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American Airlines Baggage System
Eric Dewald, Ekaterina Korzh, James Lin, Jon Saewert, AmbicaTelang, Ahmad Yassin
San Diego, 2011
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
AMERICAN AIRLINES COMPANY DESCRIPTION
On January 25, 1930, American Airways was incorporated as a single company, based in New York, with routes from Boston, New York and Chicago to Dallas, and from Dallas to Los Angeles. The airline was developed from a conglomeration of 82 small airlines through
acquisitions and reorganizations. Then in 1934, American Airways Company was acquired by E.L. Cord, who renamed it "American Air Lines". Today American Airlines (AA) is the world's third-largest airline in passenger miles transported,passenger fleet size, and operating revenues. AA is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. American operates an extensive international and domestic network, with scheduled flights throughout North America, Latin and South America, Europe, Asia/Pacific and the Caribbean. American Airlines was listed at No.120 on the Fortune 500 list of companies in 2010.
Between AA and its affiliate American Eagle, the airline has about 900 aircraft. The company is currently in talks with aircraft manufacturers Airbus and Boeing Co. to purchase at least 250 aircraft in a deal valued at about $15 billion. In August 2007 the airline announced it would offer Wi-Fi internet services on Boeing 767-200ER American Flagship Service (AFS) routes across the United States. On August 20, 2008, American Airlines became the first to offer full in-flight internet service.In October 2008, American announced plans to order the Boeing 787±9 Dreamliner.
2011. which may not be until 2020 or later. Some analysts contend that the airline has few options other than merging with US Airways. as well as poor labor relations and a smaller network of routes. American officially retired its fleet of Airbus A300 aircraft.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 3 American is the largest operator of the McDonnell Douglas MD-80. Others see American as the ³Ugly Betty´ of the industry. which offers a 35% increase per-seat mileage. the Boeing Y1. American seeks to focus on five major cities in the United States ² Dallas. Chicago. after 21 years of service. an airline struggling to find a suitable partner. As part of its fleet renewal plan. with some 225 of the type in service. . Rather than trying to compete everywhere with everyone. On January 19. American Airlines has stated that they have MD-80 leases running until as late as 2024. It is more important to be big in cities that account for a significant portion of the nation¶s air travel instead of spreading itself too thinly. and will become the first American carrier to operate Boeing 777300ER. In August 2009. which was left out when United decided to go for Continental. The rest will eventually be replaced by Boeing's next generation narrow body aircraft. Miami and New York. American Airlines announced that it would order two Boeing 777-300ERs. Los Angeles. Then the union between United and Continental Airlines pushed American down to third. All this leaves American with some of the industry¶s highest costs. 2. Competition Delta Air Lines merger with Northwest Airlines two years ago knocked American to No. American is replacing one fourth of its MD-80s with the Boeing 737±800.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
Overseas, American is betting on its international alliance, Oneworld, to expand its reach in Europe and Asia, because of partnerships withBritish Airways and Japan Airlines. . By most measures, American remains a formidable airline. It flies about 286,000 people
each day, employs 87,000 people, and along with its regional carrier, American Eagle, operates around 3,400 daily flights to 250 cities and 40 countries.
The company¶s revenue grew from $19.9 billion in 2009 to $22.17 billion in 2010, which represents 11.4% growth. Net income grew from a $1.47 billion in loss to $471 million in loss, a $1 billion improvement due to the improvement in the economic background of the world. Like other airlines, fuel costs are one of AMR's largest operating expenses, accounting for a third of the company's total operating expenses. Uncertainty in oil prices, forces AMR to enter into hedging agreements for its fuel. However, this poses a risk if oil prices drop significantly from the hedged fuel price. As a result of volatile oil prices, AMR faces uncertainty in costs. See page 7 more details on the income statement.
Like most large companies, especially airlines, AA needs to take advantage of technology to keep costs low and also to keep customers happy. One of the ways to keep customers happy with regards to airlines is ease of check-in. Customers hate to wait in line or wait for a long time to check-in. With a quicker turnaround time, customers would appreciate the airline and have a more favorable view of the airline, thus using them in the future and also referring others to use the airline. To address this issue, AA started an application (app) for self-service check-in.
automatically y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Set a parking reminder Monitor your place on the standby list Track your Elite Status progress View personal flight details: get your gate. so it¶s always easy to find Use GPS to locate the nearest American Airlines serviced airport View terminal maps Book Flights Check In for Flights Create Flight Status Notifications Check Flight Status & Schedules Access your AAdvantage account Enroll in the AAdvantage program Access Contact Information . Where you¶ll sit and even where you are on the standby list.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 5 Currently this app lets you check-in either online or via an electronic device. Other useful functions are: y Enter your login & password only once: saving your info allows the app to push your upcoming flight details to your home screen. seat and flight status info at a glance Access your mobile boarding pass: the app saves it for you. It has many functions. It can let you know from where you¶re departing and from what gate. Simply swipe and tap your way through after entering and registering your personal information with the company.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 6 y Figure 1 Our group project wants to develop the app further to make it even easier and quicker for customers to check themselves and their luggage in.AMR CORPORATION CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS . Table 1.
