol yol amounl lo acliovomonl of llo quaIily
of sim¯scm||c!c. On llo ollor land, according lo llo Mollã
Sulla, il vouId convoy llo sonso llal ono vlo is dovoIoping
mcii¯ slouId radialo lis Ioving-kindnoss, visling llo
ollor lo gain lappinoss jusl as a mollor vouId do vill
immonso Iovo for lor onIy son vlicl soars lo llo oxlonl of
lor viIIingnoss lo sacrifico lor ovn Iifo. If roforonco voro
mado lo vlal is slalod in llo Commonlary comparing vill
llo IãIi Toxl, il viII bo found llal llo iIIuslralion is mado
vill omplasis upon llo doop fooIing of mcii¯ vlicl ono
slouId lavo lovards boings jusl as a mollor is IovingIy
laking caro of lor ovn son. Il slouId bo inlorprolod lo
moan llal ono musl lavo a fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss
lovards ollor boings lo llo oxlonl as lo vouId lavo for
lis ovn voIfaro. Tlo inslruclion givon in many IãIi Toxls
indicalo ono lo dovoIop mcii¯ lovards aII ollor boings on
an oquaI basis as lo vouId lavo on limsoIf (sc||ci|ci¯µc).
192
Tloro aro no inslruclions lo llo offocl llal ono slouId lavo
Iovo for ollors moro llan ono vouId Iovo onosoIf.
Iurllormoro, mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ moans: ono slouId nol Ioavo
oul any ono of llo Iiving boings, llal is, villoul oxcoplion
and villoul Iimil in dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl. modilalion,
if capabIo of doing so.
How .o o|v||o| V|..¯ sso»o|\, w|.not. ||·|.
8. Mciicncc sc||c|c|cscmim,
m¯ncscm ||¯.cµc cpcrim¯ncm.
U!!|cm c!|c cc iiriµcñcc,
cscm||c!|cm c.crc´mcscpciicm.
To oIaboralo llo mannor of dovoIoping mcii¯ in an unIimilod
scopo, u!!|cm ÷ in pIacos liglor-up or abovo, c!|c ÷ in llo
Iovor rogion or pIacos dovn boIov, iiriµcm ÷ in llo opposilo
oigll rogions round aboul llo Earll, |il is llo moaning
rondorod in conformily vill llo oxprossions in llo IãIi
Toxl as ¨||cm !iscm p|crii.¯ iii u!!|cmc!|c iiriµcm¨, and in
accordanco vill llo oxposilion mado in llo Commonlarios,
and vill llo oxprossion of llo llroo vords, llo diroclion
of llo lon rogions across llo Iongll and broadll of llo
univorso, aro poinlod oul. In llo inlroduclory porlion of llo
Commonlary of llis Mollã Sulla, llo vord ¨u!!|cm¨ indicalos
193
llo crùpc||c.c (formIoss oxislonco), llo vord ¨c!|c¨ indicalos
llo |¯mc||c.c (sonsuaI oxislonco), and llo vord ¨iiriµcm¨
indicalos rùpc||c.c (oxislonco llal las form)]. Sc||c|c|cscmim
÷ in aII llo Inivorso ÷ in llo vloIo vorId, cpcrim¯ncm ÷
unIimilod or boundIoss, mciicm m¯ncscm ÷ fooIing of mcii¯
÷ Ioving-kindnoss, ||¯.cµc ÷ bo dovoIopod, olc.
Tlo gisl of il is lo dovoIop unIimilod Ioving-kindnoss
(mcii¯) lovards aII boings in aII lon rogions as monlionod
oarIior, visling aII of llom lappinoss. In dovoIoping
and radialing mcii¯ as sucl, lloro is no Iimil in rogard lo
llo pIaco or rogion and lo llo kind of boings prosonl in
aII lloso pIacos. Il covors a vory vido rango. Noxl, lloro
boing no angry fooIing againsl aII Iiving boings, ono is
froo from inlornaI dangors, and aIso, laving no animosily
or grudgo againsl any kind of boings as an onomy, ono
is aIso froo from oxlornaI dangors. Iol us again dovoIop
mcii¯ according lo llo !cscn¯. IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion,
and vliIo rociling bo mindfuI and conlompIalo and nolo
llo rùpcs and n¯mcs.
¨May aII lloso boings in llo rogion liglor-up
bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Iovor rogion bo
lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII lloso boings in llo surrounding oigll
rogions bo lappy. (Ropoal llroo limos)
194
U!!|cm µ¯.c ||c.cgg¯ cc,
c!|c µ¯.c c.iciic.
Scmcni¯ cc||c.¯|csu,
µc scii¯ pci|c.iccr¯.
A.µ¯pcjj|¯ ni.cr¯ cc,
ni!!|u|||c cc nupc!!c.¯.
Tlis IãIi vorso vlicl convoys mcii¯, appoars lo lavo boon
composod basod on llo plraso ÷ ¨U!!|cm c!|c cc iiriµcñcc¨,
as conlainod in llo Mollã Sulla. Tlo moaning of il is:
U!!|cm ÷ in llo rogion abovo or liglor up, µ¯.c ||c.cgg¯ cc
÷ up lo llo abodo of nc.cscññ¯-n¯scññ¯µcicnc (llo Abodo
vloro lloro is noillor consciousnoss nor unconsciousnoss
caIIod ¨||c.cgg¯¨, llo liglosl of llo Arûpa WorIds), c!|c ÷
in llo Iovor rogion, µ¯.c c.iciic ÷ dovn lo Avïci HoII, (llo
lorms 'liglosl ||c.cgg¯' and llo Iovosl ' A.ici' aro probabIy
usod on llo prosumplion llal llo oarll is a fIal surfaco).
|Sinco llo prosonl day scionlisls lavo loId llo viov llal
llo Earll, llo WorId vo Iivo in, is round in slapo and is
rovoIving and llal il rolalos round llo axis, llo liglosl
poinl and llo Iovosl poinl vlicl vouId coincido vill
llo posilion vloro llo lvo lorminaI poinls aro, al llo
limo mcii¯ is boing dovoIopod, may bo largolod.] Scmcni¯
cc||c.¯|csu cc ÷ in llo surrounding univorsos incIuding
loavonIy abodos and aII llal oxisl, pci|c.iccr¯ ÷ lloso
vlo Iivo and vandor on llo surfaco of llo oarll, (according
195
lo llo ollor vorso, u!¯|cccr¯ ÷ lloso vlo Iivo in valor,
and. llon again, according lo anollor vorso ÷ A|¯scccr¯
÷ lloso vlo Iivo and lravoI llrougl llo air in llo opon air
spaco or s|µ, .cscii¯ sucl boings ÷ scnii, do oxisl ). 1c scii¯
÷ lloso boings, c.µ¯pcjj|¯ ÷ laving a londoncy lo givo
lroubIo, bo froo from monlaI sufforing caIIod griof, ni.cr¯
cc ÷ bo froo from dangor, ni!!|u|||c cc ÷ bo froo from
bodiIy sufforing, cnupc!!c.¯ cc ÷ bo froo from (upc!!cµc)
accidonl or misforluno vlicl can bring aboul injury, |cniu
÷ may aII bo rid of lloso sufforings and dangors.
In llo IãIi vorso slalod abovo and in ils dofinilion, llo lorm:
¨upc!!c.c-upc!!c.c¨ moans aII kinds of accidonls, mislap
and dangors llal may bofaII or lappon unoxpoclodIy. Tloso
aro, of courso, llo unoxpoclod dangors vlicl may bo causod
by vickod porsons, bandil, viIIains, or by carnivorous lypos,
of animaIs and by sorious iIInoss or disoasos.
T|·| c |o-.ts| |s|-cs|s|o |os o|v||o||·. V|..¯
Iurllormoro, llo mannor of laking a posluro and llo limo
for llo purposo of dovoIoping mcii¯ las boon proscribod
as foIIovs:
9. 1iii|cm ccrcm nissinnc .¯,
scµ¯nc µc.cic´ssc .iicmi!!|c.
196
|icm sciim c!|iii|cµµc,
|rc|mc mciicm .i|¯rc´mi!|c m¯|u.
1iii|cm vliIo slanding, or, ccrcm ÷ vliIo vaIking, or,
nissinno .¯ vliIo silling i.o. soaling, or, scµ¯nc .¯ ÷ vliIo
Iying, µ¯.ci¯ ÷ as far as possibIo, .iicmi!!|c-cssc ÷ slouId
bo froo from lorpor, i.o. froo from sIoopinoss, or rallor,
froo from llo spoII of dozing. 1¯.ci¯ ÷ for so Iong as ono
bocomos sIoopy and las nol yol faIIon asIoop, cicm sciim
÷ llis mindfuInoss, llo procursor of mcii¯, c!|iii|cµµc
÷ slouId bo dovoIopod by vay of obsorving and dvoIIing
upon il, or rallor, conlompIalion.
Mcii¯ slouId, in facl, bo dovoIopod nol onIy vliIo silling
bul aIso vliIo slanding. Il musl aIso bo dovoIopod vliIo
laking a vaIking oxorciso aIong llo corridor lo roIax llo
Iimbs aflor proIongod silling, vliIo Iying in bod boforo
faIIing asIoop, and for so Iong as ono is avako, il musl
bo conlinuaIIy dovoIopod. Tlis is lo say llal an inlorvaI
for rospilo slouId bo onIy for llo poriod vlon ono is fasl
asIoop. Tlo momonl a porson is rousod from sIoop vlon
fuII consciousnoss rovivos, ono slouId carry on dovoIoping
mcii¯ boginning from llo limo lo bocomos aIorl and
monlaIIy aIivo lo llo occasion. In llis rogard, MindfuInoss
aIong vill mcii¯ slouId bo conlompIalod and incossanlIy
dovoIopod. If lo is a porson vlo las acliovod jlana, mcii¯-
j|¯nc combinod vill MindfuInoss slouId bo dovoIopod
197
aIvays. Tlis is lo Iol onosoIf pIungo in a lranco of mcii¯-
j|¯nc. DovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ as slalod, is lo abido in
a nobIo and porfocl slalo. Il las boon proaclod llal aII
Buddlas lad oxloIIod llis mcii¯ as boing llo Dlamma
vlicl, if dovoIopod, amounls lo abiding in llis Sãsana in
a loIy and porfocl slalo (8rc|mc-.i|¯rc).
l|v|·. |· .n| |x|sc|-| o| |ots ·os|| |o-.ts|-
c»|||o \|n¯s»
Tlo IaIi Commonlarios lavo dislinguislod Vi|¯rc ÷ ¨llo
Abiding¨ in four difforonl kinds of llo posilion of llo body,
viz.: (1) |riµ¯pci|c.i|¯rc, (2) Di||c.i|¯rc, (3) Ariµc.i|¯rc, and
(4) 8rc|mc.i|¯rc
(1) |riµ¯pci|c.i|¯rc moans vaIking, slanding, silling
and Iying-dovn al limos in lurn as may bo considorod
approprialo in accordanco vill llo four claraclorislics of
posluros. Tlis mannor of doporlmonl is naluraIIy adoplod
by ovory Blikklu, individuaI or boing.
(2) Di||c.i|¯rc ÷ llis moans Iofly mc|cggcic-j|¯ncs, sucl
as |csinc-j|¯nc, olc., by vlicl ono may bocomo or Ioad lo
bo roborn as an oulslanding coIosliaI boing caIIod Bralma,
aflor lis domiso. IIunging in a profound lranco in sucl
198
j|¯ncs or roIigious oxorcisos produclivo of llo liglosl
spiriluaI advanlagos is caIIod '!i||c.i|¯rc'.
(3) Ariµc.i|¯rc ÷ llal is, llo four criµc-p|c|cs or Iruilion. To
bo monlaIIy absorbod in llo four Iruilions vlicl aro llo
allainmonls of llo rosuIls of llo four Ialls ÷ llo mannor
of abiding in llo Iruilion of llo Ialls by llo NobIo Onos
(Ariµcs) may bo caIIod ' Ariµc.i|¯rc'.
(4) 8rc|mc.i|¯rc moans llo Icur j|¯ncs, namoIy, mcii¯-j|¯nc,
|crun¯-j|¯nc, mu!ii¯-j|¯nc, and upc|||¯-j|¯nc. In parlicuIar,
by virluo of boing fauIlIoss and of ils nobIo quaIilios, il is
said lo bo abiding or romaining in a porfocl and loIy slalo.
Tlal is llo roason vly in llis vorso, il las boon oxpoundod
by llo Buddla using llo oxprossion ¨8rc|mc.i|¯rc¨ for llo
vord ¨mcii¯¨.
A||»·»··» c Bs»n·»cos»
In llo Ablidlamma Viblanga IãIi (284), lloso four kinds
of Bralmavilãra aro slalod lo bo Appcmcññc. In llo Malãvã
Malã Govinda Sulla, il las boon caIIod '8rc|mcccriµc'.
Il moans llo praclico of llo Iifo of loIinoss Iod by llo
sanclifiod, or in ollor vords, llo praclico of Appcmcññc
÷ llo porfocl oxorciso of llo quaIilios of Ioving-kindnoss
or friondIinoss, compassion, goodviII, and oquanimily
199
(mcii¯, |crun¯, mu!ii¯ and upc|||¯). Tlo lorm ¨8rc|mcccrc
D|cmmc¨ commonIy knovn and spokon in Burmoso
Ianguago is dorivod from llo IãIi vord ÷ ¨8rc|mcccriµc¨.
Wlon llis ¨mcii¯¨ is dovoIopod, il musl bo dovoIopod
dvoIIing ono's mind on llo pcññciic ÷ llo manifoslalion of
vlal is knovn by llo nomoncIaluro ¨puggc|¯¨ (individuaI)
and ¨scii¯.¯¨ (boing). Honco, lloro is ovory IikoIilood of
laving a faIso boIiof in ciic or SoIf (ciic-!iii|i) vill cIinging
allaclmonl or a nolion llal 'an individuaI', or 'a boing'
roaIIy oxisls. Sucl boing llo caso, llo ExaIlod Ono las
laugll llo Iasl vorso of llo Sulla in concIusion as quolod
boIov, in ordor lo causo lo dispoI llis ¨ciic!iii|i¨ vlicl
is IikoIy lo occur, and lo onabIo mankind lo allain criµc-
mcggc-p|c|c.
ls»c.|-| .o |-c»|| |so· s|s|s.n os |·.|s|·. |·.o »
·o.n|s'- wo·s (.»ssn»-|\\») s\ s|(|c.|·. D|..n|
Diii|iñcc ÷ lovards ciic!iii|i vlicl slicks or cIings lo
llo viov llal lloro is roaIIy ciic ÷ individuaI or SoIf or a
boing, vlicl is llo faIso doclrino, or rallor, ¨llo lorosy of
individuaIily¨, cnupcgcmmc ÷ laving no dosiro lo cIing
lo or grasp vill allaclmonl. Wlal is nov driving al by
llo usago of llis oxprossion is llal llougl ono may bo
2OO
dovoIoping mcii¯ as ¨May bo lappy¨, or, ¨May aII boings bo
lappy¨, llo lorms ¨puggc|¯¨ and ¨scii¯.¯¨, i.o. individuaIs
and boings, aro moro lorminoIogy curronlIy in uso. As a
mallor of facl, lloro is no sucl lling as ¨an individuaI¨,
or, ¨a boing¨, or, vlal is caIIod ¨ciic¨, SoIf. Tlo primary
inlonlion is lo mako ono roaIiso vill lis ovn porsonaI
knovIodgo llal so-caIIod 'SoIf', boing nolling bul an
aggrogalo of llo four main oIomonls incossanlIy arising,
bocoming and dissoIving, caIIod rùpc and n¯mc ÷ mallor
and mind, ciic!iii|i, llo faIso viov, slouId bo dispoIIod or
rojoclod.
Tlo mannor of rojoclion may bo oxpIainod llus: Tlis faIso
concoplion slouId aIso bo rojoclod vill lis background
knovIodgo of vlal las boon loard and nolicod (suicmcµc-
ñ¯nc) Iong boforo modilalion is praclisod. If lo is a porson
vlo las acliovod mcii¯-j|¯nc, lo slouId firsl of aII
absorbod limsoIf in llal j|¯nc, and on boing avakonod
from llo lranco of j|¯nc, rojoclion slouId bo dono llrougl
lis roaIisalion of llo said j|¯nc and rùpc, llo maloriaI body,
on vlicl roIianco is mado, by praclising conlompIalion. As
rogards a porson vlo las nol yol acliovod j|¯nc, lo slouId
rojocl llrougl lis inluilivo knovIodgo by conlompIaling
vill mindfuInoss on rùpc vlicl is roIiod upon, and
llrougl rocilalion vlicl is llo objocl of Sonso, al ovory
momonl of dovoIoping mcii¯ as ¨May bo lappy¨, or, ¨May
aII boings bo lappy¨. Il slouId aIso bo rojoclod by roIying
2O1
fundamonlaIIy on mcii¯-j|¯nc, and by roaIising llo lrull
llrougl conlompIalion of llo rospoclivo plonomonon of
rùpcs and n¯mcs.
No spociaI monlion nood bo mado vill rogard lo llo mannor
of rojoclion by suicmcµc knovIodgo. Tlo plonomonaI
naluro of rùpc and n¯mc bo rojoclod by praclicaI oxorciso,
noling and rofIocling aflor Iisloning lo llo sormon as far
as possibIo.
Tlo mannor of rojoclion by conlompIalion and avaronoss
of llo j|¯nc aflor pIunging in j|¯nc, is lo conlompIalo on
llo }lãnic-mind vlon consciousnoss in j|¯nc las coasod.
aflor lis absorplion in mcii¯-j|¯nc. Il is jusl Iiko lloso
porsons vill no acliovomonl of j|¯nc vlo roaIiso by
conlompIaling and noling llo mind llal imaginos and
knovs al ovory momonl of arising consciousnoss. Il is
roquirod lo conlompIalo and bocomo avaro sovoraI limos
ropoalodIy by absorbing in j|¯nc and by conlompIaling
llo }lãnic-mind. Il viII llon bocomo obvious in llo
courso of conlompIalion llal consciousnoss of llo }lãnic-
mind visling ollors lappy, and rùpc on vlicl roIianco is
mado as voII as llo Vipassanã mind vlicl conlompIalos
and knovs, aro quilo difforonl from ono anollor. Al llal
momonl, llo maloriaI objocl of rùpc llal is dopondod
upon and vlicl doos nol knov and fooI llo sonsalion,
viII bo found quilo dislincl from llo consciousnoss of llo
2O2
}lãnic-mind llal las jusl occurrod visling ollors lappy,
and aIso llo mind llal conlompIalos and knovs, viII bo
visuaIisod and dislinguislabIy roaIisod. Il viII llon bo
dislinguislabIy knovn vill ono's ovn insigll knovIodgo
llal lloro is no 'Iiving onlily', no 'boing' and no 'ciic-boing',
and llal llis maloriaI body is comprisod of lvo difforonl
llings viz.: llo ono vlicl knovs llo sonsalion and llo
ollor vlicl doos nol knov llo sonsalion. Wlon roaIisod
as sucl, ciic!iii|i, vlicl loIds llo viov of ciic as 'a boing',
viII bo gol rid of. Tlis is llo mannor by vlicl '!iii|i' ÷ llo
faIso viov, is compIoloIy dispoIIod or oxlorminalod vill
llo knovIodgo of n¯mc-rùpc pcricc|c!c, i.o., knovIodgo of
discornmonl dislinguisling bolvoon mind and mallor,
aflor praclising mcii¯-j|¯nc and Vipassanã by lurns.
Irom llis slago, if offorl is conlinuousIy mado in lis
modilalionaI oxorciso by absorbing in j|¯nc and llon
again by conlompIaling on llal j|¯nc, roaIisalion viII
como llrougl porsonaI insigll knovIodgo llal lloro
is onIy Causo and Effocl. Tlis knovIodgo viII Ioad
lo rojoclion of llal !iii|i. Tloroaflor, j|¯nc as voII as
llo conlompIalivo mind vill avaronoss, and llo rùpc
on vlicl roIianco is mado, viII bo found conlinuaIIy
arising and dissoIving. Rojoclion viII llon bo mado
knoving llo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic.
EvonluaIIy, llis ¨!iii|i¨ viII bo lolaIIy oradicalod vill
llo knovIodgo of sci¯pciiimcggc. Tlis is lov '!iii|i'
2O3
is rojoclod and roolod oul by dovoIoping j|¯nc and
Vipassanã, aIlornaloIy.
Tlo mannor of rojoclion llal las nov boon slalod is
simiIar in naluro lo llo mollod of rojoclion of '!iii|i' aflor
dovoIoping mcii¯, saying ¨May lappinoss bo gainod¨ and
aflor conlompIaling llo rùpc vill avaronoss of llo mind
vlicl is porvadod vill 'mcii¯' Tlo onIy difforonco is
bolvoon ¨mcii¯-j|¯nc¨ and ordinary ¨mcii¯¨ Tlo mollod
of conlompIalion is, lovovor, llo samo. Iol us nov
conlompIalo Vipassanã aflor dovoIoping mcii¯ according lo
llis mollod. IIoaso conlompIalo and nolo vliIo rociling.
¨May aII monks, nuns, porsons and modilalors in
llis Modilalion Conlro bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII monks, nuns, porsons and Dovas in llis
Tovnslip bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII cilizons of llo Inion of Burma bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
2O4
V»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. .o .|. A..»o|..n| s|(|c.|o
Tlo mannor of rojocling !iii|i by ono conlompIaling on
lis consciousnoss of mind, as and vlon il arisos oillor
from llouglls or imaginalion, 'loucl', 'loaring', and
'sooing', aflor immorsing in mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ from vlicl lo
or slo las rison, is simiIar in naluro lo vlal llo prosonl
modilalors aro conlompIaling. Tlo onIy difforonco is llal
il may bo vill or villoul llo basic j|¯nc. Tlo mollod of
conlompIalion is, lovovor, llo samo.
If llo slrongll of conlompIalion and avaronoss bocomos
sIackonod vliIo conlompIaling basod on j|¯nc on llo
plonomona, as and vlon lloy ariso on lloir ovn,
rospoclivoIy, mcii¯-j|¯nc slouId again bo dovoIopod and
rovivod. Wlon caImnoss or poaco of body and mind
las boon rosuscilalod, conlompIaling and noling of
llo plonomonaI occurroncos vlorovor lloy bocomo
manifoslod slouId again bo carriod oul.
Tlo prosonl Yogïs (modilalors) loro aro iniliaIIy con-
lompIaling on llo rising and faIIing movomonls of llo
abdomon vlicl is rogardod as fundamonlaI. In llo
courso of conlompIaling and noling as doscribod, llo
imaginalion and llouglls llal may occur slouId again
bo conlompIalod and nolod. Tloroaflor, conlompIaling
2O5
and noling bo rovorlod lo llo rising and faIIing of llo
abdominaI movomonls. If bodiIy sonsalions of pain,
sliffnoss and lolnoss aro foIl, llon lloso sonsalions
slouId bo conlompIalod and nolod, as and vlon
lloy occur. Aflorvards, il slouId bo rovorlod back lo
conlompIalion and noling of llo rising and faIIing
movomonls of llo abdomon londing and slrolcling
of lands and fool, if lakon pIaco, slouId Iikoviso bo
nolod. WliIo conlompIalion is dono in llo Iiko mannor,
llo sonso-objocl of conlompIalion and noling, and llo
knoving-mind viII bo dislinguislabIy knovn. Causo
and Effocl aro aIso dislinclIy roaIisod. Tlo naluro of
lloir impormanonco (cniccc), sufforing (!u|||c) and
non-SoIf (cnciic) viII bo approlondod vill llo porsonaI
knovIodgo in llo procoss of conlompIaling and noling
llo psyclo-plysicaI plonomona. Wlon ||cngc-ñ¯nc
(Insigll knovIodgo inlo llo dissoIulion of llings)
gols slrongllonod vill conslanl avaronoss as slalod,
conlompIaling and noling slouId bo sproad vidoIy
boginning from ovory sonsalion of loucl and conlacl
covoring llo vloIo body. If lirosomonoss occurs vliIo
so modilaling and if conlompIaling and noling Iosos ils
momonlum, llo mind llal conlompIalos and nolos bo
rovorlod lo llo usuaI rising and faIIing of llo abdominaI
vaII. OnIy vlon llo body and mind bocomos lranquiI,
furllor conlompIalion of aII bodiIy plonomona slouId
bo carriod on and nolod.
2O6
Wlon conlompIalion gains slrongll in llo mannor as
slalod, acliovomonl of progrossivo insigll viII bo
advancod lovards |cµc-ñ¯nc, ¯!|inc.c-ñ¯nc, ni||i!¯-ñ¯nc,
muñciiu|cmµci¯-ñ¯nc and pciiscn||¯-ñ¯nc and lloroaflor,
llo slago cj scn||¯rupc|||¯-ñ¯nc viII bo roaclod. Al llal
slago, aII objocls of conlompIalion, viII bo porcoivod
aulomalicaIIy villoul making oxorlion. Vipassanã, vill
ils ponolraling insigll viII aIso occur sponlanoousIy. Tlon,
ono viII bo unabIo lo pursuo and nolo vill lis knovIodgo
llo arising of a numbor of sonsalions occurring ovor llo
vloIo body, and onIy aulomalic avaronoss of a fov usuaI
sonsalions is laking pIaco. Il is aIso vory doIicalo and
gonlIo. And avaronoss is aIso vory, vory cIoar. Tloro aro
limos vlon conlinuous conlompIalion is lo bo carriod on
ono aflor llo ollor on rouglIy aboul llroo plonomona,
sucl as, llo naluro of llo rising of llo abdomon, faIIing
of llo abdomon, and sliffnoss foIl in llo silling posluro,
llo onliro body boing llougll of as laving vanislod
aIlogollor. Somolimos, llo modilalor may bocomo avaro
of onIy llo lvo occurroncos, viz.: ¨rising¨ and ¨faIIing¨
of llo abdomon, obIivious of llo facl llal lo is silling.
OccasionaIIy, momonls may ariso vlon consciousnoss
faiIs lo grasp llo ¨rising and faIIing¨ of llo abdomon, and
if il so lappons, lo may bo fixing lis allonlion onIy on llo
cIoar knoving mind moroIy conlompIaling and noling il
as ¨knoving¨, ¨knoving¨. WliIo boing conscious of vlal
is lapponing, avaronoss bocomos groalIy accoIoralod, and
2O7
suddon cossalion of llo conlompIaling objocl and mind viII
bo porcoivod and roaIisod. Tlo knovIodgo and porcoplion
of llo cossalion of aII rùpcs and n¯mcs is ¨mcggc-ñ¯nc ¨
As a mallor of facl, rojoclion of ciic!iii|i caIIod ¯rcmmcnc-
nusscµc las boon mado compIoloIy ovon boforo allaining
mcggc-ñ¯nc vill llo facuIly of Vipassanã insigll knov-
Iodgo vlicl las bocomo avaro of llo oxislonco of onIy
rùpc and n¯mc, in llo courso of lis conlompIalion and
noling.
Ariµcmcggc, vlicl roaIisos llo naluro of cossalion of aII
rùpc-n¯mc-scn||¯rcs lolaIIy, dispoIs llal ciic!iii|i caIIod
scni¯ncnuscµc. Irom llon onvards, llo faIso viov of llo
oxislonco of 'an individuaI', 'a boing', 'an ciic-boing', and
'a Iiving onlily' las boon compIoloIy vipod oul. Tlis
oxpIains in briof llal mannor of praclising, modilalion lo
bo abIo lo rojocl ciic!iii|i, llougl ono may bo dovoIoping
mcii¯ lovards llo pcññciii boings, and il is in conformily
vill llo inslruclions givon by llo Buddla as: ¨!iii|iñ cc¨
÷ lovards ciic!iii|i vlicl cIings lo llo viov llal lloro is
roaIIy ciic, individuaIily or SoIf, or a boing, ¨cnupcgcmmc
÷ laving no dosiro lo grasp vill allaclmonl.
If ciic!iii|i is rojoclod by mollodicaI conlompIalion and
noling llrougl oarnosl modilalion, micc|¯!iii|i, llo
faIso viov or misconcoplion viII bo lolaIIy oradicalod.
2O8
Tlon, aflor rojocling !iii|i, ¨si|c.¯¨ ÷ ono slouId aIso bo
accompIislod vill si|c (moraIily). Tlis si|c can bo fuIIy
accompIislod. Iurifiod si|c viII, of courso, romain in lacl
in llo caso of Iaymon if lloy, slriclIy and rospoclfuIIy
obsorvo oillor llo Iivo, Eigll, or Ton Irocopls ÷ llo basic
roquiromonl of ||¯.cn¯. As rogards P¯iimc|||c Si|c, i.o. a
coIIoclion of procopls proscribod for monks and nuns,
llis can bo fuIIy accompIislod if llo moraI praclicos aro
rospoclfuIIy obsorvod according lo llo RuIos of Vinaya.
Sucl procopls boll for Iaymon and Blikklus slouId bo
fuIIy porfoclod boforo praclising modilalion. Il las boon
inslruclod lo fuIfiI llis porfoclion in moraI praclicos vill
llo vords ÷ ¨|crcniµcmciic |usc|cnc, olc.¨ appoaring in llo
Mollã Sulla.
In llis rogard, il moans lo rofor lo llo accompIislmonl or
criµcmcggc si|c. Tlis loo, boing ombracod in llo allribulos
of criµcmcggc vlicl las uproolod llo ¨!iii|i¨ il is aIroady
incIudod in llo oxprossion: ¨Nol laving a dosiro lo grasp or
cIing lo 'ciic!iii|i' ¨ vlicl moans, 'laving rojoclod 'ciic!iii|i' ¨.
NovorlloIoss, lo mako il moro convincing llal criµc-mcggc-
si|c las aIso boon accompIislod, il vas ropoalod vill llo
vord ÷ ¨si|c.¯¨ ÷ i.o. ono slouId bo accompIislod vill
si|c (moraIily). Iurllormoro, ¨!cscncnc,¨ ÷ uii| llo insigll-
knovIodgo of sci¯pciiimcggc vlicl roaIisos. and porcoivos,
Nibbãna, llo slalo of cossalion, of aII scn||¯rc-!u|||c,
¨Scmpcnnc¨ ÷ laving boon accompIislod, il vouId nol aIso
2O9
cIing lo !iii|i, nay, vouId rojocl !iii|i. Il convoys llo samo
sonso as llo oxprossion ¨accompIislmonl of criµc-mcggc-
p|c|c¨. Tlis again is a ropolilion lo mako llo moaning aII
llo moro obvious.
How .o |s»c.|-| .o s| ||s|s».|o |so· C»ssn»-|\\¯ os
|·.|s|·. |·.o » wo·s
Tlon, |¯mcsu ÷ dosirabIo sonsalion of |¯mcgun¯ (sonsuaI
dosiros), gc!|cm ÷ cIinging pIoasurabIo allaclmonl caIIod
|¯mcicn|¯, .incµc ÷ laving boon rojoclod by llo knovIodgo
of cn¯g¯mimcggc, or rallor, vlon rojoclod, sc ÷ sucl a
porson aflor bocoming a Solãpanna, viII roacl llo slago
of sc|c!¯g¯mi-mcggc-p|c|c if conlinuous conlompIalion is
praclisod. Again, vlon furllor conlompIalion is carriod on
aflor bocoming a Sakadãgãmi, lo viII allain cn¯g¯mimcggc,
vlicl viII lolaIIy oradicalo |¯mcicn|¯. Ho viII llon
procood lo acliovo cn¯g¯mi-p|c|c lo bocomo an Anãgãmi.
An Anãgãmi porson, aflor lis doall, viII bo roborn in
Suddlãvãsa Abodo of llo Bralmã WorId. Ho bocomos an
inlabilanl of Avilã Abodo, llo Iasl of llo fivo Suddlãvãsas.
Tloro aro somo vlo onlor Iarinibbãna aflor aclioving
Aralalslip. If lo doos nol as yol bocomo an Aralal in llal
abodo. lo viII roacl an abodo caIIod, Alappã aflor oxpiry
of llo Iifo-span of ono llousand |cppcs. Tloro aro somo
21O
vlo, aflor allainmonl of Aralalslip vliIo Iiving in llal
abodo of Aicpp¯, onlor inlo Iarinibbãna. If Aralalslip is
nol yol allainod in llal abodo, aflor lvo llousand |cppcs
of lis Iifo-span, lo viII bo roborn in llo abodo of Su!css¯
Tloro aro inslancos vloro somo vlo dio al llo ond of
lloir Iifo span lloro aflor bocoming Aralals. Again, if lo
sliII faiIs lo allain Aralalslip in llal abodo, lo viII mool
vill lis doall aflor four llousand |cppcs, and roacl llo
abodo of Su!cssi Tloro loo, somo migll pass avay, i.o.
onlor inlo Iarinibbãna aflor allaining Aralalslip. SimiIar
courso of ovonls viII bo gono llrougl up lo c|cniii|c, llo
liglosl abodo of Suddlãvãsa, vloro llo Iifo poriod runs
vory Iong lo llo oxlonl of sixloon llousand |cppcs. During
llis oxlraordinary Iongll of Iifolimo, ono viII dofiniloIy
bocomo an Aralal and llon finaIIy onlor inlo Iarinibbãna.
Iarinibbãna moans llo IIlimalo and compIolo cossalion
of aII rùpc-n¯mc-||cn!|cs on llo domiso of an Aralal.
Tlis is llo Iasl of lis round of oxisloncos in scmscr¯. AII
luman passions and dosirabIo allaclmonl vlicl bind
mankind lo oxislonco and aII llal Ioad lo robirll, viII bo
vloIIy oxlincl. Tlis is llo ond of aII misorios, a BIissfuI
Slalo, llo Iamp of Iifo laving boon burnl oul. On doall, lo
viII forovor bo roIoasod from bocoming, lloroby misory
and sufforing of oId ago, sicknoss and doall, vlicl aro llo
concomilanl offocls of llo Iifo oxislonco, viII bo oscapod. Il
is llo absoIulo oxlinclion of a boing vloroby olornaI bIiss
is gainod.
211
Aflor roacling llo abodos of Su!!|¯.¯sc as slalod, lo comos
lo a road-ond cuIminaling in doall knovn as Iarinibbãna.
Human oxislonco is no moro for lim and lloro is no
IikoIilood of lis onloring inlo a mollor's vomb. Tlis las
boon oIucidalod in llo foIIoving mannor:
Sc ÷ Tlal a porson vlo las acliovod mcii¯-j|¯nc, ¨!iii|iñcc
cnupcgcmmc¨ ÷ boing undosirous of cIinging lo llis ciic-
!iii|i, nay, sinco ciic!iii|i las boon oxpoIIod by Vipassanã
knovIodgo, ¨si|c.¯¨ ÷ is nol onIy accompIislod vill llo
insigll-knovIodgo of Vipassanã. As sucl, ¨|¯mcsu¨ ÷ llo
sonsalions of sonsuaI pIoasuros, ¨gc!|cm¨ ÷ lo vlicl
llo dosiros of |¯mcicn|¯, luman passions, aro cIinging,
¨.incµc¨ ÷ boing rojoclod vill cn¯g¯mi-mcggc-ñ¯nc, nay,
laving boon aIroady rojoclod, ¨gc|||cscµµ¯m¨ ÷ formalion
of nov oxislonco vlicl roquiros concoplion in a mollor's
vomb, ¨punc¨ ÷ again, ¨nc |i j¯ii cii¨ ÷ viII nol dofiniloIy
lako pIaco, or in ollor vords, lo viII onlor inlo Iarinibbãna
villoul again concoiving in a mollor's vomb.
Tlo gisl of il is llal j|¯nc viII bo acliovod by dovoIoping
mcii¯ llrougl modilalion. If Vipassanã conlompIalion is
mado basod upon llis j|¯nc, ono viII roacl up lo llo slago
of Anãgãmi, and no furllor robirll viII lloroforo lako
pIaco by onloring inlo a mollor's vomb. Ho viII bo oIovalod
lo roacl llo BralmãIoka caIIod Suddlãvãsa Abodos, and
viII bocomo an Aralal, and from lloro, viII onlor inlo
212
Iarinibbãna. Tlo moaning of il is unambiguous up lo llal
oxlonl onIy. Hovovor, Iord Buddla vislos lo soo poopIo
roacl llo slago of crc|ciic-mcggc-p|c|c ovon in llo prosonl
Iifo oxislonco and allain llo finaI goaI of Nibbãna on lloir
domiso. Tloroforo, basod on llo mallor of prognancy vlicl
vouId roquiro concoiving in a mollor's vomb, somo loId
llo prosumplion llal aII nov oxisloncos or robirlls lavo
boon rojoclod. Il may bo slalod llal llis prosumplion appoars
approprialo sinco il faIIs in Iino vill llo visl of llo Buddla.
Hovovor, il is prolly difficuIl lo mako an inlorprolalion lo
arrivo al llis moaning. In accordanco vill llo oxprossion
÷ ¨|¯mcsu,¨, il may bo possibIo lo accopl llo lransIiloralion
as ¨llo dosirabIo rùpc and crùpc ||c.cs¨ villoul assuming
llo sonso of llo lorm ¨|¯mcgun¯¨. Honco, llo moaning of
llo Iasl lvo plrasos may bo furnislod as foIIovs:
K¯mcsu In rospocl of aII dosirabIo sonsalions, gc!|cm ÷
llo cIinging passionalo allaclmonl, icn|¯, .incµc ÷ aflor
rojocling vill llo four criµcmcggcs, nay, sinco rojoclion
las boon mado, gc||cscµµ¯ ÷ coming inlo a nov oxislonco
by onloring inlo a mollor's vomb sucl as, pciiscn!|i
(concoplion), punc ÷ again, nc |i j¯ii cii ÷ viII nol suroIy
lappon, nay, viII onlor inlo Iarinibbãna in llis prosonl
Iifo oxislonco villoul laving any moro robirlls.
Tlis oxpIanalion is in consonanco vill llo visl of llo
Buddla llougl il is nol in agroomonl vill llo usuaI
213
lransIalion from llo viovpoinl of grammar. Il aIso conforms
lo llo slalomonl llal llo fivo lundrod Blikklus vlo,
aflor Iisloning lo llis Mollã Sulla Iarillã, bocomo Aralals
llrougl modilalion (in llo samo yoar Vcss¯), and llon il
faIIs in Iino vill llo !cscn¯s, NobIo Toaclings, llal il can
roacl up lo llo slago of Arc|ciic-mcggc-p|c|c by Vipassanã
conlompIalion basod upon mcii¯-j|¯nc. Il is ralionaI and
naluraI and convonlionaI loo. Tlis oxpIanalion, lloroforo,
is considorod lo bo mosl approprialo.
214
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. |v
I lavo so far givon loaclings on mcii¯, ono of llo four
kinds of llo Bralmavilãra Dlamma. I vouId nov Iiko lo
add a bil moro aboul llo mollod of dovoIoping mcii¯ and
llo mollod of praclising Vipassanã modilalion, and aIso
somo slorios roIovanl lo llo advanlagos of mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ as
laugll by llo Buddla. Tloroforo, llo Buddla's loaclings
in IãIi from llo Angullara Nikãya, Iourll Nipal, Socond
Mollã Sulla (445) viII bo oxpIorod.
S|co·o V|..¯ St..»
|!|c ||i|||c.c c|cccc puggc|c mcii¯sc|cgcicnc
ccics¯ c|cm !iscm pcrii.¯ .i|¯rcii. 1cii|¯ !uiiµcm.
1cii|¯ iciiµcm. 1cii|¯ cciuii|cm. |ii u!!|cmc!|c
iiriµcm sc||c!|i sc||ciici¯µc sc||¯.cnicm |c|cm
mcii¯sc|cgcicncccics¯ .ipu|cnc mc|cggcicnc
cppcm¯ncnc c.crcnc c|µ¯pcjj|cnc p|crii.¯
.i|¯rcii. Sc µc!c.c icii|c |cii rùpcpcgcicm
.c!cn¯gcicm scññ¯gcicm scn||¯rcgcicm
215
.iññ¯ncgcicm, ic !|cmmc cnicccic !u|||cic
rcgcic g|cn!cic sc||cic cg|cic ¯|¯!|cic pcrcic
pc|c|cic suññcic cnciicic scmcnupcsscii. Sc
|¯µcssc ||c!¯ pcrcm mcrcn¯ su!!|¯.¯scncm
!c.¯ncn sc|c|µcicm upcpcjjcii. Aµcm ||i|||c.c
upcpciii cs¯!|¯rcnc puii|ujjcnc|i.
:.n. (Il las boon roproducod in lolo lo mako
il cIoar llal llis vas originaIIy proaclod
villoul a broak. Hovovor, vlon proacling is
dono il may bo doIivorod in soparalo parls).
8|i|||c.c ÷ O Blikklus! |!|c ÷ in llis Sãsana, c|cccc
puggc|c ÷ somo individuaIs or porsons, mcii¯sc|cgc-
icncccics¯ ÷ vill llouglls basod on goodviII, c|cm !iscm
÷ lovards a rogion of llo oarll, nay, aII boings vlo aro
Iiving or prosonl in ono rogion or pIaco, p|crii.¯ ÷ by
omilling and sproading vill a fooIing visling lappinoss
lo ollors, .i|¯rcii ÷ Iivo or romain fixing lloir allonlion
as sucl.
SimiIar oxpIanalion of llis Sulla in IaIi las boon monlionod
in llo Iirsl Iarl. Tlis Sulla as proaclod by llo Buddla is
aImosl llo samo as slalod by llo VonorabIo Aslin Sãripulla
oxcopl llal llo formor rondoring in IaIi ullorod by Aslin
Sãripulla doos nol oxpIain lov Vipassanã slouId bo
conlompIalod. Tlo formor IãIi oxprossion c|cm !iscm
216
÷ couId bo inlorprolod lo moan ÷ ¨ono of llo four rogions
of llo Easl, Wosl, Soull and Norll¨. Hovovor, according
lo llo usuaI vay of radialing mcii¯, il musl bo conslruod as
llo rogion in llo Easl. Iol us lloroforo rocilo by dovoIoping
mcii¯ as boIov:
¨May aII boings in llo Easlorn rogion bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
In llo samo vay, mcii¯ is radialod lovards llo Socond
rogion, and aIso lovards llo Tlird rogion and Iourll
rogion. Tlis is llo mannor of radialing mcii¯ vill a fooIing
of good viII lovards llo rogions in llo Wosl, Norll and
Soull. Iol us rocilo by dovoIoping mcii¯ according lo lloso
llroo plrasos.
¨May aII boings in llo Woslorn rogion bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings in llo Norllorn rogion bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings in llo Soullorn rogion bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
|ii ÷ in llis mannor, u!!|cm ÷ lovards aII boings Iiving in
llo liglor rogion, c!|c ÷ lovards aII boings in llo Iovor
rogion, iiriµcm ÷ lovards aII boings in llo romaining four
217
rogions of llo opposilo diroclion, sc||c!|i ÷ in aII rogions,
sc||ciici¯µc ÷ lroaling or Iooking upon aII boings on oquaI
lorms or as laving llo samo slalus comparing vill lis
ovn soIf, nay, vill aII goodviII or llouglls, sc||¯.cnicm
|c|cm ÷ lovards aII univorsos vloro aII boings Iivo,
mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ ÷ vill a fooIing of goodviII
visling llom lappinoss, .ipu|cnc ÷ vill vidosproad
(oxlonsivo) llouglls, mc|cggcicnc ÷ vill llo }lãnic-mind
caIIod mc|cggcic, cppcm¯ncnc ÷ vill boundIoss llouglls,
c.crcnc ÷ vill llouglls frood of animosily, c|µ¯pcjj|cnc ÷
vill llouglls frood of iII-viII lo causo sufforings, p|crii.¯
.i|¯rcii ÷ romains fixing lis allonlion, or, Iivos radialing
(Ioving-kindnoss).
Will lloso vords, il las boon inslruclod as lo lov mcii¯
slouId bo radialod lovards llo liglor rogions, Iovor
rogions and rogions in llo opposilo diroclions of llo poinls
of compass. Il is rogion-viso according lo llo !cscn¯. Iol
us lloroforo rocilo by dovoIoping mcii¯ according lo llo
soquonco monlionod in pciiscm||i!¯mcggc.
¨May aII boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion bo lappy.
¨May aII boings in llo Norll-Woslorn rogion bo lappy.
¨May aII boings in llo Norll-Easlorn rogion bo lappy.
¨May aII boings in llo Soull-Woslorn rogion bo lappy.
¨May aII boings in llo Iovor rogion bo lappy.
¨May aII boings in llo Higlor rogion bo lappy.¨
218
Il is lo radialo mcii¯ lovards aII llo Ton rogions, vill llo
}lãnic-mind caIIod mc|cggcic by dovoIoping mcii¯ onIy
aflor allaining mcii¯-j|¯nc. Hovovor, lloro is no fauIl in
dovoIoping mcii¯ as sucl villoul llo allainmonl of j|¯nc.
Il can accruo advanlagos as may bo approprialo. Wlal aro
llon llo advanlagos` Il may bo slalod as boIov:
Tlo dorivalion of advanlagos from |¯m¯.cccrc-mcii¯-
|usc|c by virluo of vlicl, ono can sIoop voII, vako up
from sIoop lappiIy and vill joy, viII lavo no bad or
lorribIo droams, gain rospocl and Iovo from boll Dovas
and Humans, and bo froo from dangors llal migll
ollorviso bofaII lim in connoclion vill aII Ton rogions.
Tlon aIso, if lo is a Blikklu, lo viII provo limsoIf
lo bo a nobIo and vorlly rocipionl of !¯nc (clarily),
and lloroby causing llo donor lo acliovo groalor
advanlagos. In making uso of llo four roquisilos or
proporlios concorning llo Blikklus, lo is roIoasod from
dobl vlicl lo vouId ollorviso bo undor obIigalion
lo ropay. If doall occurs vliIo dovoIoping mcii¯ vill
mindfuInoss, lo viII bo Iiboralod from llo Iour Nollor
WorIds, and bo roborn in llo Abodo of Sugali-coIosliaI or
luman vorIds. I lavo lloroforo boon ropoalodIy giving
you inslruclions lo dovoIop mcii¯ in ordor lo onabIo you
lo roap llo fruils or advanlagos as aIroady slalod. Iol
us rocilo in llo form of a vorso vlicl viII indicalo lov
bonofils can bo dorivod.
219
¨Happy in sIoop, and in vaking,
DoIigllfuI droams como in a vision,
Humans, and Dovas slovoring Iovo and affoclion
CoIosliaI boings conslanlIy koop on guarding,
Iiro, poison and svords avoid causing bodiIy larm
SpoodiIy bocomos llo mind sorono and caIm
IaciaI compIoxion vill joy is sparkIing,
Willoul gIoom and anxioly on llo vorgo of doall
VoriIy doslinod lo bocomo a Bralmã
AII consliluling oIovon allribulos in numbor
Aro llo advanlagos accruod from dovoIoping
mcii¯.¨
Of lloso oIovon advanlagos, llroo of llom, viz.: (1) sIoops
voII, (2) vakos up from sIoop lappiIy, (3) lavo no droadfuI
and bad droams, and viII lavo onIy good droams, aro
cIoar onougl and do nol roquiro oIaboralion. Tlo noxl
is Numbor (4) Iovod and rospoclod by llo pubIic. In llis
connoclion, llo slory of princo MaIIa by llo namo of Roja,
is considorod approprialo lo bo cilod and quolod from
Viniya Malãvã IãIi (345).
22O
Tn| S.os\ o| ko(»·»||»
Al ono limo, llo Iord Buddla accompaniod by ono
llousand, lvo lundrod and fifly discipIos (Sangla) mado
His vay lo Kusinãra from a pIaco caIIod Apana. Al llal
limo, llo ruIing princos of MaIIa on loaring llo novs
of Buddla's proposod visil lo Kusinãra, issuod a royaI
procIamalion llal any porson vlo faiIod lo lurn up and
voIcomo llo Buddla and lis DiscipIo Blikklus vouId bo
punislod vill a fino of fivo-lundrod kyals. On Buddla's
arrivaI al Kusinãra, Roja vas ono among llo crovd vlo
voro prosonl lo voIcomo llo Buddla. Ho vas an inlimalo
friond of llo VonorabIo Aslin Anandã. Wlon Anandã
oxprossod lis bosl vislos, boing doIigllod lo soo lis
friond Roja, saying il vas vory nico of lim lo givo a loarly
voIcomo lo llo Iord Buddla, Roja vas said lo lavo ropIiod:
¨I camo oul lo mool llo Buddla nol bocauso I lavo groal
rospocl and rovoronco for Buddla, Dlamma and Sangla,
bul bocauso I foar I vouId lavo lo pay a ponaIly of fivo-
lundrod kyals vlicl viII bo imposod upon mo slouId I
faiI lo bo prosonl on llis occasion of according rocoplion lo
llo Buddla and lis DiscipIos.¨
Having loard llis ropIy, Aslin Anandã foIl sorry and
vondorod vlal lad mado Roja spoak lo lim in llal
mannor. Aslin Anandã llon rofIoclod, ¨Roja is vory
rudo and impoIilo. Ho is ignoranl of llo groal vaIuo of
221
advanlagos llal viII bo dorivod by paying lis rovoronco
lo llo lripIo Gom ÷ Buddla, Dlamma and Sangla. Ho
vouId, lloroforo, Ioso aII bonofils vlicl lo slouId lavo
gainod.¨ Aflor rofIocling as sucl, Aslin Anandã appraisod
llo Buddla of llis mallor and rospoclfuIIy pul up llal if
Roja voro bonl upon giving lis bosl rogards lo llis nobIo
Sãsana, lo vouId lavo a Iol of advanlagos.
Tloroupon, Buddla oxlorlod Aslin Anandã lo dovoIop
mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯ vill lis conconlralion fixod firmIy on Roja
onIy. IsuaIIy Buddla dovoIopod and radialod Mcii¯
oquaIIy on aII boings. Buddla aIso usod lo radialo lis
compassionalo fooIings ovonIy baIancod lovards aII boings.
Hovovor, on llis parlicuIar occasion, Buddla imaginod
llus: ¨Tlis man Roja vouId faiI lo gain morils as lo slouId,
if lo doos nol lako llo opporlunily of paying lis rovoronco
dospilo lis mooling vill llo ExaIlod Ono, porsonaIIy.¨ Ho
lloroforo, dovoIopod and pul forll lis mcii¯ conconlraling
on Roja onIy. Il is somolling Iiko a boam of a soarclIigll.
If llo rays of llo Iigll voro diffusod, il vouId Ioso ils
brigllnoss. If lovovor, llo Iigll is focussod on onIy ono
singIo narrov oponing or objocl, il vouId bo vory povorfuI
and dazzIing, somolling llal rosombIos llo Iigll omillod
by llo rays of llo sun during daylimo. Hoal is aIso inlonso.
SimiIarIy, vlon Buddla radialod His mcii¯, conconlraling
fixodIy on Roja aIono, insload of sproading oul llo rays of
mcii¯ lovards aII boings, il vouId bo oxlromoIy povorfuI.
222
Tlo immodialo roaclion vas llal a fooIing of immonso
rovoronco lad occurrod in llo mind of Roja. Il vas slalod llal
llo mind vlicl rovorod rosombIod llal of a novIy born caIf
vlicl lad ils doop and firm allaclmonl lo ils mollor cov
vill inlonso Iovo and dovolion. Honco, Roja immodialoIy
Iofl llo procincls of a smaII monaslory lo anollor and llon
anollor making lis vay lillor and llillor in soarcl of llo
ExaIlod Ono. EvonluaIIy as diroclod by llo Sanglas, lo
roaclod llo porfumod Clambor of llo promisos vloro llo
Buddla vas rosiding. Ho llon look lis soal in llo prosonco
of llo Buddla vorslipping and dovolodIy paying lis
oboisanco. Buddla llon gavo lis duo admonilion and
doIivorod a discourso roIaling lo llo virluos of !¯nc, si|c, olc.
Aflor loaring llo Sormon, lo bocamo a Solãpanna. Ho ovon
onlroalod llo Buddla lo Iol llo Sanglas rocogniso lim as
lloir bonofaclor and accopl lis offor of llo four nocossilios
roIaling lo llo monks, namoIy, monaslory, robos, food and
modicino, and nol lo accopl offorings from ollors.
RoIying on llis incidonl, il is lo bo undorslood llal if
mcii¯ is dovoIopod and radialod lovards ollors vill
conconlralod allonlion, il vouId lavo a loIopallic offocl,
and llo rocipionls of mcii¯ vouId lond lo Iovo and rospocl
in rociprocily. Nol onIy luman boings bul aIso animaIs
aro IikoIy lo rociprocalo Iovo. Somo limo ago, a Homo for
llo Agod lad pubIislod a magazino in vlicl a pocuIiar
incidonl vas monlionod.
223
L B» H.t'- V|..¯
A man by llo namo of I Ba Hlu vas a Iovor of animaIs and
lad a doop compassion for llom. IarlicuIarIy, lis sympally
vonl moro for dogs. Ho usod lo Iook aflor llo dogs and
food llom voII. On corlain days vlicl lo lad fixod oarIior,
lo visilod llo dogs in llo procincls of Kyaikkasan Iagoda,
cookod llo moaIs and fod llom. Wlonovor lo camo ovor lo
llal pIaco, llo dogs voro said lo lavo groolod lim varmIy.
Tlis is nol slrango lovovor.
Al ono limo, I Ba Hlu and lis companions vonl on a
piIgrimago lo vorslip KayIãsa and Myallaboik Iagodas
silualod noar a pIaco caIIod Taungzun in Kyaikllo
Tovnslip. I lad aIso boon lo lloso pIacos and lad sponl
aboul llroo niglls lloro. I aIso vonl round for aIms in
llo viIIagos al llo fool of llo famous KayIãlla HiII. Dogs
in lloso viIIagos voro nolod for lloir forocily, lloy uso lo
allack and bilo llo slrangors as a pack. If a porson is going
lo visil a slrino up on llo liII, lo las lo pass llrougl a
viIIago al llo fool of llo liII. Wlon a parly of piIgrims Iod by
I Ba Hlu passod llrougl llo viIIago, a pack of dogs camo
running lovards I Ba Hlu. Tlo viIIagors vlo voro llon
valcling llom vill anxioly look il for granlod llal llo
dogs vouId allack I Ba Hlu. To lloir groal aslonislmonl,
lovovor, lloso dogs approaclod I Ba Hlu and groolod
224
lim by pulling lloir forofool up vill Iovo and affoclion as
if I Ba Hlu vas lloir boIovod maslor. Il is lloroforo lo bo
surmisod llal llis lad so lapponod bocauso of Iovo and
compassion llal vas boslovod upon dogs.
(5) Dovas aIso givo lloir Iovo, (6) I lavo spokon aboul
proloclion givon by llo Dovas, (7) RoIaling lo llo incidonls
of invuInorabiIily from firo, poison and IollaI voapons,
olc., monlion las boon mado aboul llo miracuIous oscapo
from injury vlicl couId lavo boon brougll aboul by llo
burning bullor-oiI. Immunily from poison as doscribod
in llo slory of CûIasiva Tlora las boon onIy monlionod
in briof. InvuInorabiIily againsl voapons Iiko a svord in
llo caso of Samkicca Sãmanora las boon cilod in passing
and a briof slory of a cov unlarmod by llo slroko of a
spoar las boon slalod as slovn in llo Commonlarios. I
vouId lloroforo Iiko lo add loro ollor slorios sucl as
Sãmãvalï Valllu, olc., as lad boon iIIuslralod in ollor
Commonlarios.
Tn| S.os\ o| S¯·¯v».|
During llo Iifolimo of Iord Buddla, King Ilona vas llo
ruIing monarcl of llo Slalo of Kosambi (rallor, a Cily). Ho
lad llroo Quoons, ono of llom caIIod VãsuIadallã. Slo
vas llo daugllor of King Candapajjola, llo RuIor of Ijjonï
225
Slalo. Tlo ollor quoon's namo vas Sãmãvalï. Slo originaIIy
boIongod lo Baddavali lovn and vas llo daugllor of a
miIIionairo namod Baddavalï. Somolimo, aflor llo doall
of lor paronls, laving boon adoplod by Glosaka, llo ricl,
slo vas gonoraIIy rocognisod as llo daugllor of Glosaka.
Tlo noxl quoon boro llo namo of Mãgandï. Slo vas llo
daugllor of a Bralmin by llo namo of Magandli from llo
counlry of Kuru.
Mãgandï, llo Bralmin's daugllor lad a vory fair
compIoxion and vas said lo bo oxlromoIy allraclivo.
Honco, a numbor of voaIlly porsons voro slalod lo lavo
mado proposaIs asking for lor lands in marriago for lloir
sons. Hovovor, lloso proposaIs voro lurnod dovn by
Mãgandï's fallor on llo grounds llal lloy voro unvorlly
of accoplanco for lis boaulifuI daugllor. Ono day, llis
Bralmin Magandli camo across llo ExaIlod Ono. Having
nolicod llo majoslic foaluros and Iinoamonls of llo
Buddla, lo considorod Buddla as boing a vorlly suilor
for lis daugllor, and llon askod llo Buddla nol knoving
vlo lo vas as: ¨O, Rovorond Blikklu! I lavo a clarming
daugllor. I lavo boon soarcling for a man dosorving of
giving marriago lo my daugllor aII llrougloul in llo pasl,
bul lo no avaiI. O, Blikklu! You lavo llo manIy quaIilios
roaIIy vorlly of my daugllor's lands. I visl I couId offor
my daugllor lo you. CouId you pIoaso vail for a vliIo al
llis pIaco`¨, said llo Bralmin. Ho llon immodialoIy Iofl
226
llo pIaco in a lurry and soon camo back bringing lis vifo
and daugllor.
Buddla, aflor Ioaving lis foolprinl al llal pIaco vloro
lo mol llo Bralmin, procoodod lo anollor pIaco nol
loo far avay from llo pIaco of lloir mooling and slayod
on. On lloir rolurn lo llo silo vloro lloy firsl mol, llo
Bralmin couId onIy find llo foolprinl of llo Buddla.
Wlon lo loId lis vifo llal llis vas llo foolprinl of llo
Blikklu lo lad mol, llo vifo, vill lor knovIodgo of
llo scionco of aslroIogy romarkod llal llo ovnor of llis
foolprinl vas a porson vlo lad aIroady discardod llo
sonsuaI pIoasuros (|¯mcgun¯), or in ollor vords, il vas
llo foolprinl of a man lolaIIy dovoid of sonsuaI pIoasuros
and luman passionalo dosiros. Tlo Bralmin aflor loIIing
lis vifo lo koop lor moull slul, foIIovod llo diroclion of
llo foolprinls impIanlod on llo surfaco of llo oarll, and
ovonluaIIy found llo EnIigllonod Ono. Ho llon addrossod
llo Buddla, ¨O Aslin Blikklu I offor you my daugllor lo
bo your vifo and lo bo Iookod aflor by you.¨
Buddla boforo ropIying lo lim as lo vlollor lo vouId
accopl llo offor of llo Bralmin's daugllor Mãgandï or
nol, rocounlod lis Iifo slory boginning from His Groal
Ronuncialion up lo llo limo lo sollIod dovn al llo fool
of AjapãIa Bo (Bodli) lroo aflor His EnIigllonmonl, and
as lo lov Mãra, llo EviI Ono, lad boon sladoving lim,
227
or rallor, invosligaling and kooping, conslanl vigiIanco on
lim, Wlon Mãra, knov aboul Buddla's lolaI omancipalion
from Iusls of llo fIosl and sonsuaIily, lo vas pul lo monlaI
dislross vill fuII of anxioly. Mãra's llroo daugllors vill
a viov lo giving loIp lo lloir fallor, disguisod llomsoIvos
as boaulifuI divino maidons (fomaIo Dovas) and lriod lo
aIIuro and onlico llo Buddla. Tlis vas roIalod lo lim, by
llo Buddla. Aflor llal llo Iord vonl on lo oxpIain lov lo
lad villslood and oIiminalod r¯gc, llo vorIdIy pIoasuros
or dosiros, llougl lloso vory clarming and fascinaling
daugllors of Mãra lad lriod lo invoko lis passion, in llo
foIIoving vords:
Dis.¯nc icn|cm crciim rcgiñcc,
n¯|csi c|cn!c cpi mci|uncscmcm.
