Class Reference

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Definitions and Basics
Comics Cartoon Trade paperback (comics) Graphic novel Webcomic Motion comic Comics Code Authority 1 1 16 20 22 29 35 37 43 43 44 63 65 79 84 84 105 116 129 130 142 144 144 148 150 151 152 161 164 165 169

Awards and Recognition
Harvey Award Ignatz Awards Eisner Award Inkpot Award Doug Wright Award

Literary Theory
Index of literary terms Monomyth Postmodernism Historicity (philosophy) New Journalism Memoir

Visual Theory
Scott McCloud Understanding Comics Reinventing Comics Infinite canvas Will Eisner Comics and Sequential Art Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative Fredric Wertham Seduction of the Innocent

Classic Super Heroes
Action Comics Action Comics 1 Superman Detective Comics Batman Stan Lee Spider-Man Fantastic Four

172 172 178 183 205 211 233 249 265 286 286 298 303 308 308 310 314 318 325 330 336 339 344 357 357 363 366 368 369 371 374 374 377 382

Postmodern Heroes
Frank Miller (comics) David Mazzucchelli Batman: Year One

Classic Innovations and Early Comics
Richard F. Outcault The Yellow Kid Frank King (cartoonist) Gasoline Alley Winsor McCay Little Nemo Gertie the Dinosaur George Herriman Krazy Kat

Postmodern Innovations
Chris Ware Acme Novelty Library Jimmy Corrigan, the Smartest Kid on Earth Here (comic) Kramers Ergot Paper Rad

Historicity, documentary, and memoir
Seth (cartoonist) Josh Neufeld A.D.: New Orleans After the Deluge

Jessica Abel La Perdida

387 390 391 391 397 402 408 410 415 419 422 433 435 437 445 447 447 451 452 456 462 462 468 478 485 490 494 512 523 540 547 561 571 585 590 595

More North American texts and writers for student's choice assignment
Daniel Clowes Ghost World Astro City Charles Burns (cartoonist) Art Spiegelman Maus James Sturm Fun Home Dash Shaw Ben Katchor Chester Brown Joe Matt Pascal Blanchet Adrian Tomine Steve Mumford Joe Sacco Harvey Pekar

UK authors and texts worth noting
Punch (magazine) Grant Morrison The Invisibles Warren Ellis Transmetropolitan Alan Moore V for Vendetta Watchmen Promethea Neil Gaiman The Sandman (Vertigo) Jack Kirby Bob Kane Jerry Siegel Joe Shuster

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 600 616

Article Licenses
License 621


Definitions and Basics
Comics (from the Greek κωμικός, kōmikos "of or pertaining to comedy" from κῶμος - kōmos "revel, komos",[1] via the Latin cōmicus) denotes a hybrid medium having verbal side of its vocabulary tightly tied to its visual side in order to convey narrative or information only, the latter in case of non-fiction comics, seeking synergy by using both visual (non-verbal) and verbal side in interaction. Although some comics are picture-only, pantomime strips, such as The Little King, the verbal side usually expand upon the pictures, but sometimes act in counterpoint.[2] The term derives from the mostly humorous early work in the medium, and came to apply to that form of the medium including those far from comic. The sequential nature of the pictures, and the predominance of pictures over words, distinguishes comics from picture books, although some in comics studies disagree and claim that in fact what differentiates comics from other forms on the continuum from word-only narratives, on one hand, to picture-only narratives, on the other, is social context.[3]

Social context

William M. Conselman and Charles Plumb's Ella Cinders and Chris Crusty (January 24, 1932). Syndicated cartoonists during 1930s and 1940s were given entire pages in the sunday comics section and thus had space to create secondary strips known as toppers.

Comics as a real mass medium started to emerge in the United States in the early 20th century with the newspaper comic strip, where its form began to be standardized (image-driven, speech balloons, etc.), first in Sunday strips and later in daily strips. The combination of words and pictures proved popular and quickly spread throughout the world. Comic strips were soon gathered into cheap booklets and reprint comic books. Original comic books soon followed. Today, comics are found in newspapers, magazines, comic books, graphic novels and on the web. Historically, the form dealt with humorous subject matter, but its scope has expanded to encompass the full range of literary genres. Also see: Comic strip and cartoon. In some circles, comics are still seen as low art,[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] though there are exceptions, such as Krazy Kat[10] and Barnaby. However, such an elitist "low art/high art" distinction doesn't exist in the French-speaking world (and, to some extent, continental Europe), where the bandes dessinées medium as a whole is commonly accepted as "the Ninth Art", is usually dedicated a non-negligible space in bookshops and libraries, and is regularly celebrated in international events such as the Angoulême International Comics Festival. Such distinctions also do not exist in the Japanese manga, the world's largest comics culture.

Comics In the late 20th and early 21st century there has been a movement to rehabilitate the medium. Critical discussions of the form appeared as early as the 1920s,[10] [11] but serious studies were rare until the late 20th century.[12] Though practitioners may eschew formal traditions, they often use particular forms and conventions to convey narration and speech, or to evoke emotional or sensuous responses. Devices such as speech balloons and boxes are used to indicate dialogue and impart establishing information, while panels, layout, gutters and zip ribbons can help indicate the flow of the story. Comics use of text, ambiguity, symbolism, design, iconography, literary technique, mixed media and stylistic elements of art help build a subtext of meanings. Though comics are non-linear structures and can be hard to read sometimes, it is simply presented. However, it depends of the reader's "frame of mind" to read and understand the comic.[13] Different conventions were developed around the globe, from the manga of Japan to the manhua of China and the manhwa of Korea, the comic books of the United States, and the larger hardcover albums in Europe.


Early narratives in art
Comics as an art form established itself in the late 19th and early 20th century, alongside the similar forms of film and animation. The three forms share certain conventions, most noticeably the mixing of words and pictures, and all three owe parts of their conventions to the technological leaps made through the industrial revolution. Though newspapers and magazines first established and popularized comics in the late 1890s, narrative illustration has existed for many centuries. Early precursors of comic as they are known today include Trajan's Column and the work of William Hogarth. Rome's Trajan's Column, dedicated in 113 AD, is an early surviving example of a narrative told through sequential pictures, while Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek friezes, medieval tapestries such as the Bayeux Tapestry and illustrated manuscripts also combine sequential images and words to tell a story. In medieval paintings, many sequential scenes of the same story (usually a Biblical one) appear simultaneously in the same painting (see illustration to left).

Sequential depictions on Trajan's Column

However, these works did not travel to the reader; it took the invention of modern printing techniques to bring the form to a wide audience and become a mass medium.[14] [15] [16]



In Lucas Cranach the Elder's "Adam and Eve" different scenes of the Biblical story are shown in the same painting: on the front, God is admonishing the couple for their sin; in the background to the right are shown the earlier scenes of Eve's creation from Adam's rib and of their being tempted to eat the forbidden fruit; on the left is the later scene of their expulsion from Paradise.

The 15th–18th centuries and printing advances
The invention of the printing press, allowing movable type, established a separation between images and words, the two requiring different methods in order to be reproduced. Early printed material concentrated on religious subjects, but through the 17th and 18th centuries they began to tackle aspects of political and social life, and also started to satirize and caricature. It was also during this period that the speech bubble was developed as a means of attributing dialogue. William Hogarth is often identified in histories of the comics form. His work, A Rake's Progress, was composed of a number of canvases, each reproduced as a print, and the eight prints together Last image in William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress created a narrative. As printing techniques developed, due to the technological advances of the industrial revolution, magazines and newspapers were established. These publications utilized illustrations as a means of commenting on political and social issues, such illustrations becoming known as cartoons in the 1840s. Soon, artists were experimenting with establishing a sequence of images to create a narrative.



While surviving works of these periods such as Francis Barlow's A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish Plot (c.1682) as well as The Punishments of Lemuel Gulliver and A Rake's Progress by William Hogarth (1726), can be seen to establish a narrative over a number of images, it wasn't until the 19th century that the elements of such works began to crystallise into the comic strip. The speech balloon also evolved during this period, from the medieval origins of the phylacter, a label, usually in the form of a scroll, which French Liberty. British Slavery, James Gillray's identified a character either through naming them or using a short text 1792 caricature poking fun at the French to explain their purpose. Artists such as George Cruikshank helped Revolution, anticipates the modern comic strip in codify such phylacters as balloons rather than scrolls, though at this having both separate panels and charactes time they were still called labels. They now represented narative, but speaking via speech balloons. for identification purposes rather than dialogue within the work, and artists soon discarded them in favour of running dialogue underneath the panels. Speech balloons weren't reintroduced to the form until Richard F. Outcault used them for dialogue.[17]

The 19th century: a form established
Rodolphe Töpffer, a Francophone Swiss artist, is seen as the key figure of the early part of the 19th century. Though speech balloons fell from favour during the middle 19th century, Töpffer's sequentially illustrated stories, with text compartmentalized below images, were reprinted throughout Europe and the United States. The lack of copyright laws at the time allowed these pirated editions, and translated versions created a market on both continents for similar works.[18] In 1843 Töpffer formalised his thoughts on the picture story in his considered influential in shaping the comics Essay on Physiognomics: "To construct a picture-story does not mean form. you must set yourself up as a master craftsman, to draw out every potential from your material—often down to the dregs! It does not mean you just devise caricatures with a pencil naturally frivolous. Nor is it simply to dramatize a proverb or illustrate a pun. You must actually invent some kind of play, where the parts are arranged by plan and form a satisfactory whole. You do not merely pen a joke or put a refrain in couplets. You make a book: good or bad, sober or silly, crazy or sound in sense."[19] [20] [21] In 1845 the satirical drawings, which regularly appeared in newspapers and magazines, gained a name: cartoons. (In art, a cartoon is a pencil or charcol sketch to be overpainted.) The British magazine Punch, launched in 1841, referred to its 'humorous pencilings' as cartoons in a satirical reference to the Parliament of the day, who were themselves organising an exhibition of cartoons, or preparatory drawings, at the time. This usage became common parlance, lasting to the present day.[22] Similar magazines containing cartoons in continental Europe included Fliegende Blätter and Le Charivari, while in the U.S. Judge and Puck were popular.[23] 1865 saw the publication of Max and Moritz by Wilhelm Busch by a German newspaper. Busch refined the conventions of sequential art, and his work was a key influence within the form, Rudolph Dirks was inspired by the strip to create The Katzenjammer Kids in 1897.[24]
A page by Rodolphe Töpffer, whose work is


5 It is around this time that Manhua, the Chinese form of comics, started to formalize, a process that lasted up until 1927.[25] The introduction of lithographic printing methods derived from the West was a critical step in expanding the form within China during the early 20th century. Like Europe and the United States, satirical drawings were appearing in newspapers and periodicals, initially based on works from those countries. One of the first magazines of satirical cartoons was based on the United Kingdom's Punch, snappily re-branded as "The China Punch".[25] The first piece drawn by a person of Chinese nationality was "The Situation in the Far East" from Tse Tsan-Tai, printed 1899 in Japan. By the 1920s, a market was established for palm-sized picture books like Lianhuanhua.[26]

In 1884, Ally Sloper's Half Holiday was published, a magazine whose selling point was a strip featuring the titular character, and widely regarded as the first comic strip magazine to feature a recurring character. In 1890, two more comic magazines debuted to the British public, Comic Cuts and Illustrated Chips, establishing the tradition of the British comic as an anthology periodical containing comic strips.[16]
Yellow Kid, created by Richard F. Outcault.

In the United States, R.F. Outcault's work in combining speech balloons and images on Hogan's Alley and The Yellow Kid has been credited as establishing the form and conventions of the comic strip,[27] though academics have uncovered earlier works that combine speech bubbles and a multi image narrative. However, the popularity of Outcalt's work and the position of the strip in a newspaper retains credit as a driving force of the form.[28] [29]



The 20th century and the mass medium
The 1920s and 1930s saw further booms within the industry. In China, a market was established for palm-sized picture books like [26] Lianhuanhua, while the market for comic anthologies in Britain had turned to targeting children through juvenile humor, with The Dandy and The Beano launched. In Belgium, Hergé created the Tintin newspaper strip for a comic supplement; this was successfully collected in a bound album and created a market for further such works. The same period in the United States had seen newspaper strips expand their subject matter beyond humour, with action, adventure and mystery strips launched. The collection of such material also began, with The Funnies, a reprint collection of newspaper strips, published in tabloid size in 1929. A market for such comic books soon followed, and by 1938 publishers were printing original material in the format. It was at this point that Action Comics#1 launched, with Superman as Little Sammy Sneeze (1904–06) by Winsor McCay the cover feature. The popularity of the character swiftly enshrined the superhero as the defining genre of American comics. The genre lost popularity in the 1950s but re-established its domination of the form from the 1960s until the late 20th century. In Japan, a country with a long tradition for illustration and whose writing system evolved from pictures, comics were hugely popular. Referred to as manga, the Japanese form was established after World War II by Osamu Tezuka, who expanded the page count of a work to number in the hundreds, and who developed a filmic style, heavily influenced by the Disney animations of the time. The Japanese market expanded its range to cover works in many genres, from juvenile fantasy through romance to adult fantasies. Japanese manga is typically published in large anthologies, containing several hundred pages, and the stories told have long been used as sources for adaptation into animated film. In Japan, such films are referred to as anime, and many creators work in both forms simultaneously, leading to an intrinsic linking of the two forms. During the latter half of the 20th century comics have become a very popular item for collectors and from the 1970s American comics publishers have actively encouraged collecting and shifted a large portion of comics publishing and production to appeal directly to the collector's community.


7 Writing in 1972, Sir Ernst Gombrich felt Töpffer had evolved a new pictorial language, that of an abbreviated art style, which allowed the audience to fill in gaps with their imagination.[30] The modern double use of the term comic, as an adjective describing a genre, and a noun designating an entire medium, has been criticised as confusing and misleading. In the 1960s and 1970s, underground cartoonists used the spelling comix to distinguish their work from mainstream newspaper strips and juvenile comic books. Their work was written for an adult audience but was usually comedic, so the "comic" label was still appropriate.[31] The term graphic novel was popularized in the late 1970s, having been coined at least two decades previous, to distance the material from this confusion.[32]
Alan Moore, whose works have done much to popularise the medium.

In the 1980s, comics scholarship started to blossom in the U.S.,[33] and a resurgence in the popularity of comics was seen, with Alan Moore and Frank Miller producing notable superhero works and Bill Watterson's Calvin & Hobbes being syndicated.

In 2005, Robert Crumb's work was exhibited in galleries both sides of the Atlantic, and The Guardian newspaper devoted its tabloid supplement to a week long exploration of his work and idioms.[34]

Comics have been presented within a wide number of publishing and typographical formats, from the very short panel cartoon to the more lengthy graphic novel. The cartoon, traditionally containing satirical or humorous content in the manner of those seen in The New Yorker or Private Eye, originate from the mid nineteenth century. This form of comics is still popular, though the last few years has seen a reduction in the number of editorial cartoonists employed in the US media.[35] There is dispute as to whether the cartoon is a form of comics, a precursor, or a related form—but some argue that since the cartoon combines words with image and constructs a narrative, it is a form of comic. The comic strip is simply a sequence of cartoons that unite to tell a story. Originally, the term comic strip applied to any sequence of cartoons, no matter the venue of publication or length of the sequence, but now, mainly in the United States, the term refers to the strips Carl Barks, Donald Duck comics artist, signing published in newspapers as Sunday or daily strips. These strips are autographs in 1994. now typically humorous or satirical strips, such as Hägar the Horrible and Doonesbury, but have often been action themed, educational or even biographical. In the United States the term "comics" is sometimes used to describe the page of a newspaper upon which comic strips are found, with the term "comic" quickly adopting through popular usage to refer to the form rather than the content.[36] [37] Said pages are also referred to as the "funny pages", and comics are hence sometimes called "the funnies".[38] In the United Kingdom, the term comic strip still applies to longer stories that appear in comics, such as 2000 AD or The Beano.



Publication formats
Over time a number of formats have become closely associated with the form, from the comic book to the webcomic. The American comic book originated in the early part of the twentieth century, and grew from magazines that repackaged newspaper comic strips. Eventually, publishers commissioned original work, and the material developed from its humorous origins to encompass adventure stories, romance, war, and superheroes, with the latter genre dominating comic book publishing by the late twentieth century. Though called comic books, these publications are more like magazines, having soft covers printed on glossy paper, with interiors of newsprint or higher grade paper. In Europe, magazines were always a venue for original material in the form, and such comic magazines or comic books soon grew into anthologies that serialized a number of stories. In continental Europe a market soon established itself George Herriman's Krazy Kat (January 6, 1918) to support collections of these strips. All of these publications are generally referred to as "comics" for short, with typical American and British comic books or magazines running 32 pages, including advertisements and letter column. (These are sometimes known as 36-page books, counting the covers.) European comic magazines have wildly varying page numbers, currently ranging mostly between 52 and 120 pages, while European comic albums traditionally had between 32 and 62 pages. In the United States, when a publisher collects previously serialized stories, such a collection is commonly referred to as either a trade paperback or as a graphic novel. These are books, typically squarebound and published with a card cover, containing no advertisements. They generally collect a single story, which has been broken into a number of chapters previously serialized in comic books, with the issues collectively known as a story arc. Such trade paperbacks can contain anywhere from four issues (for example, there is Kingdom Come by Mark Waid and Alex Ross) to as many as twenty (The Death of Superman). In continental Europe, especially Belgium and France, such collections are usually somewhat larger in size and published with a hardback cover, a format established by the Tintin Graphic novels on display for sale in a specialist series in the 1930s. These are referred to as 'comic albums,[39] a term shop. that in the United States refers to anthology books. The United Kingdom has no great tradition of such collections, though during the 1980s Titan publishing launched a line collecting stories previously published in 2000 AD. The graphic novel format is similar to typical book publishing, with works being published in both hardback and paperback editions. The term has proved a difficult one to fully define, and refers not only to fiction but also factual works, and is also used to describe collections of previously serialised works as well as original material. Some publishers distinguish between such material, using the term "original graphic novel" for work commissioned especially for the form. Newspaper strips also get collected, both in Europe and in the United States. In the US, the selection of strips to be reprinted in books has often been somewhat haphazard, but there have been several recent efforts to produce

Comics complete collections of the more popular newspaper strips. In the UK, it is traditional for the children's comics market to release comic annuals, which are hardback books containing strips, as well as text stories and puzzles and games.[40] [41] [42] In the United States, the comic annual was a summer publication, typically an extended comic book, with storylines often linked across a publisher's line of comics. In Japan, comics are usually first serialized in manga magazines and latter compiled in tankōbon format. In South Africa, Supa Strikas, a weekly comic book reaching more than a million readers worldwide, uses advertising embedded in each frame of the comic strip to generate revenue, rather than charging its readers. Webcomics, also known as online Bill Holman's Smokey Stover, an example of a popular American strip translated for publication in France. comics and web comics, are comics that are available on the Internet. Many webcomics are exclusively published online, while some are published in print but maintain a web archive for either commercial or artistic reasons. With the Internet's easy access to an audience, webcomics run the gamut from traditional comic strips to graphic novels and beyond. Webcomics are similar to self-published print comics in that almost anyone can create their own webcomic and publish it on the Web. Currently, there are thousands of webcomics available online, with some achieving popular, critical, or commercial success. The Perry Bible Fellowship is syndicated in print, while Brian Fies' Mom's Cancer won the inaugural Eisner Award for digital comics in 2005 and was subsequently collected and published in hardback. The comics form can also be utilized to convey information in mixed media. For example, strips designed for educative or informative purposes, notably the instructions upon an airplane's safety card. These strips are generally referred to as instructional comics. The comics form is also utilized in the film and animation industry, through storyboarding. Storyboards are illustrations displayed in sequence for the purpose of visualizing an animated or live-action film. A storyboard is essentially a large comic of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand to help the directors and cinematographers visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Often storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. Like many other media, comics can also be self-published. One typical format for self-publishers and aspiring professionals is the minicomic, typically small, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. These are a common inexpensive way for those who want to make their own comics on a very small budget, with mostly informal means of distribution. A number of cartoonists have started this way and gone on to more traditional types of publishing, while other more established artists continue to produce minicomics on the side.




Artistic medium
Defining comics
Scholars disagree on the definition of comics; some claim its printed format is crucial, some emphasize the interdependence of image and text, and others its sequential nature. The term as a reference to the medium has also been disputed. In 1996, Will Eisner published Graphic Storytelling, in which he defined comics as "the printed arrangement of art and balloons in sequence, particularly in comic books."[43] Eisner's earlier, more influential definition from Comics and Sequential Art (1985) described the technique and structure of comics as sequential art, "the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea."[44] In Understanding Comics (1993) Scott McCloud defined sequential art and comics as "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer."[45] this definition excludes single-panel illustrations such as The Far Side, The Family Circus and most political cartoons from the category, classifying those as cartoons. By contrast, The Comics Journal's "100 Best Comics of the 20th Century",[46] included the works of several single-panel cartoonists and a caricaturist, and academic study of comics has included political cartoons.[47]

Will Eisner, who established the term sequential art and is considered to have popularized the graphic novel.

R. C. Harvey, in his essay Comedy at the Juncture of Word and Image, offered a competing definition in reference to McCloud's: "... comics consist of pictorial narratives or expositions in which words (often lettered into the picture area within speech balloons) usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa."[48] This, however, ignores the existence of pantomime comics, such as Carl Anderson's Henry.[49] Most agree that animation, which creates the optical illusion of movement within a static physical frame, is a separate form, though ImageTexT, a peer-reviewed academic journal focusing on comics, accepts submissions relating to animation as well,[50] and the third annual Conference on Comics at the University of Florida focused on comics and animation.[51]



Art styles
While almost all comics art is in some sense abbreviated, and also while every artist who has produced comics work brings their own individual approach to bear, some broader art styles have been identified. Comic strip artists Cliff Sterrett and Gus Arriola often used unusual, colorful backgrounds, sometimes veering into abstract art. The basic styles have been identified as realistic and cartoony, with a huge middle ground for which R. Fiore has coined the phrase liberal. Fiore has also expressed distaste with the terms realistic and cartoony, preferring the terms literal and freestyle, respectively.[52] Scott McCloud has created The Big Triangle [53][54] as a tool for thinking about comics art. He places the realistic representation in the bottom left corner, with iconic representation, or cartoony art, in the bottom right, and a third identifier, abstraction of image, at the apex of the triangle. This allows placement and grouping of artists by triangulation. • The cartoony style uses comic effects and a variation of line widths for expression. Characters tend to have rounded, simplified anatomy. Noted exponents of this style are Carl Barks and Jeff Smith.[52]

Scott McCloud, whose work Understanding Comics identified the different styles of art used within comics.

• The realistic style, also referred to as the adventure style is the one developed for use within the adventure strips of the 1930s. They required a less cartoony look, focusing more on realistic anatomy and shapes, and used the illustrations found in pulp magazines as a basis.[55] This style became the basis of the superhero comic book style, since Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel originally worked Superman up for publication as an adventure strip.[56] McCloud also notes that in several traditions, there is a tendency to have the main characters drawn rather simplistic and cartoony, while the backgrounds and environment are depicted realistically. Thus, he argues, the reader easily identifies with the characters, (as they are similar to one's idea of self), whilst being immersed into a world, that's three-dimensional and textured.[54] Good examples of this phenomenon include Herge's The Adventures of Tintin (in his "personal trademark" Ligne claire style), Will Eisner's Spirit and Osamu Tezuka's Buddha, among many others.

As noted above, two distinct definitions have been used to define comics as an art form: the combination of both word and image; and the placement of images in sequential order. Both definitions are lacking, in that the first excludes any sequence of wordless images; and the second excludes single panel cartoons such as editorial cartoons. The purpose of comics is certainly that of narration, and so that must be an important factor in defining the art form. Comics, as sequential art, emphasise the pictorial representation of a narrative. This means comics are not an illustrated version of standard literature, and while some critics argue that they are a hybrid form of art and literature, others contend comics are a new and separate art; an integrated whole, of words and images both, where the pictures do not just depict the story, but are part of the telling. In comics, creators transmit expression through arrangement and juxtaposition of either pictures alone, or word(s) and picture(s), to build a narrative. The narration of a comic is set out through the layout of the images, and while, as in films, there may be many people who work on one work, one vision of the narrative guides the work. Artists can use the layout of images on a page to convey passage of time, build suspense or highlight action.[57] For a fuller exploration of the language, see Comics vocabulary.



Comic creation
Comics artists usually sketch a drawing in pencil before going over the drawing in India ink, using either a dip pen or a brush. Artists may also use a lightbox to create the final image in ink. Some artists, Brian Bolland for example,[58] use computer graphics, with the published work as the first physical appearance of the artwork. By many definitions (including McCloud's, above) the definition of comics extends to digital media such as webcomics and the mobile comic. The nature of the comics work being created determines the number of people who work on its creation, with successful comic strips and comic books being produced through a studio system, in which an artist assembles a team of assistants to help create the work. However, works from independent companies, self-publishers or those of a more personal nature can be produced by a single creator. Within the comic book industry of the United States, the studio system has come to be the main method of creation. Through its use by the industry, the roles have become heavily codified, and the managing of the studio has become the company's responsibility, with an editor discharging the management duties. The editor assembles a number of creators and oversees the work to publication. Any number of people can assist in the creation of a comic book in this way, from a plotter, a breakdown artist, a penciller, an inker, a scripter, a letterer and a colorist, with some roles being performed by the same person. In contrast, a comic strip tends to be the work of a sole creator, usually termed a cartoonist. However, it is not unusual for a cartoonist to employ the studio method, particularly when a strip become successful. Mort Walker employed a studio, while Bill Watterson eschewed the studio method, preferring to create the strip himself. Gag, political and editorial cartoonists tend to work alone as well, though a cartoonist may use assistants.

Artists use a variety of pencils, paper, typically Bristol board and a waterproof ink. When inking, many artists preferred to use a Winsor & Newton Series 7, #3 brush as the main tool, which could be used in conjunction with other brushes, dip pens, a fountain pen and/or a variety of technical pens or markers. Mechanical tints can be employed to add grey tone to an image. An artist might paint with acrylics, gouache, poster paints or watercolors. Color can also be achieved through crayons, pastels or colored pencils. Eraser, rulers, templates, set squares and a T-square assist in creating lines and shapes. A drawing table provides an angled work surface with lamps sometimes attached to the table. A light box allows an artist to trace his pencil work when inking, allowing for a looser finish. Knives and scalpels fill a variety of needs, including cutting board or scraping off mistakes. A cutting mat aids paper trimming. Process white is a thick opaque white material for covering mistakes. Adhesives and tapes help composite an image from different sources.

Computer generated comics
Computers dramatically changed the industry, and today many cartoonists and illustrators create digital illustrations using computers, graphics tablets and scanners. Digital art has replaced traditional pen-and-ink drawings on an increasing number of comic books and strips. Historically, the first fully computer-generated comics were Shatter by Peter B. Gillis and Mike Saenz in 1985, and Batman: Digital Justice by Pepe Moreno in 1990. Some illustrators do a pencil sketch, scan it and then use different software programs to execute the finished art, enlarging sections of the drawing for detailed close work. To create comic book covers, Jim McDermott transfers his drawings to his computer and then develops digital paintings simulating the appearance of acrylic or oil paintings. Dave McKean also has combined both traditional and digital methods. Lackadaisy creator Tracy Butler explained her method: When doing linework, my preference is to go about it the old-fashioned way with a simple mechanical pencil and some sturdy paper. Once a page is fully pencilled, I scan it and begin working digitally on the cleanup,

Comics lighting and toning. For this, I generally rely on Adobe Photoshop, a trusty tablet and pen, and a lot of coffee.[59] [60] In 1998, Pete Nash displayed fully digitized artwork on his Striker comic strip for The Sun.[61] Computers are now widely used for both coloring and lettering, forcing some comic book letterers to look elsewhere for work. Snuffy Smith cartoonist Fred Lasswell, a prolific inventor and early adopter of new technology, was one of the first cartoonists to email comic strips to King Features Syndicate and also pioneered the use of computer-generated lettering. On the comic strip Blondie, computer technology makes it possible for the writer Dean Young, the cartoonist John Marshall and the art assistant Frank Cummings to collaborate even though they live in three different states. Marshall's studio is in Binghamton, New York and Cummings lives in Birmingham, Alabama, while Young alternates between Vermont and Florida. To capture the finely polished inking details seen in Blondie, Marshall works on a Wacom tablet linked to his Macintosh. First he draws a rough, sent to Young for review, and then it's back to the computer for the finished art, delivered electronically to King Features.[62] Artist Sophy Khon from Up Up Down Down [63] uses Manga Studio, which is just one of a number of software packages specifically aimed at creating web comics in a fast and easy manner.


In higher education
A growing number of universities around the world are recognizing the academic legitimacy of Comics studies, leading to a greater amount of comics courses being offered at the college level.[64]

[1] "comic adjective" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Surrey Libraries. 21 April 2008 <> [2] Teresa Grainger (2004). "Art, Narrative and Childhood" Literacy 38 (1), 66–67. doi:10.1111/j.0034-0472.2004.03801011_2.x [3] "Inventing Comics: Scott McCloud’s Definition of Comics (first published in the Comics Journal #234, June 2001) Chapter 5" (http:/ / www. hicksville. co. nz/ Inventing Comics 5. htm). . Retrieved 2009-11-23. [4] Dowd, Douglas Bevan; Hignite, Todd (2006). Strips, Toons, and Bluesies: Essays in Comics and Culture. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568986211. [5] Varnedoe, Kirk; Gopnik, Adam (1990). Modern Art and Popular Culture: Readings in High & Low. Abrams in association with the Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0870703560. [6] Bollinger, Tim (2000). Nga Pakiwaituhi o Aotearoa: New Zealand Comics, Horrocks, Dylan (ed.). ed. Comics in the Antipodes: a low art in a low place. Hicksville Press. ISBN 0-473-06708-0. [7] Gold, Glen David (2005). Masters of American Comics, Carlin, John, Karasik, Paul & Walker, Brian (ed.). ed. Jack Kirby. Yale University Press. pp. 262. ISBN 030011317X. [8] Fielder, Leslie (2004) [1955]. Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium, Heer, Jeet & Worcester, Kent (ed.). ed. The Middle Against Both Ends. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 132. ISBN 1578066875. [9] Groensteen, Thierry (2000). Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics, Anne Magnussen & Hans-Christian Christiansen (ed.). ed. Why are Comics Still in Search of Cultural Legitimization?. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772895802. [10] Gilbert Seldes, The 7 Lively Arts, Harper, 1924, ASIN B000M1MMBC [11] Martin Sheridan, Comics and their Creators, Ralph T. Hale and Company, 1942, ASIN B000Q8QGC2 [12] Dez Skinn, Comic Art Now, Collins Design, 2008, ISBN 978-0061447396. [13] Scott McCloud, Understanding Comics, Harper, 1994, ISBN 978-0060976255 [14] Perry & Aldridge, 1989. p.11 [15] McCloud, 1993. pp.11-14 [16] Sabin, 1993. pp.13-14 [17] Smolderen, Thierry (Summer, 2006) "Of Labels, Loops, and Bubbles: Solving the Historical Puzzle of the Speech Balloon". Comic Art 8. pp.90-112 [18] Beerbohm, Robert (2003) "The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck Part III" (http:/ / scoop. diamondgalleries. com/ scoop_article. asp?ai=2808& si=124). The Search For Töpffer In America. . Retrieved May 30, 2005. [19] Translated by Weiss, E. in Enter: The Comics, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp.4. (1969) [20] Original French, extract (http:/ / www. amazon. fr/ dp/ 2841620751)

[21] Original French, extract (http:/ / www. lekti-ecriture. com/ editeurs/ Essai-de-physiognomonie. html) [22] Varnum & Gibbons, 2001. pp.77-78 [23] Gordon, Ian (2002). "Comics" (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_g1epc/ is_tov/ ai_2419100313). St James Encyclopedia of pop culture (2002). . Retrieved May 30, 2005. [24] "comic strip" (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 65/ co/ comicstr. html). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. . Retrieved June 22, 2005. [25] Wong, Wendy Siuyi (2002). Hong Kong Comics: A History of Manhua. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-269-0. [26] Lent, John A. [2001] (2001) Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824824717 [27] Sabin, 1993. pp.133-134 [28] Marschall, Richard (February, 1989). "Oh You Kid". The Comics Journal 127, p. 72-7 [29] Walker, Brian (2004) the comics: Before 1945. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (United States). ISBN 9780810949706 [30] Gombrich, E.H. (1972). Art and illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-691-01750-6. [31] Arnold, 2001. [32] Var. (2003-4) "The history of the term 'graphic novel' ..." (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080323155517/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ rucervine/ ). As Archived At . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. geocities. com/ rucervine/ ) on 2008-03-23. . Retrieved June 26, 2005. [33] Taylor, Laurie; Martin, Cathlena; & Houp, Trena (2004) "Introduction" (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ imagetext/ archives/ exhibit1/ introduction. shtml). ImageTexT Exhibit 1 (Fall 2004). . Retrieved June 26, 2005. [34] Var. (March 7–11, 2005) "G2 in Crumbland" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ arts/ crumb/ 0,15829,1430764,00. html). The Guardian Newspaper Special Report (London). . Retrieved June 26, 2005. [35] Chris Lamb, Save the editorial cartoonists (http:/ / www. dmoma. org/ lobby/ exhibitions/ presidentially_speaking/ lamb_essay. html), February 18, 2004. The Digital Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 2007-06-06. [36] Sabin, 1993. pp.137-139 [37] Bell, John and Viau, Michel (2002). "Emergence of the Comic Book, 1929-1940" (http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca/ comics/ 027002-8200-e. html). Beyond the Funnies. . Retrieved May 30, 2005. [38] Harvey, R.C. (1994). The art of the funnies: An aesthetic history. University Press of Mississippi [39] Ferguson, Andrew (1999). "Tintin Books - US/English editions" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050212164152/ http:/ / www. princeton. edu/ ~ferguson/ adw/ tintin/ biblio. htm). Hergé and Tintin. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. princeton. edu/ ~ferguson/ adw/ tintin/ biblio. htm) on February 12, 2005. . Retrieved June 25, 2005. [40] Ezard, John (December 24, 2005) "They dealt with Dan. Now Dana and Yasmin target Dennis" The Guardian. p.7 [41] Jones, Gwyn (February 18, 2006) "Beano! It's just Dandy to have an Eagle eye..." The Independent. p.20 [42] Brown, Michael (December 7, 2002) "Review: Children's history: Real life" The Guardian. p.36 [43] Eisner, Will (1996). Graphic Storytelling. Poorhouse Press. ISBN 0-9614728-2-0. [44] Eisner, Will (1990 Expanded Edition, reprinted 2001). Comics & Sequential Art. Poorhouse Press. ISBN 0-9614728-1-2. [45] McCloud, 1993. p.7-9 [46] Spurgeon, Tom et al. (February 1999) "Top 100 (English Language) Comics of the Century". The Comics Journal 210. [47] (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ imagetext/ archives/ v3_1/ reviews/ mayne. shtml) [48] Varnum & Gibbons, 2001. p.76 [49] Markstein, Don. Don Markstein's Toonopedia (http:/ / www. toonopedia. com/ henry. htm). [50] (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ imagetext/ about. shtml) [51] (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ comics/ 2004/ ) [52] Fiore, 2005. p.1 (http:/ / www. tcj. com/ messboard/ ubb/ Forum2/ HTML/ 003611. html) [53] http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ 4-inventions/ triangle/ index. html [54] McCloud, 1993. [55] Fiore (http:/ / www. tcj. com/ messboard/ ubb/ Forum2/ HTML/ 003611. html). [56] Santos, 1998. The Golden Era... June 1938 to 1945, Part I (http:/ / www. dereksantos. com/ comicpage/ gold. html) [57] Driest, Joris (2005). " Subjective Narration in Comics (http:/ / asterix. library. uu. nl/ files/ scrol/ r66/ PDF-Subjective narration in comics. pdf)". Retrieved May 26, 2005. PDF [58] (2003), "The Moles Interview No 5: Brian Bolland" (http:/ / www. theresidents. co. uk/ articles/ interviews/ bolland. htm). . Retrieved June 26, 2005. [59] Brayshaw, Christopher (June, 1997) " The Dave McKean interview (http:/ / www. bulletsofautumn. com/ mckean-art/ readings/ 1997_Comics_Journal_Interview. html)" The Comics Journal 196. [60] "Interview with Tracy Butler", March 2, 2009. (http:/ / www. netmag. co. uk/ zine/ home/ the-brains-behind-lackadaisy) [61] BBC Staff (2005-05-15). "Whistle blown on Striker magazine" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ kent/ 4549375. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved January 2, 2010. [62] Young, Dean. "Blondie 75 Years", Tampa Bay Magazine, July-August 2006. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1fsDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA66& lpg=PA66& dq=tampa+ "dean+ young"& source=bl& ots=c_mavy_Lc_& sig=93Q0MlXN5GVKVa_tXv4MAk1cj9g& hl=en& ei=FUMZS5a5BubJlQfwqvG2BA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=11& ved=0CDEQ6AEwCg#v=onepage& q=& f=false)


[63] http:/ / upup-downdown. com/ [64] Cornwell, Lisa (2007-12-15). "Schools add, expand comics arts classes" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ education/ 2007-12-15-comicsclasses_N. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 2008-11-11.


• Fiore. R (2005). "Adventures in Nomenclature: Literal, Liberal and Freestyle" ( ubb/Forum2/HTML/003611.html). The Comics Journal Message Board. Retrieved June 14, 2005. • Kunzle, David (1973). The Early Comic Strip; Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadsheet from c.1450 to 1825. University of California Press. • McCloud, Scott (1993). Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Kitchen Sink Press. ISBN 0-87816-243-7. • Perry, George; Aldridge, Alan (1989 reprint with introduction). The Penguin Book Of Comics. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-002802-1. • Sabin, Roger (1993). Adult Comics An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04419-7. • Santos, Derek (1998) "Comic History" ( The Comic Page. Retrieved June 26, 2005. • Varnum, Robin & Gibbons, Christina T. editors (2001). The Language of Comics: Word and Image. University Press Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-414-7. • Williams, Jeff. "Comics: A tool of subversion?" ( Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 2(6) (1994) 129-146

Further reading
• David Carrier, The Aesthetics of Comics (, Penn State Press, 2002 ISBN 0-271-02188-8 • Will Eisner Comics and Sequential Art Poorhouse Press 1985 ISBN 0-9614728-0-4 • Will Eisner Graphic Storytelling Poorhouse Press 1995 ISBN 0-9614728-3-9 • Gary Groth & R. Fiore The New Comics Berkley Books 1988 ISBN 0425113663 • Maurice Horn ed. The World Encyclopedia of Comics Avon 1977 ISBN 0877543232 • Scott McCloud Understanding Comics - the Invisible Art HarperCollins 1994 ISBN 0-613-02782-5 • Roger Sabin Comics, Comix and Graphic Novels: a History of Comic Art Phaidon 1996 ISBN 0714839930 • Coulton Waugh The Comics The Macmillan Company 1947 ISBN 0878054995 • Richard O'Brien The Golden Age of Comics, Ballantine Books, 1977. ISBN 0345255356

External links
• • • • • • • • • Comics ( at the Open Directory Project Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum ( Michigan State University Comic Art Collection ( Comic Art Collection ( at the University of Missouri Comic Book Database ( Grand Comics Database ( Comics Archives and Editorial Cartoons ( Cartoon Art Museum of San Francisco ( Time Archives' Collection of Comics (,21428,c_comics,00. shtml/)

• GetSlabbed Collector Guide: Information on collecting comics ( php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=29&Itemid=62)

Comics • Historieta y Animación ( • Download Comics for Free ( • "Comics in the National Art Library" ( index.html). Prints & Books. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2011-03-15. • Dialy Fresh Comics Strips (


The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. The artists who draw cartoons are known as cartoonists. The term has evolved over time. The original meaning was in fine art of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it referred to a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting or tapestry. In the 19th century, it came to refer to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers, and in the early 20th century it was sometimes used to refer to comic strips.[1] In modern usage, it commonly refers to single-panel drawings (also known as gag cartoons) and animation for film and television.

Fine art
A cartoon (from the Italian "cartone" and Dutch word "karton", meaning strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size Example of a modern cartoon. The text was excerpted by cartoonist Greg Williams from the Wikipedia article Dr. Seuss. drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).



Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design; a bag of soot was then patted or "pounced" over the cartoon, held against the wall to leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing"). Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London and examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually coloured, were followed by eye by the weavers on the loom.[1]

Cartoon for stained glass window of Daniel by Edward Burne-Jones, 1873.

Print media
In modern print media, a cartoon is a piece of art, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843 when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages,[2] particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster. The original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath or (much less often) a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others. Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself). The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti and Chon Day.
John Leech's "Cartoon no.1: Substance and Shadow" (1843) satirized preparatory cartoons for frescoes in the Palace of Westminster, creating the modern meaning of "cartoon".

Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus and Virgil Partch began as a magazine gag cartoonists and moved on to do syndicated comic strips. Noteworthy in the area of newspaper cartoon illustration is Richard Thompson, who illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip. Editorial cartoons are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social and/or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and, sometimes, multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike

Cartoon Peters and Gerald Scarfe.[1] Comic strips, also known as "cartoon strips" in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States they are not as commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are usually referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Noteworthy cartoonists of humor strips include Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson.[1]


Books with cartoons are usually reprints of newspaper cartoons. On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book publication, as was the case with Think Small, a 1967 promotional book distributed as a giveaway by Volkswagen dealers. Bill Hoest and other cartoonists of that decade drew cartoons showing Volkswagens, and these were published along with humorous automotive essays by such humorists as H. Allen Smith, Roger Price and Jean Shepherd. The book's design juxtaposed each cartoon alongside a photograph of the cartoon's creator.

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, "cartoon" came to refer to animation, and the word "cartoon" is currently used to refer to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While "animation" designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used in reference to TV programs and short films for children featuring anthropomorphized animals, superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists and related genres. At the end of the 1980s, the word "cartoon" was shortened, and the word "toon" came into usage with the live action/animated feature Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), followed two years later by the TV series Tiny Toon Adventures (1990).
An animated cartoon horse, drawn by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.

[1] Becker, Stephen. Comic Art in America. Simon & Schuster, 1959. [2] "History of the Cartoon" (http:/ / punch. co. uk/ cartoonhistory02. html). .



Further reading
• Robinson, Jerry, The Comics: An Illustrated History of Comic Strip Art (1974) G.P. Putnam's Sons • Horn, Maurice, The World Encyclopedia of Comics (1976) Chelsea House, (1982) Avon • Blackbeard, Bill, ed. The Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics (1977) Smithsonian Inst. Press/Harry Abrams

External links
• Dan Becker, History of Cartoons ( • Marchand collection ( standard_cal=-1&collection=-1&index=0&per_page=24&query=cartoon) cartoons & photos • Stamp Act 1765 ( with British & American cartoons • Slavery ( • Lilly Library collection ( pre 1865 • Harper's Weekly ( 150 cartoons on elections 1860-1912; Reconstruction topics; Chinese exclusion; plus American Political Prints from the Library of Congress, 1766–1876 • Elections 1860-1912 ( as covered by Harper's Weekly; news, editorials, cartoons (many by Thomas Nast) • Thomas Nast cartoons ( strongly pro-GOP, pro-Reconstruction, anti-South, anti-Irish, & anti-Catholic • more Nast cartoons ( • still more Nast ( "Graphic Witness" political caricatures in history ( Gilded Age & Progressive Era ( Cartoons, industry, labor, politics, prohibition from Ohio State University political cartoons (''Puck'') Hawaii editorial cartoons ( Keppler cartoons ( 1892 political cartoons ( Opper cartoons for 1900 election ( ridiculing TR and McKinley as pawns of Trusts and Sen. Hanna WWI cartoons ( Ding Darling editorial cartoons 1910-1950 ( New Deal Cartoons ( systematic collection of original editorial cartoons from many newspapers; research resource on New Deal by year and topic 1933-45 Lindbergh & America First ( with cartoons & graphics & audio speeches Dr Seuss cartoons from WW2 ( Harry Truman caricatured ( Oliphant's 1970s; political ( Herblock ( 1920-s 2000s; editorial cartoons from liberal perspective current editorial cartoons (

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• Index of cartoonists in the Fred Waring Collection ( toon.html#index) • International Society for Humor Studies (

Trade paperback (comics)


Trade paperback (comics)
In comics, a trade paperback (often shortened to TPB or trade) is a collection of stories originally published in comic books, reprinted in book format, usually capturing one story arc from a single title or a series of stories with a connected story arc or common theme from one or more titles. Although trade paperback is actually a publishing term that refers to any book with a flexible cardstock cover which is larger than the standard mass market paperback format, comics fans unfamiliar with that meaning have come to use the term to refer to the type of material traditionally sold in comics shops in that format: collected editions of previously-serialized stories. The term graphic novel is sometimes used interchangeably, but some people maintain that the terms are distinct, with the difference being that the latter term refers to a square-bound printing with largely original material.[1] Traditionally, a trade paperback will reproduce the stories at the same size as they were originally presented in comic book format; recently, however, certain trades have been published in a smaller, "digest-sized" format, similar in size to a paperback novel. Note that many comics collections are published in hardcover (or in both formats). The bulk of this article applies to both paperback and hardcover collections. In the comics industry, the term "trade paperback market" can be casually used to refer to the market for any collection, regardless of actual cover.

Additions and omissions
A trade paperback will sometimes feature additional artwork, such as alternate cover art or pinup galleries by guest artists, not released in the standard issues. Additional story material that was not available in the series itself may also be included, primarily "preview" or "extra" stories presented exclusively on the Internet or in comics-industry publications such as Wizard (or simply things that are unlikely to be reprinted anywhere else, such as Free Comic Book Day comics). Many feature introductions written by prominent figures, some from outside the world of comics—for instance, The Sandman: Worlds' End features an introduction by Stephen King, the Ultimates 2 book has an introduction by Jonathan Ross and most Hellboy trade paperbacks have included introductions by prominent authors. A common practice is to include an art gallery featuring the artwork of the original comic book covers from which the series was compiled. While there have been exceptions, as a general rule of thumb, trade paperbacks will not feature advertisements, fan mail, special foil or embossed covers. Where the original serialized format included back-up stories not related to the main arc, these may also be omitted, and, in what is now a largely discontinued practice, it was common in older trade paperbacks to use only small excerpts from certain stories, or to omit pages from the main story related to other subplots.

Readers and collectors
For many years, trade paperbacks were mainly used to reprint older comic-book stories that were no longer available to the average reader, when original copies of those stories were scarce and hard to find, and often very expensive when found due to their rarity. However, in the first years of the 21st century, comic book publishers began releasing trade paperbacks of collected story arcs, often within a few months of those stories' publication in comic-book form (and in some cases, within the same month that the final issue was originally released). This was found to be an excellent way to draw new readers to a series—where before, one would have to hunt for individual back issues to catch up on a series, now a reader coming into an already established title could purchase the previous issues in trade paperback form and have access to the entire series' worth of stories to date. As the trade paperback versions are usually cheaper than buying the individual comics and presented without any advertisements, many comic book fans choose to hold off on purchasing the individual issues and only follow the stories when they come out in trade. This can sometimes help a series whose sales are flagging, much like how a film

Trade paperback (comics) that performed poorly in movie theaters can gain new popularity in home video formats; in a few instances, significant trade paperback sales have even revived a series that had been cancelled or slated for cancellation. However, only buying a series in trade format can also hurt a title; despite the growing popularity of the trade paperback, the serialized, individual issues are still considered the primary mode of sale by comics publishers, and if a series is not meeting sales criteria for individual issues, it may face cancellation no matter how well the collected editions are selling. A significant benefit of the trade paperback version is that it is often available in bookstores, from smaller booksellers to the larger suppliers, and other retailers that do not normally carry comic books. Unlike the individual issues, trade paperbacks usually have no particular value to collectors, as they are reprints (which lack the historical significance of the original publication), and they are often kept in print (thus readily available new). However, some trade paperbacks can themselves be noteworthy or scarce, and their value to collectors can go up substantially. Trade paperbacks and graphic novels are the preferred format for circulating library collections, since these collections are focused on patron use and do not have a mission to preserve in original condition for retention or increase in value.[2] [3] Attempts to catalogue and circulate single-issue comics can pose difficult problems [4] and the durability of the trade paperback format is an important consideration for longevity and collection development in public and school libraries. There are some criticisms of trade paperbacks by some writers and artists in recent years. They argue that because of the popularity of trades that they are forced to produce five or six issue arcs simply because this is the ideal size of a trade. In their perspective this can be quite limiting in the length of a story and pacing as the size is now set. This however is also countered by placing several short arcs in one volume and in the case of longer arcs—the Metal Gear Solid comic adaptation was released in two separate trades.