889) $ 16.093 1.862 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 6.729 308 $ 21.024 25. except share amounts) Revenues Passenger ² American Airlines ² Regional Affiliates Cargo Other revenues Total operating revenues Expenses Wages.014 1. booking fees and credit card expense Aircraft rentals Food service Special charges Other operating expenses Total operating expenses Operating Income (Loss) Other Income (Expense) Interest income Interest expense Interest capitalized Miscellaneous ² net Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes Income tax (benefit) Net Earnings (Loss) Earnings (Loss) Per Share Basic Diluted $ $ (1.418 1.41) $ $ (4.012 578 2.213 3.847 6.99) $ $ (8.353 1. salaries and benefits Aircraft fuel Other rentals and landing fees Depreciation and amortization Maintenance.411 $ $ $ $ $ 15.037 2.172 23.118) ² (2.118) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 6.99) (4.004) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 6.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 7 Year Ended December 31.16) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 26 (823) 31 (48) (814) (506) (35) (471) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 34 (744) 42 (80) (748) (1.808 20.486 874 2.400 1.760 $ $ $ 2.329 976 580 490 ² 2.290 19.468) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 181 (803) 33 360 (229) (2.234 2.237 997 492 518 1.655 (1.807 5. 2010 2009 2008 (In millions.298 1.170 .655 9.553 1.207 1.280 853 505 487 171 2.41) (1.766 $ 22.917 $ $ $ $ $ 18.16) (8.752) (284) (1.921 (1. materials and repairs Commissions.327 672 2.104 1.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
American Airline¶s passengers have been complaining for years about long lines and times to check in baggage. In fact, that is their number one complaint. With the advent of self check-in for passengers, lines have gotten smaller, but it is still a time consuming part of checking in. In the post 9-11 world TSA requirements for checking baggage in takes longer than ever before. Recently, an American Airlines passenger suggested that automating baggage check-in similar to the self check-out process atWalmart. This could speed up a passengers checking in and getting through security. This could have a huge impact on delayed flights, on-time
departures and customer satisfaction. The project sponsor, the Vice President in charge of Customer Affairs, really liked the idea. But it is imperative that the new process is TSA Security compliant. American Airlines sees big things in its future. They recently ordered 460 new Boeing and Airbus aircraft. In fact their order is so big, they may be ordering all available new aircraft from Airbus and Boeing for the foreseeable future. Due to this aircraft purchase, it is also time to upgrade how the passenger checks their luggage in for their flights. The passenger and baggage will need to be photographed, to comply with TSA security regulations. Baggage needs to be weighed and paid for before going to TSA Security for screening. To create these automated baggage check-in stations it will be required to remodel existing manned stations. Touch screens with credit card processing areas, scales and a printer exist at all airports. Adding 3 security cameras per location and storing pictures taken throughout the process. The American Airlines smartphone application will be expanded to take advantage of this new process and will be documented here.
who is defined as a specific person who initiates the project and serves as primary point of contact for the project¶s business side. American Airlines¶ system request outlines very specific business needs. the essential elements of the request are distinct. Business requirements are the benefits that the system will provide and may be tangible and/or intangible. reducing staffing requirements. Intangible benefits.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 9 SYSTEM REQUEST To ensure the finished application and kiosk meet the American Airlines¶ specification. a series of business requirements were outlined by American Airlines to provide guidance and set expectations. To meet the business needs. Although the system request may come in varying forms. American Airlines Vice President of Consumer Affairs serves as the project sponsor. the system request outlines the project¶s sponsor. For the self check-in application. A system request is a document that describes the business reasons for building a system and the value that the system is expected to provide. For our self check-in application. and increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty by simplifying luggage check-in. American Airlines believes the tangible benefits from this application will include reduced staffing requirements at their check-in counters by 50%. American Airlines wants to provide their company an increased market share by streamlining check-in processes. One method for this collection is to have the client fill out a system request. exploitation of existing self check-in kiosks and IS technology at major airports. we must first collect specific information from the project sponsor. Initially. In addition to a specific person. the project¶s sponsor may also be a committee or department within an organization. subjective benefits that cannot be measured in monetary terms. A business need is the business-related reason for initiating the system. will include increased desirability . increased customer service volume by 100% and a 20% increase in market share of technically savvy customers.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
by technology/pop culture driven customers, reduced customer frustration from long lines at check-in counters, and competitive advantage within the industry from distinction and uniqueness.