Kimc.i!cm muiic |criscpunncm,
p¯!¯pi ncm scmp|usiium nc icc|c.
8r¯|mcnc ÷ O, Mãgandï, llo Bralmin! icn|cm crciim rcgiñcc
÷ llo llroo daugllors of Mãra by llo namo of 'icn|¯' 'crcii' and
'r¯gc', !is.¯nccpi ÷ ovon llougl soon mci|uncscmcm ÷ in llo
mallor of soxuaI connoclion (inlorcourso), c|cn!c ÷ dosirabIo
passionalo allaclmonl or incIinalion, mc ÷ in mo, llo Buddla,
c|csi ÷ las nol occurrod. Muiic|criscpunncm ÷ Boing fuII of
or brimfuI vill urino and oxcromonls (faocos), i!cm: imcm ÷
llis Mãgandï, !is.¯ ÷ llougl soon, c|cn!c nc |cii ÷ roason
228
for dosirabIo passionalo fooIing nol boing arison in mo, |imc.c
÷ noods no monlion, or rallor, is nol al aII surprising. Ncm
÷ In rogard lo llis girI Mãgandï, p¯!¯pi ÷ ovon vill my fool,
scmp|usiium ÷ lo loucl (lor), nc icc|c ÷ is undosirabIo or
Ioallsomo, llal is lo say ¨I cannol boar il.¨
In briof, il moans: ¨No cIinging sonsuaI dosiro las occurrod
in mo ovon al llo sigll of llo llroo daugllors of Mãra.
AccordingIy, lloro is lardIy anylling lo say in llo caso of
your so-caIIod boaulifuI daugllor Mãgandï, a vorllIoss
body fuII of Ioallsomo fiIll, sucl as faocos and urino. I'm
nol ovon incIinod lo loucl lor vill my fool.¨ Aflor laving
loard llo Buddla's vords boll llo paronls of Mãgandï
bocoming mindfuI and avaro of llo lrull of llo Dlamma,
roaclod llo slago of cn¯g¯mi-p|c|c and bocamo Anãgãmis.
Tloso vords, lovovor, mado Mãgandï, llo daugllor,
inloIorabIo. Slo foIl so bad and indignanl llal slo boro a
grudgo againsl llo ExaIlod Ono from llal limo onvards.
Boaring in mind llal slo vas purposoIy pul lo disgraco,
slo pIollod vill iniquily lo lako vongoanco upon Buddla
al ono limo or llo ollor vlon slo gol marriod lo a porson
of lor ovn cloico.
RoIaling lo llis incidonl, il sooms roasonabIo lo raiso a
quoslion as: ¨Doosn'l llo Buddla knov llal Mãgandï
vouId boar a grudgo oul of rosonlmonl`¨ Yos, indood, llo
Buddla vas voII avaro of il. Il las boon oxpIainod in
229
Dlammapada Commonlary llal llo ExaIlod Ono ullorod
lloso vords of lrull purposoIy knoving fuIIy voII llal
onIy by loacling in llal mannor lor paronls vouId allain
cn¯g¯mi-p|c|c and llal llo spoocl vas doIivorod aflor duo
considoralion of llo bonofils vlicl vouId bo dorivod
by llom as againsl llo vongoanco vlicl vas suro lo bo
lalclod againsl lim by Mãgandï.
Having boon Iiboralod from |¯mcr¯gc aflor bocoming
Anajamis, Mãgandï's paronls pul lloir daugllor undor llo
caro and guardianslip of lor uncIo and llon, onlorod llo
monklood in llo Buddla's Sãsana. Ialor, aflor conlinuous
oxorciso of inlonso modilalion, lloy bocamo Aralals.
Somolimo aflorvards, Mãgandï's uncIo offorod lis nioco's
land lo King Ilona. Tlo King mado lor lis Cliof Quoon.
Al llal limo, Glosaka, llo ricl, lad donalod a monaslory,
namod Glosilãrãma, lo llo Buddla and DiscipIo-Sanglas
in Kosamblï Slalo. Kukkula, llo miIIionairo lad aIso
oroclod a monaslory and offorod il in donalion lo llo
ExaIlod Ono, vliIo anollor miIIionairo Iãvãrika offorod a
monaslory caIIod Iãvãrikarãma. Tlo Buddla, in rosponso
lo llo invilalion of lloso llroo miIIionairos, procoodod lo
Kosamblï Slalo and rosidod in llo llroo monaslorios by
lurns. Tlo Buddla aIso accoplod and look llo offor of moaIs
gonorousIy givon by lloso llroo donors and lonourod
llom vill His prosonco al lloir rospoclivo lomos.
23O
Ono day, Sumana, a fIovor soIIor offorod food lo llo
Sanglas Iod by llo Buddla aflor slo lad oblainod
pormission from llo said llroo miIIionairos. On llal vory
day, a maid, sorvanl of llo Quoon Sãmãvalï by llo namo
of Klujjullarã vonl oul lo buy fIovors as usuaI. Sumana,
llo fIovor soIIor loId Klujjullarã: ¨Today I'vo forvonlIy
roquoslod llo EnIigllonod Ono lo accopl and lako llo offor
of food al my rosidonco. I invilo you aIso lo join mo lo loar
llo Buddla's loacling aflor llo moaI is ovor. You may buy
llo fIovors and lako llom avay onIy aflor Iisloning lo llo
Buddla's sormon.¨ Klujjllara accoplod llo invilalion and
llon Iislonod lo llo Anumc!cn¯ D|cmmc allonlivoIy aIong
vill Sumana. In llo courso of llo sormon Klujjullarã
llrougl conlompIalion and noling on vlal lad boon loard,
acliovod sci¯pciii-mcggc-p|c|c, and bocamo a Solãpanna.
Il vas slalod llal usuaIIy Klujjullarã bougll onIy four
kyals vorll of fIovors oul of oigll kyals givon for lor
from llo King's coffors, kooping four kyals for lor ovn
porsonaI uso. On llal parlicuIar day sinco slo lad bocomo
a Solãpanna, slo lad absoIuloIy no inlonlion lo sloaI ollor
poopIo's proporly. Slo lloroforo bougll oigll kyals vorll of
fIovors. Sooing llo fIovors mucl moro llan llal lad boon
usuaIIy found, SamavalI inquirod, ¨O, Sislor! Did llo King
givo you doubIo llo amounl of monoy llal vas ordinariIy
givon lo purclaso llo fIovors parlicuIarIy loday`¨ To
llis quory, Klujjullarã ropIiod, ¨No, Madam, corlainIy
231
nol.¨ ¨Wly llon lloro aro fIovors aboul lvico as many
as voro usuaIIy llo Caso`¨ askod llo Quoon. Klujjullarã
admillod: ¨IsuaIIy on provious occasions, I pockolod four
kyals, and onIy bougll four kyals vorll of fIovors. Today,
I lad bougll fIovors lo llo fuII vaIuo of aII oigll kyals.¨
Tlis vas a candid ropIy by abslaining lorsoIf from loIIing
Iios or faIsolood. Tlis mannor of ropIy dosorvos paying
allonlion. SimpIy bocauso, in lloso ancionl limos, a Quoon
lad fuII and absoIulo povors lo llo oxlonl of imposing a
capilaI punislmonl on any porson vlom slo disIikod or
considorod guiIly. Tlo Quoon couId possibIy givo ordors
lo oxoculo Klujjullarã for laving commillod llofl of llo
monoy paid lo buy fIovors, or rallor, for llo offonco of is
approprialion. Hovovor, Klujjullarã lad spokon llo lrull
and nolling bul llo lrull villoul foar of llo consoquoncos
llal migll bofaII lor. Tlis nobIo and lonosl alliludo in
loIIing llo lrull is llo couragoous allribulo of sci¯pciiimcggc,
llo SpociaI Dlamma. Iurllor inlorrogalions mado as lo
vly slo did nol sIico off laIf llo amounl of monoy givon
lo lor on llal day, Klujjullarã ropIiod llal il as bocauso
slo lad gainod llo SpociaI Dlamma, llo vakoning of llo
liglor consciousnoss of llo Dlamma aflor Iisloning lo llo
sormon doIivorod by llo Buddla.
Sãmãvalï llon rofIoclod vill lor rigll dovolion of mind
llal lo bocomo purifiod in mind villoul any inlonlion
lo sloaI vas indood marvoIIous. Slo imaginod llal llis
232
Dlamma musl bo roaIIy nobIo. Tlis kind of llougll
couId onIy occur in llo mind of a virluous porson. If
llo porson vicious and vickod and nol virluous, angor
vouId lavo rison in lim or lor, parlicuIarIy in sucl a
caso Iiko llis vlon il vas knovn llal llo ollor lad sloIon
or misapproprialod llo monoy givon for llo purposo
of buying fIovors. Sãmãvalï, lovovor, boing a porson
vill a virluous mind vill lor background porfoclions,
vas oIalod lo find lor aid-sorvanl cIoansod of vico, and
oquippod vill llo nobIo SpociaI Dlamma. A koon dosiro
vill a fooIing of onllusiasm laving porvadod Sãmãvalï,
slo onlroalod Klujjullarã, ¨O, my oIdor sislor! Wo aIso visl
lo loar and slaro llo SpociaI Dlamma vlicl you said you
lavo acliovod. IIoaso oxpIain lo us.¨ Klujjullarã in ropIy
roquoslod lo Iol lor lako a ball lo koop lor body cIoan
boforo slo proaclod llo spolIossIy purifiod Dlamma.
Klujjullarã vas lloroforo pormillod lo ballo vill sconlod
valor and voar a compIolo oulfil of dross mado of a vory
fino loxluro. Klujjullarã llon pul on a pioco of garmonl
round lor vaisl and vrappod lorsoIf up vill anollor
pioco of cIoll in llo uppor porlion of lor body abovo llo
vaisl Iolling a parl of llo garmonl rosl upon ono slouIdor
vliIo Ioaving llo ollor slouIdor baro ÷ (c|cmscm p¯ru
pii.¯). Ialor, slo look lor soal on llo aIIollod pIaco. Will a
pocuIiar kind of gIilloring fan caIIod 'ciirc|ijcni' loId in lor
lands, slo bockonod llo fivo lundrod maids-of-lonour,
233
balcl by balcl, and gavo llom lor loacling. WliIo
Iisloning lo llo Dlamma laugll by Klujjullarã vill
ulmosl conconlralion, lloy dovolodIy conlompIalod and
nolod vill diIigonco. Ior laving immorsod llomsoIvos
in Vipassanã Dlamma, liglor avakoning consciousnoss
lad arison in llom llal Iod lo lloir allainmonl of sci¯pciii-
p|c|c. Sãmãvalï and aII lor maids-of-lonour lolaIIing lvo
lundrod and fifly in numbor bocamo Solãpannas.
Tlonco, aII of llom aflor paying lomago lo Klujjullarã
roquoslod, ¨O, Sislor! Effoclivo from loday pIoaso roIinquisl
llis IovIy and moan dulios of a maidsorvanl and assumo
llo roIo of our mollor and loaclor. Tlon, pIoaso bo kind
onougl lo visil llo Buddla daiIy and Iislon lo llo sormon
doIivorod by llo EnIigllonod Ono. Tloroaflor, pIoaso imparl
lo us llo Dlamma you lavo loard.¨ Tloroforo, Klujjullarã
vonl lo pay oboisanco lo llo Iord Buddla ovoryday and
Iislonod lo His nobIo loacling. On lor rolurn, slo rocounlod
llo Dlamma vill vondorfuI procision as lad boon loard
and romomborod by lor. Having lad lor SpociaI Iorfoclion
(p¯rcmii¯s), slo romomborod aII vlal lad boon laugll by llo
Buddla and couId imparl llo loaclings oxaclIy in llo samo
mannor as voro doIivorod by llo EnIigllonod Ono boll in
moduIalion of llo voico, acconl and lono. Evon novadays,
somo poopIo couId imilalo llo slyIo of loacling dono by
llo loaclors in domoanour, modo of doIivory, pilcl and
rlyllm. Tlis appoars possibIo bocauso of lloir p¯rcmii¯s.
234
On llo parl of Klujjullarã, slo lad prayod for allainmonl of
llis SpociaI allribulo in llo pasl lundrod llousand |cppcs.
Tlal is vly slo Ialor bocamo an oulslanding inloIIocluaI
voII vorsod and fuIIy accompIislod in llo Tlroo Baskols of
llo Buddlisl-Scripluros (iipiic|c!|crc). Somo limo Ialor, slo
vas conforrod upon by llo Buddla llo pro-ominonl lilIo
of Eladagga, llo foromosl rank among llo Ioarnod fomaIo
discipIos (Blikklunïs) unrivaIIod in llo knovIodgo of llo
Scripluros and in possossing llo abiIily lo oxpound llom.
Iivo lundrod maids-of-lonour Iod by Sãmãvalï llon
roquoslod Klujjullarã lo find vays and moans lo onabIo
llom lo vorslip llo Buddla and llo Sanglas. Il is prolly
difficuIl for lloso rosiding in llo King's IaIaco lo mool
oulsidors. As sucl, Klujjullarã gavo llom advico lo mako
smaII loIos in llo vaIIs of llo uppor sloroy of llo paIaco
buiIding lo onabIo llom lo soo llrougl lloso loIos vlon
Buddla and lis sanglas camo vaIking aIong llo road on
lloir vay lo llo rosidonliaI mansions of llo miIIionairos
(bonofaclors) Iiving in llo cily lo lako moaIs on invilalion.
Tlis advico vlicl vas accoplod and impIomonlod, onabIod
llo Quoon and lor maids lo poop llrougl llo smaII loIos
al llo limo vlon Buddla and lis company of discipIos,
vaIkod pasl.
Ono day, vlon Mãgandï sav by clanco llo smaII loIos in
llo vaII of llo King's IaIaco, slo inquirod as lo vly llo
235
vaII lad boon so porforalod vill smaII loIos. Sãmãvalï
and lor maids nol knoving llal Mãgandï lad lor
griovanco and grudgo againsl llo Buddla, loId lor llal
llo ExaIlod Ono vas prosonlIy rosiding in llo Cily, and
llal lloso voro llo loIos llrougl vlicl lloy Iookod
furlivoIy lo rovoro and vorslip llo Buddla vlon Ho
vondod lis vay aIong llo road dovn boIov. Wlon slo gol
llal informalion, il occurrod lo Mãgandï, ¨Ol! llo monk
Golama las como ovor lo llis Cily lo slay. I viII lavo lo
do vlal slouId bo dono. Tloso vomonfoIk aro lloso vlo
rovoro llo monk Golama. I'II aIso lavo lo doaI vill llom
as may bo considorod propor.¨ Imagining as sucl, slo
mado sIandorous laIk lo Iol llo King knov llal Sãmãvali
and lor foIIovors voro lrying lo vin llo Iovo of oulsidors
and voro bonl upon coaxing llom and vouId lloroforo
soonor or Ialor conspiro lo assassinalo His Majosly llo
King. Tlo King lovovor, did nol boIiovo lor maIicious
gossip llougl slo lad ropoalod as firsl slalod, llroo limos
in succossion.
Slo, lloroforo, loId llo King, ¨If Your Majosly doosn'l
boIiovo vlal I lavo said, you may pIoaso visil llo main
buiIding of llo paIaco and soo for yoursoIf as lo vlal is
acluaIIy lapponing.¨ Tlo King llon mado lis vay lo llo
said buiIding and lad a Iook round insido llo paIaco.
Ho found llo smaII loIos in llo vaII and in making lis
onquiry as lo vly lloso voro so porforalod, camo lo
236
knov llal lloso loIos voro moanl lo bo poopod llrougl
lo soo llo Iord Buddla and lo rovoro llo Iord. Ho vas
unporlurbod. AIllougl llo King causod lloso loIos lo bo
palclod up and cIosod, lo Iol nov fanIiglls bo fixod up.
Tlo fanIiglls boing mucl bollor llan llo liny loIos, il gavo
doIigll lo Sãmãvalï and lor rolinuo. IaiIing in lor allompl
lo disparago Sãmãvalï and lor maids-of-lonour, Mãgandï
pul a cobra, aflor ils fangs lad boon oxlraclod, insido llo
loIIov spaco of llo King's royaI larp, and covorod up llal
oponing vill a vroall of fIovors, vlon limo vas duo
for llo King lo mako lis rounds lo llo Clambor vloro
Sãmãvalï rosidod.
Aflor carrying oul lor pIan as slalod, Mãgandï coaxod llo
King saying llal il vas nol advisabIo for His Majosly lo
visil Sãmãvalï on llo grounds llal slo lad lad lor bad
droams vlicl porlondod iII-omon. NovorlloIoss, King
Ilona did nol faiI lo caII on Sãmãvalï al lor privalo clambor
according lo llo program lo lad mappod oul. On llal
occasion, Mãgandï accompaniod llo King as if slo vas
vorriod aboul lis safoly. Aflor lis arrivaI lloro, llo King
lad lis moaIs sorvod by Sãmãvalï and llo clambor maids,
and Ialor, pIacing lis larp al llo lop of llo goIdon coucl,
lo Iay dovn on il lo lako a rosl. MoanvliIo, Mãgandï
Ioilorod aboul llo coucl and surropliliousIy romovod llo
vroall of fIovors vlicl sorvod as a covor lo llo loIIov
spaco in llo larp. Tlon camo llo cobra, sIiding oul from
237
insido llo larp, romainod on llo sIooping coucl, raising
ils vonomous lood. Sooing llo snako, Mãgandï raisod
an aIarm soomingIy in lorror as: ¨Tul! Tul! Your Majosly!
Snako! Snako!¨, ulloring al llo samo limo obscono vords
againsl llo King and Sãmãvalï and llon, conlinuod lo laIk
rudoIy as: ¨Tlis slupid King is ingIorious, ignobIo and a
duIIard as voII. Ho rofusod lo boIiovo my vords. Tloso
slupid and vickod buncl of maids aIso lavo no moraIily
and aro simpIy rascaIs. Is lloro anylling llal las so far
boon doniod lo you aII by llo King` I lavo lad a lorribIo
droam Iasl nigll. Dospilo my varnings nol lo visil llo
Clambor of Sãmãvalï, Your Majosly lad, rofusod lo Iislon
lo my sincoro advico, olc.¨
Tlo King vlon facod vill an imminonl dangor of doall
llal couId bo brougll aboul by llo vonomous snako,
boIiovod vlal Mãgandï lad spokon iII of Sãmãvalï.
Volomonl angor lad arison in lim loo. Honco, ordors voro
immodialoIy givon lo slool Sãmãvalï and lor fivo lundrod
maids vill poisonous arrovs and kiII llom on llo spol.
Sãmãvalï and lor foIIovors voro llon diroclod lo sil in a
rov lo lako llo punislmonl. Sãmãvalï advisod lor maids,
¨O, Sislors! Al llis crilicaI momonl vo lavo nolling lo roIy
upon oxcopl mcii¯. You aII may slovor upon llo King and
Mãgandï your fooIing of mcii¯ vloIoloarlodIy, sproading
your Ioving-kindnoss ovonIy baIancod on llom. You may
aIso provonl your angor from arising.¨ So saying, Sãmãvalï
238
sal in llo forofronl of aII lor maids-of-lonour and slarlod
dovoIoping and radialing mcii¯ lo llo bosl of lloir abiIily.
King Ilona porsonaIIy pickod up llo bov and arrov and
slol diroclIy al Sãmãvalï.
Il vas slalod llal llo arrov vlicl vas slol from llo bov
insload of going slraigll lo llo largol roboundod lovards
King Ilona as if il voro aboul lo piorco llrougl lis broasl
and llon droppod slorl in fronl of lim on llo surfaco.
Wlon il so lapponod, roponlanco immodialoIy camo upon
llo King. Tlon ulloring, ¨AIas! llo arrov vlicl I lad
slol slouId lavo piorcod ovon llrougl a llick marbIo
sIab, and yol llis arrov rocoiIod and camo back diroclIy lo
mo as if il voro aboul lo lil mo. Evon a IifoIoss lling Iiko
an arrov knovs llo graliludo and nobIo allribulos of llo
quoon, Sãmãvalï. Hov rogrolfuI il is llal a luman boing
Iiko mo las faiIod lo approcialo lor nobIo quaIilios.¨, lo
llrov avay lis bov. Tlo King llon knooIod dovn boforo
Sãmãvalï and rospoclfuIIy boggod of lor lo pardon lim,
saying:
scmmuµc|¯mi pcmuµ|cmi,
sc||¯ muµ|cnii mc !is¯.
S¯m¯.cii mcm i¯µcssu,
i.cñcc mc scrcncm ||c.c.
S¯m¯.cii ÷ O, my boIovod Sãmãvalï, c|cm ÷ I am,
scmmuµc|¯mi ÷ vory mucl boviIdorod, pcmuµ|cmi ÷ (and)
239
oxlromoIy porpIoxod, mc ÷ lo mo, sc||¯ !is¯ ÷ rogions in aII
diroclions, muµ|cnii ÷ aro aII in confusion vill my llouglls
moandoring nol knoving vlicl is vlicl. 1.cm ÷ You may,
mcm ÷ lo mo, i¯µcssu ÷ |cn! your loIp. 1.cm ÷ You aro my,
scrcncm ÷ onIy rofugo, ||c.c ÷ and may so bocomo, i.o. a
porson on vlom I can roIy upon and lako rofugo.
Sãmãvalï lloroforo gavo lor ropIy in llo foIIoving vords:
M¯ mcm i.cm scrcncm gicc|c,
µcmc|cm scrcncm gci¯.
|sc |u!!|c mc|¯r¯jc,
cs¯ |u!!|c cnuiicrc.
Scrcncm gicc|c icm |u!!|cm
i.cñcc mc scrcncm ||c.c.
Mc|¯r¯jc ÷ O, my boIovod Iord, llo groal King, i.cm ÷
you, mcm m¯ scrcncm gicc|c ÷ slaII nol rovoro mo as your
rofugo, c|cm ÷ I do, µcm ÷ rogard llo Buddla, scrcncm
gci¯ ÷ (and) rovoro (llo Buddla) as my rofugo. |sc ÷ Tlis
Buddla, |u!!|c ÷ is fuIIy EnIigllonod and Omniscionl.
|sc |u!!|c ÷ Tlis Buddla, cnuiicrc ÷ is Supromo. 1cm
|u!!|cm ÷ Tlal Buddla, scrcncm gicc|c ÷ may bo sougll
as a rofugo and vorslippod. 1.cñcc ÷ May Your Majosly
aIso (bo), mc ÷ my, scrcncm ||c.c ÷ rcjugc, or rallor,
bocomo my onIy rofugo or Iroloclor.
24O
On loaring llis ropIy, His Majosly llo King Ilona
admillod, ¨Vory voII, Ol my boIovod! I pay my lomago
and doop rospocl lo you and aIso lavo groal rovoronco for
llo Buddla. I offor you anylling you may visl lo lavo.¨
Aflorvards, llo King mado lis vay lo llo EnIigllonod
Ono and look rofugo in llo llroo }ovoIs of Buddlism, viz.:
Buddla, Dlamma and Sangla. Ho invilod llo Sanglas
Iod by llo Buddla lo lis grand IaIaco, and for sovon days
conlinuousIy, lo rosorlod lo aIms-giving or clarily on an
immonso scaIo. Ho aIso askod Sãmãvalï lo monlion lor
visl so as lo onabIo lim lo fuIfiI lor dosiro according lo
llo promiso aIroady givon. Tloroupon, Sãmãvalï bosougll
llo King lo pormil lor lo offor aIms lo llo Buddla and
Sanglas ovoryday. King Ilona llon porsonaIIy vonl lo
llo EnIigllonod Ono and roquoslod llo Buddla as dosirod
by lis quoon. Tlo Buddla in rosponso lo llo King's
invilalion, sonl llo VonorabIo Aslin Anandã logollor
vill fivo lundrod of lis monk discipIos. Irom llal limo
onvards, Sãmãvalï and lor maids-of-lonour, fivo lundrod
in numbor, lad lad an opporlunily lo do clarily, offor
moaIs, pay lomago lo llo Sangla and llon Iislon lo llo
Toaclings, daiIy.
In llo slory of Sãmãvalï nov cilod, llo rocoiI of llo
arrov, vlicl King Ilona lad slol llrougl angor, vas
llo bonoficiaI rosuIl or llo infIuonco of llo virluo of
mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯. Tlis is ono of llo oIovon advanlagos vlicl
241
signifios invuInorabiIily from firo, poison, and svord.
In llo ovonl of any unlovard incidonl laking pIaco, or
rallor, al any limo of omorgoncy, llis mcii¯ slouId bo fuIIy
dovoIopod vill doop conconlralion. If il is so dovoIopod,
no dangor can bofaII a porson. Evon if lloro is no clanco of
oscapo from, llo dangor, spociaI morils can bo gainod. No
Ioss is incurrod. Il is suro llal bonofils viII bo dorivod.
Tn| S.os\ o| S|n»s¯nt
CoyIonoso lislory rofors lo a slory of a man by llo
namo of Sïlabãlu, born of a princoss vill lor conjugaI
roIalionslip vill a Iion. On allaining llo ago of sixloon,
llis young man askod lis mollor, ¨Wly is il llal you,
mollor, aro difforonl in raco from my fallor`¨. Tlo mollor
rocounlod vlal lad lapponod as: ¨I'm llo daugllor of llo
King of llo Counlry of Vanga. Al ono limo, on my vay lo
llo Slalo of Magadla logollor vill ollor lravoIIors, vo aII
camo upon llis groal Iion. Tlo vloIo crovd of lravoIIors
oxcopl mo fIod in foar. I vas lovovor unabIo lo Iifl my fool
and run avay for my Iifo, oxaclIy as vas onco formorIy
prodiclod by an aslroIogor llal I vouId lavo my conjugaI
roIalionslip vill a Iion. Tlo proplocy vas confirmod by
a miracuIous ovonl in llis vay.
242
WliIo I romainod al a slandsliII vill frigll, llis groal Iion
carriod mo on lis back and look mo avay inlo a cavo vloro
lo Iivod. Sïlabãlu llon inquirod vly slo conlinuod lo
romain in llo cavo villoul rolurning lo llo paIaco vloro
lor ovn kill and kin voro rosiding. Slo loId lor son
llal slo vas unabIo lo Ioavo llo cavo bocauso llo moull
of llo cavo vas bIockod up vill a lugo massivo rock.
Tloroupon, Sïlabãlu romovod llis lugo rock and Iofl llo
pIaco carrying lis mollor and sislor on lis slouIdor.
On rolurn lo lis don, llo groal Iion nol sooing lis vifo and
cliIdron foIl dojoclod and vonl oul in soarcl of llom. Ho
allackod aII poopIo Iiving in llo oulskirls of llo viIIagos
vloro lo sol lis fool. On rocoipl of compIainl from llo
poopIo concornod aboul llo ravagos dono by llo Iion,
llo King of Vanga issuod a royaI procIamalion llal any
porson vlo couId suppross llis onomy, llo Iion, vouId
bo offorod a rovard of llroo llousand kyals. Sïlabãlu
camo forvard lo undorlako llo lask of kiIIing llo Iion.
His mollor lvico provonlod lor son from doing larm lo
llo Iion, lis ovn fallor. On llo llird limo, villoul llo
knovIodgo of lis mollor, Sïlabãlu accoplod llo avard.
On lis arrivaI boforo llo King, llo Iallor promisod llal lo
vouId surrondor lis Kingdom lo Sïlabãlu, if Sïlabãlu
couId quoII llo dangor brougll aboul by llis groal Iion.
Ho lloroforo Iofl llo paIaco and procoodod lo vloro llo
Iion couId bo lracod. Tlo groal Iion, boing groalIy louclod
243
vill an inslinclivo palornaI Iovo, on sooing lis son, vas
dovoIoping lis Ioving-kindnoss. Tlo arrovs vlicl voro
slol al llo Iion by Sïlabãlu lad no offocl on llo Iion, and
lloso arrovs voro said lo lavo roboundod and droppod
boforo lim noar lis fool by virluo of mcii¯ llal lad boon
dovoIopod and radialod lovards llo son. Tlroo allompls
voro mado lo kiII llo Iion in llo Iiko mannor, bul in aII
lis allompls, aII arrovs boundod back lo Sïlabãlu and
droppod on llo oarll boforo lim. Bocauso of ropoalod
allacks by lis son, a fooIing of angor and billornoss lad
arison in llo groal Iion. Honco, llo arrov vlicl vas slol
on llo fourll occasion lil llo Iion and piorcod llrougl ils
body. }udging from llis incidonl, il is lo bo borno in mind
llal llis llroo arrovs lad faiIod lo lil and piorco llrougl
llo Iion's body bocauso of llo fallor's Iovo lovards llo son
and nol jusl moroIy bocauso of ordinary Ioving-kindnoss.
Tn| S.os\ o| Stv»··»-¯·»
RoIaling lo llo advanlagos of mcii¯ slalod in llo forogoing,
oxpIanalion givon lo llo quory pul forvard viII bo found
in MiIindapañlã IãIi Toxl. Tlo quoslion llal aroso vas:
In monlioning llo oIovon advanlagos of mcii¯ il las boon
slalod llal ¨a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ viII oscapo
bodiIy injury, or in ollor vords, viII bo immuno from
244
llo dangors of firo, poison, olc.¨ Hovovor, in llo slory
of Suvannasãma }ãlaka, monlion las boon mado llal
llougl Suvannasãma vas said lo bo aIvays dovoIoping
mcii¯, lo vas badIy voundod and vas in a slalo of
somi-consciousnoss bocauso of llo injury causod by llo
poisonous arrov vlicl vas slol al lim by llo King
IiIiyakkla vliIo lunling door lo find oul llo lrull of
vlal lo considorod as a slrango lling. Sucl boing llo
caso, llo slalomonl llal Suvannasãma lad boon lil by
llo arrov musl bo vrong if llo slalomonl llal no larm
or injury couId bo infIiclod by a voapon on a porson vlo
vas dovoIoping mcii¯. On llo ollor land, if llo slalomonl
llal Suvannasãma vas acluaIIy lil by an arrov, llon, llo
slalomonl llal ¨a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯ bocomos
invuInorabIo¨, musl bo vrong. Sinco lloso lvo slalomonls
voro confIicling and voro conlrary lo ono anollor, King
MiIinda roquoslod Aslin Nagasona lo kindIy cIarify llo
lvo opposilo viovs or llo discropancios.
To llis probIomalic mallor in issuo, Aslin Nagasona Tlora
oxpIainod as foIIovs:
¨O, nobIo King MiIinda! Il is oxaclIy lruo llal no voapon can
lil or larm a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯. Il is aIso lruo
llal Suvannasãma vas lil by an arrov. Tlougl boll aro, in
facl, corrocl, llo roason for laving no discropancy bolvoon
llo lvo slalomonls is llal llo advanlago of invuInorabiIily
245
is dorivod nol bocauso of llo inloronl povor or quaIily
of llo porson bul bocauso of llo allribulos or quaIily of
mcii¯. AIllougl il lad boon slalod llal Suvannasãma vas
dovoIoping mcii¯ al llo limo vlon lo vas slruck by llo
arrov, lo vas picking up llo valor-pol, and il vas during
llal briof momonl of inlorvaI Suvannasãma lad a broak
or a Iapso in llo procoss of dovoIoping mcii¯. Tlal is llo
roason vly lo vas slruck by an arrov.¨
Ior oxampIo, in ancionl limos, soIdiors lad an armourod
suil mado of molaI slooI. Wlon sucl an armour vas vorn
in figlling as a covoring in dofonco, no arrov or spoar couId
piorco llrougl il. Il sorvod as a proloclion againsl slarp
voapons. Tlo oscapo from injury causod by a voapon,
sucl as, spoar, arrov or a svord, is bocauso of llo facuIly
of llo armourod suil. Il is nol allribulabIo lo llo inloronl
povor or facuIly of llo man. If llis suil of armour is nol
vorn by a porson, any kind of voapon usod againsl lim
vouId lavo causod an injury. In llo samo vay, immunily
from sucl IollaI voapons slouId bo allribulod lo llo
facuIly of mcii¯ and nol lo llal of llo porson. Honco, al llo
momonl of a Iapso from mcii¯ dovoIopmonl, Suvannasãma
vas slruck by llo arrov.
Tlo socond oxampIo is llal a porson Iiving in a sound
masonry buiIding viII nol gol vol by rains. Tlis is nol duo
lo lis facuIly bul llo inloronl quaIily of llo buiIding ilsoIf.
246
If lo Iacks sloIlor and slays oulsido llo buiIding, lo viII bo
soakod lo llo skin. SimiIarIy, if a porson is Iacking in mcii¯,
any kind of voapon couId larm lim al llo momonl of lis
Iapso in llo dovoIopmonl of mcii¯, jusl as a man vlo viII
gol soakod if lo voro oulsido llo buiIding vlon raining.
Tlo noxl oxampIo may bo cilod. Tlis is vlal is caIIod a
¨modicinaI lroo of an angoI¨. Il is slalod llal a porson vlo
vas loIding ils brancl, or any parl of ils vood, vouId
bocomo invisibIo lo llo nakod oyo. Il lad llo povor of
making a man ¨InvisibIo¨. Tloro is ovory IikoIilood llal
poopIo novadays may find il difficuIl lo boIiovo sucl a
miracIo. Hovovor, I lavo mado a monlion of il according
lo vlal is found in llo Toxl of MiIindapañlã. InvisibiIily
is llo povor of llis ¨ModicinaI Troo of an AngoI¨, and nol
of llo man. Tlo main significanco vlicl I vanl lo slross is
lo conslanlIy dovoIop mcii¯, if you vanl lo prolocl yoursoIf
from any kind of dangor.
RoIaling lo No. (7) of llo oIovon advanlagos llal can bo
accruod from mcii¯ in connoclion vill llo invuInorabiIily
from firo, poison and voapons olc., nolling moro is
roquirod lo bo said. Rogarding No. (8) spoodiIy bocomos
llo mind sorono, (9) faciaI compIoxion is brigll and
sparkIing vill joy, and (1O) villoul gIoom and anxioly
on llo vorgo of doall, il doos nol appoar nocossary lo bo
ropoalod. Wlal nov romains lo bo said is connoclod vill
247
No. (11) ¨voriIy doslinod lo bocomo a Bralmã¨, llo Iasl of
llo advanlagos. Tlis advanlago is cIoarIy monlionod in llo
IãIi Toxls. Indor llo sub-loading ¨Socond Mollã Sulla¨
appoaring in llo boginning of Iarl IV of llis Dlamma,
llo mollod of Vipassanã modilalion lo bo joinlIy oxorcisod
las boon slovn. Tlis viII again bo cIarifiod nov.
How .o co·.|·||».| »ccoso|·. .o .n| S|co·o V|..¯
St..»
Sc ÷ A porson vlo las allainod mcii¯-j|¯nc, icii|c ÷
vliIo boing absorbod in llal mcii¯-j|¯nc µc!c.c rùpcgcicm
.c!cn¯gcicm scññ¯gcicm scn||¯rcgcicm .iññ¯ncgcicm ÷
sucl rùpc, .c!cn¯, scññ¯, scn||¯rc, .iññ¯nc aro onIy prosonl
or appoaring. (Il moans lo say lloro is an absonco of 'ciic' al
llal briof momonl.) 1c !|cmmc ÷ llal rùpc, .c!cn¯, scññ¯,
scn||¯rc, .iññ¯nc !|cmmc aro Iookod upon, cnicccic ÷ as
impormanonl, !u|||cic ÷ and as sufforing, rcgcic ÷ and
aro simiIar lo llo disoaso llal las boon conlraclod, gcn!cic
÷ and Iiko a lumourous grovll, or rallor, an infIamod
suppuraling lumour vlicl las bursl, sc||cic ÷ and as
rosombIing a slarp-poinlod slump vlicl las sluck in,
cg|cic ÷ and aro nol froo from sufforing and misory, nay,
Iiko an oviI dood, ¯|¯!|cic ÷ and simiIar lo sicknoss, pcrcic
248
÷ and rosombIo a slrangor or an aIion paIokalo ÷ and oasiIy
doslruclibIo, suññcic ÷ and dovoid of ciic boing villoul
any onlily, and cnciicic ÷ do nol conslilulo a Iiving boing,
bul moroIy a naluraI plonomonon, scmcnupcsscii ÷ and
aro conlompIalod and porcoivod as sucl.
Tlo abovo doscribos llo mannor of conlompIaling Vipassanã
aflor arising from llo lranco of j|¯nc. Wlal is conlompIalod
is on rùpc and .c!cn¯, olc., as and vlon lloy occur al llo
momonl of lis absorplion in j|¯nc. Il is somolling vlicl
is simiIar lo vlal llo prosonl Yogïs aro conlompIaling and
noling as ¨sooing¨, ¨loaring¨, or, ¨imagining¨ aflor llo
arising consciousnoss of vlal is soon, loard or imaginod.
Al llo limo vlon llo }lãnic-mind occurs, rùpc or mallor, on
vlicl llo }lãnic-mind doponds, is prosonl. Il is oxlromoIy
puro, rofinod and good. As lloso good sonsalions lavo
porvadod llo vloIo body, ono vouId fooI vory comforlabIo
and nico. Il is simiIar lo llo claraclorislics of consciousnoss
or knovIodgo vlicl occurs al llo momonl of aclioving
u!cµc||cµc-ñ¯nc. Tlis rùpc on vlicl roIianco is mado and
rùpcs-maloriaI oIomonls or sonso-objocls vlicl lavo lakon
pIaco by virluo of j|¯nc aro monlionod in IãIi Toxls as
¨µc!c.c rùpcgcicm¨ Vc!cn¯, olc., vlicl occur land in land
simuIlanoousIy and in combinalion vill llo }lãnic-mind
lavo boon monlionod as ¨.c!cn¯gcicm, scññ¯gcicm and
scn||¯rcgcicm¨. Tlo }lãnic-mind is, lovovor, doscribod
as ¨.iññ¯ncgcicm¨. Tlis is lov a porson vlo las allainod
249
j|¯nc, conlompIalos on llo }lãnic-mind, olc. Tlis rosombIos
llo mannor of conlompIaling and noling llo arising
consciousnoss of imaginalion as ¨imagining¨, vlon il
occurs, by llo prosonl Yogïs.
Hov avaronoss and porcoplion is gainod by insigll-
knovIodgo llrougl conlompIalion as las boon slalod, is
slovn as, ¨cnicccic¨, olc., lolaIIing oIovon kinds. A porson
vlo is ondovod vill spociaI or doopor knovIodgo can
grasp aII llo oIovon claraclorislics or condilions. A porson
vlo is Iacking in knovIodgo cannol roaIiso aII of llom. Ho
may knov onIy a fov. Tlo mosl significanl poinl, lovovor,
is lo knov llo lruo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and
cnciic. Honco, llo Buddla las laugll Iaying omplasis on
lloso llroo kinds, viz.: cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic. If lloso
llroo marks aro lruIy porcoivod and knovn, llo rosl of
llo oigll can aIso bo undorslood. Ior inslanco, pc|c|c
÷ oasiIy doslruclibIo ÷ carrios llo samo sonso as cniccc,
impormanonco or nol Iasling. Il is simiIar lo (1) a viruIonl-
lypo of disoaso, (2) a clronic maIignanl lumour, (3) a
slarp-poinlod slump llal las slruck or piorcod llrougl,
(4) cg|c ÷ nol froo from sufforing, nay, il can bring oviI jusl
Iiko vico or domoril, (5) llo fivo condilions vlicl aro said
lo bo simiIar lo iIInoss aro aII !u|||c ÷ sufforing. (1) Pcrc
÷ il rosombIos a slrangor, (2) Suññc ÷ il is dovoid of 'ciic',
÷ a boing, or individuaIily. Tlo said lvo aIso convoy llo
samo moaning as 'cnciic' ÷ non-soIf or ungovornabIo. Tlal
25O
is vly I lavo nov, oxpIainod llo mannor by vlicl llo
naluro or claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic can bo
knovn and roaIisod.
l·||s·»·|·c| (A·|cc»), cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| l·||s·»·|·c| c
.n| co·.|·||».|o· o| l·||s·»·|·c| ÷ A·|cc¯·t|»--»·¯
Anicccm .c!iic||cm ÷ cniccc musl bo knovn or undorslood.
Aniccci¯ .c!iic||¯ ÷ llo claraclorislic of cniccc musl bo
nolod and knovn as impormanonl. Anicc¯nupcsscn¯
.c!iic||¯ ÷ Vipassanã knovIodgo vlicl conlompIalos
and knovs llal il is impormanonl or nol Iasling slouId bo
undorslood. Il las boon slalod as sucl in llo Commonlary.
Nov Iol us rocilo:
¨Aniccc musl bo knovn. Tlo claraclorislic of cniccc
musl bo knovn. Anicc¯nupcsscn¯ musl bo knovn.¨
Il las boon oxpoundod llal: ¨Aniccc moans cnicccnii ||cn!|c-
pcñ-cc|cm and llal is, vlal is impormanonco caIIod 'cniccc'
is nolling bul llo aggrogalo of Iivo K|cn!|cs.¨
IIoaso rocilo llo foIIoving Mollo:
¨You slouId romombor llo Iivo K|cn!|cs as Aniccc
÷ impormanonco.¨
251
Tloso Iivo ||cn!|cs vlicl aro lransionl by naluro aro rùpcs
and n¯mcs ÷ mallor and mind ÷ vlicl lavo oxislod al
llo momonl of llo occurronco of llo }lãnic-mind. Tloso
aro monlionod in llo IãIi Toxl as ¨rùpcgcicm, .c!cn¯gcicm,
olc.¨ Tlis is llo Dlamma vlicl slouId bo corroclIy
and vividIy knovn as cniccc ÷ impormanonco ÷ vlon
conlompIalion is carriod on aflor arising from j|¯nc. Il is
simiIar lo vlal is cIoarIy knovn by llo modilalor vill
porsonaI insigll knovIodgo of llo rùpcs and n¯mcs al llo
momonl of sooing, loaring and imagining, in llo courso
of lloir conlompIalion and noling as: ¨sooing¨, ¨loaring¨
and ¨imagining¨, vill avaronoss. Aniccc, possossing
llo claraclorislic of 'impormanonco' roaIisod llrougl
conlompIalion and noling, may bo oxpIainod llus:
Hui.¯ ÷ OriginaIIy vlal las nol yol oxislod boforo, las
occurrod, and llon c||¯.¯|¯rc ÷ suddonIy disappoars and
vanislos. Tlis lransionl naluro of cniccc|c|||cncm ÷ is lo
bo nolod and undorslood as llo claraclorislic of cniccc.
Honco, il las boon oxprossod in llo form of a mollo as
slalod boIov, and llis may bo rocilod:
¨Vanisling aflor occurronco is llo claraclorislic of cniccc.¨
AII llings aro impormanonl if lloy ariso inslanlIy foIIovod
by dissoIulion. Ior oxampIo, a louso is conslruclod in an
opon fioId. Is il nol a louso vlicl las sprung up anov
252
llougl il las nol oxislod boforo` Yos, il is. Is il nol subjoclod
lo docay for llo simpIo roason llal ono day or llo ollor, or
vill llo passago of limo, il viII mool vill doslruclion`
SlaII vo lloroforo say il is ovorIasling, or impormanonl` If a
lling appoars and llon again disappoars, il is undoublodIy
impormanonl and lransilory. In llo samo vay, a porson is
born inlo llis vorId as vlal is caIIod lis Iifo oxislonco. Ho
las como inlo boing afrosl, bul viII ono day pass avay or
dio. Ho, as a Iiving boing, is no doubl impormanonl and nol
Iasling. Iikoviso, il rosombIos a fIasl of Iigllning vlicl
appoars and vanislos aII of a suddon. Tloso aro llo oxampIos
of llo lransionl naluro or llo claraclorislic of cniccc.
A Yogï vlo is conlompIaling and noling viII porcoivo
llo manifoslalions of llo sonsalions of loucl, llouglls
and imaginalion, sound and sigll conslanlIy arising
and vanisling, and llon appoaring again foIIovod by
dissoIulion al ovory momonl of lis noling vlon lis
povor of conconlralion (scm¯!|i) bocomos slrong. Sucl
lapponings viII bo roaIisod vill lis ovn porsonaI
insigll-knovIodgo. Ho viII bocomo oIalod vill joy llal
ovorylling vlicl occurs, passos avay inslanlanoousIy.
Tlis is llo claraclorislic of cniccc. Wlon avaronoss lakos
pIaco vliIo conlompIaling llal llings lavo arison and
disappoarod aII al onco, lo viII como lo roaIiso llal lloso
aro aII ¨Impormanonco¨. Tlis knovIodgo or avaronoss is
¨cnicccnupcsscn¯-ñ¯nc.¨
253
Tlis is Vipassanã insigll knovIodgo llrougl conlom-
pIalion and noling and nol llo knovIodgo of rofIoclivo
llougll gainod by Suicmcµc.
Wlon a porson is said lo bo absorbod in mcii¯-j|¯nc, lo is
acluaIIy dovoIoping lis mindfuInoss praying as ¨May aII
bo lappy, olc.¨ WliIo immorsing limsoIf llus, llo mcii¯
÷ }lãnic-mind occurs visling ollors lappy. Tlis }lãnic-
mind may Iasl for a socond, or a fov minulos. Wlon llis
}lãnic-mind coasos, llon usuaI sonsuous llouglls or dosiros
viII appoar or ariso. Tlis is lo bo caIIod as ¨rising from
j|¯nc.¨ Il is somolling Iiko vaking up from a doop sIumbor.
If llo Yogï vlo pIungos limsoIf in a lranco of j|¯nc boaring
in mind or vill pro-dolorminalion llal lo viII carry on
vill Vipassanã conlompIalion aflor rising from j|¯nc, llo
momonl }lãnic-mind coasos, conlompIalivo mind vill
avaronoss ÷ Vipassanã ÷ consciousnoss viII lako pIaco.
Ho knovs dislinguislabIy llo arising consciousnoss of
Vipassanã and llo cossalion of llo }lãnic-mind. Il is nol llal
llo }lãnic-mind singIy is knovn. Tlo simuIlanoous arising
and dissoIulion of rùpc, .c!cn¯, scññ¯ and scn||¯rcs aro aIso
knovn and roaIisod. Ho cIoarIy porcoivos and undorslands
llal ovorylling boing (in llo procoss of) arising and dis-
soIving incossanlIy is, in facl, impormanonl, olc.
AppIying llis mollod in ordor lo dovoIop Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc,
or, insigll-knovIodgo, vo slaII dovoIop mcii¯. Iol's rocilo
254
vill a fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss by radialing mcii¯, and al
llo samo limo, dovoIop llo claraclorislic of impormanonco
of llo sonso-objocl ÷ llo sound (voico) llal omanalos from
our rocilalion or clanling.
May aII boings bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos).
Dt||n», cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| Dt||n» c Dt||n¯·t|»--»·¯
Sinco il las boon laugll llal !u|||c moans: ¨Yc!cni ÷ ccm
icm !u|||cm ÷ vlicl is lransionl and lloroforo, 'sufforing',
llo fivo ||cn!|cs nol boing Iasling, aro !u|||c (sufforing).
Of lloso ||cn!|cs, onIy !u|||c.c!cn¯, llo sonsalion of
sufforing vlicl is ono of llo consliluonls of .c!cn¯||cn!|c,
is misory, for boing dislrossfuI. Tlo rosl of llo four ||cn!|cs
and su||cupc|||¯ aro nol llo misorabIo condilions vlicl
aro causing larm and dislross. Hovovor, sinco lloy aro
dovoid of pIoasuro for boing impormanonl or lransilory by
naluro, lloy aro lo bo lormod ¨!u|||c¨. And aIso bocauso
il causo llo dislrossing sonsalion ÷ !u|||c.c!cn¯ ÷ and
is IikoIy lo causo lroubIo and pain, il is said lo bo ¨!u|||c¨.
Iol's rocilo a mollo as slovn boIov:
¨Impormanonl aro llo Iivo K|cn!|cs vlicl aro
in roaIily !u|||c, sufforing.¨
255
Tloso fivo ||cn!|cs boing incossanlIy arising and
dissoIving aro aIvays causing pain and sufforing. Tloso
||cn!|cs by causing sliffnoss, lolnoss, olc., aro oflon iII-
lroaling. Tlal is vly il is lormod as ¨!u|||c¨ ÷ lorribIy
misorabIo. Tlis naluro of conslanl sufforing and misory is
lo bo undorslood as llo claraclorislic or mark of !u|||c.
Iol's rocilo a mollo vlicl is composod as foIIovs:
¨Conslanl iII-lroalmonl causod by llo
arising and dissoIulion of ||cn!|cs is llo
claraclorislic of !u|||c (!u|||¯nupcsscn¯).
A Yogï vlo is conlinuousIy conlompIaling on llo arising
plonomona of rùpc and n¯mc, porcoivos llo formalion or
arising of nov ||cn!|cs foIIoving inslanlanoousIy villoul
approciabIo inlorvaI upon llo dissoIulion of llo oId. Ho
roaIisos llo causalion of unboarabIo pain and sufforing,
and bocomos salisfiod finding llom as boing misorabIo
and frigllfuI llrougl lis porsonaI insigll-knovIodgo.
Tlis is llo roaI '!u|||¯nupcsscn¯-ñ¯nc' I lavo coinod a
mollo vlicl may bo rocilod as foIIovs:
¨Avaronoss of sufforing and misory for laving
found llo lransionl naluro of arising and
dissoIulion al llo momonl-of-conlompIalion
and noling, is !u|||¯nupcsscn¯-ñ¯nc.
256
Iol us nov rocilo by dovoIoping mcii¯ as: ¨May aII bo
lappy¨ vliIo conlompIaling llo mannor of iII-lroalmonl
causod by llo condilion of arising and dissoIulion of
llings, and dovoIoping !u|||¯nupcsscn¯. IIoaso foIIov llo
rocilalion.
¨May aII boings bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
A·»..», cn»s»c.|s|-.|c o| A·»..», c A·»..¯·t|»--»·¯
Wlal is ¨Anciic¨` Il moans: ¨Ycm !u|||cm ic!cncii¯ ÷ llo
!u|||c !|cmmc, as laugll by llo Buddla. Honco, llo fivo
||cn!|cs vlicl aro caIIod ¨!u|||c¨ is nol ¨ciic¨, a Iiving onlily.
Il is Non-SoIf, llo ¨cnciic¨ Il is unmanagoabIo and cannol bo
coaxod lo bocomo lappy inasmucl as il's inloronl naluro
is ¨sufforing¨. Sinco il is unmanagoabIo and unconlroIIabIo,
il cannol bo caIIod or rogardod as Ono's Ovn 'SoIf'. As sucl,
Anciic is a condilion vlicl is ungovornabIo, Iol's rocilo a
Mollo vlicl ombracos llo said moaning:
¨Tlo Iivo K|cn!|cs boing ungovornabIo,
aro nol Aiic.¨
If il is ono's ovn SoIf, il slouId rospond as you may visl lo
lappon. Tlo fivo ||cn!|cs rofuso lo acl or bolavo as you vouId
dosiro, and compIy vill your domand. Il lappons according
257
lo circumslancos, and undor unforosoon circumslancos, il
lappons againsl ono's ovn viII. Wlal is good and pIoasurabIo
may occur bul il viII nol bo Iasling and viII nol conlinuo
lo romain conslanl as you visl il lo bo. Il immodialoIy
vanislos. Sinco lloy lappon againsl ono's ovn visl, and aro
ungovornabIo, il slouId bo nolod and roaIisod as ¨Non-SoIf¨
and Nol as ¨Aiic¨. Honco, il las boon slalod as moroIy llo
claraclorislic cj cnciic and as a condilion, unconlroIIabIo and
unmanagoabIo, vlicl vouId nol lappon according lo ono's
ovn visl, i.o. (c.csc.uiicnc |¯rc cnciic|c|||cncm). Tlo Mollo
is couclod as boIov. Iol's rocilo:
¨Nol lapponing according lo ono's ovn visl,
is llo claraclorislic of Anciic.¨
A Yogï vlo is conlinuousIy conlompIaling on llo arising
plonomona of rùpcs and n¯mcs viII find llom incossanlIy
appoaring and disappoaring according lo llo roIovanl
Circumslancos againsl lis ovn viII. Tloroforo, lo roaIisos
dislinguislabIy vill lis ovn porsonaI insigll-knovIodgo
llal lloy aro by naluro Anciic vlicl is ungovornabIo.
Tlis is llo gonuino Ancii¯nupcsscn¯-ñ¯nc. Iol us rocilo llo
mollo vlicl las boon composod in llo Iigll of llo abovo:
¨Iinding il ungovornabIo and unrosponsivo
lo ono's ovn visl vliIo conlompIaling
and noling, and roaIising il as 'Non-SoIf', is
Ancii¯nupcsscn¯-ñ¯nc.¨
258
Tlougl ono may visl lo dovoIop mcii¯ llrougl modilalion
llrougloul day and nigll by dovoIoping and radialing
mcii¯ monlaIIy or vorbaIIy rociling as ¨May aII bo lappy¨,
il viII nol bo possibIo lo do so if porsovoranco and onorgolic
offorl aro Iacking. Il vouId bo possibIo if lloro is fuII
accompIislmonl of slrong viII, diIigonco and rosoIulion.
Honco, il is 'cnciic' Dlamma vlicl doos nol lappon or
rospond according lo ono's ovn viII. In ordor lo foIIov up
vill an aclion lo conlompIalo llo naluro of cnciic, Iol us
dovoIop mcii¯. IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII boings bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
Il vouId amounl lo conlompIaling llo spiril of Ioving-
kindnoss, llo |¯m¯.cccrc |usc|c, i.o., morils roIaling lo llo
domain of sonsuaI pIoasuros, if sorious conlompIalion is
mado so as lo roaIiso llo marks of cniccc, olc., by rociling
from llo innormosl loarl as: ¨May aII bo lappy.¨
ConlompIalion mado on mcii¯-}lãnic-mind by a porson
vlo las acliovod j|¯nc, is nolling bul conlompIaling
on mc|cggcic-|usc|c mind, i.o., llo slalo of mind llal is
liglIy morilorious, olc. Tlo onIy difforonco is bolvoon llo
naluro of |¯m¯.cccrc and llal of mc|cggcic-j|¯nc, i.o., Iofly
or oxlonsivo j|¯nc. Tlo mannor of conlompIaling mcii¯ is,
lovovor, idonlicaI. Honco, vliIo conlompIaling llo vir-
luous llougll of mcii¯, olc., vlon .ipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc bocomos
259
slrongllonod, Nibbãna ÷ llo slalo of compIolo oxlinclion
of rùpc and n¯mc ÷ viII bo roaIisod llrougl criµc mcggc-
ñ¯nc. IoIIoving llis mcggc-ñ¯nc, llo knovIodgo of fruilion
(p|c|c) viII bo allainod. If sucl allainmonl is accompIislod,
ono viII al Ioasl bocomo a Solãpanna. A porson vlo las
acliovod mcii¯-j|¯nc, if lo conlinuos lo conlompIalo and
nolo, viII allain Nibbãna llrougl llo acliovomonl of
slago of Sc|c!¯g¯mi-mcggc-p|c|c and An¯g¯mi-mcggc-p|c|c.
In mosl casos Anãgãmislip is allainod. If lo bocomos an
Anãgãmi by facuIly of vlicl lo or slo is onliroIy froo from
|¯mc-r¯gc (luman passionalo dosiros), lo viII no Iongor
roacl llo abodo of |¯mc. Robirll viII lako pIaco onIy in llo
abodos of rùpc.cc¯rc and crùpc.cc¯rc. Il is vory IikoIy llal
lo or slo may lavo lis or lor noxl oxislonco in rùpc.cc¯rc
abodo caIIod Suddlãvãsa. Honco ÷
Co·.|·t».|o· o| .n| S|co·o V|..¯ St..»
¨Sc ÷ A porson vlo conlompIalos mcii¯-j|¯nc as cniccc,
olc., or rallor, a porson vlo las bocomo an Anãgãmi
by conlompIaling mcii¯-j|¯nc, olc., as cniccc and so on,
|¯µcssc ||c!¯ ÷ from llo limo of llo doslruclion of llo
maloriaI body, mcrcn¯ ÷ jrcm llo limo of doall, pcrcm
÷ subsoquonlIy, su!!|¯.¯scncm !c.¯ncm ÷ (bocamo) ono
26O
of llo inlabilanls of llo Abodo of Suddlãvãsa CoIosliaI
Bralmã, sc|c|µcicm ÷ laving llo samo slalus or Iifo
oxislonco of a Bralmã, upcpcjjcii ÷ and accordingIy viII
lavo lis robirll. Tlo Buddla conlinuod lo say: ¨O,
Blikklus! cµcm upcpciii ÷ lo bo roborn, or lo roacl llis
Abodo of Suddlãvãsa, pui|ujjcnc|i ÷ unIiko llo majorily
of vorIdIings, cs¯!|¯rcnc ÷ is a pocuIiar and unrivaIIod
allainmonl.¨
In llis rogard, sinco il las boon slalod as roacling llo
Abodo of Suddlãvãsa, il is aIso nocossary lo allain llo
Iourll j|¯nc. By dovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, onIy llo Tlird
j|¯nc can bo allainod. As sucl, a quoslion may ariso as lo
lov il couId roacl Suddlãvãsa Abodo. Il may bo ansvorod
llal aflor bocoming an Anãgãmi by conlompIaling mcii¯-
j|¯nc, llo Iourll j|¯nc is acliovod llrougl upc|||¯ ||¯.cn¯.
To acliovo as sucl is nol difficuIl for an Anãgãmi. Il is
quilo oasy. Evon a porson, vlo las bocomo an Anãgãmi
llrougl Vipassanã conlompIalion villoul llo allainmonl
of any j|¯nc can oasiIy acliovo up lo llo Iourll j|¯nc
and roacl llo Abodo of Suddlãvãsa. Honco, il slouId bo
undorslood llal Suddlãvãsa Abodo las boon roaclod
aflor allainmonl of llo Iourll j|¯nc llrougl llo oxorciso
of upc|||¯ ||¯.cn¯.
In so far as an ordinary vorIdIing is concornod, aIllougl
lo las allainod mcii¯-j|¯nc and upc|||¯-j|¯nc, lo cannol
261
possibIy roacl llo Abodo of Suddlãvãsa. Tlal is vly
llo oxislonco or robirll in Suddlãvãsa Abodo is nol
connoclod vill, or rallor, boyond llo roacl of ordinary
vorIdIings (Pui|ujjcncs). Is il nol lruo llal Solãpannas
and Sakadãgãmis cannol aIso bo roborn in Suddlãvãsa
Abodo` Tlon llo quoslion may ariso as lo vly il is nol
monlionod: llal il doos nol concorn Solãpannas and
Sakadãgãmis. Il is lruo llal Solãpannas and Sakadãgãmis
cannol bo roborn in Suddlãvãsa. Hovovor, lloy can oasiIy
acliovo Anãgãmislip and llon, roacl Suddlãvãsa. As
sucl, il may bo undorslood llal il las boon monlionod as,
nol connoclod vill onIy ordinary vorIdIings vlo lavo
no clanco of bocoming in Suddlãvãsa.
Wlal las nov boon laugll roIalos lo llo Socond Mollã
Sulla as conlainod in Angullara Nikãya, Iourll Nipãla.
In llo Iirsl Mollã Sulla, lovovor, il is slalod llal if doall
lakos pIaco as an ordinary vorIdIing aflor allainmonl
of mcii¯-j|¯nc, lo viII, by virluo of lis acliovomonl of
j|¯nc, bo roborn in llo abodos of Iirsl j|¯nc, of Socond
j|¯nc, of Tlird j|¯nc and .c|cpp|c|c (llo lonll Abodo of
BralmãIoka), and llon, on oxpiry of llo Iifo-span in lloso
abodos, lo viII bo rovorlod lo |¯mcsugcii aflor lis doall,
and aIso lloro is ovory possibiIily of lis dosconding lo llo
Iour Nollor WorIds. Hovovor, in llo caso of a porson vlo
las bocomo an Ariyã lo viII bocomo an Aralal in llal
BralmãIoka from vloro lo viII onlor inlo Iarinibbãna.