[1] "Creating Comics, Part 4: Comic Books vs. Graphic Novels | Writing Scraps" (http:/ / www. seanjjordan. com/ 2007/ 08/ 06/ creating-comics-part-4-comic-books-vs-graphic-novels/ ). 2007-08-06. . Retrieved 2010-09-10. [2] O’English, Lorena, J. Gregory Matthews, and Elizabeth Blakesley Lindsay. “Graphic Novels in Academic Libraries: From Maus to Manga and Beyond.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 32.2 (2006): 178. [3] Bruggeman, Lora. “Zap! Whoosh! Kerplow! Build High-Quality Graphic Novel Collections with Impact.” School Library Journal 43.1 (1997): 27. [4] Markham, Gary W. “Cataloging the Publications of Dark Horse Comics: One Publisher in an Academic Catalog.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 35:2, 162-169.

Graphic novel


Graphic novel
A graphic novel is a narrative work in which the story is conveyed to the reader using sequential art in either an experimental design or in a traditional comics format.[1] The term is employed in a broad manner, encompassing non-fiction works and thematically linked short stories as well as fictional stories across a number of genres.[2] Graphic novels are typically bound in longer and more durable formats than familiar comic magazines, using the same materials and methods as printed books, and they are generally sold in bookstores and specialty comic book shops rather than at newsstands. Such books have gained increasing acceptance as desirable materials for libraries which once ignored comic books.

The term graphic novel is not strictly defined and is sometimes used, controversially, to imply subjective distinctions in artistic quality between graphic novels and other kinds of comics. It suggests a Trade paperback of Will Eisner's A Contract with complete story that has a beginning, middle and end, as opposed to an God (1978). Eisner is mistakenly credited with ongoing series. It can also imply a story that is outside the genres having coined the term "graphic novel". commonly associated with comic books, or that deals with more mature themes. It is sometimes applied to works that fit this description even though they are serialized in traditional comic book format. The term is sometimes used to disassociate works from the juvenile or humorous connotations of the terms comics and comic book, implying that the work is more serious, mature, or literary than traditional comics. Following this reasoning, the French term Bande Dessinée is occasionally applied, by art historians and others schooled in fine arts, to dissociate comic books in the fine-art tradition from those of popular entertainment, even though in the French language the term has no such connotation and applies equally to all kinds of comic strips and books. However, the medium of bande dessinée is considered a generally more respectable, at times even "high" art form in both France and Belgium, while in the United States "comics" are often considered "low" popular mass entertainment. In the publishing trade, the term graphic novel is sometimes extended to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, and even non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels" (similar to the manner in which dramatic stories are included in "comic" books). It is also sometimes used to create a distinction between works created as stand-alone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form.[3] [4] Whether manga, which has had a much longer history of both novel-like publishing and production of comics for adult audiences, should be included in the term is not always agreed upon. Likewise, in continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi (1967) by Guido Buzzelli,[5] and collections of comic strips have been commonly published in hardcover volumes, often called "albums", since the end of the 19th century (including Franco-Belgian comics series such as "The Adventures of Tintin" and "Lieutenant Blueberry", and Italian series such as "Corto Maltese").

Graphic novel


As the exact definition of graphic novel is debatable, the origins of the artform itself are open to interpretation. Cave paintings may have told stories, and artists and artisans beginning in the Middle Ages produced tapestries and illuminated manuscripts that told or helped to tell narratives. The first Western artist who interlocked lengthy writing with specific images was most likely William Blake (1757–1826). Blake created several books in which the pictures and the "storyline" are inseparable in his prophetic books such as Marriage of Heaven and Hell. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, the 1837 English translation of the 1833 Swiss publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end.[6] The United States has also had a long tradition of collecting comic strips into book form. While these collections and longer-form comic books are not considered graphic novels even by modern standards, they are early steps in the development of the graphic novel.

1920s to 1960s
The 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival.[7] Among Masereel's works were Passionate Journey (1926, reissued 1985 as Passionate Journey: A Novel in 165 Woodcuts ISBN 978-0-87286-174-9). American Lynd Ward also worked in this tradition, publishing the first wordless, woodcut-picture novel, Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross' He Done Her Wrong (1930), a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, and Une Semaine de Bonté (1934), a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst. In 1941, author/illustrator Virginia Lee Burton published Calico the Wonder Horse, or the Saga of Stewy Slinker. Intrigued by her nine-year old son's fascination with comic books, she had tailored the book to his interest, creating an early graphic novel[8] The 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that primarily adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. The 1950s saw this format broadened, with popular movies being similarly adapted. By the 1960s, British publisher IPC had started to produce a pocket-sized comic-book line, the "Super Library", that featured war and spy stories told over roughly 130 pages.[9] In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab.[10] [11] In 1955, EC Comics devised the label "Picto-Fiction" when it attempted to graduate from the conventional comic book format to typeset graphic stories with a line of experimental magazines—Confessions Illustrated, Terror Illustrated, Shock Illustrated and Crime Illustrated.

The digest-sized "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust (1950), one precursor of the graphic novel. Cover art by Matt Baker and Ray Osrin.

Graphic novel By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name is... Savage (Adventure House Press) in 1968 — the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant also argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130-146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel".[12] Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting serials of popular strips such as The Adventures of Tintin or Asterix had allowed a system to develop which saw works developed as long form narratives but pre-published as serials; in the 1970s this move in turn allowed creators to become marketable in their own right, auteurs capable of sustaining sales on the strength of their name. By 1969, the author John Updike, who had entertained ideas of becoming a cartoonist in his youth, addressed the Bristol Literary Society, on "the death of the novel". Updike offered examples of new areas of exploration for novelists, declaring "I see no intrinsic reason why a doubly talented artist might not arise and create a comic strip novel masterpiece".[13]


Modern era
Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin's Blackmark (1971), a science fiction/sword-and-sorcery paperback published by Bantam Books, did not use the term originally; the back-cover blurb of the 30th-anniversary edition (ISBN 978-1-56097-456-7) calls it, retroactively, "the very first American graphic novel". The Academy of Comic Book Arts presented Kane with a special 1971 Shazam Award for what it called "his paperback comics novel". Whatever the nomenclature, Blackmark is a 119-page story of comic-book art, with captions and word balloons, published in a traditional book format. It is also the first with an original heroic-adventure character conceived expressly for this form. The first six issues of writer-artist Jack Katz's 1974 Comics and Comix Co. series The First Kingdom were collected as a trade paperback (Pocket Books, March 1978, ISBN 978-0-671-79016-5),[14] which described itself as "the first graphic novel". Issues of the comic had described themselves as "graphic prose", or simply as a novel. European creators were also experimenting with the longer narrative in comics form. In the United Kingdom, Raymond Briggs was producing works such as Father Christmas (1972) and The Snowman (1978), which he himself described as being from the "bottomless abyss of Detail from Blackmark (1971) by scripter Archie Goodwin and artist-plotter Gil Kane. strip cartooning", although they, along with such other Briggs works as the more mature When the Wind Blows (1982), have been re-marketed as graphic novels in the wake of the term's popularity. Briggs notes, however, "I don't know if I like that term too much".[15]

Graphic novel


First self-proclaimed graphic novels: 1976-1978
In 1976, the term "graphic novel" appeared in print to describe three separate works. Bloodstar by Richard Corben (adapted from a story by Robert E. Howard) used the term to define itself on its dust jacket and introduction. George Metzger's Beyond Time and Again, serialized in underground comics from 1967 to 1972, was subtitled "A Graphic Novel" on the inside title page when collected as a 48-page, black-and-white, hardcover book published by Kyle & Wheary. The digest-sized Chandler: Red Tide (1976) by Jim Steranko, designed to be sold on newsstands, used the term "graphic novel" in its introduction and "a visual novel" on its cover, although Chandler is more commonly considered an illustrated novel than a work of comics. The following year, Terry Nantier, who had spent his teenage years living in Paris, returned to the United States and formed Flying Buttress Publications, later to incorporate as NBM Publishing (Nantier, Beall, Minoustchine), and published Racket Rumba, a 50-page spoof of the noir-detective genre, written and drawn by the single-name French artist Loro. Nantier followed this with Enki Bilal's The Call of the Stars. The company marketed these works as "graphic albums".[16]

Cover of Bloodstar (1976) by Robert E. Howard and artist Richard Corben.

Similarly, Sabre: Slow Fade of an Endangered Species by writer Don McGregor and artist Paul Gulacy (Eclipse Books, August 1978) — the first graphic novel sold in the newly created "direct market" of United States comic-book shops — was called a "graphic album" by the author in interviews, though the publisher dubbed it a "comic novel" on its credits page. "Graphic album" was also the term used the following year by Gene Day for his hardcover short-story collection Future Day (Flying Buttress Press). Another early graphic novel, though it carried no self-description, was The Silver Surfer (Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books, August 1978), by Marvel Comics' Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Significantly, this was published by a traditional book publisher and distributed through bookstores, as was cartoonist Jules Feiffer's Tantrum (Alfred A. Knopf, 1979)[17] described on its dustjacket as a "novel-in-pictures".

Graphic novel


Adoption of the term
Hyperbolic descriptions of longer comic books as "novels" appear on covers as early as the 1940s. Early issues of DC Comics' All-Flash Quarterly, for example, described their contents as "novel-length stories" and "full-length four chapter novels."[18] In its earliest known citation, Richard Kyle used the term "graphic novel" in CAPA-ALPHA #2 (November 1964), a newsletter published by the Comic Amateur Press Alliance, and again in Kyle's magazine Fantasy Illustrated #5 (Spring 1966).[19] Kyle, inspired by European and Japanese graphic albums, used the label to designate comics of an artistically "serious" sort.[20] Following this, Bill Spicer, with Kyle's acknowledgment, edited and published a periodical titled Graphic Story Magazine in the fall of 1967.[19] The Sinister House of Secret Love #2 (Jan. 1972), one of DC Comics' line of extra-length, 48-page comics, specifically used the phrase "a graphic novel of Gothic terror" on its cover.[21] The term "graphic novel" began to grow in popularity months after it appeared on the cover of the trade paperback edition (though not the hardcover edition) of Will Eisner's A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (October 1978). This collection of short stories was a mature, complex work focusing on the lives of ordinary people in the real world, and the term "graphic novel" was intended to distinguish it from traditional comic books, with which it shared a storytelling medium. Eisner cited Lynd Ward's 1930s woodcuts (see above) as an inspiration. The critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to establish the term "graphic novel" in common usage, and many sources have incorrectly credited Eisner with being the first to use it. These included the Time magazine website in 2003, which said in its correction, "Eisner acknowledges that the term 'graphic novel' had been coined prior to his book. But, he says, 'I had not known at the time that someone had used that term before.' Nor does he take credit for creating the first graphic book."[22] One of the earliest contemporaneous applications of the term post-Eisner came in 1979, when Blackmark's sequel — published a year after A Contract with God though written and drawn in the early 1970s — was labeled a "graphic novel" on the cover of Marvel Comics' black-and-white comics magazine Marvel Preview #17 (Winter 1979), where Blackmark: The Mind Demons premiered — its 117-page contents intact, but its panel-layout reconfigured to fit 62 pages. Following this, Marvel from 1982 to 1988 published the Marvel Graphic Novel line of 10"x7" trade paperbacks — although numbering them like comic books, from #1 (Jim Starlin's The Death of Captain Marvel) to #35 (Dennis O'Neil, Mike Kaluta, and Russ Heath's Hitler's Astrologer, starring the radio and pulp fiction character the Shadow, and released in hardcover). Marvel commissioned original graphic novels from such creators as John Byrne, J. M. DeMatteis, Steve Gerber, graphic-novel pioneer McGregor, Frank Miller, Bill Sienkiewicz, Walt Simonson, Charles Vess, and Bernie Wrightson. While most of these starred Marvel superheroes, others, such as Rick Veitch's Heartburst featured original SF/fantasy characters; others still, such as John J. Muth's Dracula, featured adaptations of literary stories or characters; and one, Sam Glanzman's A Sailor's Story, was a true-life, World War II naval tale.
Sabre (1978), one of the first modern graphic novels. Art by Paul Gulacy.

Graphic novel


In the UK, Titan Books held the license to reprint strips from 2000 AD, including Judge Dredd, beginning in 1981, and Robo-Hunter, 1982. The company also published British collections of American graphic novels—including Swamp Thing, printed in black-and-white rather than in color as originally—and of British newspaper strips, including Modesty Blaise and Garth. Igor Goldkind was the marketing consultant who worked at Titan and moved to 2000 AD and by his own account helped to popularize the term "graphic novel" as a way to help sell the trade paperbacks they were publishing. He said he "stole the term outright from Will Eisner" and that his contribution was to "take the badge (today it's called a 'brand') and explain it, contextualise it and sell it convincingly enough so that bookshop keepers, book distributors and the book trade would accept a new category of 'spine-fiction' on their bookshelves".[23]

Cover art for the 1987 U.S. (right) and U.K. (left) collected editions of Watchmen, published by DC Comics and Titan Books

DC Comics likewise began collecting series and published them in book format. Two such collections garnered considerable media attention, and they, along with Art Spiegelman's Pulitzer Prize-winning Maus (1986), helped establish both the term and the concept of graphic novels in the minds of the mainstream public. These were Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), a collection of Frank Miller's four-part comic-book series featuring an older Batman faced with the problems of a dystopian future; and Watchmen (1987), a collection of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' 12-issue limited series in which Moore notes he "set out to explore, amongst other things, the dynamics of power in a post-Hiroshima world".[24] These works and others were reviewed in newspapers and magazines, leading to increased coverage.[25] Sales of graphic novels increased, with Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, for example, lasting 40 weeks on a UK best-seller list.[26]

Criticism of the term
Some in the comics community have objected to the term, "graphic novel" on the grounds that it is unnecessary, or that its usage has been corrupted by commercial interests. Writer Alan Moore believes, "It's a marketing term... that I never had any sympathy with. The term 'comic' does just as well for me... The problem is that 'graphic novel' just came to mean 'expensive comic book' and so what you'd get is people like DC Comics or Marvel Comics—because 'graphic novels' were getting some attention, they'd stick six issues of whatever worthless piece of crap they happened to be publishing lately under a glossy cover and call it The She-Hulk Graphic Novel...."[27] Author Daniel Raeburn wrote, "I snicker at the neologism first for its insecure pretension — the literary equivalent of calling a garbage man a 'sanitation engineer' — and second because a 'graphic novel' is in fact the very thing it is ashamed to admit: a comic book, rather than a comic pamphlet or comic magazine."[28] Writer Neil Gaiman, responding to a claim that he does not write comic books but graphic novels, said the commenter "meant it as a compliment, I suppose. But all of a sudden I felt like someone who'd been informed that she wasn't actually a hooker; that in fact she was a lady of the evening."[29] Responding to writer Douglas Wolk's quip that the difference is between a graphic novel and a comic book is "the binding", Bone creator Jeff Smith said, "I kind of like that answer. Because 'graphic novel'... I don't like that name. It's trying too hard. It is a comic book. But there is a difference. And the difference is, a graphic novel is a novel in the sense that there is a beginning, a middle and an end."[30] Some alternative cartoonists have coined their own terms to describe extended comics narratives. The cover of Daniel Clowes' Ice Haven (2001) describes the book as "a comic-strip novel", with Clowes having noted that he "never saw anything wrong with the comic book".[31] The cover of Craig Thompson's Blankets calls it "an illustrated

Graphic novel novel." When The Comics Journal asked the cartoonist Seth why he added the subtitle "A Picture Novella" to his comic It's a Good Life, If You Don't Weaken, he responded, "I could have just put 'a comic book'... It goes without saying that I didn't want to use the term graphic novel. I just don't like that term".[32]


[1] " graphic novel (http:/ / ed2. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 50097942), a and n." Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, 1993, OED Online, Oxford University Press, 15 Mar. 2000. [2] Weiner, Stephen & Couch, Chris. Faster than a speeding bullet: the rise of the graphic novel, NBM, 2004, ISBN 978-1-56163-368-5 [3] Gertler, Nat; Steve Lieber (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Creating a Graphic Novel. Alpha Books. ISBN 978-1-59257-233-5. [4] Kaplan, Arie (2006). Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed!. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-633-6. [5] A complete edition was published in 1970 before being serialized in the French magazine Charlie Mensuel, as per "Dino Buzzati 1965-1975" (http:/ / www. chez. com/ buzzelli/ 1965-1975. html) (Italian website). Associazione Guido Buzzelli. 2004. . Retrieved 2006-06-21. ( WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3tzl5Pk)); Domingos Isabelinho (2004). "The Ghost of a Character: The Cage by Martin Vaughn-James" (http:/ / www. indyworld. com/ indy/ summer_2004/ isabelinho_cage/ ). Indy Magazine. . Retrieved 2006-04-06. ( WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3uH40uL)). [6] Coville, Jamie. "The History of Comic Books: Introduction and 'The Platinum Age 1897 - 1938'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20030415153354/ www. collectortimes. com/ ~comichistory/ Platinum. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. thecomicbooks. com/ old/ Platinum. html) on April 15, 2003. .. Originally published at defunct site (http:/ / www. collectortimes. com) [7] Sabin, Roger. Adult Comics: An Introduction(Routledge New Accents Library Collection, 2005), p. 291 ISBN 978-0-415-29139-2, ISBN 978-0-415-29139-2 [8] Publisher's Note in the 1997 Houghton Mifflin Company edition, ISBN 978-0-395-85735-9 [9] Fleetway Publications (http:/ / www. comics. org/ publisher/ 608/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [10] Quattro, Ken (2006, n.d.). "Archer St. John & The Little Company That Could" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5ua9KWSn9). Comicartville Library. Archived from [ the original (http:/ / www. comicartville. com/ archerstjohn. htm) on November 28, 2010. . [11] It Rhymes with Lust (St. John, 1950 series) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 317082/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [12] Grant, Steven. "Permanent Damage" (column) #224 (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=15123), Comic Book Resources, December 28, 2005. Accessdate=2007-03-20. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3vLeVvF). [13] Gravett, Paul (2005). Graphic Novels: Stories To Change Your Life (1st ed.). Aurum Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-84513-068-8. [14] Grand Comics Database: The First Kingdom (http:/ / www. comics. org/ series. lasso?SeriesID=12642) [15] Nicholas, Wroe (December 18, 2004). "Bloomin' Christmas" (http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ review/ story/ 0,12084,1375227,00. html). London: The Guardian. . WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3vqF2Ix). [16] Company history page (http:/ / www. nbmpub. com/ history/ about3. html), NBM Publishing, n.d. Accessed August 18, 2010. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3wkdoAn). [17] Tallmer, Jerry. "The Three Lives of Jules Feiffer" (http:/ / www. nyc-plus. com/ nycp1/ thethreelive. html), NYC Plus #1, April 2005. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3xJVhrx). [18] Grand Comics Database: All-Flash (DC, 1941). (http:/ / www. comics. org/ covers. lasso?SeriesID=211) See Issues #2-10. [19] Per Time magazine letter (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ columnist/ arnold/ article/ 0,9565,547796,00. html) ( WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3w0iCkD)) from comics historian and author R. C. Harvey in response to claims in Arnold, Andrew D., "The Graphic Novel Silver Anniversary" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ columnist/ arnold/ article/ 0,9565,542579,00. html) ( WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3wCDWDT)),, November 14, 2003 [20] Gravett, Graphic Novels, p. 3 [21] Cover, The Sinister House of Secret Love #2 (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 75432/ cover/ 4/ ?style=default) at the Grand Comics Database [22] Arnold, Andrew D. (2003-11-21). "A Graphic Literature Library — TIME.comix responds" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ columnist/ arnold/ article/ 0,9565,547796,00. html). . Retrieved 2006-06-21.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3w0iCkD) [23] "Igor Goldkind Interview" (http:/ / www. 2000adreview. co. uk/ features/ interviews/ 2006/ goldkind/ igor-goldkind. shtml), 2000AD Review, June 7, 2005. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3yDv5Aw). [24] Moore letter, Cerebus 217 (April 1997), Aardvark Vanaheim [25] Lanham, Fritz. "From Pulp to Pulitzer" (http:/ / www. chron. com/ disp/ story. mpl/ ae/ books/ news/ 2763392. html), Houston Chronicle, August 29, 2004. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3z9TbDv). [26] Campbell, Eddie (2001). Alec:How to be an Artist (1st ed.). Eddie Campbell Comics. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-9577896-3-0. [27] Kavanagh, Barry (October 17, 2000). "The Alan Moore Interview: Northampton / Graphic novel" (http:/ / www. blather. net/ articles/ amoore/ northampton. html). . Retrieved 2007-03-20.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s3zKe8Ot) [28] Raeburn, Daniel. Chris Ware (Monographics Series), Yale University Press, 2004, p. 110. ISBN 978-0-300-10291-8. [29] Bender, Hy (1999). The Sandman Companion. Vertigo. ISBN 978-1-56389-644-6

Graphic novel
[30] Rogers, Vaneta. "Behind the Page: Jeff Smith, Part Two" (http:/ / forum. newsarama. com/ showthread. php?t=148242), Newsarama, February 26, 2008. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s406drEH). [31] Bushell, Laura (July 21, 2005). "Daniel Clowes Interview: The Ghost World Creator Does It Again" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ dna/ collective/ A4500820). BBC – Collective. . Retrieved 2006-06-21. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5s40K0lmP). [32] Groth, Gary. "Seth," The Comics Journal #193, February 1997, pp. 58–93


Further Reading
• Graphic Novels: Everything You Need to Know by Paul Gravett • Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art by Scott Mccloud

• Arnold, Andrew D. "The Graphic Novel Silver Anniversary" ( article/0,9565,542579,00.html), Time, November 14, 2003 • Tychinski, Stan. "A Brief History of the Graphic Novel" ( 20080603041720/ (n.d., 2004) • Couch, Chris. "The Publication and Formats of Comics, Graphic Novels, and Tankobon" (http://www., Image & Narrative #1 (Dec. 2000)

External links
• The Big Comic Book DataBase ( • "Welcome to Columbia University's Graphic Novels Page" ( graphic_novels.html), Columbia University

Webcomics, online comics, or Internet comics are comics published on a website. While many are published exclusively on the web, others are also published in magazines, newspapers or often in self-published books. Webcomics can be compared to self-published print comics in that almost anyone can create their own webcomic and publish it. In January 2007, there were an estimated 38,000 webcomics being published.[1] Webcomics range from traditional comic strips to graphic novels and cover many genres and subjects.[2] Very few are financially successful.[3]



There are several differences between webcomics and print comics since the formal restrictions of the traditional newspaper or magazine format can be lifted, allowing cartoonists to take advantage of the web's unique capabilities. Scott McCloud, one of the first advocates of webcomics, has pioneered the idea of the infinite canvas where, rather than being confined to normal print dimensions, artists are free to spread out in any direction indefinitely with their comics.[4] [5] Other webcomics, such as Argon Zark! or the work of political cartoonist Mark Fiore, incorporate animations or even interactive elements into their comics.[3] However, the format and style of many, if not most, webcomics is still similar to that of traditional newspaper comic strips like Peanuts consisting of three or four panels. Similar to comic books, manga and graphic novels, other webcomics come in a page form rather than a strip form and tend to focus more on story than gags. Clip art or photo comics (also known as fumetti) are types of webcomics that do not use traditional artwork. A Softer World, for example, is made by overlaying photographs with strips of typewriter-style text.[6] As in the constrained comics tradition, a few webcomics, such as Dinosaur Comics by Ryan North, are created with most strips having art copied exactly from one (or a handful of) template comics and only the text changing.[7] Pixel art, such as that created by Richard Stevens of Diesel Sweeties, is similar to that of sprite comics but instead uses low-resolution images created by the artist himself.[8]

Many webcomics like Diesel Sweeties use non-traditional art styles.

The themes of webcomics like Eric Monster Millikin's have caused controversy.

Webcomic creators often publish print collections when their archive consists of a significant number of strips. However, artists who create webcomics in nonstandard formats may experience difficulties to come up with an adequate page layout.

Webcomics that are independently published are not subject to the content restrictions of book publishers or newspaper syndicates, enjoying an artistic freedom similar to underground and alternative comics. Some webcomics stretch the boundaries of taste, taking advantage of the fact that internet censorship is virtually nonexistent in countries like the United States.[2] The content of webcomics can still cause problems, such as Leisure Town artist Tristan Farnon's legal trouble after creating a homoerotic Dilbert parody,[9] or the Catholic League's protest of artist Eric Monster Millikin's "blasphemous treatment of Jesus."[10]



Early webcomics
The first online comic was Witches and Stitches, which was published on CompuServe in 1985.[11] It was followed by T.H.E. Fox, which was published on CompuServe and Quantum Link in 1986.[12] Other online comics followed in the early '90s. Where the Buffalo Roam was published on FTP and usenet in 1991,[13] Doctor Fun was published on the web in September 1993,[14] NetBoy began publishing on the web in the summer of 1994[15] and NetComics Weekly from Finnish Comics Society was started in mid 1994.[16] Among the longest-running webcomics, some of which are still being published, are Rogues of Clwyd-Rhan (a Dutch comic that started in November 1994) The Polymer City Chronicles (March 1995),[17] Art Comics Daily (March 1995), Argon Zark! (June 1995), Kevin and Kell (September 1995), Slow Wave (November 1995), and Eric Monster Millikin (Fall 1995). The term "webcomics" was used as early as April 1995.[18] [19] The late nineties saw the number of webcomics increase drastically. Melonpool first published in April 1996. In 1997, Goats appeared (in April), followed by Sluggy Freelance (in August), Roomies! (in September), Piled Higher and Deeper (in October), User Friendly (in November). Penny Arcade and Pokey the Penguin began a year later.

Webcomics collectives
In March 1995, Bebe Williams launched the webcomics portal Art Comics Daily, an online gallery of several webcomics, In March 2000, Chris Crosby, Crosby's mother Teri, and Darren Bleuel founded the webcomics portal Keenspot.[20] [21] Crosby and Bleuel also started a free webcomic hosting service in July 2000, originally called KeenSpace but renamed Comic Genesis in July 2005. In July 2000, Austin Osueke launched eigoMANGA a web portal that published original online manga "webmanga". Within this year, eigoMANGA brought comic book industry attention to webcomics after being featured in many comic book web magazine articles and later appearing in the March 2001 issue of Wizard Magazine. In 2001, the subscription webcomics site Cool Beans World was launched after a high profile publicity campaign including extensive print advertising. It won Internet Magazine's "Site of the Month" award in October 2001.[22] Contributors included, amongst others, UK-based comic book creators Pat Mills, Simon Bisley, John Bolton and Kevin O'Neill, and the author Clive Barker.[23] Serialised content included Scarlet Traces and Marshal Law. In March 2001, Shannon Denton and Patrick Coyle launched serving free strips from comics and animation professionals. The site launched with 9 titles including Astounding Space Thrills by Steve Conley, Buzzboy by John Gallagher, and Johnny Smackpants by Coyle. On March 2, 2002, Joey Manley founded Modern Tales, offering subscription-based webcomics.[24] The Modern Tales spin-off serializer followed in October 2002, then came girlamatic and Graphic Smash in March and September 2003 respectively. By 2005, webcomics hosting had become a business in its own right, with sites such as Comic Genesis, DrunkDuck, and Webcomics Nation.[25] While comic strip syndicates had been present online since the mid 1990s, traditional comic book publishers, such as Marvel Comics and Slave Labour Graphics, did not begin making serious digital efforts until 2006 and 2007.[26] DC Comics launched its web comic imprint, Zuda Comics in October 2007.[27] The site featured user submitted comics in a competition for a professional contract to produce web comics. In July 2010, it was announced that DC was closing down Zuda.[28]



Further information: List of professional webcomic artists A growing number artists make a full-time living from their businesses and intellectual property, among them Mike Krahulik and Jerry Holkins of Penny Arcade,[29] Tim Buckley of Ctrl+Alt+Del, Pete Abrams of Sluggy Freelance, and Randall Munroe of xkcd.[30] Where webcomic creators were once considered a distinct group separate from traditional comics artists, this contrivance has blurred as traditional comic creators — such as Warren Ellis, Karl Kerschl, Ramon Perez, Ethan Nicholle, and Doug TenNapel, to name a only a handful — began moving online with their own independent work, following the lead of early adopters. Comics online generate revenue from advertising, original art, merchandising, print collections and exploitation of independently owned intellectual property, not dissimilar to avenues of income available to traditional artists. Several cartoonists like Phil and Kaja Foglio of Girl Genius have stopped publishing traditional comic books and instead serialise their content as a webcomic to reach a larger audience. Often, the webcomic is later published in the form of trade paperback collections.[31]
Only a few webcomics, such as xkcd, are financially successful.

Some webcomics, such as Helen, Sweetheart of the Internet, Macanudo, Van Von Hunter[32] and Diesel Sweeties[33] have been syndicated and published on daily newspapers' comics pages. Others such as The Perry Bible Fellowship and PartiallyClips have been published in smaller alternative newspapers, or printed in magazines, such as The Order of the Stick in Dragon Magazine[34] and Get Your War On in Rolling Stone.[35]

Many webcomics artists have received honors for their work. In 2006, Gene Luen Yang's graphic novel American Born Chinese, originally published as a webcomic on Modern Tales, was the first graphic novel to be nominated for a National Book Award.[36] Don Hertzfeldt's animated film based on his webcomics, Everything Will Be OK, won the 2007 Sundance Film Festival Jury Award in Short Filmmaking, a prize rarely bestowed on an animated film.[37] Many traditionally print-comics focused organizations have added award categories for comics published on the web. The Eagle Awards established a Favorite Web-based Comic category in 2000, and the Ignatz Awards followed the next year by introducing an Outstanding Online Comic category in 2001. After having nominated webcomics in several of their traditional print-comics categories, the Eisner Awards began awarding comics in the Best Digital Comic category in 2005. In 2006 the Harvey Awards established a Best Online Comics Work category, and in 2007 the Shuster Awards began an Outstanding Canadian Web Comic Creator Award. Other awards focus exclusively on webcomics. The Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards[38] [39] consist of a number of awards that have been handed out annually from 2001 to 2008. The Clickburg Webcomic Awards (also known as "the Clickies") has been handed out annually since 2005 at the Stripdagen Haarlem comic festival. The awards require the recipient to be active in the Benelux countries, with the exception of one international award.[40]



Books about webcomics
Further information: List of webcomics in print In August 2000, Scott McCloud's Reinventing Comics, half of which consisted of a treatise on webcomics, was published. Though sometimes controversial, McCloud was one of the first advocates of digital comics and remains an influential figure in the webcomics field. His theories have sometimes led to debates about where webcomics should go and what, precisely, they are. McCloud's early advocacy of micropayments has also been a source of debate.[41] [42] In June 2006, Universal Press Syndicate editorial cartoonist Ted Rall focused on webcomics for the third volume of the Attitude: The New Subversive Cartoonists series, and included comics such as The Perry Bible Fellowship, Cat and Girl, and A Lesson Is Learned But The Damage Is Irreversible.[43] In 2008, Brad Guigar, Dave Kellett, Scott Kurtz, and Kris Straub released How to Make Webcomics, published by Image Comics. The book covered many practical matters of making money through webcomics, including website design, publishing, and merchandising. [44]

[1] Manley, Joey (2007-01-03). "The Number of Webcomics in the World" (http:/ / blog. comicspace. com/ ?p=766). ComicSpace Blog. . Retrieved 2009-11-28. [2] Lacy, Steven (2007-11-21). "Webcomics are profane, explicit, humorous — and influencing trends" (http:/ / www. charlestoncitypaper. com/ gyrobase/ Content?oid=oid:36337). Charleston City Paper. Noel Mermer. . Retrieved 2009-11-28. [3] Rall, Ted (2006). Attitude 3: The New Subversive Online Cartoonists. New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 1-56163-465-4. [4] McCloud, Scott (2000). Reinventing Comics. New York: Paradox Press. pp. 200–233. ISBN 0-06-095350-0. [5] McCloud, Scott (July 2001). "McCloud in Stable Condition Following Review, Groth Still at Large". The Comics Journal (235): 70–79. [6] Arrant, Chris (2006-04-25). "It's A Softer World After All" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6327720. html). Publisher's Weekly. Reed Elsevier. . Retrieved 2009-11-28. [7] Rall, Ted (2006). Attitude 3: The New Subversive Online Cartoonists. New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing. pp. 115–121. ISBN 1-56163-465-4. [8] Hodges, Michael H. (2007-01-08). "Diesel Sweeties tackles nuts, bolts of love". The Detroit News (Detroit: Jonathan Wolman): p. 1E. [9] Crane, Jordan (April 2001). "A Silly Little Coat Hanger for Fart Jokes: Talkin' Comics with's Tristan A Farnon". The Comics Journal (232): 80–89. [10] "Michigan State President Acts Presidential" (http:/ / www. catholicleague. org/ catalyst. php?year=2000& month=November& read=1108). Catalyst Journal of the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights. Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights. November 2000. . Retrieved 2009-11-28. [11] Stratton, Erik. "A Brief History of Webcomics". The Rutgers Review, Vol. 40, Issue 1, Page 15 [12] "T.H.E.-FOX.TXT" (http:/ / cbmfiles. com/ wgenie/ geniefiles/ Information/ T. H. E. -FOX. TXT). The Commodore 64/128 RoundTable on GEnie. . Retrieved 2007-07-01. [13] Bordahl, Hans. "Where the Buffalo Roam -- First Comic on the Internet" (http:/ / www. shadowculture. com/ wtbr/ site. html). ShadowCulture. . Retrieved 2007-07-01. [14] (December 17, 2000). "Readers know how to find "Fun"". Chapel Hill Herald Pg. 9 [15] Silverman, Dwight . (August 24, 1994). "Cybertoons: Comic artists find an instant audience on the Internet". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Pg. 5C [16] "What's New With NCSA Mosaic and the WWW (June, 1994)" (http:/ / www. kitchencloset. com/ realstuff/ ncsa/ whats_new-archive/ 1994/ whats-new-9406. html). . Retrieved 2006-11-03. [17] "Dr. Otto's Do-It-Yourself Bomb Disposal" (http:/ / www. gamezero. com/ team-0/ comics/ 031395a. html). Game Zero magazine. . Retrieved 2007-01-18. [18] "rec.arts.comics.strips (April, 1995)" (http:/ / groups. google. com/ group/ rec. arts. comics. strips/ browse_thread/ thread/ 782ae478668ac0ae/ 4dc2160356a71397). . Retrieved 2010-05-14. [19] "What's New With NCSA Mosaic and the WWW (July, 1995)" (http:/ / www. kitchencloset. com/ realstuff/ ncsa/ whats_new-archive/ 1995/ whats-new-9507. html). . Retrieved 2010-05-14. [20] Yim, Roger. (April 2, 2001). "DOT-COMICS: Online cartoons skip traditional syndication and draw loyal fans on the Internet". San Francisco Chronicle. Pg. D1 [21] Newman, Heather. (February 2, 2001). "See You In The Funny Pixels Michigan Cartoonists Draw On Web Sites To Find Readers". Detroit Free Press. Pg. 1H

[22] Rogers, Jean. "Comics and New Media" (http:/ / www. shadowgallery. co. uk/ home4. html). . Retrieved 2007-03-15. [23] Martin, Jessica. "Cool Beans or Dead Beans: can the comic barons cross onto the web?" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061018170131/ http:/ / www. sfcrowsnest. com/ library/ zones/ 2001/ nz5841. php). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. sfcrowsnest. com/ library/ zones/ 2001/ nz5841. php) on 2006-10-18. . Retrieved 2007-03-15. [24] Ho, Patricia Jiayi (July 8, 2003). "Online comic artists don't have to play panel games". Alameda Times-Star (Alameda, CA) [25] Walker, Leslie (June 16, 2005). "Comics Looking to Spread A Little Laughter on the Web". The Washington Post, p. D1. [26] Soponis, Trevor. "Publishers Look to Digital Comics" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6393781. html). Publishers' Weekly. . Retrieved 2007-05-02. [27] "PERAZZA ON THE LAUNCH OF ZUDACOMICS.COM" (http:/ / forum. newsarama. com/ showthread. php?t=134710& highlight=zuda). . [28] Perazza, Ron (July 1, 2010). "The Future of Zuda" (http:/ / zuda. blog. dccomics. com/ 2010/ 07/ 01/ the-future-of-zuda/ ). The Bleed. DC . Retrieved July 1, 2010. [29] Ctrl+Alt+Del (http:/ / ctrlaltdel-online. com/ index. php/ faq) [30] xkcd - A webcomic (http:/ / xkcd. com/ about/ ) [31] MacDonald, Heidi. "Webcomics: Page Clickers to Page Turners" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/ print/ 20051219/ 35322-web-comics-page-clickers-to-page-turners-. html). Publisher's Weekly. . [32] Memmott, Carol (December 29, 2005). "Comics pages make room for manga; Newspapers target the young". USA Today, Pg. 1D. [33] Astor, Dave (January 2, 2007). " 'Lio' and 'Pearls' Among Comics Replacing Daily 'FoxTrot' (http:/ / www. editorandpublisher. com/ eandp/ article_brief/ eandp/ 1/ 1003526645)". [34] Paizo Publishing Creates Strategic Alliance with The Order of the Stick creator Rich Burlew (http:/ / paizo. com/ paizo/ news/ v5748eaic9k1l), (http:/ / www. paizo. com/ ), September 30, 2005. Retrieved on November 10, 2007 [35] Balog, Kathy, et al. (September 9, 2004). "Our critics' top picks". USA TODAY, Pg. 6D [36] Bosman, Julie. (October 12, 2006). "National Book Award Finalists Chosen". The New York Times, Pg. E2 [37] De Benedetti, Chris. "Bay Area films keep it real at Sundance festival" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4176/ is_20070116/ ai_n17130219/ pg_2/ ). Oakland Tribune. . Retrieved 2007-01-16. [38] Boxer, Sarah (August 17, 2005). "Comics Escape a Paper Box, and Electronic Questions Pop Out" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 08/ 17/ books/ 17comi. html?ex=1281931200& en=08e3777cc4943486& ei=5090& partner=geartest& emc=rss). New York Times. [39] "Attack of the Show" (http:/ / www. g4tv. com/ attackoftheshow/ episodes/ 4335/ Web_Toon_Awards_Picture_Podcasts_The_High_Speed_Scene. html). G4TechTV. Aired 12 August 2005. [40] Mirk, Jeroen. "'s blog" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060615175457/ http:/ / comixpedia. com/ blog/ comicbase_nl). Comixpedia. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. comixpedia. com/ blog/ comicbase_nl) on June 15, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-01-31. [41] McCloud, Scott. "Misunderstanding Micropayments" (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ home/ essays/ 2003-09-micros/ micros. html). . Retrieved 2007-05-02. [42] Hammersley, Ben (2003-08-07). "Making the web pay" (http:/ / technology. guardian. co. uk/ online/ story/ 0,3605,1013313,00. html). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2007-05-02. [43] Rall, Ted (2006). Attitude 3: The New Subversive Online Cartoonists, New York: Nantier, Beall, Minoustchine. ISBN 1-56163-465-4. [44] Guigar, Kellett, Kurtz, and Straub. How to Make Webcomics, Berkeley, CA: Image Comics. ISBN 1-58240-870-X.


Motion comic


Motion comic
A motion comic is a form of comics combining elements of print comic books and animation.

The earliest examples of motion comics are found in independent creations such as Broken Saints. In 2005, Lions Gate released an animated version of the Saw: Rebirth comic, one of the first examples of an animated comic created to tie into a film franchise. The first major motion comics released, which is also the first use of the term "motion comic," were released by Warner Bros., the owner of DC Comics to coincide with the film premieres of The Dark Knight and Watchmen, releasing an adaption of Batman: Mad Love and Watchmen: Motion Comics, adapting the comic book of the same name.[1] [2] [3] Marvel Comics have also begun producing motion comics, beginning with an adaptation of Joss Whedon and John Cassaday's Astonishing X-Men and a Spider-Woman series by Brian Michael Bendis and Alex Maleev produced simultaneously in print comic and motion comic formats. They have also recently announced the addition of Extremis.[4] Examples from other companies include Peanuts Motion Comics, the Dead Space prequel comics and the "Lucy" element of the ABC News documentary Earth 2100.[5] A database of motion comics can be found online at Digital Motion Comics [6] Illustrated Films A sibling format to motion comics called illustrated films was developed by transmedia studio HALO 8 Entertainment with their Godkiller, which was produced at the same time as (but separately from) the Watchmen motion comic. As opposed to repurposing an existing comic book, Halo-8 created new sequential art that was designed from its inception to be transmedia art for both a comic book and an illustrated film. Godkiller creator Matt Pizzolo told Bloody Disgusting "Godkiller was just a slower production than Watchmen because we had to create 200 pages of art and story from the ground up first, rather than starting with one of the greatest comic books ever made as source material. Plus we had a dozen voice performers instead of just one." [7] Although aesthetically similar to motion comics, Pizzolo identifies illustrated film influences as including Liquid Television, the MTV cartoon adaptation of The Maxx, the Berserk anime series, Chris Marker's La jetée, the motion comic Broken Saints, and the experimental cinema of Ralph Bakshi. [8] [9] According to Comics Alliance, Pizzolo stated "the difference between an illustrated film and a motion comic is kind of the difference between a movie that was shot in 3D versus a movie that was shot in 2D but got a 3D post-conversion. We're not repurposing an existing comic book here, we're building something unique from scratch." [10] Godkiller also diverged from motion comics with voice performances by a "genre-star-studded ensemble" (according to Fangoria [11] ) featuring Lance Henriksen (Aliens), Bill Moseley (The Devil's Rejects), Danielle Harris (Halloween franchise), Nicki Clyne (Battlestar Galactica), Lydia Lunch, Justin Pierre (singer Motion City Soundtrack), and Davey Havok (singer AFI). [12] [13] The 75-minute Godkiller feature was released theatrically in 11 cities before it was distributed on DVD and cable VOD. [14] [15] Upcoming illustrated films from Halo-8 include Ben Templesmith's original project Black Sky and an adaptation of Tim Seeley's Hack/Slash. [16] [17] [18]

Motion comic


Reception to motion comics has been mixed. NewTeeVee commented, "This first generation [of motion comics] is admittedly crude, but there is enough 'motion' in these motion comics to keep the viewer’s attention, and so far the music and voice acting have been great. Plus, the level of experimentation and sophistication will grow as more are produced."[19] Comics Worth Reading asked, "When you add camera tricks and a soundtrack to a comic, is it still a comic? Or just a poor excuse for a cartoon, done on the cheap? Are they reaching a new audience, attracted by a new format in more modern sales outlets (that come to them)? Will those hypothetical new readers eventually wind up buying traditional-format comics? Could this be just another way to try and make more money from the same, previously existing content?"[20] Artist John Cassaday described his experience with the motion comic adaptation of Astonishing X-Men, saying: "I'd seen some motion comic animation, and the quality varied. When Marvel approached me, I was initially hesitant, but after looking at some test footage and hearing how committed they were, I knew what direction they were wanting to go."[21] One of the bigger struggles the wider audience has had with receiving motion comics is that a select few of them appear to be half hearted attempts at a cartoon with many viewers complaining about lip movement and body movement being too overdone (but not executed well enough) for the work to be acceptable as a 'comic'. The level of motion varies greatly from title to title with some sticking closer to traditional comic styles but using motion and sound to enhance the story telling, whilst others have a greater emphasis on the motion, music, sound and animation.

[1] "Watchmen Motion Comic" (http:/ / www. watchmenmotioncomic. com/ ). . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [2] Howell, Peter (March 3, 2009). "Watchmen: The Complete Motion Comic" (http:/ / www. thestar. com/ Entertainment/ article/ 595402). Toronto Star. . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [3] McBride, Sarah (July 18, 2008). "Web Draws on Comics" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB121634908179464605. html). Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [4] "Marvel Motion Comics" (http:/ / www. marvel. com/ motion_comics). . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [5] Marshall, Rick (June 2, 2009). "Comic Creators Play Big Role In Tonight’s ‘Earth 2100’. Another Example would be a four part Motion Comic based on the Uncharted video game series as a prequel called Eye of Indra and was released for the Playstation Network. Special" (http:/ / splashpage. mtv. com/ 2009/ 06/ 02/ comic-creators-play-big-role-in-tonights-earth-2100-special/ ). MTV. . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [6] http:/ / www. digitalmotioncomics. com [7] THEoDEAD. " MAY SPOTLIGHT: Halo-8 PLUS An Interview With Founder Matt Pizzolo! (http:/ / www. bloody-disgusting. com/ news/ comics/ 589)". Bloody Disgusting. May 4, 2010. [8] Anders, Jason. " The Making of Godkiller (http:/ / fullecirclestuff. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 11/ making-of-godkiller. html)". Fulle Circle Magazine. November 24, 2009. [9] Thill, Scott. " Post-Apocalyptic Comic Godkiller Emerges as ‘Illustrated Film’ (http:/ / www. wired. com/ underwire/ 2009/ 10/ post-apocalyptic-godkiller/ )". Wired. October 6, 2009. [10] http:/ / www. comicsalliance. com/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ ben-templesmith-black-sky-illustrated-film-teaser/ [11] Gingold, Michael. " Genre Names Speaking Up For Godkiller (http:/ / fangoriaonline. com/ home/ news/ 9-film-news/ 1516-genre-names-speaking-up-for-godkiller. html)". Fangoria. February 25, 2009. [12] Staff Report. " Quartet voicing roles in 'Godkiller' film (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/ search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1003944580)". Hollywood Reporter. February 24, 2009. [13] Rotten, Ryan. " Halloween, Battlestar Vets Enter Godkiller (http:/ / shocktillyoudrop. com/ news/ topnews. php?id=10038)". Shock Till You Drop. March 26, 2009. [14] Moore, Debi. " Details on the Godkiller Theatrical Tour and VOD Home Invasion (http:/ / www. dreadcentral. com/ news/ 37565/ details-godkiller-theatrical-tour-and-vod-home-invasion)". Dread Central. May 17, 2010. [15] THEoDEAD. " Halo-8 Announces Theatrical Tour For 'Godkiller' Including IMAX! (http:/ / www. bloody-disgusting. com/ news/ comics/ 616)". Dread Central. May 17, 2010. [16] Newsarama. " TEMPLESMITH/ PIZZOLO: Black Sky, God Killer & More @ C2E2 (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ common/ media/ video/ player. php?aid=35313)". Newsarama. April 19, 2010.

Motion comic
[17] Marshall, Rick. " Hack/Slash To Get The Illustrated Film Treatment (http:/ / splashpage. mtv. com/ 2010/ 09/ 10/ hack-slash-illustrated-film-preview/ )". MTV Splash Page. September 10, 2010. [18] The Beat. " Nice Art: Ben Templesmith’s BLACK SKY teaser (http:/ / www. comicsbeat. com/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ nice-art-ben-templesmiths-black-sky-teaser/ )". Comics Beat. December 2, 2010. [19] Albrecht, Chris (July 30, 2008). "The Rise of Motion Comics Online" (http:/ / newteevee. com/ 2008/ 07/ 30/ the-rise-of-motion-comics-online/ ). NewTeeVee. . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [20] Draper Carlson, Johanna; Carlson, KC. "What's the Point of a Motion Comic" (http:/ / comicsworthreading. com/ 2009/ 08/ 23/ whats-the-point-of-a-motion-comic/ ). . Retrieved April 6, 2010. [21] Richards, Dave (October 23, 2009). "Cassaday on the "Astonishing X-Men" Motion Comic" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=23421). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved April 6, 2010.


Comics Code Authority
The Comics Code Authority was a body created as part of the Comics Magazine Association of America, as a tool for the comics-publishing industry to self-regulate the content of comic books in the United States. Member publishers submitted comic books to the CCA, which screened them for adherence to its Comics Code, and authorized the use of their seal on the cover if the books complied. At the height of its influence, it was a de facto censor for the U.S. comic book industry. The last publishers discontinued their participation in 2011.

The Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA) was formed in September 1954 in response to a widespread public concern over gory and horrific comic-book content.[1] It named New York The Comics Code seal. Magistrate Charles F. Murphy, 44, a specialist in juvenile delinquency, to head the organization and devise a self-policing "code of ethics and standards" for the industry.[1] He established the Comics Code Authority (CCA), basing its code upon the largely unenforced code drafted by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers in 1948, which in turn had been modeled loosely after the 1930 Hollywood Production Code. This code banned graphic depictions of violence and gore in crime and horror comics, as well as the sexual innuendo of what aficionados refer to as good girl art. Fredric Wertham's 1954 book Seduction of the Innocent had rallied opposition to this type of material in comics, arguing that it was harmful to the children who made up a large segment of the comic book audience. The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency hearings in 1954, which focused specifically on comic books, had many publishers concerned about government regulation, prompting them to form a self-regulatory body instead. Before the CCA was adopted, some cities had already been organizing public burnings and bans on comic books.[2] The city councils of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and Houston, Texas, passed ordinances banning crime and horror comics, although an attempt by Los Angeles County, California was deemed unconstitutional by the courts.[1] Like the previous code, the CCA prohibited the presentation of "policemen, judges, government officials, and respected institutions ... in such a way as to create disrespect for established authority." But it added the requirements that "in every instance good shall triumph over evil" and discouraged "instances of law enforcement officers dying as a result of a criminal's activities." Specific restrictions were placed on the portrayal of kidnapping and concealed weapons. Depictions of "excessive violence" were forbidden, as were "lurid, unsavory, gruesome illustrations." Vampires, werewolves, ghouls and zombies could not be portrayed. In addition, comics could not use the words "horror" or "terror" in their titles. The use of the word "crime" was subject to numerous restrictions. Where the

Comics Code Authority previous code had condemned the publication of "sexy, wanton comics," the CCA was much more precise: depictions of "sex perversion", "sexual abnormalities", and "illicit sex relations" as well as seduction, rape, sadism, and masochism were specifically forbidden. In words echoing the Hollywood Production Code, love stories were enjoined to emphasize the "sanctity of marriage" and those portraying scenes of passion were advised to avoid stimulating "lower and baser emotions." Although the CCA had no official control over publishers, most distributors refused to carry comics that did not carry the seal.[3]


Criticism and enforcement
Some publishers thrived under these restrictions, others adapted by canceling titles and focusing on Code-approved content, and others went out of business. Publisher William Gaines believed that clauses forbidding the words "crime", "horror", and "terror" in comic book titles had been deliberately aimed at his own best-selling titles Crime SuspenStories, The Vault of Horror, and Tales from the Crypt.[4] [5] These restrictions, as well as those banning vampires, werewolves, and zombies, helped make EC Comics unprofitable; all of its titles except Mad were canceled in the year following the CCA's introduction. Wertham dismissed the Code as an inadequate half-measure.[6] Comics analyst Scott McCloud, on the other hand, later commented that it was as if, in drawing up the code, "the list of requirements a film needs to receive a G rating was doubled, and there were no other acceptable ratings!"[7]

"Judgment Day"
In one early confrontation between a comic-book publisher and Code authorities, EC Comics' William Gaines reprinted the story "Judgment Day", from the pre-Code Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953), in Incredible Science Fiction #33 (Feb. 1956).[8] The reprint was a replacement for a Code-disapproved story — "An Eye For an Eye", drawn by Angelo Torres[9] — but was itself also "objected to" because of "the central character being black."[8] The story, by writer Al Feldstein and artist Joe Orlando,[9] was "a strong allegory on the evils of race prejudice," which point was necessarily "nullified if the lead character" was not black.[8] Following an order by Code administrator Judge Charles Murphy to change the final panel, which depicted a black astronaut, Gaines engaged in a heated contretemps with Murphy.[10] He informed Murphy that "if they did not give that issue the Code Seal, he would see that the world found out why", causing Murphy to reverse his initial decision and allow the story to run.[8] Soon after, however, facing the severe restrictions placed upon his comics by the CCA, and with his "New Direction" titles floundering, Gaines "quit comic book publishing to concentrate on Mad".[8]

Underground comics
In the late 1960s, the underground comics scene arose, with artists creating comics that delved into subject matter explicitly banned by the Code. Since these comics were distributed largely through unconventional channels, such as head shops, they were able to skirt the problem of mainstream distributors who were leery of carrying non-CCA-approved comics. This allowed underground comics to achieve moderate success without CCA approval.

"Wolfman" and credits
Writer Marv Wolfman's name was briefly a point of contention between DC Comics and the CCA. In House of Secrets #83 (Jan. 1970), the book's host introduces the story "The Stuff that Dreams are Made of" as one told to him by "a wandering wolfman". (All-capitals comics lettering made no distinction between "wolfman" and "Wolfman".) The CCA rejected the story and flagged the "wolfman" reference as a violation. Fellow writer Gerry Conway

Comics Code Authority explained to the CCA that the story's author was in fact named Wolfman, and asked whether it would still be in violation if that were clearly stated. The CCA agreed to that, so Wolfman received a writer's credit on the first page of the story (which led to DC beginning to credit creators in general).[11]


Updating the Code
The Code was revised a number of times during 1971, initially on January 28, 1971, to allow for, among other things, the sometimes "sympathetic depiction of criminal behavior... [and] corruption among public officials" ("as long as it is portrayed as exceptional and the culprit is punished"[8] ) as well as permitting some criminal activities to kill law-enforcement officers and the "suggestion but not portrayal of seduction."[8] Also newly allowed were "vampires, ghouls and werewolves... when handled in the classic tradition such as Frankenstein, Dracula, and other high calibre literary works written by Edgar Allan Poe, Saki, Conan Doyle and other respected authors whose works are read in schools around the world". Zombies, lacking the requisite "literary" background, remained taboo. Marvel in the mid-1970s called the apparently deceased, mind-controlled followers of various Haitian supervillains "zuvembies". This practice carried over to Marvel's superhero line: In The Avengers, when the reanimated superhero Wonder Man returned from the dead, he was also referred to as a "zuvembie".[12] Around this time, the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare approached Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Stan Lee to do a story about drug abuse.[8] Lee agreed and wrote a three-part Spider-Man story, portraying drug use as dangerous and unglamorous. While the Code did not specifically forbid depictions of drugs, a general clause prohibited "All elements or techniques not specifically mentioned herein, but which are contrary to the spirit and intent of the code, and are considered violations of good taste or decency".[13] The CCA had approved at least one previous story involving drugs, the premiere of Deadman in Strange Adventures #205 (Oct. 1967), which clearly depicted the title character fighting an opium dealer.[13] But Code administrator Leonard Darvin "was ill" at the time of the Spider-Man story,[8] and acting administrator John L. Goldwater, publisher of Archie Comics, refused to grant Code approval based on the depiction of narcotics being used, regardless of the context,[8] whereas the Deadman story had depicted only a wholesale business transaction.[13] Confident that the original government request would give him credibility, and with the approval of his publisher Martin Goodman, Lee ran the story in The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98 (May–July 1971), without CCA approval. The storyline was well-received and the CCA's argument for denying approval was deemed counterproductive. "That was the only big issue that we had" with the Code, Lee recalled in a 1998 interview: I could understand them; they were like lawyers, people who take things literally and technically. The Code mentioned that you mustn't mention drugs and, according to their rules, they were right. So I didn't even get mad at them then. I said, 'Screw it' and just took the Code seal off for those three issues. Then we went back to the Code again. I never thought about the Code when I was writing a story, because basically I never wanted to do anything that was to my mind too violent or too sexy. I was aware that young people were reading these books, and had there not been a Code, I don't think that I would have done the stories any differently.[14] Lee and Marvel drew criticism from DC head Carmine Infantino "for defying the code", stating that DC will not "do any drug stories unless the code is changed".[8] As a result of publicity surrounding the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's sanctioning of the storyline, however, the CCA revised the Code to permit the depiction of "narcotics or drug addiction" if presented "as a vicious habit". DC itself broached the topic in the Code-approved Green Lantern/Green Arrow #85 (Sept. 1971), with writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams beginning a story arc involving Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy as a heroin addict. A cover line read, "DC attacks youth's greatest problem... Drugs!"[13]

Comics Code Authority


By the 1980s, greater depiction of violence had become acceptable. For example, Elvira's House of Mystery #2 (Feb. 1986) contained numerous decapitations but was still Code-approved. The following issue forwent the code and contained references to masturbation, but the Code seal was reinstated with issue #4. Periodic revisions were made to the Code to reflect changing attitudes about appropriate subject matter (e.g., the ban on referring to homosexuality was revised in 1989 to allow non-stereotypical depictions of gay men and lesbians), but its influence on the medium continued to wane, and publishers continued to gradually reduce the prominence of the seal on their covers. The development of new distribution channels, especially "direct market" comics specialty shops, provided additional means for publishers of non-Code books to reach a large audience, while newsstand distribution — a shrinking component of industry sales — became less important.

By the 2000s, advertisers no longer made decisions to advertise based on the appearance of the stamp.[15] Most new publishers to emerge during this time did not join the CCA, regardless of whether their content conformed to its standards.[15] DC Comics, Marvel Comics, and other CCA sponsors began publishing comics intended for adult audiences, without the CCA seal, and comics labeled for "mature readers" under imprints such as DC's Vertigo and Marvel's Epic Comics were not submitted to the CCA. In the 1990s, Milestone Media (published through DC Comics) submitted all its books to the CCA, but published them regardless of the ruling, placing the seal only on issues that received Code approval. In 2001, Marvel Comics withdrew from the CCA in favor of its own ratings system designating appropriate age groups. In 2010 Bongo Comics quietly discontinued using the Code.[16] In January 2011, DC Comics announced that it would discontinue participation, adopting a rating system similar to Marvel's.[17] The company noted that it submitted comics for approval through December 2010, but would not say to whom they were submitted.[15] A day later, Archie Comics, the only other publisher still participating in the Code, announced it also was discontinuing it,[18] rendering the Code defunct. The CMAA, at some point in the 2000s, was managed by the trade-organization management firm the Kellen Company, which ceased its involvement in 2009. In 2010, some publishers, including Archie, placed the seal on its comics without submitting them to the CMAA. Archie Comics President Mike Pellerito stated that the code did not affect his company the way that it did others as "we aren't about to start stuffing bodies into refrigerators".[15]

1954 Code criteria
• Crimes shall never be presented in such a way as to create sympathy for the criminal, to promote distrust of the forces of law and justice, or to inspire others with a desire to imitate criminals. • If crime is depicted it shall be as a sordid and unpleasant activity. • Criminals shall not be presented so as to be rendered glamorous or to occupy a position which creates a desire for emulation. • In every instance good shall triumph over evil and the criminal punished for his misdeeds. • Scenes of excessive violence shall be prohibited. Scenes of brutal torture, excessive and unnecessary knife and gunplay, physical agony, gory and gruesome crime shall be eliminated. • No comic magazine shall use the word horror or terror in its title. • All scenes of horror, excessive bloodshed, gory or gruesome crimes, depravity, lust, sadism, masochism shall not be permitted. • All lurid, unsavory, gruesome illustrations shall be eliminated. • Inclusion of stories dealing with evil shall be used or shall be published only where the intent is to illustrate a moral issue and in no case shall evil be presented alluringly, nor so as to injure the sensibilities of the reader.

Comics Code Authority • Scenes dealing with, or instruments associated with walking dead, torture, vampires and vampirism, ghouls, cannibalism, and werewolfism are prohibited. • Profanity, obscenity, smut, vulgarity, or words or symbols which have acquired undesirable meanings are forbidden. • Nudity in any form is prohibited, as is indecent or undue exposure. • Suggestive and salacious illustration or suggestive posture is unacceptable. • Females shall be drawn realistically without exaggeration of any physical qualities. • Illicit sex relations are neither to be hinted at nor portrayed. Rape scenes as well as sexual abnormalities are unacceptable. • Seduction and rape shall never be shown or suggested. • Sex perversion or any inference to same is strictly forbidden. • Nudity with meretricious purpose and salacious postures shall not be permitted in the advertising of any product; clothed figures shall never be presented in such a way as to be offensive or contrary to good taste or morals.


Allusions within stories
In the Marvel Comics universe, a fictional Marvel publishes comic books based on the "real-life" exploits of superheroes. In the 1990s Marvel series The Sensational She-Hulk, the title character is asked how, despite the fact her clothes are frequently being torn up, she always remains "decent". She responds by showing the label in her clothing: the Comics Code seal. The 2000s series She-Hulk established that the fictional Marvel submitted its publications to the Comics Code Authority for approval, until breaking with the CCA in 2001 as the real Marvel did. This fictional CCA is vaguely identified as a federal agency, and CCA comics based on "true" events are considered to be legal documents usable as evidence in a court of law. The fictional law firm of Goodman, Lieber, Kurtzberg & Holliway in She-Hulk has an extensive library of CCA-approved Marvel comics for reference purposes.

[1] "The Press: Horror on the Newsstands" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,820350,00. html), Time, September 27, 1954. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w9r9k7nU). [2] Costello, Matthew J. Secret Identity Crisis: Comic Books and the Unmasking of Cold War America (Continuum, 2009), ISBN 978-0-8264-2998-8, p. 32 [3] Silberkeilt, Michael, cited in Costello, page #? [4] Jacobs, F: "The Mad World of William M. Gaines", pages 112-114, Lyle Stuart, Inc, 1972 [5] "An Interview With William M. Gaines", Comics Journal #83 pages 76-78, Fantagraphics, Inc, 1983 [6] The New York Times (Feb. 5, 1955): "Whip, Knife, Shown as 'Comics' Lures", by Emma Harrison, p. 17, via ProQuest Historical Newspapers database [7] McCloud, Scott (2000). Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form. New York: Perennial. ISBN 0060953500. OCLC 44654496. [8] Thompson, Don & Maggie, "Crack in the Code", Newfangles #44, February 1971 [9] Incredible Science Fiction #33 (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 12592/ #106097) at the Grand Comics Database [10] Diehl, Digby. Tales from the Crypt: The Official Archives (St. Martin's Press, New York, NY 1996) p. 85 [11] Comic Book Resources (Sept. 6, 2007): Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed (column) #119, by Brian Cronin (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2007/ 09/ 06/ comic-book-urban-legends-revealed-119/ ) [12] Conway, Gerry (writer). "At Last: The Decision!” Avengers #151 (September 1976). [13] Cronin, Brian. "Comic Legend: Green Lantern/Green Arrow #85 was the first Comics Code approved story involving drugs" (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2009/ 09/ 24/ comic-book-legends-revealed-226/ ), Comic Book Resources, "Comic Book Legends Revealed" #226 (column), September 24, 2009 [14] "Stan the Man & Roy the Boy: A Conversation Between Stan Lee and Roy Thomas" (http:/ / twomorrows. com/ comicbookartist/ articles/ 02stanroy. html), Comic Book Artist  #2 (Summer 1998). WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5lHwfKOI2). [15] Rogers, Vaneta. "The Comics Code Authority - Defunct Since 2009?" (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ comics/ comics-code-authority-defunct-since-2009-110124. html), Newsarama, January 24, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w9t7DXvg).

Comics Code Authority
[16] Johnston, Rich. "Bongo Dropped Comics Code A Year Ago – And No One Noticed" (http:/ / www. bleedingcool. com/ 2011/ 01/ 21/ bongo-dropped-comics-code-a-year-ago-and-no-one-noticed/ ),, January 21, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w9tMxQKI). [17] Lee, Jim. "From the Co-Publishers" (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2011/ 01/ 20/ from-the-co-publishers/ ), "The Source" (column), DC Comics, January 20, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w9tg57jI). [18] Rogers, Vaneta. "Archie Dropping Comics Code Authority Seal in February" (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ comics/ archie-drops-CCA-in-february-110121. html), Newsarama, January 21, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w9rtZDZ0).


• Dean, M. (2001) Marvel drops Comics Code, changes book distributor. The Comics Journal #234, p. 19. • Hajdu, David. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How it Changed America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008. • Nyberg, Amy Kiste. Seal of Approval: History of the Comics Code. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. • Original Comics Code • 1971 Revision ( • 1989 Revision (

External links
• Leopold, Todd. "The Pictures that Horrified America" ( comic.books), May 8, 2008 • Vassallo, Dr. Michael J. "A Look at the Atlas Pre-Code Crime and Horror Work of Stan Lee" (http://www.ess. The Buyer's Guide #1258 (December 26, 1997), via Live ForEverett. WebCite archive (


Awards and Recognition
Harvey Award
Harvey Award
Presented by Country First awarded Fantagraphics  United States 1988

Official website http:/ / www. harveyawards. org

The Harvey Awards, named for writer-artist Harvey Kurtzman (1924-1993) and founded by Gary Groth, President of the publisher Fantagraphics, are given for achievement in comic books. The Harveys were created as part of a successor to the Kirby Awards which were discontinued after 1987. The Harvey Awards are nominated by an open vote among comic-book professionals. The winners are selected from the top five nominees in each category by a final round of voting. Since their inception, the awards have been presented at various fan conventions such as the Chicago Comic-Con, the Dallas Fantasy Fair, Oakland, California's Wondercon, and the Pittsburgh Comicon. In 2004 and 2005, the presentation was held at the Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art (MoCCA) in New York City.[1] [2] In 2006 the awards' presentation was moved to Baltimore Comic-Con.[3]

Awards are given out in the following categories: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Writer Best Artist or Penciller Best Cartoonist (Writer/Artist) Best Inker Best Letterer Best Colorist Best Cover Artist Best New Series Best Continuing or Limited Series Best Single Issue or Story Best Graphic Album (discontinued after 1990) Best Graphic Album of Original Work Best Graphic Album of Previously Published Work Best Anthology Best Syndicated Strip or Panel Best Biographical, Historical, or Journalistic Presentation Best American Edition of Foreign Material Best Domestic Reprint Project Best New Talent Best Online Comics Work

Harvey Award • • • • Special Award for Humor Special Award for Excellence in Production/Presentation The Hero Initiative Lifetime Achievement Award The Jack Kirby Hall of Fame


[1] "Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art Announces 2004 Harveys Nominees" (http:/ / www. harveyawards. org/ news_03. html) [2] Press release (May 13, 2005): "18th Annual Harvey Awards Winners to Be Announced in June 11 Ceremony in NYC" (http:/ / www. moccany. org/ press. html) [3] Greenberger, Robert. "Here are your 2011 Harvey Award nominees" (http:/ / l. wbx. me/ l/ ?p=1& instId=31475212-8b66-4de5-93cd-d30be501a8e2& token=8e37c6bf750e496a74ca3be67c98263eb8a0044600000130fdb234d5& u=http:/ / www. comicmix. com/ news/ 2011/ 07/ 05/ here-are-your-2011-harvey-award-nominees/ ), ComicMix, July 5, 2011

• The Harvey Awards ( (official site)

Ignatz Awards
The Ignatz Awards are intended to recognize outstanding achievements in comics and cartooning by small press creators or creator-owned projects published by larger publishers. They have been awarded each year since 1997, but skipped a year in 2001 due to the show's cancellation after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Recipients of the award are determined by the votes of the attendees of the annual Small Press Expo (SPX, or The Expo its corporate name), a weekend convention and tradeshow showcasing creator-owned comics. Nominations for the Ignatz Awards are made by a five-member jury panel consisting of comic book professionals. The jury panel remains anonymous until the announcement of the awards. Jurors are prohibited from nominating their own work. However, there is no prohibition of one jury member's work being nominated for an award by his or her fellow jurors. The Ignatz Awards are named in honour of George Herriman and his strip Krazy Kat, which featured a brick-wielding mouse named Ignatz. SPX is currently held in Bethesda, Maryland, just outside the US capital, Washington DC. The Ignatz is awarded in the following categories: • • • • • • • • • Outstanding Artist Outstanding Anthology or Collection (added in 2005) Outstanding Graphic Novel (added in 2005) Outstanding Story Promising New Talent Outstanding Series Outstanding Comic Outstanding Minicomic Outstanding Online Comic (added in 2001)

The following categories have been discontinued: • Outstanding Graphic Novel or Collection (1997–2004, replaced in 2005 by two separate awards) • Outstanding Debut Comic (2000–2008)

Ignatz Awards


Award winners and nominees
Outstanding Artist
• 2010 Eddie Campbell, Alec: The Years Have Pants (A Life-Sized Omnibus) (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Al Columbia, Pim & Francie: The Golden Bear Days (Fantagraphics Books) Mike Dawson, Troop 142 (self-published & John Pham, Sublife #2 (Fantagraphics Books) Sully, The Hipless Boy (Conundrum Press)

• 2009 Nate Powell, Swallow Me Whole (Top Shelf) • • • • Tim Hensley, Mome (Fantagraphics), Kramer's Ergot #7 (Buenaventura) Richard Sala, Delphine (Fantagraphics/Coconino) Josh Simmons, Mome (Fantagraphics) Carol Tyler, You’ll Never Know, Book One: A Good and Decent Man (Fantagraphics)

• 2008 Laura Park, Do Not Disturb My Waking Dream (self-published) • Warren Craghead, How to Be Everywhere (self-published) • Lat, Town Boy (First Second Books) • Michel Rabagliati, Paul Goes Fishing (Drawn & Quarterly) • Jillian Tamaki, Skim (Groundwood Books) • 2007 Jaime Hernandez, Love & Rockets (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Vanessa Davis, Papercutter #4 (Tugboat Press), Kramers Ergot #6 (Buenaventura Press) John Hankiewicz, Asthma (Sparkplug Comic Books) Rutu Modan, Exit Wounds (Drawn & Quarterly) Ted Stearn, Fuzz & Pluck in Splitsville #4 (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2006 Tony Millionaire, Billy Hazelnuts (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Jordan Crane, The Clouds Above (Fantagraphics Books) Renee French, The Ticking (Top Shelf Productions) Anders Nilsen, Big Questions #7 and #8 (Drawn & Quarterly) Chris Ware, Acme Novelty Library #16 (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2005 David B, Epileptic (Pantheon), Babel (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Jeffrey Brown, Bighead (Top Shelf Productions) Roger Langridge, Fred the Clown (Fantagraphics) Seth, Clyde Fans Book 1 (Drawn & Quarterly) Craig Thompson, Carnet de Voyage (Top Shelf Productions)

• 2004 Craig Thompson, Blankets (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Chester Brown, Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography (Drawn and Quarterly) Daniel Clowes, Eightball #23 (Fantagraphics Books) Juanjo Guarnido, Blacksad (iBooks) Joe Sacco, The Fixer (Drawn and Quarterly)

• 2003 Jason Little, Shutterbug Follies (Doubleday Graphic Novels) • Renée French, Rosetta (Alternative Comics), Tinka (Atheneum) • Dean Haspiel, Aim to Dazzle (Alternative Comics) • Lorenzo Mattotti, Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde (NBM Publishing) • Scott Mills, My Own Little Empire (AdHouse Books), Space Devil ( • 2002 Megan Kelso, Artichoke Tales #1, Non #5 (Highwater Books and Red Ink Press)

Ignatz Awards • • • • Renée French, The Soap Lady (Top Shelf) Paul Hornschemeier, Sequential, Forlorn Funnies (I Don't Get It Graphics and Absence Of Ink Press) John Kerschbaum, Homecoming, Petey & Pussy (Fontanelle Press) Thomas Ott, Greetings From Hellville (Fantagraphics Books)


• 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Donna Barr, The Desert Peach (A Fine Line Press) Jason Lutes, Berlin (Drawn & Quarterly) Carla Speed McNeil, Finder (Lightspeed Press) Tony Millionaire, Maakies (Fantagraphics Books), Sock Monkey (Dark Horse Comics) Jim Woodring, Frank (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2000 Dave Cooper, Weasel (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Craig Thompson, Good-Bye, Chunky Rice (Top Shelf Productions) Rod Espinoza, The Courageous Princess (Antarctic Press) Francesca Ghermandi, Pastil (Phoenix Enterprise Publishing Co.) Bill Presing, Rex Steele-Nazi Smasher (Monkeysuit Press)

• 1999 Frank Cho, Liberty Meadows #1 (Insight Studios Group) • • • • Eric Shanower, Age of Bronze (Image Comics) Dylan Horrocks, Hicksville (Blackeye) Dave Choe, Slow Jams (Non #3 & 4, Red Ink) Pat McEown, Kissin' Cousin (Heart Throb #4)

• 1998 Dave Sim, Cerebus (Aardvark-Vanaheim) • • • • Joe Chiappetta, Silly Daddy (self-published) Nick Craine, Portrait of a Thousand Punks: Hard Core Logo (House of Anansi Press Ltd.) Gilbert Hernandez, Luba (Fantagraphics Books) Jaime Hernandez, Penny Century (Fantagraphics)

• 1997 Seth, Palookaville (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Gilbert Hernandez, New Love (Fantagraphics Books) Dylan Horrocks, Pickle (comics) (Black Eye Productions) C. S. Morse, Soulwind (Image Comics) Gary Panter, Jimbo (Zongo Comics)

Outstanding Anthology or Collection
• 2010 Masterpiece Comics, R. Sikoryak (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • The Hipless Boy, Sully (Conundrum Press) Lemon Styles, David King (Sparkplug Comic Books) Red Snow, Susumu Katsumata (Drawn & Quarterly) Ten Thousand Things to Do, Jesse Reklaw (self-published)

• 2009 Kramer’s Ergot #7, ed. Sammy Harkham (Buenaventura) • Abandoned Cars, Tim Lane (Fantagraphics) • Against Pain, Ron Regé, Jr. (Drawn & Quarterly) • Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Book 5, T. Edward Bak, Anneli Furmark, Amanda Vähämäki (Drawn & Quarterly) • Fuzz and Pluck: Splitsville by Ted Stearn (Fantagraphics) • 2008 Papercutter #7, edited by Greg Means (Tugboat Press)

Ignatz Awards • • • • Inkweed, Chris Wright (Sparkplug Comic Books) Little Lulu Vol. 18, John Stanley (Dark Horse) Pond Life, John Broadley (PictureBox) Windy Corner #2, edited by Austin English (Sparkplug Comic Books)


• 2007 Curses by Kevin Huizenga (Drawn & Quarterly) • Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Vol. 4 by Gabrielle Bell, Martin Cendrera, and Dan Zettwoch (Drawn & Quarterly) • King-Cat Classix by John Porcellino (Drawn & Quarterly) • Misery Loves Comedy by Ivan Brunetti (Fantagraphics Books) • Moomin Book One by Tove Jansson (Drawn & Quarterly) • 2006 Black Hole by Charles Burns (Pantheon) • Castle Waiting by Linda Medley (Fantagraphics Books) • Drawn and Quarterly Showcase #3 by Matt Broersma, Genevieve Elverum, and Sammy Harkham (Drawn & Quarterly) • The Push Man and Other Stories by Yoshihiro Tatsumi (Drawn & Quarterly) • Squirrel Mother by Megan Kelso (Fantagraphics Books) • 2005 John Porcellino, Diary of a Mosquito Abatement Man (La Mano) • • • • James Sturm, Above and Below: Two Tales of the American Frontier (Drawn & Quarterly) Dead Herring Comics, edited by Actus (Actus Independent Comics) Roger Langridge, Fred the Clown (Fantagraphics) Tom Hart, Hutch Owen: Unmarketable (Top Shelf Productions)

Outstanding Graphic Novel
• 2010 Market Day, James Sturm (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • The Complete Jack Survives, Jerry Moriarty (Buentaventura Press) Pim & Francie: The Golden Bear Days, Al Columbia (Fantagraphics Books) Summit of the Gods Vol. 1, Yumemakura Baku and Jiro Taniguchi (Fanfare/Ponent Mon) Years of the Elephant, Willy Linthout (Fanfare/Ponent Mon)

• 2009 Acme Novelty Library #19, Chris Ware (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Disappearance Diary, Hideo Azuma (Fanfare/Ponent Mon) Drop-In, Dave Lapp (Conundrum) Nicolas, Pascal Girard (Drawn & Quarterly) You’ll Never Know, Book One: A Good and Decent Man, Carol Tyler (Fantagraphics)

• 2008 Skim, Mariko Tamaki and Jillian Tamaki (Groundwood Books) • • • • The Hot Breath of War, Trevor Alixopulos (Sparkplug Comic Books) Notes for a War Story, Gipi (First Second Books) Paul Goes Fishing, Michel Rabagliati (Drawn & Quarterly) Spent, Joe Matt (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2007 Don't Go Where I Can't Follow by Anders Nilsen (Drawn & Quarterly) • Aya by Marguerite Abouet and Clément Oubrerie (Drawn & Quarterly) • Bookhunter by Jason Shiga (Sparkplug Comic Books) • Exit Wounds by Rutu Modan (Drawn & Quarterly) • House by Josh Simmons (Fantagraphics Books) • 2006 Tricked by Alex Robinson (Top Shelf Productions)

Ignatz Awards • • • • The Clouds Above by Jordan Crane (Fantagraphics Books) Fun Home by Alison Bechdel (Houghton Mifflin) The Ticking by Renee French (Top Shelf Productions) Wimbledon Green by Seth (Drawn & Quarterly)


• 2005 Marjane Satrapi, Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return (Pantheon) • • • • Jeffrey Brown, Bighead (Top Shelf Productions) Craig Thompson, Carnet de Voyage (Top Shelf Productions) Thomas Ott, Cinema Panopticum (L'Association, Fantagraphics) Jason, Why Are You Doing This? (Fantagraphics Books)

Outstanding Story
• 2010 Monsters, Ken Dahl (Secret Acres) • • • • "John Wesley Harding", The Red Monkey Double Happiness Book, Joe Daly (Fantagraphics Books) Market Day, James Sturm (Drawn & Quarterly) "Turd Place", The Hipless Boy, Sully (Conundrum Press) "Untitled", Mome Vol. 16, Laura Park (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2009 "Willy," Papercutter #10, Damien Jay (Tugboat) • • • • "The Carnival," Mome #14, Lilli Carré (Fantagraphics) Disappearance Diary, Hideo Azuma (Fanfare/Ponent Mon) "Seeing Eye Dogs of Mars," Acme Novelty Library #19, Chris Ware (Drawn & Quarterly) "Untitled," Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Book 5, Amanda Vähämäki (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2008 The Thing About Madeleine, Lilli Carré (self-published) • • • • "Americus" by MK Reed and Jonathan Hill, Papercutter #7 (Tugboat Press) "The Candy Rod" by Onsmith, Hotwire Comics #2 (Fantagraphics Books) "The Galactic Funnels" by Dash Shaw, Mome #11 (Fantagraphics Books) "The Urn" by Chris Wright, Inkweed (Sparkplug Comic Books)

• 2007 "Felix" by Gabrielle Bell, Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Vol. 4 (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Delphine #1-2 by Richard Sala (Fantagraphics Books/Coconico Press) Don't Go Where I Can't Follow by Anders Nilsen (Drawn & Quarterly) The End #1 by Anders Nilsen (Fantagraphics Books/Coconico Press) "Martha Gregory" by John Hankiewicz, Asthma (Sparkplug Comic Books)

• 2006 Ganges #1 by Kevin Huizenga (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • "Prebaby" by Joe Daly, Scrublands (Fantagraphics Books) "Somersaulting" by Sammy Harkham, Drawn and Quarterly Showcase #3 (Drawn & Quarterly) "To Capt. Ayres" by Andrice Arp, MOME Winter 2006 (Fantagraphics Books) We Are On Our Own by Miriam Katin (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2005 Anders Nilsen, Dogs and Water (Drawn and Quarterly) • • • • Gilbert Hernandez, "Dumb Solitaire", Love and Rockets #11 and #13 (Fantagraphics) David Collier, "Homme De Le Bois", The Frank Ritza Papers (Drawn & Quarterly) Dennis P. Eichhorn and J.R. Williams, The Legend of Wild Man Fischer (Top Shelf Productions) Joel Priddy, "Onion Jack" Superior Showcase #0 (AdHouse Books)

• 2004 Kevin Huizenga, "Glenn Ganges", Drawn and Quarterly Showcase Volume 1 (Drawn and Quarterly) • Nick Bertozzi, "The Little Things", Rubber Necker #3 (Alternative Comics) • Jaime Hernandez, “Maggie”, Love and Rockets v.2 #8 (Fantagraphics Books)

Ignatz Awards • Michel Rabagliati, “Paul in the Metro”, Drawn & Quarterly #5 (Drawn and Quarterly) • David Heatley, "Portrait of My Dad", McSweeney’s Quarterly Concern #13 (McSweeney's, Ltd.) • 2003 Jason Shiga, Fleep (Sparkplug Comic Books) • • • • Gilbert Hernandez, "30,000 Hours to Kill" Love & Rockets #6 (Fantagraphics Books) Charles Burns, Black Hole #10 (Fantagraphics Books) R. Crumb "Hipman" Mystic Funnies #3 (Fantagraphics Books) Jason, Untitled second story, Sshhhh! (Fantagraphics Books)


• 2002 Scott Mills, Trenches (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Megan Kelso, "Retreat" Artichoke Tales #1 (Highwater Books) Mira Friedmann, "Royal Sable" Actus Box Series (Actus Tragicus) Kurt Wolfgang, "Where Hats Go" Non #5 (Red Ink Press) Ron Regé, Jr., "Wir Mussën Wissen, Wir Werden Wissen (We Must Know, We Will Know)" Drawn & Quarterly volume 4 (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • Rutu Modan, "Bygone" Flipper Vol. 2 (Actus Tragicus/Top Shelf Productions) • Mike Kunkel, Herobear and the Kid No. 2 (Astonish Comics) • Lewis Trondheim, The Nimrod No. 5 (Fantagraphics Books) • Sean Bieri, "Popeye the Savior Man" Jumbo Jape (self-published) • Tom Hart, "Stocks Are Surging" The Collected Hutch Owen (Top Shelf Productions) • 2000 Chris Ware, "Jimmy Corrigan, Smartest Kid On Earth" The Acme Novelty Library (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Jason, "The Bridge" Mjau Mjau No. 6 (Jippi Forlag) Brian Ralph, Cave-In (Highwater Books) Alan Moore, Eddie Campbell, From Hell (Eddie Campbell Comics, distributed by Top Shelf Productions) Androo Robinson, Jug (self-published)

• 1999 Daniel Clowes, "David Boring" Eightball #20 (Fantagraphics) • • • • David Lapham, "Sex & Violence: part 2" Stray Bullets #18 (El Capitan Books) Budd Root, Cavewoman: Jungle Tales (Basement Comics) Scott Roberts, "Over the Line" Patty-Cake and Friends #13 (Slave Labor) David Choe, "Slow Jams" Non #3 & #4 (Red Ink)

• 1998 Daniel Clowes, "Ghost World" Eightball (Fantagraphics) • • • • Chris Ware, "Jimmy Corrigan" Acme Novelty Library (Fantagraphics) Gilbert Hernandez, "Letters from Venus" New Love (Fantagraphics) Julie Doucet, "New York City Diary" Dirty Plotte (Drawn & Quarterly) Joe Sacco, "Soba" Stories From Bosnia (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 1997 Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell, From Hell (Kitchen Sink Press) • • • • Joe Chiappetta, "A Death In the Family" Silly Daddy (self-published) Daniel Clowes, "Ghost World" Eightball (Fantagraphics) Dylan Horrocks[, "Hicksville" Pickle (Black Eye Productions) Seth, "It's a Good Life if You Don't Weaken" Palookaville (Drawn & Quarterly)

Ignatz Awards


Promising New Talent
• 2010 Matt Wiegle, "The Orphan Baiter", Papercutter #13 (Tugboat Press) • • • • Rina Ayuyang, Whirlwind Wonderland (Sparkplug Comic Books & Tugboat Press) Rami Efal, Never Forget, Never Forgive (Studio Namu) Blaise Larmee, Young Lions (self-published) Sully, The Hipless Boy (Conundrum Press)

• 2009 Colleen Frakes, Woman King (self-published) • • • • T. Edward Bak, Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Book 5 (Drawn & Quarterly) Hellen Jo, Jin & Jam #1 (Sparkplug), "Diamond Heights," Papercutter #9 (Tugboat) Ed Luce, Wuvable Oaf (self-published) Amanda Vähämäki, Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Book 5 (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2008 Sarah Glidden, How to Understand Israel in 60 Days or Less (self-published) • • • • Oliver East, Trains Are... Mint(Blank Slate) Austin English, Windy Corner #2 (Sparkplug Comic Books) Chuck Forsman, Snake Oil #1 (self-published) Lars Martinson, Tonoharu (Pliant Press/Top Shelf Productions)

• 2007 Tom Neely, The Blot (I Will Destroy You) • • • • Gabrielle Bell, Lucky, Drawn & Quarterly Showcase Vol. 4 (Drawn & Quarterly) Scott Campbell (artist), Flight Vol. 4 (Ballantine Books), Hickee vol. 3 #3 (Alternative Comics) Lilli Carré, Papercutter #3 (Tugboat Press), You Ain't No Dancer Vol. 2 (New Reliable Press) Brandon Graham, King City (TokyoPop)

• 2006 Hope Larson, Salamander Dream (AdHouse Books), Gray Horses (Oni Press) • • • • Andrice Arp, Mome Winter 2006 (Fantagraphics Books) Jonathan Bennett, Mome Fall 2005 (Fantagraphics Books) R. Kikuo Johnson, Night Fisher (Fantagraphics Books) Ben Jones, BJ & Da Dogs (Picturebox, Inc.)

• 2005 Andy Runton, Owly (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Joshua W. Cotter, Skyscrapers of the Midwest (AdHouse Books) Rebecca Dart, RabbitHead (Alternative Comics) Vanessa Davis, Spaniel Rage (Buenaventura Press) Karl Stevens, Guilty (Karl Stevens Publishing, dist. by Alternative Comics)

• 2004 Lauren Weinstein, Kramer's Ergot #4 (Avodah Books) • • • • Martin Cendreda, Hi-Horse Omnibus (Alternative Comics, Hi-Horse Comics) Svetlana Chmakova, Chasing Rainbows (, Dan James, The Octopi and the Ocean (Top Shelf Productions) Leland Purvis, Suspended in Language (G.T. Labs)

• 2003 Derek Kirk Kim, Same Difference and Other Stories (self-published) • • • • Marc Bell, Rosetta (Alternative Comics), Shrimpy & Paul (Highwater Books) Ray Friesen, RQW (Don't Eat Any Bugs Comics) John Hankiewicz, Tepid, Eleanor E. Is Home (self-published) Raina Telgemeier, Take Out (self-published)

• 2002 Greg Cook, Catch as Catch Can (Highwater Books) • Jeffrey Brown, Clumsy: A Novel (self-published) • Mike Dawson, Cabaret, Gabagool! (self-published)

Ignatz Awards • Sammy Harkham, "Study Group 12 #2" "Though I Slumber, My Heart Is Still Awake" (Study Group 12) • Anders Brekhus Nilsen, Big Questions #4: Asomatognosia (self-published) • Rick Smith and Tania Menesse, Shuck (Shuck Comics) • 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Tomer and Asaf Hanuka, Bipolar, self-published Mike Kunkel, Herobear and the Kid, Astonish Comics Metaphrog, Louis: Red Letter Day, Metaphrog Rutu Modan, Flipper Vol. 2, Actus Tragicus/Top Shelf Productions Ben Steckler, Get BenT, self-published


• 2000 Nick Bertozzi, Boswash (Luxurious Comics) • • • • Ben Catmull, Paper Theater (self-published) Rod Espinosa, The Courageous Princess (Antarctic Press) Kevin Huizenga, Supermonster (self-published) Stephen Notley, Bob the Angry Flower (self-published)

• 1999 Brian Ralph, Fireball #7 (Fort Thunder) • Leland Myrick, Sweet (Adept Books) • Madison Clell, Cuckoo (Green Door Studios) • Jason Little, Jack's Luck Runs Out (Top Shelf Productions) • Dave Kiersh, Is Kissing a Girl Who Smokes Like Kissing an Ashtray, Non #4 (Red Ink) • 1998 Carla Speed McNeil, Finder (Lightspeed Press) • • • • Tara Jenkins, Galaxion (Helikon Press) Matt Madden, Black Candy (Black Eye Books) Ron Rege, Skibber Bee Bye (self-published) Chris Oliveros, The Envelope Manufacturer (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 1997 Debbie Drechsler, Nowhere (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Tom Hart, The Sands (Black Eye Productions) C. S. Morse, Soulwind (Image Comics) Walt Holcombe, King of Persia (self published through Accordion Press) Steve Weissman, Yikes! (Alternative Press)

Outstanding Series
• 2010 Ganges, Kevin Huizenga (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • King-Cat Comics & Stories, John Porcellino (self-published) Sublife, John Pham (Fantagraphics Books) Summit of the Gods, Yumemakura Baku and Jiro Taniguchi (Fanfare/Ponent Mon) Troop 142, Mike Dawson (self-published)

• 2009 Uptight, Jordan Crane (Fantagraphics) • • • • Danny Dutch, David King (Sparkplug) Delphine, Richard Sala (Fantagraphics/Coconino) Interiorae, Gabriella Giandelli (Fantagraphics/Coconino) Reich, Elijah Brubaker (Sparkplug)

• 2008 Snake Oil by Chuck Forsman (self-published) • Eye of the Majestic Creature, Leslie Stein (self-published) • Injury, Ted May, Jason Robards, and Jeff Wilson (Buenaventura Press)

Ignatz Awards • Paul series, Michel Rabagliati (Drawn & Quarterly) • Reich, Elijah Brubaker (Sparkplug Comic Books) • 2007 Mourning Star by Kazimir Strzepek (Bodega Distribution) • • • • Atlas by Dylan Horrocks (Drawn & Quarterly) Delphine by Richard Sala (Fantagraphics Books/Coconico Press) Dungeon by Lewis Trondheim, Joann Sfar, and various (NBM) Love & Rockets by Los Bros Hernandez (Fantagraphics Books)


• 2006 Owly by Andy Runton (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Acme Novelty Library by Chris Ware (Fantagraphics Books) Big Questions by Anders Nilsen (Drawn and Quarterly) Love and Rockets by Los Bros. Hernandez (Fantagraphics Books) Optic Nerve by Adrian Tomine (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2005 Carla Speed McNeil, Finder (Light Speed Productions) • Tomer Hanuka, Asaf Hanuka, and Etgar Keret, Bipolar (Alternative Comics) • David Heatley, Deadpan (self-published) • Los Bros Hernandez, Love and Rockets vol. II (Fantagraphics) • Joshua W. Cotter, Skyscrapers of the Midwest (AdHouse Books) • 2004 Carla Speed McNeil, Finder (Light Speed Productions) • • • • Charles Burns, Black Hole (Fantagraphics Books) John Porcellino, King Cat (self-published) Nick Bertozzi, Rubber Necker (Alternative Comics) Kim Deitch, Stuff of Dreams (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2003 Charles Burns, Black Hole (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Roger Langridge, Fred the Clown (Hotel Fred Press) Ted Stearn, Fuzz & Pluck in Splitsville (Fantagraphics Books) Scott Roberts, Patty Cake (Slave Labor Graphics) Gary Spencer Millidge, Strangehaven (Abiogenesis Press)

• 2002 James Kochalka Sketchbook Diaries (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Chester Brown, Louis Riel (Drawn & Quarterly) Sam Henderson, Magic Whistle (Alternative Comics) David Hahn, Private Beach (Slave Labor Graphics) Dave Cooper, Weasel (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Jason Lutes, Berlin (Drawn and Quarterly) Carla Speed McNeil, Finder (Lightspeed Press) Mike Kunkel, Herobear and the Kid (Astonish Comics) Sam Henderson, Magic Whistle, (Alternative Comics) Jason, Mjau Mjau (Jippi Forlag)

• 2000 Dave Cooper, Weasel (Fantagraphics Books) • Jay Hosler, Clan Apis (Active Synapse Comics) • Madison Clell, Cuckoo (Green Door Studios) • Bryan Talbot, Heart of Empire (Dark Horse Comics) • Jason, Mjau Mjau (Jippi Forlag) • 1999 Max, The Extended Dream of Mr. D (Drawn & Quarterly)

Ignatz Awards • • • • Eric Shanower, Age of Bronze (Image Comics) Jay Hosler, Clan Apis (Active Synapse Comics) Gary Spencer Millidge, Strangehaven (Abiogenesis) Adam Warren, Gen 13: Magical Drama Queen Roxy (Wildstorm)


• 1998 Chris Ware, Acme Novelty Library (Fantagraphics) • • • • Daniel Clowes, Eightball (Fantagraphics) Debbie Drechsler, Nowhere (Drawn & Quarterly) Joe Chiappetta, Silly Daddy (self-published) Steve Weissman, Yikes! (Alternative Press)

• 1997 Chris Ware, Acme Novelty Library (Fantagraphics) • • • • Jason Lutes, Berlin (Black Eye Productions) Daniel Clowes, Eightball (Fantagraphics) Seth, Palookaville (Drawn & Quarterly) Gary Spencer Millidge, Strangehaven (Abiogenesis)

Outstanding Comic
• 2010 I Want You, Lisa Hanawalt (Buenaventura Press) • • • • Blammo #6, Noah Van Sciver (Kilgore Books) Eschew #2, Robert Sergel (Sparkplug Comic Books) Flesh and Bone, Julia Gfrörer (Sparkplug Comic Books) Sublife #2, John Pham (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2009 Uptight #3, Jordan Crane (Fantagraphics) • • • • Danny Dutch #1, David King (Sparkplug) Dead Ringer, Jason T. Miles (La Mano) Interiorae #3, Gabriella Giandelli (Fantagraphics/Coconino) Reich #6, Elijah Brubaker (Sparkplug)

• 2008 Snake Oil #1 by Chuck Forsman (self-published) • • • • Cryptic Wit #2, Gerald Jablonski (self-published) Department of Art, Dunya Jankovic (self-published) Lucky Vol. 2 #2, Gabrielle Bell (Drawn & Quarterly) Palooka-ville #19, Seth (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2007 Optic Nerve #11 by Adrian Tomine (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Doctor Id by Adam McGovern and Paolo Leandri (Indie Ink Studios) Fuzz & Pluck in Splitsville #4 by Ted Stearn (Fantagraphics Books) Love & Rockets vol. 2 #18 by Los Bros Hernandez (Fantagraphics Books) Monster Parade #1 by Ben Catmull (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2006 Schizo #4 by Ivan Brunetti (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Big Questions #7 by Anders Nilsen (Drawn & Quarterly) Ganges #1 by Kevin Huizenga (Fantagraphics Books) Optic Nerve #10 by Adrian Tomine (Drawn and Quarterly) Stuff of Dreams #3 by Kim Deitch (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2005 Kevin Huizenga, Or Else #1 (Drawn and Quarterly) • Anders Nilsen, Dogs & Water (Drawn & Quarterly) • Los Bros. Hernandez Love & Rockets #13 (Fantagraphics)

Ignatz Awards • Los Bros. Hernandez, Love & Rockets #12 (Fantagraphics) • Marc Bell, Worn Tuff Elbow #1 (Fantagraphics) • 2004 Daniel Clowes, Eightball #23 (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Charles Burns, Black Hole #11 (Fantagraphics Books) Kim Deitch, Stuff of Dreams #2 (Fantagraphics Books) John Hankiewicz, Tepid Summer 2003 (Tepid Comics) John Porcellino, King Cat #62 (Self-published)


• 2003 Nick Bertozzi, Rubber Necker #2, (Alternative Comics) • • • • Adam Suerte, Aprendiz Book 1 (self-published) Charles Burns, Black Hole #10 (Fantagraphics Books) David Collier, Collier's Vol. 2 #2 (Drawn & Quarterly) David Lasky and Greg Stump, Urban Hipster #2 (Alternative Comics)

• 2002 Daniel Clowes, Eightball #22 (Fantagraphics Books) • Anders Brekhus Nilsen, Big Questions #4: Asomatognosia (self-published) • Tony Consiglio, Double Cross: More or Less (Top Shelf Productions) • James Kochalka, Sketchbook Diaries Volume 2 (Top Shelf Productions) • Jon Lewis, True Swamp: Stoneground and Hillbound (Alternative Comics) • 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Frank No. 4, Jim Woodring, Fantagraphics Books Herobear and the Kid No. 2, Mike Kunkel, Astonish Comics James Kochalka's Sketchbook Diaries, James Kochalka, Top Shelf Productions Mjau Mjau' No. 7, Jason, Jippi Forlag Sequential' No. 6, Paul Hornschemeier, I Don't Get It Press

• 2000 Chris Ware, The Acme Novelty Library No. 13 (Fantagraphics Books) • • • • Ron Rege and Joan Leidy, Boys (Highwater Books) Madison Clell, Cuckoo No. 10 (Green Door Studios) Pete Sickman-Garner, Hey Mister, The Trouble With Jesus (Top Shelf Productions) Jordan Crane, The Last Lonely Saturday (Red Ink)

• 1999 Frank Cho, Liberty Meadows #1 (Insight Studio Group) • • • • Pekar, Sacco, Stack & Warneford, American Splendor: Transatlantic Comics James Sturm, Hundreds of Feet Below Daylight (Drawn & Quarterly) Ben Katchor, The Jew of New York (Pantheon Books) Joe Zabel & Gary Dumm, Oracle (Amazing Montage)

• 1998 Chris Ware, Acme Novelty Library #9 (Fantagraphics) • • • • Bill Willingham, Coventry #1 (Fantagraphics) Daniel Clowes, Eightball #19 (Fantagraphics) Debbie Drechsler, Nowhere #3 (Drawn & Quarterly) Joe Sacco, Stories From Bosnia #1: Soba (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 1997 Daniel Clowes, Eightball #17 (Fantagraphics) • Pete Sickman-Garner, Hey Mister #1 (Top Shelf Productions) • Dean Haspiel and Josh Neufeld, Keyhole #2 (Modern) • Walt Holcombe, King of Persia (self-published through Accordion Press) • Seth, Palookaville #10 (Drawn & Quarterly)

Ignatz Awards


Outstanding Minicomic
• 2010 Rambo 3.5, Jim Rugg • • • • Don't Drink from the Sea, Lilli Carré Stories by... Vol. 1, Martin Cendreda Troop 142, Mike Dawson Water Column #3, Josh Frankel

• 2009 Stay Away From Other People, Lisa Hanawalt • • • • Claptrap #2, Onsmith Just So You Know #1, Joey Alison Sayers Stewbrew, Kelly Froh & Max Clotfelter Xoc #1, Matt Dembicki

• 2008 Bluefuzz, Jesse Reklaw • • • • Dorado Park, Lilli Carre How To Understand Israel in 60 Days or Less, Sarah Glidden Ochre Ellipse #2, Jonas Madden-Connor Swell, Juliacks

• 2007 P.S. Comics #3 by Minty Lewis • • • • Burning Building Comix by Jeff Zwirek The Monkey and the Crab by Shawn Cheng and Sara Edward-Corbett Noose by Mark Burrier Seven More Days of Not Getting Eaten by Matt Wiegle