For this application. These are issues that are relevant to the implementation of the system and decisions made by the project sponsor or committee about the project. a date defined as November 24. Another constraint is the customer¶s familiarity with smart phone applications and their ability to properly quickly navigate through self checking in baggage in order to feel as if they are saving time. Additionally. the industry standards defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) must be met by the application for all domestic flights. specialty luggage normally checked through check-in counters places a constraint on the self check-in kiosk¶s ability to perform automatically. 2011. Pets checked in through carriers and bulky or oversized items may still require an American Airlines¶ representative to approve or finalize the check-in process at the kiosk. American Airlines has pushed to use existing company technology for all interfaces to ensure compatibility and to have a working system at Los Angeles International airport no later that the holiday season.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 11 Special issues and constraints must also be considered when submitting a system request. These security standards differ widely from international regulations found in Europe and Asia. . Lastly.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
BUSINESS VALUE AND BUSINESS RISKS
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be a useful tool in the assessment of new information system business value, constraints and possible risks.
Table 2. SWOT analysis
Benefits: tangible and intangible Strengths Streamline Passenger with luggage check-in: reduces long queues automate repetitive tasks
Risks and constraints Weaknesses Wrong luggage tagging can cause difficulties in existing automated luggage sorting system
minimizes errors in data entry ± all necessary Not every luggage can go through self check-in: data was already stored in QR code luggage doesn¶t meet minimum and maximum weight and measurement restrictions Improve passenger processing and customer service pets as checked luggage
Encourage to use credit/debit cards ± simplify cash collections Internal
Only passengers who did on-line pre-check-in can use self-service luggage check-in kiosks
Less check-in clerks are needed ± reduce in total salary cost
Passengers have less flexibility in payment: only credit/debit cards
Maximum utilization of existing ticket counter with Identity identification relays on computer system ± minimal improvement sometimes it can be impossible to recognize the passenger (face closed with clothes, changes in appearance) Integrates with existing American Airlines Information System Improvements need investments
Lack of Awareness
Employees will need additional training
implement and maintain new system carefully as it has several internal and external risks that could cause its inefficient use or/and inability to use system at all. security in passenger and luggage checking procedure Reduce in workforce can bring a negative image to company The SWOT analysis shows that there are significant strengths of the System that can bring a business value to company through higher customer satisfaction. All internal unfavorable factors should be properly addressed. The business value that company gets is winning a bigger market share and competitive advantages.Information system security threats (Cybercrimes): External in among American airlines ± be ahead of competition.system crash. simplifying ³check-in with luggage´ process and ability to assist more customers.Travelers will need more assistance when using new in and use of Smartphone to store flight information kiosks Become a pioneer in the self-service luggage check. New policies and regulations toward higher level of less paper used. electricity shutdown To have an image of environmentally friendly company ± all transactions performed electronically. However Company should plan. American Airlines . online check-in and/or using Smartphone App to generate and store QR code (lack of tech knowledge. older passengers) Economy grows toward electronic transactions ± more passengers will be familiar with on-line check.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM Opportunities Credit/debit cards will eliminate cash/ checks transactions ± more people can use self-service luggage check-in Threats 13 Travelers will avoid self-service baggage check-in. achieve bigger market share programming attacks on the system ± malware (intentional threats) Greater customer satisfaction brings customer loyalty Unintentional threats (environmental hazards. station parts breakdown. vendors and bigger market share pure quality) .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 14 should prepare a back-up plan in case of negative external factors happen that Company has no control on. .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
Feasibility study of building Self-Service Luggage Check-in Application needs to be done in order to make a decision regarding ability to build and implement new system.
It is hard to estimate the exact economic benefit in currency that new system will bring because the biggest effects it brings are intangible values in increasing customer satisfaction and simplifying the self-service luggage check-in. This is the main reason we suggest to implement system only in one airport for the beginning. After the test period collected data will be analyzed and better assessment regarding costs and benefits can be made. To scope the project, we limited our focus to a single kiosk-equipped airport. LAX airport was selected as a place for System Prototype. At this airport the check-in counter is operated 20 hours per day in three shifts, with ten agents per shift, processing about 13,000 passengers per day on 156 flights. On average six agents staffed the full-service lines and another four agents staffed operational kiosk. A conservative approach shows that American Airlines will increase revenue by 10% during first year. Table 2 is a spreadsheet containing cost-benefit analysis details with the following overall results: ROI over 5 years: 33 % Break-even occurs after 4 years Total benefit after five years: approximately $1,136,790
That means that in average about 25% among all passengers are traveling with luggage that needs to be checked-in.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 16 $1.136. On average.790 in benefits can be considered relatively small amount for the Airline Company. That gives a number of approximately 8% among all travelers who would pass through self-service luggage check-in when a new system introduced at LAX airport. In order to calculate increase in sales the following observations reported by 2008 SITA / Air Transport World Passenger Self-Service Survey were taken into consideration: For the first time. so among remaining 23% (passengers who travel with luggage and not aware of a new feature) we can expect at least 35% who would like to try it. however improvements made will result in long-run profitable operation and leading position on the market. 36 percent of surveyed passengers used self-service check-in. and also a broad marketing campaign will be . it was simply the fact that they had bags that needed to be checked-in. For almost half of those who knew self-service check-in was available but didn¶t use. There are at least 10% who are frequent flyers. However it can be expected that the number of passengers who aware will increase fast. 61 percent used self-service check-in where they knew it was available. When a new system will be introduced probably only 1-2% will be aware of a new feature.