262
To bo abIo lo rovoro il, furllor oIucidalion viII bo mado
by rociling llo moaning of llo IãIi plraso basod on llo
mollod of Nissaya.
Tn| l|s-. V|..¯ St..»
|Rcjcrcncc: Angullara ÷ p. 443]
.8|i|||c.c ÷ O, Blikklus! |!c ÷ In llis vorId, c|cccc
puggc|c ÷ corlain porsons, mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ ÷ vill
llo llougll llal arisos aIong vill mcii¯, c|cm !iscm ÷
lovards ono rogion, p|crii.¯ .i|¯rcii ÷ romain sproading
oul. 1ci|¯ !uiiµcm ÷ In llo samo mannor, lloy romain
radialing llo llouglls of Ioving-kindnoss lovards llo
Socond rogion. 1ci|¯ iciiµcm ÷ SimiIarIy romain sproading
oul lovards llo Tlird rogion. |ii ÷ in llis mannor, u!!|cm
÷ lovards llo liglor rogions abovo, c!|c ÷ lovards llo
Iovor rogions boIov, iiriµcm ÷ lovards llo rogions in llo
opposilo diroclion or across, sc||c!|i ÷ lovards aII llo
rogions, sc||ciici¯µc ÷ rogarding aII boings on llo samo
IovoI vill llomsoIvos, nay, vill aII llo llouglls llal ariso,
sc||¯.cnicm |c|cm ÷ lovards llo vloIo Inivorso vloro
aII boings aro inlabilod, mcii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ ÷ vill a
bonovoIonl mind and vill goodviII lovards aII, .ipu|cnc
263
÷ vill oxlonsivo llouglls, mc|cggcicnc ÷ vill llo }lãnic-
mind caIIod mc|cggcic, c.crcnc vill unmaIicious llougll,
c|µ¯pcjj|cnc vill undojoclod llougll, p|crii.¯ .i|¯rcii
÷ romain radialing.
Tlo Buddla's loaclings (!cscn¯) up lo llis slago is idonlicaI
lo llo Socond Mollã Sulla. Il doscribos lov j|¯nc is radialod
aflor il las boon acliovod and llo mannor in vlicl ono
pIungos limsoIf in a lranco of j|¯nc. Tloroaflor, oxposilion
is mado of llo pocuIiar claraclorislic by ombracing j|¯nc
villoul conlompIaling Vipassanã, as foIIovs:
Sc ÷ Sucl a porson or individuaI, icm ÷ in llal mcii¯-
j|¯nc, css¯!cii ÷ las found doIigll. 1cm ÷ To llal
j|¯nc, ni|¯mcii ÷ lo las bocomo allaclod vill affoclion.
1cnc ÷ Will llal j|¯nc, .iiicm cc ¯pcjjcii lo las gainod
lappinoss vill pIoasuro. 1cii|¯ i|iic and romains in llal
j|¯nc, ic!c!|imuiic bocoming allaclod lo llal j|¯nc vill
consciousnoss. 1c||c|u|c .i|¯ri ÷ Tlon, aflor ropoaling lis
absorplion many a limo in llal j|¯nc, cpcri|inc ÷ villoul
boing doprivod of llo facuIly of llis j|¯nc, |¯|cm |urnm¯nc
÷ vlon doall occurs, |rc|mc|¯µi|¯ncm !c.¯ncm ÷ in llo
abodo of llo Iirsl j|¯nc Bralmãs, sc||ccµicm ÷ lo goos
inlo companionslip vill llo Bralmã and on llo samo
IovoI as a Bralmã upcpcjjcii ÷ and is roborn or bocomos a
Bralmã. (Tlis rofors lo lov il lappons roIaling lo a porson
vlo las acliovod llo Iirsl mcii¯-j|¯nc.) Sc ÷ A porson
264
vlo allains llo Socond mcii¯-j|¯nc, icm ÷ in llal j|¯nc,
css¯!cii ÷ finds doIigll. As in llo caso of llo porson vlo
las allainod llo Iirsl mcii¯-j|¯nc, lo las found pIoasuro
in llal Socond j|¯nc, and villoul boing doprivod of llo
facuIly of llal j|¯nc, on lis doall, lo bocomos a Bralmã
on llo samo slalus as llal of Ablassara Bralmã. Tlis
oxpIains lov il lappons lo a porson vlo las acliovod llo
Socond mcii¯-j|¯nc. Of courso, in llis rogard, omplasis
is Iaid on llo liglosl abodo of A||csscrc Dc.c of llo
BralmãIoka oul of llo llroo abodos of Socond j|¯nc, .iz.:
Pcriii¯||¯, Appcm¯n¯||¯ and A||csscrc.
Tloroaflor, vlon doall lakos pIaco aflor allaining llo
Tlird Mcii¯ j|¯nc, llo significanl poinl slrossod is as lo
lov a porson roaclos llo liglosl abodo of Su||c|in|¯
from among llo llroo abodos of Tlird j|¯nc, namoIy,
Pcriiicsu||¯, Appcm¯ncsu||¯ and Su||c|in|¯. Tloncoforll,
monlion las boon mado llal aflor allaining llo Iourll
j|¯nc llrougl Upc|||¯-||¯.cn¯, olc., lo bocomos oIalod,
and on doall, roaclos Vc|cpp|c|c Abodo. Tlis is llo
liglosl among, llo Rùpc.cc¯rc Abodos. vloro vorIdIings
can lopo lo roacl. Tlo Iifo span lloro is 5OO |cppcs. Aflor
roacling lloso a bodos vlon llo Iifo-span, oxpiros, lo viII
bo roIogalod lo llo Iifo oxislonco of llo luman vorId and
K¯m¯.cccrc vorId of dovas. Aflor llal, il las boon slalod
as lo lov ono is IikoIy lo doscond lo llo Iour Apãyas. Il is
doscribod in llo foIIoving mannor:
265
1cii|¯ ÷ In llal BralmãIoka, pui|ujjcnc ÷ llo ordinary
vorIdIing, µ¯.ci¯µu|cm ÷ llrougloul llo Iifolimo,
i|ci.¯ ÷ viII oxisl or Iivo, µ¯.cic|cm icscm !c.¯ncm
¯µupp¯mcncm, icm sc||cm ÷ for llo onliro Iifo-span of
llo Bralmãs. K|cpci.¯ ÷ Aflor llal Iifo-span las boon
sponl, nircµcmsi gccc|cii ÷ lo is IikoIy lo doscond lo HoII,
1irccc|cncµcnimpi gccc|cii ÷ (and) may find limsoIf
in llo AnimaI WorId, or rallor, bocomo an animaI,
pciii.iscµcmpi gccc|cii ÷ and may aIso roacl llo WorId
of Pcics.
Tloso llroo oxprossions indicalo llo possibiIily of dos-
conding lo llo vorId of oillor cp¯µc or animaI or Pcic for
nol boing froo as yol from |cmmc and |i|cs¯. Ono cannol,
of courso, roacl llo vorId of Ap¯µcs immodialoIy aflor
domiso from llo Bralmã WorId. Il is bocauso of llo
morilorious rosuIl or |cmmc of upcc¯rc-scm¯!|i vlicl lo
lad dovoIopod and by virluo of vlicl lo lad acliovod
j|¯nc lo bo oIovalod lo llo WorId of Bralmãs. Will llis
acliovomonl, a porson usuaIIy viII bo roborn oillor in
llo Human WorId or llo CoIosliaI WorId. A nobIo discipIo
of Buddla vlo las acliovod criµc-mcggc-p|c|c llrougl
mcii¯-j|¯nc viII, aflor lis doall, roacl llo BralmãIoka if
lo is nol yol Iiboralod from llo bonds of |i|cs¯. Ho viII
onlor inlo Iarinibbãna vliIo in llo BralmãIoka aflor lo
las allainod Arc|ciic-mcggc-p|c|c. Tlis dislinguisling
foaluro las boon oIucidalod as foIIovs:
266
8|cgc.cic ÷ Tlo Iord Buddla's, s¯.c|c p¯nc ÷ nobIo
discipIo vlo is in Ariya (llo usago of llis vord in llis rogard
indicalos llo allainmonl of Ariyalood as oillor Solãpanna
or Sakadãgãmi or Anãgãmi by conlompIaling Vipassanã
aflor acquiring llo basic acliovomonl of mcii¯-j|¯nc), icii|c
÷ in llal BralmãIoka µ¯.ci¯µu|cm ÷ aII llrougloul llo
Iifo lorm, i|ci.¯ ÷ lo viII Iivo and lloroaflor, µ¯.cic|cm
icscm !c.¯ncm ¯µupp¯mcncm, icm sc||cm ||cpci.¯ ÷ on
llo oxpiry of llo Iifo-span of lloso Bralmãs, icscmin µc.c
||c.c ÷ in llal, vory oxislonco of Bralmã, pcrini||cncii
÷ viII onlor inlo parinibbãna. 8|i|||c.c ÷ O, Blikklus!
Aµcm -llo ordinary vorIdIing vlo las allainod j|¯nc aflor
bocoming a Bralmã and vlon lis Iifo-span oxpiros, viII bo,
rovorlod lo |¯mcsugcii, llo vorId of sonsuaI pIoasuros, and
llon, may possibIy bo roborn in llo WorId of AnimaIs or
of Pcics, bul as rogards an Ariya-savaka vlo las acliovod
mcii¯-j|¯nc, lo viII firsl como inlo boing as a Bralmã, and
onIy in llal BralmãIoka, viII allain Aralalslip and llon
finaIIy onlor inlo Pcrini||¯nc. Tloso aro llo lvo kinds,
.i.csc ÷ vlicl lavo llo dislinclivo foaluros.
Wlal is roquirod lo bo knovn according lo llo Iirsl Mollã
Sulla vlicl las jusl boon slalod, is llal if ono is conlonlod
vill llo moro acliovomonl of llis mcii¯-j|¯nc vlicl lo
las allainod, lo viII roacl llo Abodo of Bralmãs aflor lis
domiso. Hovovor, sinco lo las nol yol acliovod criµc-mcggc-
p|c|c, llo SpociaI Dlamma, for faiIing lo conlompIalo
267
Vipassanã lo viII suroIy bo rovorlod lo llo vorId of luman
boings or of Dovas vlon llo Iifo-span in BralmãIoka
oxpiros. Tlon, aflor so bocoming, if lo las commillod oviI
doods llal can bring lim dovn lo llo Nollor WorIds, lo
viII again doscond lo llo four Ap¯µcs. Honco, dospilo llo
facl llal lo las roaclod llo BralmãIoka by virluo of lis
allainmonl of j|¯nc, lo viII bo in llo samo boal as ollor
ordinary vorIdIings vlo aro sliII IiabIo lo go dovn lo llo
four Nollor WorIds. Hovovor, if Solãpanna is acliovod
in llo Ioasl, aflor lis allainmonl of mcii¯-j|¯nc llrougl
Vipassanã conlompIalion, lo viII roacl llo BralmãIoka
aflor lis doall, and viII nol bo roborn in llo vorId of
sonsuaI pIoasuros, and viII ovonluaIIy bocomo an Aralal
in llal Bralmã Abodo vloroby aII misorios viII como lo an
ond. AIllougl sucl a porson is nol an Anãgãmi, lo viII nol
bo roborn in llo vorId of sonsuaI pIoasuros sinco |¯mcr¯gc
las boon dispoIIod by lim vill llo facuIly of j|¯nc. Ho is
caIIod a }lãna-Anãgãmi. SimiIarIy, a Sakadãgãmi vlo las
aIroady acliovod j|¯nc, viII novor bo roborn in KãmaIoka.
Ho loo is knovn, as a '}lãna-Anãgãmi'.
If, lovovor, a porson bocomos an Anãgãmi aflor allainmonl
of j|¯nc, lloro is an opporlunily for lim lo onlor inlo
Iarinibbãna as an Aralal in llo Iovosl abodo of Avilã, ono
of llo fivo abodos of Suddlãvãsa, vloro lo viII bo roborn
as monlionod in llo Socond Mollã Sulla. If lo faiIs lo gain
Aralalslip aflor llo oxpiry of a Iifo-span of lvo llousand
268
|cppcs in llal Abodo, lo viII lavo lis robirll in llo llird
oIovalod abodo caIIod Su!css¯ from among llo Abodo of
Suddlãvãsa. Tloro aro casos in vlicl Iarinibbãna lad
lakon pIaco aflor bocoming an Aralal in llal abodo. If no
Aralalslip is acliovod as yol, lo viII Iand in llo fourll
abodo caIIod Su!cssi on oxpiry of llo Iifo-span of four
llousand |cppcs. In llal abodo loo, lloro aro inslancos of
porsons onloring inlo Iarinibbãna aflor llo allainmonl
of Aralalslip. If no Aralalslip is acliovod, robirll viII
lako pIaco in llo liglosl A|cniii|c Abodo aflor llo Iifo-
span of oigll llousand |cppcs las oxlauslod. Hovovor,
Aralalslip viII dofiniloIy bo allainod in llal abodo and
vlon ils Iifospan of sixloon llousand |cppcs comos lo an
ond, finaI allainmonl of Ni||¯nc (Pcrini||¯nc) is suro lo
como.
Nov llal oIucidalion mado in connoclion vill llo oIovonll
advanlago vill roforonco lo Angullara IãIi Toxls las boon
fairIy compIolod. In Angullara IãIi (3rd 542) il las boon
proaclod as: ¨uiicri cppcii .ijj|cnic |rc|mc|c|ùpcgc |cii.¨ Tlo
Commonlary las givon an oxposilion of llis IãIi plraso
as: Mcii¯scm¯pciiiic ÷ allainmonl of mcii¯-j|¯nc, uiicri
÷ boyond llal, crc|ciicm c!|igcnium ÷ lo acliovo aralalla-
plaIa, csc||cnic ÷ a porson vlo is incompolonl, iiccc.ii.c
÷ on oxpiry of llis luman Iifo oxislonco, suiicppc|u!!|c
.iµc ÷ Iiko a porson vlo las rison from sIoop |rc|m¯|c|cm
upcpcjjcii ÷ roaclos llo Bralmã WorId.
269
In llis I rogard, llo oxprossion ÷ ¨if Arc|ciic-p|c|c cannol
bo roaclod boyond llo allainmonl of mcii¯-j|¯nc¨, ombracos
aII vlal lavo, boon slalod as: ¨if lloro is acliovomonl of
mcii¯-j|¯nc onIy, ono can roacl llo BralmãIoka and aIso
¨BralmãIoka can bo roaclod by allainmonl of any ono or
lvo or aII llroo of llo Iovor slagos of p|c|c basod upon
llo ondovmonl of mcii¯-j|¯nc¨. Honco, in llo mollo vlicl
doscribod llo advanlagos of mcii¯, il is, slalod as, ¨Happy
in sIoop and in vaking. voriIy doslinod lo bocomo a
Bralmã, aII consliluling oIovon allribulos in numbor aro
llo advanlagos accruod from dovoIoping mcii¯.¨
To co·.|·||».| \||»--»·¯ wn||| o|v||o||·. V|..¯
In ordor, lloroforo, lo gain aII llo bonofils llal can bo
dorivod from llis pracliso, Iol us dovoIop mcii¯ as a
fundamonlaI. Wlon dovoIoping mcii¯ by rocilalion, n¯mc-
rùpc in llo mannor of vipassanã slouId bo conlompIalod as
voII. Tlus vliIo dovoIoping by rocilalion, conlompIalion
and noling bo dono simuIlanoousIy, as foIIovs:
¨May aII Blikklus, Yogïs and Iaymon in llis
Modilalion Conlro bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
27O
¨May aII Dovas in llo Modilalion Conlro bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII individuaIs, Dovas and boings in llis
Tovnslip bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII individuaIs, Dovas and boings in llo
Inion of Burma bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings bo lappy.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
By virluo of laving loard lloso loaclings on llo
Bralmavilãra Blãvanã Dlamma and of rociling and
dovoIoping mcii¯ llrougl Samalla Blãvanã vill llo
praclico of Vipassanã conlompIalion, may lloso nobIo
audionco bo abIo lo dovoIop and oxorciso mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯
as far as possibIo and onlanco llo dovoIopmonl of
conlompIaling and noling llo arising plonomona of
rùpc and n¯mc lovards allainmonl of mcggc-p|c|c-ñ¯nc
and ovonluaIIy roacl Nibbãna, llo lolaI oxlinclion of aII
misorabIo condilions, in llo slorlosl possibIo limo.
271
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. v
wn». |- ·|»·. s\ K»st·¯
Kcrun¯ moans ¨compassion¨ in pIain Burmoso. Tlis
Burmoso lorminoIogy (Tlanor-gyin vlicl moans
'compassion' in EngIisl), is nol mingIod vill any ollor
sonso of oxprossion. Il is quilo prociso. Mcii¯ in Burmoso
slouId bo lransIalod as ¨Iovo¨. Tlis lorm ¨Iovo¨ is mixod
up vill r¯gc ÷ passionalo fooIing of allaclmonl. In facl,
mcii¯ moans visling ollors lo bo bIossod vill lappinoss.
On llo ollor land, ¨compassion¨ i.o. |crun¯, is nol mingIod
vill any ollor sonso. Il is oxacl and dofinilo. Il convoys llo
samo sonso as: ¨visling a porson vlo is in lroubIo, lo bo
froo from sufforing or misory¨. Tlal is llo roason vly llo
inlrinsic quaIily and claraclorislic of llo lorm ¨|crun¯¨ is
oxpIainod in llo Visuddlimagga as ¨!u|||cpcncµcn¯|¯rcp
pc.ciii|c|||cn¯¨ , i.o. laving llo claraclorislic of romoving
sufforing or misory.
If anybody is, or a good many ollor poopIo aro found
or soon lo bo sufforing and in misory, a nobIo-mindod
porson viII fooI Iiko romoving llis sufforing or misorabIo
272
condilion. Tlis is nolling bul a fooIing of compassion
and goodviII. Honco, pcrc!u|||c scii ÷ if any ollor
porson is sufforing, nay, if anybody is soon or loard lo
bo in dislross or in sufforing, s¯!|¯ncm ÷ mon of virluo,
|c!cµc|cmpcncm ÷movod vill soIf-giving compassion,
or llo loarl paIpilalos, |crciiii ÷ makos llo loarls of
virluous mon movod vill compassion, (and lloroforo)
|crun¯ ÷ is caIIod |crun¯, .cccncii|c ÷ and oxprossod or
slalod aullorilalivoIy as sucl.
To pul il in anollor vay, pcrc!u|||cm ÷ rogarding anollor's
sufforing, |in¯ii|im scii .in¯sciiii ÷ boing IikoIy lo romovo,
or rallor, oagor lo romovo, il is knovn as '|crun¯'. Sinco il
is slalod as boing ¨oagor lo romovo¨ anollor's sufforing, a
quoslion may ariso as lo vlollor il vouId roaIIy romovo
or vipo oul llo sufforing. A porson vlo fooIs pily laving
lad doop sympally for anollor in lroubIo, may savo llo
ollor by oxorcising lis facuIly of |crun¯ or compassion.
Tloro aro cIoar inslancos vloro sufforing is romovod
or curod as aIso vloro no assislanco lo roscuo can bo
rondorod. Tlougl sufforing cannol bo subduod, a porson
vlo las llo compassionalo fooIing viII sliII fooI Iiko
romoving llo sufforing. In any caso, ono vouId fooI sorry
for anollor's pIigll, or fooI Iiko dispoIIing llo dislross or
misory sufforod by anollor. Wlon a porson slrickon vill
disoaso is found, a fooIing of compassion or pily viII ariso
aulomalicaIIy visling llo ollor lo gol immodialo roIiof, or
273
if possibIo, gol curod. Mucl as lo may visl, if lo is nol
compolonl lo givo modicaI lroalmonl, lo cannol offoclivoIy
assisl llo ollor. And yol, lo is al loarl viIIing lo soo lim
rocovorod from iIInoss or sufforing. Sucl boing llo caso,
llis inslinclivo naluro of a man visling lo romovo or curo
anollor's sufforing, slouId bo rogardod as ¨|crun¯¨.
In ollor vords, |cm su||cm ÷ ono's ovn lappinoss,
run!|ciiii ÷ is IikoIy lo bo provonlod or lindorod, and
lonco, |crun¯ ÷ il is knovn as '|crun¯'. Kcrun¯ is said lo
lavo llo basic quaIily of provonling ono's ovn lappinoss
from occurring, or rallor, dolorring ono's soIf-roaIizalion
of lappinoss. A porson vlo is compassionalo viII Ioso
lis opporlunily lo somo oxlonl lo mako limsoIf lappy
sinco lo las lo bo rondoring loIp lo anollor so as lo Iol llo
ollor oscapo from lroubIo or misory. If ono is found lo bo
sufforing in lis cIoso proximily or undor lis ovn oyos, lo
is roady lo offor lis aid. During llis inlorrognum, lo viII
nol lavo an opporlunily lo sook for lis ovn lappinoss.
Ho may ovon Ioso lis sIoop during nigll-limo for laving
lad lo rondor lis assislanco and Iook aflor llo voIfaro
of anollor porson. Ho may lavo lo forogo lis sIoop and
sacrifico lis ovn lappinoss. If a sick porson is found, lo
las gol lo nurso lim as far as possibIo, and by doing so,
lo may limsoIf suffor sliffnoss in lis ovn Iimbs or gol
lirod. Somolimos, lo may ovon faII sick. Al ono limo, a
modicaI doclor vas said lo lavo sufforod from gaslric
274
uIcor for boing fuIIy prooccupiod in allonding llo sick
vlicl lad causod lim lo miss lis roguIar moaIs. Ho diod
of llal slomacl disoaso vliIo sliII young. Honco, |crun¯ or
compassion can provonl ono's ovn lappinoss.
Tn| Boon|-»..»'- K»st·¯
Our Iord Buddla in ono of lis provious oxisloncos as
Sumodlã llo lormil, moro llan four cscn||cµµcs and a
lundrod llousand |cppcs ago, offorod lis ovn body lo
sorvo as a pIalform (a bridgo) on llo pall vlicl vas llon
undor ropairs, lo bo lrod upon by Dïpankarã Buddla vlo
vas aboul lo como aIong llal roadvay. Al llal limo, if lo
lad praclisod llo nobIo Dlamma aflor assuming llo roIo
of a Blikklu, lo vouId lavo bocomo an Aralal and llon
onlorod Iarinibbãna in llal vory Iifo. Ho loo roaIisod and
boIiovod as sucl bocauso lo vas llon an oxlraordinary
porson accompIislod vill j|¯nc-c||iññ¯, supornaluraI
knovIodgo or facuIly. A porson vlo las allainod j|¯nc
can bocomo an Aralal ovon vliIo Iisloning lo llo sormon
proaclod by llo Buddla.
Hovovor, Sumodlã, llo lormil (llo vouId-bo Golama
Buddla) lad pondorod llus:
275
¨Raro indood is a porson Iiko mo vlo is fuIIy ondovod vill
llo slrongll of faill, onorgy, mindfuInoss, conlompIalion
÷ (conconlralion) and visdom ÷ sc!!|¯, .iriµc, scii, scm¯!|i
and pcññ¯. Tlo majorily aro unforlunaloIy Iacking in llo
quaIily of llis |c|c (slrongll). Sucl individuaIs aro boings
cannol knov and roaIiso on lloir ovn, inluilion llo
Dlamma vlicl can Ioad llom lo llo slalo of Iiboralion
from llo sufforings of oId ago, sicknoss and doall. Nor
voro lloy abIo lo pracliso llal kind of Dlamma. Dospilo llo
facl llal I am accompIislod vill llo nocossary slrongll, il
viII nol bo vory bonoficiaI by moroIy ondoavouring for my
ovn individuaI saIvalion. I slouId omuIalo llo oxampIo
of Dïpankarã Buddla by porforming moraI praclicos
and accumuIaling llo morils of p¯rcmii¯s (porfoclion)
lo bocomo a Buddla, and llon savo aII boings vlo aro
voak and monlaIIy doficionl. Tlis las boon monlionod
in llo lisloricaI vrilings in IãIi (clronicIos) concorning
Buddlism, as slalod boIov:
¨|cc|cm¯nc c|cm cjjc, |i|csc g|¯icµ¯mc|cm.
Kim mc c|cnc icnncnc, pcriscnc i|¯mc!cssin¯.
Sc||cññuicm p¯punii.c, scni¯rcsscm sc!c.c|cm.¨
A|cm ÷ I can, icc|cm¯nc ÷ if I visl, cjjc ÷ ovon loday,
|i|csc in rospocl of aII |i|cscs (dofiIomonl), g|¯icµ¯mi ÷ gol
rid of llom. Pcnc ÷ Hovovor, i|¯mc!cssin¯ ÷ llougl
ondovod visl llo slrongll capabIo of aclioving
276
Buddlalood, pcriscnc |cnicnc ÷ boing a man, c|cnc
icnncnc ÷ by crossing llo doop ocoan of Scms¯rc lovards
Nibbãna aIono sooking onIy ono's ovn saIvalion. Mc
÷ lo mo, |im ÷ lov couId il bring bonofils` A|cm ÷ I
viII, sc||cññuicm ÷ of Omniscionco, p¯punii.c ÷ aflor
allainmonl, sc!c.c|cm ÷ (savo) aII Dovas and luman
boings (as a Saviour of mankind), scni¯rcsscm ÷ causo aII
of llom lo roacl Nibbãna on llo opposilo sloro (of llo
vasl ocoan of Scms¯rc).
Aflor rofIocling as sucl, Sumodlã rocoivod llo prodiclion
of llo Buddla for lis fuluro allainmonl of Buddlalood.
Ho lad, aII llrougloul llo poriod of four cscn||cµµcs
and a lundrod-llousand |cppcs, fuIfiIIod llo Iorfoclion
vlicl couId Ioad lo bocoming a Buddla by praclising
virluos in llo mosl porfocl mannor. During lloso
counlIoss oxisloncos, lo lad undorgono llo sovorosl
sufforings and privalions and lad como across oId
ago, sicknoss and doall ropoalodIy. In ono of lis Iasl
lon oxisloncos as King Vosanlarã, lo vas banislod lo
a forosl as llo poopIo of lis counlry voro disconlonlod
vill llo vay lo praclisod clarily in giving avay llo
Wlilo EIoplanl vlicl vas in lloso days rogardod as
ono of llo mosl sacrod lroasuros of llo Slalo. WliIo
romaining in llo forosl in oxiIo, a Bralmin by llo namo
of }ûkakã appoarod and askod lim lo givo avay lis
young son and daugllor in clarily for llo purposo of
277
ompIoying llom as sorvanls. Il vas roaIIy loarl-ronding
and yol, lo lad nobIy offorod lis innoconl IillIo son }ãIï
and daugllor Kanlãjina dospilo lis monlaI dislross lo
llo oxlonl of slodding loars in sorrov lo gain lis vovod
Iorfoclion. }usl imagino lov lo vouId suffor monlaIIy.
To acliovo lloso difficuIl Iorfoclion (P¯rcmii¯s), lo lad
gono llrougl groal misory and sorrov.
And noxl, llougl a Bodlisalla, as lo vas nol yol lroo from
|i|cscs, dofiIomonl, vlicl couId drag lim dovn lo cp¯µc,
lo sliII lad lis c|usc|c |cmmc, llo rosuIl of domorilorious
acls commillod llrougl grood (|c||c), angor (!csc) and
doIusion (mc|c). Ior sucl domorils, lo lad lis rounds of
oxisloncos many a limo as animaIs, and lloroby sufforod
pain and misory. Moroovor, monlion vas mado in
¨Tomiya¨ }ãlaka llal lo lad ovon gono llrougl llo HoII
for iII-lroaling a porson in ono of lis oxisloncos as a King
in vlicl capacily lo lad passod a judgomonl imposing a
cruoI ponaIly.
AII lloso unloId misorios vlicl lo lad facod during an
innumorabIo numbor of oxisloncos, nay, for a poriod of
Iour Immonsilios (cscn||cµµcs) and a lundrod-llousand
|cppcs, voro llo rosuIlanl offocls of lis vislfuI prayor lo
bocomo a Buddla vill unboundod InivorsaI Iovo and
goodviII for aII boings. Honco, il is quilo ovidonl llal
¨Iily¨ or compassion provonls ono's ovn lappinoss.
278
Tn| Btoon»'- .s|». co·|»--|o·
Aflor allainmonl of llo fuII EnIigllonmonl as a Buddla,
lo couId lavo found lappinoss villoul laving lo vorry
aboul loacling, and Iivod comforlabIy. Hovovor, for
llo onliro poriod of forly-fivo Vcss¯ (yoars), inasmucl
as lo lad lo imparl lis nobIo Toaclings day and
nigll villoul rosl, lo lad lo undorgo a Iol of plysicaI
lardslip and slrain. Tlis bonovoIonl porformanco
vill roIonlIoss offorl vas dono simpIy bocauso of lis
InivorsaI Iovo and Groal Compassion for aII boings
vlo aro drifling aIong ondIossIy in llo misorabIo
vlirIpooI of Scms¯rc.
AII boings, no mallor in vlalovor oxislonco lloy may
bo, visl lo oscapo from llo sufforings of oId ago,
sicknoss and doall vlicl aro bound lo bo mol as Iiving
boings. NovorlloIoss againsl lloir ovn visl, lloy aro
going llrougl misorabIo condilions of Iifo oxislonco
conlinuousIy golling oId, sick and ovonluaIIy mooling
vill doall. Tlal is llo roason vly as a Buddla, lo lad
laugll lis Dlamma knoving fuIIy voII llal lloro vas
no Saviour ollor llan lim lo savo aII Iiving boings vill
lis Groal Compassion villoul rogard lo lis discomforls
and voarinoss. Tlis aIso slands vilnoss lo llo oxlonl lov
lo lad lo undorgo misorios villoul laving opporlunily
279
lo gain lappinoss for boing dolorrod by lis unparaIIoIod
Kcrun¯.
Tlis Kcrun¯ is oxlromoIy nobIo and gonlIo. Il is usuaI for
a virluous man lo lavo compassion and sympally for a
porson vlo is in lroubIo. On llo ollor land, lo vlo las no
fooIing of sympally lovards ollors in diro dislross is nol a
man of virluo bul of vico. Tlal is vly llis |crun¯ !|cmmc
÷ ¨sc.iic||c, ||c.iiic||c !|cmmc¨ ÷ ougll lo bo rosorlod
lo, dovoIopod and dopondod upon by oacl and ovorybody
vlo is nobIo. OrdinariIy, ovon villoul praclising ||¯.cn¯,
ono slouId lavo a fooIing of sympally lovards a piliabIo
porson, if soon or found. Evory limo fooIing of compassion
arisos, il vouId amounl lo dovoIoping morils.
If dosirous of dovoIoping llrougl ||¯.cn¯, llo mollod lo
bo appIiod is simiIar lo llal of dovoIoping mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯. Il
slouId nol bo dovoIopod boginning from lloso vlo aro
noar and doar lo ono vlo is dovoIoping, al llo iniliaI slago.
Noillor slouId il bo dovoIopod slarling from llo mosl
boIovod porson. Nor slouId il bo dovoIopod boginning from
a noulraI porson or from a porson vlo is losliIo, or rallor,
an onomy. Il is bocauso ono vlo is doar lo you viII romain
as a doar and affoclionalo porson, and lonco, no compassion
is caIIod for. SimiIarIy, llo mosl boIovod porson, olc., viII
conlinuo lo romain as llo mosl boIovod onos and so on. As
a mallor of facl no fooIing of compassion noods bo invokod.
28O
In llo caso of a porson of opposilo sox, sinco Iusl is IikoIy
lo occur, ono slouId avoid dovoIoping |crun¯ lovards lim
or lor al llo vory iniliaI slago. AIso in rospocl of a porson
vlo is doad and gono, no |crun¯ slouId bo dovoIopod as il
is uncaIIod for. Sucl boing llo caso, llo quoslion arisos as
lo vlo, slouId bo llo firsl lovards vlom |crun¯ is lo bo
dovoIopod. Il may bo oxpIainod as foIIovs:
l|s-o· .ow»so- wno· K»st·¯ -not|o s| o|v||o||o ||s-.
8|i|||u ÷ A Blikklu, |crun¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯ vill llo mind
vlicl voIilionaIIy occurs vill a, compassionalo fooIing,
c|cm !iscm ÷ lovards onIy ono rogion, nay, lovards aII
boings Iiving in ono rogion, p|crii.¯ ÷ radialos lis |crun¯.
Kci|cñcc .i|crcii ÷ Hov lo romains dovoIoping, scµµci|cpi
n¯mc ÷ is in llis mannor, for oxampIo, !uggcicm ÷ vloro
dislrossing, silualion is facod, !urupcicm ÷ and vloro vorso
condilion provaiIs, c|cm puggc|cm ÷ roIaling lo a corlain
porson, !is.¯ ÷ if soon (in sucl a slalo), |crun¯ µcµµc µci|¯
÷ vouId lavo lis sympally or compassion. |.c mc.c ÷ In
llo samo vay, sc||c scii¯ ÷ lovards aII boings, |crun¯µc ÷
vill compassion, p|crcii ÷ lo sproads oul lis compassion.
Il las boon monlionod as sucl in Ablidlamma Viblanga
IãIi. According lo llis IãIi, oxpIanalion las boon givon
in llo Commonlary llal |crun¯ slouId bo dovoIopod and
281
radialod firsl and foromosl lovards a vory piliabIo porson
vlo is in groal dislross.
Kcrun¯ slouId bo dovoIopod iniliaIIy lovards individuaIs
vlo aro in oxlromo dislross, sucl as, a porson vlo is in
groal lroubIo, or a doslilulo vill no frionds and roIalivos
lo bo roIiod upon, or a disoaso-slrickon porson vlo is
groaning vill pain for nol rocoiving llo aid of a modicaI
doclor and for Iack of modicino, or a doloslabIo porson
affIiclod vill Ioprosy so Ioallsomo llal nobody vouId
Iiko lo loucl lim. IooIing of compassion viII oasiIy
ariso if sucl a porson in dislross is soon. Ior llal roason,
inslruclion is givon lo slarl dovoIoping |crun¯, boginning
from a poor piliabIo porson.
If sucl a porson vlo dosorvos compassion is nol found
or soon, |crun¯ slouId bo dovoIopod lovards a lappy-go-
Iucky porson vlo is commilling oviI doods by comparing
lim vill a man availing ordors lo bo langod, or rallor,
an imminonl doall aflor rocoiving capilaI punislmonl.
Tlo mannor of comparison mado lloroin is as foIIovs:
In ancionl limos, llo man on vlom doall sonlonco
vas passod, vas liod up vill ropos and oxlibilod lo
llo poopIo vliIo in cuslody by Iolling lim go on fool
undor oscorl aIong llo road in llo cily lo llo pIaco vloro
282
oxoculion vas lo bo dono. Al ovory junclion of llo road,
llo poor criminaI vas mado lo slop for avliIo and cruoIIy
vlippod moro llan a lundrod limos. Tlo man in cuslody
vill doall langing ovor lis load vas gonoraIIy offorod
good, doIicious food, olc., by somo kind-loarlod poopIo
vlo piliod llo falo of llal condomnod man. Taking llis
opporlunily vlicl camo in lis vay for a momonl, llo
guiIly man onjoyod llo food, olc. Tlo majorily of llo
spoclalors, lovovor, did nol llink of lim as boing lappy.
Tloy lad compassion for lim knoving fuIIy voII llal
ovory slop lo look brougll lim cIosor lo doall. In mucl
llo samo vay, a porson vlo is dovoIoping |crun¯, llougl
lo may soo a lappy spoclacIo can dovoIop |crun¯ lovards
anollor poopIo vlo is fuII of vico. Il las boon slalod llal
lo slouId dovoIop imagining llal llo scoundroI may bo
lappy nov bul llal misory viII bofaII lim in llo noar
fuluro as lo is going lo doscond lo llo Nollor WorIds for
lis domorils, aflor domiso.
Al llo prosonl limo, il is nol uncommon lo find poopIo
vlo aro dosorving of compassion, sucl as a porson vlo
is in dislross for boing cruoIIy iII-lroalod by llo ollor, or a
porson vlo is affIiclod vill sorious disoaso, or a porson
vlo is Ioading a misorabIo Iifo for boing in financiaI
slrails. In facl, sucl casos aro gonoraIIy found rampanl.
Il is. lloroforo roquirod lo dovoIop |crun¯ lovards sucl
piliabIo porsons.
283
Tloro is onIy ono modo of dovoIoping |crun¯, unIiko
dovoIoping mcii¯ vlicl invoIvos many kinds. Il is slalod
as: '¨!u|||c mucccniu¨, i.o. 'May oscapo from misory'. Tlis
is llo vay lov lo dovoIop |crun¯ lo aII boings ÷ sc||c scii¯.
Hovovor, if |crun¯ is dovoIopod lovards a corlain porson,
llo namo slouId bo said and |crun¯ radialod as: ¨May (so
and so) bo froo or Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlis misory vlicl slouId bo Iiboralod is ono vlicl is
occurring in llo corporoaIily of a parlicuIar individuaI
rigll al llo momonl. Il is lo dovoIop conlinuousIy and
oarnoslIy from llo bollom of lis loarl llal sucl and sucl
a porson bo froo or Iiboralod from misory or sufforing.
Tlo mannor of dovoIoping jusl doscribod can bo adoplod in
llo caso of dovoIoping |crun¯ lovards a porson vlo may
bo sufforing misory causod by iIInoss, or by sovoro voallor
condilions, or by maIlroalmonl, or by disconlonlmonl.
Evon if no misory is provaiIing al llo prosonl momonl, llal
porson viII lavo llo inovilabIo sufforing of lis Iifo oxislonco
(.ciic). DovoIopmonl of |crun¯ can bo rosorlod lo visling
lim lo bo Iiboralod from sucl sufforing or misory.
WliIo fooIing of |crun¯ ÷ compassion ÷ is occurring,
visuaIising llo porson in dislross, an ¨onomy¨ from
noar and afar (romolo), may appoar. If lo sliII las lis
griovanco againsl anollor porson, unpIoasanl llouglls
284
or fooIing of animosily may occur. Tlis is llo ¨onomy¨
vlo is said lo bo noar. Tlougll may ariso lo mako a
roprisaI againsl a porson vlo las iII-lroalod you. Ior
oxampIo, if a dog is found buIIying and biling llo ollor
dog, ono may fooI Iiko boaling llo dog llal buIIios
llrougl compassion lovards llo ollor dog vlicl is
subjoclod lo allack.
Anollor inslanco may bo cilod llus: If a snako snalclos and
snaps a frog vill ils looll, llo frog ullors a piliabIo sound
in frigll and pain. Tlo man vlo soos llis unpIoasanl
sigll and loars llo sound las lis sympally for llo frog,
visling llo poor croaluro lo oscapo from boing billon and
svaIIovod. Tlis fooIing is ¨|crun¯¨. Tloroaflor, a llougll
may ariso visling lo lil llo snako in favour of llo piliabIo
frog. Tlis is ¨angor¨ caIIod .i|ims¯ vlicl occurs aflor
|crun¯, visling lo lurl llo snako. Il is llo romolo ¨onomy¨.
Il viII lloroforo bo nocossary lo romovo or gol rid of llo
lvo onomios ÷ noar and romolo, and onIy lo dovoIop
puroIy |crun¯ ÷ compassion.
Noxl, il is aIso ossonliaI for ono vlo is dovoIoping
|crun¯ lo rondor assislanco lo llo porson in dislross boll
plysicaIIy and vorbaIIy lo llo bosl of lis abiIily. Tlis is for
llo sako of llo porson in dislross lo gol roIiof. If plysicaI
assislanco is offorod il amounls lo |crun¯-|¯µc|cmmc.
If loIp is givon vorbaIIy, il is |crun¯-.cci|cmmc. If boll
285
plysicaI and vorbaI assislanco cannol bo rondorod, |crun¯
viII lavo lo bo dovoIopod moroIy by vay of radialing
Compassion ÷ |crun¯ An inslanco may bo cilod. No
mallor lov ono may lavo lis groal compassion on
callIo, goals, pigs, fovIs and ducks vlicl aro aboul lo
bo sIaugllorod al llo sIaugllorlouso or oIsovloro, ono
cannol Iond lis assislanco lo savo llo poor croaluros, ono
vlo las vilnossod llis pIigll, can offor lavo compassion,
and nolling oIso couId bo dono. Il is puroIy mcnc|cmmc.
If fooIing of |crun¯ as: ¨May. bo froo from sufforing¨ is
radialod, il brings moril. If lo las lis SpociaI Iorfoclion
(p¯rcmii¯s), lo can ovon acliovo |crun¯-j|¯nc vliIo
dovoIoping |crun¯.
To dovoIop |crun¯ is nol as oasy as dovoIoping mcii¯. Il
is bocauso mcii¯ can bo dovoIopod vill ono's innormosl
fooIing of Ioving-kindnoss and imparlod lo any ollor
porson as ¨May lo bo lappy¨. As rogards |crun¯, il viII
bo pIausibIo lo radialo ono's fooIing of compassion onIy
lo a porson vlo dosorvos compassion. Il is nol oasy lo
dovoIop mindfuInoss on |crun¯ lovards a porson vlo
is in a lappy mood. Nor is il oasy lo incuIcalo llo spiril
of compassion in favour of a porson in a praclicaI vay
offoclivoIy. In any caso, vo slaII nov dovoIop |crun¯
lovards aII boings as Iaid dovn in llo IãIi Toxls. Among
lloso boings lloro aro many vlo aro in dislross and
roaIIy piliabIo.
286
How .o o|v||o| K»st·¯ »ccoso|·. .o .n| |ns»-|
ºS»ss| S»..¯ Dt||n» Vtcc»·.t"
¨May aII boings bo froo from misory, and sufforing.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
Boings in HoII or Ncrc|c aro sufforing lormonls, polas aIso
as boings condomnod lo sufforing, aro in misory. AnimaIs,
sucl as, buffaIoos, callIo, goals, pigs, fovIs, birds and so
on, aro aIso in a slalo of sufforing. Among luman boings,
somo aro subjoclod lo porsislonl iII-lroalmonl by lloso
vlo lavo llo uppor land. Somo aro affIiclod vill various
kinds of disoasos, vliIo somo aro undorgoing lardslips
and aro in a misorabIo slalo. Somo aro plysicaIIy and
monlaIIy dislrossod boing al Ioggorloads vill ono anollor
among llomsoIvos, vloroas somo aro groalIy doprossod
bocauso of dolago, sicknoss and doall. Somo aro boroavod
and Iamonling duo lo Ioss of lloir doar and boIovod onos.
Somo aro in lroubIo for laving Iosl lloir businoss doaIs,
or for doslruclion of lloir voaIll or proporly. Somo aro
riddon vill griof for boing soparalod from lloir Iovod
onos. Among Dovas aIso, somo aro in misory bocauso of
lloir insaliabIo dosiros. On llo ovo of lloir doall vlon
iII omons of lloir noxl oxislonco como inlo vision, lloy
bocomo oxlromoIy dojoclod. Wo slaII lloroforo bring
sucl boings lo our mind and dovoIop |crun¯ visling
287
llom oscapo from various kinds of misorabIo or unlappy
condilions vlicl lloy aro undorgoing. IIoaso foIIov llo
rocilalion and dovoIop |crun¯.
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. 132 ||·o- o| K»st·¯
¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlis is in accordanco vill llo slalomonl in IãIi vlicl runs
as: 'Sc||c scii¯'. Iol's procood lo dovoIop according lo llo
four plrasos sucl as, Sc||c p¯nc, olc. IoIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII lloso boings vlo broallo bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vloso idonlily is voII-
knovn bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII individuaIs bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vlo lavo body and
individuaIily bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlo abovo aro llo Iivo Anc!|isc-|crun¯ indicaling llo
mannor of dovoIoping |crun¯ lovards aII boings villoul
Iimilalion and dislinclion. Wo slaII nov go on dovoIoping
llo Sovon kinds of O!|isc-|crun¯.
288
¨May aII fomaIos bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII maIos bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Ariyas bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Iullujjanas (vorIdIings) bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
¨May aII Dovas bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII luman boings bo Iiboralod from
misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings bo Iiboralod from
misory.¨
Tlis is llo mannor of dovoIoping llo Sovon kinds of
O!|isc-|crun¯. If lloso Sovon O!|isc-|crun¯ is addod lo
Iivo Anc!|isc, il viII como lo TvoIvo (12). Tloso aro, llo
!|isc-cnc!|isc |crun¯ ÷ lvoIvo kinds in numbor, villoul
dislinguisling or Iimiling rogion viso. If dovoIopod by
dislinguisling llo rogion, lloro viII bo lvoIvo oacl for
ovory rogion. As lloro aro lon rogions, il viII como lo
a lolaI of 12O. Wo slaII nov dovoIop by rociling briofIy.
IIoaso foIIov:
¨May aII boings in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vlo broallo in llo
Easlorn rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vloso idonlily is voII-
knovn in llo Easlorn rogion bo Iiboralod from
misory.¨
289
¨May aII individuaIs in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vlo lavo body and
individuaIily in llo Easlorn rogion bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
¨May aII fomaIos in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII maIos in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Ariyas in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Iullujjanas (vorIdIings) in llo
Easlorn rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Dovas in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII luman boings in llo Easlorn rogion
bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlo abovo indicalos llo mannor of dovoIoping |crun¯
in lvoIvo difforonl kinds covoring llo Easlorn rogion.
SimiIarIy, lloro aro lvoIvo (12) kinds oacl in llo Woslorn
rogion and so on. Wo slaII onIy briofIy rocilo llom.
¨May aII boings in llo Woslorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
29O
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Woslorn rogion
bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Norllorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Norllorn rogion
bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Soullorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Soullorn rogion
bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Soull-Easlorn
rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Norll-Woslorn rogion
bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Norll-Woslorn
rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Norll-Easlorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Norll-Easlorn
rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Soull-Woslorn rogion bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Soull-Woslorn
rogion bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
291
¨May aII boings in llo Iovor rogion boIov bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Iovor rogion
boIov bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Higlor rogion abovo bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings in llo Higlor rogion
abovo bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
Wlal las nov boon rocilod aro 12O kinds of !|isc-c!|isc
|crun¯. If il is addod lo 12 kinds of !|isc-cnc!|isc, il viII como
lo a lolaI of 132 kinds cj |crun¯-. Tlo mannor of dovoIoping
|crun¯ las nov boon fuIIy doscribod. Il is, lovovor, rallor
imporlanl lo incuIcalo a spiril of roaI compassionalo
fooIing al llo limo |crun¯ is lo bo dovoIopod. Kcrun¯ viII
onIy bo offoclivo and gonuino if lloro is roaI compassion
by visuaIising llo misorabIo condilions undor vlicl llo
boings aro sufforing. In llis rogard, if ono imaginos llo
vay llo Buddla lad radialod His Compassion vill His
facuIly of Groal Compassion (Mc|¯|crun¯), il viII bocomo
obvious lo a corlain oxlonl lov piliabIo aro lloso boings.
I viII, lloroforo givo an iIIuslralion vill roIovanl oxlracls
from Ialisamblidã-Magga IãIi as lo lov Mc|¯|crun¯
knovIodgo las occurrod. Tloso aro vorlly of rovoronco,
and viII givo you a cIoar vision of llo piliabIo slalo of
aII boings. Anylov, onIy a fov oxlracls viII lavo lo bo
oxpIainod for vanl of limo.
292
How |·ow||o.| o| V»n¯|»st·¯-»·¯|»..| occts-
¨Kcicmcm ici|¯gcicssc mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciiiµ¯ ñ¯ncm.¨
1ci|¯gcicssc ÷ Buddla's, mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciiiµ¯ ñ¯ncm ÷
knovIodgo llal faIIs villin llo ambil of llo ondovmonl
of mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciii, |cicmcm ÷ is vlal`
Buddla's knovIodgo or Wisdom vlicl cannol bo
acliovod by lis discipIos comprisos six kinds. Tloso aro
(1) |n!riµcpcrcpcriµciic-ñ¯nc ÷ vlicl knovs llo malurily
or ollorviso, i.o. llo dopll of llo facuIly or 'sonso of
knovIodgo', of llo Iiving boings, (2) Ascµ¯nuscµc-ñ¯nc
÷ vlicl knovs llo Anusayas or incIinalions roIaling lo
llo soal of monlaI disposilion and |i|cs¯ llal may ariso
of llo Iiving boings, (3) Ycmc|cp¯ii|¯riµc-ñ¯nc ÷ vlicl
knovs llo facuIly or povor lo croalo a doubIo miracIo, or
rallor, a miracIo in pairs, (4) Mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciii-ñ¯nc ÷
knovIodgo or ondovmonls of Groal Compassion inducod
by ocslalic modilalion, (5) Su||cññuic-ñ¯nc ÷ allainmonl
of omniscionco: AII Knoving Wisdom, (6) An¯.crcnc-ñ¯nc
÷ facuIly vlicl dispoIs aII obslruclions or lindrancos
in llo vay of sucl knovIodgo. Tlis knovIodgo boing
oul of roacl of or unconcornod vill llo DiscipIos, is
aIso caIIod As¯!|¯rcnc-ñ¯nc i.o. knovIodgo vlicl is
pocuIiar or unrivaIIod. Tlo quoslion raisod vas: ¨Wlal
293
is Mc|¯|crun¯scm¯ppciii-ñ¯nc from among llo said
six kinds`¨ Tlo ansvor givon in conlinualion vas as
monlionod boIov:
¨8c|u|c|i ¯|¯rc|i pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Tlo abovo IãIi plraso convoys llo moaning llal groal
compassion for morlaIs or boings onlors llo loarls of llo
EnIigllonod Buddlas vlo soo various condilions undor
difforonl circumslancos lo vlicl boings aro subjoclod.
IooIing of Groal Compassion occurs in llo minds of
Omniscionl Buddlas sooing numorous kinds of sufforings
provaiIing among aII boings. Mosl Iiving boings do nol
porcoivo ollor boings' misorabIo condilions. Tloy migll
soo onIy croaluros or Iiving boings vlo aro in groal dislross
and sufforing. Wlon fairIy lappy porsons soo ollors vlo
aro in llo samo boal, lloy llink of llom or imagino llom as
boing lappy as lloy aro. RoIaling lo poopIo vlo aro found
lo bo lappior llan lloy aro, lloy migll Iook up on llom as
Iiving in a slalo of oxlromo lappinoss villoul any misory,
and considor llom as nol dosorving of compassion. Tlis
indicalos doarll of compassionalo fooIing for nol acluaIIy
knoving llo slalo of misory. Tlo Buddlas, lovovor, cIoarIy
porcoivod llo various kinds of circumslancos undor vlicl
boings aro sufforing. Sooing llo sonlionl boings in sucl
294
misorabIo condilions, Groal Compassion las onlorod llo
loarls of llo Buddlas. Hov |crun¯ occurs viII bo slalod in
ampIificalion as foIIovs:
Co·-.»·. woss\ |- ||.|»s||
¨Uµµuiic |c|cscnni.¯scii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
AII boings lavo lo bo aIvays oxorling llomsoIvos and
conslanlIy vorrying. Sooing Iiving boings in sucl a
misorabIo slalo fiorcoIy slruggIing for lloir ovn survivaI, llo
Buddlas' loarls go oul lo llom vill Groal Compassion.
Wlal is lo bo roaIisod is llal mankind aro conslanlIy
slriving and vorrying for lloir ovn IivoIilood or
subsislonco. Ordinary vorIdIings may nol llink il as
boing piliabIo. Tloy may considor llis slalo of condilion as
boing normaI. Tloy gonoraIIy imagino llal as a man, ono
viII lavo lo slrivo or svoal for lis ovn Iiving and llal il
is quilo naluraI. Somo may arguo llal lloro is no nood lo
grumbIo. Hovovor, from llo poinl of viov of llo Buddla,
llo EnIigllonod Ono, lloso boings aro porcoivod as loiIing,
slruggIing and conslanlIy vorrying for ono's ovn burdon
of ||cn!|c, and aro lloroforo in misory, nay, lloy aro found
lo bo in groal dislross. In any kind of oxislonco vlorovor
295
lloy aro born, lloy lavo lo bo vorrying villoul any inlorvaI
in lloir Iifolimo carrying llis loavy Ioad of ||cn!|c. In llo
Iifo oxislonco of a luman boing, as a smaII cliId, ono las lo
dopond upon llo paronls and ollors. Ho cannol sland on
lis ovn. Irom llo ago of aboul four, fivo or six yoars and
onvards, lo las lo allond sclooI for lis oducalion. Sinco
aboul llo ago of oiglloon or lvonly or so, lo las lo porform
various kinds of vork and boar llo vorkIoad undor llo
givon circumslancos for lis ovn subsislonco or lo salisfy
lis noods. If forluno faiIs lo smiIo on lim, lo viII faco a Iol
of lroubIo lo mako onds mool vill lis incomo. Impairmonl
of lis loaIll viII bring misory and sufforing. Somolimos,
lo may como across pilfaIIs in llo pall of lis Iifo and mool
vill dangors, and if so lappon, misory viII bofaII lim.
Tlrougloul lis Iifo oxislonco, lo is Iiving in anxioly and
is slruggIing conlinuousIy. WliIo llus induIging limsoIf
onmoslod in lroubIo and misory, limo comos vlon lo
grovs oId, suffors sicknoss and ovonluaIIy mools lis
doall. Somo ovon dio vliIo Iabouring and vorking vill
aII lloir migll. Il impIios llo grovll, clango and docay of
llo plysicaI man in llo courso of lis luman oxislonco, in
vlicl lo suffors conslanl misory.
In llo Iifo oxislonco as animaIs, from llo limo of birll,
llo majorily lavo lo find food for lloir survivaI. Among
animaIs Iiving in pIacos vloro food and valor aro scarco,
lloy lavo lo undorgo groal lardslips in finding food
296
and sloIlor. AnimaIs in llo forosls lavo no proloclion al
aII. Tloy lavo lo bo vorrying for lloir prosorvalion and
for llo upkoop of lloir ||cn!|cs inlacl, vill conslanl foar
of dangor and doall. Somo of llo animaIs lavo lo soarcl
for food onIy al nigll ÷ boing afraid of going oul in llo
daylimo. In loII and in llo vorId of Iolas, cpcµc boings aro
in conslanl misory and sufforing. Tloy cannol, of courso,
bo soon by luman nakod oyos. Evon among 'nals' (Dovas),
lloro aro domons, gobIins or spirils caIIod 'Yakkla' vlo
aro in a slalo of misory noarIy as bad as Iolas, Vinipãlika, i.o.
lloso boings of IovIy oxislonco lavo a vory lard Iifo undor
vorso condilions lo llo poinl of noar slarvalion. Tloy loo
aro in groal misory. Tloso Dovas in llo liglor abodos
÷ up in llo loavon, aro, of courso, in a slalo of lappinoss.
Hovovor, vlon lloir Iifo span oxpiros, lloso vloso |usc|c-
|cmmc aro Iacking in slrongll, bocomo misorabIo.
As sucl, aII boings aro Iiving in misory and aro slriving vill
ondIoss vorry lo koop lloir oxisling ||cn!|c (body) in good
lrim lo gain lappinoss, and al llo samo limo, lo gol a nov
sol of ||cn!|cs vill lappinoss in llo fuluro oxisloncos lo
como. Tlougl poopIo aro said lo bo Iiving undor favourabIo
circumslancos and aro in a slalo of lappinoss, lloy lavo lo
bo aIvays vorrying in ordor lo mainlain llomsoIvos in
good slapo al prosonl and aIso lo acliovo fuluro bonofils
in lloir noxl oxisloncos. Tloy vanl lo onjoy Iifo vill
lappinoss in fuluro oxisloncos as voII and, lonco, in llo
297
prosonl Iifolimo, lloy aro lrying lo accumuIalo morils. Of
courso, lo acliovo lappinoss in fuluro oxisloncos ono las
lo slruggIo vill conslanl vorry and anxioly according lo
ono's ovn conviclion in llo roIigious doclrino vlicl lo las
accoplod as lruo. Wlollor il is propor or nol, ono is lrying
lard for llo voIfaro of lis fuluro, roIying on lis ovn faill
and conviclion. Tloso vlo do nol boIiovo in llo doclrino
of oxisloncos lo como, i.o. llo roIigious viov of compIolo
anniliIalion in llis vory Iifo oxislonco, aro nonolloIoss
slriving vill aII loarl and souI lo bo abIo lo onjoy a mosl
lappy and pIoasurabIo Iifo in llis prosonl oxislonco.
Groal vas llo Buddla's Compassion for aII boings, laving
limsoIf soon and found llom aIvays sufforing vill vorry
in lloir porsislonl offorl loping lo gain lappinoss in ovory
Iifo oxislonco, vliIo al llo samo limo lloy aro burdonod
vill lloir ||cn!|cs. Tlo Buddla roaIisod llal lloro vas
no ollor Saviour oxcopl Him lo Ioad llom lo Nibbãna ÷ al
vlicl slago aII ||cn!|cs vouId coaso lo oxisl. RoaIising as
sucl, vill lis doop Compassion and goodviII, llo Buddla
lad lravoIIod far and vido during lis Iifolimo and lad
imparlod lis nobIo loaclings. Ho lackIod aII quoslions
pul lo lim by lumans and Dovas on poinls roIaling lo
Dlamma. Ho lad lardIy any rosl llrougloul day and
nigll oxcopl a briof rospilo of llroo or four lours. Ho lad
lo doIivor lis proaclings daiIy for aboul 2O lours lo Dovas,
lumans and Bralmãs. Tlis Ionds ovidonco lo llo facl llal
298
lis ovn Groal Compassion lad provonlod lis lappinoss,
as slalod oarIior. So groal vas lis unboundod compassion
llal llo bonovoIonl Buddla lad gono lo llo oxlonl of
imparling lis Dlamma lo Subladda, a vandoring ascolic
(pcri||¯jc|c), vliIo Iying on lis doall-bod a fov lours
boforo lis Iarinibbãna. To llal oxlonl, lo las boslovod
lis unslinlod Iovo vill soIf-sacrificing pily on aII boings
sooing lloir misorabIo pIigll.
Tlo gisl of llo forogoing accounl is lo mako il cIoar llal
Buddla lad lis Groal Compassion on aII boings vlo aro
slruggIing vill vorry in ovory Iifo oxislonco. Tlis viII
porlaps onabIo you lo grasp llo facl llal ono can dovoIop
lis |crun¯ lovards piliabIo boings vlo aro going llrougl
a Iol of difficuIlios and misory llrougloul lloir Iifo span.
Tlis viII aIso pIaco you in a nobIor slalo of mind vlicl
vouId invoko a fooIing of rovoronco lo llo Mosl ExaIlod
Ono vlo lad painslakingIy proaclod, procIaiming lis
mossago for forly odd yoars vill unfaiIing palionco,
sympally and goodviII for llo voIfaro of aII mankind.
Honco, vill a viov lo dovoIoping |crun¯ in llo Iigll of
vlal las boon nov slalod, pIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII boings vlo lavo aIvays boon slriving
vill vorry lo gain lappinoss, bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
299
IuII Iiboralion from llis misory viII bo rovardod onIy
vlon Nibbãna is roaclod vloroby aII rùpc-n¯mc-||cn!|cs
viII coaso lo occur again. Tlis moans lo say llal ¨May aII
boings bo omancipalod aflor allainmonl of Nibbãna.¨
Iol us ropoal dovoIoping |crun¯:
¨May aII boings vlo lavo aIvays boon slriving
vill vorry lo gain lappinoss, bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
l. |- ||.|»s|| |os s||·. »|-o c»ss||o »w»\ .o o|o ».|,
-|c|·|-- c o|».n
¨Upcniµcii |c|c c!¯|uµcii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|c ÷ AII boings, upcniµcii ÷ aro boing convoyod lo
inovilabIo oId ago, sicknoss and doall. A!¯|uµc ÷ O, il
is impormanonl! |ii pcsscni¯ncm ÷ Sooing as sucl, nay,
ondovod vill llis roaIisalion or porcoplion, |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm ÷ HoIy Buddla, sciicsu ÷ lovards aII Iiving
boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ groal compassion vill sympally,
c||cmcii ÷ arisos in lloir loarls. In ollor vords, a groal
compassion for morlaIs arisos in llo Iord Buddla.