• 2006 Monsters by Ken Dahl • • • • Comicore Jr. by Paulette Poullet Gaylord Phoenix # 4 by Edie Fake Trackrabbit by Geoff Vasile Window #8 by Dave Lapp

• 2005 Alec Longstreth, Phase 7 (self-published) • • • • Jesse Reklaw Couch Tag #2 (self-published) John Hankiewicz, Dance (self-published) Andy Hartzell, Monday (self-published) Sarah Becan, Ouija Interview #3 (self-published)

• 2004 Gabrielle Bell, Lucky #3 (self-published) • Anders Brekhus Nilsen, Big Questions No. 6: Anoesia and the Matrideicidic Theophany (self-published) • Jim Ottaviani and Roger Langridge, Quantum Entanglement, Spooky Action at a Distance, Teleportation and You (G.T. Labs) • Pat Lewis, Thankless Job (Lunchbreak Comics) • Matthew Bellisle, Underground: Souvenir (Gravity/DSN) • 2003 Jeffrey Brown, I Am Going to Be Small (self-published) • Josh Sullivan, Josh Comics • David Lasky and Jesse Reklaw, Lo-Horse #1 • Raina Telgemeier, Take Out • Diana Tamblyn, That Thing You Fall Into • 2002 Megan Kelso, Artichoke Tales #1 (Highwater Books) • Tony Consiglio, Double Cross Assortment (self-published)

Ignatz Awards • Kevin Huizenga, Gloriana: Super Monster #14 (self-published) • John Kerschbaum, Homecoming (Fontanelle Press) • Lark Pien, Long Tail Kitty: Heaven (self-published) • 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Rachel Hartman, Amy Unbounded No. 12 (Pug House Press) Jesse Reklaw, Democracy: Mime Complaint No. 5 (self-published) Sean Bieri, Jumbo Jape (self-published) Low Jinx 3: The Big Rip-Off, edited by Kurt Wolfgang (Noe-Fie Mono-Media) John Hankiewicz, Tepid Spring 2001 (self-published)


• 2000 LowJinx # 2: Understanding the Horrible Truth About Reinventing Mini Comics (The Bastard Format), edited by Kurt Wolfgang (Noe-Fie Mono-Media) • • • • Johnny Ryan, Angry Youth Comics No. 11 (self-published) Androo Robinson, Jug (self-published) Jon Kerschbaum, Timberdoodle (self-published) Tom Beland, True Stories, Swear to God (self-published)

• 1999 Brian Ralph, Fireball #7 (Highwater Books) • • • • Aaron Augenblick, Tales of the Great Unspoken (self-published) Androo Robinson, Ped Xing (self-published) Mat Brinkman, Bolol Belittle (self-published) Kurt Wolfgang, Noe-Fie #8 (Noe-Fie Mono-Media)

• 1998 Rachel Hartman, Amy Unbounded (Pug House Press) • • • • Yvonne Mojica, Bathroom Girls John Porcellino, King Cat Comics James Kochalka, Magic Boy Does Laundry Matt Brinkman, Oaf

• 1997 James Kochalka, The Perfect Planet • • • • Pete Sickman-Garner, Hey Mister #4 John Porcellino, King-Cat Comics #52 Sam Henderson, Magic Whistle #9 Alan Hunt, Out There #5

Outstanding Online Comic
• 2010 Troop 142, Mike Dawson [1] • • • • Callahan Online, John Callahan [2] I Think You're Sauceome, Sarah Becan [3] The Lesttrygonians, Stephen Gilpin [4] Reliable Comics, David King [5] Bodyworld, Dash Shaw [7] Danny Dutch, David King Flickr [8] Thingpart, Joey Alison Sayers [9] Vanessa Davis’s comics for Tablet [10]

• 2009 Year of the Rat, Cayetano Garza [6] • • • •

• 2008 Achewood by Chris Onstad [11] • Danny Dutch by David King [12]

Ignatz Awards • Slow Wave by Jesse Reklaw [13] • Thingpart by Joey Sayers [9] • Traced by Tracy White [14] • 2007 Achewood by Chris Onstad, [11] • • • • Grace by Kris Dresen, [15] Persimmon Cup by Nick Bertozzi, [16] Thingpart by Joe Sayers, [9] Wondermark by David Malki !, [17]


• 2006 Nicholas Gurewitch, The Perry Bible Fellowship, [18] • A Lesson Is Learned But The Damage Is Irreversible by David Hellman and Dale Beran, [19] • Claviger by Ronnie Casson, [20] • Micrographica by Renee French, [21] • Thingpart by Joe Sayers, [9] • 2005 Nicholas Gurewitch, The Perry Bible Fellowship, [18] • deadmouse, Ballad, [22] • Kazu Kibuishi, Copper, [23] • Jenn Manley Lee, Dicebox, [24] • Steven Manale, Superslackers, [25] • 2004 James Kochalka, American Elf, [26] • • • • Patrick Farley, Apocamon, [27] J.J. Naas, Desert Rocks, [28] Timothy Kreider, The Pain … When Will it End?, [29] Craig Boldman, Tailipoe, [30] Gabrielle Bell, Bell's Home Journal, [21] Ted Slampyak, Jazz Age, [31] Nick Bertozzi, The Salon, [21] Jesse Reklaw, Slow Wave, [13] Tom Hart, Hutch Owen: Public Relations, [22] Jordan Crane, Keeping Two, [33] Derek Kirk Kim, Small Stories, [34] Tracy White, Traced, [14] Ben Jones, Future Genies of Mush Past, [35] Scott McCloud, I Can't Stop Thinking, [36] Jonathan Morris, Jeremy, [37] Demian5, When I Am King, [38] Scott McCloud, Zot! Hearts and Minds, [36]

• 2003 James Kochalka, American Elf, [26] • • • •

• 2002 Jason Little, Bee, [32] • • • •

• 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • •

Ignatz Awards


Outstanding Graphic Novel or Collection (discontinued)
• 2004 Craig Thompson, Blankets (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Joe Sacco, The Fixer (Drawn and Quarterly) Chester Brown, Louis Riel (Drawn and Quarterly) McSweeney’s Quarterly Concern #13, Edited by Chris Ware (McSweeney's, Ltd.) Matt Brinkman, Teratoid Heights (Highwater Books)

• 2003 Rich Koslowski, Three Fingers (Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Bob Fingerman, Beg The Question (Fantagraphics Books) David B, Epileptic (L'Association) Jim Woodring, The Frank Book (Fantagraphics Books) Spain Rodriguez and William Lindsay Gresham, Nightmare Alley (Fantagraphics Books)

• 2002 James Sturm, The Golem's Mighty Swing (Drawn & Quarterly) • • • • Fallout, edited by Jim Ottaviani (G.T. Labs) Ivan Brunetti, Haw! (Fantagraphics Books) Non #5, edited by Jordan Crane (Red Ink Press) Debbie Drechsler, Summer of Love (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 2001 Ignatz Awards cancelled after 9-11 Attacks • • • • • Alex Robinson, Box Office Poison (Top Shelf Productions) Chris Ware, Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid On Earth (Pantheon Books) Mark Kalesniko, Mail Order Bride (Fantagraphics Books) Joe Sacco, Safe Area Gorazde: The War in Eastern Bosnia, 1992-1995 (Fantagraphics Books) Michael Kupperman, Snake 'n' Bacon's Cartoon Cabaret (Avon Books)

• 2000 Alan Moore and Eddie Campbell, From Hell (Eddie Campbell Comics, distributed by Top Shelf Productions) • • • • Tom Hart, Banks/Eubanks (Top Shelf Productions) Jay Hosler, Clan Apis (Active Synapse) Comix 2000 various, (L'Association) Drawn & Quarterly, Volume 3 various, (Drawn & Quarterly)

• 1999 Dave McKean, Cages (Kitchen Sink) • • • • Pete Sickman-Garner, Hey Mister: Celebrity Roast (Top Shelf Productions) Dylan Horrocks, Hicksville (Black Eye) Ed Hillyer, Time Warp (Slab-O-Concrete) James Kochalka, Tiny Bubbles (Highwater Books)

• 1998 Daniel Clowes, Ghost World (Fantagraphics) • • • • Martin Tom Dieck, Views of the Warehouse District (Westhampton House) Jim Woodring, Frank vol. 2 (Fantagraphics) Chester Brown, The Little Man (Drawn & Quarterly) Titanic Tales edited by Mark Wheatley (Insight Studios)

• 1997 Seth, It's A Good Life if You Don't Weaken (Drawn & Quarterly) • Ed Brubaker, At The Seams (Alternative Press) • Ben Katchor, Julius Knipl, Real Estate Photographer: Stories (Little, Brown) • David B. , L'Ascension Du Haut Mal (L'Association) • Cosey , Lost in the Alps (NBM)

Ignatz Awards


Outstanding Debut Comic (discontinued)
• • • • • • • • 2008 Swallow Me Whole by Nate Powell (Top Shelf Productions) 2007 Papercutter #6 edited by Alec Longstreth (Tugboat Press) 2006 Class of '99 by Josh Eiserike (Self-Published) 2005 Will You Still Love Me if I Wet the Bed? by Liz Prince (Top Shelf Productions) 2004 Teen Boat #6: Vote Boat by Dave Roman and John Green (Cryptic Press) 2003 Studygroup12 #3 edited by Zack Soto 2002 Pulpatoon Pilgrimage by Joel Priddy (AdHouse Books) 2000 Dork #8 by Evan Dorkin (Slave Labor Graphics)

Ignatz Awards Jury
• 2010 • • • • • Trevor Alixopulos Joshua Cotter Rob G David Kelly Anders Nilsen

• 2009 • • • • • Lilli Carré Vanessa Davis Robert Kirby Scott Mills Laura Park

• 2008 • • • • • Gabrielle Bell Farel Dalrymple Eleanor Davis John Hankiewicz Andy Hartzell

• 2007 • • • • • Sara Edward-Corbett Paul Hornschemeier Steve MacIsaac Jesse Reklaw Zack Soto

• 2006 • • • • • Jeffrey Brown Henry Chamberlain Justin Hall Laurenn McCubbin Jim Rugg

• 2005 • Jennifer Daydreamer • Shaenon Garrity

Ignatz Awards • James Kochalka • Jeff Parker • Dan Zettwoch • 2004 • • • • • Kevin Huizenga Megan Kelso Rich Koslowski Layla Lawlor Steve Lieber


• 2003 • • • • • Pam Bliss Ariel Bordeaux David Hahn Batton Lash Matt Madden

• 2002 • • • • Suzanne Baumann Nick Bertozzi David Lasky Alex Robinson

• 2001 • • • • • Matt Feazell Roberta Gregory Jon "Bean" Hastings Sam Henderson James Sturm

• 2000 • • • • • Donna Barr Sean Bieri Phil Foglio Dean Haspiel Jason Little

• 1999 • • • • • Frank Cho Jordan Crane Jon Lewis Carla Speed McNeil Jim Ottaviani

• 1998 • Michael Cohen • Tom Devlin • Tom Hart • Marc Hempel • Dylan Horrocks

Ignatz Awards • 1997 • • • • • Jessica Abel Chester Brown Ed Brubaker Mark Wheatley Joe Zabel


Ignatz Awards Committee
• 2011–present • Eden Miller, Coordinator • Greg McElhatton • Karon Flage • 2007-2010 • Greg McElhatton, Coordinator • Jeff Alexander • Karon Flage • 2000-2006 • Jeff Alexander, Coordinator • Karon Flage • Greg McElhatton • 1999 • Jeff Alexander, Coordinator • 1998 • Chris Oarr, Coordinator • Jeff Alexander • 1997 • Chris Oarr, Coordinator

External links
• Ignatz Awards Official Website [39]

[1] http:/ / troop142. mikedawsoncomics. com [2] http:/ / www. callahanonline. com/ calarc. html [3] http:/ / www. sauceome. com [4] http:/ / www. sgilpin. com/ 2010_site/ Weekly_Comic_Strip/ Weekly_Comic_Strip. html [5] http:/ / www. reliablecomics. com [6] http:/ / www. magicinkwell. com/ [7] http:/ / dashshaw. com/ [8] http:/ / www. flickr. com/ photos/ kingkomics/ sets/ 72157603500714748 [9] http:/ / www. jsayers. com/ thingpart/ thingpart. html [10] http:/ / www. tabletmag. com/ author/ vdavis/ [11] http:/ / www. achewood. com/ [12] http:/ / www. reliablecomics. com/ [13] http:/ / www. slowwave. com/ [14] http:/ / www. traced. com/

Ignatz Awards
[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] http:/ / www. girlthrow. com/ grace http:/ / www. act-i-vate. com/ http:/ / www. wondermark. com/ http:/ / www. pbfcomics. com/ http:/ / www. alessonislearned. com/ http:/ / www. girlamatic. com/ http:/ / www. serializer. net/ http:/ / www. moderntales. com/ http:/ / www. boltcity. com/ http:/ / www. jennworks. com/ http:/ / www. superslackers. com/ http:/ / www. americanelf. com/ http:/ / e-sheep. com/ http:/ / dr. ungroup. net/ http:/ / thepaincomics. com/ http:/ / craigboldman. com/ http:/ / www. jazzagecomics. com/ http:/ / www. beecomix. com/ http:/ / www. highwaterbooks. com/ http:/ / www. smallstoriesonline. com/ http:/ / www. usscatastrophe. com/ http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/


[37] http:/ / www. ape-law. com/ jeremy [38] http:/ / www. demian5. com/ [39] http:/ / www. spxpo. com/ ?page_id=22

Eisner Award


Eisner Award
Will Eisner Comic Industry Award
Awarded for Country Creative Achievement in American comic books United States

Official website [1]

The Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards, commonly shortened to the Eisner Awards, and sometimes referred to as the Oscar Awards of the Comics Industry,[2] [3] are prizes given for creative achievement in American comic books. The Eisner Awards were first conferred in 1988, created in response to the discontinuation of the Kirby Awards after 1987.[4] [5] They are named in honor of the pioneering writer and artist Will Eisner, who was a regular participant in the award ceremony until his death in 2005.[4] The Eisner Awards include the Comic Industry's Hall of Fame. The nominations in each category are generated by a five-member panel, then voted on by comic-book professionals, and presented at the annual Comic-Con International convention held in San Diego, California, usually in July or August. Jackie Estrada has been the award administrator since 1990.[5]

Awards are given out in the following categories: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Single Issue/Single Story Best Short Story Best Serialized Story Best Black-and-White Series Best Continuing Series Best Finite Series/Limited Series Best New Series Best Title for Younger Readers/Best Comics Publication for a Younger Audience Best Publication for Kids Best Publication for Teens Best Publication for Teens/Tweens Best Anthology Best Digital Comic (since 2005)[6] Best Webcomic Best Reality-Based Work Best Graphic Album Best Graphic Album: New Best Graphic Album: Reprint Best Archival Collection/Project Best Archival Collection/Project - Comic Strips Best Archival Collection/Project - Comic Books Best Humor Publication Best U.S. Edition of International Material Best U.S. Edition of International Material - Japan Best Comic Strip Collection Best Writer

Eisner Award • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Writer/Artist Best Writer/Artist: Drama Best Writer/Artist: Humor Best Painter/Multimedia Artist (Interior) Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team Best Art Team Best Colorist/Coloring Best Letterer/Lettering Best Cover Artist Talent Deserving of Wider Recognition Special Recognition Best Editor Best Comics-Related Periodical/Publication Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism Best Comics-Related Book Best Comics-Related Publication (Periodical or Book) Best Comics-Related Product/Item Best Comics-Related Sculpted Figures Spirit of Comics Retailer Award Bob Clampett Humanitarian Award Best Publication Design The Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame


[1] http:/ / www. comic-con. org/ cci/ cci_eisners_main. php [2] "The Eisner Awards" (http:/ / www. worldofsuperheroes. com/ comics/ 4713/ ). April 8, 2011. . Retrieved May 14, 2011. [3] Albert, Aaron. "The Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards Profile" (http:/ / comicbooks. about. com/ od/ conventionsandevents/ p/ eisnerawards. htm). . Retrieved May 14, 2011. [4] "The Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards" (http:/ / www. comic-con. org/ cci/ cci_eisnersfaq. shtml#oscars), WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzOBvJo3) (requires scrolldown). [5] Estrada, Jackie . "The Eisner Awards: A Brief History" (http:/ / www. comic-con. org/ cci/ cci_eisnersfaq. shtml#history), WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzOBvJo3) (requires scrolldown). [6] Thorne, Amy (2010). "25 Webcomics and Libraries" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Xo-QYdfL9DoC). In Robert G. Weiner. Graphic Novels and Comics in Libraries and Archives: Essays on Readers, Research, History and Cataloging. Elizabeth (FRW) Figa and Derek Parker Royal (forewords); Stephen Weiner (afterword) (illustrated ed.). McFarland. p. 211. ISBN 9780786443024. . "Librarians also can consult ... the Eisner Awards, which have had a Best Digital Comic entry since 2005"

• Eisner Awards from 1988 - 2007 ( WebCitation archive ( • The Eisner Awards - The “Oscars” of the Comics Industry ( ). • Archive of 2005 Eisner awards from ( WebCitation archive ( 5uEgaqBIT). Original page ( • 2006 Eisner Award nominations (, WebCitation archive (

Eisner Award • 2006 Eisner Award winners (, WebCitation archive ( • 2007 Eisner Award nominations (, WebCitation archive ( • 2007 Eisner Award winners (, WebCitation archive ( • 2008 Eisner Award winners (, WebCitation archive ( • 2009 Eisner Award winners (, WebCitation archive ( • Bob Clampett Humanitarian Award winner (, WebCitation archive (


External links
• Nominations for 2011 Eisner awards, winners to be announced in July 2011 at Comic Con (http://www.

Inkpot Award
The Inkpot Award, bestowed annually since 1974 by Comic-Con International, is given to some of the professionals in comic book, comic strip, animation, science fiction, and related pop-culture fields, who are guests of that organization's yearly multigenre fan convention, commonly known as Comic-Con or the San Diego Comic-Con. Also eligible are members of Comic-Con's Board of Directors and convention committee. In 1987, Steve Ditko was presented an Inkpot Award in absentia, accepted on his behalf by Renegade Press publisher Deni Loubert, who had published Ditko's World the previous year. Ditko refused the award, and returned it to Loubert after having phoned her to say, "Awards bleed the artist and make us compete against each other. They are the most horrible things in the world. How dare you accept this on my behalf". At his behest, Loubert returned the award to the convention organizers.[1] The recipients, listed below, are known primarily as comics creators (writers, artists, letterers, colorists), editors, or publishers, unless otherwise noted.

Awards by year
• • • • • • • • • Forrest J. Ackerman (magazine editor) Ray Bradbury (prose writer) Kirk Alyn (actor) Milton Caniff Frank Capra (filmmaker) Bob Clampett (animator) June Foray (voice actress) Eric Hoffman (film historian) Chuck Jones (animator)

• Jack Kirby • Stan Lee

Inkpot Award • • • • • • • Bill Lund / William R. Lund (actor/writer/founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Russ Manning Russell Myers (creator of 'Broom Hilda' comic strip) Charles Schulz Phil Seuling (Comic Art Convention founder) Roy Thomas Bjo Trimble (science-fiction fandom figure)


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Barry Alfonso (writer/founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Brad Anderson Robert Bloch (prose writer) Vaughn Bodé Edgar Rice Burroughs (prose writer) Daws Butler (voice actor) Richard Butner (Comic-Con Chair-person; NO relation to prose writer) Shel Dorf ('Founding Father' of San Diego Comic-Con) Will Eisner Mark Evanier Gil Kane Alan Light Dick Moores George Pal (filmmaker) Rod Serling (screenwriter) Joe Shuster Jerry Siegel Barry Windsor-Smith Jim Starlin Jim Steranko Ted Sturgeon (prose writer) Larry ("Seymour") Vincent (TV horror-movie host)

• • • • • • • • • • • Neal Adams Sergio Aragonés Mel Blanc (voice actor) Frank Brunner Rick Griffin Johnny Hart George Clayton Johnson (screenwriter) Vicky Kelso (long-time Secretary of San Diego Comic-Con) Mel Lazarus Sheldon Mayer Dale Messick

• Alex Niño • Don Rico • Don Thompson

Inkpot Award • Maggie Thompson


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alfredo Alcala Carl Barks C. C. Beck Howard Chaykin Lester Dent (prose writer) Jackie Estrada Hal Foster Walter Gibson (prose writer) Jim Harmon (writer/old radio & movie serial historian) Robert A. Heinlein (prose writer) Gene Henderson (San Diego Comic-Con's Historian & Director-at-Large) Michael Kaluta Joe Kubert Harvey Kurtzman George Lucas (filmmaker) Stan Lynde Byron Preiss Trina Robbins Stanley Ralph Ross Bill Scott David Scroggy Jay Ward (TV producer) Len Wein

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Buscema Al Capp Gene Colan Gill Fox Tom French Steve Gerber Chester Gould Burne Hogarth Bob Kane Ken Krueger (founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Bernie Lansky Gray Morrow Clarence Nash Grim Natwick Bill Rotsler Mike Royer

• Gilbert Shelton • Dave Sheridan • Bil Stout

Inkpot Award • • • • Frank Thorne Boris Vallejo Mort Weisinger Elmer Woggon


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Craig Anderson Steve Englehart Dale Enzenbacher Kelly Freas Virginia French H. R. Giger (painter) Gene Hazelton Carl Macek Victor Moscoso Larry Niven (prose writer) Dan O'Neill Virgil Partch Jerry Pournelle Nestor Redondo Marshall Rogers John Romita, Sr. Bill Spicer Mort Walker Marv Wolfman

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Terry Austin Murray Bishoff Pat Boyette John Byrne Canadian Film Board Ernie Chan Chris Claremont Shary Flenniken Mike Friedrich Rick Geary Don Glut S. Gross Al Hartley B. Kliban Jerry Muller George Olshevsky Joe Orlando

• Fred Patten • Don Phelps • Richard Pini

Inkpot Award • • • • • • • • • Wendy Pini David Raskin Scott Shaw! (artist/animator/founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Jim Shooter John Stanley B. K. Taylor Osamu Tezuka (animator) Adam West (actor) Wally Wood


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jerry Bails L. B. Cole Jim Fitzpatrick Dick Giordano Dave Graue Paul Gulacy Mary Henderson Karl Hubenthal Bil Keane Frank Miller Doug Moench Monkey Punch Dennis O'Neil Gary Owens Richard Rockwell, also known as Dick Rockwell Allen Saunders Julius Schwartz Mike Sekowsky Bill Sienkiewicz Dave Sim Alex Toth Morrie Turner Bill Woggon

• • • • • • • • Bob Bindig Brian Bolland Russ Cochran David Cockrum Max Allan Collins Chase Craig Archie Goodwin Mike Grell

• Bruce Hamilton • Jack Katz • Howard Kazanjian

Inkpot Award • • • • • • • • • • Hank Ketcham Walter Koenig (actor) Richard Kyle Lee Marrs Frank Marshall John Pound(artist/founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Tony Raiola Steven Spielberg (filmmaker) Leonard Starr Robert Williams


• • • • • • • • • • • • Douglas Adams (prose writer) Maeheah Alzmann Jim Aparo Don Bluth Floyd Gottfredson Norman Maurer George Pérez Arn Saba Dan Spiegle Joe Staton James Van Hise Cat Yronwode

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Murphy Anderson Ramon Arambola Greg Bear (prose writer/founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) Fae (Gates) Desmond, Comic-Con Executive Director Stan Drake John Field Rick Hoberg Greg Jein Ollie Johnston Brant Parker Robert Shayne (actor) Curt Swan Frank Thomas Jim Valentino Al Williamson

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • • • • • Brent Anderson Ben Bova (book/magazine editor) David Brin Jack Cummings Jack Davis Alan Moore Dan O'Bannon (filmmaker) Tom Orzechowski John Rogers Alex Schomburg Walt Simonson

• Poul Anderson (prose writer) • Marion Zimmer Bradley (prose writer) • Dave Gibbons • • • • • • • • • Jean ("Moebius") Giraud Gilbert Hernandez Jaime Hernandez Denis Kitchen Steve Leialoha Marty Nodell Harvey Pekar Mark Stadler Dave Stevens

• • • • • • • • • • • • Harlan Ellison (prose writer) Larry Geeck Ward Kimball Deni Loubert Bill Messner-Loebs Mike Peters Bill Schanes Steve Schanes Robert Silverberg (prose writer) Art Spiegelman Bernie Wrightson Ray Zone (3-D historian)

• Steve Ditko was presented an Inkpot Award in absentia, accepted on his behalf by Renegade Press publisher Deni Loubert, who had published Ditko's World in 1986. Ditko refused the award, and returned it to Loubert after having phoned her to say, "Awards bleed the artist and make us compete against each other. They are the most horrible things in the world. How dare you accept this on my behalf". At his behest, Loubert returned the award to the convention organizers.[2]

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Frank Alison, Comic-Con Director-at-Large Robert Asprin (prose writer) Mike Baron Lynda Barry John Bolton Jules Feiffer Raymond Feist (prose writer) Matt Groening Gary Groth George R. R. Martin (prose writer) Mike Pasqua Steve Rude Marie Severin Matt Wagner

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Richard Alf (founding member of San Diego Comic-Con) R. Crumb Howard Cruse Kevin Eastman Lee Falk Ron Goulart (prose writer) Walt Kelly Peter Laird Syd Mead (industrial designer) Andre Norton (prose writer) Jerry Robinson Diana Schutz Janet Tait Ron Turner Gahan Wilson

• • • • • • • • • • Karen Berger Bob Burden Tom DeFalco William Gaines Jim Henson (puppeteer) Randy and Jean-Marc Lofficier Grant Morrison Bob Overstreet Mary Reynante Bob Schreck

• Ken Steacy • Rick Sternbach (film/TV illustrator)

Inkpot Award • Charles Vess


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alicia Austin Clive Barker (prose writer) Dan Barry Dan DeCarlo Creig Flessel Neil Gaiman Ted Geisel (Dr. Seuss) Keith Giffen George Gladir Joe Haldeman (prose novelist) Lynn Johnston Carol Kalish Don Maitz Sheldon Moldoff

• Steve Oliff • Julie Roloff • Stan Sakai

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carina Burns-Chenelle, Comic-Con treasurer Bob Chapman Francis Ford Coppola (filmmaker) Robin Doig Alan Grant Bill Griffith Ray Harryhausen (filmmaker) Marc Hempel Jim Lee Milo Manara Scott McCloud Todd McFarlane Rowena Morrill (book/magazine illustrator) Diane Noomin Louise Simonson Dick Sprang Vernor Vinge (prose writer) Mark Wheatley

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gary Carter (comics historian) Phil Foglio Robert Goodwin Ferd Johnson Don Martin Dave McKean Clydene Nee Paul Norris Paul Power P. Craig Russell Mark Schultz Vincent Sullivan Michael Whelan (artist) Roger Zelazny (prose writer)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mike Carlin Paul Chadwick Al Feldstein Stan Goldberg Roberta Gregory Chad Grothkopf Jerry Ordway Bud Plant Mike Richardson John Romita, Jr. Richard Rowell Lucius Shepard (prose writer) Mickey Spillane (prose writer) J. Michael Stracynski Rumiko Takahashi

• • • • • • Roger Corman (filmmaker) Greg Hildbrandt Tim Hildebrant Ryuichi Ikegami Irv Novick Joe Sinnott

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • Donna Barr Mort Drucker Joe Giella Jim Mooney Kurt Schaffenberger François Schuiten David Siegel

• • • • • • • Dick Ayers Steve Bissette Terry Brooks (prose writer) Bob Haney Russ Heath Carol Lay Michael Moorcock (prose writer)

• Janice Tobias • George Tuska

• • • • • • • • • • • John Broome Eddie Campbell Nick Cardy David Glanzer, Comic-Con Director of Marketing and Publicity Fred Guardineer Lorenzo Mattotti Paul S. Newman John Severin Joe Simon Naoko Takeuchi Mark Yturralde (filmmaker)

• • • • • • • • Tom Batiuk Chuck Cuidera Samuel R. Delany (prose writer) Arnold Drake Sam Glanzman Larry Gonick Irwin Hasen Sue Lord, Comic-Con HR/Guest Relations

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • • • • • Will Elder Ric Estrada, sometimes (incorrectly) referred to as Rick Estrada Phoebe Gloeckner Beth Holley, Comic-Con VP, Exhibits Carmine Infantino Jack Kamen Ben Katchor Harry Lampert Bryan Talbot Angelo Torres Lewis Trondheim

• Henry Boltinoff • Irwin Donenfeld • Brian and Wendy Froud • • • • • • Martin Jaquish, Comic-Con Director-at-Large Joe R. Lansdale Spider and Jeanne Robinson (prose writers) Alvin Schwartz [NOTE: Unclear which of two writers Alvin Schwartz] Jeff Smith Kim Thompson

• • • • • • • • • • Eddie Ibrahim, Comic-Con Director of Programming Frank Jacobs Jason Paul Levitz Bob Lubbers Bob Oksner Lew Sayre Schwartz Hal Sherman Herb Trimpe William Woolfolk

• • • • • • • Charles Berberian Frank Bolle Sal Buscema John Davenport, Comic-Con Events staff Philippe Dupuy Steve Jackson (games manufacturer) Sid Jacobson

• Larry Lieber • Terry Moore

Inkpot Award • Howard Post


• • • • • • • • • Jack Adler Tom Gill Harry Harrison (prose writer) Bruce Jones Batton Lash Mike Mignola Bill Plympton (animator) Frank Springer John Totleben

• Lee Ames • Sy Barry • Taerie Bryant, Comic-Con Fandom Services • Bob Bolling • Bob Fujitani • Dexter Taylor

• • • • • • • • Peter S. Beagle (Outstanding Achievement in Science Fiction and Fantasy) Art Clokey (animator) Luis Dominguez Basil Gogos Everett Raymond Kinstler (former comics artist; presidential portrait painter) Kazuo Koike Bill Pittman, Comic-Con VP Operations Yoshihiro Tatsumi

• • • • • • • • • • • • Allen Bellman Renée French Gary Friedrich Adam Hughes Miriam Katin Mel Keefer Joseph Michael Linsner David Morrell (prose writer) Lily Renée Phlllips Mike Ploog Mary Sturhann, Comic-Con Secretary Dan Vado

• Mark Verheiden • F. Paul Wilson (prose writer)

Inkpot Award


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kyle Baker Ralph Bakshi (animator) Mike W. Barr Ed Brubaker Kim Deitch Victor Gorelick Al Jaffee James Jira, Comic-Con Asst. to President Todd Klein (letterer) Dean Koontz (prose writer) Tite Kubo Noel Neill (actress) Floyd Norman Jeff Watts Bill Willingham Connie Willis

• Jim Woodring

• • • • • Hayao Miyazaki John Lasseter Dwayne McDuffie Bob Wayne Paul Levitz

• Drew Struzan

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anina Bennett Jordi Bernet Joyce Brabner Chester Brown Seymour Chwast Alan Davis Dick DeBartolo Dawn Devine Tony DeZuniga Eric Drooker Joyce Farmer Tsuneo Gōda Paul Guinan John Higgins

• Jamal Igle • Peter Kuper

Inkpot Award • • • • • • Richard A. Lupoff Pat Lupoff Steve Sansweet Bill Schelly Frank Stack Jeff Walker


[1] Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (Fantagraphics Books, Seattle, Washington, 2008), pp. 165–166. ISBN 9781560979310 [2] Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (Fantagraphics Books, Seattle, Washington, 2008), pp. 165-166. ISBN 9781560979310

• Comic-Con International's Inkpot Awards (, the official site • Inkpot Awards ( at the Comic Book Awards Almanac

Doug Wright Award
The Doug Wright Awards (founded December 2004) are literary awards handed out annually to Canadian cartoonists, honouring excellence in works published in English. The awards are named for Canadian cartoonist Doug Wright. Winners are selected by a jury of five Canadians who have made significant contributions to national culture, based on shortlisted selections provided by a nominating committee of five experts in the comics field. The Wrights are handed out in three categories, "Best Book", "Best Emerging Talent" and, since 2008, the "Pigskin Peters Award" for non-narrative or experimental works. The Wright Awards are modeled after traditional book prizes, with the intention of drawing attention to the comics medium from a broad range of demographics inside and outside of its traditional fanbase. The Wrights have garnered acclaim as well as earning the support of a diverse range of participating artists and jurors including Don McKellar, Bruce McDonald, Jerry Ciccoritti, Bob Rae, Andrew Coyne, Sara Quin, Greg Morrison, Chester Brown, Lorenz Peter, and Nora Young.

The Best Book and Best Emerging Talent awards are a large wood-and-glass trophy, engraved with images from Wright's comic strip. The award was designed by the cartoonist Seth, who admitted to some embarrassment at being the inaugural winner of the trophy he designed.[1] The Pigskin Peters Award, named in honour of a character from Jimmy Frise's Birdseye Center, is a custom, tailored derby hat with its own unique plaque that doubles as a hat post. It was also designed by Seth.

Doug Wright Award


Juried by Chester Brown, Rebecca Caldwell, Nora Young, Jerry Ciccoritti and Don McKellar. Best Book • • • • • Worn Tuff Elbow #1 by Marc Bell (Fantagraphics Books) Pamplemoussi by Geneviève Castrée (L'Oie de Cravan) The Frank Ritza Papers by David Collier (Drawn & Quarterly) DC: The New Frontier vol. 1 by Darwyn Cooke (DC Comics) Clyde Fans, Book One by Seth (D&Q)

Best Emerging Talent • • • • Rabbithead by Rebecca Dart (Alternative Comics) Revolver [2] #1 by Max Douglas / Salgood Sam (self-published) Canvas by Alex Fellows (Fantagraphics) Scott Pilgrim's Precious Little Life by Bryan Lee O'Malley (Oni Press)

Juried by Justin Peroff, Alan Hunt and Ben Portis. Best Book • • • • • Pyongyang: A Journey in North Korea by Guy Delisle (D&Q) Scott Pilgrim Versus the World by Bryan Lee O’Malley (Oni) Dragonslippers: This Is What an Abusive Relationship Looks Like by Rosalind B. Penfold (Grove Press) Paul Moves Out by Michel Rabagliati (D&Q) Wimbledon Green by Seth (D&Q)

Best Emerging Talent • • • • • Northwest Passage Vol. 1 by Scott Chantler (Oni) The Unexpurgated Tale of Lordie Jones by Marc Ngui (Conundrum Press) Dark Adaptation by Lorenz Peter Skim by Mariko Tamaki and Jillian Tamaki Nil: A Land Beyond Belief by James Turner (Slave Labor Graphics)

Juried by Bruce McDonald, Mark Kingwell, Judy MacDonald, Lorenz Peter and Jessica Johnson. Best Book • • • • • Shenzen: A Travelogue From China by Guy Delisle (D&Q) This Will All End in Tears by Joe Ollman (Insomniac Press) Scott Pilgrim & The Infinite Sadness by Bryan Lee O'Malley (Oni) Gilded Lilies by Jillian Tamaki (Conundrum Press) Nog-a-dod edited by Marc Bell (Conundrum Press)

Best Emerging Talent • Gray Horses by Hope Larson (Oni) • House of Sugar by Rebecca Kraatz (Tulip Tree Press) • Was She Pretty? by Leanne Shapton (Farrar, Strauss & Giroux) • Bacter-area by Keith Jones (D&Q)

Doug Wright Award • Mendacity by Tamara Berger & Sophie Cossette (Kiss Machine)


Juried by Katrina Onstad, Ho Che Anderson, Marc Glassman, Mariko Tamaki and Helena Rickett. Best Book • • • • 365 Days: A Diary by Julie Doucet (D&Q) Spent by Joe Matt (D&Q) The Magical Life of Long Tack Sam by Ann Marie Fleming (Riverhead Books) Southern Cross by Laurence Hyde (D&Q)

Best Emerging Talent • • • • Essex County Vol. 1: Tales from the Farm and Vol. 2: Ghost Stories by Jeff Lemire (Top Shelf Productions) Pope Hats by Ethan Rilly (self-published) Kieffer #1 by Jason Kieffer (self-published) The Experiment by Nick Maandag (self-published)

2008 introduced a new category dedicated to works that fall outside the bounds of traditional storytelling. Named after a character in the classic Canadian comic strip Birdseye Center, the Pigskin Peters Award recognizes non-narrative (or nominally-narrative) comics. Pigskin Peters Award • • • • Milk Teeth by Julie Morstad (D&Q) Little Lessons in Safety by Emily Holton (Conundrum Press) Excelsior 1968 by John Martz (self-published) Fire Away by Chris von Szombathy (D&Q)

Juried by Bob Rae, Andrew Coyne, Martin Levin, Joe Ollmann and Diana Tamblyn. Best Book • • • • Burma Chronicles by Guy Delisle (D&Q) Drop-in by Dave Lapp (Conundrum) Paul Goes Fishing by Michel Rabagliati (D&Q) Skim by Jillian & Mariko Tamaki (Groundwood)

Best Emerging Talent • • • • • History Comics by Kate Beaton (self-published) Maids in the Mist by Caitlin Black (self-published) Blue Winter, Shapes in the Snow by Jesse Jacobs (self-published) Kieffer #2 by Jason Kieffer (self-published) Jack & Mandy by Nick Maandag (self-published)

Pigskin Peters Award • • • • Hall of Best Knowledge by Ray Fenwick (Fantagraphics) Ojingogo by Matthew Forsythe (D&Q) All We Ever Do is Talk About Wood by Tom Horacek (D&Q) Small Victories by Jesse Jacobs (self-published)

Winners of the 2009 Doug Wright Awards were announced on May 9, 2009 at the Art Gallery of Ontario during a ceremony hosted by actor and director Don McKellar.[3]

Doug Wright Award


Juried by Matt Forsythe, Geoff Pevere, Fiona Smyth, and Carl Wilson. Best Book • • • • • Back + Forth by Marta Chudolinska (Porcupine's Quill) George Sprott: (1894–1975) by Seth (D&Q) Hot Potatoe by Marc Bell (D&Q) Kaspar by Diane Obomsawin (D&Q) Red: A Haida Manga by Michael Nicoll Yahgulanaas (D&Q)

Best Emerging Talent • • • • • I'm Crazy by Adam Bourret (self-published) Lose #1, Cold Heat Special #7 by Michael DeForge (Koyama Press; Picturebox) Nicolas by Pascal Girard (D&Q) It's Snowing Outside, We Should Go for a Walk by John Martz (self-published) The Hipless Boy by Sully (Conundrum)

Pigskin Peters Award • Bébête by Simon Bossé (L'Oie de Cravan) • • • • Dirty Dishes by Amy Lockhart (D&Q) Hot Potatoe by Marc Bell (D&Q) Never Learn Anything from History by Kate Beaton (self-published) The Collected Doug Wright Volume One by Doug Wright (D&Q)

Winners of the 2010 Doug Wright Awards were announced on May 8, 2010 in the Bram & Bluma Appel Salon in the Toronto Reference Library, during a ceremony hosted by actor Peter Outerbridge.

Juried by Sara Quin, Michael Redhill, Anita Kunz, Marc Bell, and Mark Medley. Best Book • • • • • Bigfoot by Pascal Girard (Drawn and Quarterly) Chimo by David Collier (Conundrum Press) Lose #2 by Michael DeForge (Koyama Press) Moving Pictures by Kathryn Immonen, Stuart Immonen (Top Shelf Productions) Streakers by Nick Maandag

Best Emerging Talent • • • • • Aaron Costain, Entropy # 5 Alex Fellows, Spain and Morocco Keith Jones, Catland Empire (Drawn and Quarterly) James Stokoe, Orc Stain Volume One (Image) Tin Can Forest (aka Marek Colek and Pat Shewchuk), Baba Yaga and the Wolf (Koyama Press)

Pigskin Peters Award • • • • Indoor Voice by Jillian Tamaki (Drawn and Quarterly) Stooge Pile by Seth Scriver (Drawn and Quarterly) So I've Been Told by Maryanna Hardy (Conundrum Press) Spotting Deer by Michael DeForge (Koyama Press)

• Wowee Zonk #3 edited by Patrick Kyle, Ginette Lapalme and Chris Kuzma (Koyama Press)

Doug Wright Award


[1] "Canadian cartoonists honoured in Toronto" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ arts/ story/ 2005/ 05/ 30/ dougwright050530. html). CBC Arts. May 30, 2005. . Retrieved September 20, 2006. [2] http:/ / salgoodsam. com/ revolver/ [3] Wong, Jessica (May 10, 2009). "Outsider tale Skim, quirky History Comics nab cartooning awards" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ arts/ books/ story/ 2009/ 05/ 10/ doug-wright-awards-winners. html). CBC News ( . Retrieved May 22, 2009.

External links
• Wright Awards homepage ( • "Doug Wright's family", CBC TV profile of Wright from 1968. ( arts_entertainment/canadian_comics/clip7) • Artists honoured for comics hailing nostalgia, everyday life ( 18/wright-cartoon-winners.html?ref=rss)


Literary Theory
Index of literary terms
The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of poetry, novels and picture books. See also: Glossary of poetry terms, Literary criticism, Literary theory This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by of literary terms expanding it [1].

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Abecedarius Academic drama Acatalectic Accent Accentual verse Acrostic Aisling Allegory Alliteration Allusion Anachronism Anacrusis Anadiplosis Anagnorisis Analects Analepsis Analogue Analogy Anapest Anaphora Anastrophe Anecdote Annal Annotation Antagonist Antanaclasis Antepenult Anthology Anticlimax Anti-hero Anti-masque Anti-romance Antimetabole

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antinovel Antistrophe Antithesis Antonym Aphorism Apocope Apocrypha Apollonian and Dionysian Apologue Apology Apothegm Aposiopesis Apostrophe Apron stage Arcadia Archaism Archetype Aristeia Argument Arsis Art for art's sake Asemic writing Aside Assonance Asyndeton Atmosphere Attitude Aube Aubade Audience Autobiography Autotelic Avant-garde


Index of literary terms


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ballad Ballade Ballad stanza Bard Baroque Bathos Beast fable (beast epic) Beast poetry Beat Generation Beginning rhyme Belles-lettres Bestiary Beta reader Bibliography Bildungsroman Biography Black comedy Blank verse Bloomsbury Group Body Bombast (fustian) Boulevard theatre Bourgeosis drama Bouts-Rimés Bowdlerize Breviloquence Broadside Burlesque Burletta Burns stanza Buskin Byronic hero

"The Leopard" from the 13th-century bestiary "Rochester Bestiary."

• • • • • • • • • Cadence Caesura Calligram Canon Canso Canticum Canto Canzone Capa y espada

• Captivity narrative • Caricature

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carmen figuratum Carpe diem Catachresis Catalectic Catalexis Catastrophe Catharsis Caudate sonnet Cavalier drama Cavalier poetry Celtic Renaissance Celtic Twilight Caesura Chain of Being Chain verse Chanson de geste Chansonnier Chant royal Chantey Chanty Chapbook Character Characterization Charactonym Chaucerian stanza Chiasmus Chivalric romance Choriamb Choriambus Chorus Chronicle Chronicle play Cinquain Classicism Classification (literature) Classification of rhymes (Peter Dale) Clerihew Cliché Climax Cloak-and-sword play Closed heroic couplet Closet drama Comédie larmoyante Colloquialism Comedy


• Comedy of errors • Comedy of humors

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Comedy of intrigue Comedy of manners Comedic relief Commedia dell'arte Comic relief Common measure Commonplace book Common rhyme Comoedia erudate Comparative linguistics Compensation Complaint Conceit Concordance Concrete universal Confessional literature Confidant/confidante Conflict Connotation Consistency Consonance Contradiction Context Contrast Convention Copyright Counterplot Coup de théâtre Couplet Courtesy book Courtly love Cowleyan ode Cradle books Craft cycle Crisis Criticism Cross acrostic Crown of sonnets Curtain raiser Curtal sonnet


Index of literary terms


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dactyl Dada Dale's classification of rhymes Dandyism Débat Death poem Death of the novel Debut novel Decadence Decasyllabic verse Decorum Denotation Dénouement Description Descriptive linguistics Detective story Deus ex machina Deuteragonist Dialect Dialogue Dibrach Dicks Diction Didactic Digest Digression Dime novel Diameter Dipody Dirge Discourse Dissociation of sensibility Dissonance Distich Distributed Stress Dithyramb Diverbium Divine afflatus Doggerel Dolce stil nuove Domestic tragedy Donnée Doppelgänger

• Double • Double rhyme • Drama

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Drama of sensibility Dramatic character Dramatic irony Dramatic lyric Dramatic monologue Dramatic proverb Dramatis personae Dramaturgy Dream allegory Dream vision Droll Dumb show Duodecimo Duologue Duple meter/duple rhythm Dystopia Dynamic Character


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Echo verse Eclogue Edition Ekphrasis Elegiac couplet Elegiac meter Elegy Elision Emblem Emblem book Emendation Emotive language Encomiastic verse End rhyme End-stopped line English sonnet Enjambment Entr'acte Envoy/envoi Èpater le bourgeois Epic poetry Epic simile Epic Theater Epigraph Epilogue

• Epiphany • Episode • Episteme

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Epistle Epistolary novel Epistrophe Epitaph Epithalamion Epithet Epizeuxis Epode Eponymous author Equivalence Erziehungsroman Essay Ethos Eulogy Euphony Euphuism Evidence Exegesis Exemplum Existentialism Exordium Experimental novel Explication de texte Exposition Expressionism Extended metaphor Extension Extrametrical verse Extravaganza Eye rhyme


• • • • • • • • • • • • Fable Fabliau Falling action Falling rhythm Fancy and imagination Fantasy Farce Feeling Feminine ending Feminine rhyme Fiction Figurative language

• Figure of speech • Fin de siècle • Flashback

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Flashforward Flat character Fleshly school Foil Folio Folk drama Folklore Folk tale Foot Foreshadowing Form Four levels of meaning Four meanings of a poem Fourteener Frame story Free indirect discourse Free verse French forms Freytag's pyramid Fugitives and Agrarians Fustian Futurism


• Gallows humor • Gamebooks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gathering Genetic fallacy Genius and talent Genre Georgian poetry Georgics Gesta Gloss Gnomic verse Golden line Goliardic verse Gongorism Gonzo journalism Gothic novel Grand Guignol Graveyard poetry Graveyard school Greek tragedy Grub Street Grundyism Guignol

From the 13th-century Carmina Burana, a collection of love and vagabond songs in Goliardic verse from Benediktbeurn Monastery.