843 $1.790 -$2.364 -$1.000 $3.competitive advantage data accuracy .429 $1.585 $1.016.268.830.000 $950.129 $1.800.000 $950.200.200.000 $750.000 $950.000 $0 $200.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 17 Table 3.150.650.000 $950.000 $231.136.000 -$2.000 $600.639 $28.275 $2.350.717.200.000 $350.000 $950.449.790 34% 4 years Improve customer satisfaction and loyalty increase in market share .000 $230.294.007.600.000 $0 $1.452 $0 $200.100.000 $5.000 $750.000 $900.150.316 -$1.707 $0 $200.048 $709.000 $500.000 $6.000 $750.000 $0 $200.364 $419.000 TOTAL $500.000 $950.200.000 $2.036.passenger and luggage information .000 $5.000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 $0 $1.000 $750. as of 2011): Counter remodeling New security technology Development Labor Total Development/Installation Costs: Advertising Campaign Operational Maintenance Total Operational Costs: Total Costs: PV of All Costs (10% interest rate.000 $4.000 $2.000 $184.108.40.206.000 $950.000 $0 $871.381 $3.000 $3.000 $186.313.000 $2.136.947 $1. Cost-Benefit Analysis Increased sales Reduction in Customer Complaint Reduction in Labor Cost Total Benefits: PV of All Benefits: (10% interest rate.000 $450. as of 2011) Total Project Benefits Costs: Yearly NPV: Cumulative NPV: Return on Investment: Break-even Point: Intangible Benefits: $250.000 $300.136.000 $950.000 $650.000 $306.000 $0 $0 $400.000 $880.968 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $1.107.000 $5.178 -$2.677 $1.364 $452.250.000 $900.350.118 $4.293 $1.000 $800.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 18 Organizational Feasibility Projected system is going to replace the current clerk assistance luggage check-in process. Because the user already . Company believes that first movers get the greatest benefits from innovation and bigger market share. The user (passenger) should have a smart phone to be able to use the system which is smart-phone application. familiarity with technology. The technical feasibility analysis can be broken into two main parts which are user part and airport kiosk part. The only risk that innovation will not be incorporated is new higher security government restrictions and regulations. however the automated process of identity check and self-service luggage weighing was not in place yet. Its goal to answer the following question. They already made steps toward self-service luggage tagging process implementation at the Austin airport. can we build the project? The main points in the technical feasibility are familiarity with functional area. and compatibility. the result would be the application technically feasible with almost no risk. in other words it is technical risk analysis. the system is viewed as a necessary tool to be beyond their rivals in highly competitive airline industry by increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty. project size. Self-service luggage check-in is an emerging trend among companies that¶s why American Airlines is highly interested in designing and implementing such system. Technical Feasibility Technical feasibility analysis is centered about if the project technically feasible or not. With examining the 4 points analysis on this part. Even if a new system does not bring significant increase in revenue during first years.
the system should be able to weigh baggage. process extra weight fees. and for sure ensure the security. There are available kiosks in the market that meet all of the requirements. Familiarity with technology is high because the tools already exist and used by the passenger. scanner to scan the QR code. see picture TR1. In the airport kiosk part. tag's printer. However. the project is extending to an existed application. The size of this part is small because it is short time part.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 19 familiar with using smart-phone applications. scale attached to the kiosk to weigh baggage. Small risk can be found in the compatibility part. and the application is already compatible with smart-phones. Most of the passenger are familiar with the check in process. which means the familiarity with functional can be considered high with less risk. just the integration between the application and airport kiosk would be the hardest part in the project. print tags. The following table can summarize the technical feasibility. as mentioned before. the time needed to build the required features is short that means less risk. the integration can be built. The project needs a kiosk that has touch screen provided with credit card swipe to interact with the passenger and pay any extra fees. . the compatibility between all devices are high and can be done. The airports already have all the requirements that needed to implement the project. Can we build the project? The answer is yes. screen to interact with the passenger. 3 cameras to capture the passenger picture and baggage picture for the security purpose.