3OO
In ovory oxislonco, aII Iiving boings aro carriod avay lo
roacl oId ago from llo limo of lloir birll, and from oId
ago lo sicknoss and llon, from sicknoss lo doall. Buddla,
porcoiving vill lis insigll-knovIodgo llo naluro of
¨impormanonco¨, las groal compassion on aII boings. Of
courso, insofar as boings aro concornod, if lloy rofIocl, lloy
viII lavo an inkIing of llo impormanonl naluro of lloir
ovn ||cn!|cs. Hovovor, lloy may sliII llink llal lloy viII
lavo lo Iivo Iong, apparonlIy assuming llal no dolorioralion
is laking pIaco in lloir youllfuI appoaranco and in lloir
loaIll. WliIo imagining as sucl, unoxpoclodIy, sicknoss
may provaiI on llom undor unfavourabIo circumslancos.
Somo diod al an oarIy ago vliIo sliII young. If doall doos
nol occur oarIy, lloy graduaIIy grov oIdor and oIdor day by
day, monll by monll, and yoar by yoar. Yol, inadvorlonlIy
al firsl sigll, lloy do nol llink of llomsoIvos as golling oId
vill llo passago of limo. OnIy vlon lloir lair lurnod groy
and lloir looll docayod, olc., lloy vouId como lo roaIiso llal
lloy lavo bocomo oId and docropil. Wlo aro lloso carrying
llom avay lo inovilabIo oId ago, sicknoss and doall` Il is
llo rùpc-n¯mc-||cn!|cs in ono's ovn maloriaI body vlo
aro convoying llom, as slalod aIroady. Irom llo limo of
concoplion, nov rùpcs and n¯mcs aro incossanlIy forming
or arising and dissoIving and llon appoaring afrosl lo bo
again dissoIvod undorgoing a graduaI procoss of conlinuaI
clango. A porson sIovIy and porlaps unnolicoabIy grovs
oIdor in ovory spIil socond and a fraclion of a minulo, olc.,
3O1
unliI vlon bocoming advancod in ago, say aboul forly, llo
bodiIy appoaranco bocomos obviousIy clangod sloving
signs of dolorioralion or docay vill llo appoaranco of groy
lairs, vrinkIos, olc. Willoring vill ago, ono can oasiIy bo
affIiclod vill a disoaso al ono limo or ollor, and aflor
sorious dorangomonl of lis loaIll, lo roaclos lis doallbod
and uIlimaloIy passos avay. Il, lloroforo, bocomos ovidonl
llal lour by lour, as limo goos on, ono is carriod cIosor lo
oId ago, sicknoss and doall.
K»st·¯ .n». n»o o·c| occtss|o wn|· l w»- » ·ov|c|
·o·|
An oxampIo may bo iIIuslralod. A group of callIo
sIaugllorors carriod avay an ox lo bo kiIIod. Evory slop
lakon by llal ox brougll lim noaror lo llo llrosloId
of doall. Il soomod llal llo ox knov of llo coming
disaslor ÷ an imminonl doall, and as sucl, il vas found
slruggIing lo oscapo from llo lands of llo bulclors. Tlo
callIo sIaugllorors voro, lovovor, soon puIIing il lard and
dragging llo poor animaI vill forco. Tlo ox lad no vay
oul bul lo submil lo llis iII lroalmonl againsl ils ovn viII.
Il vas indood a piliabIo sigll. As I lad porsonaIIy soon
llis loarlbroaking spoclacIo, I foIl pain in my loarl vill
3O2
compassion, and sinco llon, I lavo abslainod from laking
boof. Tlis incidonl lad lapponod vlon I vas a Sãmanora,
a novico in my monklood boforo I rocoivod my liglor
ordinalion as a sonior Blikklu. }usl Iiko llal ox vlicl vas
carriod avay by llo sIaugllorors lo llo sIaugllor-louso,
luman boings aro boing carriod avay by lloir rùpcs and
n¯mcs villoul any broak, ovon for a socond, lo mako llom
suffor from oId ago, sicknoss and doall. Having soon aII
boings drifling lovards disaslor groal compassion lad
arison in lim.
Wlal llo Iord Buddla lad porcoivod vas llal ono is
fasl approacling oId ago, sicknoss and doall al ovory
momonl of an arising llougl vlicl occurs incossanlIy
vill groal accoIoralion mucl faslor llan a spIil socond,
nay, a fIasl of Iigllning. Tlis porcoplion brougll forll
a fooIing of boundIoss compassion in llo Iord Buddla.
Evon Yogïs vlo aro nov conlompIaling Vipassanã can
fuIIy approcialo llal lloy aro graduaIIy approacling
oId ago, sicknoss and doall al ovory momonl, if lloy
porcoivod llo mind llal conslanlIy clangos. Tloso
Yogïs vlo aro conlompIaling and noling as inslruclod
by us on roacling llo slago of ||cngc-ñ¯nc viII find il
vory obvious llal llo objocl of sonsalion llal is nolod
and llo knoving mind dissoIvo parl by parl incossanlIy.
Il is somolling Iiko oacl boad llroadod vill ollors on
llo slring faIIing dovn ono aflor llo ollor in groal spood.
3O3
Evory limo dissoIulion lakos pIaco, il carrios ono noaror
lo oId ago, sicknoss and doall. Yogïs vlo lavo acliovod
||cngc-ñ¯nc may guoss vill lloir insigll-knovIodgo
llal il is so lapponing.
Ordinary porsons can imagino llis slalo of plonomona
villin a socond, or a minulo, or an lour, or a day, or
a monll, or a yoar. RouglIy spoaking, ono viII cIoarIy
porcoivo limsoIf as coming a bil cIosor lo oId ago, sicknoss
and doall if lo couId rofIocl upon lis ovn soIf yoar lo yoar.
Signs of villoring in ago foIIovod by sicknoss and doall
can bo visuaIisod. GonoraIIy mosl poopIo dio vlon lloy
roacl llo ago of sovonly or oiglly pIus. Boll llo ricl and
llo poor, as voII as diclalors, povorfuI ruIors and loroos
como lo a road-ond in llo pall of Iifo, i.o. Doall, bolvoon
llo ago of 7O or 8O or a IillIo boyond llal ago. Rùpcs and
n¯mcs in ono's ovn body aro carrying lim avay lo oId ago,
sicknoss and doall. Iol us rocilo a mollo composod in llis
rogard.
¨Ol! Mon aro impormanonl, boing drivon lo
oId ago, sicknoss and doall.¨
If llis mollo is rofIoclod upon, llo naluro of cniccc bocomos
obvious. Mcrcn¯nusscii i.o. mindfuInoss conlompIalion
on, llo naluro of doall viII aIso bocomo dovoIopod.
In ovory oxislonco, aII boings lavo lo go llrougl llo
3O4
procoss of inovilabIo, oId ago, sicknoss and doall. Tlis is
llo ruggod and dangorous pall lloy aro lroading aIong.
Hov piliabIo lloy aro. Ono can vory voII imagino llis
avfuI slalo. Il is nol surprising llal Groal Compassion
lad arison in llo Buddla lovards boings. Iol's dovoIop
|crun¯ as llo Buddla HimsoIf lad dono. IIoaso foIIov
llo rocilalion.
¨Ol! AII boings aro subjoclod lo oId ago,
sicknoss and doall lo vlicl lloy aro boing
convoyod. Tlal's roaIIy Impormanonl!¨
¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from llis misory.¨
(Ropoal)
Tlo mannor of dovoIoping |crun¯ as slalod abovo, is of a
vory ligl slandard. Il is simiIar lo llo groal compassion
boslovod upon mankind by llo Iord Buddla. Among
poopIo in gonoraI, a groal many of llom aro in misory for
laving sufforod Ioss in lloir businoss vonluro or for Ioss or
doslruclion of lloir proporly, or for boing soparalod from
lloir boIovod onos. Kcrun¯ can bo dovoIopod lovards sucl
poopIo in misory. IIoaso rocilo as foIIovs:
¨May aII boings vlo aro sufforing misory in
ono vay or llo ollor, bo Iiboralod from sucl
misory.¨
3O5
l. |- ||.|»s|| ·o. n»v|·. »·\.n|·. .o o|||·o t|o·
¨Ai¯nc |c|c cnc||isscrcii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|c ÷ AII boings, ci¯nc ÷ lavo no ono lo Iook aflor llom,
cnc||isscrc ÷ and nolling lo dopond upon. |ii pcsscni¯ncm
Having porcoivod as sucl, nay, sooing as sucl, |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.ci¯ncm ÷ in HoIy Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards
boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ Groal Compassion or soIf-sacrificing
compassion, c||cmcii ÷ las occurrod or sprung up.
Il moans llal aII Iiving boings lavo no ono lo prolocl or
Iook aflor llom and no ono lo roIy upon. Korabya King
nol boing abIo lo grasp llo moaning of llis slalomonl lad
onco askod Aslin RalllapãIa: ¨O, Aslin RalllapãIa! Wo
lavo many armod forcos lo dofond and prolocl us. Tloy
aro lo bo roIiod upon. Wlal is llon llo inlonlion convoyod
in llo slalomonl, 'Havo no ono lo prolocl and roIy upon`' ¨
Tloroupon, Aslin RalllapãIa quoriod, ¨O, Your Majosly
Korabya! Don'l you ovor lavo any affIiclion` If llal affIiclod
disoaso iII-lroals you cruoIIy, lov vouId you fooI`¨ To llis
quory, King Korabya ropIiod: ¨Wlon llis disoaso bocomos
vory sorious and iII-lroals mo, I viII suffor gravoIy lo llo
poinl of noar doall. Tloro lad boon occasions vlon my
roIalivos in cIoso proximily of my sick-bod vopl billorIy,
ovon slodding loars llinking llal I vas aboul lo dio.¨
3O6
Having loard llis ropIy, for llo purposo of vorificalion,
anollor quoslion pul vas: ¨O, King Korabya! Wlon llis
disoaso lad causod you lorribIo pain and sufforing, couId
you slaro il vill your roIalivo's and frionds` WiII you
bo abIo lo slaro llo sufforing if you ask llom lo givo
you roIiof. To llis, King Korabya gavo lis ropIy, ¨Sir, il's
impossibIo lo slaro il. Noillor can lloy lako a slaro in il. I
aIono lavo lo suffor sovoroIy and onduro llo pain vill aII
llo viII-povor al my command.¨ Aslin RalllapãIa llon
oxpIainod saying, ¨Ayo! ExaclIy, Your Majosly, llo Buddla
las lloroforo proaclod llal jusl as lloro is no ono vlo
can givo proloclion and on vlom roIianco can bo mado in
limos of oxlromo dislross sucl as llis, Iiving boings aIso
lavo no ono lo prolocl llom and in vlom rofugo can bo
sougll.¨
Dospilo llo prosonco of paronls and roIalivos vlo aro
rondoring ulmosl assislanco and giving fuII proloclion,
lloy cannol possibIy provonl lloir doar onos from golling
oId, sick and sufforing doall. No ono is capabIo of Iooking,
aflor anollor lo koop lim aIvays young and vigorous.
Wlon llo limo comos, ono is suro lo gol oId. Tlis naluro
of oId ago cannol bo slarod. In caso, il can bo slarod, by
dislribuling parl and parcoI of il lo ollors, ono vouId lavo
bocomo aIvays youllfuI and sprigllIy. If il can bo dono
llal vay, lov fino il vouId bo.
3O7
Tlougl provonlivo moasuros in rogard lo loaIll can
bo lakon by approprialo drugs and modicinos, lolaI
provonlion againsl disoasos is impossibIo. If roaIIy sorious
or maIignanl disoaso is affIiclod, no porfocl curo can bo
dono. Sufforing from disoaso can noillor bo slarod in
piocomoaI. If il is villin llo bounds of possibiIily lo slaro,
llo sufforings, lov nico il vouId bo.
No ono can possibIy provonl doall. OId ago, sicknoss and
doall cannol bo provonlod by anyono. No ono can aIso
provonl a porson from dosconding lo llo Iour Nollor
WorIds lo vlicl lo is doslinod aflor lis domiso. RoaIising
llis falo of aII Iiving boings, llo Buddla lad boslovod lis
immonso compassion on llom. Iol us rocilo a mollo in llo
Iigll of vlal las jusl boon slalod:
¨Willoul a proloclor and villoul anylling lo
roIy upon, lov foobIo and voary vo aro.¨
In llo onliro Inivorso, no ono viII bo found vlo can savo
a porson lo gol Iiboralod from llo sufforings of oId ago,
sicknoss and doall, or lo oscapo from dosconding lo llo
Nollor WorId, or lo gol omancipalod from llo misorios
of Scms¯rc. According lo llo Doclrino of llo croalor
of mankind, God is said lo bo abIo lo savo mankind.
NovorlloIoss, an adloronl lo llis Doclrino viII aIso, in llo
courso of limo, bocomo oId, sick and mool vill doall Iiko
3O8
any ollor boings. On llo ollor land, llo mannor in vlicl
llo Buddla savos aII mankind is by vay of proacling ÷
Iaying dovn llo mollod of praclico lo gol Iiboralod from
llo vorId of sufforings and misorios. Il is somolling Iiko
proscribing and adminisloring modicinos by a plysician
lo a palionl undor lroalmonl. }usl as llo sick vlo compIios
vill llo advico and inslruclions givon by llo doclor,
las rocovorod from sicknoss, a porson vlo oboys and
compIios vill llo inslruclion of llo Iord Buddla and
praclisos according lo lis loaclings, viII bo Iiboralod from
llo misorios of Ap¯µc and Scms¯rc. Tlo moaning of llis
slalomonl as proaclod by llo Buddla is as monlionod
boIov.
Tn| Btoon» cot|o o·|\ T|»cn c |o|·. .n| w»\
1um|c|i |icccm¯icppcm,
c|||¯i¯rc icii|¯gci¯.
Pciipcnn¯ pcmc|||cii,
j|¯µinc m¯rc|cnc|cn¯.
1um|c|i ÷ You, vlo aro my discipIos, ¯icppcm
scmmcppc!|cm ÷ roIaling lo llo praclico of si|c, scm¯!|i
3O9
and pcññ¯, vlicl nood lo bo oxorcisod vill diIigonco and
rigll oxorlion, |icccm ÷ slaII and musl bo carriod oul by
yoursoIvos. 1ci|¯gci¯ ÷ Wo, llo Buddlas, c|||¯i¯rc ÷ can
onIy proacl llo rigll mollod of praclico lo bo oxorcisod
j|¯µinc ÷ By conlompIaling boll Samalla and Vipassanã,
pciipcnn¯ ÷ lo vlo praclisos according lo my loaclings,
m¯rc|cn!|cn¯ ÷ from llo bonds of |i|cs¯, mc|||cii ÷ viII
bo Iiboralod.
Tlis moans llal lloso vlo vork oul lloir ovn saIvalion
vill rigll oxorlion and diIigonco as laugll by llo
Buddla, viII bo froo from llo follors of |i|cscs, cravings,
vlicl aro bul llo misorios of Samsãra. If no praclico is
oxorcisod according lo His Toaclings (!cscn¯), lloro viII
bo no oscapo. Tlo Rigll Mollod can onIy bo knovn
and loard onIy vlon Buddlas appoar in llis Inivorso.
Oulsido llo roaIm of llo Buddla's Sãsana, lloro can bo
no omancipalion from misorios sinco no rigll mollod is
knovn and undorslood lo bo praclisod. In llo absonco of
llo rigll mollod of oxorciso, and inasmucl as lloro is no
ono on vlom roIianco can bo mado, boings aro vlirIing
round and round in Samsãra, i.o. fIoaling and drifling
in llo vlirIpooI of ondIoss oxisloncos, and aro lloroforo,
sufforing in misory. Tlis slalo of piliabIo condilion boing
soon and obsorvod by llo Iord Buddla, llo fIamo of
compassion for aII boings lad avakonod in lim. }usl
as llo Buddla lad lis compassion, vo slaII dvoII our
31O
mind on aII boings vlo lavo no ono lo roIy upon as a
proloclor, and llon dovoIop |crun¯. IIoaso foIIov llo
rocilalion:
¨May aII boings vlo aro sufforing misory
in llo Samsãric oxisloncos villoul laving
anyono lo prolocl llom from bocoming oId,
sick and mooling doall, bo Iiboralod from
misory.¨ (Ropoal llroo limos)
To »s»·oo· |v|s\.n|·. |- ||.|»s||
¨Assc|c |c|c sc||cm pc|¯µc gcmcniµcnii
pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm
sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|c ÷ AII boings, cssc|c ÷ lavo no porsonaI proporly
of lloir ovn, sc||cm ÷ aflor ovorylling, pc|¯µc ÷ is
abandonod, gcmcniµcm ono viII lavo lo pass avay or Ioavo
for good. |ii ÷ Tlus, pcsscni¯ncm ÷ sooing, nay, roaIising
as sucl, |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm ÷ in llo porsons of
Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ Groal
Compassion, c||cmcii ÷ occurs.
311
Tlis is lo say llal boings lavo no porsonaI boIongings
or proporlios of lloir ovn. As is univorsaIIy accoplod,
ovoryono las lis ovn porsonaI proporly. Tlo onIy
difforonco boing llo magniludo of llo proporly or
voaIll vlicl may bo ampIo or scanly. Al Ioasl, lloy ovn
somolling in commonsuralo vill lloir ovn slalus. Ior
so Iong as doslruclion or Ioss las nol yol boon mol or
incurrod in llo absonco of any doslruclivo oIomonl as
dangor, llo proporly viII conlinuo lo romain in lloir
lands. Hovovor, (scmpciii .ipciiipcrcµis¯n¯), scmpciii ÷
aII accompIislmonls (of proporlios, olc.), .ipciiipcrcµis¯n¯
÷ mool vill doslruclion in llo ond. AII accompIislmonl
in connoclion vill vorIdIy mallor, sucl as, proporly
and voaIll viII ovonluaIIy bo roducod lo nolling, or
rallor, lorminalo in onliro doslruclion. Tlis is quilo lruo.
Sicknoss viII finaIIy ovorcomo good loaIll. YoullfuInoss
onds in oId ago, or in ollor vords, a sound and vigorous
body grovs oId in llo ond. Tlougl a porson is fuIIy
accompIislod vill voaIll, lonour or famo, nolling can
bo lakon aIong vill lim on lis doall. Evon ondovmonl
vill a Iargo numbor of rolinuo in vloso company ono
onco Iivod and onjoyod, viII ovonluaIIy bo doprivod
of. To Iivo is lo dio in llo ond. Moroovor, ovorylling
llal is good and pIoasurabIo from llo mundano poinl
of viov viII in llo ond bo dispossossod or doprivod of.
Tlis can bo cIoarIy knovn from llo Iifo lislory of King
Sirïdlammãsoka.
312
Tn| S.os\ o| K|·. S|s|on»··¯-o|»
Aboul 218 yoars aflor llo Iarinibbãna of llo Iord Buddla
(aboul 27O b.c.), lloro camo lo llo llrono of India, a
famous King by llo namo of Asoka. Il vas slalod llal
lis famo and gIory lad sproad aII ovor llo Conlinonl
of India (}ambudïpa) vlicl vas foundod by lim as an
Empiro. According lo vlal is conlainod in llo rocks and
slono piIIars on vlicl lis odicls voro carvod and vloro
vrilings voro inscribod as diroclod by llis groal monarcl,
llo counlry llon caIIod '}ambudïpa' is lo bo undorslood
as llo Indian Conlinonl as is knovn loday. Il is bocauso in
lloso rock and piIIar inscriplions, monlion lad boon mado
of llo pIacos al llo poriplory of lis vasl Empiro vloro lis
dynamic povor vas foIl. In lloso days, il vas considorod
lo bo a vasl domain. Ho vas ono of llo groalosl of India's
kings. According lo llo Commonlarios, Asoka vas said
lo bo a povorfuI sovoroign of a Iargo ompiro, ils aroa
slrolcling ovon up lo ono Ycjcnc rigll up lo llo sky abovo.
AIllougl lo vas a bonovoIonl diclalor and an Emporor
vill absoIulo povors possossing immonso lroasuros, al
llo limo of lis approacling doall, onIy a romnanl of lis
vasl dominion romainod undor lis svay and il vas slalod
lo lavo boon roducod lo an aroa oquaI lo aboul laIf of llo
sizo of a vlilo pIum fruil. So says llo Visuddlimagga as
monlionod boIov.
313
¨Sc|c|cm mc!inim ||ui.¯,
!ci.¯ |ciiscicm su||i.
A!!¯mc|c|cmciicssc,
cnic isscrcicm gcic.¨
Su||i ÷ ExlromoIy ricl and voII-ondovod vill prosporily
and immonso voaIll, Asc|c ÷ a king by llo namo of Asoka,
sc|c|cm mc!inim ÷ llo onliro oarll surfaco of }ambudïpa,
||ui.¯ ÷ laving ruIod and ovnod, |ciiscicm !ci.¯ ÷ and
aflor giving avay in clarily numorous proporlios and aII
lis voaIll vorll biIIions, cnic ÷ al Iasl, c!!¯mc|c|cnciicssc
÷ onIy aboul laIf llo sizo of a slony pIum fruil, isscrcicm
÷ lad romainod in lis dominion, gcic ÷ and lad gono
dovn, or rallor, Iosl lis ominonl posilion lo llal oxlonl.
Tlo gisl of il is llal fabuIousIy ricl and povorfuI King
Asoka vlo lad dominalod ovor llo vloIo conlinonl of
India, aflor offoring aII lis proporlios and voaIll in lis
possossion, ovonluaIIy lad boon roducod lo llo slalus of
a sovoroign vill dominion ovor onIy a palcl of lorrilory
aboul llo sizo of llo diamolor of llo round pIum fruil.
In llo oarIior parl of lis Iifo, lo vas oxloIIod as an
oxlromoIy povorfuI monarcl vill sovoroignly ovor llo
onliro Iongll and broadll of India (}ambudïpa). Ho lad
accumuIalod riclos and proporlios lo sucl an oxlonl llal
lo offorod in donalion ninoly-six (96) croros of kyals in
a singIo day. EvonluaIIy, lovovor, in llo Iasl days boforo
314
lis doall, lis loaIll lad dolorioralod. Il soomod llal lis
Minislors, GonoraIs, and ollor officors appoarod lo lroal
lim vill scanl rospocl. Tloso facls voro discIosod in vlal
is caIIod llo Toxl of Di|µ¯.c!¯nc. A fairIy comprolonsivo
accounl of il is doscribod in llo Burmoso vorsion of llo
Visuddlimagga. Nov I vouId lavo lo givo you onIy a
briof accounl of il.
Al llo limo vlon llo groal King Asoka vas on lis sick-
bod, lo vas sorvod vill food pul in a lray mado of puro
goId as usuaI. Aflor laking lis moaIs, llo King donalod
llo goId lrays, pIalos and cups lo Kukkulãrãma monaslory.
Ialor, lo vas sorvod vill siIvor pIalos. Tlis siIvorvaro
vas aIso sonl lo llo Kukkulãrãma monaslory lo bo givon
avay in clarily. Tloso offorings of gifls voro slalod lo
lavo boon mado lo fuIfiI lis main objoclivo lo roacl lo
llo vaIuo of lis gifls up lo a lolaI of ono lundrod croros,
as llo lolaI vaIuo of gifls vas llon slorl of four croros i.o.
onIy 96 croros. Tloroaflor, lis Slalo Minislors voro said
lo lavo sorvod llo food and moaIs for lloir King vill
onIy oarllon pols. Tloroupon, llo King vas dismayod
and aIarmod sinco onIy laIf of llo pIum fruil vlicl vas
prosonlod lo lim lad roaclod lis lands. Ho lloroforo
ordorod llal a mooling of Slalo Minislors and courliors bo
convonod. Al llo convonlion, King Asoka askod, ¨Wlo is
ruIing llis counlry`¨ Tlo Cliof Minislor ropIiod, ¨Your
Majosly is llo Sovoroign vlo govorns llis counlry.¨
315
Tlon, King Asoka romarkod, ¨Wlal llo Cliof Minislor las
said faIIs slorl of llo lrull nov. IrosonlIy, I ovn and govorn
onIy laIf of llis vlilo pIum fruil,¨ and procoodod lo loII
lis Cliof Minislor llal ¨AII kinds of accompIislmonls onIy
ond in ullor doslruclion,¨ as proaclod by llo Buddla is
porfoclIy lruo. If furllor ampIificalion is dosirod lo bo knovn,
roforonco may bo mado lo llo Visuddlimagga, VoIumo ii of
llo Burmoso vorsion (p. 217 olc.). Honco, llo slalomonl llal
¨boings lavo no porsonaI proporly of lloir ovn, and vlon
doall occurs, ovorylling viII lavo lo bo abandonod¨ is roaIIy
lruo, and accuralo. AII llal las boon considorod as ono's ovn
possossions vill groal allaclmonl, lad lo bo abandonod or
Iofl bolind al llo limo vlon doall soizos. Evon llo corporoaI
body vill aII cIollos, olc., vlicl is drossod up, viII invariabIy
lavo lo bo forsakon. Having soon aII boings in llis piliabIo
pIigll, fooIings of compassion lad arison in llo Buddla. Iol
us dovolo our mind lo sucl boings, and dovoIop |crun¯.
Boings, sooking vorIdIy possossions as lloir ovn and
kooping aII lloso in lloir porsonaI cuslody llougl nol
acluaIIy boIong lo llom aro in misory boll in body and
mind, and aro lloroforo piliabIo. Honco, aII boings may bo
Iiboralod from sucl misory. Tlo Mollo is couclod roforring
lo llis slalo of condilion, as:
¨Tloro is no porsonaI privalo proporly. Ol, aII
llings lavo gol lo bo abandonod ovonluaIIy!¨
316
B||·. » -|»v| .o T»·n¯ |- |·o||o ||.|»s||
¨Unc |c|c ciiiic icn|¯!¯scii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm´
'||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.'
Tlo gisl of llis IãIi plraso is llal boings aro nol fuIIy
furnislod or providod vill ovorylling. Tloro is no
conlonlmonl or salisfaclion vill vlal lloy possoss. Tlis
is aIso porfoclIy lruo and corrocl. Ono may lry lo possoss
llings vlicl lloy aro originaIIy Iacking, imagining al firsl
llal lo viII romain conlonlod vill vlal is avaiIabIo ÷
sufficionl onougl or lis prosonl noods lo Iivo on. Hovovor,
vlon llings aro oblainod as onvisagod, lloy may sliII
cravo for moro. Ono vlo is oarning a kyal viII lopo lo
gol lvo kyals, and ono vlo gols lvo kyals, may dosiro lo
rocoivo llroo kyals, and so on. His llirsl for golling moro
and moro cannol bo quonclod. Tlal is llo roason vly
muIlimiIIionairos al llo prosonl day aro vorrying and
making lloir offorls lo gol riclor and riclor. WliIo llus
sooking voaIll vill lloir insaliabIo dosiros or grood, lloy
lavo lo dio villoul conlonlmonl.
Ior oxampIo, any amounl of rainvalor and valors from
rivors and rivuIols may fIov inlo llo vasl oxpanso of llo
ocoan, and yol llo miglly ocoan novor gols fIoodod. Anollor
inslanco may bo cilod. Any amounl of infIammabIo maloriaI
may bo pourod inlo a burning loap of firo and yol il viII
317
bo consumod in no limo. Evory limo combuslibIo maloriaI
is pul in, il ingurgilalos and burns aII llo moro. SimiIarIy,
boings aro novor salialod. Tlis grood and disconlonlmonl
is causod by llo infIuonco of icn|¯. As impuIsod by icn|¯,
boings go on slriving lo oarn for lloir Iiving. AccordingIy,
lloy lavo bocomo sIavos lo icn|¯. Tlo Buddla, sooing
lloso boings vlo aro riddon vill icn|¯ and aro loiIing for
lloir IivoIilood, lad groal compassion on llom. Il is jusl
Iiko a Iaborious sorvanl svoaling in misory llrougl foar
lo porform a lask as ordorod by lis maslor. Il is a piliabIo
sigll as soon by a porson vlo las sympally lovards ollor
foIIov boings. Tlo mollo composod for llo purposo may
nov bo rocilod:
¨InfuIfiIIod dosiros aro unsalisfying,
AII aro bul sIavos lo icn|¯ ÷ cravings.¨
Boings vlo aro nol yol froo from icn|¯, lavo bocomo
sIavos, and lavo lo bo doing llings as diclalod by icn|¯.
WorIdIings aro compoIIod lo do llo acl of kiIIing if ordorod
lo do so by icn|¯. Tloso vlo llink lloy viII prospor by
rosorling lo kiIIing, aro commilling llis loinous crimo
as promplod by icn|¯, King Ajãlasalu of Magadla
assassinalod lis fallor Bimbisãra bocauso lo vas incilod
by icn|¯ vlicl cravod for llo kingIy pIoasuros of Iifo. AII
lloso vorIdIings nol yol Iiboralod from icn|¯ for laving
commillod pcñc¯ncnicriµc|cmmcm, llo fivo Sins llal bring
318
vill llom immodialo rolribulion, aro nov sufforing groal
misory in HoII or Ap¯µc, olc. Hovovor, a Solãpanna is froo,
from icn|¯ llal can drag lim dovn lo Ap¯µc. Honco, lo
viII abslain from commilling vicos, sucl as, kiIIing and
sloaIing vlicl can causo ono lo Iand in llo nollor vorId.
NovorlloIoss, for nol boing froo from. |¯mcicn|¯, passionalo
allaclmonl, lo is sliII in lroubIo sooking for sonsuaI
pIoasuros as slimuIalod or urgod by icn|¯. A Sakadãgãmi
aIso is sliII doing llings as provokod by llo sublIo form
of |¯mcicn|¯. Evon an Anãgãmi, llougl lo las gol rid of
|¯mcicn|¯, las lo do llings as forcibIy urgod by rùpc-icn|¯
and crùpc-icn|¯. Hovovor, lo las no misory plysicaIIy
and monlaIIy bocauso of llal icn|¯. Ho las onIy scn||¯rc-
!u|||c. As for an Aralal, laving lolaIIy oradicalod aII kinds
of icn|¯, lo las boon fuIIy omancipalod from llo sIavisl
bonds of icn|¯. Tloroforo, Compassion vlicl lad arison
in llo Buddla vas simpIy bocauso Ho found and roaIisod
llal Pui|ujjcncsc|||c individuaIs vlo, for nol laving boon
froo from icn|¯, aro undorgoing groal misory as sIavos of
llo icn|¯. Among llom llo mosl piliabIo aro llo ordinary
vorIdIings. Taking cuo from llo mannor in vlicl llo
Buddla lad nurlurod Compassion, Iol us dovoIop |crun¯.
IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII boings vlo aro in misory and aro
disconlonlod for nol boing abIo lo fuIfiI lloir
dosiros lloroby bocoming sIavos lo icn|¯, bo
319
froo from llo sIavisl condilion causod by
icn|¯ and bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
AII boings in llo vloIo vorId, and in aII Inivorsos
incIuding pIanols and infinilo spaco as voII as aII boings
in llo Inion of Burma, aro undorgoing aII kinds of
misory, as aIroady slalod. Tloy aro, in roaIily, plysicaIIy
and monlaIIy dislrossod. Tloy aro aIso in misory and aro
bocoming voarisomo llrougl conslanl loiI in pursuil of
vlal lloy visl lo oarn and possoss. Tloroforo, for lloir
domorilorious aclions, lloro is dangor of dosconding lo
llo Ap¯µc. Misorios aro Iying in vail for llo inovilabIo
oId ago, sicknoss and doall llal viII lako loId of llom.
Honco, vo slouId dovoIop |crun¯ vill our nobIo inlonlion,
visling llom oscapo from aII sucl kinds of misory. You
slouId conlompIalo and nolo ovory limo you rocilo vill
mindfuInoss. Nov, pIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion.
¨May aII cilizons of Burma bo Iiboralod from
misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo vloIo vorId bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in llo Inivorso bo Iiboralod
from misory.¨
¨May aII boings in aII unIimilod Inivorsos bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
32O
Du|||cppcii¯ cc ni!!u|||¯,
||cµcppcii¯ cc ni|||cµ¯.
Sc|cppcii¯ cc nissc|¯,
|cniu sc||cpi p¯ninc.
Tlo abovo vorso (g¯i|¯) indicalos llo mannor of dovoIoping
|crun¯ as conlainod in Malã-Iarillã. Tlo moaning of il
is:
Du|||cppcii¯ ÷ AII lloso in sufforing, sc||cpi and ovory-
body, p¯ninc cc ÷ and aIso aII boings, ni!!u|||¯ ÷ bo froo
from misory, |cniu ÷ bo so accompIislod. 8|cµcppcii¯
÷ AII lloso invoIvod in dangor, sc||cpi ÷ and ovorybody,
p¯ninc cc ÷ and aIso aII boings, ni|||cµ¯ ÷ bo froo from aII
dangors, |cniu ÷ bo so accompIislod. Sc|cppcii¯ ÷ lloso
vlo aro in anxioly, sc||cpi ÷ and ovorybody, p¯ninc cc
÷ and aIso aII boings, nissc|¯ ÷ may bo froo from anxioly
and lavo poaco of mind, |cniu ÷ bo so accompIislod.
Tlo moaning of llis IãIi vorso by ilsoIf is quilo cIoar in
indicaling llo mannor of dovoIoping |crun¯. Kcrun¯ can
bo dovoIopod vill mindfuInoss as: ¨May aII individuaIs
vlo aro sufforing bo froo from misory. May aII lloso vlo
aro mooling vill dangors bo froo from aII dangors. Tloso
individuaIs vlo aro in anxioly, may bo froo from vorry
and anxioly.¨ Iol us dovoIop |crun¯, as proposod:
321
¨May aII lloso individuaIs in dislross bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
¨May aII lloso individuaIs vlo aro mooling
vill dangor bo Iiboralod from dangor.¨
¨May aII lloso individuaIs vlo aro in anxioly
bo Iiboralod from aII anxiolios.¨
Iurllormoro, I visl lo monlion somolling aboul llo
mannor of dovoIoping |crun¯ in connoclion vill llo
occurronco of Mc|¯|crun¯-scm¯pciii knovIodgo vlicl is
soIf-approcialod aflor boing knovn and roaIisod.
By virluo of laving rospoclfuIIy Ioarnod and borno in mind
llis |crun¯-||¯.cn¯ vill !|cmmcsc.cnc-|usc|c|cmmc, lloso
vlo lavo jusl Iislonod lo llo sormon bo abIo lo pracliso
and dovoIop llo |crun¯-||¯.cn¯ lo llo bosl of lloir abiIily,
and lo furllor dovoIop and pracliso Vipassanã dlamma
llrougl conlompIalion and noling llo arising plonomona
of rùpc and n¯mc, and finaIIy allain llo nobIo Nibbãna
÷ llo slalo of cossalion of aII misorios and olornaI BIiss
÷ vill lloir mucl covolod mcggc-ñ¯nc and p|c|c-ñ¯nc, as
spoodiIy as possibIo.
322
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. v|
I lavo in mind lo loacl in accordanco vill llo four
objoclivos, viz.: (1) lo gain moro knovIodgoabIo oxporionco,
(2) lo onlanco llo lroasuros of faill and rovoronco, (3) lo
mako il obvious for dovoIoping |crun¯, and (4) lo dispIay
and discIoso llo mannor of conlompIaling Vipcsscn¯. OnIy
aflor I lavo laugll llo mannor of arising of mc|¯|crun¯,
I slaII procood lo doscribo llo mannor by vlicl mu!ii¯-
|rc|mc.i|¯rc is lo bo dovoIopod.
Having aIroady oxpIainod llo mannor of arising of
Malãkarunãconcorning four kinds of dlammuddosa, I
slaII doIivor llo dlamma roIaling lo lov sonlionl boings
aro lil and piorcod by arrovs, lov lloy aro onmoslod,
lov lloy aro drifling in llo curronl or slroam of valor,
and lov lloy aro boing burnl by bIazing firos. Iol mo firsl
loacl on lov Iiving boings aro piorcod by arrovs.
B||·.- »s| s||·. |||sc|o s\ »ssow-
Scsc||c |c|cscnni.¯sc .i!!|c pui|u sc||c|i,
ncii|cññc |cci sc||¯ncm u!!|ci¯ cññcicrc
323
mcµ¯ii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm
sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.
Ic|cscnni.¯sc ÷ AII boings, scsc||c ÷ aro slruck or piorcod
by arrovs! Pui|usc||c|i ÷ Will many arrovs, .i!!|c
÷ lloy aro lil and piorcod. Aññcicrc mcµ¯ ÷ Excopl mo,
llo Buddla, sc||¯ncm u!!|ci¯ ÷ capabIo of laking oul,
or romoving llo arrov llal las piorcod, cññc|cci ÷ any
ollor singIo porson, ncii|iii ÷ is nol yol born and in
oxislonco. Pcsscni¯ncm ÷ Sooing, nay, boing porcoivod
as sucl, |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm ÷ in llo porsons of
Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ Groal
Compassion or Iily, c||cmcii ÷ las occurrod. Il las boon
slalod as sucl.
¨Si||¯¨ in llis rogard rofors lo a slump or an arrov. Il
vouId bo accoplabIo if il voro monlionod as a 'slump', i.o.
a poinlod sloul pioco of vood projoclod from llo ground.
Hovovor, in llo Commonlary (Alllakallã), il las boon
slalod as 'arrov'. Honco, ono may imagino as laving lad
sympally for aII boings vlo aro piorcod by arrovs. }usl
as poopIo aro injurod or voundod by gunslols vliIo
figlling in a var, as in llo prosonl ora, llo poopIo in llo
ancionl limos vlo voro lil by arrovs during skirmislos,
aIso rocoivod injurios. Sonlionl boings faco sufforings
simiIar lo lloso vlo lavo sufforod from pain causod by
llo piorcing arrovs. Tlo kind of arrovs llal las piorcod is
324
akusaIa, arrovs of domorils, sucl as r¯gc, !csc, mc|c, m¯nc,
!iii|i and |i|cscs, vlicl aro vicos, llo immoraI conducl. If
piorcod llrougl llo body from llo broasl lo llo backbono,
il vouId bo vory dislrossing and painfuI. In llo samo
mannor, boings aro roaIIy piliabIo for laving boon lil and
piorcod by llo sovon arrovs of r¯gc, !csc, olc.
And yol, as ordinary vorIdIings, lloy aro rallor pIoasod for
boing piorcod by llo arrovs. Sonlionl boings in llo kãma-
abodo onjoying aII llo sonsalions of sonsuaI pIoasuros
(|¯mcgun¯) lavo found a laslo for |¯mcr¯gc. Tlal is vly
lloy aro nurluring and oncouraging |¯mc.¯gc and aro in
lol pursuil of llo sonsalions of sonsuaI pIoasuros. Irom llo
poinl of viov of Buddlas and Aralals, lloy soo and fooI
llo arising sonsalions of |¯mcr¯gc as boing unboarabIo jusl
as if lloy aro piorcod by arrovs. R¯gc vlicl londs lo lavo
pIoasurabIo allaclmonl lo Rùpc-||c.c (Iorm Exisloncos)
and Arùpc-||c.c (IormIoss Exislonco) las llo samo naluro
of inloIoranco llal can lardIy bo ondurod. Tlo mannor of
piorcing by llo arrov of angor is moro conspicuous. Irom a
slalo of lappinoss vlicl rofIocls on porsonaI appoarancos,
llo compIoxion of llo faco immodialoIy lurns bIack, ugIy
and gIoomy vlon angor bIazos up. Tlo mind aIso bocomos
morbid, roslIoss and inloIorabIo. Hovovor, llo man in an
angry mood llinks of llo rising angor as pIoasurabIo. Ior
llis roason, if any ollor porson vill goodviII inlorvonos
lo bring aboul a compromiso and advisos lo rofrain from
325
angor and boaring grudgo, an angry porson is IikoIy lo
rosonl. Ho may ovon llink of llal modialor as unfairIy
laking sidos.
Mc|c moans a mislakon or faIso viov ÷ nol knoving
vlal is rigll or lruo. Wlal is impormanonl or lransilory is
llougll of as pormanonl and ovorIasling. AII llings vlicl
aro incossanlIy arising and dissoIving aro considorod as
pIoasurabIo. Tlo naluro of rùpc and n¯mc vlicl is nol
an ciic, a Iiving onlily, is Iookod upon as a Iiving onlily, a
boing, or 'SoIf'. If r¯gc and !csc occur, mc|c foIIovs suil.
Sonlionl boings piorcod by arrovs of mc|c (doIusion) aro in
misory. Indor doIusion, a porson commils anylling vlicl
is impropor, by plysicaI aclion or by spoocl or by llougll.
Having dono so, onIy domorils aro dorivod lloroby causing
misorabIo condilions.
AIso bocauso of llo arrov or slump of m¯nc, ono mools vill
misory for lis unvorlly soIf-prido or vanily, and bocauso
of llo arrov of !iii|i vlicl las piorcod llrougl llo monlaI
||cn!|c, mon cIing lo faIso boIiofs. Tloy cannol discard or
parl vill llom. IaIsoIy loping lo gain bonofils, vlal ougll
nol lo bo dono, is dono plysicaIIy, vorbaIIy and monlaIIy.
Bocauso of lloso vicos, lloy aII suffor misory. During llo
Iifolimo of llo Iord Buddla, Iurãnakassapa and a buncl
of fivo ollor loaclors of a lorolicaI Socl, logollor vill lloir
adloronls, lad unforlunaloIy accumuIalod a groal doaI of
326
domorils for commilling vicos. Tloy lad gono lo llo oxlonl
of doing vrong lo llo Buddla. Ior lloso vicious llouglls
and oviI aclions (vrong doings), lloy lad dorivod c|usc|c,
domorils, in rolurn. Ior lloso domorils, lloy voro commillod
lo HoII and lad sufforod inlonso misory as a rosuIl. Tloro
aro quilo a numbor of poopIo vlo aro sufforing misory for
boing piorcod by llis arrov of !iii|i or faIso boIiof.
Tloro aro ollor sufforings for boing piorcod by llo rosl of
llo |i|cscs, sucl as, Vici|icc|¯, scoplicaI doubls. Vici|icc|¯
moans fooIing of doubl as lo vlollor llo Buddla,
Dlamma and Sangla aro roaIIy llo Trull. Incorlainly
rogarding llo dorivalion of advanlagos in praclising Si|c,
Scm¯!|i and Vipcsscn¯, or llo allainmonl of j|¯nc, or llo
acliovomonl of Vipassanã insigll-knovIodgo, or llo
roaIisalion of Nibbãna llrougl mcggc-ñ¯nc and p|c|c-
ñ¯nc aro aIso ¨Vici|icc|¯¨. Tlon, if any doubl arisos as lo
vlollor robirll viII roaIIy lako pIaco in oxisloncos undor
lappy condilions by virluo of |usc|c-|cmmc, or ono las lo
suffor in llo four nollor vorIds for llo rosuIlanl offocls
of lis c|usc|c-|cmmc, immoraI aclions, il is ¨.ici|icc|¯¨.
Ior laving boon piorcod by llo arrov of Vici|icc|¯, no
praclicaI modilalion oxorciso can bo dono in accordanco
vill llo corrocl mollod or on llo rigll Iinos. Sucl boing
llo caso, lloro viII lardIy bo any clanco lo oscapo
from llo misorios of Samsãra vlicl aro bound lo como
across.
327
And noxl, llo piorcing arrov of vlal is caIIod '!ucccriic' ÷
oviI doods or misconducl ÷ is conjoinod vill 'llo arrovs
of kiIosas' sucl as r¯gc and !csc. Wlon r¯gc is raging, oviI
doods of !ucccriic-|cmmc, sucl as, acls of kiIIing, sloaIing,
cloaling, olc., aro suro lo bo commillod. Ior sucl c|usc|c-
|cmmc or domorilorious (immoraI) aclions, ono vouId
doscond lo llo four Ap¯µcs and suffor misory. IndoublodIy,
lloro aro a numbor of poopIo vlo viII go dovn lo llo Iour
Ap¯µcs or Nollor WorIds, and vlo viII lloroby suffor
misorabIo condilions.
Compassion, lloroforo, lad arison in llo loarl of llo
Buddla for laving soon lloso boings vlo voro piorcod
by arrovs, sucl as, r¯gc, olc. Boing movod lo compassion,
vlicl lad sprung from llo loarl, llo Buddla lad
doIivorod His Toaclings undor varying circumslancos for
llo onliro poriod of 45 yoars, day and nigll, villoul rosl.
IndividuaIs vlo lavo diIigonlIy praclisod in accordanco
vill His Toaclings, aro, lloroforo, abIo lo gol rid of llo
piorcing arrovs of r¯gc, olc. If ono arrov llal las piorcod
llrougl can bo oxlraclod or romovod, lo gols bollor lo
llo oxlonl a singIo arrov vouId lavo causod lim lurl
or pain. AccordingIy, ono vlo assiduousIy praclisos
Dlamma graduaIIy gols rid of llo arrovs of |i|cscs
ono aflor anollor unliI lo is onliroIy roIiovod from aII
sufforings.
328
Tn| ·»··|s o| .|..|·. s|o o| »· »ssow s\
co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. .n| Dn»··»
Al prosonl, lloso Yogïs vlo aro conlinuousIy
conlompIaling and noling rùpcs and n¯mcs arising
from llo six sonso-doors, llal is, conlompIaling vlal
is going on in ono's mind and body, in accordanco vill
llo loaclings on mindfuInoss modilalion (Salipalllãna)
aro froo from fivo ni.crcncs, obslacIos lo llo progross
of modilalion, vlon lloir mind bocomos lranquiI and
slabiIisod Tlis is caIIod Ciiic Visu!!|i, purily of mind.
Will llo mind bocoming lranquiI and cIoansod of llo
ni.crcncs al ovory momonl of conlompIaling and noling,
il occurs lo llo mind of llo modialor vill avaronoss llal
vlal is conlompIalod and knovn is quilo difforonl from
llo mind llal conlompIalos and knovs, i.o., lloso lvo aro
dislinguislabIy knovn. Wlon llo rising movomonl of
llo abdomon is conlompIalod and knovn, llo rùpc, llal
is llo rising abdominaI vaII, and llo mind ÷ n¯mc llal
conlompIalos and knovs, aro dislinguislabIy knovn.
SimiIar knovIodgo viII bo roaIisod in conlompIaling
llo faIIing of llo abdomon and llo acls of vaIking,
slopping, dropping, bonding and so on. Evory limo il is
so conlompIalod and nolod, vlal is lo bo knovn and llo
knoving mind, rùpc and n¯mc (mallor and mind) aro voII
approcialod as llo onIy lvo allribulos of an individuaI
329
roprosonling maloriaI and monlaI oIomonls vlicl form
an aggrogalo of a sonlionl boing. Tlis approcialion or llo
knovIodgo dispoIIing lo a corlain oxlonl llo arrov of
!iii|i is knovn as !iii|i.isu!!|i.
Tloroaflor, if conlompIalion and noling is carriod on,
causo and offocl viII bo dislinguislabIy knovn in llal
bocauso of monlaI incIinalion lo bond, bonding (vlicl
is rùpc) lakos pIaco. So aIso, bocauso of llo viII lo vaIk,
llo acl of vaIking (rùpc) lappons, and bocauso of llo
objocl of sonsalion vlicl is lo bo knovn, llo knoving-
mind occurs, olc. Al llal momonl, llo piorcing arrov
of doubl caIIod ¨|cn||¯¨ las boon cIoarod avay lo a
roasonabIo oxlonl. Irom llon onvards, al ovory momonl
of conlompIalion and noling, llo boginning of llo
plonomonaI occurronco and llo finaI dissoIulion of vlal
las occurrod viII bo cIoarIy porcoivod and roaIisod. Tlo
naluro of sucl arising and dissoIulion in rospocl of llo
ollor plonomonaI occurroncos in llo body and mind,
sucl as sliffnoss and upvard and dovnvard movomonls
of llo abdominaI vaII, and of bonding, slrolcling, Iifling,
slopping, and so on viII bo dislinclIy knovn parl by parl
vlon conlompIalion is in fuII sving. Wlon roaIisalion
comos, il viII bo fuIIy approcialod vill avaronoss llal
lloso aro moro claraclorislic of cniccc (impormanonco)
and of misory consliluling llo naluro of cnciic villoul
subslanco or ciic.
33O
Wlon lloro is sucl roaIisalion of llo oxislonco of onIy
rùpc and n¯mc, il viII bo found llal vlal llo Buddla lad
proaclod as boing ¨impormanonco¨, misory and cnciic
÷ Non-SoIf, is absoIuloIy lruo and corrocl. Tlis avaronoss
and undorslanding viII onlanco ono's faill in llo Buddla
as roaIIy an Omniscionl. BoIiof in llo Dlamma, as proaclod
by llo Buddla, viII gol firmor or slrongllonod. Iaill in
llo Sanglas vlo aro diIigonlIy praclising according lo llo
loaclings of llo Buddla viII bocomo slrongor. Doponding
upon llo dogroo of faill and boIiof, .ici|icc|¯ (doubls) viII
bo cIoarod avay.
Tloncoforll, vlon conlompIalion and noling is furllor
carriod on, progross viII bo mado Ioading ono lo llo
acliovomonl of llo knovIodgo of Vipassanã, lon slagos
in aII, slop by slop lovards Nibbãna, vloro rùpc and
n¯mc and aII misorios viII como lo a cossalion llrougl
llo allainmonl of criµc-mcggc-ñ¯nc. Tlon, avaronoss or
consciousnoss firmIy lakos pIaco llal lloro is no sucl
lling as Aiic ÷ boing or ¨SoIf¨, and llal llo onliro so-
caIIod body is composod of onIy lvo llings ÷ rùpc and
n¯mc. As sucl, aII faIso viovs (micc|¯!iii|i) commoncing
from ciic!iii|i and sc||¯µc!iii|i viII bo compIoloIy froo
or oradicalod. Tlis oxpIains lov llo arrov of !iii|i las
boon fuIIy gol rid of. A Mollo roIovanl lo llo forogoing
oxpIanalory accounl las boon composod as foIIovs. Iol us
rocilo llus:
331
¨Nolling lo bo llougll of as ¨I¨ ÷ an
individuaI or SoIf oxcopl as an aggrogalo of
rùpc and n¯mc.¨
Tlis iIIuslralos lov a Solãpanna is froo from sc||¯µc!iii|i
÷ a faIso viov of SoIf. WliIo conlompIaling and noling,
or imagining, knovIodgo of avaronoss is cIoar llal
¨lloro is onIy an aggrogalo of rùpc and n¯mc vlicl is
arising and dissoIving incossanlIy, and llal lloro is no
sucl lling as an ciic ÷ a boing, or ¨I¨, or ¨SoIf¨. And
llon, lloro is no doubl aboul llo officacy and nobIo
moraI quaIilios of si|c (moraIily), scm¯!|i (conconlralion)
and pcññ¯ (visdom). Iirm conviclion and faill villoul
a lingo of doubl aIso ariso llal ¨onIy by praclising lo
gain accompIislmonl of llo quaIilios of si|c, scm¯!|i
and pcññ¯, can Nibbãna bo roaclod. In parlicuIar, onIy
by llo lruo roaIisalion of llo claraclorislics of cniccc,
olc., llrougl conlinuous conlompIalion of llo arising
plonomona of rùpc and n¯mc, can Nibbãna bo allainod.¨
RoIaling lo llis, a mollo las boon framod. IIoaso foIIov
llo rocilalion as foIIovs:
¨Havo nolling lo doubl aboul llo praclico and
llo TripIo Gom.¨
Tlis is lov lo gol rid of .ici|icc|¯, llo doubl, in connoclion
vill llo Buddla, Dlamma and Sangla as voII as llo
332
nobIo praclicos invoIving moraIily. Il aIso indicalos lov a
Solãpanna is frood of scoplicaI doubls. Tlis is llo mannor
lov ono can bo fuIIy Iiboralod from llo piorcing arrovs of
.ici|icc|¯ according lo Mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciii !cscn¯.
If dispoIIod from llo faIso viov of Sc||¯µc (sc||¯µc!iii|i)
and doubl (.ici|icc|¯), ollor |i|cscs sucl as r¯gc, !csc, mc|c,
m¯nc, olc., vlicl can drag a porson dovn lo llo Iour
Nollor WorIds, viII bo oradicalod. AII bad |cmmcs, llo
rosuIlanl offocl of oviI doods vlicl can causo ono lo Iand
in Ap¯µc oxislonco viII aIso bo oradicalod. Honco, if ono
bocomos a Solãpanna llrougl llo praclico of Vipassanã
modilalion, ono viII oscapo from llo larm infIiclod by llo
arrovs vlicl can causo misory by puIIing lim dovn lo
llo roaIm of llo four Ap¯µcs. Tlo Buddla lad lloroforo
proaclod lis nobIo Dlamma vill groal Compassion
lovards aII boings. I am foIIoving in llo foolslops of
llo Iord Buddla in imparling His Toaclings (Dlamma)
vill a viov lo onabIo boings lo oscapo from sucl larmfuI
arrovs.
To pul il in, a nulsloII, if ono procoods lo conlompIalo and
nolo aflor lis allainmonl of llo slalus of Solãpanna (llo
firsl slago of progrossivo sanclificalion), lo viII bocomo
a Sakadãgãmi, and llon, an Anãgãmi. On allainmonl
of Anãgãmislip lo or slo viII again bo frood from llo
arrovs of |¯mcr¯gc and |µ¯p¯!c ÷ iII-viII and lalrod.
333
Tloroaflor, if conlompIalion and noling is furllor carriod
on, lo viII allain Aralalslip aflor roacling Aralalla-
mcggc-p|c|c. On bocoming an Aralal, llo slinging arrovs
of rùpc-r¯gc, crùpc-r¯gc, m¯nc and c.ijj¯ (ignoranco) vill
vlicl lo vas vrappod up as an Anãgãmi, viII bo lolaIIy
Iiboralod. Il moans llal aII arrovs of akusaIa smoarod
vill kiIosas viII bo compIoloIy oxlirpalod. Tlal is vly
llo NobIo Aralals, aflor Iarinibbãna, viII bo lolaIIy
omancipalod from aII kinds of sufforings allaclod lo
rùpc-n¯mc-scn||¯rc, for laving boon frood from aII kinds
of arrovs. Tlis vouId bring llom ovorIasling poaco and
lappinoss.
Boforo roacling llo slalo of a vorlly Aralal, ovon an
Anãgãmi vlo can yol bo piorcod by llo arrovs of rùpc-
r¯gc, crùpc-r¯gc, olc., vouId sliII bo subjoclod lo condilionod
misorios of oxislonco (scn||¯rc-!u|||c) aflor roacling llo
abodos of Iorm and IormIoss Bralmãs. As for Solãpannas
and Sakadãgãmis, sinco llo slarp arrovs of |¯mcr¯gc,
olc., can ponolralo llom, lloy viII lavo lloir robirlls in
oxisloncos of luman boings and Dovas vloroby lloy lavo
lo go llrougl misorabIo condilions of oId ago, doall, olc.
Iinding llo boings sluck vill lloso arrovs, llo Buddla's
loarl vas fiIIod vill pily and llus, vill a fooIing of doop
compassion, Ho lad proaclod llo Dlamma dospilo llo
facl llal lo lad lo undorgo a Iol of lardslips soIoIy for llo
sako of llo omancipalion of aII boings.
334
In parlicuIar, laving obsorvod and found llo vorIdIings
(Iullujjanas) sufforing in misory for boing slruck vill
sucl arrovs piorcing llrougl lloir maloriaI ||cn!|cs,
llo Buddla rofIoclod and roaIisod llal lloro vas no
ollor porson oxcopl Him vlo couId romovo or oxlracl
lloso slarp-poinlod arrovs. Tlo Compassionalo Buddla
lloroforo vonl on proacling llo Dlamma.
¨Aññcicrc mcµ¯ ÷ Excopl mo, llo Buddla, sc||¯ncm u!!|ci¯
÷ capabIo of oxlracling llo slarp-poinlod arrovs, cññc |ici
÷ any ollor singIo porson, ncii|iii ÷ is nol in oxislonco.
Pcsscni¯ncm ÷ Sooing, nay, laving soon or obsorvod
as sucl, |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm ÷ in llo loarls of
Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards llo boings, mc|¯|crun¯
÷ groal compassion, c||cmcii ÷ las arison.¨ Il las boon
slalod as sucl in llo Ialisamblidãmagga IãIi.
Tlo Buddla's compassion lovards aII boings is oquaIIy
baIancod villoul dislinclion irrospoclivo of vlollor a
porson is inlimalo or unfamiIiar. Tlo dogroo of compassion
boslovod upon RãluIa, lis ovn son born vliIo lo vas a
princo, vas on llo samo IovoI as lo lad conforrod upon
Aslin Dovadalla, vlo lad llrougl animosily dono
griovous vrong lo lim. Al ono limo, Aslin Dovadalla in
coIIusion vill King Ajãlasallu conspirod lo assassinalo
llo Buddla. Tloy incilod llo royaI oIoplanl by llo namo
of NãIãgïri, lo mako an assauIl on llo Buddla vliIo on His
335
rounds for aIms. Tlis oIoplanl lad a forocious proponsily
and lrampIod lo doall aII porsons vlom il mol on ils vay.
As inslruclod by Aslin Dovadalla, llo malouls fod llis
groal NãIãgïri oIoplanl vill Iiquor profusoIy and roIoasod
llo big animaI aIong llo road vloro llo Buddla vas lo
sook aIms.
On llal occasion, a good numbor of Sanglas voro in
llo company of llo EnIigllonod Ono. Tlo lugo oIoplanl
boing inloxicalod, ruslod forvard lo allack llo Buddla.
Evon luman boings undor llo infIuonco of Iiquor usod lo
do llings vlicl ougll nol lo bo dono or spoak vlal ougll
nol lo bo spokon. Boing an animaI, lloro is nolling lo bo
said of llo oIoplanl vlicl camo rusling vioIonlIy lovards
llo Buddla lo goro Him lo doall vill ils lusks. Sooing
llis lorribIo slalo of affairs, llo Blikklus, in groal anxioly,
roquoslod llo Buddla lo rolroal and avoid llo oIoplanl.
Tlo Iord Buddla, lovovor, proaclod lo His discipIos as
foIIovs:
Agccc|ci|c ||i|||c.c Como! Como! O, my DiscipIo Blikklus!
Do nol slun, m¯||cµiii|c ÷ Do nol foar. Aii|¯ncmcicm
||i|||c.c cnc.c|¯sc, µcm pcrùpc||c-mcnc ici|¯gcicm ji.iic
.crcpcµµc ÷ O, Blikklus! No ollor porson viII lavo
llo opporlunily lo pIol and slrivo lo causo doall lo llo
Buddla. Anupc||cmcnc ||i|||c.c ici|¯gci¯ pcrini||¯µcnii
÷ O, Blikklus! Il is usuaI for llo Buddlas lo onlor inlo
336
Iarinibbãna villoul boing subjoclod lo larmfuI doall
by anyono llrougl conspiracy or allompl. His discipIo
÷ Sanglas, novorlloIoss, pIoadod llroo limos ropoalodIy.
Hovovor, llo Buddla romainod adamanl and gavo lis
ropIy as slalod abovo llroo limos in succossion.
Tloroupon, Aslin Anandã, bocoming frigllfuIIy anxious
of llo imponding disaslor, look lis slanding posluro in
fronl of llo Iord Buddla vill llo inlonlion of sacrificing
lis ovn Iifo firsl in pIaco of llo ExaIlod Ono. Tlo Buddla
askod lim llroo limos lo mako vay. Hovovor, sinco Aslin
Anandã faiIod lo compIy, llo Buddla lad lo mako lim
movo from llo pIaco lo lad lakon up by llo oxorciso of
His supornaluraI povors.