Index of literary terms


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hagiography Hagiology Haikai Haikai no renga Haiku Half rhyme Hamartia Handwaving Headless line Head rhyme Hebraism-Hellenism "The Hedgehog and the Fox" Hemistich Hendecasyllable Hendecasyllabic verse Heptameter Heptastrich Heresy of paraphrase Hero Heroic couplets Heroic drama Heroic quatrain Heroic stanza Hexameter Hexastich Hiatus High comedy Higher criticism Historical linguistics Historical novel Historic present History play Hokku Holograph Homeric epithet Homeric simile Homily Horatian ode Horatian satire Hornbook Hovering accent Hubris Hudibrastic

• Humor • Humours • Hybris

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • Hymn Hymnal stanza Hypallage Hyperbole Hypercatalectic Hypermetrical Hypocorism Hysteron-proteron Hypotactic


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Iambic pentameter Ideology Idiom Idyll Imagery Imagism Impressionism Incipit Indeterminacy Inference In medias res Innuendo Internal conflict Internal rhyme Interpretation Intertextuality Intuitive description Irony

• • • • • • • • Jacobean era Jeremiad Journal Judicial criticism Juncture Juggernaut Juvenalian satire Juxtaposition

Index of literary terms


• • • • • • • • • Kabuki Kafkaesque Katharsis Kenning Kigo "King's English" Kireji Kitsch Künstlerroman

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lai Lake Poets Lament Lampoon L'art pour l'art Laureate Lay Leaf Legend Legitimate theater Leonine rhyme Lexis Letters Level stress (even accent) Libretto Light ending Light poetry Light rhyme Light stress Light poetry Limerick Linguistics Linked rhyme Link sonnet Literary ballad Literary criticism Literary epic Literary realism Literary theory Literature Litotes Litterateur

• Liturgical drama • Living Newspaper

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • Local color Logaoedic Logical fallacy Logical stress Logos Long metre Loose sentence Lost Generation Low comedy Lullaby Lyric


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Macaronic language Madrigal Magic realism Malapropism Märchen Marginalia Marinism Marivauge Marxist literary criticism Masculine ending Masculine rhyme Masked comedy Masque Maxim Meaning Medieval drama Meiosis Melic poetry Melodrama Memoir Menippean satire Mesostich Metaphor Metaphysical conceit Metaphorical language Metaphysical poets Meter Metonymy Metre Metrical accent Metrical foot

• Metrical structure • Middle Comedy • Miles gloriosus

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Miltonic sonnet Mime Mimesis Minnesang Minstrel Mystery play (miracle play) Miscellanies Mise en scène Mixed metaphor Mock-heroic (mock epic) Mode Modernism Monodrama Monody Monograph Monologue Monometer (monopody) Monostich Monograph Mood Mora Moral Morality play Motif Motivation Movement Mummery Muses Musical comedy Mystery play Mythology


• • • • • • • • • • • Narrative point of view Narrator Naturalism Neologism Non-fiction Non-fiction novel Novel Novelette Novella Novelle narrative poem

Index of literary terms


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Objective correlative Objective criticism Obligatory scene Octameter Octave Ode Oedipus complex Oning Onomatopoeia Open couplet Oulipo Orchestra Ottava rima Oxymoron

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Palinode Pantoum Pantun Parable Paraclausithyron Paradelle Paradox Paraphrase Pararhyme Paratactic Partimen Pastourelle Pathetic fallacy Pathya Vat Parallelism Parody Pastoral Pathos Pentameter Periodic sentence Peripetia Perspective Persona Personification Phronesis Pièce bien faite Picaresque novel

• Plain Style • Platonic

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plot Poem Poem and song Poetic diction Poetic transrealism Poetry Point of view Polysyndeton Post-colonialism Postmodernism Pound's Ideogrammic Method Primal scene Procatalepsis Prolepsis Prologue Progymnasmata Prose Prosimetrum Prosody (poetry) Protagonist Proverb Pruning poem Psychoanalytic literary criticism Psychoanalytic theory Pun Purple prose Purpose for Reading Pyrrhic


• Quatrain

• • • • • • • • • • • Reader-response criticism Realism Redaction Red herring Refrain Regency novel Regionalism (literature) Renga Renku Repetition Resolution

• Reverse chronology • Rhapsodes

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rhetoric Rhetorical agency Rhetorical device Rhetorical operations Rhetorical question Rhetorical tension Rhyme Rhymed prose Rhyme royal Robinsonade Romance (genre) Romance novel Romanticism Romanzo d' appendice Roman à clef Round character Round-robin story


• Ruritanian romance • Russian formalism

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Satire Scanning Scansion Scene a faire Sea shanty Semiotics Semiotic literary criticism Setting Shanty Sestet Shakespearean sonnet Sicilian octave Simile Slant rhyme Slice of life Sobriquet Soliloquy Sonnet Sonneteer Speaker Spenserian stanza Sprung rhythm Strambotto

• Stanza • Static character • Stigma of print

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • Stereotype Stream of consciousness Structuralism Subplot Syllogism Symbol Synecdoche Synaesthesia Syntax


Tone: very vague critical term usually designating the mood or atmosphere of a work, although in some more restricted uses it refers to the author's attitude to the reader (e.g. formal, intimate, pompous) or to the subject-matter (e.g. ironic, light, solemn, satiric, sentimental). Example: Theme: salient abstract idea that emerges from a literary work's treatment of its subject-matter; or a topic recurring in a number of literary works. Example: While the subject of a work is described concretely in terms of its action (e.g. 'the adventures of a newcomer in the big city'), its theme or themes will be described in more abstract terms (e.g. love, war, revenge, betrayal, fate, etc.). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tautology Tableau Tail rhyme Tagelied Tale Techne Telestich Tenor Tension Tercet Terza rima Tetrameter Tetrastich Text Textual criticism Textuality Texture Theater of Cruelty Theater of the Absurd Theme Thesis Thesis play Third person narrative Threnody Tirade

• Tone • Tract

Index of literary terms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tractarian Movement Tragedy Tragedy of blood Tragic flaw Tragic hero Tragic irony Tragicomedy Tranche de vie Transcendentalism Transferred epithet Transition Translation Travesty Triad Tribe of Ben Tribrach Trimeter Triolet Triple rhyme Triple meter Triple rhythm Triplet Tristich Tritagonist Trivium Trobar clus Trochee Trope (literature) Troubadour Trouvère Truncated line Tumbling verse Type character Type scene


• • • • • • • • Ubi sunt Underground culture Underground press Understatement Unities Unity Universality (disambiguation) University Wits

• Unobtainium • Utopia • Utopian and dystopian fiction

Index of literary terms • Unreliable narrator


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Variable syllable Variorum Varronian satire (Menippean satire) Vates Vaudeville Vehicle Verb displacement Verbal irony Verisimilitude Verism Vers de société Verse Verse paragraph Vers libre Verso Victorianism Viewpoint Vignette Villain Villanelle Virelay Virgule Voice (of the writer) Voice (in phonetics) Volta Vorticism Vulgate

• • • • • • • • • • • Wardour Street English Weak ending Weak foot Well-made play Wellerism Western fiction Wimmering Wit Word accent Wrenched accent Watermark

Index of literary terms


References and further reading
• M. H. Abrams. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Thomson-Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 1-4130-0456-3. • Chris Baldick. The Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford Univ. Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-860883-7. • Chris Baldick. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280118-X. • Edwin Barton & G. A. Hudson. Contemporary Guide To Literary Terms. Houghton-Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-618-34162-5. • Mark Bauerlein. Literary Criticism: An Autopsy. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8122-1625-3. • Karl Beckson & Arthur Ganz. Literary Terms: A Dictionary. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989. ISBN 0-374-52177-8. • Peter Childs. The Routledge Dictionary of Literary Terms. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0-415-34017-9. • J. A. Cuddon. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Penguin Books, 2000. ISBN 0-14-051363-9 . • Dana Gioia. The Longman Dictionary of Literary Terms: Vocabulary for the Informed Reader. Longman, 2005. ISBN 0-321-33194-X. • Sharon Hamilton. Essential Literary Terms: A Brief Norton Guide with Exercises. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 0-393-92837-3. • William Harmon. A Handbook to Literature. Prentice Hall, 2005. ISBN 0-13-134442-0. • X. J. Kennedy, et al. Handbook of Literary Terms: Literature, Language, Theory. Longman, 2004. ISBN 0-321-20207-4. • V. B. Leitch. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. W. W. Norton, 2001. ISBN 0-393-97429-4. • Frank Lentricchia & Thomas McLaughlin. Critical Terms for Literary Study. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0-226-47203-5. • David Mikics. A New Handbook of Literary Terms. Yale Univ. Press, 2007. ISBN 0-300-10636-X. • Ross Murfin & S. M. Ray. The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. ISBN 0-312-25910-7. • John Peck & Martin Coyle. Literary Terms and Criticism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-96258-3. • Edward Quinn. A Dictionary of Literary And Thematic Terms. Checkmark Books, 2006. ISBN 0-8160-6244-7. • Lewis Turco. The Book of Literary Terms: The Genres of Fiction, Drama, Nonfiction, Literary Criticism, and Scholarship. Univ. Press of New England, 1999. ISBN 0-87451-955-1.

[1] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ :Index



Joseph Campbell's term monomyth, also referred to as the hero's journey, is a basic pattern that its proponents argue is found in many narratives from around the world. This widely distributed pattern was described by Campbell in The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949).[1] An enthusiast of novelist James Joyce, Campbell borrowed the term monomyth from Joyce's Finnegans Wake.[2] Campbell held that numerous myths from disparate times and regions share fundamental structures and stages, which he summarized in The Hero with a Thousand Faces:

A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a [3] decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.

Campbell and other scholars, such as Erich Neumann, describe narratives of Buddha, Moses, and Christ in terms of the monomyth and Campbell argues that classic myths from many cultures follow this basic pattern.[4]

In a monomyth, the hero begins in the ordinary world, and receives a call to enter an unknown world of strange powers and events. The hero who accepts the call to enter this strange world must face tasks and trials, either alone or with assistance. In the most intense versions of the narrative, the hero must survive a severe challenge, often with help. If the hero survives, the hero may achieve a great gift or "boon." The hero must then decide whether to return to the ordinary world with this boon. If the hero does decide to return, he or she often faces challenges on the return journey. If the hero returns successfully, the boon or gift may be used to improve the world. The stories of Osiris, Prometheus, Moses, Buddha, for example, follow this structure closely.[1]

A chart outlining the Hero's Journey.

Campbell describes some 17 stages or steps along this journey. Very few myths contain all 17 stages—some myths contain many of the stages, while others contain only a few; some myths may focus on only one of the stages, while other myths may deal with the stages in a somewhat different order. These 17 stages may be organized in a number of ways, including division into three sections: Departure (sometimes called Separation), Initiation, and Return. "Departure" deals with the hero's adventure prior to the quest; "Initiation" deals with the hero's many adventures along the way; and "Return" deals with the hero's return home with knowledge and powers acquired on the journey.

The 17 Stages of the Monomyth
The Call to Adventure The hero starts off in a mundane situation of normality from which some information is received that acts as a call to head off into the unknown. Campbell: "This first stage of the mythological journey—which we have designated the 'call to adventure'—signifies that destiny has summoned the hero and transferred his spiritual center of gravity from within the pale of his society to a zone unknown. This fateful region of both treasure and danger may be variously represented: as a distant land, a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island,

Monomyth lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state; but it is always a place of strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, superhuman deeds, and impossible delight. The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father's city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some benign or malignant agent as was Odysseus, driven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder ... or still again, one may be only casually strolling when some passing phenomenon catches the wandering eye and lures one away from the frequented paths of man. Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitum, from every corner of the world." .26.2358.3B Classic examples: Sometimes the call to adventure happens of the character's own volition. In Herman Hesse's Siddhartha, the titular character becomes weary of his way of life and decides he must venture away from his accustomed life in order to attain spiritual enlightenment. In narratives describing the Buddha's journey, he leaves his ordinary life in pursuit of spiritual awakening after observing three men: an old man, a sick man, and a dead man, and raising the question as to why misery exists in the human world. Other times, the hero is plunged into adventure by unforeseen events. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus is caught in the terrible winds of the angered god Poseidon and sent off to distant lands.[5] Refusal of the Call Often when the call is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances. Campbell: "Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or 'culture,' the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless—even though, like King Minos, he may through titanic effort succeed in building an empire or renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: a labyrinth of cyclopean walls to hide from him his minotaur. All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration." .26.2359.3B Classic examples: Mythology is rife with examples of what happens to those who refuse the call too long or do not take it seriously. In Judeo-Christian belief, Lot's wife is turned into a pillar of salt for looking back with longing to her old life when she had been summoned forth from her city by Yahweh and is thus prevented from being the "hero". One of the clearest references to the refusal and its consequences comes in the voice of the personified Wisdom in Proverbs 1:24-27 and 32: Because I have called, and ye refused ... I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when your fear cometh; when your fear cometh as desolation, and your destruction cometh as a whirlwind; when distress and anguish cometh upon you. ... For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them. Supernatural Aid Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known. More often than not, this supernatural mentor will present the hero with one or more talismans or artifacts that will aid them later in their quest. Campbell: "For those who have not refused the call, the first encounter of the herojourney is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass. What such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny. The fantasy is a reassurance—promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known first within the mother womb, is not to be lost; that it supports the present and stands in the future as well as in the past (is omega as well as alpha); that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and life awakenings, protective power is always


Monomyth and ever present within or just behind the unfamiliar features of the world. One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear. Having responded to his own call, and continuing to follow courageously as the consequences unfold, the hero finds all the forces of the unconscious at his side. Mother Nature herself supports the mighty task. And in so far as the hero's act coincides with that for which his society is ready, he seems to ride on the great rhythm of the historical process." .26.2371.3BC.26.2372.3B Classic example: In Greek mythology, Ariadne gives Theseus a ball of string and a sword before he enters the labyrinth to confront the Minotaur. The Crossing of the First Threshold This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. Campbell: "With the personifications of his destiny to guide and aid him, the hero goes forward in his adventure until he comes to the 'threshold guardian' at the entrance to the zone of magnified power. Such custodians bound the world in four directions—also up and down—standing for the limits of the hero's present sphere, or life horizon. Beyond them is darkness, the unknown and danger; just as beyond the parental watch is danger to the infant and beyond the protection of his society danger to the members of the tribe. The usual person is more than content, he is even proud, to remain within the indicated bounds, and popular belief gives him every reason to fear so much as the first step into the unexplored. The adventure is always and everywhere a passage beyond the veil of the known into the unknown; the powers that watch at the boundary are dangerous; to deal with them is risky; yet for anyone with competence and courage the danger fades." .26.2378.3BC.26.2382.3B Belly of The Whale The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis. Campbell: "The idea that the passage of the magical threshold is a transit into a sphere of rebirth is symbolized in the worldwide womb image of the belly of the whale. The hero, instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown and would appear to have died. This popular motif gives emphasis to the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation. Instead of passing outward, beyond the confines of the visible world, the hero goes inward, to be born again. The disappearance corresponds to the passing of a worshipper into a temple—where he is to be quickened by the recollection of who and what he is, namely dust and ashes unless immortal. The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles: dragons, lions, devil-slayers with drawn swords, resentful dwarfs, winged bulls. The devotee at the moment of entry into a temple undergoes a metamorphosis. Once inside he may be said to have died to time and returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise. Allegorically, then, the passage into a temple and the hero-dive through the jaws of the whale are identical adventures, both denoting in picture language, the life-centering, life-renewing act." .26.2391.3BC.26.2392.3B Classical example: In the story of Dionysus, Hera sends hungry titans to devour the infant Dionysus. The Titans tear apart the child and consume his flesh. However Dionysus's heart is saved by Hestia, goddess of the hearth, allowing Dionysus to be reborn as a god.




The Road of Trials The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the person must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the person fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Campbell: "Once having traversed the threshold, the hero moves in a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where he must survive a succession of trials. This is a favorite phase of the myth-adventure. It has produced a world literature of miraculous tests and ordeals. The hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region. Or it may be that he here discovers for the first time that there is a benign power everywhere supporting him in his superhuman passage. The original departure into the land of trials represented only the beginning of the long and really perilous path of initiatory conquests and moments of illumination. Dragons have now to be slain and surprising barriers passed—again, again, and again. Meanwhile there will be a multitude of preliminary victories, unretainable ecstasies and momentary glimpses of the wonderful land." .26.2397.3BC.26.23109.3B The Meeting With the Goddess This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother. This is a very important step in the process and is often represented by the person finding the other person that he or she loves most completely. Campbell: "The ultimate adventure, when all the barriers and ogres have been overcome, is commonly represented as a mystical marriage of the triumphant hero-soul with the Queen Goddess of the World. This is the crisis at the nadir, the zenith, or at the uttermost edge of the earth, at the central point of the cosmos, in the tabernacle of the temple, or within the darkness of the deepest chamber of the heart. The meeting with the goddess (who is incarnate in every woman) is the final test of the talent of the hero to win the boon of love (charity: amor fati), which is life itself enjoyed as the encasement of eternity. And when the adventurer, in this context, is not a youth but a maid, she is the one who, by her qualities, her beauty, or her yearning, is fit to become the consort of an immortal. Then the heavenly husband descends to her and conducts her to his bed—whether she will or not. And if she has shunned him, the scales fall from her eyes; if she has sought him, her desire finds its peace." .26.23109.3BC.26.23119.3B Woman as Temptress This step is about those temptations that may lead the hero to abandon or stray from his or her quest, which does not necessarily have to be represented by a woman. Woman is a metaphor for the physical or material temptations of life, since the hero-knight was often tempted by lust from his spiritual journey. Campbell: "The crux of the curious difficulty lies in the fact that our conscious views of what life ought to be seldom correspond to what life really is. Generally we refuse to admit within ourselves, or within our friends, the fullness of that pushing, self-protective, malodorous, carnivorous, lecherous fever which is the very nature of the organic cell. Rather, we tend to perfume, whitewash, and reinterpret; meanwhile imagining that all the flies in the ointment, all the hairs in the soup, are the faults of some unpleasant someone else. But when it suddenly dawns on us, or is forced to our attention that everything we think or do is necessarily tainted with the odor of the flesh, then, not uncommonly, there is experienced a moment of revulsion: life, the acts of life, the organs of life, woman in particular as the great symbol of life, become intolerable to the pure, the pure, pure soul. The seeker of the life beyond life must press beyond (the woman), surpass the temptations of her call, and soar to the immaculate ether beyond." .26.23121.3BC.26.23122.3B

Monomyth Atonement with the Father In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. All the previous steps have been moving in to this place, all that follow will move out from it. Although this step is most frequently symbolized by an encounter with a male entity, it does not have to be a male; just someone or thing with incredible power. Campbell: "Atonement consists in no more than the abandonment of that self-generated double monster—the dragon thought to be God (superego) and the dragon thought to be Sin (repressed id). But this requires an abandonment of the attachment to ego itself, and that is what is difficult. One must have a faith that the father is merciful, and then a reliance on that mercy. Therewith, the center of belief is transferred outside of the bedeviling god's tight scaly ring, and the dreadful ogres dissolve. It is in this ordeal that the hero may derive hope and assurance from the helpful female figure, by whose magic (pollen charms or power of intercession) he is protected through all the frightening experiences of the father's ego-shattering initiation. For if it is impossible to trust the terrifying father-face, then one's faith must be centered elsewhere (Spider Woman, Blessed Mother); and with that reliance for support, one endures the crisis—only to find, in the end, that the father and mother reflect each other, and are in essence the same. The problem of the hero going to meet the father is to open his soul beyond terror to such a degree that he will be ripe to understand how the sickening and insane tragedies of this vast and ruthless cosmos are completely validated in the majesty of Being. The hero transcends life with its peculiar blind spot and for a moment rises to a glimpse of the source. He beholds the face of the father, understands—and the two are atoned."


Apotheosis When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. A more mundane way of looking at this step is that it is a period of rest, peace and fulfillment before the hero begins the return. Campbell: "Those who know, not only that the Everlasting lies in them, but that what they, and all things, really are is the Everlasting, dwell in the groves of the wish fulfilling trees, drink the brew of immortality, and listen everywhere to the unheard music of eternal concord." .26.23167.3B The Ultimate Boon The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step, since in many myths the boon is something transcendent like the elixir of life itself, or a plant that supplies immortality, or the holy grail. Campbell: "The gods and goddesses then are to be understood as embodiments and custodians of the elixir of Imperishable Being but not themselves the Ultimate in its primary state. What the hero seeks through his intercourse with them is therefore not finally themselves, but their grace, i.e., the power of their sustaining substance. This miraculous energy-substance and this alone is the Imperishable; the names and forms of the deities who everywhere embody, dispense, and represent it come and go. This is the miraculous energy of the thunderbolts of Zeus, Yahweh, and the Supreme Buddha, the fertility of the rain of Viracocha, the virtue announced by the bell rung in the Mass at the consecration, and the light of the ultimate illumination of the saint and sage. Its guardians dare release it only to the duly proven." .26.23181.3BC.26.23182.3B



Refusal of the Return Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man. Campbell: "When the hero-quest has been accomplished, through penetration to the source, or through the grace of some male or female, human or animal, personification, the adventurer still must return with his life-transmuting trophy. The full round, the norm of the monomyth, requires that the hero shall now begin the labor of bringing the runes of wisdom, the Golden Fleece, or his sleeping princess, back into the kingdom of humanity, where the boon may redound to the renewing of the community, the nation, the planet or the ten thousand worlds. But the responsibility has been frequently refused. Even the Buddha, after his triumph, doubted whether the message of realization could be communicated, and saints are reported to have died while in the supernal ecstasy. Numerous indeed are the heroes fabled to have taken up residence forever in the blessed isle of the unaging Goddess of Immortal Being." .26.23192.3B The Magic Flight Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. Campbell: "If the hero in his triumph wins the blessing of the goddess or the god and is then explicitly commissioned to return to the world with some elixir for the restoration of society, the final stage of his adventure is supported by all the powers of his supernatural patron. On the other hand, if the trophy has been attained against the opposition of its guardian, or if the hero's wish to return to the world has been resented by the gods or demons, then the last stage of the mythological round becomes a lively, often comical, pursuit. This flight may be complicated by marvels of magical obstruction and evasion." .26.23196.3BC.26.23197.3B Classic examples: In many fairy tales and folktales, it is literally a magic flight, with the hero or heroine transforming objects to stop the pursuit (The Master Maid, The Water Nixie) or transforming himself and any companions to hide themselves (Farmer Weathersky or Foundling-Bird). Rescue from Without Just as the hero may need guides and assistants to set out on the quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring them back to everyday life, especially if the person has been wounded or weakened by the experience. Campbell: "The hero may have to be brought back from his supernatural adventure by assistance from without. That is to say, the world may have to come and get him. For the bliss of the deep abode is not lightly abandoned in favor of the self-scattering of the wakened state. 'Who having cast off the world,' we read, 'would desire to return again? He would be only there.' And yet, in so far as one is alive, life will call. Society is jealous of those who remain away from it, and will come knocking at the door. If the hero. . . is unwilling, the disturber suffers an ugly shock; but on the other hand, if the summoned one is only delayed—sealed in by the beatitude of the state of perfect being (which resembles death)—an apparent rescue is effected, and the adventurer returns." .26.23207.3B

Monomyth The Crossing of the Return Threshold The trick in returning is to retain the wisdom gained on the quest, to integrate that wisdom into a human life, and then maybe figure out how to share the wisdom with the rest of the world. This is usually extremely difficult. Campbell: "The returning hero, to complete his adventure, must survive the impact of the world. Many failures attest to the difficulties of this life-affirmative threshold. The first problem of the returning hero is to accept as real, after an experience of the soul-satisfying vision of fulfillment, the passing joys and sorrows, banalities and noisy obscenities of life. Why re-enter such a world? Why attempt to make plausible, or even interesting, to men and women consumed with passion, the experience of transcendental bliss? As dreams that were momentous by night may seem simply silly in the light of day, so the poet and the prophet can discover themselves playing the idiot before a jury of sober eyes. The easy thing is to commit the whole community to the devil and retire again into the heavenly rock dwelling, close the door, and make it fast. But if some spiritual obstetrician has drawn the shimenawa across the retreat, then the work of representing eternity in time, and perceiving in time eternity, cannot be avoided" The hero returns to the world of common day and must accept it as real..26.23218.3BC.26.23225.3B Master of Two Worlds This step is usually represented by a transcendental hero like Jesus or Buddha. For a human hero, it may mean achieving a balance between the material and spiritual. The person has become comfortable and competent in both the inner and outer worlds. Campbell: "Freedom to pass back and forth across the world division, from the perspective of the apparitions of time to that of the causal deep and back—not contaminating the principles of the one with those of the other, yet permitting the mind to know the one by virtue of the other—is the talent of the master. The Cosmic Dancer, declares Nietzsche, does not rest heavily in a single spot, but gaily, lightly, turns and leaps from one position to another. It is possible to speak from only one point at a time, but that does not invalidate the insights of the rest. The individual, through prolonged psychological disciplines, gives up completely all attachment to his personal limitations, idiosyncrasies, hopes and fears, no longer resists the self-annihilation that is prerequisite to rebirth in the realization of truth, and so becomes ripe, at last, for the great at-one-ment. His personal ambitions being totally dissolved, he no longer tries to live but willingly relaxes to whatever may come to pass in him; he becomes, that is to say, an anonymity.".26.23236.3BC.26.23237.3B Biblical application: In the Christ story, Jesus is able to return to the ordinary world after resurrection. Freedom to Live Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. Campbell: "The hero is the champion of things becoming, not of things become, because he is. 'Before Abraham was, I AM.' He does not mistake apparent changelessness in time for the permanence of Being, nor is he fearful of the next moment (or of the 'other thing'), as destroying the permanent with its change. 'Nothing retains its own form; but Nature, the greater renewer, ever makes up forms from forms. Be sure there's nothing perishes in the whole universe; it does but vary and renew its form.' Thus the next moment is permitted to come to pass." .26.23243.3B Biblical application: Christ returns to the ordinary world after his resurrection, but not as an ordinary man. He can seem to be as others are and interact with them, but his body is a "glorified" body, capable of assuming visible and palpable form, but freed from the bonds of space and time. He is now able to give life to others through his own death and resurrection. Other traditional examples of something similar are Elijah, Enoch, and Khidr, the "immortal prophet" of the Sufis.




Other formulations
Campbell's proposed structure has been expanded and modified since its conception. Many modern characterizations of it add in new steps (such as the hero having a miraculous birth) or combine or prune others. For instance, Phil Cousineau, in his book, The Hero's Journey, divides it up into the following eight steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Call to Adventure The Road of Trials The Vision Quest The Meeting with the Goddess The Boon The Magic Flight The Return Threshold The Master of Two Worlds[6]

Another eight-step formulation was given by David Adams Leeming in his book, Mythology: The Voyage of the Hero: 1. Miraculous conception and birth 2. Initiation of the hero-child 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Withdrawal from family or community for meditation and preparation Trial and Quest Death Descent into the underworld Resurrection and rebirth Ascension, apotheosis, and atonement[7]

The Hero's Journey
The phrase "the hero's journey," to describe the monomyth, first entered into popular discourse through two documentaries. The first, released in 1987, The Hero's Journey: The World of Joseph Campbell, was accompanied by a 1990 companion book, The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (with Phil Cousineau and Stuart Brown, eds.). The second was Bill Moyers's series of seminal interviews with Campbell, released in 1988 as the documentary (and companion book) The Power of Myth. The phrase was then referenced in the title of a popular guidebook for screenwriters, released in the 1990s, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers, by Christopher Vogler [8]. Though they used the phrase in their works, Cousineau, Moyers, and Vogler all attribute the phrase and the model of The Hero's Journey to Joseph Campbell.

Influence of the Monomyth
The monomyth has influenced a number of artists, musicians, poets, and filmmakers, including Bob Dylan and George Lucas. Mickey Hart, Bob Weir and Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead had long noted Campbell's influence and agreed to participate in a seminar with him in 1986 entitled From Ritual to Rapture.[9] Campbell's work has been consciously applied by a wide variety of modern writers and artists, for example, in creating screenplays for movies. The best known is perhaps George Lucas, who has acknowledged a debt to Campbell regarding both the original Star Wars trilogy and its prequels. J.R.R. Tolkien's novel The Lord of the Rings can be seen as another contemporary example of the monomyth.[10]



George Lucas and Star Wars
George Lucas's deliberate use of Campbell's theory of the monomyth in the making of the Star Wars movies is well documented. In addition to the extensive discussion between Campbell and Bill Moyers broadcast in 1988 on PBS as The Power of Myth (Filmed at "Skywalker Ranch"), on Campbell's influence on the Star Wars films, Lucas, himself, gave an extensive interview for the biography Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind (Larsen and Larsen, 2002, pages 541-543) on this topic. In this interview, Lucas states that in the early 1970s after completing his early film, American Graffiti, "it came to me that there really was no modern use of that's when I started doing more strenuous research on fairy tales, folklore and mythology, and I started reading Joe's books. Before that I hadn't read any of Joe's books.... It was very eerie because in reading The Hero with A Thousand Faces I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classical motifs"(p. 541). Twelve years after the making of The Power of Myth, Moyers and Lucas met again for the 1999 interview, the Mythology of Star Wars with George Lucas & Bill Moyers, to further discuss the impact of Campbell's work on Lucas's films.[11] In addition, the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution sponsored an exhibit during the late 1990s called Star Wars: The Magic of Myth which discussed the ways in which Campbell's work shaped the Star Wars films [12] A companion guide of the same name was published in 1997.

Chris Vogler, The Writer's Journey, and Hollywood films
Christopher Vogler, a Hollywood film producer and writer, created a now-famous 7-page company memo, A Practical Guide to The Hero With a Thousand Faces,[13] based on Campbell's work which inspired films such as Disney's 1994 film, The Lion King/ Vogler's memo was later developed into the late 1990s book, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure For Writers. This story structure is evident in a vast number of successful Hollywood films including the Matrix series.

Orson Scott Card and Ender's Game
Michael Collings claims in an article that was initially published in "The Leading Edge: Magazine of Science Fiction and Fantasy Vol. 16" that in the book, Ender's Game, Orson Scott Card gives a very complete example of the monomyth structure, with the main character, Ender Wiggin, fulfilling all eight primary stages of it (using Leeming's formulation): • Miraculous Birth — In a world where only two children are normally allowed, Ender is born as the third child by special government decree • Initiation — Ender shows remarkable intelligence at a young age • Withdrawal — Ender is removed from his family and sent to Battle School • Trial and Quest — Ender learns of the threat to humanity from the Buggers • Death — Ender grows despondent after his unit is broken up, and he is sent back to Earth • Descent into the underworld — Ender's sister helps him feel like part of humanity once again • Resurrection and rebirth — Ender refuses to play the simulations anymore, and ends the game by destroying the Buggers' homeworld • Ascension, apotheosis, and atonement — Ender learns that the simulations were in fact real and has to cope with this. He says that the narrative structure within Ender's Game doesn't follow this structure in a perfectly linear sense. Many elements of it are actually repeated throughout the book. In his opinion, the latter four steps can also describe the psychological states Ender went through after his realization of what he'd done to the Buggers.[14]



The men's movement
Poet Robert Bly, Michael J. Meade, and others involved in the men's movement have applied and expanded the concepts of the hero's journey and the monomyth as a metaphor for personal spiritual and psychological growth, particularly in the mythopoetic men's movement.[15] [16] Characteristic of the mythopoetic men's movement is a tendency to retell fairy tales and engage in their exegesis as a tool for personal insight. Using frequent references to archetypes as drawn from Jungian analytical psychology, the movement focuses on issues of gender role, gender identity and wellness for modern men.[16] Advocates would often engage in storytelling with music, these acts being seen as a modern extension to a form of "new age shamanism" popularized by Michael Harner at approximately the same time. Among its most famous advocates were the poet Robert Bly, whose book Iron John: A Book About Men was a best-seller, being an exegesis of the fairy tale "Iron John" by the Brothers Grimm.[15] The mythopoetic men's movement spawned a variety of groups and workshops, led by authors such as Bly and Robert L. Moore.[16] Some serious academic work came out of this movement, including the creation of various magazines and non-profit organizations, such as the Mankind Project.[15]

Scholars have questioned the very validity of the monomyth, its usefulness as a tool for critical investigation and interpretation of narrative, and its male bias. According to Lesley Northup, the theory does not have much support in the mainstream study of mythology, which currently tends to view highly general and universal claims with suspicion.[17] Donald J. Consentino remarks, "It is just as important to stress differences as similarities, to avoid creating a (Joseph) Campbell soup of myths that loses all local flavor."[18] Marta Weigle rejects the idea of a "monomyth" in which women appear only exceptionally, and then as indistinguishable from men.[19] Others have found the categories Campbell works with so vague as to be meaningless, and lacking the support required of scholarly argument: Muriel Crespi, writing in response to Campbell's filmed presentation of his model[20] characterized it as "...unsatisfying from a social science perspective. Campbell's ethnocentrism will raise objections, and his analytic level is so abstract and devoid of ethnographic context that myth loses the very meanings supposed to be embedded in the "hero." In Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth (1984), editor Alan Dundes dismisses Campbell's work, characterizing him as a popularizer: "like most universalists, he is content to merely assert universality rather than bother to document it. […] If Campbell's generalizations about myth are not substantiated, why should students consider his work?"[21] Thoughtless use of monomyth structure is often blamed for lack of originality and clichés in popular culture, especially big-budget Hollywood films. In addition to the popularity of Campbell-influenced guides such as The Writer's Journey, the influential book Screenplay by Syd Field also proposed an ideal three-act structure, which is easily compatible with modern screenwriters' attempts to craft a monomyth. The novelist David Brin has criticized the monomyth, arguing that it is anti-populist, and was used by kings and priests to justify tyranny. Brin also pointed out that the existence of a monomyth may reflect cross-cultural historical similarities, rather than some deeper "human insight". He points out that, until relatively recently, storytellers were dependent upon the oligarchy for their livelihood and that the aristocracy only recently lost its power to punish irreverence. Once those historical factors disappeared, science fiction emerged—a story-telling mode Brin sees as the antithesis of Campbell's monomyth.[22] In a similar vein, American philosopher John Shelton Lawrence and American religious scholar Robert Jewett have discussed an "American Monomyth" in many of their books, The American Monomyth, The Myth of the American Superhero, and Captain America and the Crusade Against Evil: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism. They present this as an American reaction to the Campbellian monomyth. The "American Monomyth" storyline is: A community in a harmonious paradise is threatened by evil; normal institutions fail to contend with this threat; a selfless

Monomyth superhero emerges to renounce temptations and carry out the redemptive task; aided by fate, his decisive victory restores the community to its paradisiacal condition; the superhero then recedes into obscurity. [23]


[1] Monomyth Website, ORIAS, UC Berkeley (http:/ / orias. berkeley. edu/ hero/ ) accessed 2009-11-03 [2] Joseph Campbell Foundation - Works: Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake, A (http:/ / www. jcf. org/ works. php?id=331) and Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949. p. 30, n35. Campbell cites James Joyce, Finnegans Wake. NY: Viking, 1939, p. 581 [3] Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949. p.23. [4] Heroic monomyth (http:/ / www. jrank. org/ cultures/ pages/ 5533/ Heroic-monomyth. html) [5] http:/ / www. bookrags. com/ notes/ od/ SUM. html [6] The hero's journey: Joseph Campbell on his life and work. Edited and with an Introduction by Phil Cousineau. Forward by Stuart L. Brown, Executive Editor. New York: Harper and Row, 1990. [7] Leeming, David Adams. Mythology: The Voyage of the Hero. New York: Harper & Row. 1981. [8] http:/ / www. thewritersjourney. com/ generic1. html [9] Pacifica Graduate Institute | Joseph Campbell & Marija Gimbutas Library | Joseph Campbell - Chronology (http:/ / www. online. pacifica. edu/ cgl/ Campbellchronology) [10] Jody G. Bower: The Lord of the Rings" — An Archetypal Hero’s Journey (http:/ / greenbooks. theonering. net/ guest/ files/ 120101_02. html) [11] (http:/ / www. films. com/ id/ 11017/ The_Mythology_of_Star_Wars_with_George_Lucas_and_Bill_Moyers. htm) [12] (http:/ / www. nasm. si. edu/ exhibitions/ StarWars/ sw-unit1. htm) [13] The Writer's Journey (http:/ / www. thewritersjourney. com/ hero's_journey. htm#Practical) accessed 2011-03-26 [14] Ender's Game and the Hero's Quest (http:/ / www. starshineandshadows. com/ essays/ 2004-03-15. html) by Michael R. Collings, published in "In the Image of God: Theme, Characterization, and Landscape in the Fiction of Orson Scott Card." by Michael R. Collings, Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. ISBN 978-0-313-26404-7, revised by Collings for his website. [15] Boston Globe (http:/ / www. boston. com/ news/ globe/ ideas/ articles/ 2005/ 06/ 19/ daddy_what_did_you_do_in_the_mens_movement/ ) accessed 2009-11-03 [16] Use by Bly of Campbell's monomyth work (http:/ / www. robertbly. com/ int_8. html) accessed 2009-11-03 [17] Northup, p. 8 [18] "African Oral Narrative Traditions" in Foley, John Miles, ed., "Teaching Oral Traditions." NY: Modern Language Association, 1998, p. 183 [19] "Women's Expressive Forms" in Foley, John Miles, ed., "Teaching Oral Traditions." NY: Modern Language Association, 1998, p. 306 [20] American Anthropologist, 92:4 (December 1990), p. 1104 [21] http:/ / google. com/ search?q=cache:90k2Yc5PbvYJ:www. raritanval. edu/ departments/ humanitiessocsci/ Part-Time/ Wheelock/ WC1religionbib9605. doc+ %22hero%27s+ journey%22+ %22dismisses+ campbell%22& hl=en& ct=clnk& cd=1& gl=us [22] Salon Arts & Entertainment | "Star Wars" despots vs. "Star Trek" populists (http:/ / www. salon. com/ ent/ movies/ feature/ 1999/ 06/ 15/ brin_main/ ) [23] Jewett, Robert and John Shelton Lawrence (1977) The American Monomyth. New York: Doubleday.

• Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Novato, California: New World Library, 2008 ISBN 978-1-57731-593-3. • Joyce, James. Finnegans wake. 1939. • MacKey-Kallis, Susan. The hero and the perennial journey home in American film. University of Pennsylvania Press (2001). ISBN 0-8122-1768-3 • Northup, Lesley. "Myth-Placed Priorities: Religion and the Study of Myth". Religious Studies Review 32.1(2006): 5-10. • Vogler, Christopher. The writer's journey: mythic structure for writers. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions, 1998. • Voytilla, Stuart and Vogler, Christopher. Myth & the Movies: Discovering the myth structure of 50 unforgettable films. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions, 1999. ISBN 0-941188-66-3 • Amanieux Laureline, Ce héros qui est en chacun de nous, book in French on the monomyth of Campbell, Albin Michel, 2011.



Books based upon interviews with Campbell
• The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on his Life and Work Edited and with an Introduction by Phil Cousineau. Forward by Stuart L. Brown, Executive Editor. New York: Harper and Row, 1990. • The Power of Myth (with Bill Moyers and Betty Sue Flowers, ed.), 1988

• Joseph Campbell and the power of myth (1988) • The Hero's Journey: The World of Joseph Campbell (1987)

External links
• Monomyth Website, ORIAS, UC Berkeley ( • The Monomyth Cycle ( • Examples of Each Stage of a Heros Journey ( in Star Wars and The Matrix • Hero's Journey ( • The Hero's Journey Defined. Anthony Ubelhor for ENG 104: Fairy Tales, Myths, and Other Archetypal Stories (

Postmodernism is a philosophical movement away from the viewpoint of modernism. More specifically it is a tendency in contemporary culture characterized by the problem of objective truth and inherent suspicion towards global cultural narrative or meta-narrative. It involves the belief that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social constructs, as they are subject to change inherent to time and place. It emphasizes the role of language, power relations, and motivations; in particular it attacks the use of sharp classifications such as male versus female, straight versus gay, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial. Rather, it holds realities to be plural and relative, and dependent on who the interested parties are and what their interests consist of. It attempts to problematise modernist overconfidence, by drawing into sharp contrast the difference between how confident speakers are of their positions versus how confident they need to be to serve their supposed purposes. Postmodernism has influenced many cultural fields, including religion, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, anthropology, visual arts, and music. Postmodernist thought is an intentional departure from modernist approaches that had previously been dominant. The term "postmodernism" comes from its critique of the "modernist" scientific mentality of objectivity and progress associated with the Enlightenment. These movements, modernism and postmodernism, are understood as cultural projects or as a set of perspectives. "Postmodernism" is used in critical theory to refer to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema, journalism, and design, as well as in marketing and business and in the interpretation of law, culture, and religion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.[1] Indeed, postmodernism, particularly as an academic movement, can be understood as a reaction to modernism in the Humanities. Whereas modernism was primarily concerned with principles such as identity, unity, authority, and certainty, postmodernism is often associated with difference, plurality, textuality, and skepticism. Literary critic Fredric Jameson describes postmodernism as the "dominant cultural logic of late capitalism." "Late capitalism" refers to the phase of capitalism after World War II, as described by the Marxist theorist Ernest Mandel; the term refers to the same period sometimes described by "globalization", "multinational capitalism", or "consumer capitalism". Jameson's work studies the postmodern in contexts of aesthetics, politics, philosophy, and economics.[2]



History and emergence
The term was first used around the 1870s in various areas. For example, John Watkins Chapman avowed "a Postmodern style of painting" to get beyond French Impressionism.[3] Then, J. M. Thompson, in his 1914 article in The Hibbert Journal (a quarterly philosophical review), used it to describe changes in attitudes and beliefs in the critique of religion: "The raison d'etre of Post-Modernism is to escape from the double-mindedness of Modernism by being thorough in its criticism by extending it to religion as well as theology, to Catholic feeling as well as to Catholic tradition."[4] In 1917 Rudolf Pannwitz used the term to describe a philosophically oriented culture. His idea of post-modernism came from Friedrich Nietzsche's analysis of modernity and its end results of decadence and nihilism. Overcoming the modern human would be the post-human. Contrary to Nietzsche, Pannwitz also includes nationalist and mythical elements.[5] The term was used later in 1926 by B. I. Bell in his "Postmodernism & other Essays". In 1921 and 1925 it had been used to describe new forms of art and music. In 1942 H. R. Hays used it for a new literary form, but as a general theory of an historical movement it was first used in 1939 by the historian Arnold J. Toynbee: "Our own Post-Modern Age has been inaugurated by the general war of 1914-1918."[6] In 1949 the term was used to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture, leading to the postmodern architecture movement.[7] Postmodernism in architecture is marked by the re-emergence of surface ornament, reference to surrounding buildings in urban architecture, historical reference in decorative forms, and non-orthogonal angles. It may be a response to the modernist architectural movement known as the International Style. The term was then applied to a whole host of movements, many in art, music, and literature, that reacted against a range of tendencies in the imperialist phase of capitalism called "modernism," and are typically marked by revival of historical elements and techniques.[8] Walter Truett Anderson identifies Postmodernism as one of four typological world views. These four worldviews are the Postmodern-ironist, which sees truth as socially constructed; the scientific-rational, in which truth is found through methodical, disciplined inquiry; the social-traditional, in which truth is found in the heritage of American and Western civilization; and the neo-romantic, in which truth is found through attaining harmony with nature and/or spiritual exploration of the inner self.[9] Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and the analysis of culture and society expanded the importance of critical theory and has been the point of departure for works of literature, architecture, and design, as well as being visible in marketing/business and the interpretation of history, law and culture, starting in the late 20th century. These developments — re-evaluation of the entire Western value system (love, marriage, popular culture, shift from industrial to service economy) that took place since the 1950s and 1960s, with a peak in the Social Revolution of 1968 — are described with the term Postmodernity,[10] as opposed to Postmodernism, a term referring to an opinion or movement. Whereas something being "Postmodernist" would make it part of the movement, its being "Postmodern" would place it in the period of time since the 1950s, making it a part of contemporary history.

Overview of ideas (see also Postmodern philosophy)
Martin Heidegger (1889–1976) rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity" and asserted that similar grounding oppositions in logic ultimately refer to one another. Instead of resisting the admission of this paradox in the search for understanding, Heidegger requires that we embrace it through an active process of elucidation he called the "Hermeneutic Circle". He stressed the historicity and cultural construction of concepts while simultaneously advocating the necessity of an atemporal and immanent apprehension of them. In this vein, he asserted that it was the task of contemporary philosophy to recover the original question of (or "openness to") Dasein (translated as Being or Being-in-the-World) present in the Presocratic philosophers but normalized, neutered and standardized since Plato. This was to be done, in part, by tracing the record of

Postmodernism Dasein's sublimation or forgetfulness through the history of philosophy which meant that we were to ask again what constituted the grounding conditions in ourselves and in the World for the affinity between beings and between the many usages of the term "being" in philosophy. To do this, however, a non-historical and, to a degree, self-referential engagement with whatever set of ideas, feelings or practices would permit (both the non-fixed concept and reality of) such a continuity was required - a continuity permitting the possible experience, possible existence indeed not only of beings but of all differences as they appeared and tended to develop. Such a conclusion led Heidegger to depart from the Phenomenology of his teacher Husserl and prompt instead an (ironically anachronistic) return to the yet-unasked questions of Ontology, a return that in general did not acknowledge an intrinsic distinction between phenomena and noumena or between things in themselves (de re) and things as they appear (see qualia): Being-in-the-world, or rather, the openness to the process of Dasein's/Being's becoming was to bridge the age-old gap between these two. In this latter premise, Heidegger shares an affinity with the late Romantic philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, another principal forerunner of Post-structuralist and Postmodernist thought. Influential to thinkers associated with Postmodernism are Heidegger's critique of the subject-object or sense-knowledge division implicit in Rationalism, Empiricism and Methodological Naturalism, his repudiation of the idea that facts exist outside or separately from the process of thinking and speaking them (however, Heidegger is not specifically a Nominalist), his related admission that the possibilities of philosophical and scientific discourse are wrapped up in the practices and expectations of a society and that concepts and fundamental constructs are the expression of a lived, historical exercise rather than simple derivations of external, apriori conditions independent from historical mind and changing experience (see Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Heinrich von Kleist, Weltanschauung and Social Constructionism), and his Instrumentalist and Negativist notion that Being (and, by extension, reality) is an action, method, tendency, possibility and question rather than a discreet, positive, identifiable state, answer or entity (see also Process Philosophy, Dynamism, Instrumentalism, Pragmatism and Vitalism). Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922–1996) located the rapid change of the basis of scientific knowledge to a provisional consensus among scientists; coined the term "paradigm shift" in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and in general contributed to the debate over the presumed neutrality and objectivity of empirical methodology in the Natural Sciences from disciplinarian or cultural bias. Jacques Derrida (1930–2004) re-examined the fundamentals of writing and its consequences on philosophy in general; sought to undermine the language of 'presence' or metaphysics in an analytical technique which, beginning as a point of departure from Heidegger's notion of Destruktion, came to be known as Deconstruction. Derrida utilized, like Heidegger, references to Greek philosophical notions associated with the Skeptics and the Presocratics, such as Epoché and Aporia to articulate his notion of implicit circularity between premises and conclusions, origins and manifestations, but - in a manner analogous in certain respects to Gilles Deleuze - presented a radical re-reading of canonical philosophical figures such as Plato, Aristotle and Descartes as themselves being informed by such "destabilizing" notions. Michel Foucault (1926–1984) introduced concepts such as 'discursive regime', or re-invoked those of older philosophers like 'episteme' and 'genealogy' in order to explain the relationship among meaning, power, and social behavior within social orders (see The Order of Things, The Archaeology of Knowledge, Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality). In direct contradiction to what have been typified as Modernist perspectives on epistemology, Foucault asserted that rational judgment, social practice and what he called 'biopower' are not only inseparable but co-determinant. While Foucault himself was deeply involved in a number of progressive political causes and maintained close personal ties with members of the far-Left, he was also controversial with Leftist


Postmodernism thinkers of his day, including those associated with various strains of Marxism, proponents of Left libertarianism (e.g. Noam Chomsky) and Humanism (e.g. Jürgen Habermas), for his rejection of what he deemed to be Enlightenment-derived concepts of freedom, liberation, self-determination and human nature. Instead, Foucault focused on the ways in which such constructs can foster cultural hegemony, violence and exclusion. In line with his rejection of such 'positive' tenets of Enlightenment-era Humanism, he was active, with Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in the Anti-Psychiatry Movement, considering much of institutionalized psychiatry and, in particular, Freud's concept of repression central to Psychoanalysis (which was still very influential in France during the 1960s and 70s), to be both harmful and misplaced. Foucault was known for his controversial aphorisms, such as "language is oppression", meaning that language functions in such a way as to render nonsensical, false or silent tendencies that might otherwise threaten or undermine the distributions of power backing a society's conventions - even when such distributions purport to celebrate liberation and expression or value minority groups and perspectives. His writings have had a major influence on the larger body of Postmodern academic literature. Jean-François Lyotard (1924–1998) identified in The Postmodern Condition a crisis in the 'discourses of the Human Sciences' latent in Modernism but catapulted to the fore by the advent of the "computerized" or "telematic" era (see Information Revolution). This crisis, insofar as it pertains to academia, concerns both the motivations and justification procedures for making research claims: unstated givens or values that have validated the basic efforts of academic research since the late 18th Century might no longer be valid (particularly, in Social Science & Humanities research, though examples from Mathematics are given by Lyotard as well). As formal conjecture about real-world issues becomes inextricably linked to automated calculation, information storage and retrieval, such knowledge becomes increasingly "exteriorised" from its knowers in the form of information. Knowledge is materialized and made into a commodity exchanged between producers and consumers; it ceases to be either an idealistic end-in-itself or a tool capable of bringing about liberty or social benefit; it is stripped of its humanistic and spiritual associations, its connection with education, teaching and human development, being simply rendered as "data" - omnipresent, material, unending and without any contexts or pre-requisites.[11] Furthermore, the 'diversity' of claims made by various disciplines begins to lack any unifying principle or intuition as objects of study become more and more specialized due to the emphasis on specificity, precision and uniformity of reference that competitive, database-oriented research implies. The value-premises upholding academic research have been maintained by what Lyotard considers to be quasi-mythological beliefs about human purpose, human reason and human progress - large, background constructs he calls "Metanarratives". These Metanarratives still remain in Western society but are now being undermined by rapid Informatization and the commercialization of the University and its functions. The shift of authority from the presence and intuition of knowers - from the good-faith of Reason to seek diverse knowledge integrated for human benefit or truth fidelity - to the automated database and the market had, in Lyotard's view, the power to unravel the very idea of 'justification' or 'legitimation' and, with it, the rationale for research altogether - esp. in disciplines pertaining to human life, society and meaning. We are now controlled not by binding extra-linguistic value paradigms defining notions of collective identity and ultimate purpose, but rather by our automatic responses to different species of "language games" (a concept Lyotard imports from JL Austin's theory of Speech Acts). In his vision of a solution to this "vertigo," Lyotard opposes the assumptions of universality, consensus, and generality that he identified within the thought of Humanistic, Neo-Kantian philosophers like Jürgen Habermas and proposes a continuation of experimentation and diversity to be assessed pragmatically in the context of language games rather than via appeal to a resurrected series of transcendentals and metaphysical unities. Richard Rorty (1931–2007)


Postmodernism argues in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature that contemporary Analytic philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods. In addition, he denounces the traditional epistemological perspectives of Representationalism and Correspondence theory that rely upon the independence of knowers and observers from phenomena and the passivity of natural phenomena in relation to consciousness. As a proponent of anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism within a Pragmatist framework, he echoes Postmodern strains of Conventionalism and Philosophical Relativism, but opposes much Postmodern thinking with his commitment to Social Liberalism. Jean Baudrillard (1929–2007), in Simulacra and Simulation, introduced the concept that reality or the principle of the "real" is short-circuited by the interchangeability of signs in an era whose communicative and semantic acts are dominated by electronic media and digital technologies. Baudrillard proposes the notion that, in such a state, where subjects are detached from the outcomes of events (political, literary, artistic, personal or otherwise), events no longer hold any particular sway on the subject nor have any identifiable context; they therefore have the effect of producing widespread indifference, detachment and passivity in industrialized populations. He claimed that a constant stream of appearances and references without any direct consequences to viewers or readers could eventually render the division between appearance and object indiscernible, resulting, ironically, in the "disappearance" of mankind in what is, in effect, a virtual or holographic state, composed only of appearances. Fredric Jameson (born 1934) set forth one of the first expansive theoretical treatments of Postmodernism as a historical period, intellectual trend and social phenomenon in a series of lectures at the Whitney Museum, later expanded as Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1991). Eclectic in his methodology, Jameson has continued a sustained examination of the role that Periodization continues to play as a grounding assumption of critical methodologies in Humanities disciplines. He has contributed extensive effort to explicating the importance of concepts of Utopianism and Utopia as driving forces in the cultural and intellectual movements of Modernity, and outlining the political and existential uncertainties that may result from the decline or suspension of this trend in the theorized state of Postmodernity. Like Susan Sontag, Jameson served to introduce a wide audience of American readers to key figures of the 20th Century Continental European intellectual Left, particularly those associated with the Frankfurt School, Structuralism and Post-Structuralism. Thus, his importance as a 'translator' of their ideas to the common vocabularies of a variety of disciplines in the Anglo-American academic complex is equally as important as his own critical engagement with them.