and they are compatible and easy to attach to the system Available in the airport QR code scanner Tag printer Security cameras High. the passengers who High are going to use the project they already have smart-phones. Technical Feasibility 20 Technical Requirements Smart-phone Availability Passenger Familiarity Available. Passenger is familiar with using it High. easy to use Scale High ± Medium. screen Credit card swipe Available in most of the available kiosks. If it is not available in some. restaurants. Available in the current kiosks Available in the current kiosks Available in the market. such as Id Technology. easy to use . several models of credit-Card swipe device available in the market from many vendors. because the passenger use it almost every day in grocery stores. easy to use High.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM Table 4. Self check in kiosk with touch Available in the airport.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
PROJECT WORK PLAN
Once the requirements and details of the project begin to solidify, a sequential and tasked out plan can be constructed. The first step in this plan is to breakdown all tasks into specific items that can be assigned to a team or individual (Figure 1-2). This list of itemized tasks allows team members to be assigned in areas that are paired with their strengths. Each section of the work breakdown structure outlines specific deliverables and orders the items chronologically. Additionally, the work breakdown structure may decompose certain items into subitems for more granularities in expectations and scope. In the American Airlines structure below, The feasibility analysis was much too road of an item to capture all considerations. We decomposed this analysis into Economic, technical, and organizational feasibility analysis. This allowed the assigned team members to focus on one particular aspect of the project¶s possibility and save time by dividing a large area of research into multiple parts for team distribution. I believe that although Analysis remained to be a lengthy aspect of the work plan, this phase of the project could have spiraled into a longer period if this decomposition of major items into subitems was not outlined. Once the final work breakdown structure is complete, a project work plan is developed. The project work plan is the mechanism that is used to manage the tasks that are listed in the work breakdown structure. This work plan can be represented through several different
methods, such as Pert Charts, Hurricane models, and Gantt Charts. For the American Airlines self check-in application, we decided the Gantt chart best suited the needs of the project.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 22 Figure 2 .
Finally the remaining design development and analysis take another 20 days. and milestone events (Figure 3). which are ahead/behind schedule. which take 3 days. One of the obvious benefits of this type of chart is the rapid identification of long lead items. CRC cards and other structural modeling consume another 15 days. the project manager can assign additional supervision or manpower during this time period to ensure the project remains on track. This time requirement is driven by prerequisite tasks. The Gantt chart developed for American Airlines includes the nineteen tasks outlined on the work breakdown structure and spans 87 days. the Analysis portion takes 45 days. Another critical phase in the system work plan is the Design phase. focus of resources and expected delivery date are the products of the work plan and set the design team up for success as the project prepares to enter phase of Activity Diagram and Use Case Development. and which tasks will occur simultaneously. with system architecture design taking the majority of the effort with 20 days required. By identifying these critical tasks. responsible players.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 23 A Gantt chart provides a visual representation of a project¶s life. The Gantt chart also allows a project manager to track what tasks are sequential. which is over half of the required project time. One of the best features of this form of a work plan is the high level status it provides of the project¶s tasks. allowing the project manager to track goal dates. tasks are listed as rows horizontally and time is listed across the top of the chart. The functional modeling cannot begin until the feasibility studies are complete. After the 7 days of functional modeling. . On this type of chart. In our chart. This period takes 29 days. Final adjustments to team composition. reliant predecessors and critical path tasks. including essential tasks.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
Decision node [check-in with baggage]/[check-in without baggage] was included to demonstrate the condition that split system activities into two specific paths. Baggage Check-in at the Airport and Completion of Self Check-in process that ends up with receiving boarding pass by Passenger. Figure 4 . The overview of activities within Check-in System is presented in Figure 4. There are 3 high-level processes within a System: Online Check-in via Smartphone.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 25 ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS To illustrate the processes and activities that are performed in projected system. and how objects move among them series of activity diagram was created.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
As it was already mentioned earlier, self check-in without luggage process is already in place in American Airline System. The purpose of this project is to extend System by adding set of activities that allows perform self luggage check-in. Both paths end up at a final high-level process ³Complete Self Check-in´ that was included before final-activity mode to embrace all necessary internal processes connected with updating flight information and delivering boarding pass to a passenger. Detailed process ³Online check-in´ (via Smartphone) is presented in the Figure 5.
According to diagram the existing online check-in process was extended by adding activity where Passanger indicates the number of bags need to be checked. By doing so
When QR code is successfully recognized. This Passenger will go through ³existing´ path. Passenger scans QR code stored on the Smartphone. Passenger confirms information and swipes credit card. In this situation Passenger can try to scan it one more time or call for assistance. As Passenger begins the process all necessary instructions are available to guide through baggage check-in. The identity verification is the next step where Passenger is asked to scan Government Picture ID. Swiping credit card is also an additional control activity: helps to verify the passenger and avoids situation when baggage was checked in but customer cannot pay charges because of unvalid or missing credit card. Passenger with baggage receives QR code instead. If code was not recognized the process of check-in would be terminated. When the scan of ID received. that is stored on the phone and will be presented at the airport during boarding.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 27 Passenger sends a massege to a System that he/she will go through path ³Check-in with Luggage´. Passenger without baggage is checking within 24 hours before flight via Smartphone appplication and recieves E-tickect. Figure 6 begins with activity ³Initiate Baggage Check-in´ (at the Airport). After receiving QR code the ³improved´ path leads a Passenger to a set of activities performed when he/she arrivies at the Airport to complete Check-in Process. the process of verification and face recognition will be . This activity sends request to the American Airline System to identify QR code and display flight information for this Passenger. This Passenger will go through ³improved´ path. with all E-ticket information needed for later completion of self check-in at the Airport.