Aflor laving romovod llo VonorabIo Aslin Anandã, llo
Buddla radialod lis mcii¯ (mcii¯µc p|cri) lovard NãIãgïri,
llo oIoplanl. Tlis rovoaIs llo primary imporlanco of llo
quaIily of mcii¯. Tlo fooIing of pily llal lad arison can
aIso bo rogardod as dovoIoping a suppIomonl (cppc!|¯nc)
jusl as radialing vill mc|¯|crun¯-scm¯pciii, as las boon
oarIior slalod. As a rosuIl, llo big oIoplanl, NãIãgïri,
vlicl lad boon slovorod upon vill Ioving-kindnoss
and compassion by llo Buddla, suddonIy lurnod sobor.
Ils mind bocamo miId and gonlIo. Iaill and rovoronco
in llo Buddla aroso in lim loo. Tlo lugo croaluro llon
rospoclfuIIy approaclod llo Buddla, droppod ils lrunk
337
from ils vorlicaI posilion, and llon squallod al llo fool of
llo ExaIlod Ono. Tloroupon, llo Buddla aflor carossing
llo oIoplanl, NãIãgïri on llo foroload vill His rigll land
admonislod il llus:
¨Ol, NãIãgïri! You slouId abslain from commilling
vrong lo a Buddla sucl as mo. If vrong or oviI acls voro
commillod, sorious lroubIo and sufforing viII como upon
you. Don'l gol drunk or inloxicalod. Noillor slouId you
bo forgolfuI. If you aro nol mindfuI or rallor forgolfuI
and faiI lo givo llougll lo yoursoIf, you cannol roacl
an oxislonco vloro lappy condilion provaiIs. To roacl a
nobIo abodo of Iifo oxislonco you slouId cuIlivalo nobIo
praclico in yoursoIf and do llings on your ovn in a
virluous vay.¨
Irom llal limo onvards, NãIãgïri, llo lugo oIoplanl vas
lransformod inlo a voII-lamod croaluro fuIIy accompIislod
vill llo fivo nobIo procopls (pcñccsi|c). In llo pasl, lo
usod lo lrampIo dovn poopIo lo doall. Irom llon on lo
abslainod from kiIIing ollors. Tlis is llo mannor in vlicl
llo Iord Buddla admonislod lo llo unruIy oIoplanl
vlicl lad onco allomplod lo mako a falaI allack on Him,
by incuIcaling a bonovoIonl spiril of Ioving-kindnoss
(mcii¯) and groal compassion (|crun¯) vill an oquaIIy
baIancod dogroo of Iovo, pily and compassion as lo lad
boslovod upon His ovn son, RãluIa.
338
l··|-n|o |· T»·n¯ c os||.|·. |· .n| ctss|·. o| T»·n¯
¨1cn|¯ j¯|cnc cii|cic |c|cscnni.¯scii. 1cn|¯ scicnc
.uµ|cii |c|cscnni.¯scii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|cscnni.¯sc ÷ AII boings, icn|¯ j¯|cnc cii|cic ÷ aro
covorod and caugll in llo nol of icn|¯. 1cn|¯ scicnc .uµ|cii
÷ (and) aro drifling aIong llo mid-slroam of icn|¯. |ii ÷ As
sucl, pcsscni¯ncm ÷ in llo loarls of llo Buddlas, sciicsu
÷ lovards boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ Groal Compassion vill
pily, c||cmcii ÷ las arison.
Tlo lorm ¨icn|¯¨ convoys llo moaning of llirsl or Iusl.
Boing dosirous of sooing and onjoying llo pIoasuros of sigll,
and bocoming pIoasurabIo vill allaclmonl, villoul boing
conlonlod, lo aII llal lavo boon soon and onjoyod, is moroIy
llirsl for a boaulifuI sigll. No mallor vlal ono may lavo
soon ÷ good and pIoasanl siglls of an unIimilod scopo,
lis llirsl for il romains unquonclod and disconlonlod. In
llo samo vay, golling unsalisfiod vill vlal is loard in
rospocl of any good and pIoasanl sound, as dosirod, is bul
a llirsly icn|¯. So aIso is llirsly icn|¯ in rospocl of good
smoII and fragranco, good laslo vill groal appolilo, of good
loucl or conlacl, and of imaginalion. 1cn|¯, in facl, occurs
uncoasingIy in ovorylling llal is soon, loard and so on. Il
339
is arising aII llo limo ovoryvloro. Tlo momonl ono gols
up from sIoop, vlal is dosirabIo is invariabIy llougll of
or imaginod. Ono las found pIoasuro in onosoIf. Ho aIso
finds pIoasuro in ollors as voII as in aII proporlios or
goods or commodilios for lis ovn consumplion. Bocauso
of llis pIoasurabIo allaclmonl vill llo llirsl of icn|¯, ono
las conlinuous robirlls, ono oxislonco aflor anollor. In
ovory form of oxislonco, ono las lo go llrougl llo procoss
of oId ago or docay, disoaso and doall. Having lad lo sook
vlal is noodod or dosirabIo, sufforing and misory lako
pIaco. And llon, for laving lis binding duly lo manago
and Iook aflor aII llal lavo boon oblainod or lavo como
inlo lis possossion, ono is lo undorgo misory or rallor
bocomos misorabIo.
AII lloso misorios aro duo lo icn|¯ vlicl is aIvays in llirsl
llal grovs Iiko a croopor. Ono is unabIo lo ovorcomo llis
icn|¯ from vlicl lo cannol gol avay. Honco, llis icn|¯ is
simiIar lo a big nol llal las sproad ovor aII boings. AnimaIs
vlicl aro caugll in a nol cannol oscapo. Doall is langing
ovor lloir loads. Mucl in llo samo vay, boings vlo aro
lrappod in llo nol cj icn|¯ cannol lako lo fIigll oIsovloro.
In ovory oxislonco, sufforings lako pIaco bocauso ovoryono
gols oId, sick and mools vill doall. Having porcoivod and
obsorvod sucl misorabIo condilions in vlicl boings aro
vaIIoving, il lad movod llo Buddla lo pily and groal
compassion.
34O
Moroovor, a porson vlo is drifling in mid-slroam viII
bo carriod by llo curronl of valor. Il is IikoIy llal lo viII
soon bo drovnod. In Iiko mannor, boings aro compoIIod lo
obIigo and foIIov as inducod by icn|¯. Tloy aro, lloroforo,
Ianding in llo four Ap¯µcs for laving dono immoraI acls.
Somolimos, for laving dono good doods or good |cmmc,
lloy roacl llo vorId of luman boings and Dovas. Evon
in lloso oxisloncos of luman boings and Dovas, lloy lavo
lo suffor llo misorios of oId ago, sicknoss and doall. Tlo
Buddla lloroforo lad Groal Compassion lovards boings
vlo lavo boon sufforing and drifling vill llo lido of
icn|¯.
C»t.n. |· .n| ·|. o| D|..n|, c
os||.|·. |· .n| ctss|·. o| D|..n|
¨Diii|ij¯|cnc cii|cic. Diii|iscicnc .uµ|cii
|c|cscnni.¯scii pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm
||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|cscnni.¯sc ÷ AII boings, !iii|ij¯|cnc cii|cic ÷ aro covorod
or sproad ovor by and caugll in llo nol of !iii|i, llo vrong
boIiof. Diii|iscicnc .uµ|cii ÷ Tloy aro drifling in llo
curronl of !iii|i. |ii ÷ As sucl, pcsscni¯ncm ÷ sooing, nay,
for laving porcoivod, |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm ÷ in llo
341
loarls of Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards boings, mc|¯|crun¯
÷ Groal Compassion vill pily, c||cmcii ÷ las arison.
Diii|i moans llo lorolicaI viov, orronoous boIiof and vrong
concoplion. To llink vill Ioving allaclmonl, considoring
onosoIf as a Iiving boing, or an ciic, individuaI or 'SoIf', in
spilo of llo facl llal in llo porsonaIilios of llomsoIvos
lloro oxisls onIy a conlinuaI plonomonaI procoss of rùpc
and n¯mc, is moro ciic!iii|i. Il is aIso caIIod sc||¯µc!iii|i.
¨Sc||¯µc¨ moans an aggrogalo of rùpcs and n¯mcs vlicl
obviousIy oxisls in llo so-caIIod body. To llink of lloso
aggrogalos of rùpcs and n¯mcs as a Iiving boing, or an ciic
÷ boing, or ¨I¨ or ¨SoIf¨, is nolling bul !iii|i. Il is knovn as
sc||¯µc!iii|i, bocauso of an orronoous concoplion or faIso
boIiof in llis aggrogalo of rùpc-n¯mc. An inslanco may bo
cilod as for oxampIo, al llo momonl vlon sooing lakos
pIaco, llo oyo ÷ rùpc obviousIy oxisls. Tlo oyo and llo
sigll (objocl llal is soon) aro aIso rùpc. Tlo knoving mind
vlicl soos is n¯mc. OnIy lloso lvo ÷ llo rùpc and n¯mc
÷ aro obviousIy prosonl. Hovovor, ordinary vorIdIings
aro undor llo improssion llal vlal is soon and knovn, is
¨SoIf¨, or ¨I¨. Tlo sigll ÷ rùpc in ono's ovn body vlicl is
soon by llo oyo is aIso misconcoivod as ¨I¨. If il is llougll
of as a roaIily, il is bul 'sc||¯µc!iii|i' In rospocl of vlal is
obviousIy soon and knovn al llo momonl of loaring, olc.,
if il is imaginod or llougll of as ¨I¨ or ¨SoIf¨, il amounls
lo loIding llo viov of 'sc||¯µc!iii|i'.
342
Il bocomos ¨scsscic!iii|i¨ if il is misconcoivod llal an ciic
÷ boing. or 'SoIf' is porpoluaIIy oxisling basod upon llo
faIso viov of sc||¯µc!iii|i and aIso llal aflor doall il las
lransmigralod lo rosido in anollor body. On llo ollor
land, il is ¨ucc|c!c!iii|i¨, if il is concoivod or llougll of
as compIolo anniliIalion of oxislonco aflor doall and llal
lloro is no |usc|c|cmmc and c|usc|c|cmmc. Again, if il is
llougll of as laving no good or bad rosuIlanl offocls of
llal |cmmc, il is !ucc|criic micc|¯!iii|i. Ono vlo loIds
a faIso viov of 'ucc|c!c!iii|i' is IikoIy lo onlorlain llo
faIso doclrino of '!ucc|criic micc|¯!iii|i'. Tlis '!ucc|criic
micc|¯!iii|i' is oxlromoIy fauIly and liglIy cuIpabIo. If
llis micc|¯!iii|i or faIso viov is onlorlainod, commilling of
vicos and doing domorilorious acls viII nol bo avoidod. Nor
viII morilorious doods or aclions bo porformod. In ollor
vords, lloso vlo lavo llo faIso viov of micc|¯!iii|i viII
nol losilalo lo do aII kinds of vicos. Honco, a porson vlo
las accoplod llis faIso viov viII dofiniloIy Iand in loII aflor
doall. Iurllormoro, lo boIiovo in and rovoro a faIso Buddla,
or a porson imporsonaling as Buddla, is a kind of faIso
boIiof ÷ ¨micc|¯!iii|i¨. BoIioving in faIso praclicos as boing
gonuino is aIso anollor lypo of micc|¯!iii|i. Ior oxampIo, lo
lavo a firm boIiof in llo porformanco of rilos invoIving llo
sacrifico of Iiving boings, and by doing so, domorils vouId
bo oIiminalod, and llal morils viII aIso bo gainod, is a kind
of micc|¯!iii|i, i.o. boIioving in faIso praclicos and sooing
llings vrongIy villoul undorslanding vlal lloy lruIy aro.
343
Irior lo llo appoaranco of Buddlas, or llougl llo Buddla
las appoarod, lloso vlo lavo nol loard of llo Trull of
llo Dlamma and lloso vlo misundorslood llo Trull
of llo Toaclings (Dlamma) vouId roadiIy accopl and
adloro lo any ono of llo faIso doclrinos monlionod in llo
forogoing. AII ovor llo vorId, llo majorily of llo poopIo
lavo accoplod and boIiovod sucl faIso doclrinos. AII lloso
vlo faiI lo fuIIy approcialo llo Buddla's Dlamma, lavo
ciic!iii|i, c faIso viov lo vlicl lloy aro cIinging bIindIy
llal rùpcs and n¯mcs aro moroIy 'ciic boing', 'SoIf' or 'I'.
Honco, llo slalomonl llal ¨aII boings aro caugll in a nol
of !iii|i and lloy aro drifling in llo curronl of !iii|i¨ is
roaIIy lruo and corrocl. AII boings vlo lavo accoplod sucl
faIso doclrinos as ¨ucc|c!c¨ boIiof and ¨!ucc|criic micc|¯¨
aro IikoIy lo Iand in llo Iour Nollor WorIds. Hovovor,
in llo caso of lloso vlo adloro lo llo boIiof of ¨sassala¨,
lloro is IikoIilood of lloir gaining |usc|c|cmmc |µ Ionding
loIp lo ollor foIIov boings, and by golling rid of somo
c|usc|c, domorils, lo a roasonabIo oxlonl, inasmucl as lloy
lavo a boIiof in llo proprioly of vlal ougll lo bo dono or
nol, oxpocling lo gain bonofils and lappinoss in llo Iifo
loroaflor. Ior sucl good aclions or |usc|c|cmmc, lloro is
sliII lopo for llom lo roacl good and nobIo oxisloncos
aflor domiso. NovorlloIoss, bad doods or immoraI aclions
aro incIudod in vlal lloy boIiovo as ¨llings llal ougll lo
bo dono¨. Sucl vrong or orronoous |cmmc ÷ aclions aro
oxpoundod in IãIi Alllakallãs. Tloso aro aclions, sucl as
344
lloso roIaling lo kiIIing ollor boings in porforming riluaIs,
or boiIing snaiIs and oyslors aIivo, olc., lo savo llomsoIvos
as lloy lavo said, from Samsãric misory (.ciic). Tlougl
sucl acls migll bo considorod as good doods from lloir
ovn poinl of viov, kiIIing of sonlionl boings cannol
possibIy bo rogardod as acls of virluo from vlicl morils
can bo dorivod bocauso of llo facl llal viclims viII suroIy
lavo lloir disapprovaI and cannol bo a consonling parly.
Tloro is ovory IikoIilood of lloso lorolics going dovn lo
llo four Ap¯µcs vloro lloy vouId suffor misory for lloir
domorilorious or immoraI aclions vlicl migll appoar lo
llom as boing good and propor. And llon, ono vlo rigidIy
adloros lo Scsscic and Aiic Doclrinos viII nol boIiovo in
llo lrull of llo Buddla's Dlamma vlicl says: ¨Tloro is
no sucl lling as 'ciic' bul onIy a conlinuing procoss of rùpc
and n¯mc according lo lloir plonomonaI naluro. Tloro is
onIy llo causalivo offocl of rùpc and n¯mc, and if scmu!cµc-
ici|¯, cIinging allaclmonl, is oradicalod by induIging in
llo praclico of modilalion so as lo oxlinguisl |i|cs¯, vlicl
is llo causo, llo sufforing offocl of llo conlinuum of rùpc
and n¯mc lolaIIy coasos and bocomos oxlincl.¨ Sucl boing
llo caso, lloy viII bo passing llrougl a succossion of birlls
in scmscr¯ and llon, conlinuaIIy suffor llo misorios of oId
ago, sicknoss and doall bocauso of conlinuod oxisloncos.
Tlis rosuIlanl offocl cIoarIy rovoaIs lloir faiIuro lo roacl
llo zono of froodom from misorios for laving boon caugll
345
and onlangIod in llo nol of !iii|i. Tlus, for boings drifling
in llo curronl of !iii|i, 'lloy aro sufforing llo misorios of
scmscr¯ villoul a broak. Tlo curronl of icn|¯, as las boon
slalod, is gonoraIIy fIoving inlo llo roaIm of four Ap¯µcs.
Tloroforo, aII lloso boings vlo aro nol yol Iiboralod from
llo bonds of icn|¯ and !iii|i aro immonsoIy sufforing
aflor dosconding lo llo four nollor vorIds. Having cIoarIy
porcoivod llis misorabIo condilion of Iifo, Buddla vas
movod lo lavo pily lovards aII Iiving boings. EmuIaling
llo oxampIo as slovn by llo Buddla, our maIo and
fomaIo bonofaclors and aII lloso vlo dosiro lo foIIov His
oxompIary conducl can aIso lry lo dovoIop |crun¯.
B||·. co·-t·|o s\ ||s|
¨A!iiic |c|cscnni.¯sc r¯gcggin¯ !cscggin¯
mc|cggin¯ j¯iiµ¯ jcr¯µc mcrcncnc sc|c|i
pcri!c.c|i !u|||c|i !cmcncssc|i up¯µ¯sc|i,
issc ncii|cññc |cci ni||¯pci¯ cññcicrc mcµ¯ii
pcsscni¯ncm |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm sciicsu
mc|¯|crun¯ c||cmcii.¨
Ic|cscnni.¯sc ÷ In rogard lo aII boings, r¯gcggin¯ ÷ llo
firos of r¯gc (passions), ¯!iiic ÷ aro burning llom vill a
346
fury producing rod fIamos. Dcscggin¯ ÷ llo fiory angor,
mc|cggin¯ ÷ doIusion, llo mislakon viov, j¯iiµ¯ ÷ llo
firos of frosl robirll, jcr¯µc ÷ llo firos of docropil oId ago,
mcrcncnc ÷ llo firos of doall, sc|c|i ÷ llo firos of vorry
and anxioly, pcri!c.c|i ÷ llo firos of griof, vaiIing and
Iamonlalion, !u|||c|i ÷ llo misorabIo firos of plysicaI
dislross, !cmcncssc|i ÷ llo firos of monlaI dislross and
unlappinoss, up¯µ¯sc|i ÷ llo firos of oxlromo dospair,
¯!iiic ÷ aro burning volomonlIy producing bIazing
fIamos. Having aIso soon Iiving boings onvoIopod in sucl
bIazo, Groal Compassion lad arison in llo Buddla.
Tlo abovo slalomonl rovoaIs llal aII boings aro badIy
burnl and consumod by oIovon cggis (firos) vlicl may bo
onumoralod as Iusl or passion, angor or lalrod, orronoous
concoplion, birll, docay, doall, sorrov, Iamonlalion, pain,
griof and dospair. Among lloso, llo firos of r¯gc aro lloso
llal aro prono lo pIoasurabIo allaclmonl. Wlal is caIIod
icn|¯ and |c||c aro aIso r¯gc, passionalo dosiros. Hov lloy
aro boing burnl is: ¨IIoasurabIo allaclmonl lo llo oyo, llo
objocl vlicl is soon, and llo knoving-mind, may bo said
lo bo llo firos of r¯gc vlicl aro raging. Irom llo slago of
¨sooing¨, ono bocomos allaclod lo lis ovn ¨oyos¨ IovingIy.
AIso, llo objocl vlicl is found agrooabIo by sigll is found
lo bo pIoasurabIo. IarlicuIarIy, pIoasurabIo allaclmonl lo
vlal is soon, is laking pIaco. Il is nol onIy llo 'sigll ÷ rùpc'
÷ llo boauly ÷ llal is soon and approcialod, bul aIso llo
347
onliro body of a voman or a man. Tlus llo sonsalion arisos
from sigll or vlal is soon, is found pIoasurabIo vlicl in
lurn invokos dosirabIo allaclmonl lo il. Tlis fooIing vlicl
occurs is nolling bul llo burning firos of r¯gc. If llo lling
llal is dosirod is nol yol avaiIabIo, il viII bo cravod for or
yoarnod. Ho viII llink of lrying lo gol il, maybo by look
or by crook. Somolimos, burning dosiro may occur lo llo
oxlonl of laving a roaclion in Iosing ono's ovn appolilo
lo oal and of sufforing from insomnia. Ho may aIso bo
pIanning lo koop inlacl llings vlicl lavo boon acquirod.
Tlo arising of llis pIoasurabIo dosiro is llo burning r¯gc
÷ volomonl passion.
Ordinary poopIo, lovovor, llink of llis burning sonsalion
of r¯gc as boing prolly good. Tloroforo, lloy aro aIvays
oagorIy making offorls lo onjoy sucl sonsuaI pIoasuros
vill allaclmonl. Wlollor in llo mallor of famiIy affairs
or businoss affairs or affairs roIaling lo luman roIalions,
lloy aro conslanlIy vorriod. Tloy may ovon probabIy
llink il onjoyabIo lo bo vorrying as sucl. As a mallor of
facl, lloy aro boing consumod by llo firos of r¯gc. If r¯gc
voro drivon oul or oxpoIIod, il viII bocomo obvious llal aII
lloso imaginalions vlicl lavo lo bo invokod and anxiolios
vlicl aro cropping up, viII bo found as boing simiIar lo
misorios sufforod by a porson from burns. Honco, r¯gcggin¯
÷ llo fIaming rod-lol r¯gc, vas porcoivod by llo Buddla
as boing burning vill a fury.
348
In llo samo vay, vlon loaring lakos pIaco, llo oar, llo
sound llal is loard, and llo knoving-mind aro found lo bo
pIoasurabIo. Tlis is llo 'r¯gc' vlicl is burning. In mallors
roIaling lo llo odour, llo noso, llo knoving-mind llal occurs,
and vlon oaling, llo longuo, llo laslo and consciousnoss
llal arisos, as aIso vlon loucling and imagining, simiIar
occurroncos vlicl aro lapponing, may bo considorod as
boing subjoclod lo burns. BriofIy pul, pIoasurabIo allaclmonl
lo aII sonsalions vlicl ariso obviousIy al ovory momonl of
sooing, loaring, conlacling (loucling) and knoving, aro
nolling bul llo firos of r¯gc llal aro burning. Tlo fIamos of
r¯gc aro raging furiousIy doponding upon lloso llal lavo
arison from llo six sonso-doors. Il is jusl Iiko infIammabIo
maloriaI sucl as firovood and korosono llal oasiIy calcl
firo. Tlo moro llo maloriaI is liglIy combuslibIo, llo moro
llo firo bocomos volomonl. In llo samo mannor, llo moro
llo sonso-objocls aro found liglIy pIoasurabIo, llo moro
llo firos of r¯gc bocomo furious.
SimiIarIy, llo firos of angor aro burning. Il is moro
obvious vlon llo mind bocomos misorabIo vill burning
sonsalions as ono gols angry. Tlo man in angor, lovovor,
may fooI pIoasod vill llo angor llal las arison in lim. As
rogards mc|c, il is difficuIl lo undorsland.
If a llougll arisos llal ovorylling vlicl conspicuousIy
occurs omanaling from vlal is soon and loard, is
349
pormanonl, ovorIasling, good and pIoasurabIo, and llal
ovory sucl lling is ¨ciic¨ or ¨SoIf¨, il is simpIy ¨mc|c¨.
In slorl, vlal is vrongIy concoivod is mc|c. Erronoous
undorslanding or misconcoplion vlicl voiIs llo lrull
of llo knovIodgo of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic in rospocl
of aII plonomonaI occurroncos llal ariso from llo six
sonso-doors is lo bo rogardod as ¨mc|c¨ in fIamos. Tlo
mannor in vlicl llo firos of mc|c aro burning is lard lo
bo undorslood by ordinary vorIdIings. OnIy vlon llo
lruo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic aro cIoarIy
knovn, llo vay mc|c is burning can bo roaIisod. Tlus
¨mc|c¨ incIudos nol knoving vlal is lruo, boing undor
doIusion, doos llings vlicl ougll nol lo bo dono, and
pIans vlicl ougll nol lo bo pIannod, or spoaks vlal ougll
nol lo bo spokon. Ior sucl impropor conducl or aclions,
disadvanlagos aro bound lo bo mol vill in llo prosonl
Iifolimo. AIso, llrougloul Scms¯rc, sufforings, sucl as
misorabIo condilion of Ap¯µc Iifo viII bo mol. Tloso aro
llo sufforings of burns causod by llo firos of ¨mc|c¨.
Tlo llroo kinds of firos ÷ r¯gc, !csc and mc|c ÷ jusl
nov slalod, aro llo firos of c|usc|c |i|cs¯. Tlon comos llo
firos of j¯ii, olc., birll or oxislonco, olc., vlicl aro in facl
llo firos of Scms¯ric misorios. Tloro aro oigll of lloso. Of
lloso oigll, llo llroo (3), viz.: birll (j¯ii), oId ago (jcr¯)
and doall (mcrcn¯) ÷ llo llroo kinds of firos ÷ aro
conspicuous. Hovovor, lloro is food for llougll roIaling
35O
lo llo firos of j¯ii lo lov frosl oxislonco, vlicl las como
inlo boing, suffors llo burning loal. To pul il briofIy, in
ovory oxislonco, llrougloul ono's Iifolimo, llo misorios
vlicl a porson oncounlors aro causod by llo firos of j¯ii
(birll). Misorios in loII aro lo bo sufforod bocauso of ono's
robirll in loII. Iikoviso, llo misorabIo condilions of llo
animaI Iifo and of Iolas aro mol vill bocauso of robirlls
in llo animaI vorId as dogs, pigs, fovIs, birds, olc., or, as
Iolas, as llo caso may bo. Tloso vlo aro born of llo poor
paronls viII probabIy bo slrickon vill povorly llrougloul
lloir Iifolimo. Iorsons vlo bocomo Dovas or Bralmãs aro
aIso sufforing misory in lloir rospoclivo oxisloncos moroIy
bocauso lloy lavo boon roborn in lloso oxisloncos. A
quoslion may ariso from vlicl sourco llis burning loal
of misorios las como. Il may bo oxpIainod as foIIovs:
Il las so lapponod bocauso of llo rosuIlanl offocl of |i|cs¯
and |cmmc vlicl lond lo causo lo bocomo a ¨boing¨
(||c.c). Tloso |i|csc and |cmmc procood or originalo
from ono's ovn dopondonco upon llo rosuIlanl offocl of
consciousnoss of sigll vlicl obviousIy comos inlo viov
llrougl llo modium of llo oyo al llo limo of sooing, and of
llo consciousnoss of sound llrougl llo oar al llo momonl
of loaring, olc. Tlal is llo roason vly aII consciousnoss
or llo knoving mind of llo objocl of sigll and sound
appoaring and occurring llrougl llo oyo and llo oar al
ovory momonl of sooing, loaring, olc., is lo bo slalod as llo
351
burning firo of j¯ii vlicl brings forll nov oxisloncos. To
bo quilo candid, llo nov oxislonco of llo firo of j¯ii occurs
from llo upsurgo of |i|csc and llo offocl of |cmmc basod
upon llo acl of sooing and so on. Tlis firo of j¯ii laving
lad llo opporlunily lo lako pIaco al ovory momonl of
sooing, loaring, olc., vlonovor sooing, loaring, olc., aro
occurring, il may bo said llal llo firo of j¯ii is burning. Tlo
firos of jcr¯ (oId ago) and mcrcn¯ (doall) aro occurring and
burning in llo samo mannor. Tlo onIy prominonl lling is
llal oId ago and doall aro cIoarIy nolicoabIo and visibIo in
lloir lruo naluro as condilions vorson.
According lo vlal las boon slalod, llo mannor of llo
oulbroak of firos of j¯ii, olc., is as doscribod in llo proacling
conlainod in Adilla Sulla vlicl run as ¨cc|||u ¯!iiicm rùpc
¯!iii¯ cc|||u.iññ¯ncm ¯!iiicm olc.¨ In llo proIoguo of llis
mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciii sinco il las boon slalod ordinariIy as:
¨|c|cscnni.¯sc¨ vlicl convoys llo moaning of 'Burning llo
Iiving boing', il can bo inlorprolod lo moan llal llo firos of
j¯ii, olc., aro burning in ovory oxislonco vlorovor a boing
may bo born. As sucl, aII misorios vlicl aro facod and
sufforod llrougloul llo Iifolimo, for laving firsl como
inlo boing in ovory oxislonco (||c.c), aro llo burns causod
by llo firo of j¯ii llal las iniliaIIy concoivod or projoclod.
In ovory oxislonco, golling graduaIIy advancod in ago
vill llo obvious signs of groy lairs, slorl-sigllodnoss or
bIurring vision, and bocoming lard of loaring (doaf), is
352
duo lo llo burning loal of jcr¯ (oId ago). EvonluaIIy, llo
inovilabIo doall vlicl lakos pIaco, is llo burning loal of
llo firo of mcrcn¯. In ovory kind of oxislonco, lloso firos of
jcr¯ and mcrcn¯ vlicl aro burning, aro quilo conspicuous.
Noxl, anxioly, griof, vaiIing, boroavomonl and Iamonlalion
duo lo llo Ioss and doall of roIalivos, Ioss and doslruclion
of proporly or of businoss onlorpriso, olc., aro llo burning
firos of griof and Iamonlalion. AIso in ovory oxislonco,
gonoraIIy various kinds of plysicaI sufforings aro lo
bo facod. Tloro aro aIso loarl-broaking momonls vill
oxlromo anxioly. Tloso lapponings aro llo firos of
!cmcncssc (dojoclion) and up¯µ¯sc (dospair) vlicl ono
las lo undorgo unavoidabIy. Ior laving obsorvod llal
llo boings aro undorgoing sovoro misory and sufforing
in llo raging firos (aIlogollor oIovon in kind), oxpIanalion
las boon givon as slalod boIov lo slov lov Buddla vas
movod lo pily.
Aññcicrc mcµ¯ ÷ Excopl mo, llo Buddla, icssc ni||¯pcic
÷ capabIo of oxlinguisling aII lloso burning firos, cññc
|cci ÷ any ollor singIo porson, ncii|i ÷ cannol bo found,
or, rallor, is nol in oxislonco. |ii ÷ Sucl boing llo caso,
pcsscni¯ncm ÷ laving porcoivod, |u!!|¯ncm ||cgc.cni¯ncm
÷ in llo porsons of Buddlas, sciicsu ÷ lovards Iiving
boings, mc|¯|crun¯ ÷ groal compassion, c||cmcii ÷ las
occurrod.
353
AII Iiving boings aro subjoclod lo llo oIovon kinds of firos
sucl as r¯gc and so forll. Tloroforo, llo Buddla lad
Groal Compassion lovards lloso Iiving boings roaIising
llal lloro vas no ono oxcopl lim lo como lo lloir succour.
Yos, indood, lloso boings aro roaIIy piliabIo. Sinco, nol onIy
ono bul oIovon firos aro burning llom up, llo misorios
lloy lavo lo undorgo musl bo avfuIIy lorribIo. Tloro is
no ono vlo couId givo inslruclions lo lloso poor piliabIo
boings lo oscapo from llo burning fIamos oxcopl llo
Compassionalo Supromo Buddla. Knoving fuIIy voII llo
falo of aII Iiving boings, pily lad arison in llo loarl of llo
Buddla, and llis fooIing of doop compassion lad causod
lim lo givo lis loacling rovoaIing llo vay lo lappinoss,
and guiding llom lo foIIov llo praclico of llo NobIo
EigllfoId Iall ÷ Si|c, Scm¯!|i and Pcññ¯, for llo onliro
poriod of forly-fivo yoars of lis loaclings. Wo aro nov
rocounling His NobIo Toaclings and giving inslruclions
lo you aII.
Having aIroady covorod a vido rango roIaling lo llo
occurronco of mc|¯|crun¯ in llo mind of llo Iord Buddla,
Iol us nov dovoIop llo fooIing of |crun¯ aflor rofIocling
upon llo misorabIo condilions of llo Iiving boings vlo
aro sufforing from various kinds of ¨firos¨ and dislross, as
las boon iIIuslralod in llo forogoing. Nov pIoaso foIIov
llo rocilalion:
354
¨Iiving boings aro piorcod by llo arrovs of
r¯gc, olc. Tloy aro aIso caugll in llo nols
of !iii|i and icn|¯. Tloy aro drifling in
llo curronl in llo mid-slroam of !iii|i and
icn|¯, and aro burnl by llo firos of r¯gc, olc.
Honco, may aII lloso piliabIo Iiving boings bo
Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlo mollod of dovoIoping |crun¯ as las jusl boon slalod is
for llo sako of gaining porfoclion and morils. Hovovor, in
llo caso of a porson vill spociaI porfoclion (P¯rcmii¯s), lo
couId acliovo cppcn¯-j|¯nc ovon vliIo dovoIoping in llo
mannor slalod. If purposoIy dosirous of dovoIoping so as lo
gain |crun¯-j|¯nc, il slouId nol bo dovoIopod slarling from
a boIovod porson, olc., as is dono in llo caso of dovoIoping
mcii¯. Il slouId nol aIso bo dovoIopod commoncing from a
porson of llo opposilo sox. Nor slouId |crun¯ bo dovoIopod
boginning from a porson vlo is aIroady doad and gono.
Kcrun¯ musl bo boslovod firsl upon a piliabIo porson
vlo is in diro dislross by dovoIoping pily and rociling as:
¨May lo bo froo from misory.¨ OnIy vlon j|¯nc las boon
acliovod by dovoIoping as slalod, ono slouId procood lo
dovoIop |crun¯ lovards llo porson vlo is doar lo lim.
Tloroaflor, a noulraI porson slouId bo radialod vill
|crun¯. Tlo Iasl porson lovards vlom |crun¯ slouId bo
dovoIopod is a porson losliIo lo you (an onomy). WliIo
dovoIoping |crun¯ lovards an onomy, if angor arisos, llis
355
fooIing of angor slouId bo supprossod as in llo caso of
dovoIoping mcii¯, and llon onIy aflorvards, |crun¯ bo
dovoIopod lovards a boIovod porson, a noulraI porson, an
onomy, and onosoIf, oquaIIy baIancod on aII four of llom
vill pily so as lo bo accompIislod ÷ vill sim¯scm||c!c.
Aflor llal, according lo llo fourll mollod, praclico slouId
bo mado vill diIigonco lo compIolo llo roaIisalion or
acliovomonl of aII llroo kinds of |crun¯-j|¯nc. WoII, il is
nov fairIy comprolonsivo in doscribing llo mannor of
dovoIoping |crun¯. So Iol us procood lo inslrucl roIaling lo
llo mannor of dovoIoping mu!ii¯.
Tn| ·»··|s o| o|v||o||·. Vto|.¯
¨Mu!ii¯¨ moans rojoicing and golling pIoasod. Il is
rojoicing vill ollors in lloir lappinoss and prosporily.
Somo poopIo do nol visl lo soo ollors prospor, lappy and
succossfuI in lloir Iifo's caroor. Tlis rofIocls llo naluro of
Envy and }oaIousy. In IãIi Ianguago, il is caIIod ¨iss¯¨. Tlo
said ¨mu!ii¯¨ is diamolricaIIy opposilo lo ¨iss¯¨, llo Envy.
A porson vlo is ovorvloImod vill llo fooIing of onvy
viII nol bo dosirous of sooing ollors bocoming prosporous
and lappy. Nor is lo incIinod lo soo ollors boing ondovod
vill a Iargo numbor of allondanls (rolinuo), landsomo
356
Iooks, and good oducalion, nor doos lo visl lo soo ollors
roacling a liglor slalus in Iifo and golling promolion in
officiaI rank and posilion. On llo ollor land, a porson
vill mu!ii¯ gols pIoasod and rojoicod in finding and sooing
ollors succossfuI in lloir businoss or officiaI caroor. Ho can
bring inlo lis mind llo fooIing of joy and pIoasuro, saying:
¨May. bo prosporous.¨ Tlis bonls of mind or rallor
goodviII is ¨mu!ii¯¨. Il is indood a Dlamma ÷ llo naluro
of nobIo-mindodnoss vill oxlromo moraI purificalion.
IooIing of mu!ii¯ slouId bo sproad oul or radialod, firsl
and foromosl, lo a vory inlimalo friond vlo is in llo labil
of spoaking vill a smiIo on lis faco. Or, vlon a boIovod
ono vlo las bocomo voaIlly and prosporous, smarlIy
drossod vill lappinoss is soon or loard (mc!cii .ci¯µcm
sciic c|c s¯!|u c|c suii|u), mu!ii¯ ÷ fooIing of rojoicing
÷ slouId bo invokod ulloring: ¨Ol! Hov lappy lo is. O,
vory fino indood (or rallor, lov good il is).¨
Tlis is llo lransIiloralion of llo slalomonl as conlainod in
llo Visuddlimagga. AIso in llo Ablidlamma Vibanga
IãIi, il las boon proaclod as slalod boIov:
8|i|||u ÷ A Blikklu, mu!ii¯sc|cgcicnc ccics¯, ÷ vill llo
mind llal occurs aIong vill mu!ii¯, |ci|cñcc ÷ lov, c|cm
!iscm p|crii.¯ ÷ by radialing lovards ono rogion, .i|crcii
÷ viII il rosido or romain slaying` Scµci|¯pi n¯mc ÷ Ciling
357
as an oxampIo, piµcm mcn¯pcm ÷ dosorving of Iovo and
adoralion, c|cm puggc|cm ÷ an individuaI, !is.¯ laving
soon, mu!iic ÷ bocoming pIoasod and lappy, cssc il so
lappons. |.cmc.c ÷ SimiIarIy, sc||c scii¯ ÷ lo aII Iiving
boings, mu!ii¯µc p|crcii ÷ il is sproad oul vill mu!ii¯.
In llo slalomonl givon in llo Visuddlimagga as oarIior
slalod in rogard lo dovoIoping mu!ii¯, il is slovn lov
lappinoss lad occurrod as: ¨(c|c s¯!|u c|c suii|u) ÷ O,
lov good or fino il is!¨ Il las nol boon slalod in llo mannor
usuaIIy ullorod by rolo al llo prosonl day, by Sanglas,
Blikklus and Iaymon as ÷ (Yci|¯|c!!|c scmpciiiic m¯
.igccc|cniu), i.o., ¨may nol bo doprivod of or diminislod
in aII riclos and voaIll llal lavo aIroady como inlo
possossion¨. Hovovor, in oxpIaining llo docision mado
al random, il las boon slalod as: |cmmcssc|c scii¯, ic
|cssc ruciµ¯. pciicscmpciiiic .¯ nc pcri|¯µisscniiii c.cm
pc.ciic|cmmcssc|ci¯!csscncpc!cii|¯nc. In llis slalomonl,
vlal las boon oxpIainod as ¨Iiving boings laving
lad lloir ovn individuaI |cmmc vlicl producos llo
advanlagoous rosuIls llal ripon, sinco lloy aro llo
maslors of lloir ovn dosliny and aro roaping llo fruils,
llo soods of vlicl lloy lavo sovn in llo pasl, lov can
lloy bo doprivod of and diminislod in lloir voaIll by
llo viII or infIuonco of ollors`¨ is in conformily vill
llo slalomonl, ¨m¯ .igccc|cniu ÷ may nol bo doprivod
of and diminislod¨. Honco, in dovoIoping mu!ii¯, vlal
358
is usuaIIy ullorod by rolo by llo majorily of llo poopIo,
viII bo oxpoundod.
If a porson ondovod vill voaIll and lappinoss is soon or
loard, mu!ii¯ slouId bo dovoIopod by bringing lim inlo
ono's mind as. ¨May nol llis porson's voaIll diminisl and
may lo nol suffor Ioss. May lo bo abIo lo rolain lis voaIll
and Iuxurious Iiving slalus quo in fuII accompIislmonl,
and bo abIo lo onjoy lappinoss as boforo.¨ Tovards a Iargo
numbor of poopIo, mu!ii¯ is lo bo dovoIopod Iikoviso
as: ¨May lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl lavo boon
acquirod, bo nol diminislod or Iosl, and may lloy bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll in fuII vill Iuxury and bo
as lappy as boforo.¨ In llis rogard, llo slalomonl ÷ ¨lo
lavo llo fuII accompIislmonl of lis voaIll and Iuxurious
Iifo¨ may bo conslruod as nol boing fabuIousIy ricl bul as
boing fairIy voII off. Mu!ii¯ can bo dovoIopod visuaIising
vill a doop fooIing of joy lovards a porson vlo is fairIy
voaIlly. Sucl boing llo caso, lloro is lardIy anylling
lo bo said in parlicuIar in llo mallor of radialing mu!ii¯
lovards a porson of groal affIuonco for vlom mu!ii¯ can
bo dovoIopod vill mucl moro loarlfoIl rojoicing. Iol us
lloroforo rocilo llo mollo vlicl is roIovanl lo llo said lvo
lypos of porsons:
¨May aII lloso poopIo vlo aro fuIIy ondovod
vill voaIll and prosporily, bo accompIislod
359
vill lloir voaIll llal las boon acquirod, and
bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
as boforo, and conlinuo lo Iivo in opuIonco
vill lappinoss as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings vlo aro ricl, bo as
lappy and prosporous as boforo.¨
NovorlloIoss, lloso Iiving boings vlo aro said lo bo in
misory aro IikoIy lo onjoy lappinoss in lloir ovn vay
according lo circumslancos undor vlicl lloy Iivo. Evon
lloso boings vlo voro conlinuousIy sufforing pain and
misory in llo burning firos of loII voro said lo gol roIiof
al llo limo vlon llo Supromo Buddla and nobIo Aralals
lad mado a visil lo llo roaIm of Ap¯µc loII and proaclod
llo Dlamma. Tloroforo, mu!ii¯ can bo vory voII dovoIopod
vill a bonovoIonl fooIing lovards aII boings. Tlo mannor of
dovoIoping mu!ii¯ is llo samo as in llo caso of dovoIoping
|crun¯. Iol us dovoIop by rocilalion. IIoaso foIIov mo:
¨May aII boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,
villoul diminulion, and conlinuo lo romain
in opuIonco vill lappinoss as boforo.¨
Tlis mollod of dovoIoping mu!ii¯ is in conformily vill
llo inslruclions conlainod in llo IãIi Toxl as: ¨Sc||c
36O
scii¯ µci|¯|c!!|cscmpciiiic m¯ .igccc|cniu.¨ Noxl, vo slaII
procood lo dovoIop by rociling in accordanco vill vlal
las boon slalod as ¨Sc||c p¯nc,¨, olc.
¨May aII lloso boings vlo broallo and Iivo, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl
lloy lavo acquirod, villoul diminulion, and bo
as lappy as boforo.
¨May aII lloso porsons vlo lavo obviousIy
como inlo boing, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod, vill-
oul diminulion, and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso individuaIs bo abIo lo rolain lloir
voaIll and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,
villoul diminulion, and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso porsons vlo possoss lloir bodiIy
soIf maloriaI body of ||cn!|cs, bo abIo lo rolain
lloir voaIll and prosporily,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
Tloso fivo plrasos vlicl lavo jusl boon rocilod conslilulo
llo fivo kinds of cnc!|isc-mu!ii¯ vlicl indicalo llo mannor
of dovoIoping mu!ii¯ vill goodviII and joy lovards aII
Iiving boings villoul any dislinclion and Iimil. Wo slaII
nov conlinuo lo rocilo and dovoIop llo sovon kinds of
c!|isc-mu!ii¯.
361
¨May aII fomaIos bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod, vill-
oul diminulion and bo abIo lo conlinuo lo romain
voaIlly and prosporous, and bo as lappy as
boforo.¨
¨May aII maIos bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII Ariyas bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII vorIdIings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII Dovas bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII luman boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir
voaIll and prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII Apãya boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
Tlo abovo is llo mannor of dovoIoping llo sovon kinds
cj c!|isc-mu!ii¯. If lloso sovon voro addod lo llo fivo
kinds of cnc!|isc, as slalod oarIior, il viII como lo lvoIvo
(12). Tloso aro llo lvoIvo ¨!is¯-cnc!|isc-mu!ii¯¨ villoul
dislinguisling rogion-viso and villoul Iimilalion. Wlon
dovoIoping by dislinguisling llo rogions, lloro viII bo
362
lvoIvo (12) for oacl and ovory rogion. As lloro aro lon
rogions, il viII como lo a lolaI of 12O. Iol us aIso rocilo and
dovoIop lloso ono lundrod and lvonly in briof. IIoaso
foIIov llo rocilalion:
¨May aII boings in llo Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo
rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl lloy
lavo acquirod, villoul diminulion, and conlinuo
lo romain voaIlly and prosporous, and bo as
lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII boings vlo broallo and Iivo in llo
Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as
lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso porsons vlo lavo obviousIy como
inlo boing in llo Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain
lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo
acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII individuaIs in llo Easlorn rogion, bo abIo
lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl lloy
lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso porsons vlo possoss lloir maloriaI
body of ||cn!|cs in llo Easlorn rogion, bo abIo
lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl lloy
lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
363
¨May aII lloso fomaIos in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl
lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso maIos in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl
lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Ariyas in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl
lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso vorIdIings (Iullujjanas) in llo
Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as
lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Dovas in llo Easlorn rogion, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily vlicl
lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso luman boings in llo Easlorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as
lappy as boforo.¨
Tlis is llo mannor of dovoIoping lvoIvo kinds of mudilã
lo lloso boings in llo Easlorn rogion. In rogard lo lloso in
llo Woslorn rogion and so on, il slouId bo dovoIopod in
llo samo mannor.
364
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Woslorn rogion,
bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Woslorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Norllorn rogion,
bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Norllorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Soullorn rogion,
bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Soullorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
365
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Soull-Easlorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Soull-
Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,.
and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Norll-Woslorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Norll-
Woslorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,.
and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Norll-Easlorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
366
¨May aII lloso Apãya s boings in llo Norll-
Easlorn rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,.
and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo Soull-Woslorn
rogion, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo Soull-
Woslorn rogion bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,.
and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo rogion boIov, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo rogion
boIov, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso boings in llo rogion abovo, bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily
367
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and bo as lappy
as boforo.¨
¨May aII lloso Apãya boings in llo rogion
abovo, bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod,. and
bo as lappy as boforo.¨
Wlal lavo jusl boon rocilod aro 12O kinds of !is¯-c!|isc-
mu!ii¯ in a nulsloII. If lloso aro addod lo llo 12 kinds of
!is¯-cnc!|isc as monlionod oarIior, il viII como lo a lolaI of
132 kinds of mu!ii¯. Nov llo mannor of dovoIoping mu!ii¯
is quilo compIolo. If possibIo, and if limo and circumslancos
pormil, lloso 132 kinds of mu!ii¯ may bo dovoIopod. In llo
ovonl of nol boing abIo lo dovoIop in llo mannor slalod,
if mu!ii¯, vill a fooIing of rojoicing, can bo dovoIopod
lovards affIuonl porsons ovory limo lloy aro found, soon
or loard, monlaIIy or vorbaIIy ullorod as: ¨May lloy bo
abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily, and bo as lappy
as boforo¨, advanlagos viII bo accruod nol onIy in llo
prosonl Iifolimo bul aIso in fuluro oxisloncos as voII.
Tlo majorily of llo poopIo aro IikoIy lo bo joaIous of ollors
boing bollor llan llom. Al prosonl, poopIo aro gonoraIIy
apl lo bocomo onvious and aro incIinod lo conspiro vill
iII-fooIing lo causo misory lo ollors and lo bring aboul
lloir financiaI ruin on fIimsy grounds. Tloso aro cnvy
368
÷ ¨|ssc¨ vlicl bring domorils. Tloso vlo aro joaIous or
onvious viII gonoraIIy lavo no good frionds vlo vouId
rondor llom assislanco. In fuluro oxisloncos, lloy may
probabIy bo in misory for Iack of allondanls. RoIaling lo
mallors monlionod in llo forogoing, il las boon cilod in
Iparipannãsa CûIakammaviblanga Sulla (246).
¨|!c m¯nc.c c|cccc iii|i .¯ purisc .¯ iss¯mcnc|c
|cii, cic.,¨ goos llo loacling.
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo young Iad! (a roIalivo accounl of
llo young man Subla viII bo narralod Ialor). |!c ÷ In llis
Inivorso, c|cccc iii|i .¯ purisc .¯ ÷ vlollor a fomaIo or a
maIo, roIaling lo somo porsons, iss¯mcnc|c ÷ fooIing of onvy,
|cii ÷ las arison in llom. Pcrc|¯||csc||¯rcm¯ncnc.cn!cn-
pùjcsu ÷ AIso againsl ollor porsons for laving acquirod
voaIll and prosporily, for porforming acls of clarily vill
duo rogards, for paying rovoronco, for vorslipping, and
for boing bonl upon giving doop rospocl vill vonoralion,
isscii ÷ somo lavo bocomo onvious, upc!usscii ÷ and lavo
llus commillod fauIl or sin for lloir iII-viII or clurIislnoss.
|sscm |cn!|cii ÷ Tloy aro firmIy allaclod lo 'onvy' as
if faslonod vill a ropo. Sucl an onvious porson, icnc
|cmmcnc c.cm scmciicnc scm¯!inncnc ÷ bocauso of oviI
|cmmc, for laving buiIl up and succoodod in oslabIisling
llal onvious fooIing as slalod, |¯µcssc ||c!¯ pcrcm mcrcn¯
÷ aflor llo disinlogralion of llo oxisling maloriaI body of
369
||cn!|c on doall, cp¯µcm !uggciim ÷ lo Ap¯µc, llo abodo
of sufforing, .inip¯icm nircµcm ÷ and lo loII vloro ono is
IiabIo lo roacl aflor llo doslruclion of llo lappy condilion
of luman Iifo oxislonco (i.o., as a luman boing), upcpcjjcii
÷ viII doscond, or rallor viII bo roborn in sucl misorabIo
oxislonco, Sccc mcnussciicm ¯gccc|cii ÷ or, by virluo of
ollor |usc|c-|cmmc, i.o., moraI or morilorious aclions, if
lo, lappons lo roacl a luman oxislonco, µcii|c µcii|c
pccc¯j¯µcii ÷ in vlalovor oxislonco lo may bocomo (ils
moaning loroin rondorod in pIain Burmoso is: lo lavo a
smooll fIov), cppcsc|||c |cii ÷ lo is IikoIy lo bo doprivod
of llo company of allondanls and loIpors. M¯nc.c ÷ O,
young man ÷ Subla! cs¯pciipc!c ÷ llis labiluaI conducl
of cppcsc|||c scm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is conducivo lo, or is IikoIy
lo Ioad lo a slalo of lolaI doprivalion of llo company of
allondanls and loIpors.
BriofIy slalod, a porson vlo is onvious of ollors' succoss
in acquiring voaIll and prosporily, and onlancomonl
of ropulalion or prosligo, is IikoIy lo go dovn lo llo
Iour Ap¯µcs and roacl loII for llis immoraI aclion of
Envy. Aflor lis roIoaso from llo Ap¯µc ÷ HoII, if lo is
roborn as a luman boing by virluo of llo slrongll of lis
|usc|cs (morils), lo viII bo Iacking in companions and
allondanls. Il is cIoarIy iIIuslralod and oxpoundod in
Alllakallã as rosombIing ¨Ono vlo is armIoss, or rallor,
ono vlo is villoul lis lands aflor boing cul off, vlon
37O
bocoming llirsly, viII lavo no assislanco or loIpor ovon
lo offor lim valor lo drink for llo purposo of quoncling
lis llirsl.¨
On llo ollor land, a porson vlo is rojoicing vill ollors
in lloir voII-boing and lappinoss, viII bo oIovalod lo llo
abodo of Sugcii ÷ a vorId of !c.cs, for lis |usc|c-|cmmc as
a rosuIl of dovoIoping mu!ii¯. If lo lappons lo bo roborn
in llo vorId of luman boings or in any form of oxislonco,
vlorovor lo may bo, lo viII lavo llo posilivo rosuIl of
boing oquippod vill a Iargo numbor of allondanls and llo
allribulos of povor and famo.
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo young Iad, cs¯pciipc!¯ ÷ llis
quaIily of conducl or moraIily in golling pIoasod vill
rojoicing villoul onvy, mc|csc|||cscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ londs
lo conlribulo lovards bocoming povorfuI vill a Iargo
rolinuo. Il lad boon proaclod as sucl in a conciso vay. I
lavo composod a roIovanl mollo, as slalod boIov, vlicl
may nov bo rocilod:
¨Envy ropoIs allondanls and loIpors, GoodviII
brings forll rolinuo in groal numbors.¨
In slorl, lov nico il is lo pracliso and dovoIop
mu!ii¯, and by so dovoIoping, morils viII
accruo villoul any oxponsos.
371
AIso, in llo mallor of dovoIoping mu!ii¯ as slalod in llo
forogoing, il las boon inslruclod in llo Visuddlimagga
llal lo pracliso liII sim¯scm||c!c, llo Iimil of dislinclion,
is ovor or compIolo, as in llo caso of dovoIoping |crun¯.
According lo llo fourll mollod, il las boon oxpIainod
in llo samo mannor in dovoIoping lo roacl llo finaI
allainmonl of llo Tlird j|¯nc. Nov llal fuII oxpIanalion
las boon givon roIaling lo llo mannor of dovoIoping mu!ii¯,
lloroforo, vo slaII nov vind up llo loaclings loday vill
a rocilalion. WliIo rociling, vlal is rocilod slouId bo
brougll inlo ono's mind, and al llo samo limo dovoIoping
Vipassanã llrougl conlompIalion and noling. Nov pIoaso
foIIov:
¨May aII boings bo froo from dangor, from
bodiIy sufforing, from monlaI dislross, and
bo abIo lo slouIdor llo burdon of ono's ovn
||cn!|c vill lappinoss.¨
¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from misorios
vlicl lloy aro prosonlIy sufforing.¨
¨May aII boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod and
conlinuo lo romain voaIlly and prosporous,
and bo as lappy as boforo.¨
372
¨May aII lloso nobIo porsons vlo aro
prosonl al llis congrogalion, by virluo of
morils dorivod from loaring and noling llo
loaclings on mcii¯, |crun¯, mu!ii¯ as may bo
approprialo, and gain llo oIovon advanlagos
as migll bo dosorvod, and llon, lo pracliso
Vipassanã llrougl conlompIalion and noling
vill moro ondoavour lo allain Nibbãna as
soon as possibIo aflor llo acliovomonl of llo
covolod mcggc-ñ¯nc and p|c|c-ñ¯nc.
Sadlu! Sadlu! Sadlu!
373
Bn.nx.vin¯n. Dn.xx.
l»s. v||
w| -n»|| ·ow co··|·c| |s|»cn|·. L||||n¯ |so· .oo»\ o·w»so-
wn». |- L||||n¯`
According lo llo principIos of IãIi grammar, upc|||¯,
moans: Upcpciiiic µuii|iic ÷ as may bo approprialo, i|||ciiii
÷ for boing abIo lo soo and obsorvo llings, upc|||¯ ÷ il is
knovn as ¨upc|||¯¨ i.o., lo nolo and obsorvo llings kooping
al loarl, vill oquanimily, and an oquaIIy baIancod mind
laking a noulraI alliludo villoul discriminalion. Hovovor,
in llo mallor of llo Bralmavilãra, llo lorm ¨upc|||¯¨
convoys llo sonso donoling llo fooIing of indifforonco
villoul boing vorriod by rojocling or discarding aII kinds
of anxioly, sucl as, visling ollors lappy by radialing
Ioving-kindnoss (mcii¯), visling ollors froo from misory
vill compassion (|crun¯), and visling llom lo bo abIo
lo rolain llo samo slalo of prosporily as boforo, villoul
diminulion, by dovoIoping mu!ii¯.
In causing lo dovoIop mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯, il slaII bo borno in
mind as ¨Sc||c scii¯ c.cr¯ |cniu¨ ÷ may aII boings bo froo
from dangor, olc., in ordor lo onabIo llom lo gain lappinoss.
374
AIso in causing lo dovoIop |crun¯-||¯.cn¯, ono slouId koop
al loarl as ¨Sc||c scii¯ !u|||c mucccniu¨ ÷ may aII boings
bo Iiboralod from misory so llal boings may oscapo from
misory and sufforings. Iikoviso, in causing lo dovoIop
mu!ii¯ ||¯.cn¯, ono slouId bring inlo lis mind as ¨Sc||c
scii¯ µcii|¯|c!!|cscmpciiiic m¯ .igccc|cniu¨ ÷ May aII
boings nol bo doprivod of lloir voaIll and prosporily
vlicl lloy lavo acquirod. As rogards ¨upc|||¯¨, aII lloso
monlaI slalos or formalions llal occur in ono's mind
vorrying aboul ollors' voIfaro slouId bo dispoIIod. Honco,
ono slouId lako an indifforonl alliludo ÷ vill oquanimily
as: ¨Sc||c scii¯ |cmmcssc|c¨, vlicl moans ÷ aII boings
aro laving lloir individuaI |cmmc, oillor good or bad,
doponding upon lloir ovn aclions dono in llo pasl as voII
as prosonl vlicl causo lo bring lappinoss or misory, as
llo caso may bo, and lloso aclions boar fruils as rosuIlanl
offocls vlicl lloy lavo inlorilod according lo llo Iav of
|cmmc. ´ |}usl as llo Buddla lad said, ¨According lo llo
sood llal's sovn, so is llo fruil yo roap llorofrom, door of
good viII galloro good, door of oviI, oviI roaps.¨]
l- |. ·o. s»o .o s| |·o||||s|·. .o .n| w|||»s| o| o.n|s-`
Tloroforo, ono vlo vislos lo dovoIop upc|||¯ ||¯.cn¯ is
lo nurluro llo spiril of indifforonco lo pain and pIoasuro
´ Insorlod by llo TransIalor for bollor approcialion.
375
of ollors, Iooking upon llom as boing moroIy subjoclod
lo lloir ovn individuaI |cmmc, llo inovilabIo rosuIlanl
offocl of lloir ovn aclions. If llal is so, il vouId appoar as
if llis ¨upc|||¯¨ is a bad dlamma for faiIing lo do for llo
voIfaro, or rallor, in llo inlorosls of ollors. Hovovor, il is
nol so. On llo conlrary, il is nol al aII a bad dlamma. Ono
slouId rondor assislanco as far as possibIo in llo inlorosls
of ollors by vay of dovoIoping mcii¯ and |crun¯. OnIy if
circumslancos do nol pormil lo loIp ollors or, lo do for
llo voIfaro of ollors by any moans, ono slouId romain
compIaconl or indifforonl by llo oxorciso of ¨upc|||¯¨. To
romain indifforonl (noulraI) is llo bosl.
Tako an inslanco of an accusod porson vlo las commillod
a criminaI offonco. In sucl a caso, ono slouId dovoIop mcii¯
and |crun¯ lo llo bosl of lis abiIily in llo inlorosl of llal
accusod porson so llal lo may oscapo from punislmonl.
Hovovor, if llo Courl lrying llo caso las passod finaI
ordors, imposing a ponaIly of imprisonmonl or a doall
sonlonco for laving found lim guiIly of llo offonco, no
occasion viII ariso lo bo vorriod aboul lis inoIuclabIo
falo. In spilo of llis, if ono gols vorriod ovor llis mallor, il
vouId amounl lo bringing upon limsoIf boll plysicaI and
monlaI dislross. OnIy if lo can lako an indifforonl alliludo
villoul vorrying limsoIf, il vouId bring lim monlaI roIiof.
Iikoviso, il vouId bo quilo naluraI for lim lo boar in mind
llal llo incidonl las occurrod as a rosuIl of ono's ovn
376
|cmmc and llal il is onIy llo rosuIlanl offocl, vlollor good
or oviI, vlicl las unavoidabIy como upon llal porson.