Contested definitions
The term "Postmodernism" is often used to refer to different, sometimes contradictory concepts. Conventional definitions include: • Compact Oxford English Dictionary: "a style and concept in the arts characterized by distrust of theories and ideologies and by the drawing of attention to conventions."[12] • Merriam-Webster: Either "of, relating to, or being an era after a modern one", or "of, relating to, or being any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by a return to traditional materials and forms (as in architecture) or by ironic self-reference and absurdity (as in literature)", or, finally "of, relating to, or being a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language".[13] • American Heritage Dictionary: "Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes: 'It [a roadhouse] is so architecturally interesting ... with its postmodern wooden booths and sculptural clock.'"[14]

Postmodernism While the term "Postmodern" and its derivatives are freely used, with some uses apparently contradicting others, those outside the academic milieu have described it as merely a buzzword that means nothing. Dick Hebdige, in his text ‘Hiding in the Light’, writes: When it becomes possible for a people to describe as ‘postmodern’ the décor of a room, the design of a building, the diegesis of a film, the construction of a record, or a ‘scratch’ video, a television commercial, or an arts documentary, or the ‘intertextual’ relations between them, the layout of a page in a fashion magazine or critical journal, an anti-teleological tendency within epistemology, the attack on the ‘metaphysics of presence’, a general attenuation of feeling, the collective chagrin and morbid projections of a post-War generation of baby boomers confronting disillusioned middle-age, the ‘predicament’ of reflexivity, a group of rhetorical tropes, a proliferation of surfaces, a new phase in commodity fetishism, a fascination for images, codes and styles, a process of cultural, political or existential fragmentation and/or crisis, the ‘de-centring’ of the subject, an ‘incredulity towards metanarratives’, the replacement of unitary power axes by a plurality of power/discourse formations, the ‘implosion of meaning’, the collapse of cultural hierarchies, the dread engendered by the threat of nuclear self-destruction, the decline of the university, the functioning and effects of the new miniaturised technologies, broad societal and economic shifts into a ‘media’, ‘consumer’ or ‘multinational’ phase, a sense (depending on who you read) of ‘placelessness’ or the abandonment of placelessness (‘critical regionalism’) or (even) a generalised substitution of spatial for temporal coordinates - when it becomes possible to describe all these things as ‘Postmodern’ (or more simply using a current abbreviation as ‘post’ or ‘very post’) then it’s clear we are in the presence of a buzzword.[15] British historian Perry Anderson's history of the term and its understanding, 'The Origins of Postmodernity', explains these apparent contradictions, and demonstrates the importance of "Postmodernism" as a category and a phenomenon in the analysis of contemporary culture.[16]


Influence on art and aesthetics
The movement of Postmodernism began with architecture, as a response to the perceived blandness, hostility, and Utopianism of the Modern movement. Modern Architecture, as established and developed by people such as Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Philip Johnson, was focused on the pursuit of a perceived ideal perfection, and attempted harmony of form and function,[17] and dismissal of "frivolous ornament."[18] [19] Critics of modernism argued Detail of the postmodern Abteiberg Museum in Germany. that the attributes of perfection and minimalism themselves were subjective, and pointed out anachronisms in modern thought and questioned the benefits of its philosophy.[20] Definitive postmodern architecture such as the work of Michael Graves rejects the notion of a 'pure' form or 'perfect' architectonic detail, instead conspicuously drawing from all methods, materials, forms and colors available to architects. Postmodernist architecture was one of the first aesthetic movements to openly challenge Modernism as antiquated and "totalitarian", favoring personal preferences and variety over objective, ultimate truths or principles. It is this atmosphere of criticism, skepticism, and emphasis on difference over and against unity that distinguishes many postmodernisms.



Literary postmodernism was officially inaugurated in the United States with the first issue of boundary 2, subtitled "Journal of Postmodern Literature and Culture", which appeared in 1972. David Antin, Charles Olson, John Cage, and the Black Mountain College school of poetry and the arts were integral figures in the intellectual and artistic exposition of postmodernism at the time.[21] boundary 2 remains an influential journal in postmodernist circles today.[22] Although Jorge Luis Borges and Samuel Beckett are sometimes seen as Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. important influences, novelists who are commonly counted to postmodern literature include Vladimir Nabokov, William Gaddis, John Hawkes, William Burroughs, Giannina Braschi, Kurt Vonnegut, John Barth, Donald Barthelme, E.L. Doctorow, Jerzy Kosinski, Don DeLillo, Thomas Pynchon, Ishmael Reed, Kathy Acker, Ana Lydia Vega, and Paul Auster. In 1971, the Arab-American scholar Ihab Hassan published The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature, an early work of literary criticism from a postmodern perspective, in which the author traces the development of what he calls "literature of silence" through Marquis de Sade, Franz Kafka, Ernest Hemingway, Beckett, and many others, including developments such as the Theatre of the Absurd and the nouveau roman. In 'Postmodernist Fiction' (1987), Brian McHale details the shift from modernism to postmodernism, arguing that the former is characterized by an epistemological dominant, and that postmodern works have developed out of modernism and are primarily concerned with questions of ontology. In Constructing Postmodernism (1992), McHale's second book, he provides readings of postmodern fiction and of some of the contemporary writers who go under the label of cyberpunk. McHale's "What Was Postmodernism?" (2007)[23], follows Raymond Federman's lead in now using the past tense when discussing postmodernism.

Postmodern music is either music of the postmodern era, or music that follows aesthetic and philosophical trends of postmodernism. As the name suggests, the postmodernist movement formed partly in reaction to the ideals modernist. Because of this, Postmodern music is mostly defined in opposition to modernist music, and a work can either be modernist, or postmodern, but not both. Jonathan Kramer posits the idea (following Umberto Eco and Jean-François Lyotard) that postmodernism (including musical postmodernism) is less a surface style or historical period (i.e., condition) than an attitude. The postmodern impulse in classical music arose in the 1970s with the advent of musical minimalism. Composers such as Terry Riley, Henryk Górecki, Bradley Joseph, John Adams, Steve Reich, Phillip Glass, Michael Nyman, and Lou Harrison reacted to the perceived elitism and dissonant sound of atonal academic modernism by producing music with simple textures and relatively consonant harmonies. Some composers have been openly influenced by popular music and world ethnic musical traditions.

Composer Henryk Górecki.

Postmodern Classical music as well is not a musical style, but rather refers to music of the postmodern era. It bears the same relationship to postmodernist music that postmodernity bears to postmodernism. Postmodern music, on the other hand, shares characteristics with postmodernist art—that is, art that comes after and reacts against modernism (see Modernism in Music).

Postmodernism Though representing a general return to certain notions of music-making that are often considered to be classical or romantic, not all postmodern composers have eschewed the experimentalist or academic tenets of modernism. The works of Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, for example, exhibit experimentalist preoccupation that is decidedly anti-romantic. Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition.


Theories and derivatives
One of the most popular postmodernist tendencies within aesthetics is deconstruction. As it is currently used, "deconstruction" is a Derridean approach to textual analysis (typically literary critique, but variously applied). Deconstructions work entirely within the studied text to expose and undermine the frame of reference, assumptions, and ideological underpinnings of the text. Although deconstructions can be developed using different methods and techniques, the process typically involves demonstrating the multiple possible readings of a text and their resulting internal conflicts, and undermining binary oppositions (e.g. masculine/feminine, old/new). Deconstruction is fundamental to many different fields of postmodernist thought, including postcolonialism, as demonstrated through the writings of Gayatri Spivak.

Structuralism and post-structuralism
Further information: Manifestations of Postmodernism Structuralism was a broad philosophical movement that developed particularly in France in the 1950s, partly in response to French Existentialism, but is considered by many to be an exponent of High-Modernism, though its categorization as either a Modernist or Postmodernist trend is contested. Many Structuralists later moved away from the most strict interpretations and applications of "structure", and are thus called "Post-structuralists" in the United States (the term is uncommon in Europe). Though many Post-structuralists were referred to as Postmodern in their lifetimes, many explicitly rejected the term. Notwithstanding, Post-structuralism in much American academic literature in the Humanities is very strongly associated with the broader and more nebulous movement of Postmodernism. Thinkers most typically linked with Structuralism include anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser and literary theorist Roland Barthes. Philosophers commonly referred to as Post-structuralists include Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes and Jean Baudrillard (who also began their careers with a Structuralist background), Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-François Lyotard, Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray and, sometimes, the American cultural theorists, critics and intellectuals they influenced (e.g. Judith Butler, Jonathan Crary, John Fiske, Rosalind Krauss). Though by no means a unified movement with a set of shared axioms or methodologies, Post-structuralism emphasizes the ways in which different aspects of a cultural order, from its most banal material details to its most abstract theoretical exponents, determine one another (rather than espousing a series of strict, uni-directional, cause and effect relationships – see Reductionism – or resorting to Epiphenomenalism). Like Structuralism, it places particular focus on the determination of identities, values and economies in relation to one another, rather than assuming intrinsic properties or essences of signs or components as starting points.[24] In this limited sense, there is a nascent Relativism and Constructionism within the French Structuralists that was consciously addressed by them but never examined to the point of dismantling their reductionist tendencies. Unlike Structuralists, however, the Post-structuralists questioned the division between relation and component and, correspondingly, did not attempt to reduce the subjects of their study to an essential set of relations that could be portrayed with abstract, functional schemes or mathematical symbols (as in Claude Lévi-Strauss's algebraic formulation of mythological transformation in "The Structural Study of Myth"[25] ).

Postmodernism Post-Structuralists tended to reject such formulations of “essential relations” in primitive cultures, languages or descriptions of psychological phenomena as subtle forms of Aristotelianism, Rationalism or Idealism or as more reflective of a mechanistic bias[26] inspired by bureaucratization and industrialization than of the inner-workings of primitive cultures, languages or the psyche. Generally, Post-structuralists emphasized the inter-determination and contingency of social and historical phenomena with each other and with the cultural values and biases of perspective. Such realities were not to be dissected, in the manner of some Structuralists, as a system of facts that could exist independently from values and paradigms (either those of the analysts or the subjects themselves), but to be understood as both causes and effects of each other.[27] For this reason, most Post-structuralists held a more open-ended view of function within systems than did Structuralists and were sometimes accused of circularity and ambiguity. Post-structuralists countered that, when closely examined, all formalized claims describing phenomena, reality or truth, rely on some form or circular reasoning and self-referential logic that is often paradoxical in nature. Thus, it was important to uncover the hidden patterns of circularity, self-reference and paradox within a given set of statements rather that feign objectivity, as such an investigation might allow new perspectives to have influence and new practices to be sanctioned or adopted. As would be expected, Post-structuralist writing tends to connect observations and references from many, widely varying disciplines into a synthetic view of knowledge and its relationship to experience, the body, society and economy - a synthesis in which it sees itself as participating. Stucturalists, while also somewhat inter-disciplinary, were more comfortable within departmental boundaries and often maintained the autonomy of their analytical methods over the objects they analyzed. Post-structuralists, unlike Structuralists, did not privilege a system of (abstract) "relations" over the specifics to which such relations were applied, but tended to see the notion of “the relation” or of systemization itself as part-and-parcel of any stated conclusion rather than a reflection of reality as an independent, self-contained state or object. If anything, if a part of objective reality, theorization and systemization to Post-structuralists was an exponent of larger, more nebulous patterns of control in social orders – patterns that could not be encapsulated in theory without simultaneously conditioning it. For this reason, certain Post-structural thinkers were also criticized by more Realist, Naturalist or Essentialist thinkers of anti-intellectualism or anti-Philosophy. In short, Post-structuralists, unlike Structuralists, tended to place a great deal of skepticism on the independence of theoretical premises from collective bias and the influence of power, and rejected the notion of a "pure" or "scientific" methodology in social analysis, semiotics or philosophical speculation. No theory, they said – especially when concerning human society or psychology – was capable of reducing phenomena to elemental systems or abstract patterns, nor could abstract systems be dismissed as secondary derivatives of a fundamental nature: systemization, phenomena and values were part of each other. While many of the so-called Post-structuralists vehemently disagreed on the specifics of such fundamental categories as "the real", "society", "totality", "desire" and "history", many also shared, in contrast to their so-called Structuralist predecessors, the traits mentioned. Furthermore, a good number of them engaged in a re-assessment (positive or negative) of the philosophical traditions associated with Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud. Because of its general skepticism of analytical objectivity and mutually exclusive oppositions in logic, its emphasis on the social production of knowledge and of knowledge paradigms, and its portrayal of the sometimes ambiguous inter-determination of material culture, values, physical practices and socio-economic life, Post-structuralism is often linked to Postmodernism.


Recently the notion of the "death of postmodernism" has been increasingly widely debated: in 2007 Andrew Hoborek noted in his introduction to a special issue of the journal Twentieth Century Literature titled "After Postmodernism" that "declarations of postmodernism's demise have become a critical commonplace". A small group of critics has put forth a range of theories that aim to describe culture and/or society in the alleged aftermath of postmodernism, most notably Raoul Eshelman (performatism), Gilles Lipovetsky (hypermodernity), Nicolas Bourriaud (Altermodern), and Alan Kirby (digimodernism, formerly called pseudo-modernism). None of these new

Postmodernism theories and labels has so far gained widespread acceptance.


Formal, academic critiques of postmodernism can be found in works such as Beyond the Hoax and Fashionable Nonsense. The term postmodernism, when used pejoratively, describes tendencies perceived as relativist, counter-enlightenment or antimodern, particularly in relation to critiques of rationalism, universalism or science. It is also sometimes used to describe tendencies in a society that are held to be antithetical to traditional systems of morality.

[1] Historians have generally not used postmodernist approaches in their work, as shown by Sigurdur Gylfi Magnusson, "The Singularization of History: Social History and Microhistory within the Postmodern State of Knowledge," Journal of Social History 2003 36(3): 701-735; Georg G. Iggers, Historiography in the Twentieth-Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (1997). Many historians engage with postmodernism (e.g. Perry Anderson), and several philosophers often associated with the postmodern movement have made important contributions to history and historiography (most prominently, Michel Foucault). [2] Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, the cultural logic of late capitalism, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991. [3] The Postmodern Turn, Essays in Postmodern Theory and Culture, Ohio University Press, 1987. p12ff [4] Thompson, J. M. "Post-Modernism," The Hibbert Journal. Vol XII No. 4, July 1914. p. 733 [5] Pannwitz, Rudolf. Die Krisis der europäischen Kultur, Nürnberg 1917 [6] OED long edition [7] Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2004 [8] Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary 2004 [9] Walter Truett Anderson (1996). The Fontana Postmodernism Reader. [10] Influences on postmodern thought, Paul Lützeler (St. Louis) (http:/ / www. inst. at/ trans/ 11Nr/ luetzeler11. htm) [11] Lyotard, Jean-François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Les Éditions de Minuit, 1979. English Translation by Geoffrey Bennington and Brian Massumi. Manchester University Press, 1984. See Chapter 1, The Field: Knowledge in Computerised Societies. (http:/ / www. marxists. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ fr/ lyotard. htm)// [12] (http:/ / www. askoxford. com/ concise_oed/ postmodernism?view=uk) [13] Merriam-Webster's definition of postmodernism (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ postmodernism) [14] Ruth Reichl, Cook's November 1989; American Heritage Dictionary's definition of "postmodern" (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 61/ 26/ P0472600. html) [15] ’Postmodernism and “the other side”’, in Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A reader, edited by John Storey, London, : Pearson Education .2006 [16] Perry Anderson, 'The Origins of Postmodernity', London: Verso, 1998. [17] Sullivan, Louis. "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” published Lippincott's Magazine (March 1896). [18] Loos, Adolf. "Ornament and Crime,” published 1908. [19] Manfredo Tafuri, 'Architecture and utopia: design and capitalist development', Cambridge: MIT Press, 1976. [20] Venturi, et al. [21] Anderson, The origins of postmodernity, London: Verso, 1998, Ch.2: "Crystallization". [22] boundary 2, Duke University Press, (http:/ / boundary2. dukejournals. org/ ) [23] http:/ / www. electronicbookreview. com/ thread/ fictionspresent/ tense [24] Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (First published New York: Basic Books, 1963; New York: Anchor Books Ed., 1967), 324. Lévi-Strauss, quoting D'Arcy Westworth Thompson states - "To those who question the possibility of defining the interrelations between entities whose nature is not completely understood, I shall reply with the following comment by a great naturalist In a very large part of morphology, our essential task lies in the comparison of related forms rather than in the precise definition of each; and the deformation of a complicated figure may be a phenomenon easy of comprehension, though the figure itself has to be left unanalyzed and undefined. [25] Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Anthropologie Structurale. Paris: Éditions Plon, 1958. Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (New York: Basic Books, 1963), 228 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=RmeUknlauJAC& lpg=PP1& ots=NJWcwczLLV& dq=Structural Anthropology Basic Books& pg=PA228#v=onepage& q=Structural Anthropology Basic Books& f=false). [26] See the following (http:/ / www. anarchopedia. org/ mechanistic_bias) web reference for a common critique of from an "Anti-positivist" perspective.

[27] Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. Capitalism and Schizophrenia, vol. II: A Thousand Plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1987), p. 101. Orig. published as Mille Plateaux, in 1980 by Les Editions de Minuit, Paris. Deleuze, here echoing the sentiments of Derrida's reflection on Foucault's "The History of Madness" (1961) in his essay "Cogito and the History of Madness" (1963), makes a very thinly veiled reference to semiological certainty of both Saussure and Lacan (who speaks of "The Unity of the Father" in his theory of semantic coherence), critiquing the premise of objectivity in their methodology "The scientific model taking language as an object of study is one with the political model by which language is homogenized, centralized, standardized, becoming a language of power, a major or dominant language. Linguistics can claim all it wants to be science, nothing but pure science -- it wouldn't be the first time that the order of pure science was used to secure the requirements of another order...The unity of language is fundamentally political. There is no mother tongue, only a power takeover by a dominant language that at times advances along a broad front, and at times swoops down on diverse centers simultaneously...The scientific enterprise of extracting constants and constant relations is always coupled with the political enterprise of imposing them on speakers and transmitting order-worlds."


Further reading
• Powell, Jim (1998). "Postmodernism For Beginners" (ISBN 978-1-934389-09-6) • Alexie, Sherman (2000). "The Toughest Indian in the World" (ISBN 0-8021-3800-4) • Anderson, Walter Truett. The Truth about the Truth (New Consciousness Reader). New York: Tarcher. (1995) (ISBN 0-87477-801-8) • Anderson, Perry. The origins of postmodernity. London: Verso, 1998. • Ashley, Richard and Walker, R. B. J. (1990) “Speaking the Language of Exile.” International Studies Quarterly v 34, no 3 259-68. • Bauman, Zygmunt (2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. • Beck, Ulrich (1986) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. • Benhabib, Seyla (1995) 'Feminism and Postmodernism' in (ed. Nicholson) Feminism Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange. New York: Routledge. • Berman, Marshall (1982) All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (ISBN 0-14-010962-5). • Bertens, Hans (1995) The Idea of the Postmodern: A History. London: Routledge. (ISBN 0-145-06012-5). • Best, Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. Postmodern Theory (1991) excerpt and text search (http://www. • Best, Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. The Postmodern Turn (1997) excerpt and text search (http://www. • Bielskis, Andrius (2005) Towards a Postmodern Understanding of the Political: From Genealogy to Hermeneutics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005). • Braschi, Giannina (1994), Empire of Dreams, introduction by Alicia Ostriker, Yale University Press, New Haven, London. • Brass, Tom, Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism (London: Cass, 2000). • Butler, Judith (1995) 'Contingent Foundations' in (ed. Nicholson) Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange. New Yotk: Routledge. • Callinicos, Alex, Against Postmodernism: A Marxist Critique (Cambridge: Polity, 1999). • Drabble, M. The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 6 ed., article "Postmodernism". • Farrell, John. "Paranoia and Postmodernism," the epilogue to Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau (Cornell UP, 2006), 309-327. • Featherstone, M. (1991) Consumer culture and postmodernism, London; Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications. • Goulimari, Pelagia (ed.) (2007) Postmodernism. What Moment? Manchester: Manchester University Press (ISBN 978-0-7190-7308-3) • Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self Identity, Cambridge: Polity Press. • Grebowicz, Margaret (ed.), Gender After Lyotard. NY: Suny Press, 2007. (ISBN 978-0-7914-6956-9) • Greer, Robert C. Mapping Postmodernism. IL: Intervarsity Press, 2003. (ISBN 0-8308-2733-1) • Groothuis, Douglas. Truth Decay. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2000.

Postmodernism • Harvey, David (1989) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (ISBN 0-631-16294-1) • Hicks, Stephen R. C. (2004) Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault (ISBN 1-59247-646-5) • Honderich, T., The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, article "Postmodernism". • Hutcheon, Linda. The Politics of Postmodernism. (2002) online edition] ( 107450059?title=The Politics of Postmodernism) • Jameson, Fredric (1991) Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (ISBN 0-8223-1090-2) • Kirby, Alan (2009) Digimodernism. New York: Continuum. • Lash, S. (1990) The sociology of postmodernism London, Routledge. • Lyotard, Jean-François (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (ISBN 0-8166-1173-4) • --- (1988). The Postmodern Explained: Correspondence 1982-1985. Ed. Julian Pefanis and Morgan Thomas. (ISBN 0-8166-2211-6) • --- (1993), "Scriptures: Diffracted Traces." In: Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004. • --- (1995), "Anamnesis: Of the Visible." In: Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004. • McHale,Brian, (1987) 'Postmodernist Fiction. London: Routledge. • --- (1992), 'Constructing Postmodernism. NY & London: Routledge. • --- (2008), "1966 Nervous Breakdown, or, When Did Postmodernism Begin?" Modern Language Quarterly 69, 3:391-413. • --- (2007), "What Was Postmodernism?" electronic book review, ( thread/fictionspresent/tense) • MacIntyre, Alasdair, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (University of Notre Dame Press, 1984, 2nd edn.). • Magliola, Robert, Derrida on the Mend (Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 1984; 1986; pbk. 2000, ISBN I-55753-205-2). • ---, On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture (Atlanta: Scholars Press of American Academy of Religion, 1997; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; ISBN 0-7885-0295-6, cloth, ISBN 0-7885-0296-4, pbk). • Manuel, Peter. "Music as Symbol, Music as Simulacrum: Pre-Modern, Modern, and Postmodern Aesthetics in Subcultural Musics," Popular Music 1/2, 1995, pp. 227–239. • Murphy, Nancey, Anglo-American Postmodernity: Philosophical Perspectives on Science, Religion, and Ethics (Westview Press, 1997). • Natoli, Joseph (1997) A Primer to Postmodernity (ISBN 1-57718-061-5) • Norris, Christopher (1990) What's Wrong with Postmodernism: Critical Theory and the Ends of Philosophy (ISBN 0-8018-4137-2) • Pangle, Thomas L., The Ennobling of Democracy: The Challenge of the Postmodern Age, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991 ISBN 0-8018-4635-8 • Park, Jin Y., ed., Buddhisms and Deconstructions (Lanham: Rowland & Littlefield, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7425-3418-6; ISBN 0-7425-3418-9. • Sim, Stuart. (1999). "The Routledge critical dictionary of postmodern thought" (ISBN 0415923530) • Sokal, Alan and Jean Bricmont (1998) Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science (ISBN 0-312-20407-8) • Vattimo, Gianni (1989). The Transparent Society (ISBN 0-8018-4528-9) • Veith Jr., Gene Edward (1994) Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Thought and Culture (ISBN 0-89107-768-5) • Windshuttle, Keith (1996) The Killing of History: How Literary Critics and Social Theorists are Murdering our Past. New York: The Free Press.


Postmodernism • Woods, Tim, Beginning Postmodernism, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999,(Reprinted 2002)(ISBN 0-7190-5210-6 Hardback,ISBN 0-7190-5211-4 Paperback) .


External links
• “Love and Hatred of ‘French Theory’ in America. (, Borderlands e journal. Rolando Pérez. 4.1.2005. • WSWS philosophy archives – incl. critiques of postmodernist thought ( philos.shtml) • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's entry on postmodernism ( postmodernism/) • The Christian Cadre's Postmodernism Page ( • Discourses of Postmodernism. Multilingual Bibliography by Janusz Przychodzen (PDF file) (http://www.umass. edu/complit/aclanet/SyllPDF/JanuList.pdf) • Modernity, postmodernism and the tradition of dissent, by Lloyd Spencer (1998) ( depart/media/staff/ls/Modules/Theory/PoMoDis.htm) • Dueling Paradigms: Modernist v. Postmodernist Thought * Characterizing a Fogbank: What Is Postmodernism, and Why Do I Take Such a Dim View of it? ( • Postmodernism and truth ( by philosopher Daniel Dennett • Postmodernism is the new black ( How the shape of modern retailing was both predicted and influenced by some unlikely seers (The Economist December 19, 2006) • Gaining clarity: after postmodernism (, Eretz Acheret (http:// Magazine

Historicity (philosophy)


Historicity (philosophy)
Historicity in philosophy is the underlying concept of history, or the intersection of teleology (the concept and study of progress and purpose), temporality (the concept of time), and historiography (semiotics and history of history). Varying conceptualizations of historicity emphasize linear progress or the repetition or modulation of past events.

Concepts of historicity
In phenomenology, historicity is the history of constitution of any intentional object, both in the sense of history as tradition and in the sense where every individual has its own history. Of course, these two senses are often very similar: One individual's history is heavily influenced by the tradition the individual is formed in, but personal history can also produce an object that wouldn't be a part of any tradition. In addition, personal historicity doesn't develop in the same way as tradition. Martin Heidegger argued in Being and Time that it is temporality that gives rise to history. All things have their place and time, and nothing past is outside of history. Francis Fukuyama in The End of History and the Last Man famously argued that the collapse of Soviet communism brought humanity to the "end of history" whereby the world's global dialectical machinations had been resolved with the triumph of liberal capitalism. Before Fukuyama, Jean Baudrillard argued for a different concept of the "end of history". Baudrillard's most in-depth writings on the notion of historicity are found in the books Fatal Strategies and The Illusion of the End. It is for these writings that he received a full-chapter denunciation from the physicist Alan Sokal (along with Jean Bricmont), due to his alleged misuse of physical concepts of linear time, space and stability. In contrast to Fukuyama's argument, Baudrillard maintained that the "end of history", in terms of a teleological goal, had always been an illusion brought about by modernity's will towards progress, civilization and rational unification. And this was an illusion that to all intents and purposes vanished toward the end of the 20th century, brought about by the "speed" at which society moved, effectively 'destabilising' the linear progression of history (it is these comments, specifically, that provoked Sokal's criticism). History was, so to speak, outpaced by its own spectacular realisation. As Baudrillard himself caustically put it: The end of history is, alas, also the end of the dustbins of history. There are no longer any dustbins for disposing of old ideologies, old regimes, old values. Where are we going to throw Marxism, which actually invented the dustbins of history? (Yet there is some justice here since the very people who invented them have fallen in.) Conclusion: if there are no more dustbins of history, this is because History itself has become a dustbin. It has become its own dustbin, just as the planet itself is becoming its own dustbin.[1] This approach to history is what marks out Baudrillard's affinities with the postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard: the idea that society — and Western society in particular — has 'dropped out' of the grand narratives of history (for example the coming of Communism or the triumph of civilized modern society). But Baudrillard has supplemented this argument by contending that, although this 'dropping out' may have taken place, the global world (which in Baudrillard's writing is sharply distinct from a universal humanity) is, in accordance with its spectacular understanding of itself, condemned to 'play out' this illusory ending in a hyper-teleological way — acting out the end of the end of the end, ad infinitum. Thus Baudrillard argues that — in a manner similar to Giorgio Agamben's book Means without Ends — Western society is subject to the political restriction of means that are justified by ends that do not exist. Michel-Rolph Trouillot offers a different insight into the meaning and uses of Historicity. Trouillot explains that "The ways in which what happened,and what is said to have happened are and are not the same may itself be historical".

Historicity (philosophy)


[1] The Illusion of the End, or Selected Writings, p. 263

New Journalism
New Journalism was a style of 1960s and 1970s news writing and journalism which used literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. The term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Robert Christgau, and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, Esquire, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, and for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.

Various trends and tendencies throughout the history of American Journalism have been labeled "new journalism." Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism."[1] Likewise, the appearance of the yellow press, papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s, led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, and its newspapers entered an era known as that of the 'New Journalism.'"[2] In 1960, John Gay Talese, in 2006, at the Strand Bookstore in New York City. Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform; it even dares to teach, to measure, to evaluate."[3] During the sixties and seventies, the term enjoyed widespread popularity, often with meanings bearing manifestly little or no connection with one another. Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism",[4] Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the Preface of the Sixth Edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, advocacy, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, sensitivity, investigative, saturation, humanistic, reformist and a few more."[5] The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction (reportage), alternative journalism ("modern muckraking"), advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism.[6] Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, and changes in the established media.[7]

New Journalism Journalists recognized as using the style include Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Truman Capote, P. J. O'Rourke, George Plimpton, Terry Southern, and Gay Talese. Hunter S. Thompson was a major practitioner of new journalism and gonzo journalism, his own particular style. Thompson's first book, Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, is a more conventional piece, and shows the beginnings of a more memoir-based approach to reportage. Gay Talese's 1966 article for Esquire, Frank Sinatra Has a Cold, was an influential piece of new journalism that gave a detailed portrait of Frank Sinatra without ever interviewing him. New journalism writers brought new approaches to areas already covered by the mainstream press. The psychedelic movement was something that many of the writers of the period covered, such as in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. The Vietnam War was another common topic, as was the political turmoil on the homefront. Terry Southern's Grooving in Chi [8] documented the 1968 Chicago National Democratic Convention for Esquire in new journalism manner. New journalism's techniques were also applied to less obvious subjects, such as financial markets (by George Goodman under the pseudonym Adam Smith, in essays originally published in New York magazine and later collected in a book called The Money Game.)


Norman Mailer at the Miami Book Fair International of 1988

Some authors of conventional fiction switched to writing in the style of new journalism, such as Truman Capote's In Cold Blood, and Norman Mailer's Armies of the Night. However, neither author ever agreed to their style's comparison to Wolfe's school of narration, nor did many others who have been retrospectively promoted as being members and therein associated. Much to the contrary, many of these writers would deny that their work was generically relevant to other new journalists at the time.

Early development, the sixties
How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre has not been clear.[9] Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form,[9] wrote in at least two articles[10] [11] in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim, offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain that [Pete] Hamill first used the expression. In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, and told me he wanted to February 14, 1972, article in New York, by Tom Wolfe, announcing the birth write an article about new New of New Journalism Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese, Wolfe and Breslin. He never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing. It was picked up and stuck."[12] But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket.[13] A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would later build on in his 1968

New Journalism convention coverage (Miami and the Siege of Chicago) and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story. It began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..."[14] Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes later wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, and when we found a good novelist we immediately sought to seduce him with the sweet mysteries of current events."[15] Soon others, notably New York, followed Esquire's lead, and the style eventually infected other magazines and then books.[16]


The seventies
Much of the criticism favorable to this New Journalism came from the writers themselves. Talese and Wolfe, in a panel discussion cited earlier, asserted that, although what they wrote may look like fiction, it was indeed reporting: "Fact reporting, leg work." Talese called it.[17] Wolfe, in Esquire for December, 1972, hailed the replacement of the novel by the New Journalism as literature's "main event"[18] and detailed the points of similarity and contrast between the New Journalism and the novel. The four techniques of realism that he and the other New Journalists employed, he wrote, had been the sole province of novelists and other literati. They are scene-by-scene construction, full record of dialogue, third-person point of view and the manifold incidental details to round out character (i.e., descriptive incidentals).[19] the result ... is a form that is not merely like a novel. It consumes devices that happen to have originated with the novel and mixes them with every other device known to prose. And all the while, quite beyond matters of technique, it enjoys an advantage so obvious, so built-in, one almost forgets what power it has': the simple fact that the reader knows all this actually happened. The disclaimers have been erased. The screen is gone. The writer is one step closer to the absolute involvement of the reader that Henry James and James Joyce dreamed of but never achieved.[20] The essential difference between the new nonfiction and conventional reporting is, he said, that the basic unit of reporting was no longer the datum or piece of information but the scene. Scene is what underlies "the sophisticated strategies of prose."[21] The first of the new breed of nonfiction writers to receive wide notoriety was Truman Capote,[22] whose 1965 best-seller, In Cold Blood, was a detailed narrative of the murder of a Kansas farm family. Capote culled material from some 6,000 pages of notes.[22] The book brought its author instant celebrity.[23] Capote announced that he had created a new art form which he labelled the "nonfiction novel."[22] I've always had the theory that reportage is the great unexplored art form... I've had this theory that a factual piece of work could explore whole new dimensions in writing that would have a double effect fiction does not have—the every fact of its being true, every word of its true, would add a double contribution of strength and impact[24] Capote continued to stress that he was a literary artist, not a journalist, but critics hailed the book as a classic example of New Journalism.[22]
Truman Capote, as photographed by Roger Higgins in 1959.

New Journalism Wolfe's The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby, whose introduction and title story, according to James E. Murphy, "emerged as a manifest of sorts for the nonfiction genre,"[22] was published the same year. In his introduction,[25] Wolfe wrote that he encountered trouble fashioning an Esquire article out of material on a custom car extravaganza in Los Angeles, in 1963. Finding he could not do justice to the subject in magazine article format, he wrote a letter to his editor, Byron Dobell, which grew into a 49-page reportb detailing the custom car world, complete with scene construction, dialogue and flamboyant description. Esquire ran the letter, striking out "Dear Byron." and it became Wolfe's maiden effort as a New Journalist.[22] In an article entitled "The Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye", Dan Wakefield acclaimed the nonfiction of Capote and Wolfe as elevating reporting to the level of literature, terming that work and some of Norman Mailer's nonfiction a journalistic breakthrough: reporting "charged with the energy of art".[26] A review by Jack Newfield of Dick Schaap's Turned On saw the book as a good example of budding tradition in American journalism which rejected many of the constraints of conventional reporting: This new genre defines itself by claiming many of the techniques that were once the unchallenged terrain of the novelist: tension, symbol, cadence, irony, prosody, imagination.[27] A 1968 review of Wolfe's The Pump House Gang and The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test said Wolfe and Mailer were applying "the imaginative resources of fiction"[28] to the world around them and termed such creative journalism "hystory" to connote their involvement in what they reported. Talese in 1970, in his Author's Note to Fame and Obscurity, a collection of his pieces from the 1960s, wrote: The new journalism, though often reading like fiction, is not fiction. It is, or should be, as reliable as the most reliable reportage although it seeks a larger truth than is possible through the mere compilation of verifiable facts, the use of direct quotations, and adherence to the rigid organizational style of the older form.[29] Seymour Krim's Shake It for the World, Smartass, which appeared in 1970, contained "An Open Letter to Norman Mailer"[30] which defined New Journalism as "a free nonfictional prose that uses every resource of the best fiction."[31] In "The Newspaper As Literature/Literature As [32] Leadership", he called journalism the de facto literature of the majority,[33] a synthesis of journalism and literature that the book's postscript called "journalit."[34] In 1972, in "An Enemy of the Novel", Krim identified his own fictional roots and Hunter S. Thompson at the Miami Book Fair International of 1988. declared that the needs of the time compelled him to move beyond fiction to a more "direct" communication to which he promised to bring all of fiction's resources.[35] David McHam, in an article titled "The Authentic New Journalists", distinguished the nonfiction reportage of Capote, Wolfe and others from other, more generic interpretations of New Journalism.[36] Also in 1971, William L. Rivers disparaged the former and embraced the latter, concluding, "In some hands, they add a flavor and a humanity to journalistic writing that push it into the realm of art."[37] Charles Brown in 1972 reviewed much that had been written as New Journalism and about New Journalism by Capote, Wolfe, Mailer and others and labelled the genre "New Art Journalism," which allowed him to test it both as art and as journalism. He concluded that the new literary form was useful only in the hands of literary artists of great talent.[38]


New Journalism In the first of two pieces by Wolfe in New York detailing the growth of the new nonfiction and its techniques, Wolfe returned to the fortuitous circumstances surrounding the construction of Kandy-Kolored and added: Its virtue was precisely in showing me the possibility of there being something "new" in journalism. What interested me was not simply the discovery that it was possible to write accurate nonfiction with techniques usually associated with novels and short stories. It was that—plus. It was the discovery that it was possible in nonfiction, in journalism, to use any literary device, from the traditional dialogisms of the essay to stream-of-consciousness...


The eighties
In the eighties, the use of New Journalism saw a decline, several of the old trailblazers still used fiction techniques in their nonfiction books.[39] However, younger writers in Esquire and Rolling Stone, where the style had flourished in the two earlier decades, shifted away from the New Journalism. Fiction techniques had not been abandoned by these writers, but they were used sparingly and less flamboyantly. "Whatever happened to the New Journalism?" wondered Thomas Powers in a 1975 issue of Commonweal. In 1981, Joe Nocera George Plimpton at the Miami Book Fair International, published a postmortem in the Washington Monthly blaming its November 11, 1987 demise on the journalistic liberties taken by Hunter S. Thompson. Regardless of the culprit, less than a decade after Tom Wolfe's 1973 New Journalism anthology, the consensus was that New Journalism was dead.[40]

As a literary genre, New Journalism has certain technical characteristics. It is an artistic, creative, literary reporting form with three basic traits: dramatic literary techniques; intensive reporting; and reporting of generally acknowledged subjectivity.[41]

As subjective journalism
Pervading many of the specific interpretations of New Journalism is a posture of subjectivity. Subjectivism is thus a common element among many (though not all) of its definitions.[42] In contrast to a conventional journalistic striving for an objectivity, subjective journalism allows for the writer's opinion, ideas or involvement to creep into his story. Much of the critical literature concerns itself with a strain of subjectivism which may be called activism in news reporting.[42] In 1970, Gerald Grant wrote disparagingly in Columbia Journalism Review of a "New Journalism of passion and advocacy"[43] and in the Saturday Review Hohenberg discussed "The Journalist As Missionary"[44] For Masterson in 1971, "The New Journalism" provided a forum for discussion of journalistic and social activism. In another 1971 article under the same title, Ridgeway called the counter-culture magazines such as The New Republic and Ramparts and the American underground press New Journalism. Another version of subjectivism in reporting is what is sometimes called participatory reporting. Robert Stein, in Media Power, defines New Journalism as "A form of participatory reporting that evolved in parallel with participatory politics..."[45]

New Journalism


As form and technique
The above interpretations of New Journalism view it as an attitude toward the practice of journalism. But a significant portion of the critical literature deals with form and technique.[9] Critical comment dealing with New Journalism as a literary-journalistic genre (a distinct type of category of literary work grouped according to similar and technical characteristics[46] ) treats it as the new nonfiction. Its traits are extracted from the criticism written by those who claim to practice it and by others.[9] Admittedly it is hard to isolate from a number of the more generic meanings. The new nonfiction where sometimes taken for advocacy of subjective journalism.[9] A 1972 article by Dennis Chase[47] defines New Journalism as a subjective journalism emphasizing "truth" over "facts" but uses major nonfiction stylists as its example.

As intensive reportage
Although much of the critical literature discussed the use of literary or fictional techniques as the basis for a New Journalism, critics also referred to the form as stemming from intensive reporting.[48] Stein, for instance, found the key to New Journalism not its fictionlike form but the "saturation reporting" which precedes it, the result of the writer's immersion in his subject. Consequently, Stein concluded, the writer is as much part of his story as is the subject[49] and he thus linked saturation reporting with subjectivity. For him, New Journalism is inconsistent with objectivity or accuracy.[50] However, others have argued that total immersion enhances accuracy. As Wolfe put the case: I am the first to agree that the New Journalism should be as accurate as traditional journalism. In fact my claims for the New Journalism, and my demands upon it, go far beyond that. I contend that it has already proven itself more accurate than traditional journalism—which unfortunately is saying but so much...[51] Wolfe coined "saturation reporting" in his Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors article. After citing the opening paragraphs of Talese's Joe Louis piece, he confessed believing that Talese had "piped" or faked the story, only later to be convinced, after learning that Talese so deeply delved into the subject, that he could report entire scenes and dialogues. The basic units of reporting are no longer who-what-when-where-how and why but whole scenes and stretches of dialogue. The New Journalism involves a depth of reporting and an attention to the most minute facts and details that most newspapermen, even the most experienced, have never dreamed of.[14] In his "Birth of the New Journalism" in New York, Wolfe returned to the subject, which he here described as a depth of information never before demanded in newspaper work. The New Journalist, he said, must stay with his subject for days and weeks at a stretch.[10] In Wolfe's Esquire piece, saturation became the "Locker Room Genre" of intensive digging into the lives and personalities of one's subject, in contrast to the aloof and genteel tradition of the essayists and "The Literary Gentlemen in the Grandstand."[11] For Talese, intensive reportage took the form of interior monologue to discover from his subjects what they were thinking, not, he said in a panel discussion reported in Writer's Digest, merely reporting what people did and said.[17] Wolfe identified the four main devices New Journalists borrowed from literary fiction:[52] • Telling the story using scenes rather than historical narrative as much as possible • Dialogue in full (Conversational speech rather than quotations and statements) • Point-of-view (present every scene through the eyes of a particular character) • Recording everyday details such as behavior, possessions, friends and family (which indicate the "status life" of the character) Despite these elements, New Journalism is not fiction. It maintains elements of reporting including strict adherence to factual accuracy and the writer being the primary source. To get "inside the head" of a character, the journalist

New Journalism asks the subject what they were thinking or how they felt.


Which writer who are New Journalists is hard to define. In The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective Murphy writes, "A a literary genre, New Journalism [...] involves a more or less well defined group of writers [...]. Each is stylistically unique, but all sharing common formal elements."[41] Among the most prominent writers of New Journalism, Murphy lists: Jimmy Breslin, Truman Capote, Joan Didion, David Halberstam, Pete Hamill, Larry King, Norman Mailer, Joe McGinniss, Rex Reed, Mike Royko, John Sack, Dick Schaap, Terry Southern, Gail Sheehy, Gay Talese, Hunter S. Thompson, Dan Wakefield, and Tom Wolfe.[41] In The New Journalism, Johnson and Wolfe, also includes George Plimpton for his Paper Lion, Life writer James Mills, Robert Christgau and a few others. Christgau, however, stated in an 2001 interview that he did not see himself as a New Journalist.[53]

The editors Clay Felker and Harold Hayes also contributed to the rise of New Journalism.

While many praised the New Journalist's style of writing, Wolfe et al., also received severe criticism from contemporary journalists and writers. Essentially two different charges were leveled against New Journalism: criticism against it as a distinct genre and criticism against it as a new form.[54] [55] Robert Stein believed that "In the New Journalism the eye of the beholder is all—or almost all,"[56] and in 1971 Philip M. Howard, wrote that the new nonfiction writers rejected objectivity in favor of a more personal, subjective reportage.[57] This parallels much of what Wakefield said in his 1966 Atlantic article. The important and interesting and hopeful trend to me in the new journalism is its personal nature—not in the sense of personal attacks, but in the presence of the reporter himself and the significance of his own involvement. This is sometimes felt to be egotistical, and the frank identification of the author, especially as the "I" instead of merely the impersonal "eye" is often frowned upon and taken as proof of "subjectivity," which is the opposite of the usual journalistic pretense.[26] And in spite of the fact that Capote believed in the objective accuracy of In Cold Blood and strove to keep himself totally out of the narrative, one reviewer found in the book the "tendency among writers to resort to subjective sociology, on the other hand, or to super-creative reportage, on the other."[58] Charles Self[59] termed this characteristic of New Journalism as "admitted" subjectivity, whether first-person or third-person, and acknowledged the subjectivity inherent in his account. Lester Markel polemically criticized New Journalism in the Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, he rejected the claim to greater in-depth reporting and labelled the writers "factual fictionists" and "deep-see reporters."[60] He feared they were performing as sociologists and psychoanalysts rather than as journalists. More reasoned, though still essentially negative, Arlen in his 1972 "Notes on the New Journalism," put the New Journalism into a larger socio-historical perspective by tracing the techniques from earlier writers and from the constraints and opportunities of the current age. But much of the more routine New Journalism "consists in exercises by writer . . . in gripping and controlling and confronting a subject within the journalist's own temperament. Presumably," he wrote, "this is the 'novelistic technique.'"[61] However, he conceded that the best of this work had "considerably expanded the possibilities of journalism."[61] Much negative criticism of New Journalism were directed at individual writers.[62] For example, Cynthia Ozick asserted in The New Republic, that Capote in In Cold Blood was doing little more than trying to devise a form: "One

New Journalism more esthetic manipulation."[63] Sheed offered, in "A Fun-House Mirror," a witty refutation of Wolfe's claim that he takes on the expression and the guise of whomever he is writing about. "The Truman Capotes may hold up a tolerably clear glass to nature," he wrote, "but Wolfe holds up a fun-house mirror, and I for one don't give a hoot whether he calls the reflection fact or fiction."[64]


"Parajournalism" and the New Yorker affair
Among the hostile critics of the New Journalism were Dwight MacDonald,[65] whose most vocal criticism compromised a chapter in what became known as "the New Yorker affair" of 1965. Wolfe had written a two-part semi-fictional parody in New York[66] of The New Yorker and its editor, William Shawn. Reaction notably from New Yorker writers, was loud and prolonged,[67] c but the most significant reaction came from MacDonald, who counterattacked in two articles in the New York Review of Books.[68] [69] In the first, MacDonald termed Wolfe's approach "parajournalism" and applied it to all similar styles. "Parajournalism," MacDonald wrote, ... seems to be journalism—"the collection and dissemination of current news"—but the appearance is deceptive. It is a bastard form, having it both ways, exploiting the factual authority of journalism and the atmospheric license of fiction.[68] The New Yorker parody, he added, "... revealed the ugly side of Parajournalism when it tries to be serious."[68] In his second article, MacDonald addressed himself to the accuracy of Wolfe's report. He charged that Wolfe "takes a middle course, shifting gears between fact and fantasy, spoof and reportage, until nobody knows which end is, at the moment, up".[69] New Yorker writers Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas joined the fray in the Winter 1966 issue of Columbia Journalism Review.[70] Wolfe himself returned to the affair a full seven years later, devoting the second of his two February New York articles[71] (1972) to his detractors but not to dispute their attack on his factual accuracy. He argued that most of the contentions arose because for traditional literati nonfiction should not succeed—which his nonfiction obviously had.[71]

Gail Sheehy and "Redpants"
In The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective, Murphy writes, "Partly because Wolfe took liberties with the facts in his New Yorker parody, New Journalism began to get a reputation for juggling the facts in the search for truth, fictionalizing some details to get a larger 'reality.'"[72] Widely criticized was the technique of the composite character,[72] the most notorious example of which was "Redpants," a presumed prostitute whom Gail Sheehy wrote about in New York in a series on that city's sexual subculture. When it later became known that the character was distilled from a number of prostitutes, there was an outcry against Sheehy's method and, by extension, to the credibility of all of New Journalism.[72] In the Wall Street Journal, one critic wrote: It's all part of the New Journalism, or the Now Journalism, and it's practiced widely these days. Some editors and reporters vigorously defend it. Others just as vigorously attack it. No one has polled the reader, but whether he approves or disapproves, it's getting harder and harder for him to know what he can believe.[73] Newsweek reported that critics felt Sheehy's energies were better suited to fiction than fact.[74] John Tebbel, in an article in Saturday Review,[75] although treating New Journalism in its more generic sense as new a trend, chided it for the fictional technique of narrative leads which the new nonfiction writers had introduced into journalism and deplored its use in newspapers.