self baggage check-in will be terminated.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 28 peformed. Procedure repeats if passenger have more bags to check in. As soon as Passenger confirms the end of Luggage check-in. credit card and identity verification completed. Passenger is able to proceed with Luggage weighting and tagging. When neccassary steps as flight. If the Passenger is not recognized the Check-in Station will call for assistance automatically. Passanger can proceed to Security and Boarding with code stored on the Smartphone. . swiped credit card will be billed and Passenger¶s E-ticket information updated.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 29 Figure 6 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
Use cases are used to describe and show a set of steps taken to accomplish a goal. An actor, usually displayed as a stick figure, will perform a series of steps. An actor can be a person or something more abstract that can ³perform an act´. Displayed below is an overview use case and two detailed cases. As implied by the terms, overview is a simplified overview of the system and detailed view is a more drilled down situation that shows more in depth actions that all of the actors have to take. Use Case Name: Check-in ID: 1 Importance Level: High Primary Actor: Passenger Use Case Type: Overview Stakeholders and Interests: Passenger ± wants to check-in on smartphone AA Rep ± Assists the Passenger in case of Errors Brief Description: This use case describes how the passenger uses a smart phone application to check-in up to 24 hours early and inform the airline that it will be checking in baggage. Trigger: Passenger starts smartphone application and clicks on ³CHECK IN´ Type: External Relationships: Association: Include: Extend: Baggage Check-In Generalization: Normal Flow of Events: 1. Passenger clicks ³CHECK IN´ on smartphone application within 24 hours of flight. 2. Next day Passenger checks in Baggage at Airport SubFlows:
4. Passenger provides user information and confirmation number from ticket purchase. S-2: E-Ticket Generation is performed . Trigger: Passenger starts smartphone application and clicks on ³CHECK IN´ Type: External Relationships: Association: Include: Generate QR Code Extend: Generalization: Normal Flow of Events: 3. Application asks if Passenger will be checking in baggage. the S-1 QR Code is generated is Performed 6. Passenger clicks ³CHECK IN´ on smartphone application within 24 hours of flight.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 31 Figure 7 Use Case Name: Passenger Check-in ID: 2 Importance Level: High Primary Actor: Passenger Use Case Type: Detailed Stakeholders and Interests: Passenger ± wants to check-in on smartphone Brief Description: This use case describes how the passenger uses a smart phone application to check-in up to 24 hours early and inform the airline that it will be checking in baggage. 5. If yes.
QR Code is generated and stored inside the Smart Phone Application S-2: E-Ticket Generation 1.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM SubFlows: S-1: Baggage QR Code is generated 1. E-Ticket is generated from all information and is stored inside the Smart Phone Application. Application asks how many pieces of baggage will be checked in. 32 Alternate/Exceptional Flows: Figure 8 . 2.
Billing. 17. Brief Description: This use case describes how the passenger uses a smart phone application to check-in up to 24 hours early and inform the airline that it will be checking in baggage. Kiosk displays User Information. Passenger places Smartphone under Scanner 5. 9. Kiosk request Passenger place Baggage on Weight Scale S-4: Weigh Baggage Check is performed 13. 33 . 16. Kiosk sends final credit card request to Credit Card Center S-5: Final Billing is performed.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM Use Case Name: Baggage Check-in ID: 3 Importance Level: High Primary Actor: Passenger Use Case Type: Detailed Stakeholders and Interests: Passenger ± wants to check-in baggage with a QR code stored on Smartphone Credit Card Center ± Processes all baggage fees American Airlines ± Information System that has all information stored about passenger. S-2: Credit Card Pre-Authorization is performed 11. Kiosk requests Passenger place Tag on Baggage 14. Kiosk transmits QR code to American Airlines 7. Kiosk request for the Passenger¶s QR Code S-1: QR Code Check is performed. Passenger swipes credit card. Trigger: Passenger starts Smartphone application and clicks on ³CHECK IN´ Type: External Relationships: Association: Include: Weighing Luggage. 8. American Airlines transmits Passenger Information to Kiosk S-2: Credit Card Pre-authorization Check 2. Kiosk transmits credit card information to the Credit-Card Center. American Airlines processes QR code and determines if the code is valid. Passenger opens saved QR Code on Smartphone App 4. Kiosk tells Passenger to have a ³Safe Trip´ SubFlows: S-1: QR Code Check 3. Security. Kiosk Requests Passenger place Tagged Baggage on Conveyer 15. 3. Scanner scans QR Code 6. Passenger clicks ³CHECK IN´ on Kiosk 8. 10. Kiosk takes picture of baggage on Conveyor and transmits to American Airlines. If additional baggage is notated in QR code repeat steps 6-9 until complete. Kiosk requests Government issued ID to be placed under the scanner S-3: Facial Recognition is performed 12. 18. Kiosk requests User swipe Credit Card for Billing for baggage handling. flights and baggage. Print Tagging Extend: Errors Generalization: Normal Flow of Events: 7.