And noxl, according lo llo fourll mollod, rùpc-cccrc
÷ fourll j|¯nc cannol bo acliovod by dovoIoping mcii¯,
|crun¯ and mu!ii¯ ||¯.cn¯. Il is allainabIo onIy by upc|||¯
||¯.cn¯. Tloroforo, if a porson vlo las aIroady acliovod
llo llird j|¯nc llrougl mcii¯, |crun¯ and mu!ii¯ ||¯.cn¯
vislos lo allain llo fourll j|¯nc, upc|||¯ musl invariabIy
bo dovoIopod. Tloro is no ollor aIlornalivo.
k||||c.|·. o· .n| |so- c co·-
As sucl, a porson vlo las acliovod llo llird j|¯nc llrougl
llo dovoIopmonl of mcii¯, |crun¯ and mu!ii¯, musl pracliso
llis j|¯nc lo bocomo proficionl in il. Aflor arising from llo
lranco of llal llird j|¯nc, lo slouId pondor upon llo fauIls
of mcii¯-j|¯nc and so on. Il slouId bo rofIoclod as: ¨Tloso
j|¯ncs boing cIosoIy connoclod and conjoinod vill llo innor-
mosl fooIing of Ioving allaclmonl lo boings visling llom
lappinoss, il is Iinkod vill Iovo or lalo. As il is combinod
vill joy and oxuIlanl fooIing, llo fauIl of il musl bo rofIoclod
upon and undorslood as rudo and vuIgar. Tlo nobIo facuIly
and allribulos of upc|||¯ slouId bo rofIoclod upon and
roaIisod, imagining llal upc|||¯j|¯nc vlicl viovs llings
377
vill indifforonco is indood gonlIo and mook. Il is slalod llal
onIy aflor rofIocling as sucl, upc|||¯ slouId bo dovoIopod
vill indifforonco lovards a noulraI porson on vlom lloro
is noillor Iovo nor lalo. Tlo mannor of dovoIoping upc|||¯ is
vlal is gonoraIIy knovn by loarl as: ¨Sc||c scii¯ |cmmcssc|c¨
i.o., llis porson las lis |cmmc as lis ovn proporly and llal
il is lis ovn falo (|cmmc) lo vlicl lo las bocomo a viclim.
Aflor lo las acliovod llo fourll j|¯nc by conlompIaling
as sucl, lo slouId procood lo dovoIop upc|||¯ lovards a
porson vlo is affoclionalo lo lim and lovards porsons
vlo aro losliIo lo lim. Wlon radialing lis fooIing lovards
an onomy, if angor arisos in lim, il musl bo subduod in llo
mannor as proscribod in llo caso of dovoIoping mcii¯. Aflor
supprossing lis angor, ono slouId bo abIo lo conlompIalo
vill a fooIing of indifforonco, pulling llo mind oquaIIy
baIancod on aII four lypos of porsons incIuding limsoIf,
lloroby accompIisling llo quaIily of sim¯scm||c!c. Aflor
llal, llo fourll j|¯nc viII occur. Tlis is according lo vlal
las boon slalod in llo Visuddlimagga.
lsox|·|.\ o| L||||n¯
In doscribing llo cIoso proximily of llo said ¨upc|||¯¨,
scii¯ ÷ boings, |cmmcssc|c ÷ lavo onIy |cmmc (causo and
offocl of lloir ovn aclions) as lloir soIo proporly. 1c ÷
Tloso boings laving lloir ovn individuaI |cmmc, |cssc
378
÷ by vloso, ruciµ¯ ÷ oxprossod visl or dosiro, su||ii¯.¯
÷ viII lappinoss, ||c.isscnii ÷ bo dorivod` (AIllougl
mcii¯ ÷ Ioving-kindnoss, may bo dovoIopod and radialod
lovards a porson as ¨May bo lappy¨, lloro is no IikoIilood
of llal ollor porson bocoming lappy as dosirod by llo
porson vlo radialos mcii¯. Il moans llal a man's falo is
inoIuclabIo according lo lis ovn |cmmc.) Du|||cic .¯ ÷
Hov couId lo oscapo from misory and sufforing` (Il is nol
IikoIy llal misory and sufforing viII bo romovod or vipod
off as dosirod by a porson vlo dovoIops |crun¯. Tlal is
lo say, llings viII lappon according lo lis ovn |cmmc.)
Pciicscmpciiiic .¯ ÷ Hov couId lis voaIll llal las boon
acquirod, nc pcri|¯risscnii ÷ romain undiminislod`
(Tloro is no IikoIilood of llo voaIll llal las boon dorivod
romaining inlacl villoul boing diminislod. Tlis moans
llal |cmmc is lis ovn proporly and lo viII invariabIy
bo subjoclod lo lis ovn |cmmc.) |ii ÷ Ior lloso roasons,
pc.ciic|cmmcssc |ci¯ !csscn¯ ÷ llo rosuIl of (pIoaso connocl
il vill 'sooing') |cmmc vlicl is soon as acluaIIy lis ovn
proporly, is llo causo of cIoso proximily, as oxpoundod in
llo Visuddlimagga (p. 311-2).
Tlis slalomonl in briof convoys llo moaning llal knovIodgo
vlicl roaIisos vill salisfaclion llal onIy |cmmc is ono's
ovn proporly or possossions, is llo noarosl or proximalo
causo for llo dovoIopmonl of upc|||¯-||¯.cn¯. In llis
rogards, lloro is ono lling vlicl caIIs for considoralion.
379
Tlis is in dovoIoping mcii¯, |crun¯ and mu!ii¯ ÷ is il nol
lruo llal ono las lo dovoIop vill a fooIing of mcii¯ (Ioving-
kindnoss) lo causo lappinoss lo ollors, or, vill a fooIing
of |crun¯ (compassion) lo causo ono lo bo Iiboralod from
misory, or vill a fooIing of mu!ii¯ (rojoicing) lo causo ono
lo rolain lis voaIll vlicl lavo como inlo lis possossion
villoul boing diminislod` Hovovor, in doscribing llo
mannor of roaIising and knoving by llo oxprossion
¨|cmmcssc|ci¯¨, il is slalod llal llings viII nol lappon
according lo llo visl of a porson vlo is dovoIoping mcii¯,
olc., and llal il lappons according lo ono's ovn |cmmc.
If so, lloro is room lo llink and a quoslion may ariso as
lo vlollor il vouId amounl lo saying llal lloro is no
bonoficiaI rosuIl by Iolling mcii¯ lo bo dovoIopod or rallor,
by dovoIoping mcii¯ olc.
Tloro is an ansvor lo il, and llal is, if lloro is no roaIIy
sorious c|usc|c-|cmmc ÷ immoraI aclions and lloir offocls,
bonofils can bo dorivod in commonsuralo vill llo slrongll
of mcii¯, olc., vlicl is dovoIopod and radialod. In any caso,
mucl as ono may visl lo lavo llo fuII accompIislmonl of
lis dosiro, il cannol bo compIoloIy fuIfiIIod. An oxampIo
may bo cilod on lov il lappons. Iaronls visling lloir
cliIdron lo bo voII and lappy, aIvays Iook aflor llom
and insliI in llo young minds boll spiriluaI vaIuos and
moraI virluos, providing llom vill ovorylling lloy nood.
Dospilo lloir offorls lo soo lo lloir safoly, loaIll and
38O
comforl, somo cliIdron vlo aro incIinod lo do vlal is
impropor, viII nol grov up in llo vay lloir paronls migll
visl llom lo bo sinco lloy aro subjoclod lo lloir ovn
|cmmc vlicl lappons undor difforonl circumslancos. As
llings vouId lappon undor unavoidabIo circumslancos, il
viII bo unviso lo say llal lloro is no nood for llo paronls
lo bring up lloir cliIdron in llo vay lloy vouId considor
propor. Bo il as il may, paronlaI caro and allonlion musl bo
givon lo lloir cliIdron vlo aro sliII immaluro. GonoraIIy
spoaking, il vouId bring bonoficiaI rosuIls.
In aclioving advanlagos by dovoIoping mcii¯, llougl
bonoficiaI rosuIls vlicl may bo dorivod, faII slorl of llo
advanlagos rocoivod by llo cliIdron from lloir paronls, il
vouId bo advisabIo lo dovoIop mcii¯ ||¯.cn¯. Iorsons vlo
rocoivod Ioving-kindnoss slovorod upon llom migll nol
lavo bonofilod as mucl as llo porson dovoIoping mcii¯
vouId lavo oxpoclod. Hovovor, morils viII bo gainod in
any caso, for laving dovoIopod mcii¯ llrougl modilalion.
On llo ollor land in causing lo dovoIop upc|||¯, onIy
vlon fooIing of indifforonco or oquanimily can bo borno
as: ¨OnIy |cmmc is ono's ovn proporly in possossion
and llings lavo lapponod and vouId lappon according
lo ono's ovn individuaI |cmmc vlicl aulomalicaIIy
producos an offocl,¨ llo quaIily of upc|||¯ ÷ vouId bo
accompIislod. Sucl boing llo caso, il is of paramounl
imporlanco lo mako uso of llo knovIodgo of |cmmcssc|ci¯
381
÷ llo causo in llo cIoso proximily of upc|||¯, as a basic
faclor. Bocauso of llis significanco, il las boon monlionod
lo boar in mind llal ¨nolling lappons according lo llo
visl of llo modilalor, and llal boings aro subjoclod lo
lloir ovn |cmmc. AccordingIy, in ordor lo bo abIo lo
dovoIop |cmmcssc|ci¯ knovIodgo, CûIakammaviblanga
Sulla viII bo oxlraclod from Iparipannãsa IãIi Toxl, and
narralod as foIIovs.
C0|»|»··»v|sn»·.» St..»
Tloro Iivod a Iad by llo namo of Subla in llo Cily of
Sãvallli during llo Iifolimo of our Iord Buddla. Tlo
IãIi vord ¨Subla¨ convoys llo moaning of ¨Dignily¨
÷ dignifiod porsonaIily in Burmoso Ianguago, and as
sucl, lo can bo addrossod as ¨Maung Tinl To¨ in namo
vlicl moans, ¨Mr. Dignily¨. Todoyya llo Bralmin, vas
lis fallor. Ho vas AslroIogor lo His Majosly, King KosaIa,
llo llon ruIing monarcl. Boing a man of groal voaIll,
Todoyya vas slalod lo lavo possossod oiglly-sovon croros
vorll of proporly. Ho vas a misor llougl. Imagining
llal if clarily voro givon, or in ollor vords, if clarilabIo
doods voro porformod, lis onliro voaIll vouId docIino
lo llo poinl of lolaI oxlauslion, lo lad llrougloul lis
Iifo abslainod from making any aIms-giving. Inslruclions
382
voro aIso givon by lim lo lis son and ollor frionds as
slalod boIov:
¨Añjcn¯ncm ||cµcm !is.¯,
.cmmi|¯ncñcc scñccµcm.
Mc!|ùncñcc scm¯|¯µcm,
pcn!iic g|crcm¯.csc.¨
Añjcn¯ncm ÷ CoIIyria (i.o. slonos producing coIouring
mallor |pigmonl] appIiod lo oyo-Iaslos lo darkon llom),
||cµcm ÷ if ground sovoraI limos viII voar oul, or in
ollor vords, viII bo oxlauslod by allrilion, !is.¯ cc ÷ by
obsorving and rofIocling as sucl, .cmmi|¯ncm ÷ and
of llo naluro of anl-liII, scñccµcm ÷ vlicl conslilulos
a Iargo accumuIalion brougll aboul by llo vlilo-anls
in carrying bil by bil llo dusl in smaII quanlily, !is.¯ cc
÷ by obsorving and rofIocling as sucl, mc!uncm ÷ and
of lonoy, scm¯|¯rcm ÷ vlicl roprosonl a coIIoclion
mado by llo boos by carrying bil by bil graduaIIy, !is.¯
cc ÷ by obsorving and rofIocling as sucl, pcn!iic ÷ llo
viso vlo las businoss acumon, g|crcm ÷ llo louso, ¯.csc
÷ vloro lo rosidos slouId Iikoviso bo pul undor lis caro,
managomonl and conlroI.
Tlis is llo advico or inslruclion givon lo lis son and
ollors by Todoyya, llo Bralmin. CoIIyrium is nol in uso
in Burma, bul is popuIarIy usod in India. Il is nol an oyo-
Iolion bul a coIouring mallor appIiod lo llo oyoIids and
383
Iaslos lo Iook prolly. A RuIo of DiscipIino las boon Iaid
dovn prolibiling llo Blikklus from making uso of llis
coIouring mallor. If llis coIIyrium is mado uso of sovoraI
limos, say, a lundrod or a llousand limos, llo slono gols
vorn oul llrougl allrilion. In llo samo vay, if donalion
is mado ovon in piocomoaI, as limo goos on, proporly in
land viII graduaIIy diminisl unliI il bocomos oxlauslod
or nolling is Iofl. Imagining llus, no offoring of gifls
ovon in smaII quanlily slouId bo mado. Tlis is vlal llo
slalomonl moans.
Noxl, llo anl-liII bocomos a big mound vlon graduaIIy
loapod up vill parlicIos of dusl carriod ovor and doposilod
by llo liny vlilo-anls. Taking cuo from llo mannor in
vlicl conslanl offorls aro mado by llo liny croaluros in
accumuIaling llo dusl lo form inlo a mound of oarll or an
anlliII, monoy or proporly slouId bo graduaIIy loardod
and accumuIalod sIovIy in piocomoaI. Evon a pµc (or a
ponny) slouId bo savod and accumuIalod, and if dono so,
in courso of limo, groal voaIll can bo amassod. Honco, il
is slalod llal ovorylling vlicl comos inlo ono's lands,
slouId bo slorod up villoul sponding il.
And noxl, liny drops of lonoy brougll by llo smaII boos
slorod up in lrickIos aro nol mucl. Bul as lloso aro carriod
by llom and lrickIod oul sovoraI limos, a Iargo amounl of
lonoy is coIIoclod in duo courso. Taking Iosson from llis
384
iIIuslralion, llougl il may bo a smaII sum of monoy, say, a
ponny or a pµc, ono slouId graduaIIy savo up llo monoy
so as lo gol ricl.
Wlal is moanl by il is llal llo load of llo lousoloId or a
famiIy, slouId abslain from giving avay ovon a smaII sum
of monoy villoul causing vaslago, and carofuIIy savo and
guard llo sloro of monoy and amass lis forluno. Al llal limo,
llo Buddla vas sliII Iiving and vas doIivoring lis proacling,
in llo Cily of Sãvallli. Tlo Sanglas, llo Buddla's discipIos
voro aII prosonl vill llo ExaIlod Ono. Tloso poopIo vlo lad
faill in llo Dlamma look lloir rofugo in llo llroo }ovoIs of
Buddlism and bocamo adloronls of llo Buddla's Sãsana.
Tloy voro obsorving llo praclicos of moraIily ÷ oillor llo Iivo
Irocopls or Eigll Irocopls and voro accompIislod vill si|c.
Tloy aIso rosorlod lo aIms-giving lo lloir ulmosl capacily by
making offorings lo Sanglas undor llo palronago of llo Iord
Buddla. Tloy Iislonod oarnoslIy lo llo sormons doIivorod by
llo Buddla daiIy, and carriod on llo praclico of modilalion.
Somo of llom bocamo Solãpannas, or Sakadãgãmis, or
Anãgãmis, vliIo somo onlorod Blikklulood, and llon by
dovoIoping Vipassanã modilalion, lad acliovod Arc|ciic-
mcggc-p|c|c, ovonluaIIy allaining Aralalslip. Il vas an
opporluno limo affording a vory raro opporlunily lo acliovo
liglor avakoning consciousnoss of llo SpociaI Dlamma up
lo llo liglosl slago of sanclificalion. Tlis goIdon opporlunily
vas lard lo como by.
385
And yol, Todoyya, llo Bralmin, lad no faill in and
rovoronco for llo Buddla. Ho lad llon aIroady ombracod
llo doclrinos and prolonsions of llo Bralmins. Honco,
lo lad absoIuloIy no faill in llo Buddla vlo lad no
pIaco in lis ligl oslimalion. As a mallor of facl, lo lad
undoroslimalod llo nobIo quaIilios of llo Iord Buddla, llo
ExaIlod Ono. Boing a Bralmin loIding a difforonl roIigious
concopl, vlicl is of courso a faIso viov, lo did nol ovon
caro lo Iislon lo llo Buddla's sormon. Noillor did lo offor
in clarily anylling, nay, ovon a spoonfuI of boiIod rico. Nol
onIy llal, lo usod lo addross llo Buddla vill disrospocl
as ¨Blo! Blo!¨ ÷ llo lorm vlicl vas usod on inforiors
and oquaIs. Tlis lorm ¨Blo¨ is usod lo bo lransIalod in
Burmoso as ¨Ol!¨ (Hi). Hovovor, novadays, llo usago
of llis oxprossion is nol in voguo. Il is usuaI lo addross a
porson by namos sucl as ¨Maung Soin¨ or ¨Maung Mya¨,
olc., as llo caso may bo. Tloroforo, il vouId appoar llal lo
musl lavo addrossod llo Buddla as ¨Maung Gaulama¨.
Ior laving disrospoclfuIIy spokon lo llo Buddla, llo
ExaIlod Ono, and aIso for laving pIoasurabIo allaclmonl lo
lis proporlios vill grood, vlon lo diod, lo vas concoivod
in llo vomb of a bilcl al lis ovn louso.
Tlo bilcl gavo birll lo an infanl dog in aboul ono and a
laIf or lvo monlls limo. Tlo young man Subla vas vory
fond of llis IillIo dog, vlicl vas in lis provious oxislonco,
Todoyya, llo Bralmin. Subla IavislIy fod llo young
386
animaI, lis pol, vill doIicious food vlicl lo limsoIf
roIislod and Iol il sIoop in a comforlabIo bod. Il vas nol
llal lo knov of llo IillIo dog as lis fallor roincarnalod.
Hovovor, lloso vlo lapponod lo Iivo logollor in lloir
formor oxisloncos aro gonoraIIy affoclionalo lo ono anollor.
Tlis facl of Dlamma lad boon proaclod in llo form of a
vorso as doscribod boIov:
¨Pu||c.c scnni.¯scnc,
pcccuppcnnc|iicnc .¯.
|.cm icm j¯µcic pcmcm,
Uppc|cm.c µci|c!c|c.¨
Pu||c ÷ In llo provious oxislonco, scnni.¯scnc .¯ ÷ for
laving Iivod logollor, pcccuppcnnc|iicnc .¯ ÷ and in llo
onsuring prosonl oxislonco for laving causod lo bring
bonofil, c.cm ÷ llis kind of, icm pcmcm ÷ pocuIiar
affoclion or Iovo, j¯µcic ÷ is IikoIy lo spring up. Kimi.c
÷ Hov il lappons is llal, µci|c!c|c ÷ as mucl as lloro
is valor, Uppc|cm ÷ llo Iolus or llo valor-IiIy, j¯µcic i.c
÷ viII conlinuo lo grov and dovoIop vill vigour and
froslnoss.
Il rosombIos a Iolus pIanl vlicl sprouls vill slrongll
and vigour for so Iong as lloro is valor. AIso Iovo is
IikoIy lo spring up for laving Iivod in associalion in llo
formor oxislonco. If llo duralion of Iiving logollor is Iong,
affoclion viII bocomo doopor. Tlo Iongor llo poriod of
387
cIoso associalion llo groalor llo Iovo. As sucl, lloro is
nolling lo bo said in parlicuIar if joinl porformancos lavo
boon mado in llo mallor of |usc|c (morilorious acls). In
llo prosonl oxislonco aIso, a porson may bocomo moro
affoclionalo lo anollor vlo las rondorod assislanco. Tlis
is cIoarIy ovidonl porlaps llrougl porsonaI oxporionco.
In llo caso of Todoyya vlo lad bocomo a dog in lis noxl
oxislonco, as lo and lis son voro fallor and son Iiving
logollor in lis formor oxislonco, lloro is no vondor llal
Subla, llo ricl man's son lad lis groal Ioving allaclmonl
lo llo dog.
Ono day, llo Buddla sproad oul lis ponolralingIy koon
obsorvalion ovor llo onliro Inivorso vill lis omniscionco
÷ Buddla's Wisdom ÷ vlicl procodod lis lranco of
Groal Compassion (Mc|¯|crun¯scm¯pciii). On rofIoclion
boing mado as lo vlo couId Iislon lo His sormon vill
aII oarnoslnoss, and as lo vlo couId allain llo SpociaI
Dlamma, and vlo vouId bo abIo lo accopl and onlorlain
lis faill in llo TripIo Gom of Buddlism found Subla,
llo young Iad, appoaring in His vision. Tlo Buddla,
lloroforo, in llo Morning on llo samo day, in making His
rounds for aIms, purposoIy droppod in al llo louso of
Todoyya, llo ricl. On onloring llo louso compound, llo
dog, llo roincarnalod Todoyya, ruslod forvard lovards
llo Buddla barking slarpIy. Tlo EnIigllonod Ono llon
admonislod llo animaI, ¨Hoy, Todoyya! You lavo nov
388
bocomo a dog for laving spokon lo mo and addrossod mo
vill disrospocl as, 'Blo, Blo, (Maung Golama ÷ Maung
Golama)' in your formor oxislonco. If you nov as a dog
barkod al mo vill a guiIly mind, you viII roIogalo lo
Avïci HoII.¨ Wlon llo dog loard lloso vords of Buddla's
admonilion, il imaginod as: ¨Tlis monk Golama knovs
vlal las lapponod lo mo.¨ Honco, fooIing sorry for ils
ovn pIigll, llo dog vonl off (lovards llo back of llo
louso) and Iay dovn lo sIoop in llo aslos on llo fIoor of
llo firopIaco. Tlo poopIo in llo louso lriod lo carry lim
up foIding lim in arms lo bo pul on llo fino coucl lo usod
lo roII and sIoop, bul in vain.
On roacling back lomo from lis visil lo llo ollor pIaco,
Subla, llo Iad, askod, ¨Wlo las romovod llo dog from ils
usuaI bod`¨ Mombors of lis lousoloId loId lim llal no
ono lad drivon llo dog from ils bod, and llon roIalod lo
lim aII vlal lad lapponod. Boing apprisod of llo incidonl
vlicl lad lakon pIaco, Subla, llo young man, llougll lo
limsoIf, ¨Todoyya is my fallor. If llo monk Golama lad
caIIod llo dog as Todoyya, il amounls lo saying llal my
fallor las boon roborn as a dog, an animaI. In facl, my
fallor las roaclod llo Abodo of Bralmãs. Wlal Aslin
Golama lad said is nonsonsicaI, olc.¨ Ho foIl lo vas
insuIlod. Boing groalIy oulragod, lo immodialoIy vonl oul
lo soo llo Buddla vill lis maIicious inlonlion of making
an aIIogalion againsl llo Buddla for loIIing Iios.
389
In llis connoclion, llo boIiof llal llo young man Subla
lad lad aboul lis fallor as laving roaclod llo Abodo of
Bralmãs, vas on llo slrongll of lis lradilionaI concopl
according lo llo roIigious doclrino of llo 8r¯|mcnc.
Bralmins lavo a boIiof llal by praclising in conformily
vill llo doclrinos of lloir ovn roIigion, lloy vouId
roacl llo WorId of Bralmãs on lloir domiso. Al ono
limo, a Commandor-in-Cliof of llo army by llo namo of
GonoraI Malãdalla, vlo lad a firm boIiof in llo Doclrino
of Brãlmana, lad porformod a riluaI invoIving an acl of
sacrificing llo Iifo of a viclim lo propilialo a god caIIod
¨Brãlmanablalla¨, sponding a coIossaI amounl of monoy
in llo porformanco of rilos. Il vas slalod llal a vision of loII
as an oviI omon or sign (nimiiic) lad appoarod lo Malãdalla
on llo ovo of lis doall. On boing askod by lis Brãlmana
loaclors vlal lo lad soon or visuaIisod, lo ropIiod laving
soon a brigll Iamp of briIIianl rod coIour (|c|iicg|crc). Tlo
Brãlmana loaclors lad said il vas BralmãIoka. Ho llon
inquirod vloro BralmãIoka vas silualod and vlollor il
vas in llo rogion ligl abovo, or in llo Iovor rogion boIov.
His loaclors lloroupon ansvorod llal il vas in llo liglor
rogion abovo. Ho llon said vlal lo lad soon vas in llo
rogion boIov. Tlo loaclors insislod llal llougl il migll
appoar lo bo in llo rogion dovn boIov, il vas in facl in llo
rogion ligl abovo. As lo passod avay vliIo conconlraling
lis mind fixod on llis sign (nimiiic), lo vonl dovn lo loII.
(Roforonco ÷ Majjlimapannãsa Alllakallã, pago 3O3) If a
39O
vrong roIigious concopl las cropl in, il is roaIIy dangorous.
In llo prosonl ora, I lavo loard of poopIo vlo loId a firm
boIiof llal by sIauglloring animaIs as sacrifico lo propilialo
llo gods, ono vouId roacl an abodo of lappy condilion
and llal lloy romindod a sick palionl on lis doall-bod lo
rofIocl on llo pasl incidonls rocaIIing lis acls of clarily in
sIauglloring llo boings.
Wlon llo Iad Subla mol llo Buddla, lo askod llo ExaIlod
Ono vlal Ho said lo llo dog on llo occasion of llo
Iord's visil lo lis louso vas lruo or nol, vill roforonco
lo llo informalion lo lad loard. Tloroupon, llo Buddla
ropIiod llal vlal Subla lad loard vas oxaclIy lruo and
corrocl, and llon, in ordor lo onabIo lim lo como lo a rigll
docision, pul a quoslion as ¨O, Subla, llo young man! Is
il lruo llal lloro aro sliII a numbor of proporlios vlicl
your fallor lad faiIod lo monlion vloro lloy aro kopl`¨
Subla llon rospondod, ¨Yos, indood. Tloro aro llroo in
numbor ÷ a goId nockIaco, a pair of goId sIippors and a
goId vaso vorll ono Iakl oacl, and aIso a Iakl of casl, aII
lolaIIing four Iakls in vaIuo. Tloso aro monlionod in llo
Iisl of proporlios boquoallod lo mo bul cannol bo found
or lracod anyvloro. Tlon llo Buddla ordorod, ¨If so, you
bollor go back lomo nov and on your arrivaI, food llo
dog vill miIk rico and ollor nico food, and, llon ask llo
animaI vloro lloso missing proporlios aro. Tlis dog viII
rovoaI ovorylling.¨
391
On loaring llo vords of llo Buddla, llo Iad Subla
rofIoclod, ¨If vlal Aslin Golama las said voro lruo, llo
missing proporlios vouId bo rocovorod. If lis vords voro
found lo bo faIso, I viII procood lo accuso lim of loIIing
faIsolood.¨ Ho llon rolurnod lomo and carriod oul vlal
vas lo bo dono as diroclod by llo Buddla. By llo limo llo
dog vas dozing, Subla askod llo animaI: ¨O, fallor, lloso
proporlios (dolaiIs of vlicl voro givon) aro found in llo
Iisl. Wloro aro lloy` Aslin Golama las loId mo llal you
knov vloro lloso aro kopl. IIoaso slov mo vloro lloy
aro.¨ Tlo dog imagining: ¨Tloy lavo knovn aII aboul mo
and I couId nol possibIy lido llo mallor,¨ ullorod a lovI
and llon slovod llo pIaco vloro llo proporlios voro
liddon by scralcling vill ils forofool llo surfaco of llo
oarll bonoall vlicl llo proporlios voro buriod. Wlon
lloy oxcavalod llo ground aII lloso four kinds of missing
proporlios voro discovorod.
As a rosuIl of llis discovory, faill in llo Buddla lad arison
in llo loarl of Subla, llo Iad. Ho camo lo roaIiso llal lis
fallor lad undoublodIy bocomo a dog aflor doall. Tlo dog
laving rovoaIod ovorylling as slalod by llo Buddla, il lad
occurrod lo lim llal Aslin Golama roaIIy knov of llo
slalos of oxislonco and possossod llo facuIly of knoving
aII aboul llo formor, fuluro, and prosonl oxisloncos. Ono
vouId naluraIIy lavo faill in vlal is slalod if llo slalomonl
so mado is porsonaIIy found lo bo lruo.
392
Tloso vlo lavo ombracod various kinds of roIigious
doclrinos, do nol gonoraIIy boIiovo in vlal las boon
loslifiod by ollor difforonl roIigious concopls conlrary lo
lloir ovn. Tlis is of courso quilo naluraI. Somo roIigions
loId a viov llal doall of a luman boing is (in aII casos) llo
anniliIalion of oxislonco. Wlal il moans lo say is llal lloro
is onIy Ono Exislonco vlicl lorminalos vill doall. Tlis
concopl, lovovor, is nol llo producl of ono's ovn porsonaI
knovIodgo. Il is moro imaginalion omanaling from ono's
ovn boIiof or concopl. In somo ollor roIigions, il is slalod
llal aflor passing avay from llo luman oxislonco, a porson
viII oillor go dovn lo loII forovor, or oIovalo lo llo loavonIy
abodo. According lo vlal lloy say, lloso aro llo onIy
lvo kinds. Tloro is probabIy no ono vlo can voucl for il
llrougl lis ovn porsonaI knovIodgo or roaIisalion. Tlis is a
boIiof vlicl is lradilionaIIy landod dovn by lloir ancoslors.
Somo roIigions ovon say llal aflor doall, if favourabIo
circumslancos provaiI, ono may bo roborn as a luman boing,
or as a Dova (nci), or as an animaI, olc. In llis connoclion,
lloro aro somo oxlraordinary individuaIs vlo aro said lo
lavo boon ondovod vill llo facuIly of sooing and loaring,
olc., aII llal aro laking pIaco in llo onliro Inivorso, i.o. porsons
possossing supornaluraI vision, loaring, and so on.
According lo llo Buddla's Dlamma, for so Iong as icn|¯,
luman passionalo dosiro, is sliII cIinging and nol yol frood,
llo procoss of rùpc and n¯mc ui|| bo going on conlinuousIy
393
from ono oxislonco lo anollor duo lo |cmmc. In common
parIanco curronlIy in uso, il may bo slalod llal a luman
bocomos a Dova, or a Dova bocomos a luman, or, a luman
is roborn as an animaI, olc., or an animaI, olc., is roborn as
a luman boing and so on. In roaIily, il is moroIy llo naluro
of plonomonaI occurronco of llo conlinuing procoss of
rùpc and n¯mc. If icn|¯, dosirabIo passionalo allaclmonl,
is lolaIIy oIiminalod llrougl llo acliovomonl of Arc|ciic-
p|c|c by conlompIaling Vipassanã, llo conlinuing procoss
of rùpc and n¯mc viII coaso lo oporalo aflor llo arising of cuii
or doall consciousnoss, caIIod Iarinibbãna. Il is commonIy
knovn as onloring inlo Iarinibbãna ÷ uIlimalo doall, aflor
vlicl lloro is no moro oxislonco lo como. Il is vlal las
boon slalod by llo Buddla's Dlamma. Tlis slalomonl las
boon fuIIy vouclod for by llo Buddla HimsoIf llrougl lis
ovn porfocl roaIisalion (EnIigllonmonl) acquirod llrougl
porsonaI knovIodgo or Buddla's Wisdom. Yogïs vlo aro
prosonlIy modilaling viII suroIy sland vilnoss lo llo lrull
of llis slalomonl lo llo oxlonl of lloir ovn acliovomonl of
llo insigll knovIodgo.
Tlo mannor of lov oxisloncos lavo como inlo boing is fuIIy
supporlod by llo slory of Todoyya, vlo lad bocomo a dog.
In llo loaclings of llo Iord Buddla, lloro aro numorous
inslancos of llis naluro vlicl sorvo as ovidonco. In llo
prosonl day loo, lloro aro a numbor of sucl slorios. Ono
vouId undoublodIy boIiovo llo slory of Todoyya nov
394
narralod if ono porsonaIIy comos across sucl incidonls Iiko
Subla, llo young man, providod llal lloro is no projudico
or proconcoivod nolion. If ono bocomos projudiciaI, il may
invoko bIind crilicisms for laving onlorlainod a bigolod
viov of lis ovn faill. Somo migll ovon sol il asido as an
absurdily saying llal il vas llo docoplion praclisod by
Mãra, llo EviI Ono. If a porson rofusod lo boIiovo vlal
llo ollor las said llrougl porsonaI knovIodgo and
oxporionco, il bocomos obvious llal lo las bocomo biasod
vill lis ovn proconcoivod idoas.
Subla, llo Iad, lad no sucl projudico. Ho couId givo a
dofinilo docision llo momonl lo lad porsonaIIy soon and
found llo incidonl vlicl vas crodibIo. Tloroforo, lo caIIod
on llo Buddla for llo socond limo lo acquainl limsoIf
vill vlal lo vouId Iiko lo knov, and llon, rospoclfuIIy
askod llo EnIigllonod Ono in llo foIIoving mannor.
Qt|-.|o·- s»|-|o s\ Stsn»
¨O, Aslin Golama! IoopIo aro born in llis vorId of
oxislonco as lumans. Tlougl aII of llom aro oquaIIy
luman boings, vly slouId lloro bo inoquaIilios ÷ as for
oxampIo, ono is inforior, and anollor suporior. Wly las
lloro boon an imbaIanco in croalion` Wlal aro llo roasons
for lloso inoquaIilios`
395
(1) Somo aro slorl-Iivod and porislod in infancy,
or vliIo young, vloroas somo lavo Iongovily.
Wly is il so`
(2) Somo aro sick and infirm, riddon vill various
kinds of disoasos, vloroas ollors aro slrong,
robusl and loaIlly. Wly`
(3) Somo aro ugIy, vloroas somo aro prolly and
lavo a fair compIoxion. Wly`
(4) Somo lavo fov allondanls vloroas somo aro
ondovod vill a Iargo rolinuo. Wly`
(5) Somo aro poor, noody and indigonl, vloroas
somo aro ricl, voaIlly and affIuonl. Wly`
(6) Somo aro born lo a Iov caslo famiIy, vloroas
somo boIong lo llo nobiIily from birll (a nobIo
famiIy). Wly`
(7) Somo aro Iacking in knovIodgo or born idiols
vloroas somo aro liglIy inloIIocluaI or born
goniusos. Wly`
Tloso voro llo quoslions pul for cIarificalion lo knov llo
causo of llo inoquaIilios llal oxisl in llo vorId. Yos, aII
lloso poinls dosorvo considoralion and rofIoclion. Somo
aro brollors born of llo samo paronls. Tloro aro ovon
lvins. Irom llo aslroIogicaI poinl of viov, lloy aro born
aImosl al llo samo limo vill IillIo or no difforonco in lour,
minulo or socond. Hovovor, lloro is unovonnoss in llo
quaIily of bonofils dorivod by llom individuaIIy. Tloro
396
may bo a vorId of difforonco bolvoon llom in loaIll,
Iongovily, in llo accompIislmonl of allondanls, voaIll,
prosporily, knovIodgo, visdom and oducalion. If lloy
aro llo croalions of llo IovorfuI AImiglly Boing, lloro
slouId lavo boon no inoquaIilios or disparily among
lumans or boings. If lloro is any imbaIanco in llo croalion
of mankind, il noods sorious rofIoclion as lo vly lloy aro
so croalod. As sucl, llo quoslions raisod by llo young
man Subla aro propor, roasonabIo and sonsibIo. To lloso
quoslions, Buddla gavo llo foIIoving ansvor in briof.
loso Btoon»'- »·-w|s
¨Kcmmcssc|c m¯nc.c scii¯ |cmmc!¯µc!¯
|cmmcµcni |cmmc|cn!|ù |cmmcppciisscrcn¯
|cmmcm sciic .i||cjcii µc!i!cm |incppcni ici¯µc.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, scii¯ ÷ in rogard lo boings
(llo quoslion askod by Subla roforrod lo poopIo, bul
Buddla gavo lis ansvor vill roforonco lo aII boings vlo
dosorvod lo bo knovn), |cmmcssc|c ÷ onIy |cmmc is vlal
lloy roaIIy ovn and possoss.
As rogards boings, il las boon slalod llal |cmmc vlicl
lloy llomsoIvos lavo dono, aro llo proporly vlicl lloy
397
roaIIy ovn. Any kind of oxlornaI proporly or boIongings
sucl as goId and siIvor in ono's possossion llal may bo
rogardod as ono's porsonaI proporly, if il lapponod lo
roacl llo lands of ollors by somo roason or llo ollor, viII
no Iongor bo lloir ovn. Tlougl, sucl proporlios may bo in
ono's ovn possossion villoul doslruclion llrougloul lis
Iifolimo, on lis doall, lo viII lavo lo parl vill lloso. Tloso
proporlios aro no Iongor lis ovn. Hovovor, in rospocl of
aII aclions vlicl lo las dono or porformod, vlollor lloso
aro businoss doaIings roIaling lo vorIdIy affairs, or acls
of morils (|usc|c) sucl as !¯nc and si|c, or acls of domorils
(c|usc|c), sucl as acls of kiIIing (p¯n¯iip¯ic) roIaling lo llo
mallor of roIigion (S¯scnc), lloso do nol concorn ollors. Ho
limsoIf is rosponsibIo for lloso doods or aclions vlicl onIy
concorn lim and is roIovanl lo lim onIy. Efforls mado by
lim in mallors roIaling lo lis businoss affairs viII bring
bonofils commonsuralo vill llo slrongll of ondoavour lo
las pul in. Acls of |usc|c aIso viII bring lim advanlagos
as migll bo dosorving, llrougloul lis oxisloncos. A|usc|c
÷ Domorilorious acls viII in llo samo vay bring forll bad
rosuIls as a roaclion.
IoopIo in Iuxury or in misory novadays aro moroIy llo
inlorilors of lloir ovn good or bad |cmmc, as llo caso may
bo. Tloso lavo so lapponod nol bocauso of bIind clanco
bul bocauso of lloir pasl moraI or immoraI aclions. Honco,
|cmmcssc|c ÷ onIy |cmmc is lloir ovn proporly vlicl
398
lloy roaIIy ovn and possoss. Tlis slalomonl is, lloroforo,
mosl roIovanl lo upc|||¯||¯.cn¯.
Noxl, scii¯ ÷ as rogards boings, |cmmc!¯µc!¯ ÷ lloir
ovn aclions or |cmmc vlicl lloy lavo dono, aro onIy
inlorilod by llom. Il is somolling vlicl rosombIos sons
and daugllors vlo inloril llo proporlios, good or bad, of
lloir paronls. If a vorIdIing porforms lis vork vlicl can
bring lim voaIll, lo viII dorivo duo advanlagos lloroof. In
llo samo vay, if ono commils a crimo, lo viII rocoivo duo
punislmonl for commilling llo offonco. Iorsons induIging
in drinking Iiquor and gambIing, viII lavo llo disaslrous
offocls of lloir ovn immoraI aclions. In llo Ioasl, il vouId
advorsoIy affocl lloir loaIll, lloir ropulalion, and causo
ollor misorios sucl as dislarmony among frionds, Tloso
aro inslancos of llo disadvanlagos inlorilod by llom.
SimiIarIy, acls of |usc|c in llo form of !¯nc (clarily) and
si|c (moraIily) viII bring llom good rosuIls ovon in llis
prosonl Iifolimo in llo slapo of good loaIll, Iong Iifo, olc.
AII llrougloul llo rounds of oxisloncos in Samsãra aIso,
lloy viII gain lappinoss roIovanl lo llo lappy condilions
of Iifo as oillor luman boings or Dovas. EvonluaIIy, lloy
can gain llo bIiss of Nibbãna vloro aII sufforings viII
coaso. If acls of c|usc|c, sucl as, kiIIing and sloaIing aro
commillod, oviI offocls viII roacl lo boal upon llom ovon in
llo prosonl oxislonco. Moroovor, llrougloul Scms¯rc lloy
viII suffor misorios or Ap¯µc, olc. Good and bad inlorilanco
399
viII bo accordingIy dorivod. Tlis oxpIanalion as slalod las
aIso boon ampIifiod in Angullara Iañcakanipãla Ablinla-
paccavokklilabballãna Sulla (66) in llo foIIoving
mannor.
Kc|µ¯ncñ .¯ ÷ Virluous, p¯pc|cm .¯ ÷ as aIso llo oviI, µcm
|cmmcm ÷ aclions, |crisscnii ÷ viII bo dono, icssc ÷ and
llo rosuIls of good and bad aclions, or rallor, morils and
domorils, !¯µc!¯ ÷ llo dorivalion of boll good and bad
inlorilanco, ||c.isscnii ÷ viII lako pIaco.
Tlis vord ¨|cmmc!¯µc!¯¨ and llo vord ¨|cmmcssc|c¨
lavo llo samo moaning or offocl. Il simpIy imbibos llo
oxposilion of llo vord ¨|cmmcssc|c¨. Tloroaflor, scii¯
÷ boings, |cmmcµcni ÷ aro subjoclod onIy lo |cmmc llal
las boon commillod by llom on lloir ovn voIilion vlicl
viII bring llo offocls lo aII boings for lloir aclions lo mako
llom oillor lappy or misorabIo. Ii moans lo say llal good
aclions viII bring llom good, and oviI aclions viII bring
llom oviI, inasmucl as ovory aclion producos an offocl.
Tlis is aIso an oxposilion of llo moaning of llo vord
¨|cmmcssc|c¨.
Kcmmc|cn!|ù ÷ Tlis moans onIy |cmmc conslilulos ono's
ovn roIalivos and frionds lo bo roIiod upon. If lloro aro
good roIalivos and frionds, advanlagos can bo dorivod by
doponding upon llom. If Iacking in good roIalivos and
4OO
frionds, no ono can bo roIiod upon. In mucl llo samo vay,
advanlagos can bo dorivod doponding upon good aclions
or |cmmc. If good |cmmc is Iacking, lloro is nolling oIso lo
bo roIiod upon. Hovovor, if lloro is bad |cmmc, llo vavos
of bad offocls viII como rusling in or bounco upon llom
Iiko frionds in disguiso and onomios. Tlis slalomonl aIso
sorvos as a cIarificalion of llo vord ¨|cmmcssc|c¨.
Kcmmcppciisscrcn¯ ÷ Tlis moans: il is onIy |cmmc llal
can bo roIiod upon. AII porformancos roIaling lo businoss
onlorpriso from llo vorIdIy poinl of viov, aro lloso on
vlicl roIianco can bo mado lo bring prosporily. Iikoviso,
roIianco viII lavo lo bo mado on acls of moril (|usc|c|cmmc)
lo gain virluos. Hovovor, in llo caso of domorils, onIy by
'avoidanco of c|usc|c or onIy if froo from vicos, roIianco,
couId bo mado. Tlo moro llo domorils or c|usc|c|cmmc
can bo cIoarod avay, llo moro misory can bo minimisod, or
rallor llo Ioss llo sufforings bocomo. Honco, praclicos and
porformancos of |usc|c|cmmc lo dispoI c|usc|c|cmmc, aro
roaIIy dopondabIo. Tlis plraso aIso offors an oxpIanalion
roIaling lo llo vords ¨|cmmcssc|c¨.
Kcmmcm ÷ good and bad aclions, sciic ÷ mako llo boings,
µc!i!cm |incppcniiici¯µc ÷ bocomo inforior or suporior,
.i||cjcii ÷ (and) dislinguisl llom making dislinclion
bolvoon ono individuaI and anollor. Tloso aclions (|cmmc)
bring aboul llo lvo difforonl cIassos of boings as inforior and
4O1
suporior. Bad |cmmc makos a man ignobIo vloroas, good
|cmmc causos ono lo bocomo a nobIo or suporior porson.
Tlis is lo say llal boings aro pul inlo difforonl cIassificalion
by lloir ovn rospoclivo |cmmc as 'inforior' or 'suporior'
individuaIs. If lransIalod briofIy in Burmoso, ¨Boings lavo
onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly vlicl lloy acluaIIy
possoss. Tloy lavo lo accopl and rocoivo llo inlorilanco
from |cmmc. Kcmmc is llo 'Causo' vlicl producos 'Effocl'.
OnIy |cmmc can bo roIiod upon as roIalivos and frionds.
Kcmmc sorvos as a backbono for boings lo Ioan back upon. Il
is |cmmc llal dislinguislos boings, making llom, difforonl
from ono anollor as inforior (ignobIo) or suporior (nobIo).¨
IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion:
¨Boings lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly vlicl lloy acluaIIy possoss. Tloy
lavo lo accopl and rocoivo lloir inlorilanco
from |cmmc. Kcmmc is llo causo vlicl
producos offocl. OnIy |cmmc can bo roIiod
upon as roIalivos and frionds. Kcmmc sorvos as
a backbono for boings lo Ioan upon. Il is |cmmc
llal dislinguislos boings, making llom
difforonl from ono anollor as inforior (ignobIo)
or suporior (nobIo).¨
Il is, in facl, llo Buddla's Dlamma. Tlo condilions of
misory and Iov birll as inforior boings aro croalod by
4O2
lloir ovn individuaI immoraI aclions (c|usc|c|cmmc).
Tloir ovn individuaI |cmmc las mado llom lappy and
nobIo in llo Iifo oxislonco and brougll llom famo and
lonour. In ollor vords, onosoIf is rosponsibIo for ono's
ovn lappinoss and a man's misory is llo consoquonliaI
offocls of lis ovn aclions. Il is lis ovn dosliny lo bo born
nobIo or ignobIo. Il is nol llal Iiving boings oxporionco
sufforing and lappinoss as a rosuIl of ollors' croalion or
of llo AImiglly's croalion. Tlo Buddla's Dlamma pins il
dovn lo ono's ovn individuaI |cmmc and sucl boing llo
caso, no ono noods lo bo bIamod. Iol us rocilo llo foIIoving
mollo:
¨Door of oviI viII gallor oviI,
Door of good viII roap good.¨
If llo soods of mango, jack fruil, olc., aro sovn, svool fruils
viII bo gallorod or rocoivod. If llo soods of Iomon or cilrus
fruils aro sovn, lloy viII yioId sour fruils, and ono slaII
lavo lis laslo of llo fruils lo roaps lloro from. Wo may
rocilo llo socond mollo in llo Iigll of llo abovo:
¨Il's |cmmc, llo IIannor, llal impIomonls boll
oviI and good, making ono suffor pain and
gain pIoasuro.¨
Tlo briof ansvor givon by llo Buddla nol boing fuIIy
undorslood as yol by Subla, llo Iad, furllor oIaboralion,
4O3
as roquoslod by lim, vas givon vill commonls by llo
EnIigllonod Ono, as foIIovs:
K»··|c c»t-| o| -nos. c |o·. ||||
(1.) M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad! |!|c ÷ in llis vorId,
iii|i .¯ ÷ oillor fomaIos, purisc .¯ ÷ or maIos, c|cccc
÷ somo of llom, p¯n¯iip¯ii ÷ aro usod lo kiIIing llo Iiving
boings, |cii ÷ il so lapponod. Taking llo Iifo of anollor or
kiIIing indicalos cruoIly villoul any fooIing of sympally.
Sc ÷ A porson vlo kiIIs, icnc |cmmcnc ÷ for llal acl of
commilling murdor, pcrcm mcrcn¯ ÷ aflor doall (somo
of llo vords aro Iofl oul loro), cp¯µcm ÷ in llo roaIm of
Ap¯µc, !uggciim ÷ llo abodo vloro mon of vico vouId
roacl, .inip¯icm nircµcm ÷ and in llo abodo of Ap¯µc
(loII) vloro boings aro going lo doscond aflor doslruclion
of lloir lappy Iifo oxislonco, upcjjcii ÷ vouId lavo lloir
robirll. Mcnussciicm ÷ lo llo vorId of luman oxislonco,
sccc ¯gccc|cii ÷ if al aII lo las roaclod back, or rallor, if
lo is roborn, µci|c µci|c pccc¯j¯µcii (or) in any oxislonco
vlorovor lo may bo roborn (lransIalod inlo Burmoso lo
mako a smooll fIov of oxprossion) cpp¯µu|c ÷ slorl Iifo.
|cii ÷ viII onsuro (i.o., viII lo slorl-Iivod).
BriofIy pul, il moans llal bocauso of a porson's c|usc|c-
|cmmc (domorils) for kiIIing llo Iiving boings, lo is IikoIy
4O4
lo doscond lo llo four nollor vorIds ÷ loII ÷ aflor lis
domiso. Il vouId convoy llo sonso llal if lo bocomos a
luman boing onco again, lo viII lavo slorl Iifo or in ollor
vords, viII nol Iivo Iong.
App¯µu|cscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯,
µc!i!cm p¯n¯iip¯ii |cii.
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, p¯n¯iip¯ii |cii ÷ usuaIIy kiIIs llo Iiving boings.
1cssc ÷ His, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ labiluaI londoncy or proponsily
lo kiII, cpp¯µu|cscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ viII, il is slalod, causo lo
bocomo slorl-Iivod. Tlo mollo composod in llis rogard is:
¨KiIIing llo ollor is IikoIy lo causo llo Iifo slorlor.¨ Tlon,
il lad boon proaclod roIaling lo vly lloro is Iongovily. Il
viII lavo lo bo oxpIainod in briof.
(1n) ||cccc iii|i .¯ purisc .¯ ÷ Wlollor a fomaIo or a
maIo, somo porsons, p¯n¯iip¯ic pcii.ircic |cii ÷ abslain
from kiIIing. Sc ÷ llal porson, icnc |cmmcnc ÷ by virluo
of llo morils dorivod or bonofilod, by abslaining from
kiIIing, pcrcm mcrcn¯ ÷ aflor doall, sugciim ÷ vloro
mon of virluo aro usod lo bocomo ÷ scggcm |c|cm ÷ in
llo CoIosliaI WorId, upcpcjjcii ÷ viII bo roborn. Sccc
mcnussciicm¯gccc¯cii ÷ If ono roaclos llo luman oxislonco,
!ig|¯µucc |cii ÷ (or) in any oxislonco vlorovor lo may
bo roborn, viII lavo a Iong Iifo. M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo
4O5
young man, µc!i!cm p¯n¯iip¯ic pcii.ircic |cii ÷ ono vlo
abslains from kiIIing a Iiving boing, (llo moaning givon
loroin is lo lavo a smooll fIov of llo Burmoso Ianguago
villoul conforming lo llo principIos of grammar) cs¯
pciipc!¯ ÷ llis conducl or moraIily of abslaining from
kiIIing llo Iiving boings, !ig|¯µu|¯ scm.ciicni|c ÷ causo
lo bring aboul Iong Iifo.
In slorl, ono vlo avoids commilling an acl of kiIIing is IikoIy
lo roacl llo CoIosliaI WorId (llo WorId of Dovas) aflor lis
doall, by virluo of lis morilorious doods (|usc|c|cmmc). If
lo is roborn as a luman boing lo viII Iivo Iong, il moans lo
say llal llo moraI discipIino or good conducl in rofraining
from kiIIing llo Iiving boings, can causo a consoquonliaI
offocl of Iong Iifo. Tlo mollo lo bo rocilod is:
(1) KiIIing ollors causo slorl Iifo,
abslinonco from kiIIing brings Iong Iifo.
Tlis is llo ansvor lo llo firsl quoslion. ¨KiIIing ollors¨
moans llo doslruclion of llo Iifo of any Iiving boing
incIuding aII kinds of animaIs, vlicl vouId ombraco
ovon liny croaluros sucl as Iico, anls, and ova and cysls of
sucl croaluros. Somo ovon dio vliIo boing concoivod in
a mollor's vomb. Somo aro sliIIborn. Somo dio villin a
monll or lvo aflor birll or al a young ago of lon, lvonly,
or llirly, olc. Doall vlicl lakos pIaco boforo llo oxpiry
4O6
of llo normaI Iifo-span of oxislonco villoul any unusuaI
circumslancos undor vlicl Iiving boings lavo gono
llrougl in llo oarIior parl of lloir Iivos, can bo allribulod
lo llo consoquonliaI offocl of c|usc|c|cmmc for laving
kiIIod ollors in llo pasl oxislonco.
Honco, a probIomalic quoslion vlicl may ariso as lo
¨Wly infanls dio immodialoIy aflor birll`¨ can onIy bo
salisfacloriIy ansvorod according lo llo Buddla's Dlamma.
Al ono limo, Sayãdav Aslin Nãrada of Sri Ianka lad mado
monlion in lis loacling llal llo Doclrino of Croalion cannol
salisfacloriIy doaI vill sucl a probIomalic quoslion. Tlo
mannor of lis loacling may bo slalod llus: ¨In ovory raco
or among any Iiving llings and roIigionisls, llo incidonco
of doall of an infanl immodialoIy foIIoving ils birll, las
occurrod or can bo found. Sucl an incidonl is IikoIy lo lako
pIaco aIso among famiIios vlo lavo by lradilion adlorod
lo llo Doclrino of Croalion by llo AImiglly Supromo
Doily. Il is difficuIl lo soIvo a quoslion as lo vly a porson
las boon croalod lo dio so, oarIy in infancy. Tlis infanl viII
nol lavo commillod any fauIl againsl lis croalor. As sucl,
lloro can lardIy bo any roason vly llo infanl vlo is sliII
innoconl, slouId bo commillod lo loII forovor. And aIso nol
laving anylling llal can bo dono by an infanl according
lo llo visl of llo croalor, lloro is no good roason vly lo
slouId bo savod lo roacl llo loavonIy abodo. Sucl boing
llo caso, llo Doclrino of Croalion of Boings insofar as il
4O7
concorns llo doall of young infanls immodialoIy aflor
birll, is obviousIy unsalisfaclory.¨ Moroovor, proacling
las boon dono llal misory vlicl bofaIIs llo paronls for
llo unlimoIy doall of lloir cliId vlo is slorl-Iivod, is duo
lo lloir parlicipalion and onjoymonl in llo acl of kiIIing
Iiving boings commillod by ollors in lloir pasl oxislonco.
In rofraining from kiIIing llo Iiving boings ÷ p¯n¯iip¯ic
.cr¯mcni si|||¯pc!cm scm¯!iµ¯mi ÷ an undorlaking lo
obsorvo llo RuIo of Conducl lo abslain from laking llo
Iifo of ollor Iiving boings viII bring morils of si|c-|usc|c
vliIo llis procopl is sliII boing obsorvod villoul a Iapso.
Abslinonco from kiIIing ovon vlon an occasion arisos lo
commil an acl of kiIIing bring .ircii-|usc|c. If ono rofrains
from kiIIing ovon llougl llis .ircii las nol boon originaIIy
obsorvod, il is knovn as scmpciic-.ircii (moaning
'succossfuI abslinonco'). If ono abslains from kiIIing as las
boon undorlakon lo obsorvo llo RuIo, llon il is knovn as
scm¯!¯nc.ircii. Tlo '.ircii' llal is invoIvod during a briof
momonl of llo acliovomonl cj Sci¯pciiimcggc is caIIod
scmucc|c!c-.ircii. Of lloso llroo kinds, scmucc|c!c-.ircii
lolaIIy oxlirpalos aII !ucccriics-|¯µc|cmmc and .cci|cmmc
i.o., oviIs of plysicaI and vorbaI aclions. Il viII aIso bring
aboul fuII omancipalion from llo Iour Ap¯µcs. On llo
ollor land, scmpciic-.ircii, scm¯!¯nc-.ircii and scm¯!¯nc-
|usc|c conscious llouglls viII causo ono lo roacl llo
abodo of Sugcii, and can causo Iongovily.
4O8
¨Abslinonco from kiIIing brings aboul Iong Iifo¨ is llo mollo
vlicl indicalos llo allribulos and facuIly of scm¯!¯nc-.ircii
and scm¯!¯nc-|usc|c. Tlo ansvor lo llo firsl quory laving
boon oIucidalod for bollor undorslanding, Iol us procood
lo oxpIain llo ansvor lo llo socond quoslion.
K»··|c c»t-| o| o|-|»-| c .ooo n|»|.n
(2.) M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad! |!|c ÷ in llis vorId,
c|cccc iii|i .¯ purisc .¯ ÷ somo porsons, vlollor fomaIo
or maIo, scii¯ncm ÷ causo llo Iiving boings, .i|ci|c|cj¯ii|c
÷ lo suffor by iII-lroaling llom vill lands, vill slonos,
vill slicks or vill ollor voapons, |cii ÷ il is dono so. Sc
÷ sucl a porson, icnc |cmmcnc ÷ for laving commillod
llal acl of iII-lroalmonl, pcrcm mcrcn¯ ÷ aflor domiso,
cp¯µcm !uggciim .inip¯icm nircµcm ÷ llo Apãya, llo
abodo of sufforing, upcpcjjcii ÷ viII roacl or roborn in.
Sccc mcnussciicm ¯gccc|cii ÷ If again roborn in llo luman
vorId, |c|¯|¯!|c |cii ÷ lo viII bo sick or lavo bad loaIll
in vlalovor oxislonco lo may lappon lo bocomo. M¯nc.c
÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ llis bad conducl or labil
of iII-lroaling llo Iiving boings, |c|¯|¯!|cscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is
IikoIy lo causo mucl sicknoss, or rallor, bo slrickon vill
many kinds of disoasos.
4O9
By iII-lroaling llo Iiving boings lo causo injury or larm
vill lands, or slonos, or slicks or ollor voapons, ono is
IikoIy lo go dovn lo Apãya ÷ loII, for llal oviI aclion
(c|usc|c-|cmmc). If lo voro roborn in llo luman oxislonco,
lo is IikoIy lo bo sick. Il moans lo say llal llo bad conducl
of iII-lroaling ollors viII causo lo bring mucl iIInoss or
many disoasos. To mako il moro ovidonl, llo slory of
Iûligallalissa Tlora viII bo cilod.
Tn| S.os\ o| l0.|.»..».|--» Tn|s»
In llo Iifolimo of llo Iord Buddla, lloro Iivod a Blikklu
by llo namo of Iûligallalissa Tlora. OriginaIIy, lo vas
a Iayman from llo Cily of Sãvallli. Aflor onloring llo
monklood in llo Buddla's Sãsana, lo vas addrossod
as Tissa Tlora. Ialor, numorous acno or pimpIos aboul
llo sizo of a muslard sood appoarod on lis body. Tloso
lumorous pimpIos graduaIIy bocamo biggor and biggor.
Irom aboul llo sizo of a muslard sood, lloso pimpIos or
boiIs lad grovn biggor up lo llo sizo of boan soods, and
llon ovonluaIIy bocamo svoIIon lo roacl llo sizo of a big
round fruil (in Burmoso ¨okslil¨ fruil ÷ aboul llrico
Iargor llan an orango) and llon, bursl or porforalod. As a
41O
rosuIl, llo vloIo body vas covorod vill numorous loIos.
Honco, lo vas dubbod Iûligalla ÷ vlicl moans laving
a slinking body vill a, fouI smoII. Ho vas lloroforo givon
llo namo of Iûligallalissa Tlora. Ialor, llo morbid grovll
of llis lumorous disoaso lad aggravalod unliI lis bonos
voro fraclurod. Tloro vas no ono lo nurso lim. AII lis
robos voro badIy slainod vill pus and pulrid bIood. Evon
lis ovn discipIos lad abandonod lim. Bocoming loIpIoss,
lo lad lo Iio dovn aII llo limo on lis bod.
Al llal limo, llo Buddla vill lis supornaluraI vision
rofIoclod and obsorvod aII ovor llo Inivorso as lo vlo
vouId bo dosorving of allaining spociaI Dlamma, llo
Avakoning Consciousnoss. In His vision, llo Buddla found
Iûligallalissa Tlora vlo vouId roadiIy allain Aralalslip.
RoaIising llal lloro vas no ono oxcopl Him vlo couId
bo roIiod upon by llo Tlora, llo Buddla mado His vay
lo lim as if Ho vas making a round of inspoclion of llo
monaslorios. On roacling llo pIaco vloro Iûligallalissa
Tlora vas rosiding, llo Buddla porsonaIIy Iiflod up a big
omply rico pol, vaslod il, and llon, aflor pulling valor
inlo il, pIacod llo pol on a loarll lo boiI llo valor. Wlon
llo valor vas aboul lo boiI, llo Buddla inlonding lo
romovo llo bodsload (col) vloro Iûligallalissa Tlora vas
Iying, pul lis lands on llo col. Il is oxlromoIy vondorfuI
and vorlly of roforonco if vo imagino llo Buddla's Groal
Compassion and pily slovorod upon llo Tlora.
411
Al llis juncluro, ollor Blikklus appoarod on llo scono
and aflor rospoclfuIIy onlroaling llo Buddla, ¨O, Iord,
pIoaso mako vay. Wo slaII carry llo col lo pul il vloro
you visl so lloy Iiflod llo col and carriod il lo llo kilclon
vloro llo firopIaco vas slanding. Tlo Buddla, visling
lo givo llo Tlora a lol ball, look llo varm valor vill
a cup and llon sIovIy sprinkIod il on llo body of llo
Tlora. Tlo Blikklus look off llo robos vorn by llo Tlora,
vaslod llom vill lol valor, and llon pIacod llom in
llo sun lo dry. Tlo Buddla diroclod llal Iûligallalissa's
body bo proporIy vaslod and cIoansod vill varm valor.