New Journalism


Criticism against New Journalism as a distinct genre
Newfield, in 1972, changed his attitude since his earlier, 1967,[27] review of Wolfe. "New Journalism does not exist," the later article titled "Is there a 'new journalism'?"[76] says. "It is a false category. There is only good writing and bad writing, smart ideas and dumb ideas, hard work and laziness."[76] While the practice of journalism had improved during the past fifteen years, he argued, it was because of an influx of good writers notable for unique styles, not because they belonged to any school or movement.[76] Jimmy Breslin, who is often labelled a New Journalist, took the same view: "Believe me, there is no new journalism. It is a gimmick to say there is . . . Story telling is older than the alphabet and that is what it is all about."[77]

References and Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Park 1967 [1925], p. 93. Ault & Emery 1959, p. 11. Hohenberg 1960, p. 322. Murphy 1974, p. 2 MacDougal 1971, p. v. Dennis ed. The Magic Writing Machine.(1971) see also The New Journalism in America. Dennis & Rivers eds (1974). Johnson 1971 http:/ / www. pbs. org/ newshour/ convention96/ retro/ southern. html

[9] Murphy 1974, p. 4. [10] “ The Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom Wolfe (http:/ / nymag. com/ news/ media/ 47353/ )” New York, February 14, 1972. p. 45 [11] “Why They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore,” Esquire, December, 1972, p. 152. [12] In a private letter to James E. Murphy, dated February 6, 1973 (see Murphy 1974, p. 5.) [13] Esquire, November, 1960. [14] Wolfe. “The New Journalism” Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. September, 1970. [15] Hayes ed., 1970, p. xxi. [16] Murphy 1974, p. 5. [17] Hayes, Gay Talese and Wolfe, with Leonard W. Robinson, “The New Journalism.” Writer's Digest. January. 1970, p. 34. [18] Esquire, pp. 152-159: 272-280 [19] Esquire, p. 158. [20] Esquire, p. 272. [21] Esquire, p. 278. [22] Murphy 1974, p. 7. [23] See for example. J. Howard, “Six Year Literary Virgil,” Life, January 7, 1966: George Plimpton, “Story behind a Nonfiction Novel,” New York Times Book Review, January 16, 1966: G. Hicks, “Story of an American Tragedy,” Saturday Review, January 22, 1966: Neil Compton, “Hyjinks' Journalism,” Commentary, February, 1966. [24] Capote, as quoted by Roy Newquist, Counterpoint, (Rand McNally, 1964), p. 78. [25] Wolfe 1965, pp. ix-xii. [26] Dan Wakefield, “The Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye,” The Atlantic, June, 1966, pp. 86-89. [27] Jack Newfield, “Hooked and Dead,” New York Times Book Review, May 7, 1967, p. 20. [28] Robert Scholes, “Double Perspective on Hysteria,” Saturday Review, August 24. 1968. p. 37. [29] Talese 1970, p. vii. [30] First published in Evergreen Review, February 1, 1967. [31] Krim 1970, p. 115. [32] First published in Evergreen Review, August 1, 1967. [33] Krim 1970, p. 359. “Let once-mighty literature swallow its whitefaced pride and give its mythic propensity to journalism—the de facto literature of our time.” [34] Krim 1970, p. 365. [35] Krim. “An Enemy of the Novel.” The Iowa Review, Winter 1972, pp. 60-62. [36] David McHam, “The Authentic New Journalists,” Quill, September, 1971, pp. 9-14. [37] William L. Rivers , “The New Confusion,” The Progressive, December, 1971, p. 28. [38] Charles Brown, “New Art Journalism Revisited,” Quill, March, 1972, pp. 18-23. [39] For example, Tom Wolfe (The Right Stuff, 1979), Gay Talese (Thy Neighbor’s Wife, 1980), and Hunter S. Thompson (The Curse of Lono, 1983) [40] Robert Boynton (January 23, 2005). "Whatever happened to New Journalism?". Los Angeles Times.

New Journalism
[41] Murphy 1974, p. 16. [42] Murphy 1974, p. 3. [43] 1970, pp. 12-17. [44] Saturday Review. February 11, 1970, pp. 76-77. [45] Stein 1972, p. 165. [46] The definition is based on that of William F. Thrall, et al., A Handbook to Literature (1960), p. 211. [47] Dennis Chase. “From Lippmann to Irving to New Journalism,” Quill August, 1972. pp. 19-21. [48] See, for example, Charles Self, “The New Journalism?” Quill and Scroll, December–January, 1973, pp. 10-11: “The new journalism requires days, weeks or even months of research for each story. The new journalist writes from a detailed knowledge of his subject.” (p. 11) [49] Smith 1972, p. 167. [50] Murphy 1972, p. 10. [51] *Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 46. [52] Beuttler, Bill. "Whatever Happened to the New Journalism?" (http:/ / billbeuttler. com/ work50. htm). . Retrieved 2007-09-09. [53] Cartwright, Garth (May 12, 2001). "Master of the Rock Review" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2001/ may/ 12/ music). The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). . "“Being a reporter was another path I could have gone down, but the kind of journalism New Journalism requires is not only powers of observation but the ability to hang around people for hours and hours . . . the qualities of being a real asshole . . . and it's just not me.”" [54] Murphy 1974, p. 15 [55] See for example, Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, July–August, 1972, p. 45., “What is called the New Journalism is really a dozen different styles of writing.” [56] Stein 1972, p. 168. [57] Philip M. Howard. Jr., “The New Journalism: A Nonfiction Concept of Writing,” unpublished master's thesis, University of Utah, August, 1971, 5 ff. (see Murphy 1974, p. 11.) [58] F. W. Dupre, “Truman Capote's Score,” New York Review of Books, February 3, 1966, p. 5. [59] Charles Self, “The New Journalism?” Quill and Scroll, December–January, 1973, pp. 10-11 [60] Lester Markel, “So What's New?” Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, January, 1972, p. 8. [61] Michael J. Arlen, “Notes on the New Journalism,” Atlantic, may, 1972, p. 47. [62] Murphy 1974, p. 14. [63] Cynthia Ozick, “Reconsideration: Truman Capote,” The New Republic, January 27, 1973, p. 34. [64] Wilfrid Sheed, “A Fun-House Mirror,” New York Times Book Review, December 3, 1972, p. 2. [65] Murphy 1974, p. 12. [66] Wolfe, “Tiny Mummies! The True Story of the Ruler of 43rd Street's Land of the Walking Dead,” New York, April 11, 1965, pp. 7-9: 24-29: and “Lost in the Whichy Thicket,” New York, April 18, 1965, 16 ff. At the time, New York was still the Sunday magazine for the now deceased New York Herald Tribune. [67] "The New Yorker Affair: From Other Angles" (http:/ / archives. cnn. com/ 2002/ SHOWBIZ/ News/ 04/ 16/ bellows. abc/ ). April 16, 2002. . Retrieved January 7, 2010. [68] Dwight MacDonald. “Parajournalism, or Tom Wolfe and His Magic Writing Machine,” New York Review of Books, August 26, 1965, pp. 3-5 [69] “Parajournalism II: Wolfe and the New Yorker,” New York Review of Books, February 3, 1966, pp. 18-24. [70] Leonard C. Lewin, with Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas, “Is Fact Necessary?”, Columbia Journalism Review, Winter, 1966, pp. 29-34. [71] New York, February 21, 1972, pp. 39-48 [72] Murphy 1974, p. 13. [73] W. Steward Pinkerton. Jr., “The ‘New Journalism’ is Something Less Than Meets the Eye.” Wall Street Journal, August 13, 1971, p. 1. [74] Newsweek, December 4, 1972, p. 61. [75] John Tebbel, “The Old New Journalism,” Saturday Review, March 13, 1971, pp. 96-67. [76] Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, July–August, 1972, pp. 45-47. [77] In a personal letter to Philip Howard, quoted on Howard's p. 9.


Notes a  The article Wolfe referred to was actually titled “Joe Louis—the King As a Middle-Aged Man,” Esquire, June, 1962. b  Wolfe's letter had the original title There Goes (Varoom! Varoom!) That Kandy-Kolored (Thphhhhhh!) Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby (Rahghhh!) Around the Bend (Brummmmmmmmmmmmmmm).... The title was later contracted to The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby, which became the title of the book, published in 1965. c  For example, J.D. Salinger wrote to Jock Whitney “With the printing of the inaccurate and sub-collegiate and

New Journalism gleeful and unrelievedly poisonous article on William Shawn, the name of the Herald Tribune, and certainly your own will very likely never again stand for anything either respect-worthy or honorable.” E. B. White's letter to Whitney, dated “April 1965,” contains the following passage: “Tom Wolfe's piece on William Shawn violated every rule of conduct I know anything about. It is sly, cruel, and to a large extent undocumented, and it has, I think, shocked everyone who knows what sort of person Shawn really is[...],” and Shawn's hand-delivered letter to Whitney, sent Thursday before publication on April 11, 1965, read “To be technical for a moment, I think that Tom Wolfe's article on The New Yorker is false and libelous. But I'd rather not be technical ... I cannot believe that, as a man of known integrity and responsibility, you will allow it to reach your readers ... The question is whether you will stop the distribution of that issue of New York. I urge you to do so, for the sake of The New Yorker and for the sake of the Herald Tribune. In fact, I am convinced that the publication of that article will hurt you more than it will hurt me ...” Bellows 2002, pp. 3–4. Bibliography • Ault, Philip H.; Emery, Edwin (1959). Reporting the News. Dodd, Mead and Company. • Bellows, James G. (2002). The Last Editor: How I Saved the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times from Dullness and Complacency. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-1901-7. • Burgess, Ernest W.; Park, Robert E., eds (1967) [1925]. "Natural History of the Newspaper". The City: Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226646114. • Eason, David (Spring 1982). "New Journalism, Metaphor and Culture". Journal of Popular Culture 15: 142–149. • Dennis, Everette E., ed (1971). The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism. University of Oregon Press. • Dennis, Everette E.; Rivers, William L., eds (1974). Other Voices: The New Journalism in America. Canfield Press. ISBN 0063825627. • Grant, Gerald (Spring 1970). "The "New Journalism" We Need". Columbia Journalism Review (Columbia University Press). • Hohenberg, John (February 11, 1970). "The Journalist As Missionary". Saturday Review: pp. 76–77. • Hayes, Harold, ed (1970). Smiling Through the Apocalypse—Esquire's History of the Sixties. McCall.) • Hohenberg, John (1960). The Professional Journalist: A Guide to the Practices and Principles of the News Media. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0030182263. • Johnson, Michael (1971). The New Journalism: The Underground Press, the Artists of Nonfiction, and Changes in the Established Media. University of Kansas Press. ISBN 0023731109. • Krim, Seymour (1970). Shake It for the World, Smartass. Dial Press. • MacDougal, Curtis D. (1972). Interpretative Reporting (Sixth ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0023731109. • Mailer, Norman (November, 1960). "Superman Comes to the Supermarket" ( superman-supermarket). Esquire (Hearst Corporation). • McQuade, Donald, ed (1974). Popular Writing in America: The Interaction of Style and Audience. Oxford University Press. • Murphy, James E. (May 1974). Westley, Bruce H.. ed. "The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective". Journalism Monographs (The Association for Education in Journalism) 34. • Russello, Gerald J. (November 21, 2005). "How New Journalism Became Old News" ( arts/how-new-journalism-became-old-news/23300/). The New York Sun (ONE SL LLC). • Stein, Robert (1972). Media Power; Who Is Shaping Your Picture of the World?. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395140064. • Talese, Gay (1970). Fame and Obscurity. World Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0030182263. • Wolfe, Tom (July 14, 2008). "A City Built of Clay" ( New York Magazine (New York Media LLC).


New Journalism • Wolfe, Tom (February 14, 1972). "The Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom Wolfe" (http:// New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 44. • Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC): p. 46. • Wolfe, Tom (December 1972). "Why They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore". Esquire (Hearst Corporation).


Further reading
• Flippen, Charles C. (1974). Liberating the Media: The New Journalism. Acropolis Books. ISBN 0874913624. • Hollowell, John (1977). Fact & Fiction: The New Journalism and the Nonfiction Novel. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807812811. • Johnson, E. W.; Wolfe, Tom (1973). The New Journalism. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060147075. • Mills, Nicolaus (1974). The New Journalism: A Historical Anthology. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070423504. • Polsgrove, Carol (1995). It Wasn't Pretty, Folks, But Didn't We Have Fun?: Surviving the '60s with Esquire's Harold Hayes. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 1-57143-091-1. • Weber, Ronald (1974). The Reporter as Artist: A Look at the New Journalism Controversy. Hastings House. ISBN 0803863306. • Weingarten, Marc (2006). The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, and the New Journalism Revolution. Crown Publishers. ISBN 1400049148. • Of honest men & good writers ( php#more) Jack Newfield making the case against New Journalism as a distinct genre in a Village Voice article published May 18, 1972

External links
• "The 7 Greatest Stories in the History of Esquire Magazine" ( greatest-stories). Esquire (Hearst Corporation). November 30, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009. • Biographical dictionary of 24,000+ British and Irish journalists who died between 1800 and 1960 (http://www.



A memoir (from French: mémoire/ Latin: memoria, meaning memory, or reminiscence), is a literary genre, forming a subclass of autobiography – although the terms 'memoir' and 'autobiography' are almost interchangeable. Memoir is autobiographical writing, but not all autobiographical writing follows the criteria for memoir set out below. The author of a memoir may be referred to as a memoirist. Examples of memoirs now considered "classic" include Henry David Thoreau's Walden or Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.

The nature of memoirs
Memoirs are structured differently from formal autobiographies which tend to encompass the writer's entire life span, focusing on the development of his or her personality. The chronological scope of a memoir is determined by the work's context and is therefore more focused and flexible than the traditional arc of birth to old age as found in an autobiography. Memoirs tended to be written by politicians or people in court society, later joined by military leaders and businessmen, and often dealt exclusively with the writer's careers rather than their private life. Historically, memoirs have dealt with public matters, rather than personal. Many older memoirs contain little or no information about the writer, and are almost entirely concerned with other people. Modern expectations have changed this, even for heads of government. Like most autobiographies, memoirs are generally written from the first person point of view. Gore Vidal, in his own memoir Palimpsest, gave a personal definition: "a memoir is how one remembers one's own life, while an autobiography is history, requiring research, dates, facts double-checked." It is more about what can be gleaned from a section of one's life than about the outcome of the life as a whole. Humorist Will Rogers put it a little more pithily: "Memoirs means when you put down the good things you ought to have done and leave out the bad ones you did do." Contemporary practices of writing memoirs for recreational, family or therapeutic purposes are sometimes referred to as legacy writing or personal history. Such products may be assisted by professional or amateur genealogists, or by ghostwriters.

Types of memoir
The rhetor Libanius (ca. 314 – ca. 394) framed his life memoir as one of his orations, not the public kind, but the literary kind that would be read aloud in the privacy of one's study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome, that memoirs were like "memos," pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document later on. In modern times, memoirs have often been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish their own account of their public exploits. Some contemporary women writers have combined the memoir form with historical non-fiction writing. Examples include Jung Chang's Wild Swans, Heda Margolius Kovaly's Under a Cruel Star and Helen Epstein's Where She Came From. Other professional contemporary writers such as David Sedaris and Augusten Burroughs have specialized in writing amusing essays in the form of memoirs. To some extent this is an extension of the tradition of newspaper columnists' regular accounts of their lives. (Cf. the work of James Thurber which often has a strong memoir-like content).



Memoir collection projects
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, there are many organizations that work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the US Military - especially those who have seen active combat.[1] Many public libraries give Memoir Writing classes that are geared towards senior citizens and some autobiographical service companies periodically publish memoir collections featuring clients that participated at no cost.[2]

[1] http:/ / www. loc. gov/ vets [2] e.g., http:/ / www. wickedlocal. com/ scituate/ news/ x529239934/ Library-offers-memoir-class


Visual Theory
Scott McCloud
Scott McCloud

McCloud, RISD, March 2007. Born Scott McLeod June 10, 1960 Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. American cartoonist, theorist

Nationality Area(s)

Notable works Zot! Understanding Comics Reinventing Comics Making Comics Superman Awards Russ Manning Award, 1985 12-time nominee for [1] Eisner, Harvey awards Official website [2]

Scott McCloud (born Scott McLeod on June 10, 1960) is an American cartoonist and theorist on comics as a distinct literary and artistic medium.

Scott McCloud


McCloud was born in Boston, Massachusetts and spent most of his childhood in Lexington, Massachusetts. He obtained his Bachelor of Fine Arts in illustration from Syracuse University. McCloud created the light-hearted science fiction/superhero comic book series Zot! in 1984, in part as a reaction to the increasingly grim direction that superhero comics were taking in the 1980s. His other print comics include Destroy!! (a deliberately over-the-top, over-sized single-issue comic book, intended as a parody of formulaic superhero fights), the graphic novel The New Adventures of Abraham Lincoln (done with a mixture of computer-generated and manually-drawn digital images), 12 issues writing DC Comics' Superman Adventures, and the three-issue limited series Superman:

McCloud on the Making Comics Tour in Louisville, Kentucky

Strength.[3] He is best known as a comics theorist or as some say, the "Aristotle of comics",[4] following the publication in 1993 of Understanding Comics, a wide-ranging exploration of the definition, history, vocabulary, and methods of the medium of comics, itself in comics form.[5] He followed in 2000 with Reinventing Comics (also in comics form), in which he outlined twelve "revolutions" that he argued would be keys to the growth and success of comics as a popular and creative medium. Finally, in 2006, he released Making Comics. Following publication, he went on a tour with his family that included all 50 U.S. states and parts of Europe.[6] He was one of the earliest promoters of webcomics as a distinct variety of comics, and a vocal supporter of micropayments.[7] He was also an adviser to BitPass, a company that provided an online micropayment system, which he helped launch with the publication of The Right Number, an online graphic novella priced at US$0.25 for each chapter. McCloud maintains an active online presence on his web site where he publishes many of his ongoing experiments with comics produced specifically for the web. Among the techniques he explores is the "infinite canvas" permitted by a web browser, allowing panels to be spatially arranged in ways not possible in the finite, two-dimensional, paged format of a physical book.[5] His latest work is a comic book that formed the press release introducing Google's web browser, Google Chrome, which was published on September 1, 2008.[8] In 2009, McCloud was featured in The Cartoonist, a documentary film on the life and work of Jeff Smith, creator of Bone.[9]

Creator's Bill of Rights
McCloud was the principal author of the Creator's Bill of Rights, a 1988 document with the stated aim of protecting the rights of comic book creators and help aid against the exploitation of comic artists and writers by corporate work-for-hire practices.[10] The group that adopted the Bill also included artists Kevin Eastman, Dave Sim, and Stephen R. Bissette.[11] The Bill included twelve rights such as "The right to full ownership of what we fully create," and "The right to prompt payment of a fair and equitable share of profits derived from all of our creative work."[12]

Scott McCloud


24-hour comic
In 1990, McCloud coined the idea of a 24-hour comic, a complete 24-page comic created by a single cartoonist in 24 consecutive hours. It was a mutual challenge with cartoonist Steve Bissette, intended to compel creative output with a minimum of self-restraining contemplation.[13] Thousands of cartoonists have since taken up the challenge. One of the notables to take up this challenge include Kevin Eastman, co-creator of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Rick Veitch also took up this challenge and used it as a springboard for his popular comic Rarebit Fiends [14]. Dave Sim used some of his work from this challenge in his comic.[15] Neil Gaiman finished his story in the 24 hours and created "The Gaiman Variation".[16] Gaiman's participation was later lampooned in "Ghastly's Ghastly Comic", calling him "Neil 'Eighteen Pages' Gaiman".

• Zot! • Zot!: Book One (Eclipse Books, 1991) ISBN 978-0913035047 • Zot!: Book Two (Issues 11-15 & 17-18) (Kitchen Sink Press, 1998) ISBN 978-0878164288 • Zot!: The Complete Black and White Collection: 1987-1991 (Harper Paperbacks, 2008) ISBN 0061537276 • Understanding Comics • Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art (1993, ISBN 0-613-02782-5) • Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form (2000, ISBN 0-06-095350-0) • Making Comics: Storytelling Secrets of Comics, Manga and Graphic Novels (2006, ISBN 0-06-078094-0) • The New Adventures of Abraham Lincoln (Image Comics, 1998) ISBN 978-1887279871 • 24 Hour Comics (editor) (About Comics, 2004) ISBN 978-0971633841

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Lambiek Comiclopedia. "Scott McCloud" (http:/ / lambiek. net/ artists/ m/ mccloud. htm). . http:/ / www. ScottMcCloud. com Toko Buku Online. (http:/ / buku135. com/ detail_pengarang. php?ID=763) Wardrip-Fruin, Noah & Montfort, Nick (2003). The New Media Reader. The MIT Press. http:/ / www2. und. nodak. edu/ our/ uletter/ print_article. php?uletterID=2163 MIT news (September 20, 2006). "'Making Comics' author decodes cartoons" (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2006/ mccloud-0920. html).

. [7] The Guardian (August 7, 2003). "Making the web pay" (http:/ / technology. guardian. co. uk/ online/ story/ 0,3605,1013313,00. html). . [8] McCloud, Scott (2008-09-01). "Google Chrome, behind the Open Source Browser Product" (http:/ / www. google. com/ googlebooks/ chrome/ ). Google. . Retrieved 2008-09-02. [9] http:/ / www. thecartoonistmovie. com [10] Coogan, Pete (September, 1990). "Creator's Rights". The Comics Journal p. 65-71 [11] McCloud, Scott (2000). Reinventing Comics, New York: Paradox Press. Pg. 62 [12] "Creator's Bill of Rights" (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ inventions/ bill/ bill_of_rights. html). 2006-10-13. . [13] Brattleboro Museum. "The 24-Hour Comic Book Challenge" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070607194756/ http:/ / www. brattleboromuseum. org/ events/ ComicChallenge. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. brattleboromuseum. org/ events/ ComicChallenge. html) on 2007-06-07. . [14] http:/ / www. rickveitch. com/ 2008/ 06/ 22/ 24-hour-rare-bit-fiends [15] CerebusCerebus the Aardvark [16] The 24-Hour Comics Index (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ inventions/ 24hr/ index)

Scott McCloud


• McCloud profile ( mccloud/profile_mccloud.htm) on RAW's site • Scott McCloud French publications ( Bedetheque (French)

External links
• • • • • Official website ( 24 Hour Comics ( Scott McCloud biography ( on Lambiek Comiclopedia TED Talks: Scott McCloud on comics ( at TED in 2005 Scott McCloud's page on Comiclopedia (

• "Interview with Scott McCloud, artist behind Google Chrome comic" ( 2008/09/07/2008-09-07_interview_with_scott_mccloud_artist_behi.html) New York Daily News (Sept. 7, 2008). • "Interview of McCloud by R.C. Harvey, excerpted from The Comics Journal #179" ( 2_archives/i_mccloud.html) "The Comics Journal" • "Still Thinking: By Charles Hatfield" ( "The Comics Journal"

Understanding Comics


Understanding Comics
Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art

Cover of the original Tundra Publishing edition of Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art Author(s) Cover artist Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Scott McCloud Scott McCloud United States English Comic books Nonfiction Tundra Publishing

Publication date 1993 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Preceded by Followed by Paperback 215 0878162437 30351626 [1]

Zot!: Book One Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form

Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art is a 215-page non-fiction comic book, written and drawn by Scott McCloud and originally published in 1993. It explores the definition of comics, the historical development of the medium, its fundamental vocabulary, and various ways in which these elements have been used. It discusses theoretical work on comics (or sequential art) as an artform and a communications medium. It also uses the comic medium for non-storytelling purposes. Understanding Comics received praise from notable comic and graphic novel authors such as Art Spiegelman, Will Eisner, Alan Moore, Neil Gaiman and Garry Trudeau (who reviewed the book for the New York Times), and was called “one of the most insightful books about designing graphic user interfaces ever written” by Apple Macintosh co-creator Andy Hertzfeld.[2] Although the book has prompted debate over many of McCloud’s conclusions,[3] its discussions of “iconic” art and the concept of “closure” between panels have become common reference points in discussions of the medium.

Understanding Comics


Publication history
Understanding Comics was first published by Tundra Publishing; reprintings have been released by Kitchen Sink Press, DC Comics’ Paradox Press, DC’s Vertigo line, and HarperPerennial. The book was edited by Mark Martin, with lettering by Bob Lappan. The title of Understanding Comics is an homage to Marshall McLuhan's seminal 1964 work Understanding Media.[4]

Softcover • • • • Tundra (1993): ISBN 1-56862-019-5 Paradox Press (1993): ISBN 1-56389-557-9 Kitchen Sink (1993): ISBN 0-87816-243-7 HarperCollins (2004): ISBN 0-06-097625-X

Hardcover • Kitchen Sink: ISBN 0-87816-244-5 • Vertigo: ISBN 1-56389-759-8

Author McCloud has written two follow-up books in the same format: Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form (2000), in which he suggested ways for the medium to change and grow, and Making Comics (2006), a study of the elemental methods of constructing comics.

Topics discussed in Understanding Comics include: • • • • • • • Definitions, history, and potential Visual iconography and its effects Closure, reader participation between the panels Word-picture dynamics Time and motion The psychology of line styles and color Comics and the artistic process

The Six Steps
In the book's seventh chapter, "The Six Steps,"[5] McCloud outlines a six-part process of artistic creation (Idea/Purpose, Form, Idiom, Structure, Craft, Surface). He also notes that artists tend to fall into two classes, depending on which of the first two steps they emphasize more. Those who emphasize the second step "are often pioneers and revolutionaries — artists who want to shake things up,"[6] while those who emphasize the first are "great storytellers, creators who ... devote all their energies to controlling their medium ... to convey messages effectively."[7] With these ideas, McCloud anticipates the artistic theory of David Galenson, which divides all artists into two groups with qualities similar to those McCloud notes.

Understanding Comics


Awards and honors
The book was a finalist for the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Non-Fiction Book.

[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 30351626 [2] Understanding Comics entry (http:/ / scottmccloud. com/ 2-print/ 1-uc/ ) at Accessed April 5, 2011. [3] Horrocks, Dylan. "Inventing Comics: Scott McCloud's Definition of Comics," (http:/ / www. hicksville. co. nz/ Inventing Comics 6. htm) The Comics Journal #234 (June 2001). [4] McCloud, Scott, commenting on his own message board. "Journal: Archive: The Influencing Machine" (http:/ / scottmccloud. com/ 2011/ 05/ 17/ the-influencing-machine): (May 18, 2011): "... my book’s name was indeed a nod to Marshall McLuhan’s Understanding Media...." [5] McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art.Northampton, MA: Kitchen Sink Press, Inc., 1993. 162-84. [6] McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art.Northampton, MA: Kitchen Sink Press, Inc., 1993. 179. [7] McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art.Northampton, MA: Kitchen Sink Press, Inc., 1993. 180.

External links
• McCloud speaks at TEDtalks about Understanding Comics ( • Understanding Comics entry ( at

Reinventing Comics
Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form (ISBN 0-060-95350-0) is a 2000 book written by comic book writer and artist Scott McCloud. It was a thematic sequel to his critically acclaimed Understanding Comics, and was followed by Making Comics. Reinventing Comics (RC) explains twelve "revolutions" which McCloud predicts are necessary for the comic book to survive as a medium, focusing especially on online comics. The book caused considerable controversy in the comics industry, McCloud famously noting that it had been described as "dangerous".[1] As promised in the book, McCloud has offered annotations, addenda and his further-developing thoughts about the future of comics on his web site. In particular, he considers his web comic I Can't Stop Thinking [2] to be a continuation of RC, though he has continued to write about the future of comics in many different forms, as he acknowledges RC is "a product of its time".[3]

[1] Reinventing Comics (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ store/ books/ rc. html) [2] http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ 1-webcomics/ icst/ index. html [3] - Links - Resources (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ links/ resources/ resources. html)

Infinite canvas


Infinite canvas
The infinite canvas is the idea that the size of a digital comics page is theoretically infinite, and that online comics are therefore not limited by conventional page sizes. An artist could conceivably display a complete comics story of indefinite length on a single "page". Scott McCloud introduced the concept in his book Reinventing Comics.[1] Artists known for their work in infinite canvas include McCloud, Cayetano Garza, demian5, Patrick Farley, David Hellman, and Aaron Diaz. The infinite canvas has been used in comics such as Dominic Deegan: Oracle for Hire, where artists are easily able to change their standard format from one line to two when desired. Likewise, Megatokyo made a smooth transition from traditional four-panel comic strip to full-page graphic novel.[2] Webcomics such as Narbonic take advantage of the medium on occasion for special effects (e.g. the time-shift effect in "Dave Davenport Has Come Unstuck in Time"), and even sometimes use the "gradualism" effect McCloud describes.[3] Even four-panel comics benefit by not having their comics "squeezed" onto a newspaper page to the point of illegibility, and thus can include more detail. (Part of this is also due to computer screens being much "cleaner" than newsprint.) Keeping comics in a more traditional page format eases the writer's transition into publishing their comics in print format, as expressed by at least one writer;[4] and limiting the size of comics makes them more accessible for readers who access the comic not through the regular site but, for example, through RSS readers or the Wii internet browser.[5]

[1] McCloud, Scott (July 25, 2000). "Reinventing Comics". Harper Paperbacks, Pg. 222 [2] Gallagher, Fred (2001-04-23). "1:1.5" (http:/ / www. megatokyo. com/ rant/ 152). Megatokyo (http:/ / www. megatokyo. com). . Retrieved 2008-09-19. [3] Described in Scott McCloud's I Can't Stop Thinking! #4 (http:/ / www. scottmccloud. com/ comics/ icst/ icst-4/ icst-4. html). Gradualism can be seen in Narbonic here (http:/ / www. webcomicsnation. com/ shaenongarrity/ narbonic/ series. php?view=archive& chapter=10316) and in Giant in the Playground here (http:/ / www. giantitp. com/ comics/ oots0443. html). [4] Tom Siddell, author of Gunnerkrigg Court. In Davies, Will (2008-08-14). "All Star Demon Tea Party" (http:/ / www. virb. com/ septagonstudios/ blog/ 880373). Fourth Panel Estate. Septagon Studios (http:/ / www. septagonstudios. com/ ). . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [5] Burleson, Danny (2007-07-16). "So much for "infinite canvas"" (http:/ / oycomics. com/ 2007/ 07/ 16/ so-much-for-infinite-canvas/ ). Oy: a daily comic (http:/ / www. oycomics. com). . Retrieved 2008-09-19.

External links
• The Tarquin Engine ( by Daniel Merlin Goodbrey • Infinite Canvas ( web app from Microsoft Live Labs • The Infinite Canvas: An Interview with Scott McCloud, the Google Chrome Comic Guy (http://www.xconomy. com/national/2008/09/10/the-infinite-canvas-an-interview-with-scott-mccloud-the-google-chrome-comic-guy/ ) at Xconomy ( • Wormworldsaga - An online graphic novel ( by Daniel Lieske

Will Eisner


Will Eisner
Will Eisner

Will Eisner, 1982 Born William Erwin Eisner March 6, 1917 Brooklyn, New York City, New York January 3, 2005 (aged 87) Lauderdale Lakes, Florida American Cartoonist, Publisher


Nationality Area(s)

Notable works The Spirit A Contract with God Awards full list

William Erwin "Will" Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. He is considered one of the most important contributors to the development of the medium and is known for the cartooning studio he founded; for his highly influential series The Spirit; for his use of comics as an instructional medium; for his leading role in establishing the graphic novel as a form of literature with his book A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories; and for his educational work about the medium as exemplified by his book Comics and Sequential Art. The comics community paid tribute to Eisner by creating the Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards, more commonly known as "the Eisners", to recognize achievements each year in the comics medium. Eisner enthusiastically participated in the awards ceremony, congratulating each recipient. In 1987, with Carl Barks and Jack Kirby, he was one of the three inaugural inductees of the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame.

Early life and career
Eisner was born in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Jewish immigrants. His parents provided a modest life for their son. His mother was from Romania and served as the more practical and realistic parent, firmly believing that her son’s artistic tendencies would never amount to any kind of success in life. His father, an artist, was born in Vienna, Austria. He painted backdrops for vaudeville and the Jewish theater but was also a semi-successful entrepreneur and, at one point, a manufacturer in Manhattan's Seventh Avenue garment district. Believing his son should value creativity and art, the elder Eisners instilled in him a sense of duality, a balance between business and art.[1] [2] Eisner attended DeWitt Clinton High School. With influences that included the early 20th-century commercial artist J. C. Leyendecker,[3] he drew for the school newspaper (The Clintonian), the literary magazine (The Magpie) and the yearbook, and did stage design, leading him to consider doing that kind of work for theater.

Will Eisner Upon graduation, he studied under Canadian artist George Brandt Bridgman (1864–1943) for a year at the Art Students League of New York. Contacts made there led to a position as an advertising writer-cartoonist for the New York American newspaper. Eisner also drew $10-a-page illustrations for pulp magazines, including Western Sheriffs and Outlaws. In 1936, high-school friend and fellow cartoonist Bob Kane, of future Batman fame, suggested that the 19-year-old Eisner try selling cartoons to the new comic book Wow, What A Magazine! "Comic books" at the time were tabloid-sized collections of comic strip reprints in color. In 1935, they had begun to include occasional new comic strip-like material. Wow editor Jerry Iger bought an Eisner adventure strip called Captain Scott Dalton, an H. Rider Haggard-styled hero who traveled the world after rare artifacts. Eisner subsequently wrote and drew the pirate strip "The Flame" and the secret agent strip "Harry Karry" for Wow as well. Eisner said that on one occasion a man who Eisner described as "a Mob type straight out of Damon Runyon, complete with pinkie ring, broken nose, black shirt, and white tie, who claimed to have 'exclusive distribution rights for all Brooklyn" asked Eisner to draw Tijuana bibles for $3 a page. Eisner said that he declined the offer; he described the decision as "one of the most difficult moral decisions of my life."[4]


Wow, What a Magazine! #3 (Sept. 1936): Cover art by a teenage Eisner.

Eisner & Iger
Wow lasted four issues (cover-dated July–September and November 1936). After it ended, Eisner and Iger worked together producing and selling original comics material, anticipating that the well of available reprints would soon run dry, though their accounts of how their partnership was founded differ. One of the first such comic-book "packagers", their partnership was an immediate success, and the two soon had a stable of comics creators supplying work to Fox Comics, Fiction House, Quality Comics (for whom Eisner co-created such characters as Doll Man and Blackhawk), and others. Turning a profit of $1.50 a page, Eisner claimed that he "got very rich before I was 22,"[5] later detailing that in Depression-era 1939 alone, he and Iger "had split $25,000 between us",[6] a considerable amount for the time. Eisner's original work even crossed the Atlantic, with Eisner drawing the new cover of the October 16, 1937 issue of Boardman Books' comic-strip reprint tabloid Okay Comics Weekly. In 1939, Eisner was commissioned to create Wonder Man for Victor Fox, an accountant who had previously worked at DC Comics and was becoming a comic book publisher himself. Following Fox's instructions to create a Superman-type character, and using the pen name Willis, Eisner wrote and drew the first issue of Wonder Comics. Eisner said in interviews throughout his later life that he had protested the derivative nature of the character and story, and that when subpoenaed after National Periodical Publications, the company that would evolve into DC Comics, sued Fox, alleging Wonder Man was an illegal copy of Superman, Eisner testified that this was so, undermining Fox's case;[7] Eisner even depicts himself doing so in his semi-autobiographical graphic novel The Dreamer.[8] However, a transcript of the proceeding, uncovered by comics historian Ken Quattro in 2010, indicates Eisner in fact supported Fox and claimed Wonder Man as an original Eisner creation.[9]

Will Eisner


The Spirit
In "late '39, just before Christmas time," Eisner recalled in 1979,[10] Quality Comics publisher Everett M. "Busy" Arnold "came to me and said that the Sunday newspapers were looking for a way of getting into this comic book boom," In a 2004 interview,[11] he elaborated on that meeting: "Busy" invited me up for lunch one day and introduced me to Henry Martin [sales manager of The Des Moines Register and Tribune Syndicate, who] said, "The newspapers in this country, particularly the Sunday papers, are looking to compete with comics books, and they would like to get a comic-book insert into the newspapers." ... Martin asked if I could do it. ... It meant that I'd have to leave Eisner & Iger [which] was making money; we were very profitable at that time and things were going very well. A hard decision. Anyway, I agreed to do the Sunday comic book and we started discussing the deal [which] was that we'd be partners in the 'Comic Book Section,' as they called it at that time. And also, I would produce two other magazines in partnership with Arnold.

A classic Eisner cover for The Spirit, Oct. 6, 1946.

Eisner negotiated an agreement with the syndicate in which Arnold would copyright The Spirit, but, "Written down in the contract I had with 'Busy' Arnold — and this contract exists today as the basis for my copyright ownership — Arnold agreed that it was my property. They agreed that if we had a split-up in any way, the property would revert to me on that day that happened. My attorney went to 'Busy' Arnold and his family, and they all signed a release agreeing that they would not pursue the question of ownership"[11] This would include the eventual backup features "Mr. Mystic" and "Lady Luck". Selling his share of their firm to Iger, who would continue to package comics as the S. M. Iger Studio and as Phoenix Features through 1955, for $20,000,[12] Eisner left to create The Spirit. "They gave me an adult audience", Eisner said in 1997, "and I wanted to write better things than superheroes. Comic books were a ghetto. I sold my part of the enterprise to my associate and then began The Spirit. They wanted an heroic character, a costumed character. They asked me if he'd have a costume. And I put a mask on him and said, 'Yes, he has a costume!'"[13] The Spirit, an initially eight- and later seven-page urban-crimefighter series, ran with the initial backup features "Mr. Mystic" and "Lady Luck" in a 16-page Sunday supplement (colloquially called "The Spirit Section") that was eventually distributed in 20 newspapers with a combined circulation of as many as five million copies.[14] It premiered June 2, 1940, and continued through 1952.[15]

Will Eisner


World War II and Joe Dope
Eisner was drafted into the U.S. Army in "late '41, early '42"[16] and then "had about another half-year which the government gave me to clean up my affairs before going off" to fight in World War II.[17] He was assigned to the camp newspaper in Aberdeen, where "there was also a big training program there, so I got involved in the use of comics for training. ... I finally became a warrant officer, which involved taking a test — that way you didn't have to go through Officer Candidate School."[16] En route to Washington, D.C., he stopped at the Hollabird Depot in Baltimore, Maryland, where a mimeographed publication titled Army Motors was put together. "Together with the people there ... I helped develop its format. I began doing cartoons — and we began fashioning a magazine that had the ability to talk to the G.I.s in their language. So I began to use comics as a teaching tool, and when I got to Washington, they assigned me to the business of teaching — or selling — preventive maintenance."[18] Eisner then created the educational comic strip and titular character Joe Dope for Army Motors, and spent four years working in The Pentagon editing the ordnance magazine Firepower and doing "all the general illustrations — that is, cartoons" for Army Motors. He continued to work on that and its 1950 successor magazine, PS, The Preventive Maintenance Monthly.[18] While Eisner's later graphic novels were entirely his own work, he had a studio working under his supervision on The Spirit. In particular, letterer Abe Kanegson came up with the distinctive lettering style which Eisner himself would later imitate in his book-length works, and Kanegson would often rewrite Eisner's dialogue.[19] Eisner's most trusted assistant on The Spirit, however, was Jules Feiffer, later a renowned cartoonist, playwright and screenwriter in his own right. Eisner later said of their working methods "You should hear me and Jules Feiffer going at it in a room. 'No, you designed the splash page for this one, then you wrote the ending — I came up with the idea for the story, and you did it up to this point, then I did the next page and this sequence here and...' And I'll be swearing up and down that 'he' wrote the ending on that one. We never agree".[19] So trusted were Eisner's assistants that Eisner allowed them to "ghost" The Spirit from the time that he was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1942 until his return to civilian life in 1945. The primary wartime artists were the uncredited Lou Fine and Jack Cole, with future Kid Colt, Outlaw artist Jack Keller drawing backgrounds. Ghost writers included Manly Wade Wellman and William Woolfolk. The wartime ghosted stories have been reprinted in DC Comics' hardcover collections The Spirit Archives Vols. 5 to 11 (2001–2003), spanning July 1942 - December 1944. On Eisner's return from service and resumption of his role in the studio, he created the bulk of the Spirit stories on which his reputation was solidified. The post-war years also saw him attempt to launch the comic-strip/comic-book series Baseball, John Law, Kewpies, and Nubbin the Shoeshine Boy; none succeeded, but some material was recycled into The Spirit.
Premiere issue of the U.S. Army publication PS (June 1951), designed to be a "postscript" to related publications. Art by Eisner.

American Visuals Corporation

During his World War II military service, Eisner had introduced the use of comics for training personnel in the publication Army Motors, for which he created the cautionary bumbling soldier Joe Dope, who illustrated various methods of preventive maintenance of various military equipment and weapons. In 1948, while continuing to do The Spirit and seeing television and other post-war trends eat at the readership base of newspapers, he formed the American Visuals Corporation in order to produce instructional materials for the government, related agencies, and businesses. One of his longest-running jobs was PS, The

Will Eisner Preventive Maintenance Monthly, a digest sized magazine with comic book elements that he started for the Army in 1951 and continued to work on until the 1970s with Klaus Nordling, Mike Ploog, and other artists. Other clients of his Connecticut-based company included RCA Records, the Baltimore Colts NFL football team, and New York Telephone.


Graphic novels
In the late 1970s, Eisner turned his attention to longer storytelling forms. A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (Baronet Books, October 1978) is an early example of an American graphic novel, combining thematically linked short stories into a single square-bound volume. Eisner continued with a string of graphic novels that tell the history of New York's immigrant communities, particularly Jews, including The Building, A Life Force, Dropsie Avenue and To the Heart of the Storm. He continued producing new books into his seventies and eighties, at an average rate of nearly one a year. Each of these books was done twice — once as a rough version to show editor Dave Schreiner, then as a second, finished version incorporating suggested changes.[20] Some of his last work was the retelling in sequential art of novels and myths, including Moby-Dick. In 2002, at the age of 85, he published Sundiata, based on the part-historical, part-mythical stories of a West African king, "The Lion of Mali". Fagin the Jew is an account of the life of Dickens' character Fagin, in which Eisner tries to get past the Trade paperback edition of A Contract with God; stereotyped portrait of Fagin in Oliver Twist. His last graphic novel, the concurrent 1,500-copy hardcover release did The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , an not use the term "graphic novel" on its cover. account of the making of the anti-semitic hoax The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, was completed shortly before his death and published in 2005 .

Academic work
In his later years especially, Eisner was a frequent lecturer about the craft and uses of sequential art. He taught at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, where he published Will Eisner's Gallery, a collection of work by his students and wrote two books based on these lectures, Comics and Sequential Art and Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative, which are widely used by students of cartooning. In 2002, Eisner participated in the Will Eisner Symposium of the 2002 University of Florida Conference on Comics and Graphic Novels.[21]

Eisner died January 3, 2005, in Lauderdale Lakes, Florida, of complications from a quadruple bypass surgery performed December 22, 2004.[22] [23] DC Comics held a memorial service in Manhattan's Lower East Side, a neighborhood Eisner often visited in his work, at the Angel Orensanz Foundation on Norfolk Street.[24] Eisner was survived by his wife, Ann Weingarten Eisner, and their son, John.[25] [26] [27] In the introduction to the 2001 reissue of A Contract with God, Eisner revealed that the inspiration for the title story grew out of the 1970 death of his leukemia-stricken teenaged daughter, Alice, next to whom he is buried. Until then, only Eisner's closest friends were aware of his daughter's life and death.

Will Eisner


Awards and honors
Eisner has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society Comic Book Award for 1967, 1968, 1969, 1987 and 1988, as well as its Story Comic Book Award in 1979, and its highest accolade, the Reuben Award, for 1988. He was inducted into the Academy of Comic Book Arts Hall of Fame in 1971, and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1987. The following year, the Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards were established in his honor. He received in 1975 the second Grand Prix de la ville d'Angoulême. With Jack Kirby, Robert Crumb, Harvey Kurtzman, Gary Panter, and Chris Ware, Eisner was among the artists honored in the exhibition "Masters of American Comics" at the Jewish Museum in New York City, New York, from September 16, 2006 to January 28, 2007.[28] [29] On the 94th anniversary of Eisner's birth, in 2011, Google used an image featuring the Spirit as its logo.[30] [31]

• Odd Facts, Tempo Star Books, 1975, ISBN 0-441-60918-X. • A Contract with God, Baronet Books, 1978, ISBN 0-89437-035-9; (reissue ed.), DC Comics, ISBN 1-56389-674-5. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Will Eisner Color Treasury, Kitchen Sink, 1981, ISBN 0-87816-006-X. Robert's Rules of Order (paperback ed.), Poor House Press, 1982, ISBN 0-553-22598-7. Spirit Color Album, Kitchen Sink, 1981, ISBN 0-87816-002-7. Spirit Color Album, v2, Kitchen Sink, 1983, ISBN 0-87816-010-8. Spirit Color Album, v3, Kitchen Sink, 1983, ISBN 0-87816-011-6. Life on Another Planet, 1983, ISBN 0-87816-370-0. Comics and Sequential Art, 1985, ISBN 0-9614728-0-4. New York: The Big City (softcover ed.), 1986, ISBN 0-87816-020-5; (hardcover ed.), ISBN 0-87816-019-1; (reprint ed.), 2000, ISBN 1-56389-682-6. The Dreamer, 1986, ISBN 1-56389-678-8. The Building, 1987, ISBN 0-87816-024-8. A Life Force, 1988, ISBN 0-87816-038-8. Art of Will Eisner (2nd ed.), Kitchen Sink, 1989, ISBN 0-87816-076-0. Outer Space Spirit, 1989 Kitchen Sink, ISBN 0-87816-012-4. To the Heart of the Storm, 1991, ISBN 1-56389-679-6. The Will Eisner Reader, 1991, ISBN 0-87816-129-5. Invisible People, 1993, ISBN 0-87816-208-9. Dropsie Avenue, 1995, ISBN 0-87816-348-4. Will Eisner Sketchbook (softcover ed.), Kitchen Sink, 1995, ISBN 0-87816-399-9 and idem (hardcover ed.), ISBN 0-87816-400-6. Christmas Spirit, 1995 Kitchen Sink, ISBN 0-87816-309-3. Spirit Casebook, 1990 Kitchen Sink, ISBN 0-87816-094-9. Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative, 1996, ISBN 0-9614728-3-9. The Princess and the Frog, 1996, ISBN 1-56163-244-9. All About P'Gell: Spirit Casebook II, Kitchen Sink, 1998, ISBN 0-87816-492-8. A Family Matter, 1998, ISBN 0-87816-621-1. Last Day in Vietnam, 2000, ISBN 1-56971-500-9.

• The Last Knight, 2000, ISBN 1-56163-251-1. • Minor Miracles, 2000, ISBN 1-56389-751-2.

Will Eisner • , The Spirit Archives (no Eisner work in volumes 5–11) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Spirit Archives, 1, 2000 [Fall 1940], ISBN 1-56389-673-7. The Spirit Archives, 2, 2000 [Spring 1941], ISBN 1-56389-675-3. The Spirit Archives, 3, 2001 [Fall 1941], ISBN 1-56389-676-1. The Spirit Archives, 4, 2001 [Spring 1942], ISBN 1-56389-714-8. The Spirit Archives, 12, 2003 [Spring 1946], ISBN 1-4012-0006-0. The Spirit Archives, 13, 2004 [Fall 1946], ISBN 1-4012-0149-0. The Spirit Archives, 14, 2004 [Spring 1947], ISBN 1-4012-0158-X. The Spirit Archives, 15, 2005 [Fall 1947], ISBN 1-4012-0162-8. The Spirit Archives, 16, 2005 [Spring 1948], ISBN 1-4012-0406-6. The Spirit Archives, 17, 2006 [Fall 1948], ISBN 1-4012-0417-1. The Spirit Archives, 18, 2006 [Spring 1949], ISBN 1-4012-0769-3. The Spirit Archives, 19, 2006 [Fall 1949], ISBN 1-4012-0775-8. The Spirit Archives, 20, 2006 [Spring 1950], ISBN 1-4012-0781-2. The Spirit Archives, 21, 2007 [Fall 1950], ISBN 1-4012-1254-9. The Spirit Archives, 22, 2007 [Spring 1951], ISBN 1-4012-1309-X.


• Will Eisner's Shop Talk, Dark Horse Comics, 2001, ISBN 1-56971-536-X. Fagin the Jew, 2003, ISBN 0-385-51009-8. Hawks of the Seas, Dark Horse Comics, 2003, ISBN 1-56971-427-4. The Name of the Game, 2003, ISBN 1-56389-869-1. Will Eisner's John Law: Dead Man Walking (softcover ed.), IDW, 2004, ISBN 1-932382-27-5; idem (hardcover ed.), ISBN 1-932382-83-6. The Plot: The Secret Story of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, WW Norton, 2005, ISBN 0-393-06045-4. The Contract With God Trilogy: Life on Dropsie Avenue, WW Norton, 2005, ISBN 0-393-06105-1 (anthology collecting "A Contract With God", "A Life Force" and "Dropsie Avenue". New York: Life In the Big City, WW Norton, 2006, ISBN 0-393-06106-X (anthology collecting "New York: the Big City", "The Building", "City People Notebook" and "Invisible People". Life, In Pictures, WW Norton, 2007, ISBN 0-393-06107-8 (anthology collecting "The Dreamer", "To The Heart of The Storm", and "The Name of the Game", along with the short stories "A Sunset in Sunshine City" and "The Day I Became a Professional".