American Airlines performs security scan of Government ID 5. Kiosk transmits credit card information to the Credit-Card Center. Confirmation number is transmitted to Kiosk.4a or 5a. If card is valid and request is not authorized. Kiosk weighs baggage 4. S-3. 34 .AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 4. American Airlines performs Facial Recognition of Passenger against Government ID 6. 7. Return pre-authorization to Kiosk. Alternate/Exceptional Flows: S-1. American Airlines sends confirmation notification to Kiosk. If card is not valid. 2. 4. Credit Card Center determines if credit card is valid 6. AA Rep is notified. Kiosk transmits picture of Passenger and Government ID scan to American Airlines for Security storage. Kiosk requests pre-authorization for Number of Bags x Normal Baggage Fee 5. S-5. If Facial Recognition Check fails. Passenger places baggage on weight scale. AA Rep is notified. Print baggage tag with baggage picture S-5: Final Billing Check 1. AA Rep is notified. Kiosk takes picture of Passenger 3. add additional fee to bill.5a: If QR code is not valid. 5. Kiosk takes picture of baggage 3. S-3: Facial Recognition Check 1. S-4: Weigh Baggage Check 1.2a: If credit limit for card is exceeded. request a new card and return to S-2:1. 2. S-2. Kiosk requests authorization for final bill 3. AA Rep is notified. Passenger places government ID under scanner. AA Rep is notified. If baggage exceeds normal weight limit.4a: If Baggage exceeds total weight limit for baggage. request a new card and return to S2:1 8. 2.7a: If Pre-authorization of credit card fails. S-4.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
Passenger must have an E-ticket to initiate the system. Therefore. The diagram labels with multiplicity of the relationship for better understanding. the assistance class assigns a staff to take care the problem so employee class is associated with assistance class to keep track of who helps what. Error class is associated with check-in class when check in class generates an error codes. E-ticket contains airline information and a flight number. Airline and Flight number class are associated with E-ticket. Passenger class is also associated with Eticket class. . The passenger class shows all the attributes and some are required by TSA. Passenger class is associated with checked luggage class so the luggage can be trace back to a passenger. Credit card class is associated with billing class and billing class is associated with check-in class.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 36 CLASS DIAGRAMS Class diagram below is to show objects in the system.
. attributes and methods used in class diagram for giving readers better understanding. attribute and method and It explains the activities about the purpose of classes.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 37 Figure 10 A class dictionary contains descriptions of class.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM Table 5. Assistance Detail for helping a passenger for using Kiosk. Deleting passenger¶s information to the class. Question or comments about the luggage. Reading employee¶s information. Passenger¶s travel document type Passenger¶s travel document number Adding passenger¶s information to the class. Updating employee¶s information. Reading assistance¶s detial Airport employee¶s last name. Class dictionary Class Name Attribute Passenger LastName FirstName StreetNumber StreetAddress City State ZipCode DayPhoneNumber Gender Nationality CountryOfResidence TravelDocumentType TravelDocumentNumber addCustomer deleteCustomer updateCustomer Eticket FlightNumber Carriers Seat DateofPurchase DestinationCode DepartureAirportCode Flight# Airline Arrival Deaprture Cardtype Cardnumber ExpirationDate CCV ValidateCard CheckedLugg age Weight Picture Description QuestionItems Assistance AssiDetail updateAssilDetail ReadAssiDetail Employee LastName FirstName PostionTitle updateEmployee readEmployee Error ErrrorCode ErrorDescription 38 Method Flight CreditCard Description Passenger¶s Last Name. Gender of the passengers Passengers nationality Country where passenger resides. Passenger current state s/he lives in. Departure airport code Types of credit card from passengers. Error code generated by Kiosk Error description generated by Kiosk . Passenger¶s Airport Destination code Passenger¶s departure airport code. Passenger¶s flight number. Number of the credit. Expiration Date of the credit card. Airport employee¶s position title. Passenger current street number Passenger current street address Passenger current city s/he lives in. The weight of passenger¶s luggage¶s weight. Passenger¶s First Name. Update assistance¶s detail. Credit Card Validation codes. Validation of the credit card. Description of the luggage. Passenger¶s flight number Name of the airline Assigned seats Date of the e-ticket purchased. Name of the airline Arrival time of the flight. Pictures of the luggage. Passenger current day phone number s/he lives in. Passenger current zipcode s/he lives in. Updating passenger¶s information to the class. Airport employee¶s first name.
Date the bill generated. Time the bill generated .AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM ErrorDate ErrorTime 39 The date error code generated by Kiosk The time error code generated by Kiosk Readerror Biiling Date Time Reading error codes.
choose his/her seat number. and the final step get his/her E-ticket. The smart-phone processes were divided into two portions which are passenger without baggage and passenger with baggage. The first part is the passenger without baggage. the passenger login then clicks on check-in. The sequence diagrams were built show the flow of processes in the three different parts. and the other is set in the airport. Figure 11 . the first one which is done on a smart-phone. The following sequence diagram shows the steps.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 40 SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS The project has two main processes sets. After choosing without baggage. It is a simple process.
then slide a credit card.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 41 Passenger with baggage has almost same steps. there are different steps. Starting with QR code scanning. the different is choosing with baggage and the number of baggage to be checked in. please slide different credit card. Then the screen pop up please place bag on the scale. If the bag has extra weight the system will ask to . Figure 12 In the airport. if there it is declined the screen shows. Then end up of getting QR code instead of the Eticket to complete the process in the airport.