Tlo Blikklus aflor compIying vill llo diroclions givon
by llo Buddla, gavo llo dry robos lo llo Tlora lo bo
vrappod round lis vaisl in pIaco of ¨Tlin-paing¨ ÷ a
form of skirl vlicl vas lakon off and vaslod. Wlon il
lad driod, il vas again givon lo bo ropIacod round llo
vaisl of llo Tlora. Tlo oulor garmonl vas llon romovod
and vrappod round llo uppor porlion of llo body. In
lloso days, lloro vas a scarcily of robos.
Tloro voro no sparo robos lo bo vorn. Hov rovorling
il vas! Ior llo ovonluaI allainmonl of Aralalslip by
Iûligallalissa Tlora, llo Buddla las lo acl as a maIo-
nurso. Tlis is roaIIy surprising, liglIy nobIo and
rospoclfuI. Having boon proporIy allondod lo and nursod
by llo Buddla HimsoIf, Iûligallalissa Tlora gol groal
roIiof.
412
Tlon llo Compassionalo Buddla commoncod loacling as
foIIovs:
¨Acircm .cic´µcm |¯µc,
pci|c.im c!|iscsscii.
C|u!!|c cpcic.iññ¯nc nircii|cm.c |c|iñgcrcm.¨
8|i|||u ÷ O, Blikklu Iûligallalissa! 1c ÷ of yours, cµcm
|¯µc ÷ llis body, ccircm ÷ viII soon, .cic ÷ lruIy and
voriIy, pci|c.im c!|iscsscii ÷ Iio upon llo ground (moaning:
your body viII bocomo a corpso and llon viII bo Iaid
oul nakod lo sIoop on llo buriaI ground), cpcic.iññ¯nc
÷ for laving bocomo a doad body villoul consciousnoss,
c|u!!|c ÷ and sinco poopIo concornod lavo abandonod il
as a moan and vorllIoss vaslo mallor, pci|c.im c!|iscsscii
÷ ii viII como lo rosl on llo buriaI ground of llo comolory.
(Wlal il moans is) nircii|cm ÷ il is usoIoss, |c|iñgcrcm c.c
÷ Iiko a Iog, a IifoIoss and vorllIoss sluff vlicl viII Iio on
llo ground, or rallor, faII asIoop (dio).
Tlo gisl of il is: ¨}usl as rollon and docayod Iogs viII romain
on llo ground as lavo boon discardod, llo maloriaI body
(||cn!|c) boing IifoIoss viII soon bo abandonod and Iofl
in llo gravoyard villoul any cIollos on. In lloso days,
il vas cuslomary llal corpsos voro llrovn avay in llo
gravoyard villoul burying llom.
413
Aflor laving loard llo loaclings of llo Iord Buddla
doIivorod in llo form of a vorso, Iûligallalissa Tlora
bocamo an Aralal, and nol Iong aflorvards, lo onlorod
inlo Iarinibbãna.
Tlis Iûligallalissa Tlora vas a bird-lunlor during llo
Iifolimo of Kassapa Buddla. Ho coIIoclod and piIod up llo
birds caugll by lim aflor broaking or spIilling up lloir
fool and vings. OnIy on llo noxl day, lo usod lo soII llom
oul. Somo of llom voro cookod for lis ovn consumplion.
Ior laving commillod llis oviI acl of c|usc|c|cmmc, lis
vloIo body bocamo pulrid vill llo skin disoaso vlicl
causod a lumorous grovll of numorous pimpIos or boiIs
ovor lis onliro body. In llal vory oxislonco, in coming
across an Aralal vlo vas making a round for aIms, lo
mado offorings of a bird curry and cookod rico, and llon,
for laving prayod lo allain mcggc-p|c|c, lo lad bocomo an
Aralal in llis oxislonco. Tlis slory of Iûligallalissa lad
convincod us llal iII-lroaling ollors vouId causo disoaso.
Tlo mollo nov coinod for llo purposo is: ¨Ho vlo iII-
lroals ollors bocomos disoasod.¨ If iII-lroaling is avoidod,
il viII bring good loaIll. Tlo moaning of llis las boon
proaclod in briof in llo foIIoving vords:
(2n) ¨App¯|¯!|cscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm scii¯ncm c.i|ci|c|cj¯ii|c |cii.¨
414
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, scii¯ncm ÷ lo aII boings, c.i|ci|c|cj¯ii|c ÷ las
no inlonlion of causing larm and lroubIo, or rallor, iII-
lroalmonl, |cii ÷ il is so. 1cssc ÷ Tlal porson, cs¯ pciipc!¯
÷ for lis good conducl of rofraining from iII-lroaling or
larming llo boings, cpp¯|¯!|cscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is IikoIy lo
Iosson llo disoasos and bring aboul good loaIll.
In llis connoclion, llo mollo viII loroaflor bo composod
as: ¨Iily brings good loaIll.¨ Tlis oxprossion vouId
convoy llo sonso llal if ono rofrainod from iII-lroaling
ollors, il is IikoIy lo bring good loaIll. If ono las pily on
ollors, lo viII nol bo incIinod lo iII-lroal llom. Tlo mollo
is lloroforo composod as foIIovs:
(2) ¨Ho vlo iII-lroals bocomo disoasod,
vloroas compassion brings good loaIll.¨
Honco, a porson vlo iII-lroals ollors viII oflon bo affIiclod
vill many kinds of disoasos. Il slouId, lloroforo, bo nolod
llal lloso vlo lavo causod iII-lroalmonl lo ollors viII bo
disoasod. Ono vlo las sympally or pily, rofraining from
iII-lroaling ollors, viII lavo Ioss disoasos and viII bo in
robusl loaIll. Tlis facl slouId aIso bo borno in mind. Iol
us nov procood lo lackIo llo llird quoslion, llo ansvors
lo vlicl viII bo rondorod quoling a slorl plraso in IãIi.
415
K»··|c c»t-| o| t.||·|-- c |»|s co·|||x|o·
(3.) A porson vlo spoaks larslIy and bolavos badIy
llrougl an oulbursl of angor, nay, vlo doos llings in
groal angor, is IikoIy lo doscond lo llo Ap¯µc ÷ HoII. If lo
lappons lo bo roborn in llo vorId of luman boings, lo viII
probabIy lavo ugIy Iooks or compIoxion. Tlis slalomonl
las boon rondorod in briof as monlionod boIov:
¨Du||cnncscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm |c!|cnc |cii.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, |c!|cnc ÷ is fuII of vrall or angor, |cii ÷ so is lo.
1cssc ÷ His, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ ingrainod labil of fIaring up
inlo a rago, !u||cnncscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is IikoIy lo bring aboul
ugIinoss or bad compIoxion and unpIoasanl Iooks.
If angor arisos, lis faciaI oxprossion and domoanour
viII immodialoIy clango for llo vorso and lis porsonaI
appoaranco viII bo ugIy. Il las boon slalod llal as a
cuslom of llis rising angor, lo may probabIy bo born
ugIy llrougloul llo rounds of oxisloncos (scmscr¯) on lis
bocoming a luman boing. A mollo is nov boing composod
as: ¨IIamo of angor causos ugIinoss.¨
416
If palionco can bo oxorcisod villoul yioIding lo angor in
llo faco of unboarabIo larsl Ianguago or losliIo vorbaI
allacks mado on lim, lo is IikoIy lo roacl llo vorId of
Dovas (Sugcii) in lis noxl oxislonco. If lo roaclos llo
luman oxislonco, il is mosl IikoIy llal lo viII lavo a vory
fair compIoxion, landsomo Iooks and a good porsonaIily.
Tlis las boon proaclod in a conciso mannor as foIIovs:
(3n) ¨P¯s¯!i|cscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm c||c!|cnc |cii.
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, c||c!|cnc ÷ is palionl villoul any fooIing of angor,
|cii ÷ il so lappons. 1cssc ÷ His, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ nobIo
conducl of palionco villoul angor, p¯s¯!i|cscm.ciicni|¯
÷ is IikoIy lo causo lis porsonaI appoaranco lo bocomo
boaulifuI and rospoclfuI. Tlo gisl of il is oxprossod in llo
form of a mollo vlicl foIIovs. Iol us do llo rocilalion in
conjunclion vill vlal las boon slalod loroin boforo.
¨IIamo of angor causos ugIinoss,
Ialionco brings boauly. ¨
If dosirous of laving a landsomo appoaranco and fair
compIoxion, il is ossonliaI lo lry lo pracliso and incuIcalo
llo spiril of palionco. Nov il is limo lo givo an ansvor
lo llo fourll quoslion. Tlis ansvor in IãIi for vlicl llo
417
oxpIanalion vas rondorod, las boon monlionod in Iarl 6
of llo Dlamma, Honco, il vouId appoar adoqualo if vo
jusl rocilo llo Mollo.
K»··|c c»t-| o| ||w os ·os| »..|·o»·.-
(4) ¨Envy ropoIs allondanls and loIpors,
goodviII brings forll rolinuo in Iargo numbors.¨
If ono bocomos onvious of llo voIfaro and prosporily of
ollors, lo is IikoIy lo go dovn lo Apãya ÷ HoII. If lo
voro lo bo roborn in a luman oxislonco, lo viII lavo
Ioss allondanls and companions. If a porson rojoicos in
ollor poopIo's lappinoss or voIfaro vill mu!ii¯, lo viII
probabIy Iand in llo vorId of Dovas (Sugcii). In llo ovonl
of lis robirll in a luman oxislonco, lo viII lavo a Iargo
numbor of allondanls. Wo slaII nov conlinuo lo loacl and
doIivor llo ansvor roIaling lo llo fifll quoslion.
K»··|c c»t-| o| |ov|s.\ c »|||t|·c|
(5.) If no offor of clarily (lon kinds in numbor sucl as
offorings of, rico-moaI, miIk, robos, lransporl, fIovors,
inconso, fragranl subslancos, bod, buiIding, Iigll o.g.
candIos, oiI-Iamps, olc.) is mado, or if llo acls of clarily
418
dono by ollors aro dolorrod, sucl aclions viII probabIy
causo ono lo Iand in Apãya. If lo lappons lo bo roborn in
llo vorId of luman boings, lo can bo indigonl and slrickon
vill povorly. Tlo gisl of il, briofIy pul, is quolod boIov:
¨Appc||cgcscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm nc !¯i¯ |cii.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, nc !¯i¯ ÷ is nol usod lo making clarily, or rallor,
is misorIy and slingy, |cii ÷ il so lappons. 1cssc ÷ His
(llal porson's), cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ (llis) labil of slinginoss nol
visling lo do clarily, cppc||cgcscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is probabIy
llo causo of bocoming noody and poor or Iacking in
voaIll.
Tlo ossonco of llis slalomonl is composod parlIy in a mollo
as: ¨Rofraining from doing clarily viII causo oxlromo
povorly.¨ By doing clarily vill gonorosily, ono may
probabIy roacl llo abodo of Dovas (Sugcii). If roIogalod
from lloro lo luman oxislonco, lo is mosl IikoIy lo bocomo
voaIlly and prosporous. Tlis las boon proaclod in a
nulsloII as:
(5n) ¨Mc|¯||cgcscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm !¯i¯ |cii¨
419
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, !¯i¯ ÷ usuaIIy offors clarily or porforms clarilabIo
doods, |cii ÷ il is so dono. 1cssc ÷ Tlal porson's, pciipc!¯ ÷
usuaI praclico of making donalion, mc|¯||cgcscm.ciicni|¯
÷ is IikoIy lo bring aboul voaIll. Tlis is plrasod in a mollo
as foIIovs (lo bo rocilod in combinalion vill llo roIovanl
porlion of llo oxprossion doscribod loroin boforo).
(5) ¨Rofraining from doing clarily causos
oxlromo povorly,
Clarily brings voaIll and prosporily.¨
Tlis Dãnakalla, llo oxprossion of rojoicing ÷ anumc!cn¯
Dlamma in rospocl of llo clarily dono boing loard of so
oflon is voII-knovn. Hovovor, llo slory of Anandã llo
ricl, is roIovanl lo llo oxprossion: ¨Rofraining from doing
clarily causos oxlromo povorly,¨ noods iIIuslralion.
Tn| S.os\ o| A·»·o¯, .n| ·||||o·»|s|
During llo Iifolimo of llo Iord Buddla, lloro Iivod a ricl
porson by llo namo of Anandã in llo Cily of Sãvallli. His
riclos amounlod lo forly croros. Ho vas fuII of onvy and
a misor loo. Evory forlnigll, lo askod lis roIalivos lo loId
a mooling, and al ovory sucl mooling or galloring, lo
admonislod lis son ¨MûIasirï¨ in llis mannor. ¨Don'l
42O
llink llal forly croros vorll of proporly vlicl vo lavo in
possossion is a coIossaI amounl. AII of lloso riclos slouId
onIy bo acquirod and accumuIalod. If a kyal is offorod
ropoalodIy, llo onliro voaIll viII, in llo courso of limo, bo
oxlauslod. Honco,
¨Añj¯ncncm ||cµcm !is.¯,
upcci|¯ncñcc scñccµcm.
Mc!|ùncñcc scm¯|¯rcm,
pcn!iic g|crcm¯.csc.¨
Tlis vorso (g¯i|¯) is llo samo as llo Ovãdagalla givon
by Todoyya. Tlo onIy discropancy bolvoon llo lvo is
llo uso of llo oxprossion ¨upcci|¯ncm¨ i.o., of llo vlilo
anls, and llo vord ¨.cmmi|¯ncm¨ i.o., llo anlliII. In llis
rogard, il is lo bo inlorprolod as 'upcci|¯ncm' ÷ by llo
vlilo anls, scñccµcm ÷ llo accumuIalion of parlicIos
of dusl vlicl lavo boon carriod. Somo limo Ialor, aflor
giving lis oxlorlalion, Anandã llo ricl passod avay. Ho
diod villoul loIIing lis son vloro llo fivo oarllonvaro
pols conlaining goId and siIvor voro kopl or buriod. Aflor
lis doall, lo vas concoivod in llo vomb of a fomaIo
boggar in llo viIIago vloro boggars Iivod. Tlis viIIago
comprisod a llousand dvoIIing lousos. Il vas slalod llal
from llo limo of llo concoplion of llis Anandã, llo formor
miIIionairo, in llo mollor's vomb in lis nov oxislonco,
llo inlabilanls of llal viIIago facod groal lardslip in llo
421
vay of lloir Iiving or occupalion. Circumslancos undor
vlicl lloy lad lo Iivo bocamo uncongoniaI. Nc.c ||ciim
|c||cii.. Tloy did nol rocoivo vagos or aIms as usuaI and
voro nol abIo lo mainlain llomsoIvos. Nc µcpcncmciicic
pcrcm ||ciicpin!cmpi ÷ Tloy voro unabIo lo oblain moro
food. Tloy rocoivod food jusl onougl lo supporl lloir
ovn survivaI. As sucl, llo viIIagors vondorod vlal
voro llo circumslancos llal lad slapod llom in llal
vay. Tloy llougll lloro musl bo a vickod or oviI porson
caIIod |¯|c|cnni (advorsily porsonifiod) in lloir viIIago.
Considoring llus, lloy soparalod llo viIIago inlo lvo
parls. Tlon viIIagors rosiding in llo parl of llo viIIago
vloro llo mollor of llo roincarnalod Anandã llo ricl
vas Iiving, romainod in povorly and advorsily as boforo.
Tloroforo, lloy again dividod llis porlion of llo viIIago
inlo lvo. Il vas ropoalodIy dono in llo Iiko mannor unliI
sucl limo vlon llo mollor of Anandã vas Iofl aIono in
a slalo of advorsily. Tlo mollor, lovovor, villslood llo
misory vill groal palionco. Aflor giving birll lo a cliId,
slo conlinuod lo suslain lorsoIf for lor ovn IivoIilood
and llo mainlonanco of llo cliId.
IIlimaloIy, vlon llo cliId grov up lo an ago capabIo
of making lis rounds bogging for food, llo mollor, no
Iongor boing abIo lo onduro llo sufforings and lardslip,
vas compoIIod lo abandon lor son. A rocoplacIo vas
givon lo lim lo sook food on lis ovn. WliIo going round
422
llo viIIago bogging for food from louso lo louso, lo camo
upon a dvoIIing pIaco vloro lo lad Iivod in lis formor
oxislonco. Having possossod llo knovIodgo of j¯iisscrc-
ñ¯nc, by vlicl lo lad llo facuIly of romomboring lis
formor oxislonco, lo onlorod llo louso llrougl llo fronl
door. Tlo sons of MûIasirï on sooing lim criod llrougl
foar. Tloy gol frigllonod al llo sigll of lim simpIy
bocauso of lis oxlromo ugIinoss and gloslIy appoaranco
(lis lands, fool, oars and noso voro lorribIy doformod).
Tlo disfiguromonl of lis body and ropuIsivo compIoxion
prosonlod an avfuI sigll.
Tlo cliIdron vlo voro crying, boing llo sons of MûIasirï,
voro no ollor llan llis unforlunalo young boy's (llo
roincarnalod Ananda's) grandcliIdron. Tlo baby-sillors
(nannios) vlo Iookod al lim found llo young boy (formor
Anandã ) vory ugIy. Tloy llon assauIlod lim vill slicks
saying, ¨You vickod doviI! Bollor go avay.¨ Tloy llon pul
lim on a loap of garbago. As a mallor of facl lloy rogardod
lim as dirl. Al llal limo llo Buddla accompaniod by llo
VonorabIo Aslin Anandã in llo courso of lloir round for
aIms, arrivod al llo scono. On boing askod by llo VonorabIo
Aslin Anandã aboul llo incidonl, llo Buddla loId Aslin
Anandã llo slalo of affairs in dolaiI.
Tloroupon, llo VonorabIo Aslin Anandã roquoslod
llo poopIo noar lo bring MûIasirï lo lim. IoopIo in llo
423
noiglbourlood, vlo lad como ovor lo llis pIaco formod
a big crovd. Tlo Buddla llon askod MûIasirï: ¨Do you
knov llis cliId`¨ Tlo ropIy givon vas, in llo nogalivo. Tlo
Buddla loId MûIasirï llal llis cliId vas lis fallor Anandã,
llo ricl MûIasirï oxcIaimod, I cannol boIiovo il Sir.¨ Tlo
Buddla lloroforo, ordorod llo cliId, ¨Hoy, Anandã llo
ricl! You, bollor loII your son vloro llo fivo big oarllon-
varo pols conlaining goId and siIvor voro kopl and buriod
in llo oarll.¨ Tlo pIaco vloro llo pols voro buriod vas
slovn by llo boy, and on digging, aII llo lroasuros voro
found inlacl. OnIy llon, faill and rovoronco lad occurrod
in MûIasirï. Ho bocamo a convorl and obsorvod llo
Tlroo Rofugos llo TripIo Gom of Buddlism. On llal vory
occasion, Buddla laugll llo foIIoving vorso (g¯i|¯):
¨Puii¯ mcii|i !|cncmmcii|i,
iii |¯|c .i|cññcii.
Aii¯ |i ciicnc ncii|i,
|uic puii¯ |uic !¯ncm.¨
Mc ÷ I lavo, puii¯ cii|i ÷ sons and daugllors. Mc ÷ I lavo,
!|cncmmcii|i ÷ voaIll and lroasuros consisling of goId,
siIvor, olc. |ii ÷ Having lad llis kind of assumplion, |¯|c
÷ a fooI vlo las no knovIodgo of llo slalo of Scms¯rc, or
rallor, no forosigll aboul llo fuluro oxisloncos, .i|cññcii
÷ bocomos voary and dislrossod in connoclion vill lis
cliIdron (sons and daugllors) and lis voaIll and riclos.
424
IoopIo aro vorrying vill groal anxioly aboul lloir
cliIdron's voIfaro and voaIll undor a faIso nolion llal
lloy aro roaIIy lloir ovn and aIvays dopondabIo. In
llo ovonl of llo doall of lloir ovn cliIdron and llo
Ioss of voaIll, lloy vouId bocomo anxious and groalIy
doprossod vill sorrov. Tloy aro vorriod aboul vlal
vouId lappon lo lloso proporlios and lloir ovn kill
and kin. Tloro is no nood lo mako a spociaI monlion
aboul llo plysicaI and monlaI sufforings vlicl lloy aro
undorgoing vliIo llo Ioss of lloir voaIll and llo doall
of lloir roIalivos aro laking pIaco. Tloy aIso bocomo
voarisomo for laving lo porform lloir vork vill
ulmosl ondoavour lo gain voaIll llal las nol yol boon
acquirod. Il moans lo say lloy viII bo conslanlIy loiIing
and slriving vill vorry and misory lo bring up lloir
cliIdron. And yol.
Aii¯ |i ÷ Evon on lis ovn soIf, ciicnc ÷ ono las, ncii|i
÷ no roaI roIianco (i.o. lo limsoIf doos nol boIong lo
limsoIf). Il moans lo say llal on llo vorgo of doall, ono
cannol roIy upon lis ovn soIf. Evon aflor doall, ono
cannol dopond upon limsoIf or loIp limsoIf lo avoid
dosconding lo Apãya and lo faII inlo a slalo of misorabIo
condilions. Honco, puii¯ ÷ lov can sons and daugllors,
|uic ÷ bo said lo bo roaIIy dopondabIo` Kuic !¯ncm
÷ lov couId ono say llal lo las lis voaIll lo dopond
upon`
425
Anandã, llo miIIionairo, vloso slory las jusl boon narralod,
lad lo undorgo misory and sufforings immodialoIy aflor
lis doall. Ho mol vill sucl sufforings for laving roIiod
upon lis son and riclos insload of on morilorious acls of
clarily (!¯nc). Tloro voro a numbor of slorios aboul poopIo
vlo lad bocomo ricl as a rosuIl of doing clarily and
offoring gifls vill groal gonorosily. A porson by llo namo
of Indaka from llo Cily of Rãjagala bocamo a povorfuI
Dova for laving offorod a moro spoonfuI of food vill groal
gonorosily lo llo VonorabIo Aslin Anuruddlã Tlora. Tlis
anocdolo las oflon boon monlionod. Honco, llo Dlamma:
¨Rofraining from doing clarily causos oxlromo povorly,
clarily brings voaIll and prosporily¨, slouId aIvays bo
borno in mind and voII-undorslood. Aflor approcialing
as sucl, il is of paramounl imporlanco lo pracliso !¯nc. In
any caso, Burmoso Buddlisls aro nol Iacking in gonorosily
and in llo mallor of offoring donalions. Tloy aro gonoraIIy
accompIislod vill llis quaIily of clarilabIonoss.
K»··|c c»t-| o| |ow os n|.n s|s.n
(6.) IaiIuro lo vorslip and pay rovoronco lo lloso vlo aro
dosorving by llinking liglIy of onosoIf or llrougl soIf
concoil viII probabIy causo ono lo go dovn lo loII (Ap¯µc).
Evon in llo ovonl of lis robirll in luman oxislonco, lo
426
viII bo born inlo a Iov-caslo famiIy. Tlo moaning of llis
slalomonl las boon oIucidalod briofIy as foIIovs:
¨Nicc|u|incscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm i|c!!|c |cii ciim¯ni c||i.¯!cic||cm
nc c||i.¯!cii, cic.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm a corlain
porson, i|c!!|c ÷ is slubborn and proud lo llo oxlonl of
bocoming disrospoclfuI and disobodionl lo ollors, vill lis
m¯nc (soIf-concoil). Aiim¯ni ÷ is vain, gIorious and concoilod
and Iooks dovn upon ollors, |cii ÷ so, lo is. A||i.¯!cic||cm
÷ lo a porson dosorving of vorslipping or rospocl, nc
c||i.¯!cii ÷ lo faiIs lo pay duo lomago and rospocl (faiIing
lo givo a pIaco or mako room for ollors and lo mako vay
for lloso vlo aro dosorving of rospocl or rovoronco, lo
slov rospocl lo a porson vlo is dosorving of rospocl, and
lo rovoro a porson vlo is vorlly of rovoronco).
1cssc ÷ Tlal porson's (lis), cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ labil of
slubbornnoss and obslinacy vill soIf-prido or concoil
lo llo oxlonl of rofusing lo pay rospocls and rogards,
nicc|u|incscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is IikoIy lo causo lo bo roborn in
a moan and Iov-caslo famiIy.
Tloso vlo aro vorlly of vorslipping and rospocl aro
paronls, oIdors and lloso vlo aro accompIislod vill
427
llo allribulos of moraIily (si|c) olc., sucl as priosls. OId
agod paronls and grandparonls aro vorlly of rovoronco.
Evon if no rovoronco is mado, rospocl slouId al Ioasl bo
givon. Blikklus and ligl priosls vlo aro ondovod vill
moraIily dosorvo lo bo vorslippod. Gonuino Buddlas and
Sanglas vill sanclily aro vorlly of doop rovoronco. If no
propor rospocl or lomago is givon lo lloso nobIo porsons
by ono vlo las soIf-concoil (m¯nc) lo is IiabIo lo go dovn
lo loII. If robirll lakos pIaco as a luman boing, lo viII
lavo a lumbIo birll in a Iov-caslo famiIy and viII bocomo
ignobIo. In llis rogard, a mollo las boon oxprossod in parl
as: ¨Rudonoss causos Iov birll.¨
(6n) If rovoronco and rospocl is paid lo lloso vlo aro
vorlly of rovoronco and rospocl villoul soIf-concoil, ono
may probabIy roacl llo vorId of Dovas (Sugali). If lo voro
roborn as a luman boing, lo viII boIong lo a nobIo famiIy.
Tlis las boon proaclod in a conciso vay.
¨Ucc¯|u|i nc scm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm cii|c!!|c |cii cnciim¯ni c||i.¯!cic||cm
c||i.¯!cii, cic.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm ÷ a corlain
porson, cii|c!!|c ÷ is gonlIo and mook nol boing slubborn
vill soIf-concoil (m¯nc), cnciim¯ni ÷ (and) villoul llink-
ing liglIy of limsoIf, or rallor, villoul vanily, |cii ÷ il
428
so lappons. A||i.¯!cic||cm c||i.¯!cii ÷ pays lomago
or rospocl lo ono vlo is vorlly of rovoronco, o.g. lo
sland up vlon coming cIoso lo lim, vill duo rospocl,
olc. 1cssc ÷ Tlal porson's, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ good conducl
or bolaviour of paying rovoronco villoul soIf-prido or
ogo, ucc¯|u|incscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ is llo causo of robirll in a
nobIo famiIy. Tlis las boon composod as llo Iasl mollo
vlicl goos lo say, ¨Rospocl brings ligl birll.¨ Tlis may
bo ullorod in combinalion vill llo firsl parl of llo mollo
slalod oarIior.
(6) ¨Rudonoss causos Iov-birll,
Rospocl brings ligl birll.¨
Tlo rosuIlanl offocls of ono's ovn |cmmc, six in aII, oacl
difforonl from ono anollor, aro vory obvious in rospocl
of llo misorabIo or lappy condilions llal provaiI in
ono's Iifo oxislonco. Il is sloor misory if ono is slorl-
Iivod, disoaso, ugIy, Iacking in allondanls, poor and
Iovborn. Tloro is lappinoss if ono las Iong-Iifo, good
loaIll, a fair compIoxion, many allondanls, voaIll and
prosporily, and bocomos nobIo. Tlal is llo roason vly in
dovoIoping mcii¯, |crun¯ and mu!ii¯ rociling as: ¨May aII
bo lappy¨, ¨May aII bo Iiboralod from misory¨, and ¨May
aII bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and prosporily villoul
diminulion¨, aro moro porlinonl lo lloso six kinds.
SimiIarIy, in dovoIoping upc|||¯, 'Kcmmcssc|c' ÷ ¨Ono's
429
ovn proporly is lis ovn |cmmc (aclions), is aIso moro
roIovanl lo lloso six calogorios. Tlo vay lov il bocomos
roIovanl is llal by dovoIoping and radialing mcii¯, |crun¯
and mu!ii¯ as ¨May aII bo lappy, olc.¨ llo advanlagos of
laving a Iong Iifo and of oscaping from disoasos llal may
bo conlraclod by aII Iiving boings cannol bo considorod as
adoqualo and compIolo as dosirod. OnIy vlon ondovod
vill |cmmc, olc., llal brings Iong Iifo and good loaIll,
fuII accompIislmonl can bo acliovod as dosirod. As sucl,
llo said six kinds aro moro roIovanl lo upc|||¯ vlicl is
roquirod lo bo borno in mind as: ¨OnIy |cmmc is ono's
ovn proporly in possossion (|cmmcssc|c). Honco, Iol us
nov firsl dovoIop mcii¯, olc., and llon dovoIop upc|||¯ by
rociling llus:
¨May aII boings bo lappy.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from misory, ¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
¨May aII Iiving boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vlicl lloy lavo acquirod, villoul
diminulion, and aIso, bo lappy as boforo.¨
(Ropoal llroo limos)
43O
V»··|s o| o|v||o||·. ¡1! ||·o- o| L||||n¯
AII Iiving boings lavo onIy |cmmc (|cmmcssc|c) as lloir
soIo proporly. Tloy aro coming inlo boing, mouIdod and
infIuoncod by lloir ovn aclions (|cmmc) according lo
circumslancos.
¨EviI aclions bring oviI rosuIls.
Good aclions produco good rosuIls.¨
¨Il's |cmmc, llo IIannor, llal impIomonls boll
oviI and good, making ono suffor pain or gain
pIoasuro.¨
¨AII lloso porsons vlo broallo and Iivo,
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII lloso porsons vlo obviousIy oxisl,
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII individuaIs lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII lloso porsons vlo possoss bodiIy soIf, llo
maloriaI body (||cn!|c) lavo onIy |cmmc as
lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
431
Tloso fivo plrasos vlicl lavo jusl boon rocilod and
dovoIopod aro llo fivo kinds of cnc!|isc-upc|||¯ vlicl
viov vill indifforonco lovards aII boings vlo lavo no
Iimilalion and dislinclion. Wo slaII nov rocilo and dovoIop
llo sovon kinds of c!|isc-upc|||¯.
¨AII fomaIos lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII maIos lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Ariyas lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Iullujjanas (common vorIdIings)
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII Dovas lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII luman boings lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir
ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir
ovn proporly in possossion.¨
432
Tlo abovo indicalos llo mannor of dovoIoping llo
sovon (7) kinds of c!|isc-upc|||¯. If lloso sovon kinds
of c!|isc aro addod lo llo fivo (5) cnc!|isc slalod oarIior,
il viII como lo lvoIvo (12). Tloso aro llo 12 kinds of
!is¯ cnc!|isc upc|||¯ vlicl las no Iimilalion villoul
dislinguisling rogionviso. If upc|||¯ is dovoIopod
aflor Iimilalion is dono by dislinguisling llo rogions
÷ rogionviso ÷ lloro viII bo Iikoviso 12 kinds for
ovory rogion. As lloro aro lon (1O) rogions, il viII como
lo a lolaI of 12O. Tloso aro llo 12O !is¯ c!|isc-upc|||¯.
Wo slaII aIso rocilo and dovoIop lloso 12O kinds in briof.
IIoaso foIIov llo rocilalion:
´AII boings in llo Easlorn rogion lavo onIy |cmmc
as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Easlorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Woslorn rogion lavo onIy |cmmc
as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Woslorn rogion, lavo
onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Norllorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion ¨
433
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Norllorn rogion lavo
onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Soullorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Soullorn rogion lavo
onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Soull-Easlorn rogion
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Norll-Woslorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨.
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Norll-Woslorn rogion
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Norll-Easlorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
434
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Norll-Easlorn rogion
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Soull-Woslorn rogion lavo onIy
|cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Soull-Woslorn rogion
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo Iovor rogion boIov (Nadir) lavo
onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo Iovor rogion boIov
(Nadir) lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII boings in llo liglor rogion abovo (Zonill)
lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly in
possossion.¨
¨AII Apãya boings in llo liglor rogion abovo
(Zonill) lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn proporly
in possossion.¨
435
Wlal lavo jusl boon rocilod aro 12O !is¯ c!|isc-upc|||¯
as briofIy pul. If lloso aro addod lo llo 12 kinds of !is¯
cnc!|isc rocilod in llo forogoing, il viII como lo 132 kinds
of upc|||¯. Tlo mannor of dovoIoping upc|||¯ las nov
boon doscribod fuIIy. Hovovor, vlal nov romains is llo
Iasl ansvor oul of llo sovon ansvors lo llo quoslions
raisod by Subla, llo Iad. Wo slaII conlinuo lo loacl llo
romaining ono.
K»··|c c»t-| o| |»c| o| |·ow||o.| c o| n|.n|s
|·.||||c.t»| |ow|s
(7.) |!|c m¯nc.c c|cccc iii|i .¯ purisc .¯ scmcncm .¯
|rc|m¯ncm .¯ upcscn|cmii.¯ nc pcripucc|ii¯ |cii
¨|im ||cnic |usc|cm, |im c|usc|cm, |im sc.cjjcm,
|im cnc.cjjcm, |im sc.iic||cm, |im nc sc.iic||cm,
|im mc |criµcm¯ncm !ig|crciicm c|ii¯µc
!u|||¯µc |cii, |im .¯ p¯nc mc |criµcm¯ncm
!ig|crciicm |ii¯µc su||¯µc |cii ¨ ii.
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, i!|c ÷ in llis Inivorso, c|cccc
iii|i.c purisc .¯ ÷ somo porsons, vlollor a fomaIo or a
436
maIo, scmcncm .¯ |rc|m¯ncm .¯ upcscn|cmii.¯ ÷ mako
an approacl oillor lo a Blikklu or a nobIo and virluous
porson, nc pcripucc|ii¯ |cii ÷ bul doos nol knov lov lo
ask or pul a quoslion. Hov il slouId bo askod is: 8|cnic
÷ O, my Iord (Buddla), |im |usc|cm |im c|usc|cm ÷ vlal
is |usc|c and vlal is c|usc|c` Kim s¯.cjjcm |im cnc.ijjcm ÷
Wlicl is fauIly and vlicl is nol fauIly or bIamoIoss` Kim
sc.iic||cm, |im nc sc.iic||cm ÷ Wlicl is lo bo dopondod
upon and vlicl is nol` Kim |criµcm¯ncm ÷ Wlal is llo
lling if dono, mc ÷ rondor ono, !ig|crciicm c|ii¯µc !u|||¯µc
|cii ÷ doprivalion of voaIll and causalion of misory for
a vory Iong limo` V¯ p¯nc ÷ aparl from llis, llo quoslion
lo bo pul is: Kim |criµcm¯ncm ÷ Wlal slaII bo dono,
!ig|crciicm |ii¯µc su||¯µc |cii ÷ lo causo lo bring bonofils
lo gain prosporily and lappinoss for a vory Iong limo` |ii
÷ Do nol knov lov lo pul quoslion in llal mannor, nay,
romain villoul asking any quoslion.
Somo poopIo do nol knov lov lo approacl a knovIodgo-
abIo porson of oxporionco, and sook or ask for informalion
or advico in mallor vlicl lloy aro unabIo lo undorsland,
or rallor, of vlicl lloy aro ignoranl. In accordanco vill a
Burmoso's provorb vlicl runs as: ¨Ask vlal is nol knovn
and cIoanso vlal is dirly¨, ono slouId find oul and ask
vlal lo doos nol knov. Hovovor, somo poopIo aro laking
llings oasy, and aro compIaconl villoul lrying lo inquiro
and mako llomsoIvos undorsland and bocomo knovIodgo.
437
IaiIuro lo invosligalo vlal is nol knovn is nogIigonco
or romission of ono's ovn duly. In mallors roIaling lo
businoss affairs, ono slouId inquiro aboul llings vlicl
lo is nol acquainlod vill. If lo noods praclicaI lraining, lo
slouId undorgo lraining and sludy llings proporIy. OnIy
llon, can lo find succoss in lis businoss caroor. Mucl in
llo samo vay, roIaling lo roIigious affairs, ono slouId ask
and sook llo knovIodgo vlicl lo is Iacking. Il is, lloroforo,
ossonliaI for lim lo ask vlal is |usc|c and vlal is c|usc|c,
and so on. Bul a porson vlo las no inlorosl in llo pursuil
of knovIodgo romains carofroo and nonclaIanl.
If ono faiIs lo sook knovIodgo and llo roquirod informalion,
lo is nol knovIodgoabIo, and is IikoIy lo do llings vlicl
slouId nol lavo boon dono. Ior laving dono vrong,
sucl an uninformod porson, Iacking in llo praclico of
Dlamma, is IikoIy lo Iand in loII (Ap¯µc) aflor lis doall.
If lis robirll lakos pIaco in llo luman vorId, for laving
faiIod lo oquip limsoIf vill llo roquirod knovIodgo
and praclicaI oxporionco in |usc|c !|cmmc, lo is IikoIy lo
bocomo a, porson of immoraI claraclor. Tlis facl las aIso
boon laugll briofIy as foIIovs:
¨Duppcññcscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm scmcncm .¯ |rc|m¯ncm .¯
upcscn|cmii.¯ nc pcripucc|ii¯ |cii.¨
438
(7n) If vlal is nol undorslood is invosligalod, sludiod and
obsorvod, roIovanl knovIodgo viII bo acquirod. Wlon
ono is knovIodgoabIo, vlal is nol propor viII nol bo dono.
As a prudonl and voII informod porson, lo viII porform
llings vlicl aro onIy propor and approprialo. Ior boing
ondovod vill llo rigll knovIodgo vlicl viII causo lim
lo avoid doing oviI, lo viII bo roborn in llo abodo of Dovas
(Sugcii). If lo is roborn as a luman llrougl lis praclicaI
lraining, lo viII bo ondovod vill groal inloIIigonco. Il las
boon laugll in briof as foIIovs:
¨Mc|¯pcññcscm.ciicni|¯ cs¯ m¯nc.c pciipc!¯
µc!i!cm scmcncm .¯ |rc|m¯ncm
.¯ upcscn|cmii.¯ pcripucc|ii¯ |cii.¨
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, µc!i!cm-µc cµcm a corlain
porson, scmcncm .¯ |rc|m¯ncm .¯ upcscn|cmii.¯ ÷ aflor
approacling a Blikklu or a nobIo porsonago, pcripucc|ii¯
|cii ÷ is capabIo of making inquiry and pulling quoslions.
|sc pciipc!¯ ÷ Tlis praclico of invosligaling inlo llings
and making duo onquiry, mc|¯pcññcscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ viII
causo lo bring aboul groal visdom and ligl inloIIocl.
¨Invosligalion brings ligl inloIIigonco,¨ is llo mollo nov
composod. Tlis may bo ullorod by incorporaling il vill
llo provious mollo, as foIIovs:
439
(7) ¨Non-invosligalion causos bIind ignoranco,
Invosligalion brings ligl inloIIigonco.¨
Il moans lo say llal if invosligalion or inquiry is mado
ono bocomos liglIy inloIIigonl and viso. Tlo mannor of
making an inquiry is by vay of asking. ¨Wlal is |usc|c
and vlal is c|usc|c`¨, olc. Kusc|c is a virluous Dlamma.
Il is a fauIlIoss Dlamma vlicl may bo rogardod as
¨cnc.cjjc¨. If il is dosorving of roIianco, il slouId bo rosorlod
lo. If sucl |usc|c-!|cmmc is porformod, il vouId bring
advanlagos and lappinoss boll in llo prosonl oxislonco
and aIso llrougloul aII fuluro oxisloncos in llo rounds of
Samsãra. A|usc|c is an oviI Dlamma ÷ immoraI aclions
roolod in grood, angor and doIusion. Il viII bring oviI
offocls, and is a Dlamma nol vorlly of roIianco. If sucl
immoraI aclions voro porformod, c|usc|c-!|cmmc ui||
lavo an offocl of dragging lim dovn lo llo Apãya ÷ loII,
olc. Iurllormoro, il is bad Dlamma vlicl producos oviI
rosuIls ÷ misory in llo samo Iifolimo, in llo noxl Iifo
and in succossivo birlls llrougloul Samsãra. Honco, il
÷ bocomos ossonliaI lo knov llo dislinguisling foaluros
bolvoon |usc|c and c|usc|c. Tloso Iisloning lo llis
loacling nov gonoraIIy lavo a good knovIodgo of mosl
of llis Dlamma. Hovovor, llo difforonco bolvoon |usc|c
and c|usc|c Dlamma viII lavo lo bo oxpIainod al Ioasl in
an abbrovialod form.
44O
A|t-»|» wn|cn |- ·o. o|-|sv|·. o| s|||»·c| c
wn|cn -not|o s| »vo|o|o
A|usc|c, in briof, moans llo +i: kinds of !ucccriics. Tloso aro:
(1) P¯n¯iip¯ic ÷ Taking llo Iifo of anollor
boing, i.o. kiIIing.
(2) A!innc!¯n¯ ÷ Taking a lling or proporly
vlicl is nol givon by llo
ovnor, i.o. sloaIing or robbing.
(3) K¯mcsu-micc|¯c¯rc ÷ SoxuaI immoraIily, i.o.
unIavfuI induIgonco in
sonsuaI pIoasuros (|¯mcgun¯).
Tloso aro llo llroo immoraI plysicaI aclions or conducl
÷ '|¯µc|cmmcm'.
(1) Mus¯.¯!c ÷ ToIIing Iios or faIsolood llo
offonco of Iying.
(2) Pisun¯.¯c¯ ÷ Backbiling or sIandorous laIk.
(3) P|crusc.¯c¯ ÷ Ising abusivo Ianguago, or larsl
Ianguago, or obscono vords.
(4) Scmp|cppc|¯pc ÷ IrivoIous laIk.
Tlo abovo aro llo four vorbaI acls of misconducl caIIod
'.cci|cmmc'.
441
(1) A||ijj|¯ ÷ Covolousnoss, i.o. lo pIan or
imagino vrongfuIIy vill avarico
lo gol possossion of ollors'
proporly and voaIll.
(2) 8µ¯p¯!c ÷ Tlo offonco of 'iII-viII', i.o. pIolling
ollors' doall or doslruclion vill
an inlonlion of doing larm.
(3) Micc|¯!iii|i ÷ IaIso viov, or rallor, laving a
vrong concoplion of nol boIioving
llal lloro is llo Iav of Kcmmc by
vlicl bonofils viII bo accruod.
Tloso llroo onumoralod abovo, aro causod by llo mind
÷ 'mcnc|cmmc'.
As monlionod in llo forogoing, lloro aro +i: !ucccriics ÷
oviI or sinfuI immoraI aclions on vlicl no roIianco slouId
bo mado. Moroovor, lloso slouId aIso bo avoidod. Moro
dolaiIs roIaling lo lloso lon !ucccriics may bo roforrod lo
in llo SaIIokla Sulla Dlamma, if dosirod. Iulling il in a
nulsloII, aII aclions roIaling lo llougll, vord or spoocl,
and doods (plysicaI) vlicl causo misory and sufforings
lo ollors aro c|usc|c llal slouId bo kopl avay as boing
unroIiabIo.
442
Kt-»|» wn|cn -not|o s| s||||o t|o· c ||s|os·|o
¨Kusc|c¨, in slorl, conslilulos +i: Succcriics (rigll conducl).
Avoidanco of llroo |¯µc-!ucccriics viII causo lo bocomo
llroo |¯µc-succcriics. In llo samo mannor llo avoidanco
of or abslinonco from llo four .cci!ucccriics, and llo llroo
mcnc!ucccriics slaII bo rogardod as llo four .cci-succcriics
and llo llroo mcnc-succcriics rospoclivoIy. Tlis can bo
found in SaIIokla Sulla Dlamma.
To pul il in anollor vay, ¨|usc|c¨ moans and rofors lo
!¯nc, si|c and ||¯.cn¯. Tlo moaning of !¯nc is ¨giving¨,
gonorosily. Si|c is avoidanco of immoraI acls, incIuding
vorbaI and plysicaI misconducl or bolaviour. In facl, il
is lo avoid commilling llo llroo |¯µc-!ucccriics and llo
four .cci-!ucccriics. 8|¯.cn¯ is of lvo kinds and rofors lo
llo praclico of Scmci|c-||¯.cn¯ lo mako llo mind lranquiI,
and Vipcsscn¯ ||¯.cn¯ ÷ llo dovoIopmonl of insigll ÷ for
llo lruo roaIisalion of llo Iour NobIo Trulls.
ExpIanalion las boon givon in llo Visuddlimagga olc.,
aboul scmci|c-||¯.cn¯ by dislinguisling il inlo forly (4O)
difforonl kinds of (|cmmcii|¯ncs). Among lloso forly, llo
four Bralmavilãra (viz.: mcii¯, |crun¯, mu!ii¯ and upc|||¯)
aro aIso incIudod in addilion lo Ton kinds of Kcsinc, Ton
Asu||c, Ton Anusscii, Iour Arùpc-|cmmcii|¯nc, Ono A|¯rc
pcii|ù|csscññ¯, and Ono Cciu!|¯iu.c.ci|¯nc ÷ aII lolaIIing
443
36 kinds vlicl aro knovn as Scmci|c-|cmmcii|cnc. Ono
slouId lloroforo ask aboul any ono, or lvo or llroo or four
of llo forly (4O) kinds (modos) of Scmci|c-|cmmcii|¯nc
÷ llo roIigious oxorcisos in llo praclico of modilalion, in
ordor lo mako limsoIf cIoarIy undorslood. Hovovor, aIso
by Iisloning allonlivoIy lo llo loaclings nov boing givon
or by porusing and roading llo loxls of Dlamma vill
koon inlorosl, il vouId sorvo llo purposo. Tlis is llo vay
lo bocomo viso and liglIy inloIIigonl.
Wlal is moro imporlanl is lo undorsland fuIIy llo Vipcsscn¯-
|usc|c. Il is nocossary for ono lo approacl a porson vlo is
voII vorsod and compolonl lo givo inslruclions on lov
lo pracliso Vipassanã modilalion for llo acliovomonl of
Vipcsscn¯-|usc|c. If ono is paying allonlion lo llo loacling as
al prosonl, il vouId aIso bo adoqualo for llo purposo. Tlis
viII causo lo bring aboul visdom and good knovIodgo.
Toxls of Dlamma vlicl conlain propor guidoIinos and
inslruclions as lo lov Vipassanã slouId bo conlompIalod
in llo rigll vay viII aIso go lo sorvo llo purposo of
acquiring llo ossonliaI knovIodgo of llo Dlamma. If ono
couId arduousIy pracliso Vipassanã undor inslruclions
from llo spiriluaI loaclor boforo and during llo courso of
lraining, il vouId bo llo bosl. AIllougl I lavo oflon laugll
aboul llo mollod of conlompIaling Vipassanã, sinco llo
opporluno momonl las nov arison lo ropoal llo loacling
a briof accounl of il viII bo givon.
444
Tn| ·»··|s o| |s»c.|-|·. ·|o|.».|o· .o .»|·
\||»--»·¯-|t-»|»
Al llo prosonl limo, poopIo aro boing riddon vill llo
oviIs of c|usc|c sucl as grood, angor, olc., basod upon llo
sonsalions obviousIy arising from llo six sonso-doors
(!.¯rcs) al ovory momonl of sooing, loaring, conlacling and
knoving. Tloso lavo so lapponod for nol lruIy roaIising
llo claraclorislics of cniccc, olc. ÷ llo naluraI plonomona
llal manifosl al llo momonl of sooing, olc. Honco,
induIging in llo praclico of conlompIaling Vipassanã is
lo provonl any opporlunily for llo probabIo occurronco of
|c||c (grood), and so on. If llo lruo claraclorislics of cniccc,
!u|||c and cnciic aro roaIIy knovn, llo Dlamma llal las
boon so roaIisod viII dolor |c||c, !csc, olc., from arising.
Tlis dolorronl offocl or llo subduing of grood, angor, olc., is
causod by llo facuIly of Vipcsscn¯-|usc|c ÷ morils dorivod
from Vipassanã modilalion. Tlo roaIilios of rùpc-n¯mc
Dlamma aro conspicuous onIy for a vory briof momonl, as
and vlon lloy occur. Tlis is vly conlompIalion slouId bo
mado vliIo lloy aro in llo procoss of arising and bocoming.
OnIy vlon conlompIalion is carriod on al llo momonl of
lloir arising, llo lruo naluro of lloir claraclorislics can
bo knovn and roaIisod. I lavo composod a mollo in briof
in llis rogard. Tlis is: ¨RoaI avaronoss of llo plonomona
can lako pIaco onIy vlon conlompIalion is mado al llo
momonl of lloir arising.¨ Tlis may bo rocilod.
445
To cilo an oxampIo: A fIasl of Iigllning onIy occurs and
is soon al llo momonl il fIaslos. Tloroforo, if dosirous of
sooing llo gIoam of Iigllning, il musl bo obsorvod vliIo
il fIaslos. Tlo briIIianl Iigll is nol visibIo and nolicoabIo
aflor llo fIasl las vanislod. Nor couId il bo soon by
moro imaginalion boforo llo oIoclricily is disclargod lo
produco a fIasl caIIod Iigllning. Tlo gonuino pcrcmcii|¯
of rùpc and n¯mc is obvious onIy vlon il is in llo procoss
of arising. Wlon il las vanislod aflor arising, il no Iongor
oxisls. Boforo il arisos, il vas nol yol in oxislonco. As sucl
if il is conlompIalod aflor dissoIulion, llo roaIily or llo
lrull cannol bo knovn. AIso boforo il arisos llo lrull
cannol bo knovn by conlompIalion or imaginalion. OnIy
vlon conlompIalod vliIo il is occurring, il's lruo naluro
in ils originaIily can bo roaIisod. OnIy aflor knoving ils
plonomonaI naluro, avaronoss comos as lo lov il bogins
lo occur and lov il dissoIvos inslanlanoousIy. Tlis is
composod in a mollo vlicl may bo rocilod:
¨OnIy vlon il's lruo naluro is knovn, llo
iniliaI arising or llo boginning (u!cµc) and
finaI dissoIulion or llo ond (.cµc) can bo
porcoivod.¨
¨U!cµc¨ moans ¨arising¨ or ¨appoaranco¨. Vcµc moans
¨dissoIulion¨ or ¨disappoaranco¨. Tloroforo, il is usuaIIy
slalod as ¨arising and dissoIulion¨. Wlon avaronoss
446
bocomos slarp and aclivo vliIo conlompIaling llo
plonomonaI naluro of rùpc and n¯mc al ovory momonl
of lloir arising and dissoIulion, llo roaI pcrcmcii|¯ of
rùpc and n¯mc viII bo cIoarIy porcoivod vill insigll-
knovIodgo as lo lov lloy bogin lo occur and ond in
dissoIulion. Tlis cannol bo porcoivod and knovn by
moroIy ulloring as ¨arising and dissoIving¨. OnIy vlon
llo lrull is knovn, porsonaI knovIodgo and roaIisalion
of lloso rùpc and n¯mc aro acliovod, in facl, lloy aro
impormanonl, sinco lloy vanisl immodialoIy aflor
arising. Tlis plonomonaI occurronco is doscribod in llo
form of a mollo in briof:
¨Avaronoss of llo naluro of anicca
(impcrmcncncc) lakos pIaco onIy vlon ¨arising
and dissoIulion¨ is porcoivod by llo sonso.¨
Wlon 'cniccc' is soon and roaIisod, '!u|||c' and 'cnciic' aro
knovn. ConlompIalion of llo plonomonaI naluro of rùpc
and n¯mc vill llo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and
cnciic is llo gonuino Vipassanã modilalion. Il is lloroforo
ossonliaI lo conlompIalo and nolo conlinuousIy llo arising
plonomona of rùpc and n¯mc al ovory momonl of ¨sooing¨,
¨loaring¨, ¨conlacling¨ and ¨knoving¨, in ordor lo bring
aboul llo dovoIopmonl of gonuino Vipassanã knovIodgo.
ConlompIaling and noling as sucl is lo bo rogardod as
praclising Vipassanã modilalion.
447
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| -|||·.
Hov lo conlompIalo may bo oxpIainod as foIIovs:
Il is lo conlompIalo and nolo as ¨sooing¨, ¨sooing¨ vlon
a sonso-objocl is soon, quilo simiIar lo vlal las boon
laugll as: Gccc|cnic .¯ ÷ If vaIking, nay, vliIo vaIking,
gccc|¯miii ÷ as vaIking, pcj¯n¯ii ÷ il is knovn or lo bo
avaro of, olc. WliIo vaIking, ono is lo bocomo avaro
as ¨vaIking¨. Wlon conlompIaling and noling in llo
aforosaid mannor, avaronoss of llo lruo naluro of rùpc
and n¯mc vlicl aro manifoslod al llo momonl of sooing
viII lako pIaco. According lo llo loxl of Dlamma, llo
manifoslalions of rùpcs and n¯mcs al llo momonl of sooing
may bo slalod as:
Cc|||uñcc pciiccc rùpc cc uppcjjcii
cc|||u.iññ¯ncm iinncm scng|cii p|cssc,
p|cssc pccccµ¯ .c!cn¯.
Cc|||uñcc ÷ Ipon llo oyo aIso, pciiccc ÷ doponding, rùpc
cc ÷ upon llo visuaI objocl aIso, pciiccc ÷ doponding,
cc|||u.iññ¯ncm ÷ oyo-consciousnoss, uppcjjcii ÷ arisos
or is producod. 1inncm scng|cii ÷ Tlo llroo faclors ÷ llo
oyo, and llo knoving mind or consciousnoss, llo visuaI
448
objocl laving lakon pIaco logollor or in coaIilion, p|cssc
÷ sonsalion of loucl, p|cssc ÷ las occurrod. P|csscpccccµ¯
÷ Bocauso of llis conlacl, .c!cn¯ ÷ fooIing of sonsalion
arisos. Doponding upon llo cIoar oyo and llo visuaI objocl,
llo oyo-consciousnoss arisos. Of courso, sooing lakos pIaco
bocauso of llo prosonco of llo oyo-rùpc and llo sonso objocl
of sigll-rùpc. As sucl, al llo briof momonl of sooing, llo
oyo-rùpc is obviousIy prosonl as aIso llo sonso-objocl-rùpc,
and llo oyo-consciousnoss. An ordinary porson villoul
llo knovIodgo of Vipassanã imaginos llal llo lling llal
is soon or porcoivod is ¨I¨. Wlon good llings aro soon,
joy and lappinoss lako pIaco. Il is llougll as boing good.
SimiIarIy, llo oyo and llo vloIo body aro considorod as
boing pormanonl and pIoasurabIo as ono's ovn ¨SoIf¨ and
a Iiving onlily. Tlo objocl of sigll is aIso llougll of as boing
pormanonl, good and a Iiving onlily, an 'ciic'. Tlis is lov
pIoasurabIo allaclmonl lakos pIaco al llo limo of sooing
a sonso-objocl llal las Iifo. On llo ollor land, vlon a
IifoIoss sonso-objocl is soon, an ordinary porson viII llink
il as a maloriaI oIomonl or an objocl llal is knovn by namo
or manifoslod (pcññciii).
A Yogï vlo is conlinuousIy modilaling (i.o. conlompIaling
and noling), vlon lis scm¯!|i (conconlralion) las
bocomo slrong, ovory limo lo soos or loars lo viII nolico
dislinguislabIy llal llo oyo-rùpc and llo maloriaI visuaI
objocl aro quilo difforonl from lis porcoplion and llo
449
consciousnoss of llo mind llal conlompIalos. Tlon llo oyo,
oyo-consciousnoss, llo visuaI objocl and llo avaronoss
vlicl lavo occurrod aro aII vanisling inslanlanoousIy
aflor sooing las lakon pIaco. Tloy aro, lloroforo, roaIisod as
boing impormanonl. Tlus lloy aro considorod as ¨misory¨
vlicl cannol bo roIiod upon and aIso as ¨unpIoasurabIo¨.
Tloy aro aIso roaIisod as moroIy a plonomonon vlicl is nol
an ¨ciic¨ or a ¨Iiving onlily¨. Tloso vlo aro accompIislod
vill koon inloIIocl viII, in llo samo mannor, knov llal vlal
is soon and vlal is considorod lo bo a bad or a pIoasurabIo
sigll aro simpIy 'impormanonl', sufforing and Non-SoIf.
Tlis knovIodgo is llo roaI Vipassanã insigll ÷ knovIodgo
vlicl roaIisos and soos llo lrull llrougl llo claraclorislics
of cniccc, olc., on and aflor conlompIaling and noling al ovory
momonl of sooing. Honco, llo oxprossion ¨vii.ss.:¯¨ las
boon oxpoundod in llo commonlarios as ¨cniccc!i.cscnc¨
according lo llo inlonlion convoyod by llo usago of llo
vords ÷ cniccc, olc., .i.i!|cnc ¯|¯rcnc ÷ and according lo
various forms or claraclorislics, pcssciiii ÷ for boing abIo
lo conlompIalo and roaIiso llings, Vipcsscn¯ ÷ il is knovn
as ¨Vipassanã¨. Tlo mannor of sucl a roaIisalion in briof
is oxprossod in llo foIIoving vords. IIoaso foIIov llo
rocilalion.
¨Al llo momonl of sooing, llo oyo and
llo visibIo objocl is rùpc (mallor) vlicl
45O
doos nol knov or rallor vlicl las no
fooIing of llo sonsalion. Sooing and
knoving aro n¯mc (mind). Consciousnoss
or avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion
is aIso n¯mc. Ior laving vanislod and
coasod aIlogollor immodialoIy aflor
sooing and knoving and bocoming
conscious llrougl conlompIalion of vlal
is lapponing, il is ovidonl llal lloso aro
llo naluro of 'impormanonco', 'sufforing'
and 'Non-SoIf' (cnciic).
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| n|»s|·.
In llo caso of ordinary vorIdIings, al ovory momonl of
loaring, aII vlal is loard, llo oar-rùpc, llo organ vlicl
loars, and llo audibIo sound aro llougll of as boing
pormanonl, pIoasurabIo and good, and as an ¨ciic¨ or boing.
Tlis is c.ijj¯ ÷ ignoranco vlicl doos nol knov llo lrull
or vlal is rigll. Basod fundamonlaIIy on llis ignoranco
(c.ijj¯), misorios and sufforings sucl as scn||¯rc-.iññ¯nc,
olc., lavo occurrod.
451
Wlon a Yogi's povor of conconlralion (scm¯!|i) bocomos
slrong vliIo lo is conlompIaling and noling as ¨loaring¨,
¨loaring¨, ovory limo lo loars lo viII knov dislinguislabIy
llal llo oar organ and llo sound aro rùpc (mallor), lloy
aro difforonl from llo consciousnoss of llo sound and llo
knoving mind vlicl aro n¯mc. Tlo oar, llo audibIo sound,
llo consciousnoss of loaring, and llo knoving mind
vanislod and llon coaso immodialoIy aflor lloy aro nolod.
Ho llon knovs llal aII aro impormanonl, sufforing and
Non-SoIf by naluro. Tlis is llo gonuino Vipassanã insigll
knovIodgo vlicl las unfoIdod and llo lrull roaIisod by
llo claraclorislics of cniccc, olc.
Rocilalion may nov bo mado as foIIov:
¨Al llo momonl of loaring, llo oar
and llo sound vlicl do nol knov llo
sonsalion aro rùpc (mallor). Wlal is loard
and roaIisod is n¯mc. Consciousnoss
vlicl arisos llrougl conlompIalion
is aIso n¯mc. Ior laving vanislod and
coasod aII al onco aflor avaronoss of llo
sound llal is loard and aflor llo arising
of consciousnoss llrougl conlompIalion,
il bocomos quilo ovidonl llal lloso aro
moroIy llo naluro of ¨impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨, and ¨Non-soIf¨ (cnciic).
452
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| -·||||·.
In llo caso of ordinary vorIdIings, ovory limo an odour is
smoIl, llo sonso of smoII ÷ llo noso organ (rùpc), and llo
odour aro vrongIy llougll of as pormanonl, pIoasurabIo
and good and an 'ciic' (boing). Tlis is ignoranco (c.ijj¯) nol
knoving vlal lloy lruIy aro. Basod upon llis ignoranco,
misorios and sufforings sucl as scn||¯rc-.iññ¯nc, olc.,
occur.