. The last step that the system performs will be to send the passenger his/her E-ticket.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 42 confirm the extra weight fees. Then the printer will print out the baggage tag.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 43 Figure 13 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION LAYER DESIGN (GUI SAMPLES)
Many technology based products rely upon Graphical User Interface (GUI) to improve their technical aspects to a usable product. Cutting edge technology alone may not be enough earn end user acceptance and subsequent marketability. How the user experiences the end product, is the key to acceptance. Therefore, GUI is critical in the design process. While product engineers focused on the technology, we have focused on the user interface. Our group, for greatest efficiency and cost effectiveness, planned that this relationship should be maintained with close communication from the start of the project to its rollout. Ultimately, the importance of good GUI design can be the difference between product acceptance and rejection in the marketplace. If end-users feel it is not easy to learn, not easy to use, or too cumbersome, an otherwise excellent product could fail. Good GUI design can make a product easy to understand and use, which results in greater user acceptance and commercial success.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 45 Figure 14 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 46 Figure 15 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 47 Figure 16 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 48 Figure 17 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 49 Figure 18 .
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 50 Figure 19 .
we were able to provide the client with detailed models of the final model to collect valuable feedback and prototype adjustments. Providing in depth graphical user interfaces. This service has proven to be an excellent product for American Airlines to continue to meet the needs of their customers. Offering tangible and intangible benefits to the Corporation in the form of increased market share. this industry first delivers what the consumer and client desire. we have outlined the use case scenarios for system interactions and highlighted the strengths of the service. this system will definitely be the status quo for the airline industry in the years to come.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 51 CONCLUSION The American Airlines Express Kiosk meets a need in the competitive airline traveler marketplace. and sustained customer loyalty and satisfaction. We believe that not only will this system become the standard for American Airlines across the nation¶s airports. . reduced operating costs. Through our project analysis and design.
AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM
American Airlines. (2011, July 28). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Airlines#cite_note-awst-5 American Airlines (AMR). (2011, July 29). Retrieved from http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/American_Airlines_(AMR) American Airlines orders 460 Boeing and Airbus aircraft. (2011, July 20). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-14222042 AMR CORPORATION CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS. (2011, February 16). Retrieved from http://yahoo.brand.edgaronline.com/displayfilinginfo.aspx?FilingID=7734669-245784250884&type=sect&dcn=0000950123-11-014726 Barrett, R. (2004, February 29). Northwest testing self check-in - Passenger at Mitchell can tag their luggage. Retrieved from http://www3.jsonline.com/bym/news/feb04/211237.asp?referral=http%3A%2F%2Fwww .jsonline.com%2Fbym%2Fnews%2Ffeb04%2F211237.asp Check-in with mobile phone. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.klm.com/travel/nl_en/prepare_for_travel/checkin_options/mobile/index.htm Dennis, A. (2009). Systems Analysis & Design with UML Version 2.0 (3rd ed.). Hoboken: New Jersey. John Wiley & Sons Falconer, R. (2010, August 10). Air New Zealand highlights value of a successful self-service strategy. Retrieved from http://www.futuretravelexperience.com/2010/08/air-newzealand-highlights-value-of-a-successful-self-service-strategy/#
(2011. (2005). (2009). Retrieved from http://www.wikipedia.nytimes. Retrieved 7/23/11 from: http://www.org/wiki/Use_case Yu.usatoday.The New York Times.sita. June 28). May 19). November 2).com/2010/05/20/business/20air. The Final Tollgate: Underutilization of Airport Kiosks.jsp?anchorLocation=DirectURL&title=selfservi ce Sequence Diagram. R. iSixSigma Magazine.com/travel/flights/2010-11-03-bagtags03_ST_N.d.pdf Mouawad.htm 2008 SITA / Air Transport World Passenger Self-Service Survey. (2010. Retrieved from http://en.html Petersen R. (2010. How You Can Still Use Your Frequent Flyer Miles. Airlines may test do-it-yourself traveler bag tagging.executivetravelmagazine.com/i18n/urls/selfService. Retrieved from http://www.com/files/pdf/sixsigmaairline.). Retrieved from http://en.aero/content/passengers-prefer-self-service . Retrieved 7/22/11 from: http://www. (2011.AMERICAN AIRLINES BAGGAGE SYSTEM 53 KirzhnerI. July 26). 1(6).wikipedia. A Waning Star of Air Travel Struggles as a Solo Act. Retrieved 7/23/11 from: http://www.i360institute.com/articles/how-you-can-still-use-your-frequentflyer-miles Self-Service Check-in.org/wiki/Sequence_diagram Use Case.aa. Retrieved from http://www. (n. J.
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