A Yogï vlo is conlompIaling and noling as ¨smoIIing¨,
¨smoIIing¨ ovory limo an odour is smoIl, vlon llo povor of
lis conconlralion bocomos liglIy dovoIopod, viII como lo
knov dislinguislabIy llal llo noso and llo odour (rùpcs)
aro difforonl from llo 'smoII', and llal llo consciousnoss
of smoIIing is aIso anollor. Tloy aro knovn as boing
difforonl from ono anollor. Tlo noso, smoIIing, llo odour,
and avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion aro found lo lavo
vanislod and coasod aIlogollor aflor bocoming avaro of
vlal las lakon pIaco. Honco, roaIisalion comos llal lloso
aro by naluro 'impormanonl', 'sufforing' and 'Non-SoIf'
(cnciic). Tlis is llo gonuino Vipassanã insigll-knovIodgo
llal ponolralingIy knovs llo lrull of llo claraclorislics of
cniccc, olc.
453
Hov sucl avaronoss lakos pIaco may bo rocilod as
foIIovs:
¨Al llo momonl of smoIIing, llo noso and llo
odour aro rùpc (mallor) vlicl aro nol capabIo
of knoving llo sonsalion. Consciousnoss
vlicl knovs llo smoII is n¯mc. Avaronoss
llal lakos pIaco llrougl conlompIalion is
aIso n¯mc. Sinco aII coaso lo oxisl aII of a
suddon aflor knoving llo smoII, and aflor
bocoming avaro of il llrougl conlompIalion,
il bocomos ovidonl llal lloy aro moroIy
manifosling llo naluro of 'impormanonco',
'sufforing' and 'Non-soIf' (cnciic).
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| |».|·.
Wlal is moanl by llo oxprossion: ¨Al llo momonl oaling¨
is ¨vliIo knoving llo laslo¨. Iooking al and sooing llo
food aro roIovanl lo llo oxprossion ¨momonl of sooing¨,
or rallor, vliIo il is boing soon. HandIing or loIding llo
food, pulling llo food inlo llo moull and cloving llo
food aro onIy concornod vill ¨conlacl¨ or ¨loucl¨ vlicl
454
is laking pIaco. WliIo cloving and oaling, llo longuo llal
knovs llo fIavour or fooIs llo laslo is 'avaronoss' of oaling
llo food. Evory limo llo laslo is knovn vliIo oaling,
ordinary vorIdIings aro undor llo vrong improssion llal
avaronoss of llo laslo, llo longuo-rùpc and llo laslo ilsoIf
aro by naluro pormanonl, pIoasurabIo, good and an ciic-
boing. Tlis is ignoranco (c.ijj¯). BasicaIIy doponding upon
llis ignoranco, scn||¯rc-.iññ¯nc, olc., sucl misorios occur.
Wlon a Yogi's povor of conconlralion bocomos slrong
vliIo lo is conlompIaling and noling llo laslo as
¨knoving¨, ovory limo lo fooIs or knovs llo laslo, lo viII
dislinguislabIy knov llal llo longuo and llo laslo (rùpc)
aro quilo difforonl from lis consciousnoss of llo laslo
and llo knoving mind. Tlo longuo, consciousnoss of llo
laslo, llo laslo ilsoIf and avaronoss llal occur vanisl and
coaso lo oxisl immodialoIy aflor lloy aro nolod. Honco,
roaIisalion comos lo lim or lor llal lloso aro by lloir
innalo naluro ÷ impormanonl, sufforing and Non-soIf
(cnciic). Tlis roaIisalion is ovidonlIy llo gonuino spiriluaI
insigll-knovIodgo (.ipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc) vlicl knovs llo lrull
of llo claraclorislics of cniccc.
¨Al llo momonl of oaling and knoving, llo
longuo and llo laslo aro rùpc vlicl aro
incapabIo of knoving llo sonsalion. ¨Ealing
and knoving¨ aro n¯mc. Consciousnoss or
455
avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion is aIso
n¯mc. Aflor bocoming conscious of oaling
and bocoming avaro of vlal is laking pIaco
llrougl conlompIalion, aII immodialoIy
vanisl and coaso lo oxisl. Ior lloso roasons,
lloy aro in facl, by lloir ovn naluro
impormanonl, sufforing and Non-soIf (cnciic).¨
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| co·.»c.
Tlo oxprossion: ¨Al llo momonl of conlacl¨ (lacliIo) covors a
vory vido scopo. Wlal is soon can bo provonlod from boing
soon by cIosing llo oyos. As rogards ¨loaring¨, loaring can
bo provonlod by going lo a pIaco vloro llo sound cannol
bo loard. Consciousnoss llal arisos in smoIIing and oaling
may, of courso, occur onIy al limos. Hovovor, in rogard lo
¨conlacl¨ and llo sonso of loucl (lacliIo), by bringing ono's
mind lo bo avaro of llo vloIo plysicaI body, llo fooIing of
conlacl is obvious vlon conlacl is mado vill any parl of
llo body, or in ollor vords, vlon llo sonsalion of conlacl
porvados llo onliro body in any spaco vlalsoovor. Willoul
bringing llo mind inlo llo loarl, or rallor, villoul boing
456
conscious, lloro aro llings vlicl bocomo aulomalicaIIy
obvious of conlacl or loucl. WliIo silling, llo fooIing of
loucl in llo Iovor porlion of llo body is conspicuous. Tlo
conlacl of llo body or any parl lloroof vill cIollos is aIso
cIoarIy porcoivod by llo sonsos. Ono fooIs and knovs cIoarIy
llo conlacl llal is laking pIaco bolvoon llo looll and llo
longuo in llo moull. IIosl and bIood, olc., aro aIso found
lo bo aIvays in loucl vill oacl ollor. Wlon vaIking or
clanging llo posluro, sonso of loucl in llo bodiIy Iimbs
invoIvod in manoouvring is obvious. Evory limo broalling
is dono, llo movomonl of llo air oIomonl, llo propoIIing
forco of llo movomonls and loucl aro obvious in llo noso
and in llo boIIy or abdomon. AIso obvious aro llo conlacls
vlicl aro causod by llo condilions of loal and coId. In
connoclion vill aII sucl conlacls and loucl, llo ordinary
vorIdIings llink of llomsoIvos as lloir ovn ¨SoIf¨ Tloy
vrongIy concoivo llal consciousnoss of conlacls is laking
pIaco aIvays. Wlon good and nico conlacls or loucl aro
foIl, lloy llink of lloso as boing doIoclabIo and good.
Tloso aro orronoous concopls vioving cniccc, !u|||c and
cnciic as boing niccc, su||c and ciic. As sucl, lloso indicalo
'ignoranco' of llo lrull. Basod upon llis c.ijj¯ ÷ igncrcncc,
misorabIo condilions of scn||¯rc-.iññ¯nc, olc., occur.
A Yogï slouId conlompIalo and nolo sucl occurroncos as
¨loucling¨, ¨loucling¨, or ¨conlacling¨. In parlicuIar, vlon
vaIking, il musl bo conlinuaIIy conlompIalod and nolod
457
as: ¨vaIking¨, ¨vaIking¨, or ¨slopping vill llo rigll fool¨,
or ¨slopping vill llo Iofl fool, or ¨Iifling¨, or ¨slopping
forvard¨, or ¨dropping¨ and so on. Tlis is llo vay of
conlompIaling vill avaronoss or mindfuInoss in accord-
anco vill llo guidoIinos givon in llo Malasalipalllana
Sulla as: ¨Gccc|cnic .¯ ÷ vlon vaIking, nay, vliIo
vaIking, gccc|¯miii pcj¯n¯ii ÷ ono knovs as vaIking,
olc.¨ In llis rogard, llo mannor in vlicl consciousnoss or
avaronoss arisos by conlompIaling as ¨knovs as vaIking¨
÷ llo llroo vords as slalod, noods spociaI allonlion. Il
slouId bo knovn and undorslood as rùpc-mallor or form.
No inslruclions lavo boon givon lo conlompIalo and lo bo
avaro of il as ¨.¯µc-!|¯iu¨ convoying llo sonso of absoIulo
lrull or roaIily (pcrcmcii|¯). NovorlloIoss, vliIo ovon
conlompIaling and noling as ¨vaIking¨, olc., oxprossod
in llroo vords as oarIior slalod, a Yogï viII knov and
bocomo avaro of llo prossuro of sliffnoss and llo pusling
forco vlicl signify llo naluro of movomonl or of llo
clanging posluro. AIso, vlon slanding and so on, vliIo
conlompIaling and noling as ¨slanding¨, ¨silling¨, ¨Iying
dovn¨, ¨bonding¨, ¨slrolcling¨, ¨slaking¨, ¨clanging¨,
olc., llo lruo naluro of .¯µc-!|¯iu, llo oIomonl of molion or
air oIomonl viII bo lruIy knovn and roaIisod.
Noxl, vlon conlompIaling and noling as ¨rising¨ and
¨faIIing¨, in Iino vill llo llroo oxprossivo vords of
inslruclion, al ovory momonl of llo arising and faiIing
458
movomonls of llo abdomon, llo lruo claraclorislics of llo
.¯µc-!|¯iu llal propoI and ÷ causo sliffnoss and molion
viII bo vividIy knovn. Tloro is ono pocuIiar foaluro vliIo
conlompIaling llo ¨rising and faIIing¨, llal is, al llo ond
of llo procoss of llo rising movomonl of llo abdomon,
¨faIIing¨ bogins lo lako pIaco. In llo samo mannor, vlon
¨faIIing¨ comos lo an ond, il bogins lo riso again. Tloro is
no inlorvaI or broak in llis procoss of rising and faIIing as
in llo caso of ¨silling¨ or ¨conlacling¨. ConlompIaling and
noling slouId bo carriod on as ¨faIIing¨ llo momonl ¨rising¨
las ondod, and .icc .crsc. As conlinuous conlompIalion
and noling aro mado as sucl, mindfuInoss llal occurs
boforo and aflor llo conlinuing procoss, and conconlralion
(scm¯!|i) vlicl occurs boforo and aflor, boing conjoinod
or cIosoIy knillod, and inasmucl as scm¯!|i is gainod,
Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc ÷ Insigll-KnovIodgo viII occur. Tlis is llo
pocuIiar foaluro in conlompIaling llo naluraI plonomona
of ¨rising¨ and ¨faIIing¨ movomonls of llo abdomon.
Hovovor, il is nol llal onIy ¨rising and faIIing¨ slouId
bo conlompIalod and nolod. WliIo conlompIalion and
noling is boing carriod on as ¨rising¨ and ¨faIIing¨,
imaginalion llal occurs slouId aIso bo nolod as
¨imagining¨, ¨sliffnoss¨, ¨lolnoss¨, ¨pain¨, if manifoslod,
slouId aIso bo conlompIalod and nolod as and vlon lloy
occur. Any clango in posluro, if dono, slouId nol oscapo
nolico by conlompIalion. ¨Hoaring¨ and ¨sooing¨ vlicl
459
occur al llo momonl nood aIso bo conlompIalod and
nolod. In llo absonco of anylling in parlicuIar vlicl is
lo bo conlompIalod and nolod, il slouId bo rovorlod lo llo
conlompIalion and noling of ¨rising¨ and ¨faIIing¨.
Tlo propoIIing forco, sliffnoss and ollor plysicaI
movomonls llal lako pIaco during conlompIalion and
noling aro llo naluro of .¯µc-!|¯iu. Consciousnoss or
avaronoss of llo conlacl or loucl llal occurs is |¯µc-
.iññ¯nc. Wloro llo sonso of conlacl rosidos is |¯µcpcs¯!c
÷ organs of sonso or llo inlornaI proporlios of llo body.
Al ovory limo of conlompIaling and noling as ¨rising¨
and ¨faIIing¨, sliffnoss or dislonlion, or conlraclion, or
propoIIing, or molion, or sonso of loucl, or llo objocls of
sonso llal aro inloronl in llo body, aro cIoarIy porcoivod.
Wlon llo knovIodgo of conconlralion (scm¯!|i) bocomos
slrong and slabiIisod, llo form of rising, avaronoss
llrougl conlompIalion, form of faIIing, and consciousnoss
llal arisos, aro dislinguislabIy knovn as boing difforonl
from ono anollor.
Honco, al llo momonl of llo arising consciousnoss of
conlacl, il is dislinguislabIy knovn llal vlal is in conlacl
vill llo body is rùpc vloroas llo sonsalion of conlacl
and knoving llrougl conlompIalion aro n¯mc. SimiIarIy,
al llo momonl of vaIking and laking a slop, llo bodiIy
movomonl is rùpc, and moro avaronoss of conlacl and
46O
llo consciousnoss llal arisos by conlompIalion is n¯mc.
Tloso aro aIso knovn dislinguislabIy. WliIo bonding or
slrolcling, llo maloriaI body, llo sliffnoss in llo body and
ils movomonls aro rùpc. Avaronoss and consciousnoss
llal occur aro n¯mc. Tloso aro dislinguislabIy knovn.
In a briof momonl of noling as ¨rising and faIIing¨, llo
body ilsoIf, sliffnoss and movomonls vlicl lako pIaco
aro rùpc. Avaronoss and consciousnoss of vlal is laking
pIaco is n¯mc. Tlal is aIso dislinguislabIy knovn. Wlon
llo knovIodgo of conconlralion (scm¯!|i-ñ¯nc) bocomos
liglIy dovoIopod, vlal is knovn and llo knoving mind
lavo coasod and vanislod aIlogollor immodialoIy aflor llo
occurronco. Honco, lloso aro lruIy knovn as llo naluro of
¨impormanonco¨, ¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨ (cnciic). Tlis
is llo roaI spiriluaI knovIodgo of insigll (Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc)
vlicl roaIisos llo lrull of llo claraclorislics of cniccc, olc.
Tlo foIIoving may bo rocilod.
¨Al llo momonl of avaronoss of llo
conlacl, vlal is conlaclod vill llo body
and knovn is rùpc vlicl, in facl, doos
nol knov llo sonsalion. Consciousnoss of
llo conlacl is n¯mc. Avaronoss llrougl
conlompIalion is n¯mc. Bocauso of llo
cossalion and disappoaranco of llo monlaI
plonomona immodialoIy foIIoving llo
arising consciousnoss of conlacl and
461
avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion, lloso aro
cIoarIy porcoivod as llo claraclorislics of
¨impormanonco¨, ¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨
(cnciic).¨
¨Al llo momonl of vaIking, llo movomonl
of llo body is rùpc vlicl doos nol knov
llo sonsalion. Conlacling, knoving and
avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion is
n¯mc. Sinco lloso coaso lo oxisl and vanisl
immodialoIy aflor conlacling, knoving
and bocoming avaro of il llrougl
conlompIalion, lloso aro moroIy llo naluro of
¨impormanonco¨, ¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨
(cnciic).
¨Al llo momonl of ¨rising and faIIing¨, llo
bodiIy movomonl is rùpc vlicl doos nol
knov llo sonsalion. Conlacling, knoving
and avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion
is n¯mc. Sinco aII lloso coaso lo oxisl
and vanisl immodialoIy aflor conlacling,
knoving and bocoming avaro of il llrougl
conlompIalion, lloso aro moroIy llo naluro of
¨impormanonco¨, ¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨
(cnciic).¨
462
Co·.|·||».|·. c ·o.|·. c now co·-c|ot-·|-- »s|-|-
». .n| ·o·|·. o| |·».|·|·. c |·ow|·.
Allaclmonl lo llo llougll or imaginalion llal arisos is
inlonso vlon ono llinks liglIy of limsoIf as ono's ovn soIf
or a Iiving onlily. Tlis imaginalion and llo knoving mind
aro llougll of as boing aIvays pormanonl and ovor Iasling
llrougloul a Iifolimo. Imaginalion runs riol and aclion
lakon lo dovolo lo llo vork of pIanning and imagining
according lo ono's visl is considorod as boing good and
pIoasurabIo. Tlis is moro ignoranco vill an orronoous
concoplion llal aII sucl llings aro niccc (pormanonl), su||c
and ciic. AIso, basod upon llis faIso viov (ignoranco),
misorios sucl as scn||¯rc-.iññ¯nc, olc., occur.
To bo abIo lo dispoI llis ignoranco (c.ijj¯), conlompIalion
and noling slouId bo mado ovory limo imaginalion
occurs in llo mind. WliIo conlompIaling and noling
as ¨rising¨, and ¨faIIing¨, olc., if imaginalion croops in,
il musl bo conlompIalod as ¨imagining¨ or ¨pIanning¨.
Tlis amounls lo saying llal llo arising consciousnoss of
imaginalion and avaronoss slouId bo conlompIalod and
nolod. Evory limo sucl consciousnoss arisos, il viII bo
knovn and roaIisod llal llo body-rùpc is ono, imagining
and knoving is anollor and llal consciousnoss is difforonl
from llo ollor lvo. Tloso aro dislinguislabIy knovn as
463
sucl. Tlo sonsalion of imaginalion and ils avaronoss las
llo oIomonl of rùpc (mallor) as voII as llo naluro of n¯mc
(llo mind) vill ils concomilanls ÷ llo monlaI formalions.
Il las lloroforo pcññciii, sucl as namo and appoaranco.
Honco, llis sonsalion vlicl is knovn, cannol bo said vill
corlainly as oxaclIy rùpc (mallor). Moroovor, llo body-rùpc,
imaginalion llal knovs, and avaronoss or consciousnoss
gainod llrougl conlompIalion lavo aII vanislod and
coasod inslanlanoousIy aflor boing nolod. Tloso aro,
lloroforo, knovn as laving llo naluro of impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨ (cnciic). Tlis is llo gonuino
spiriluaI insigll-knovIodgo caIIod Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc vlicl
las llo facuIly of knoving llo lrull of llo claraclorislics
of cniccc, olc.
´Al llo momonl of imagining and knoving,
llo baso on vlicl imaginalion and llo
knoving mind or consciousnoss rosl is
rùpc. Tlo acl of imagining and knoving,
and avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion is
n¯mc. Tloso aro onIy mado up of lvo kinds,
viz.: Rùpc and n¯mc. Tloso lvo oplomoraI
llings immodialoIy vanisl and coaso aflor
imagining and knoving, and aflor avaronoss
llrougl conlompIalion. Ior llis roason, lloso
aro moroIy llo naluro of ¨impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-SoIf¨ (cnciic).¨
464
Il is Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc vlicl conlompIalos and knovs llo
obvious plonomonaI condilions occurring al llo momonl
of imagining and knoving, ovory limo mcii¯ is dovoIopod
by rociling ¨May aII boings bo lappy¨, vliIo Iisloning
lo llo sormon. WliIo conlompIaling as sucl, vlal is
brougll lo llo mind and llo viIIingnoss lo rocilo is
n¯mc. Rocilalion mado and llo sound producod is rùpc.
Avaronoss llrougl conlompIalion is aIso n¯mc. Tloso
rùpc and n¯mc lavo vanislod and coasod vliIo rociling
vill llo conscious mind and vliIo avaronoss llrougl
conlompIalion is laking pIaco. Having llus vanislod
and coasod, roaIisalion occurs llal lloso aro llo naluraI
plonomona vlicl aro impormanonl, sufforing and Non-
soIf (cnciic). Tlis knovIodgo or roaIisalion is llo gonuino
spiriluaI insigll visdom caIIod Vipcsscn¯-ñ¯nc vlicl lruIy
knovs llo claraclorislics of cniccc, !u|||c and cnciic.
Wisling lo rocilo ¨May aII boings bo lappy¨ is n¯mc.
Tlo rocilalion mado and llo sound producod is rùpc.
ConlompIaling and noling lloso plonomonaI occurroncos
aro n¯mc. Tloro aro onIy lvo consliluonls ÷ rùpc and n¯mc.
Tloso rùpc and n¯mc laving coasod lo oxisl and vanislod
aII al onco aro roaIisod as llo naluro of ¨impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨ (cnciic).
Wlal vo lavo nov rocilod indicalo llo mannor of
dovoIoping mcii¯ and of conlompIaling Vipassanã, and
465
lov lloy aro porcoivod and knovn. Tlo mannor of
dovoIoping |crun¯ and of conlompIaling Vipassanã and
lov porcoplion and roaIisalion lako pIaco may again bo
rocilod.
¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from misory.¨
Tlo visl lo Iol llom oscapo from misory and llo
viIIingnoss lo rocilo aro n¯mc. Tlo rocilalion and llo
sound producod aro rùpc. ConlompIaling and noling llom
aro n¯mc. Tloso compriso onIy rùpc and n¯mc. Tloso rùpc
and n¯mc laving vanislod and coasod immodialoIy aro by
naluro impormanonl, sufforing and Non-soIf (cnciic).
Wo slaII nov conlinuo lo rocilo lov roaIisalion lakos
pIaco, lov mu!ii¯ is dovoIopod, and aIso lov Vipassanã
is conlompIalod.
¨May aII boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll
and prosporily vill diminulion.¨
¨May lloy bo abIo lo accompIisl lloir voaIll
and prosporily, and bo aIso lappy as boforo.¨
Tlo fooIing of goodviII and rojoicing and llo viIIingnoss
lo rocilo aro n¯mc. Tlo rocilalion and llo sound producod
aro rùpc. ConlompIaling and noling llom aro aIso n¯mc.
Tloso rùpc and n¯mc aro onIy lloso llal oxisl. As lloso rùpc
466
and n¯mc lavo vanislod and coasod aII al onco, lloy aro
lo bo undorslood as laving llo naluro of ¨impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf¨ (cnciic).
Kt-»|» wn|cn -not|o s| s||||o t|o· c ||s|os·|o
(co·.|·t».|o·)
Wlal lavo nov boon slalod aro lloso |usc|c-!|cmmc vlicl
nood bo quoslionod. IncIudod among lloso acls of |usc|c
aro Scmci|c-||¯.cn¯-|usc|c and Vipcsscn¯-|usc|c caIIod
mcii¯, |crun¯ and mu!ii¯, vill an oxpIanalion as lo lov
lloso aro dorivod. Immonso morils lavo boon dorivod by
you aII for laving Iislonod lo llo loaclings roIaling lo llo
said |usc|c-!|cmmc. You lavo aIso porsonaIIy undorslood
lloso Dlamma and lavo gainod llo roquisilo knovIodgo
in Dlamma. Tlo knovIodgo viII bo onlancod and llo
fruils lloroof viII ripon in fuluro. Tlo advanlagos vlicl
viII accruo lo you lavo boon oxpIainod by llo Buddla in
llo foIIoving mannor:
M¯nc.c ÷ O, Subla, llo Iad, cs¯ pciipc!¯ ÷ quoslions
pul as lo vlal is moanl by c|usc|c` Wlal aro said lo
bo |usc|c, and llo ansvors llorolo laving boon loard,
llo praclico of noling and rolaining llom in momory,
mc|¯pcññcscm.ciicni|¯ ÷ viII causo lo bring visdom and
ligl inloIIocluaI povor.
467
|:.n. In llis spaco, lo avoid ropolilion, llo sovon
quoslions raisod by Subla, llo Iad, aro omillod,
sinco lloso lavo boon monlionod oarIior.]
Tloso sovon (7) kinds, broadIy spoaking fourloon (14) kinds,
aro llo bad and good rosuIls or offocls duo lo immoraI and
moraI aclions vlicl lavo boon porsonaIIy dono by llo
Iiving boings. Tloso rosuIlanl offocls, good or bad, aro nol
llo croalion of anybody. Tloso aro llo aclions or |cmmc
dono in formor oxisloncos. Tloso aro lo bo oxpIainod in
lorms of llo prosonl |cmmc.
lx||»·».|o· .|v|· |· .n| ||.n. o| .n| |s|-|·. K»··»
(2) If ono doos nol caro for lis ovn loaIll villoul
laking roguIar plysicaI oxorciso and villoul laking
vloIosomo food vlicl viII givo lim nourislmonl, lo
may bo affIiclod vill loaIll probIoms. InduIgonco in
sporl aclivilios and Iiving on a baIancod diol avoiding
food vlicl is nol loaIll-giving aro conducivo lo good
loaIll. Tloro is possibiIily of doing so onIy if lo las no
groal c|usc|c-|cmmc.
(4) |i] Doing clarily or aIms-giving, |ii] GonlIo-
noss in spoocl ÷ spoaking svool vords of affoclion,
468
|iii] Rondoring assislanco lo ollors for lloir voIfaro,
|iv] Troaling and bofrionding ollors as lis oquaI, or
rallor, on oquaI fooling. Tloso four kinds of nobIo
conducl viII bring aboul many allondanls and loIpors
in llo prosonl Iifolimo. Tloso aro llo loaclings of
llo Iord Buddla, llo EnIigllonod Ono. If lloso four
scn||¯rc-!|cmmc aro praclisod and fuIIy accompIislod,
ono is IikoIy lo lavo a Iargo numbor of allondanls and
numorous frionds. If il is dono lo llo conlrary, ono viII
lavo fov allondanls and frionds.
(5) Iraclico llal viII Ioad lo bocomo opuIonl las boon
oxpIainod in four kinds of accompIislmonls, namoIy
llo Iour Scmpc!¯(s). Tloso aro |i] Uii|¯ncscmpc!¯
÷ accompIislmonl of manIy vigour and porsovoranco
i.o.lo porform llo vork or dulios roIaling lo lis businoss
or occupalion vill propor knovIodgo and oxporionco,
and aIso vill loarl and souI, |ii] Arc|||cscmpc!¯ ÷ lo
prolocl lis ovn proporly and voaIll from doslruclion,
|iii] Kc|µ¯nc-mciici¯ ÷ lo lavo good frionds and cIoso
acquainlancos, |iv] Scmcji.ii¯ ÷ lo Iivo villin ono's ovn
moans, i.o. lo bo modosl in llo vay of Iiving villoul
boing oxlravaganl. By Iiving in conformily vill lloso
Iour IrincipIos of Conducl, ono can bocomo voaIlly
and opuIonl. If nol fabuIousIy ricl, lo can bo modoraloIy
voaIlly. Conlravonlion of lloso four principIos of conducl
viII suroIy mako ono poor.
469
(6) In rogard lo llo, mallor of Iacking in knovIodgo
and allainmonl of ligl inloIIocl, monlion las aIroady
boon mado oarIior. (1) Causo of slorl and Iong Iifo in llo
prosonl Iifolimo las boon incIudod lo somo oxlonl in llo
oxpIanalion givon roIaling lo llo causo for poor loaIll
and good loaIll in numbor (2). As rogards numbor (3), in
llo mallor of causing ugIinoss and landsomonoss in llo
prosonl Iifo oxislonco, lloro is nolling mucl lo bo said.
In rogard lo (6), Iov or ligl birll in llo prosonl Iifolimo,
lloro is lardIy anylling lo bo monlionod. Hovovor,
according lo limos or circumslancos, if ondoavour is
mado vill llo slrongll of voaIll, companions and
frionds, good inloIIigonco and oducalion, vill a viov
lo oarning rospocl, modosl acliovomonl can bo roaIisod
villin llo bounds of possibiIily.
As slalod in llo forogoing, aII boings aro condilionod
by lloir ovn aclions of llo pasl and prosonl according
lo circumslancos, lappinoss, bad or good rosuIlanl
offocls viII bo brougll by lloir ovn |cmmc, immoraI
or moraI. Good |cmmc viII produco good offocl, and
bad |cmmc viII produco oviI offocl. Tlal is llo Iav of
|cmmc lo vlicl aII boing aro subjoclod. Il is nobody's
doing and cannol bo ropairod or avoidod. Man limsoIf
is rosponsibIo for lis ovn misory or lappinoss. No ono
can croalo llo condilions of llo Iifo of a boing, il is lis
ovn doing.
47O
K»··» c |.- ||||c.- ÷ cs|.|c»| co··|·. |· co·c|t-|o·
¨Sc||c scii¯ ÷ AII boings, |cmmcssc|¯ ÷ lavo lloir ovn indi-
viduaI |cmmc, good and bad aclions as lloir ovn porsonaI
proporly. Sucl aclions may bo monlaI or vorbaI or plysicaI,
llouglls, vords and doods, dono by llomsoIvos.¨ Tlis las
boon accordingIy laugll by llo Buddla. A mollo las boon
composod (rocilod oarIior), and llis may nov bo ropoalod:
¨Door of oviI viII gallor oviI,
Door of good viII roap good.¨
¨Il's |cmmc, llo IIannor, llal impIomonls boll oviI
and good, making ono suffor pain and gain pIoasuro.¨
Aflor laving loard llis !cscn¯, Subla, llo Iad, look lis
rofugo in llo Tlroo }ovoIs of Buddlism, and bocamo
a Buddlisl. RoIaling lo llis upc|||¯-||¯.cn¯, llo
fundamonlaI poinl slrossod is llal misory, lappinoss, bad
and good rosuIlanl offocls cannol bo ropairod, croalod or
brougll aboul by anyono. Tloso lavo lapponod according
lo ono's ovn individuaI |cmmc. Il is lloroforo roquirod
of a nobIo porson lo romain indifforonl lo llo pains and
pIoasuros vlicl lo may como across. No vorry or spiril
of goodviII nood bo borno or oxorcisod in favour of any
ollor porson visling lim lo bo voaIlly, loaIlly, and frood
from misory and lo bo lappy as boforo. If ono is vorriod,
471
ono viII bocomo lirosomo for nolling. Kcmmcssc|c ÷
OnIy |cmmc is ono's ovn porsonaI proporly in possossion.
Tloroforo, ono slouId lavo a fooIing of indifforonco
lo aII boings vlo aro oillor sufforing from misory or
onjoying lappinoss olc. according lo ono's ovn kammic
circumslancos. Iol us nov rocilo as foIIovs in dovoIoping
¨upc|||¯¨ vill aII mindfuInoss vlicl viII aIso incIudo llo
mannor of roaIisalion llrougl conlompIalion and noling.
´AII boings lavo onIy |cmmc as lloir ovn
porsonaI proporly in possossion. Tlings aro
laking pIaco according lo varying circumslancos.
Tlis indifforonl alliludo and viIIingnoss lo
rocilo aro n¯mc. Rocilalion and llo sound (voico)
aro rùpc. ConlompIalion and noling llom aro
n¯mc. OnIy rùpc and n¯mc aro lloro. Tloso rùpc
and n¯mc laving vanislod and coasod aII al,
onco aro moroIy llo naluro of ¨impormanonco¨,
¨sufforing¨ and ¨Non-soIf' (cnciic).
WoaIll and lappinoss aro duo lo |cmmc. Sufforing and
misory aro aIso duo lo |cmmc. OnIy |cmmc is ono's ovn
porsonaI proporly. Ono las ono's ovn |cmmc vlicl
producos ils offocl. By dovoIoping upc|||¯ vill indifforonco
lovards ollors, il couId bring monlaI roIiof and lappinoss
vlon misforluno, misory or sufforing lako pIaco. Bringing
inlo ono's ovn mind llal ovorylling vlicl lappons
472
is basod upon |cmmc is nol onIy fauIlIoss or bIamoIoss,
bul aIso givos roIiof from monlaI dislross ovon in llo
prosonl Iifolimo. Ior laving avoidod c|usc|c and laving
dovoIopod |usc|c-|cmmc lo llo bosl of ono's ovn abiIily lo
gain roIianco in fuluro oxisloncos, ono couId oxpocl lo gain
lappinoss and prosporily in oxisloncos lo como. If il is nol
praclisod in llo said mannor, angor may ariso bocauso
of misory vlicl viII lloroby causo c|usc|c in finding
fauIl vill ollors vlon sucl misorabIo condilions occur.
Honco, llo bosl courso of aclion, is lo mako llo doclrino of
|cmmc a parl of our Iivos and lo viov llings as lapponing
according lo ono's ovn |cmmc (|cmmcssc|c) and lloroforo
boyond ono's conlroI. Tlis framo of mind viII bring monlaI
roIiof. Il is puro and lruo, and llo bosl.
ExpIanalion roIaling lo llo dovoIopmonl of upc|||¯ las
boon fuIIy rondorod. Wo slaII concIudo llis porlion of llo
Dlamma by rociling llo molloos roIovanl lo llo Toaclings,
vlicl run as: ¨Kcmmcssc|c ÷ OnIy |cmmc is ono's ovn
porsonaI proporly in possossion.¨
(1) KiIIing ollors causos slorl Iifo,
Abslinonco from kiIIing brings Iong Iifo.
(2) Ho vlo iII-lroals is bocomos disoasod, vloroas,
Compassion brings good loaIll.
473
(3) Angor causos ugIinoss,
Ialionco brings boauly.
(4) Envy ropoIs allondanls and loIpors,
GoodviII brings forll rolinuo in Iargo numbors.
(5) Rofraining from making clarily causo oxlromo povorly,
Clarily brings voaIll and prosporily.
(6) Rudonoss causos Iov birll,
Rospocl brings ligl birll.
(7) Non-invosligalion causos bIind ignoranco,
Invosligalion brings ligl inloIIigonco.
(8) Door of oviI viII gallor oviI,
Door of good viII roap good.
(9) Il's Kamma, llo IIannor, llal impIomonls boll oviI
and good, making, ono suffor pain or gain lappinoss.
AII boings lavo onIy Kamma as lloir ovn porsonaI
proporly.
Misory and lappinoss lako pIaco according lo ono's
ovn |cmmc.
By dovoIoping 'upc|||¯' ÷ oquanimily, ono vlo las acliov-
od llo Tlird j|¯nc can allain, llo Iourll j|¯nc connoclod
474
vill upc|||¯. Tlis las boon aIroady slalod. Ordinary
vorIdIings vlo lavo nol acliovod any j|¯nc', vlon
porsonaIIy facod vill dislross and misory or vlon ollor
acquainlancos of lim aro in misory, slouId rofIocl upon llo
!cscn¯ vlicl says: ¨Sc||c scii¯ |cmmcssc|c¨ and imagino
llal aII boings lavo onIy |cmmc, good and bad aclions
dono by llomsoIvos as lloir ovn proporly in possossion,
and llal |cmmc boing llo arclilocl of lloir ovn falo,
poopIo aro affIiclod vill disoasos, misory, povorly and so
forll. Tlon onIy viII ono bo monlaIIy roIiovod.
Tlo loaclings on aII llo four Bralmavilãra vlicl las boon
dono quilo comprolonsivoIy onds loro. I viII finisl llo
loaclings by making somo rocilalions roIaling lo lov lloso
four kinds of Bralmavilãra Dlamma aro lo bo dovoIopod:
(1) ¨May aII boings bo froo from dangor, monlaI
dislross, plysicaI dislross, and bo abIo lo slouIdor
lloir ovn burdon of ||cn!|c vill lappinoss.¨
(2) ¨May aII boings bo Iiboralod from misory vlicl
lloy aro prosonlIy sufforing.¨
(3) ¨May aII boings bo abIo lo rolain lloir voaIll and
prosporily Wlicl lloy lavo acquirod, villoul
diminulion, and may conlinuo lo bo prosporous
and lappy as boforo.¨
475
(4) ¨May aII boings lavo onIy |cmmc (good and bad
aclions, voIilionaIIy dono by llom) as lloir ovn
porsonaI proporly.¨
Co·c|t-|o· c B||--|·.
May aII lloso porsons of virluo vlo lavo assombIod loro
and laving rospoclfuIIy Iislonod lo llis Bralmavilãra
Dlamma vill allonlivonoss, bo aIvays froo from aII
dangors, bo abIo lo conlompIalo and nolo vill faill and
dovolion llo lruo naluro of rùpc-n¯mc-!|cmmc occurring
in lloir ovn Iiving ||cn!|c, and spoodiIy allain Nibbãna
llrougl llo mucl covolod knovIodgo of llo pall and
fruilion, mcggc-p|c|c-ñ¯nc.
S.tnt! S.tnt! S.tnt!
Tn.:si.+it nv U Mi: Svi (Mi: Kv.v Tnt)
Liic+nc:ic.iiv itniisnit
nv
Btttn. Dn.nx. Lttc.+ic: Asscci.+ic: I:c.
I.O. Bcx K1O2O H.vx.nii+ NSW 2OOO Svt:iv, Ats+n.ii.
476
Vi:in.nii M.n¯si S.v¯t.v ci Btnx.
A BingraphicaI Skctch
Tlo Ialo VonorabIo Malasi Sayadav vas born in llo yoar 19O4 al
Soikklun, a Iargo, prosporous and clarming viIIago Iying aboul
sovon miIos lo llo vosl of llo lisloric Slvobo lovn in Ippor
Burma. His paronls, poasanl propriolors by occupalion, voro
I Kan Tav and Dav Oko. Al llo ago of six lo vas sonl lo rocoivo
lis oarIy monaslic oduclion undor I Adicca, prosiding monk
of Iyinmana Monaslory al Soikklun. Six yoars Ialor, lo vas
inilialod inlo llo monaslic Ordor as a novico (samanora) undor
llo samo loaclor and givon llo namo of Slin Soblana (vlicl
moans Auspicious). Tlo namo bofillod lis couragoous foaluros
and lis dignifiod bolaviour.
477
Ho vas a brigll pupiI, making romarkabIy quick progross in lis
scripluraI sludios. Wlon I Adicca Iofl llo Ordor, Slin Soblana
conlinuod lis sludios undor Sayadav I Iarama of Tlugyi-
kyaung Monaslory, Ingyinlav-laik. Al llo ago of ninoloon lo lad
lo docido vlollor lo conlinuo in llo Ordor and dovolo llo rosl
of lis Iifo lo llo sorvico of llo Buddla Sasana or lo rolurn lo Iay
Iifo. Slin Soblana knov vloro lis loarl Iay and unlosilalingIy
closo llo firsl courso. Ho vas ordainod as a Blikklu on llo 26ll
of Novombor 1923, Sumodla Sayadav Aslin NimmaIa acling as
lis procoplor. Willin four yoars Von. Soblana passod aII llroo
grados of llo IaIi scripluraI oxaminalions conduclod by llo
Govornmonl.
Von. Soblana noxl vonl lo llo cily of MandaIay, nolod for ils
pro-ominonco in Buddlisl Ioarning, lo pursuo advancod sludy
of llo scripluros undor Sayadavs voII-knovn for lloir Ioarning.
His slay al Klinmakan-vosl Monaslory for llis purposo vas,
lovovor, cul slorl aflor IillIo moro llan a yoar vlon lo vas
caIIod lo MouImoin. Tlo load of llo Taik-kyaung monaslory
in TaungvainggaIo (vlo camo from llo samo viIIago as Von.
Soblana) vanlod lim lo assisl vill llo loacling of lis pupiIs.
WliIo loacling al TaungvainggaIo, Von. Soblana vonl on vill
lis ovn sludios of llo scripluros, boing ospociaIIy inloroslod
in llo Malasalipalllana Sulla. His dooponing inlorosl in llo
salipalllana mollod of vipassana modilalion look lim noxl lo
noiglbouring Tlalon vloro llo voII-knovn Mingun }olavan
Sayadav vas loacling il. Indor llo Mingun }olavan Sayadav's
478
inslruclion, Von. Soblana look up inlonsivo praclico of vipassana
modilalion. Willin four monlls lo lad sucl good rosuIls llal
lo couId loacl il proporIy lo lis firsl llroo discipIos al Soikklun
vliIo lo vas on a visil lloro in 1938. Aflor lis rolurn from Tlalon
lo TaungvainggaIo (oving lo llo gravo iIInoss and subsoquonl
doall of llo agod Taik-kyaung Sayadav) lo rosumo lis loacling
vork and lo lako clargo of llo monaslory, Von. Soblana sal for
and passod vill dislinclion llo Govornmonl-loId Dlammacariya
(Toaclor of llo Dlamma) oxaminalion in }uno 1941.
On llo ovo of llo }apanoso invasion of Burma, Von. Soblana
lad lo Ioavo TaungvainggaIo and rolurn lo lis nalivo Soikklun.
Tlis vas a voIcomo opporlunily for lim lo dovolo limsoIf
vloIoloarlodIy lo lis ovn praclico of salipalllana vipassana
modilalion and lo loacling il lo a groving numbor of discipIos.
Tlo Malasi Monaslory al Soikklun (vlonco lo bocamo knovn
as Malasi Sayadav) forlunaloIy romainod froo from llo lorror
and disruplion of var. During llis poriod llo Sayadav's discipIos
provaiIod upon lim lo vrilo llo 'ManuaI of Vipassana Modilalion',
an aullorilalivo and comprolonsivo vork oxpounding boll llo
doclrinaI and praclicaI aspocls of salipalllana modilalion.
Il vas nol Iong boforo llo Malasi Sayadav's ropulalion as a
skiIIod modilalion loaclor lad sproad llrougloul llo Slvobo-
Sagaing rogion and camo lo llo allonlion of a dovoul and voaIlly
Buddlisl, Sir I Tlvin. I Tlvin vanlod lo promolo llo Buddla
Sasana by solling up a modilalion conlro diroclod by a loaclor
479
of provon virluo and abiIily. Aflor Iisloning lo a discourso on
vipassana givon by llo Sayadav and obsorving lis sorono and
nobIo domoanour, Sir I Tlvin lad no difficuIly in dociding llal
llo Malasi Sayadav vas llo modilalion loaclor lo lad boon
Iooking for.
On llo 13ll of Novombor 1947, llo Buddlasasana Nuggala
Associalion vas foundod al Rangoon vill Sir I Tlvin as ils firsl
Irosidonl, and vill scripluraI Ioarning and llo praclico of llo
Dlamma as ils objocl. Sir I Tlvin donalod lo llo Associalion a
pIol of Iand in Hormilago Road, Rangoon, moasuring ovor fivo
acros, for llo oroclion of llo proposod modilalion conlro. In 1978,
llo Conlro occupiod an aroa of 19.6 acros, on vlicl a vasl compIox
of buiIdings and ollor slrucluros lad boon buiIl. Sir I Tlvin
loId llo Associalion llal lo lad found a roIiabIo modilalion
loaclor and proposod llal llo llon Irimo Minislor of Burma
invilo Malasi Sayadav lo llo Conlro.
Aflor llo Socond WorId War, llo Sayadav aIlornalod lis
rosidonco bolvoon lis nalivo Soikklun and TaungvainggaIo
in MouImoin. MoanvliIo, Burma lad rogainod indopondonco
on 4ll }anuary 1948. In May 1949, during ono of lis sojourns al
Soikklun, llo Sayadav compIolod a nov nissaya lransIalion of
llo Malasalipalllana Sulla. Tlis vork oxcoIs llo avorago nissaya
lransIalion of llis Sulla, vlicl is vory imporlanl for lloso vlo
visl lo pracliso vipassana modilalion bul nood guidanco.
48O
In Novombor of llal yoar, on llo porsonaI invilalion of llo
llon Irimo Minislor, I Nu, Malasi Sayadav camo dovn from
Slvobo and Sagaing lo llo Sasana Yoiklla (Modilalion Conlro)
al Rangoon, accompaniod by lvo sonior Sayadavs. Tlus bogan
Malasi Sayadav's guardianslip of llo Sasana Yoiklla al Rangoon.
On 4ll Docombor 1949 Malasi Sayadav porsonaIIy inslruclod
llo vory firsl balcl of lvonly-fivo modilalors in llo praclico of
vipassana. As llo modilalors grov in numbors, il bocamo loo
domanding for llo Sayadav lo givo llo onliro inilialion laIk lo
aII llo modilalors. Irom }uIy 1951 llo lapo-rocordod laIk vas
pIayod for oacl nov balcl of modilalors vill a briof inlroduclion
by llo Sayadav. Willin a fov yoars of llo oslabIislmonl of llo
Sasana Yoiklla al Rangoon, simiIar modilalion conlros voro
inauguralod in many parls of llo counlry vill Malasi-lrainod
mombors of llo Sangla as modilalion loaclors. Tloso conlros
voro nol confinod lo Burma aIono, bul oxlondod lo noiglbouring
Tloravada counlrios Iiko TlaiIand and Sri Ianka. Tloro voro aIso
a fov conlros in Cambodia and India. According lo a 1972 consus,
llo lolaI numbor of modilalors lrainod al aII lloso conlros (boll
in Burma and abroad) lad oxcoodod sovon lundrod llousand.
In rocognilion of lis dislinguislod scloIarslip and spiriluaI
allainmonls, Malasi Sayadav vas lonourod in 1952 by llo llon
Irimo Minislor of llo Inion of Burma vill llo prosligious lilIo of
Aggamalapandila (llo ExaIlod Wiso Ono).
Soon aflor allaining Indopondonco, llo Govornmonl of Burma
bogan pIans lo loId a Sixll Buddlisl CounciI (Sangayana) in
481
Burma, vill four ollor Tloravada Buddlisl counlrios (Sri Ianka,
TlaiIand, Cambodia and Iaos) parlicipaling. Ior llis purposo
llo Govornmonl dispalclod a mission lo TlaiIand and Cambodia,
composod of Nyaungyan Sayadav, Malasi Sayadav and lvo
Iaymon. Tlo mission discussod llo pIan vill llo Irimalos of llo
Buddlisl Sangla of lloso lvo counlrios.
Al llo lisloric Sixll Buddlisl CounciI, vlicl vas inauguralod
vill ovory pomp and coromony on 17ll May 1954, Malasi
Sayadav pIayod an ominonl roIo, undorlaking llo oxacling
and onorous lasks of Osana (IinaI Edilor) and Iucclaka
(Quoslionor). A uniquo foaluro of llis CounciI vas llo odiling of
llo commonlarios (Alllakalla) and sub-commonlarios (likas), as
voII as llo canonicaI loxls. In llo odiling of llis commonlariaI
Iiloraluro, Malasi Sayadav vas rosponsibIo for making a crilicaI
anaIysis, sound inlorprolalion and skiIfuI roconciIialion of sovoraI
cruciaI and divorgonl passagos.
A significanl rosuIl of llo Sixll Buddlisl CounciI vas llo
rovivaI of inlorosl in Tloravada Buddlism among Malayana
Buddlisls. In 1955, vliIo llo CounciI vas in progross, lvoIvo
}apanoso monks and a }apanoso Iayvoman arrivod in Burma
lo sludy Tloravada Buddlism. Tlo monks voro inilialod inlo
llo Tloravada Buddlisl Sangla as novicos vliIo llo Iayvoman
vas mado a Buddlisl nun. Tlon, in }uIy 1957, al llo inslanco of
llo Buddlisl Associalion of Moji, llo Buddla Sasana CounciI
of Burma sonl a Tloravada Buddlisl mission lo }apan. Malasi
482
Sayadav vas ono of llo Ioading roprosonlalivos of llo Burmoso
Sangla in llal mission.
AIso in 1957, Malasi Sayadav undorlook llo lask of vriling
an inlroduclion in IaIi lo llo Visuddlimagga Alllakalla, lo
rofulo corlain mis-slalomonls aboul ils famous aullor, Von.
Buddlaglosa. Tlo Sayadav compIolod llis difficuIl lask in 196O,
lis vork boaring ovory mark of dislinclivo Ioarning and dopll
of undorslanding. By llon llo Sayadav lad aIso compIolod lvo
voIumos (oul of four) of lis Burmoso lransIalion of llis famous
commonlary and cIassic vork on Buddlisl modilalion.
Al llo roquosl of llo Govornmonl of Sri Ianka, a spociaI mission
loadod by Sayadav I Sujala, an ominonl dopuly of Malasi
Sayadav, vonl lloro in }uIy 1955 lo promolo salipalllana
modilalion. Tlo mission slayod in Sri Ianka for ovor a yoar doing
admirabIo vork, solling up lvoIvo pormanonl and sovonloon
lomporary modilalion conlros. IoIIoving llo compIolion of a
modilalion conlro on a silo granlod by llo Sri Iankan Govornmonl,
a Iargor mission Iod by Malasi Sayadav Iofl Burma for Sri Ianka
on 6ll }anuary 1959, via India. Tlo mission vas in India for aboul
llroo vooks, during vlicl ils mombors visilod sovoraI loIy pIacos
associalod vill llo Iifo and vork of llo Iord Buddla. Tloy aIso
gavo roIigious laIks on suilabIo occasions and lad inlorviovs
vill Irimo Minislor Slri }avalarIaI Nolru, Irosidonl of India
Dr. Rajondra Irasad and vico-prosidonl Dr. S. Radlakrislnan. A
nolabIo foaluro of llo visil vas llo varm voIcomo rocoivod from
483
mombors of llo doprossod cIassos, vlo lad ombracod Buddlism
undor llo guidanco of lloir Ialo Ioador Dr. Ambodkar.
Tlo mission fIov from Madras lo Sri Ianka on 29ll }anuary
1959 and arrivod al CoIombo on llo samo day. On Sunday 1sl
Iobruary, al llo oponing coromony of llo modilalion conlro
namod 'Blavana Majjlallana', Malasi Sayadav doIivorod an
addross in IaIi aflor Irimo Minislor Bandaranayako and somo
ollors lad spokon. Tlo mombors of llo mission noxl vonl on an
oxlondod lour of llo isIand, visiling sovoraI modilalion conlros
vloro Malasi Sayadav gavo discoursos on vipassana modilalion.
Tloy aIso vorslippod al famous silos of Buddlisl piIgrimago
Iiko IoIonnaruva, Anuradlapura and Kandy. Tlis lisloric visil
of llo Burmoso mission undor llo inspiring Ioadorslip of Malasi
Sayadav vas symboIic of llo ancionl and cIoso lios of friondslip
bolvoon lloso lvo Tloravada Buddlisl counlrios. Ils bonofil lo
llo Buddlisl movomonl in Sri Ianka vas a rovivaI of inlorosl in
modilalion, vlicl soomod lo lavo docIinod.
In Iobruary 1954, a visilor lo llo Sasana Yoiklla migll lavo
nolicod a young Clinoso man praclising vipassana modilalion.
Tlo modilalor in quoslion vas a Buddlisl loaclor from Indonosia
by llo namo of Bung An vlo lad bocomo inloroslod in vipassana
modilalion. Indor llo guidanco of Malasi Sayadav and Sayadav
I Manullara, Mr Bung An mado sucl oxcoIIonl progross llal in
IillIo moro llan a monll Malasi Sayadav gavo lim a dolaiIod laIk
on llo progross of insigll. Ialor lo vas ordainod a blikklu and
484
namod Von. }inarakklila, vill Malasi Sayadav as lis procoplor.
Aflor lo rolurnod as a Buddlisl monk lo Indonosia, llo Buddla
Sasana CounciI rocoivod a roquosl lo sond a Burmoso Buddlisl
monk lo promolo missionary vork in Indonosia. Il vas docidod
llal Malasi Sayadav, as llo procoplor and monlor of Aslin
}inarakklila, slouId go. Will llirloon ollor Tloravada monks,
Malasi Sayadav undorlook sucl primary missionary aclivilios as
consocraling simas (ordinalion boundarios), ordaining blikklus,
inilialing novicos and giving discoursos, parlicuIarIy laIks on
vipassana modilalion.
Considoring lloso fruilfuI aclivilios in promoling Buddlism in
Indonosia and Sri Ianka, vo migll doscribo Malasi Sayadav's
missions lo lloso counlrios as 'Dlamma-vijaya' (viclory of llo
Dlamma) journoys.
As oarIy as 1952, al llo roquosl of llo Tlai Minislor for Sangla
Affairs, Malasi Sayadav lad sonl Sayadavs I Asabla and
I Indavamsa lo TlaiIand for llo promolion of salipalllana
vipassana. Tlanks lo lloir offorls, Malasi Sayadav's mollod
gainod vido accoplanco in TlaiIand. By 196O, many modilalion
conlros lad boon oslabIislod and llo numbor of Malasi modilalors
oxcoodod a lundrod llousand.
Il vas claraclorislic of llo VonorabIo Sayadav's disinloroslod and
singIo-mindod dovolion lo llo causo of llo Buddla Sasana llal,
rogardIoss of lis advancing ago and foobIo loaIll, lo undorlook
485
llroo moro missions lo llo Wosl (Brilain, Europo and Amorica)
and lo India and NopaI in llo llroo yoars (1979, 198O and 1981)
procoding lis doall.
Ablidlajamalaralllaguru Masooyoin Sayadav, vlo prosidod
ovor llo Sanglanayaka Exoculivo Board al llo Sixll Buddlisl
CounciI, urgod Malasi Sayadav lo loacl lvo commonlarios lo llo
Sangla al Sasana Yoiklla. Von. Buddlaglosa's Visuddlimagga
Alllakalla and Von. DlammapaIa's Visuddlimagga Malalika
doaI primariIy vill Buddlisl modilalion lloory and praclico,
llougl lloy aIso offor usofuI oxpIanalions of imporlanl doclrinaI
poinls, so lloy aro vilaI for prospoclivo modilalion loaclors.
Malasi Sayadav bogan loacling lloso lvo vorks on 2nd Iobruary
1961, for ono and a laIf or lvo lours daiIy. Basod on llo Iocluro
nolos lakon by lis pupiIs, llo Sayadav slarlod vriling a nissaya
lransIalion of llo Visuddlimagga Malalika, compIoling il on 4ll
Iobruary 1966. Tlis nissaya vas an oxcoplionaI acliovomonl. Tlo
soclion on llo difforonl viovs loId by ollor roIigions (samayanlara)
vas mosl oxacling sinco llo Sayadav lad lo famiIiariso limsoIf
vill ancionl Hindu pliIosoply and lorminoIogy by sludying aII
avaiIabIo roforoncos, incIuding vorks in Sanskril and EngIisl.
Ip liII nov Malasi Sayadav las lo lis crodil 67 voIumos of
Burmoso Buddlisl Iiloraluro. Spaco doos nol pormil us lo Iisl
llom aII loro, bul a compIolo up-lo-dalo Iisl of llom is appondod
lo llo Sayadav's Ialosl pubIicalion, namoIy, 'A Discourso on
Sakkapanla Sulla' (pubIislod in Oclobor 1978).
486
Al ono limo, Malasi Sayadav vas sovoroIy crilicisod in corlain
quarlors for lis advocacy of llo aIIogodIy unorllodox mollod
of noling llo rising and faIIing of llo abdomon in vipassana
modilalion. Il vas mislakonIy assumod llal llis mollod vas
an innovalion of llo Sayadav's, vloroas llo lrull is llal il lad
boon approvod sovoraI yoars boforo Malasi Sayadav adoplod il,
by no Ioss an aullorily llan llo muIa (originaI) Mingun }olavan
Sayadav, and llal il is in no vay conlrary lo llo Buddla's loacling
on llo subjocl. Tlo roason for Malasi Sayadav's proforonco
for llis mollod is llal llo avorago modilalor finds il oasior lo
nolo llis manifoslalion of llo oIomonl of molion (.cµc-!|ciu). Il
is nol, lovovor, imposod on aII vlo como lo pracliso al any of
llo Malasi modilalion conlros. Ono may, if ono Iikos, pracliso
anapanasali. Malasi Sayadav limsoIf rofrainod from joining
issuo vill lis crilics on llis poinl, bul lvo Ioarnod Sayadavs
brougll oul a book oacl in dofonco of llo Sayadav's mollod, llus
onabIing lloso vlo aro inloroslod in llo conlrovorsy lo judgo for
llomsoIvos.
Tlis conlrovorsy aroso in Sri Ianka vloro somo mombors of
llo Sangla, inoxporioncod and unknovIodgoabIo in praclicaI
modilalion, pubIicIy assaiIod Malasi Sayadav's mollod in
novspapors and journaIs. Sinco llis crilicism vas voicod in llo
EngIisl Ianguago vill vorId-vido covorago, siIonco couId no
Iongor bo mainlainod and so Sayadav I Manullara of Kaba-
ayo (WorId Ioaco Iagoda campus) forcofuIIy rospondod lo llo
487
crilicisms in llo pagos of llo Sri Iankan Buddlisl poriodicaI
'WorId Buddlism'.
Malasi Sayadav's inlornalionaI ropulalion las allraclod
numorous visilors and modilalors from abroad, somo sooking
onIigllonmonl for lloir roIigious probIoms and ollors inlonl
on praclising modilalion undor llo Sayadav's porsonaI
guidanco. Among llo firsl modilalors from abroad vas formor
Brilisl Roar-AdmiraI E.H. Slallock vlo camo on Ioavo from
Singaporo and praclisod modilalion al llo Sasana Yoiklla in
1952. On lis rolurn lo EngIand lo pubIislod a book onlilIod
'An Exporimonl in MindfuInoss' in vlicl lo roIalod lis
oxporioncos in gonoraIIy approcialivo lorms. Anollor foroignor
vas Mr. Roborl Duvo, a Ironcl-born Amorican from CaIifornia.
Ho camo and praclisod modilalion al llo Conlro firsl as a Iay
modilalor and Ialor as a blikklu. Ho subsoquonlIy pubIislod
a book in Iranco aboul lis oxporioncos and llo salipalllana
vipassana mollod. IarlicuIar monlion slouId bo mado of
Anagarika Slri Munindra of Buddla Gaya in India, vlo
bocamo a cIoso discipIo of Malasi Sayadav, sponding sovoraI
yoars vill llo Sayadav Ioarning llo Buddlisl scripluros and
praclising vipassana. Aflorvards lo diroclod an inlornalionaI
modilalion conlro al Buddla Gaya vloro many poopIo from
llo Wosl camo lo pracliso modilalion. Among lloso modilalors
vas a young Amorican, }osopl GoIdsloin, vlo las vrillon a
porcoplivo book on insigll modilalion lilIod 'Tlo Exporionco of
Insigll: A NaluraI InfoIding'.
488
Somo of llo Sayadav's vorks lavo boon pubIislod abroad, sucl
as 'Tlo Salipalllana Vipassana Modilalion' and 'IraclicaI Insigll
Modilalion' by llo Inily Iross, San Irancisco, CaIifornia, ISA,
and 'Tlo Irogross of Insigll' by llo Buddlisl IubIicalion Socioly,
Kandy, Sri Ianka. SoIfIoss and abIo assislanco vas rondorod by
I Io Tlin (nov docoasod) and Myanaung I Tin in llo Sayadav's
doaIings vill lis visilors and modilalors from abroad and in
llo lransIalion inlo EngIisl of somo of Sayadav's discoursos
on vipassana modilalion. Boll of llom voro accompIislod
modilalors.
Tlo VonorabIo Malasi Sayadav is profoundIy rovorod by
counlIoss gralofuI discipIos in Burma and abroad. AIllougl il
vas llo oarnosl visl of lis dovolod discipIos llal llo VonorabIo
Malasi Sayadav migll Iivo for sovoraI moro yoars and conlinuo
slovoring llo bIossings of llo Buddladlamma on aII lloso
in soarcl froodom and doIivoranco, llo inoxorabIo Iav of
impormanonco lorminalod, vill lragic suddonnoss, lis soIfIoss
and dodicalod Iifo on llo 14ll of Augusl 1982. Iiko a lruo son of
llo Buddla, lo Iivod vaIianlIy, sproading llo vord of llo Maslor
llrougloul llo vorId and loIpod many llousands and lons of
llousands onlo llo Iall of EnIigllonmonl and DoIivoranco.
U Nvi Nvi (M.n.si Disciiii .:t Miti+.+cn)
Mixnin ci +ni Lxict+ivi Ccxxi++ii Y.:cc:, Mv.:x.n
Btttn.s.s.:. Ntcc.n. Asscci.+ic: 18+n Oc+cnin 1978
489
Iins+ Itniisnit
Riiicicts Itniic.+ic: Iinxissic: Nc. 77O
Ccvin Iinxissic: Nc. 236
Iirsl Improssion ÷ 1OOO (}uIy 1985)
Socond Improssion ÷ 2OOO (}uno 1989)
Tlird Improssion ÷ 1OOO (}uIy 1989)
Roprinlod vill pormission
for froo dislribulion onIy
(Dlammadlana)
Ccvin nv ÷ At:c Tn.n
Tlo conlonl of llis pubIicalion may bo roproducod or
roprinlod in parl or in vloIo aflor llo prior pormission of
llo pubIislor.
Itniisnit nv: U Mi: Svi (Iinxissic: Nc. 195)
Btttn. S.s.:. Ntcc.n. Onc.:iZ.+ic:
Nc. 16, Tn.+n.:. Yiii+n. Rc.t,
Kciii:i, R.:ccc:,
Btnx..

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