[1] "Will Eisner Comics Innovator" (http:/ / www. thecartoonists. ca/ Index_files/ 2008pages/ TC - Will Eisner, Creator of The Spirit and Comics Innovator. htm). CA, USA: The Cartoonists. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [2] Moss, Charles. "Will Eisner’s Dual Identity: The Spirit of an Artist" (http:/ / www. popmatters. com/ pm/ feature/ 67080-will-eisners-dual-identity-the-spirit-of-an-artist). . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [3] Lovece, Frank (1974). "Cons: New York 1974!". The Journal Summer Special (Box 1286, Essex, ON, CA N0R 1E0)). [4] Spiegelman, Art. "Tijuana Bibles" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ books/ feature/ 1997/ 08/ 19/ spieg),, August 19, 1997. p. 2 (http:/ / www. salon. com/ aug97/ spieg2970819. html). WebCitation archive, main page (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzKXHLMl) and p. 2 (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzKg7r7s). Retrieved on February 24, 2009. [5] Mercer, Marilyn, "The Only Real Middle-Class Crimefighter," New York (Sunday supplement, New York Herald Tribune), January 9, 1966; reprinted Alter Ego #48, May 2005 [6] Heintjes, Tom, The Spirit: The Origin Years #3 (Kitchen Sink Press, September 1992) [7] Andelman, Bob. Will Eisner: A Spirited Life (M Press: Milwaukie, Oregon, 2005) ISBN 1-59582-011-6A, pp. 44–45 [8] The Dreamer: A Graphic Novella Set During the Dawn of Comic Books (DC Comics : New York City, 1986 edition) ISBN 9781563896781. Reissued by W. W. Norton & Company : New York City, London, 2008. ISBN 978-0393328080, p. 42 [9] Quattro, Ken. "DC vs. Victor Fox: The Testimony of Will Eisner" (http:/ / thecomicsdetective. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 07/ dc-vs-victor-fox-testimony-of-will. html), The Comics Detective, July 1, 2010. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5r1gBXzMI).

Will Eisner
[10] "Art & Commerce: An Oral Reminiscence by Will Eisner." Panels #1 (Summer 1979), pp. 5–21, quoted in Quattro, Ken, "Rare Eisner" (http:/ / www. comicartville. com/ rareeisner. htm), Comicartville Library, 2003, n.d. WebCite archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5mAYF8MXe). [11] Will Eisner interview, Alter Ego #48 (May 2005), p. 10 [12] Kitchen, Denis. "Annotations to The Dreamer, in Eisner, Will, The Dreamer (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2008), p. 52. ISBN 978-0-393-32808-0 [13] Will Eisner interview, Jack Kirby Collector #16 (June 1997) (http:/ / www. twomorrows. com/ kirby/ articles/ 16eisner. html) [14] Eisner, The Dreamer, "About the Author", p. 55 [15] Spirit, The (Register and Tribune Syndicate, 1940 Series) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ series/ 10295/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [16] "Will Eisner Interview", The Comics Journal #46 (May 1979), p. 45. Interview conducted October 13 and 17, 1978 [17] Eisner interview, The Comics Journal #46, p. 37 [18] Eisner interview, The Comics Journal #46, pp. 45–46 [19] Sim, Dave, "My Dinner With Will & Other Stories," Following Cerebus #4 (May 2005) [20] Sim, Dave, "Advice & Consent: The Editing of Graphic Novels" (panel discussion with Eisner and Chester Brown) and Frank Miller interview, both Following Cerebus #5 (August 2005). [21] Eisner, Will. "Keynote Address from the 2002 'Will Eisner Symposium'" (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ imagetext/ archives/ volume1/ issue1/ eisner/ ), ImageTexT, vol. 1, #1 (2004). University of Florida Department of English. Retrieved 2011-02-02. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yrKOYu2V). [22] "Gemstone Publishing: ''Industry News'' (January 7, 2005): "In Memoriam: Will Eisner"" (http:/ / scoop. diamondgalleries. com/ scoop_article. asp?ai=7363& si=121). . Retrieved 2011-02-02. [23] "Will Eisner (1917–2005)" (http:/ / www. sfwa. org/ news/ weisner. htm), SF&F Publishing News, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, January 4, 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-02 WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzL6Tv5F). [24] ""DC Comics Celebrates Will Eisner" (http:/ / scoop. diamondgalleries. com/ public/ default. asp?t=1& m=1& c=34& s=259& ai=48748& ssd=3/ 19/ 2005& arch=y), "Scoop" (column), Gemstone Publishing, Inc. / Diamond International Galleries, March 19, 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-02. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzJd2D3I). [25] Gravett, Paul. "Obituary: Will Eisner: He pioneered American comic books, and established the graphic novel as a literary genre" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ news/ 2005/ jan/ 08/ guardianobituaries. books), The Guardian, January 8, 2005. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzKCxUEz). [26] Boxer, Sarah. "Will Eisner, a Pioneer of Comic Books, Dies at 87" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 01/ 05/ books/ 05eisner. html), The New York Times, January 5, 2005. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzK5b4rH). [27] Obituaries: Will Eisner (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ obituaries/ 1480482/ Will-Eisner. html), The Daily Telegraph, January 6, 2005. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzJSRZUU). [28] "Exhibitions: Masters of American Comics" (http:/ / www. thejewishmuseum. org/ exhibitions/ Comics). The Jewish Museum. . Retrieved 2010-08-10.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5tDGL3Ci7). [29] Kimmelman, Michael. "See You in the Funny Papers" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 10/ 13/ arts/ design/ 13comi. html) (art review), The New York Times, October 13, 2006. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzJM2bBi). [30] Seifert, Mark. "Google Celebrates Will Eisner's 94th Birthday with the Spirit Google Logo" (http:/ / www. bleedingcool. com/ 2011/ 03/ 06/ google-celebrates-will-eisners-94th-birthday-with-the-spirit-google-logo/ ),, March 6, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wyXnFHk9). [31] Archive of Google March 6, 2011, main page (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wzMbHDkL)


External links
• Official website ( WebCitation archive ( 5xJGaIOtG). • Will Eisner (,_Will/) at the Open Directory Project • Tumulka, Wes, ed. Wildwood Cemetery: The Spirit Database ( WebCitation archive ( • Archive of Heintjes, Tom. "Will Eisner's The Spirit" (,, n.d.. Original page (http://www. • Fitzgerald, Paul E. "Every Picture Tells A Story: His Pen and Wit Sharper Than Ever, Graphic Novelist Will Eisner Takes On Religious Intolerance" ( html), The Washington Post, June 3, 2004. WebCitation archive ( • Robinson, Tasha. "Interview: Will Eisner" (, The A.V. Club / The Onion, September 27, 2000. WebCitation archive (

Will Eisner • Will Eisner ( at the Comic Book DB • Jacks, Brian. "Veterans Day Exclusive: 'The Spirit' Creator Will Eisner's Wartime Memories" (http://splashpage.,, November 11, 2000. WebCitation archive ( • Ohio State: Will Eisner Collection ( • Benton, John. "Will Eisner: Having Something to Say" ( will-eisner-having-something-to-say/), The Comics Journal #267, May 2005. WebCitation archive (http://www. Archive of material trimmed from print-magazine interview (http://web.archive. org/web/20080429235436/ Archive of interview excerpts originally posted online ( • "Interview with Jerry Iger" (, Cubic Zirconia Reader, 1985. WebCitation archive (


Further reading
• Feiffer, Jules, The Great Comic-Book Heroes, ISBN 1-56097-501-6 • Jones, Gerard, Men Of Tomorrow ISBN 0-434-01402-8 • Steranko, Jim, The Steranko History of Comics 2 (Supergraphics, 1972)

Comics and Sequential Art


Comics and Sequential Art
Comics and Sequential Art

Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Subject(s) Publisher

Will Eisner Will Eisner United States English Comics Poorhouse Press

Publication date 1985; 1990 (Expanded Edition) Pages ISBN OCLC Number Followed by 164 (Expanded Edition) 0-9614728-1-2 (Expanded Edition) 24083231 [1]

Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative

Comics and Sequential Art is a 1985 book by Will Eisner that provides an analytical overview of comics. It is based on a series of essays that appeared in The Spirit magazine, themselves based on Eisner's experience teaching a course in sequential art at the School of Visual Arts. It is not presented as a teaching guide, however, but as a series of demonstrations of principles and methods. Eisner draws examples from his own work, including several complete stories featuring The Spirit (listed below). A 1990 expanded edition of the book includes short sections on the print process and the use of computers in comics. Comics and Sequential Art is well regarded in the community of comics professionals, garnering praise from the likes of Michael Chabon, Neil Gaiman, Jeff Smith, and referenced and expanded on by Scott McCloud in Understanding Comics. Eisner wrote a companion volume to Comics and Sequential Art, Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative, which was published in 1996.

Comics and Sequential Art


Book contents
"Traditionally, most practitioners with whom I worked and talked produced their art viscerally. Few ever had the time or inclination to diagnose the form itself... As I began to dismantle the complex components... I found that I was involved with an 'art of communication' more than simply an application of art."

Chapter 1: 'Comics' as reading
In the first chapter Eisner demonstrates that comics have a vocabulary and grammar in both prose and illustration. He refers to an article by Tom Wolfe in the Harvard Educational Review (August 1977), expanding the term "reading" to mean more than just "reading words".

Chapter 2: Imagery
This chapter includes the complete Spirit story, "Hoagy the Yogi, Part 2", originally published March 23, 1947, demonstrating the use of pure imagery (visual pantomime with only incidental text) to tell the story of Ebony's adventures with Hoagy the Yogi.

Chapter 3: "Timing"
Compositional and internal timing are demonstrated in the complete Spirit story, "Foul Play", originally published March 27, 1949. Compositional timing is used to determine when to reveal events in the story for maximum effect (e.g., surprise), whereas internal timing is used to suggest short or long periods of time within a panel (e.g., using a dripping faucet). This establishes a "time rhythm".

Chapter 4: The Frame
This is an extensive chapter devoted to the use of one of the basic tools of the comics artist: the frame. As well as many extracts, including examples of splash pages (an Eisner trademark), this chapter includes several complete stories and chapters: • the Spirit story, "The Amulet of Osiris", originally published November 28, 1948, demonstrates the use of frame shapes and open frames, in an adventure starring the bumbling officer, Sam Klink • a chapter from Life on Another Planet (Chapter 7: The Big Hit), originally published August 1980, demonstrating the use of the page as a metapanel, in this case supporting the narrative in following different threads in the story • the Spirit story "Two Lives", originally published December 12, 1948, demonstrating the super-panel as a page in the parallel stories of Carboy T. Gretch and Cranfranz Qwayle • the Spirit story "The Visitor", originally published February 13, 1949, demonstrating the use of perspective (where the panel is oriented in relation to the subject) for dramatic effect (in this case not going "hog-wild" before revealing the twist in a science fiction story)

Comics and Sequential Art


Chapter 5: Expressive Anatomy
This chapter covers gesture, posture and the face. "Hamlet on a Rooftop", originally published June 1981, demonstrates the use of all three, casting Shakespeare's famous soliloquy from Hamlet in a modern urban context. External links • Wikisource - Hamlet's soliloquy

Chapter 6: Writing & Sequential Art
Eisner considers the relationship between text and image, and writer and artist, including the use of scripts and dummies.

Chapter 7: Application (The Use of Sequential Art)
Eisner divides sequential art into two broad categories: instruction and entertainment. (His further subdivisions are Entertainment Comics, The Graphic Novel, Technical Instruction Comics, Attitudinal Instruction Comics and Story Boards.)

Chapter 8: Teaching/Learning Sequential Art for Comics in the print and computer era
This chapter gives an overview of skills required for successful sequential art, including drawing skills (e.g., perspective), general knowledge (e.g., how everyday devices work) and comics-specific techniques (e.g., balloons). It also covers the printing process, the use of computers to create print comics, and electronic comics. (The latter is covered in more depth by McCloud in Reinventing Comics, including electronic publishing and payment.)

External links
• Comics and Sequential Art (Simply Comics) [2], a short, mostly critical review of Comics and Sequential Art

[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 24083231 [2] http:/ / www. simpleweblog. com/ comics/ archives/ 000900. php

Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative


Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative
Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative

Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Subject(s) Publication date Pages ISBN OCLC Number Preceded by

Will Eisner Will Eisner United States English Comics 1996 164 039333127X 227191897 [1]

Comics and Sequential Art

Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative is a 1996 book by Will Eisner that provides an academic overview of comics, a companion to his earlier book Comics and Sequential Art.

[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 227191897

Fredric Wertham


Fredric Wertham
Fredric Wertham

Fredric Wertham reads EC Comics' Shock Illustrated Born Died Munich, Germany November 18, 1981 (aged 86) Kempton, Pennsylvania Psychiatry Florence Hesketh (1902-1987)

Occupation Spouse

Fredric Wertham (March 20, 1895  – November 18, 1981) was a Jewish[1] German-American psychiatrist and crusading author who protested the purportedly harmful effects of violent imagery in mass media and comic books on the development of children.[2] His best-known book was Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which purported that comic books are dangerous to children. Wertham's criticisms of comic books helped spark a U.S. Congressional inquiry into the comic book industry and the creation of the Comics Code. He called television "a school for violence," and said "If I should meet an unruly youngster in a dark alley, I prefer it to be one who has not seen Bonnie and Clyde."[3]

Early life
Fredric Wertham was born on March 20, 1895 in Munich.[2] [3] He studied medicine in Germany and England and after corresponding with Sigmund Freud chose psychiatry as his specialty.

In 1922 he was invited to come to the United States and to join the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He became a United States citizen in 1927.[2] He moved to New York City in 1932 to direct the psychiatric clinic connected with the New York Court of General Sessions in which all convicted felons received a psychiatric examination that was used in court.[2] In 1935 he testified for the defense in the trial of Albert Fish, declaring him insane.[4]

Fredric Wertham


Seduction of the Innocent and Senate hearings
Seduction of the Innocent described overt or covert depictions of violence, sex, drug use, and other adult fare within "crime comics"—a term Wertham used to describe not only the popular gangster/murder-oriented titles of the time but also superhero and horror comics as well—and asserted, based largely on undocumented anecdotes, that reading this material encouraged similar behavior in children. Comics, especially the crime/horror titles pioneered by EC Comics, were not lacking in gruesome images; Wertham reproduced these extensively, pointing out what he saw as recurring morbid themes such as "injury to the eye" (as depicted in Plastic Man creator Jack Cole's "Murder, Morphine and Me", which he illustrated and probably wrote for publisher Magazine Village's True Crime Comics Vol. 1, #2 (May 1947); it involved dope-dealing protagonist Mary Kennedy nearly getting stabbed in the eye "by a junkie with a hypothermic needle" in her dream sequence[5] ). Many of his other conjectures, particularly about hidden sexual themes (e.g. images of female nudity concealed in drawings of muscles and tree bark, or Batman and Robin as gay partners), were met with derision within the comics industry. (Wertham's claim that Wonder Woman had a bondage subtext was somewhat better documented, as her creator William Moulton Marston had admitted as much; however, Wertham also claimed that Wonder Woman's strength and independence made her a lesbian.) Given the subsequent emergence of organized fandom for comic books among adults who grew up reading them during Comics' Golden Age, it is ironic Wertham at one point in Seduction (pp. 89–90) asserts "I have known many adults who have treasured throughout their lives some of the books they read as children. I have never come across any adult or adolescent who had outgrown comic-book reading who would ever dream of keeping any of these 'books' for any sentimental or other reason." What is often overlooked in discussions of Seduction of the Innocent is Wertham's analysis of the advertisements that appeared in 1950s comic books and the commercial context in which these publications existed. Wertham objected to not only the violence in the stories but also the fact that air rifles and knives were advertised alongside them. Also rarely mentioned in summaries or reviews of Seduction of the Innocent are Wertham's claims that retailers who did not want to sell material with which they were uncomfortable, such as horror comics, were essentially held to ransom by the distributors. According to Wertham, news vendors were told by the distributors that if they did not sell the objectionable comic books, they would not be allowed to sell any of the other publications being distributed. The splash made by this book and Wertham's previous credentials as an expert witness, made it inevitable that he would appear before the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency led by anti-crime crusader Estes Kefauver. In extensive testimony before the committee, Wertham restated arguments from his book and pointed to comics as a major cause of juvenile crime. Beaty notes "Wertham repeated his call ... [for] national legislation based on the public health ideal that would prohibit the circulation and display of comic books to children under the age of fifteen." The committee's questioning of their next witness, EC publisher William Gaines, focused on violent scenes of the type Wertham had decried. Though the committee's final report did not blame comics for crime, it recommended that the comics industry tone down its content voluntarily; possibly taking this as a veiled threat of potential censorship, publishers developed the Comics Code Authority to censor their own content. The Code banned not only violent images but also entire words and concepts (e.g. "terror" and "zombies") and dictated that criminals must always be punished—thus destroying most EC-style titles, and leaving a sanitized subset of superhero comics as the chief remaining genre. Wertham described the Comics Code as inadequate, while most in the industry found it draconian.

Fredric Wertham


Later career
Wertham's views on mass media have largely overshadowed his broader concerns with violence and with protecting children from psychological harm. His writings about the effects of racial segregation were used as evidence in the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education, and part of his 1966 book A Sign for Cain dealt with the involvement of medical professionals in the Holocaust. To promote this book Wertham made two memorable appearances on the Mike Douglas Show where he ended up debating his theories with the co-hosts, Barbara Feldon (April 10, 1967) and Vincent Price (June 19, 1967). Excerpts were shown at the 2003 Comic-Con International: San Diego[6] Beaty reveals in 1959 Wertham tried to sell a follow-up to Seduction on the effects of television on Children, to be titled The War on Children. Much to Wertham's frustration, no publishers were interested in publishing it. Wertham always denied that he favored censorship or had anything against comic books in principle, and in the 1970s he focused his interest on the benign aspects of the comic fandom subculture; in his last book, The World of Fanzines (1974), he concluded that fanzines were "a constructive and healthy exercise of creative drives". This led to an invitation for Wertham to address the New York Comic Art Convention. Still infamous to most comics fans of the time, Wertham encountered suspicion and heckling at the convention, and stopped writing about comics thereafter. Before retirement he became a professor of psychiatry at New York University, a senior psychiatrist in the New York City Department of Hospitals, and a psychiatrist and the director of the Mental Hygiene Clinic at the Bellevue Hospital Center.[2] He died on November 18, 1981 at his retirement home in Kempton, Pennsylvania. He was 86 years old.[2] [3]

Wertham's papers (including the manuscript to the unpublished The War on Children) were donated to the Library of Congress and are held by the Manuscript Division. They were made available for use by scholars for research on May 20, 2010.[7] A register of the papers has been prepared that displays the eclectic reach of Wertham's interests.[8] His activism was cited in 2011 U. S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association.

Selected bibliography
• 1948: "The Comics, Very Funny", Saturday Review of Literature, May 29, 1948, p. 6. (condensed version in Reader's Digest, August 1948, p. 15) • 1953: "What Parents Don't Know About Comic Books". Ladies' Home Journal, Nov. 1953, p. 50. • 1954: "Blueprints to Delinquency". Reader's Digest, May 1954, p. 24. • 1954: Seduction of the Innocent. Amereon Ltd. ISBN 0-8488-1657-9 • 1955: "It's Still Murder". Saturday Review of Literature, April 9, 1955, p. 11. • 1956: The Circle of Guilt. Rinehart & Company. • 1968: A Sign for Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence. Hale. ISBN 0-7091-0232-1 • 1973: The World of Fanzines: A Special Form of Communication. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-0619-0 • 1973: "Doctor Wertham Strikes Back!" The Monster Times no. 22, May 1973, p. 6.

Fredric Wertham


Further reading
• (1954). "Are Comics Horrible?" Newsweek, May 3, 1954, p. 60. • Decker, Dwight. (1987). "The Strange Case of Dr. Wertham" Amazing Heroes #123 (August 15, 1987); "The Return of Dr. Wertham" Amazing Heroes #124 (Sept. 1, 1987); "From Dr. Wertham With Love" Amazing Heroes #125 (Sept. 15, 1987) [three part series, see below for link to condensed version posted online under title "Fredric Wertham - Anti-Comics Crusader Who Turned Advocate"]. • Gibbs, Wolcott. (1954). "Keep Those Paws to Yourself, Space Rat!" The New Yorker, May 8, 1954. • Beaty, Bart. (2005). Fredric Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture. • Bart Beaty. Fredric Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture. University Press of Mississippi, 2005. ISBN 1578068193 • David Hajdu. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008. ISBN 0374187673 • James Bowman. "In Defense of Snobbery." August 26, 2008. [9] • Amy Kiste Nyberg. "Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code." University Press of Mississippi, 1998. ISBN 087805975X

[1] "Jews and American Comics from Another Angle" (http:/ / comicscomicsmag. com/ 2010/ 04/ jews-and-american-comics-from-another-angle. html) [2] Webster, Bayard (December 1, 1981). "Fredric Wertham, 86, Dies. Foe of Violent TV and Comics" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1981/ 12/ 01/ obituaries/ fredric-wertham-86-dies-foe-of-violent-tv-and-comics. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-03-29. "Dr. Fredric Wertham, an internationally known psychiatrist who believed that comic books, movies and television shows that featured crime, violence and horror exerted a damaging influence on many juveniles and young adults, died November 18 at his retirement home in Kempton, Pennsylvania. He was 86 years old." [3] "Death Revealed" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,925122,00. html#ixzz0jYgn3682). Time magazine. December 14, 1981. . Retrieved 2010-03-29. "Fredric Wertham, 86, author and psychiatrist who crusaded against violence in comic books, movies and television; on Nov. 18; in Kempton, Pa. Wertham, a Munich-born authority on criminal psychology, argued that violence is a product of cultural influences." [4] "Fish Held Insane By Three Experts. Defense Alienists Say Budd Girl's Murderer Was And Is Mentally Irresponsible" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F70817FF355B107A93C3AB1788D85F418385F9). New York Times. May 21, 1935. . Retrieved 2010-03-29. "Three psychiatrists testified in Supreme Court today that Albert H. Fish, on trial for the murder of Grace Budd in June, 1928, was legally insane when he committed the murder and has been insane since that date." [5] Spiegelman, Art and Kidd, Chip (2001). Jack Cole and Plastic Man: Forms Stretched to their Limits, p.91. Retrieved on 2008-12-31. [6] News From Me (http:/ / www. newsfromme. com/ archives/ 2003_07_18. html) [7] "Wertham's Locked Vault" (http:/ / www. michaelbarrier. com/ Home Page/ WhatsNewArchivesJuly08. htm#werthamslockedvault) [8] Fredric Wertham: A Register of His Papers at the Library of Congress (http:/ / www. governmentattic. org/ 2docs/ LOC_Wertham-Papers_1992_2007. pdf) [9] http:/ / www. jamesbowman. net/ articleDetail. asp?pubID=1915

External links
• Fredric Wertham ( - on Lambiek Comiclopedia • Fredric Wertham - Anti-Comics Crusader Who Turned Advocate ( condensed online version of Dwight Decker three part series listed above • The End of Seduction ( - lengthy history of Wertham and censorship of comics • Comics Reporter: "Let's You and Him Fight" Part 1 ( commentary/3607/), Part 2 (, Part 3 (, Part 4 (http://www., Part 5 ( index.php/briefings/commentary/3659/) - Bart Beaty and Craig Fischer discuss Beaty's "Fredric Wertham and

Fredric Wertham the Critique of Mass Culture"


Seduction of the Innocent
Seduction of the Innocent

First edition cover Author(s) Subject(s) Fredric Wertham Comic books

Publication date 1954

Seduction of the Innocent is a book by German-American psychiatrist Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a negative form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. The book was a minor bestseller that created alarm in parents and galvanized them to campaign for censorship. At the same time, a U.S. Congressional inquiry was launched into the comic book industry. Subsequent to the publication of Seduction of the Innocent, the Comics Code Authority was voluntarily established by publishers to self-censor their titles.

Content and themes
Seduction of the Innocent cited overt or covert depictions of violence, sex, drug use, and other adult fare within "crime comics" — a term Wertham used to describe not only the popular gangster/murder-oriented titles of the time, but superhero and horror comics as well. The book asserted, largely based on undocumented anecdotes, that reading this material encouraged similar behavior in children. Comics, especially the crime/horror titles pioneered by EC, were not lacking in gruesome images; Wertham reproduced these extensively, pointing out what he saw as recurring morbid themes such as "injury to the eye".[1] Many of his other conjectures, particularly about hidden sexual themes (e.g. images of female nudity concealed in drawings or Batman and Robin as gay partners), met with derision within the comics industry. Wertham's claim that Wonder Woman had a bondage subtext was somewhat better documented, as her creator William Moulton Marston had admitted as much; however, Wertham also claimed Wonder Woman's strength and independence made her a lesbian[2] Wertham also claimed that Superman was un-American and was a fascist.

Seduction of the Innocent

170 Wertham critiqued the commercial environment of comic book publishing and retailing, objecting to air rifles and knives advertised alongside violent stories. Wertham sympathized with retailers who didn't want to sell horror comics, yet were compelled to by their distributors' table d'hôte product line policies. Seduction of the Innocent was illustrated with comic-book panels offered as evidence, each accompanied by a line of Wertham's sardonic commentary. The first printing contained a bibliography listing the comic book publishers cited, but fears of lawsuits compelled the publisher to tear the bibliography page from any copies available, so copies with an intact bibliography are rare. Early complete editions of Seduction of the Innocent often sell for high figures among book and comic book collectors.

First U.K. printing, 1954.


The fame of Seduction of the Innocent added to Wertham's previous celebrity as an expert witness and made him an obvious choice to appear before the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency led by anti-crime crusader Estes Kefauver. In extensive testimony before the committee, Wertham restated arguments from his book and pointed to comics as a major cause of juvenile crime. The committee's questioning of their next witness, EC publisher William Gaines, focused on violent scenes of the type Wertham had decried. Though the committee's final report did not blame comics for crime, it recommended that the comics industry tone down its content voluntarily. Possibly taking this as a veiled threat of potential censorship, publishers developed the Comics Code Authority to censor their own content. The new code not only banned violent images, but entire words and concepts (e.g. "terror" and "zombies"), and dictated that criminals must always be punished. This destroyed most EC-style titles, leaving a sanitized subset of superhero comics as the chief remaining genre. Wertham nevertheless considered the Comics Code inadequate to protect youth. Among comic-book collectors any comic book with a story or panel referred to in Seduction of the Innocent is known as a "Seduction issue", and is usually more valued than other issues in the same run of a title. Seduction of the Innocent is one of the few non-illustrative works to be listed in the Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide as a collectible in its own right. In the documentary film Comic Books Unbound, Stan Lee and other industry figures state that the book caused comic book sales to plunge as well as lead to mass public burnings of comics.[3]

Seduction of the Innocent


[1] as notably seen in Jack Cole's "Murder, Morphine and Me" which appeared in True Crime Comics Vol.1 #2 in May 1947. [2] Wertham, Fredric (1954) Seduction of the Innocent., p. 192, 234-235, Reinhart & Company, Inc. [3] Comic Books Unbound

Further reading
• Beaty, Bart (2005). Fredric Wertham and the Critique of Mass Culture. University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 1-57806-819-3. • Nyberg, Ami Kiste (1998). Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code, University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 0-87805-975-X. • Warshow, Robert S. Commentary (June 1954). "The Study of Man: Paul, the Horror Comics, and Dr. Wertham" ( -em-the-study-of-man-em--paul--the-horror-comics--and-dr--wertham-1958) • Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7450-5.


Classic Super Heroes
Action Comics
Action Comics

Action Comics #1 (June 1938), the debut of Superman. Cover art by Joe Shuster. Publication information Publisher Schedule Format Genre Publication date Number of issues Main character(s) DC Comics Monthly (Weekly 1988–89) Ongoing series Superhero June 1938 – present 904 (plus issues numbered 0 and 1,000,000; as well as 13 Annuals) Superman Collected editions Superman Chronicles Vol 1 ISBN 1-4012-0764-2 Superman Chronicles Vol 2 ISBN 1-4012-1215-8 Superman in the Forties Archives Vol 1 Archives Vol 2 Archives Vol 3 Archives Vol 4 Archives Vol 5 ISBN 1-4012-0457-0 ISBN 1-5638-9335-5 ISBN 1-5638-9426-2 ISBN 1-5638-9710-5 ISBN 1-4012-0408-2 ISBN 1-4012-1188-7

Action Comics is an American comic book series that introduced Superman, the first major superhero character as the term is popularly defined. The publisher was originally known as Detective Comics, Inc., and later as National Comics and as National Periodical Publications, before taking on its current name of DC Comics, a subsidiary of Time Warner.

Action Comics


Publication history
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster saw their creation, Superman (also known as Kal-El, originally Kal-L), launched in Action Comics #1 in April 1938 (cover-dated June). Siegel and Shuster had tried for years to find a publisher for their Superman character (originally conceived as a newspaper strip) without success. Superman was originally a bald madman created by Siegel and Shuster who used his telepathic abilities to wreak havoc on mankind. He appeared in Siegel and Shuster's book Science Fiction.[1] Siegel then commented, "What if this Superman was a force for good instead of evil?" The writer and artist had worked on several features for National Periodical Publications' other titles (Slam Bradley in Detective Comics, for example[2] ) and were asked to contribute a feature for National's newest publication. They submitted Superman for consideration and, after re-pasting the sample newspaper strips they had prepared into comic book page format, National decided to make Superman the cover feature of their new magazine.[3]

Early anthology
Originally, Action Comics was an anthology title featuring a number of other stories in addition to the Superman story. Zatara, a magician, was one of the other characters who had their own stories in early issues. (Zatanna, a heroine introduced in the 1960s, is Zatara's daughter.) There was also the hero Tex Thompson, who eventually became Mr. America and later the Americommando. Vigilante also enjoyed a lengthy run in this series. Sometimes stories of a more humorous nature were included, such as those of Hayfoot Henry, a policeman who talked in rhyme. Gradually, the size of the issues was decreased as the publisher was reluctant to raise the cover price from the original 10 cents, so there were fewer stories. For a while, Congo Bill and Tommy Tomorrow were the two features in addition to Superman (Congo Bill eventually gained the ability to swap bodies with a gorilla and his strip was renamed Congorilla), but soon after the introduction of Supergirl in issue #252 (May 1959) the non-Superman-related strips were crowded out of Action altogether. Since then, it has generally been an all-Superman comic, though other backup stories such as the Human Target occasionally appear.

Action Comics


Hiatus, name changes, publication changes, and special numbering
In number of issues, Action Comics is the longest running DC Comics series, followed by Detective Comics; however, it cannot claim to have had an uninterrupted run, due in large part to two separate occasions on which the title was put on a three-month hiatus. The first of these occurred during the summer of 1986, with issue #583 bearing a cover date of September, and issue #584 listing January 1987. The regular Superman titles were suspended during this period to allow for the post-Crisis revising of the Superman story through the publication of John Byrne's six-issue The Man of Steel limited series.[4] Publication was again suspended between issues #686 and #687 (February and June 1993) following the "Death of Superman" and "Funeral for a Friend" storylines, before Action Comics returned in June with the "Reign of the Supermen" arc.[4] (The two "Funeral for a Friend" issues, #685 and #686, featured the cover announcement of "Supergirl in Action Comics", highlighting the passing of Superman.[5] ) For slightly less than a year in 1988–1989, the publication frequency was changed to weekly and the title became Action Comics Weekly, and Cover of Action Comics #800 (April 2003). A modern take on the cover of Action Comics #1. was an anthology format series; After May 1988's landmark issue #600, Art by Drew Struzan. issues #611-615 all bore August cover dates.[4] The Action Comics Weekly experiment lasted only until the beginning of March 1989, however, and after a short break, July's issue #643 brought the title back onto a monthly schedule.[4] (However, the temporarily increased frequency of issues allowed Action to further surpass the older Detective Comics in the number of individual issues published. It originally passed Detective Comics in the 1970s when that series was bi-monthly for a number of years.) This change lasted from issue #601 to issue #642. During this time, Superman appeared only in a two-page story per issue; however, he was still the only character to appear in every issue of the run. Due to going weekly for this period, Action Comics was able to surpass the issue total of Detective Comics, despite that title being older by a year. Prior to its launch, DC cancelled its ongoing Green Lantern title Green Lantern Corps, and made Green Lantern Hal Jordan and his adventures exclusive to Action Comics Weekly. During the Action Comics Weekly run, a Green Lantern Special was published in 1988, tying in with the events happening in Action Comics Weekly. Green Lantern was soon moved out of the title, with Green Lantern Special #2 (1989) published concluding the story plots from Action Comics Weekly, and the character was relaunched with a limited series in 1989 (Green Lantern: Emerald Dawn), followed up by a new ongoing series in June 1990 (Green Lantern vol. 3). The rest of these issues featured rotating serialized stories of other, mostly minor, DC heroes, as try-outs that led to their own limited series. Characters with featured stories in the run included Black Canary, Blackhawk, Captain Marvel, Catwoman, Deadman, Nightwing, Phantom Lady (Dee Tyler), Phantom Stranger, Secret Six, Speedy, and Wild Dog. Each issue also featured a two-page Superman serial, a feature which, according to an editorial in the first weekly issue, was intended as a homage to the Superman newspaper strips of the past. The final issue of the weekly was originally intended to feature a book-length encounter between Clark Kent and Hal Jordan penned by writer Neil Gaiman.[6] While Gaiman's story primarily teamed up Green Lantern and Superman, it also featured other characters from Action Comics Weekly, including the Blackhawks (in flashback), Deadman, and the Phantom Stranger. The story ran counter to DC editorial policy at the time as it portrayed Hal Jordan and Clark Kent as old friends who knew each other's secret identities. This was not considered canon in 1989 (though other issues of Action Comics Weekly implied Hal and Clark were friends) and Gaiman was unwilling to change this

Action Comics aspect of the story.[6] The story was pulled and a different story was run. Gaiman's story was finally published as a one-shot in Green Lantern/Superman: Legend of the Green Flame in November 2000. Another departure from a strict monthly schedule were the giant-size Supergirl reprint issues of the 1960s (published as a 13th issue annually): issues #334 (March 1966), #347 (March/April 1967), #360 (March/April 1968), and #373 (March/April 1969). An issue #0 (October 1994) was published between issues #703 and #704 as part of the Zero Month after the "Zero Hour" crossover event. There was also an issue #1,000,000 (November 1998) during the "DC One Million" crossover event in October 1998 between issues #748 and #749.


After the "One Year Later" company-wide storyline, Action Comics had a crossover arc with the series Superman, titled "Up, Up and Away!" and which told of Clark Kent attempting to protect Metropolis without his powers and eventually regaining his powers. Afterward, he leaves Earth and is replaced by the new Nightwing and Flamebird as the starring characters of the book. Starting with issue #875, Thara Ak-Var and Chris Kent, two characters introduced in the "New Krypton" story arc, took Superman's place as the main protagonists of the comic, while Superman left Earth to live on New Krypton. These are written by Greg Rucka with artist Eddy Barrows, who left the art duties on Teen Titans to pencil Action.[7]

Starting in July 2009, Action Comics includes back-up stories featuring Captain Atom. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 (June 1938) sold at auction for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. The sale, by an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer, was through the Manhattan-based auction company[9] Although DC had initially announced that Marc Guggenheim would take over writing of the title following the War of the Supermen limited series,[10] he was replaced by Paul Cornell.[11] Cornell has stated that Lex Luthor would feature as the main character in Action Comics from issues #890-900[12] and Death would appear in issue #894, with the agreement of the character's creator, Neil Gaiman.[13] In April 2011, the 900th Action Comics issue was released. It served as a conclusion for Luthor's Black Ring storyline and a continuation for the Reign of Doomsday storyline.

On June 1, DC announced that it would relaunch 52 titles[14] with all-new numbering and Action Comics would be one of them. It was announced on June 10 that Action Comics would be relaunched with issue #1 and the new series would be written by Grant Morrison and drawn by Rags Morales.[15] [16]

Collected editions
The Action Comics series is included in a number of trade paperbacks and hardcovers. These generally reprint only the Superman stories from the given issues. • The Superman Chronicles • Volume 1: reprints issues #1-13; New York World's Fair Comics #1; Superman #1; January 2006; ISBN 978-1-4012-0764-9 • Volume 2: reprints issues #14-20; Superman #2-3; February 2007; ISBN 978-1-4012-1215-5 • Volume 3: reprints issues #21-25; New York World's Fair Comics #2; Superman #4-5; August 2007; ISBN 978-1-4012-1374-9 • Volume 4: reprints issues #26-31; Superman #6-7; February 2008; ISBN 978-1-4012-1658-0

Action Comics • Volume 5: reprints issues #32-36; Superman #8-9; World's Best Comics #1; August 2008; ISBN 978-1-4012-1851-5 • Volume 6: reprints issues #37-40; Superman #10-11; World's Finest Comics #2-3; February 2009; ISBN 978-1-4012-2187-4 • Volume 7: reprints issues #41-43; Superman #12-13; World's Finest Comics #4; July 2009; ISBN 978-1-4012-2288-8 • Volume 8: reprints issues #44-47; Superman #14-15; April 2010; ISBN 978-1-4012-2647-3 Superman in the Forties, includes issues #1-2, 14, 23, 64, 93, 107; November 2005; ISBN 978-1-4012-0457-0 Superman in the Fifties, includes issues #151, 242, 252, 254-255; October 2002; ISBN 978-1-56389-826-6 Superman in the Sixties, includes issue #289; October 1999; ISBN 978-1-56389-522-7 Superman in the Seventies, includes issue #484; November 2000; ISBN 978-1-56389-638-5 Superman in the Eighties, includes issues #507-508, 554, 595, 600, 644; April 2006; ISBN 978-1-4012-0952-0 Superman: The Action Comics Archives • • • • Volume 1: reprints issues #1, 7-20, and summarizes #2-6; May 1998; ISBN 978-1-56389-335-3 Volume 2: reprints issues #21-36; December 1998; ISBN 978-1-56389-426-8 Volume 3: reprints issues #37-52; August 2001; ISBN 978-1-56389-710-8 Volume 4: reprints issues #53-68; June 2005; ISBN 978-1-4012-0408-2


• • • • • •

• Volume 5: reprints issues #69-85; March 2007; ISBN 978-1-4012-1188-2

Action Comics #687-689 were part of The Reign of the Supermen storyline, which won the 1993 Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for Favorite Comic Book Story that year.

[1] [2] [3] [4] Jones, Gerard (July 2006). Men of Tomorrow. Arrow Books. pp. 82–84. ISBN 978-0-09-948706-7. Jones, p. 120. Jones, p. 124. Miller, J. J.; Maggie Thompson, Peter Bickford, Brent Frankenhoff (September 2005). "Action Comics". The Comic Buyer's Guide Standard Catalog of Comic Books (4 ed.). Krause Publications. pp. 35–44. ISBN 978-0-87349-993-4. [5] "Action Comics covers" (http:/ / comics. org/ covers. lasso?seriesID=97& skip=600& show=50). Grand Comics Database. . Retrieved July 18, 2008. [6] Gaiman, Neil (w). "Introduction" Green Lantern/Superman: Legend of the Green Flame (November 2000), DC Comics [7] "Greg Rucka on being named new Acton Comics writer" (http:/ / www. supermanhomepage. com/ news. php?readmore=5767#comments). January 1, 2007. . Retrieved June 17, 2010. [8] "Greg Rucka: Man of 'Action'" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=20543). Comic Book Resources. March 24, 2009. . [9] "Superman's debut sells for $1M at auction" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5nlh9imNu). Crain's New York Business. Associated Press. February 22, 2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. crainsnewyork. com/ article/ 20100222/ FREE/ 100229983) on February 23, 2010. . [10] Segura, Alex (December 10, 2009). "DCU in 2010: Marc Guggenheim Steps in as Writer on Action Comics" (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2009/ 12/ 10/ dcu-in-2010-marc-guggenheim-steps-in-as-writer-on-action-comics/ ). The Source. DC . Retrieved April 12, 2010. [11] Segura, Alex (April 12, 2010). "Paul Cornell Steps in as New Action Comics Writer" (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2010/ 04/ 12/ paul-cornell-steps-in-as-new-action-comics-writer/ ). The Source. DC . Retrieved April 12, 2010. [12] Phegley, Kiel (June 22, 2010). "Paul Cornell: A DC Exclusive" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=26828). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved February 8, 2011. [13] Phegley, Kiel (July 8, 2010). "Lex Luthor Faces Death" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=27068). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved July 10, 2010. [14] DC Comics Announces Historical Renumbering Of All Superhero Titles And Landmark Day-And-Date Digital Distribution (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2011/ 05/ 31/ dc-comics-announces-historic-renumbering-of-all-superhero-titles-and-landmark-day-and-date-digital-distribution), DC Universe, May 31, 2011

Action Comics
[15] History Happens Now (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2011/ 06/ 10/ history-happens-now), DC Universe, June 10, 2011 [16] The New Superman Titles Are Here, Grant Morrison on "Action Comics" (http:/ / www. comicsalliance. com/ 2011/ 06/ 10/ new-superman-comics), Comics Alliance, June 10, 2011


External links
• • • • Action Comics ( at the Grand Comics Database Action Comics ( at the Comic Book DB Action Comics cover gallery ( Action Comics (

Action Comics 1


Action Comics 1
Action Comics #1

Cover of Action Comics 1 (April 18, 1938). Art by Joe Shuster. Publication information Publisher Publication date DC Comics June 1938

Action Comics #1 (June 1938) is the first issue of the comic book series Action Comics. It features the first appearance of several comic book heroes, most notably the Jerry Siegel/Joe Shuster creation Superman.

Action Comics #1 was an anthology, and contained eleven features: • • • • • • • • • • • "Superman" (pp. 1–13) by Siegel and Shuster. "Chuck Dawson" (pp. 14–19) by H. Fleming. "Zatara Master Magician" (pp. 20–31) by Fred Guardineer. "South Sea Strategy" (text feature, pp. 32–33) by Captain Frank Thomas. "Sticky-Mitt Stimson" (pp. 34–37) by Alger. "The Adventures of Marco Polo" (pp. 38–41) by Sven Elven. "'Pep' Morgan" (pp. 42–45) by Fred Guardineer. "Scoop Scanlon Five Star Reporter" (pp. 46–51) by Will Ely. "Tex Thompson" (pp. 52–63) by Bernard Baily. "Stardust" (p. 64) by "The Star-Gazer". "Odds 'N Ends" (inside back cover) by "Moldoff" (Sheldon Moldoff).

Action Comics 1


Published on April 18, 1938 (cover-dated June),[1] by National Allied Publications, a corporate predecessor of DC Comics, it is considered the first true superhero comic; and though today Action Comics is a monthly title devoted to Superman, it began, like many early comics, as an anthology.[2] Action Comics was started by publisher Jack Liebowitz. The first issue had a print run of 200,000 copies, although sales of the series would soon approach 1,000,000 a month.[3] Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster were paid $10 per page, for a total of $130 for their work on this issue. They effectively signed away millions in future rights and royalties payments. Starting in 1978, Siegel and Shuster were provided with a $20,000 a month annuity which was later raised to $30,000. Liebowitz would later say that selecting Superman to run in Action Comics #1 was "pure accident" based on deadline pressure and that he selected a "thrilling" cover, depicting Superman lifting a car over his head.[4] Christopher Knowles, author of Our Gods Wear Spandex: The Secret History of Comic Book Heroes, compared the cover to Hercules Clubs the Hydra by Antonio del Pollaiolo.[5] [6]

The cover has been compared to Hercules Clubs the Hydra by Antonio del Pollaiolo.

In January 1933, Jerry Siegel wrote a story entitled "The Reign of the Super-Man." Siegel and Joe Shuster then created a comic book entitled The Superman later in 1933. A Chicago publisher expressed interest, but did not follow through, and in frustration, Shuster tore up all the pages of this comic except for the cover. Later, in 1934, Siegel had trouble falling asleep and decided to pass the time creating dramatic elements for a comic strip. Building on his previous ideas, he envisioned a child on a far-off planet named Krypton, where all the residents had super-powers. Because Krypton would soon explode, the boy was sent to Earth by his father, where he became Superman.[7] The Superman section of Action Comics was made up of a cut up comic strip. Siegel and Shuster had shopped Superman around as a comic strip, but were continually turned down. National Publications was looking for a hit to accompany their success with Detective Comics, and did not have time to solicit new material. Jack Liebowitz, co-owner of National Publications, told editor Vin Sullivan to create their fourth comic book. Because of the tight deadline, Sullivan was forced to make it out of inventory and stockpile pages. He found a number of adventurer stories, but needed a lead feature. Sullivan asked former coworker Sheldon Mayer if he could help. Mayer found the rejected Superman comic strips, and Sullivan told Siegel and Shuster that if they could paste them into 13 comic book pages, he would buy them.[8] The original panels were rewritten and redrawn to create the first page of Action Comics #1: 1. Baby Superman is sent to Earth by his scientist father in a "hastily-devised space ship" from "a distant planet" which "was destroyed by old age". 2. After the space ship lands on Earth, "a passing motorist, discovering the sleeping baby within, turned the child over to an orphanage". 3. The baby Superman lifts a large chair overhead with one hand, astounding the orphanage attendants with "his feats of strength".

Action Comics 1 4. When Superman (now named Clark) reaches maturity, he discovers that he can leap 1/8 of a mile, hurdle 20-story buildings, "raise tremendous weights", out-run a train, and "that nothing less than a bursting shell could penetrate his skin". 5. Clark decides that "he must turn his titanic strength into channels that would benefit mankind, and so was created 'Superman', champion of the oppressed...."[9] Siegel rewrote and extended the fourth panel into panels 4, 5, and 6 on the first page; and Shuster created three new drawings for them. Instead of racing the train in his costume, Siegel and Shuster decided that they would not show him in his costume until he had officially adopted his Superman alter-ego. Shuster also redrew panel 7. Two new panels offering a "scientific explanation of Clark Kent's amazing strength" were added. The panels do not identify Superman's home planet by name or explain how he was named Clark Kent.[9] The next 12 pages showed Superman attempting to save an innocent woman about to be executed while delivering the real murderess, bound and gagged, and leaving her on the lawn of the state Governor's mansion after breaking through the door into his house with a signed confession; coming to the aid of a woman being beaten up by her husband, who faints when his knife shatters on Superman's skin; rescuing Lois Lane (who also debuts in this issue) from a gangster who abducted her after she rebuffed him at a nightclub (and after Clark had refused to stand up to him, earning Lois's ire) which leads to the cover scene with the car; and going to Washington, D.C., instead of South America, to "stir up news" as his editor wants, to investigate a Senator that he suspects is corrupt, and prompting a confession by leaping around high buildings with the terrified man, which leads into the next issue. All the while, Clark tries to keep Superman out of the papers.[9] [10]


Action Comics #1 is considered the most valuable comic for a given condition, followed by Detective Comics #27 (the first appearance of Batman) and Superman #1.[11] [12] On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at auction for USD $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. The sale, by an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer, was through the Manhattan-based auction company[13] There are five known Comic Guaranty LLC (CGC)-graded copies with a grade above VG (CGC 4.0), with a single issue having the best grade of VF+ (CGC 8.5). There is one known uncertified copy in higher grade, the famous Edgar Church/Mile High copy.[14] [15] EC and Mad publisher William Gaines, whose father was also a comic book publisher and had business dealings with DC Comics at the time Action Comics #1 was published, claimed in a Comics Journal interview that he at one point had dozens of copies of the issue around his house, but they were probably all thrown out.[16] [17] Another copy, rated CGC 5 ("Very Good/Fine"), was discovered in July 2010 by a family facing foreclosure on their home while packing their possessions. estimated the comic may sell as high as $250,000 once auctioned, saving the family's home.[18] On March 29, 2010, sold another copy for USD $1.5 million, making it the most expensive and most valuable comic book of all time.[19] The copy sold is currently the highest-graded copy from the CGC, which stands at 8.5 VF+ grade.[20] The highest price ever received for a mid-grade example was $625,000, when a CGC 6.5 sold on in 2011. One copy was stolen from American actor Nicolas Cage, an avid comic book collector, in 2000. In March 2011, it was found in a storage locker in the San Fernando Valley and was verified by to be the exact same copy that they sold to him previously. Valued at more than $1 million, the comic is currently in the possession of the Los Angeles Police Department. Cage had previously received an insurance payment for the item, so it is unclear if it will be returned to him.[21]

Action Comics 1


In the mid-1970s, DC reissued several of its most popular Golden Age comics under the "Famous First Editions" series, including Action Comics #1 C-26. These reprints were oversized, roughly double the size of the original editions. A cardboard-like cover was placed over these copies, showing that they were a part of the Famous First Edition series. However, there have been many reports over the years of the outer cover being removed and these reprints being sold as legitimate first issues to unsuspecting buyers.[22] DC reprinted Action Comics #1 in 1988 as part of the 50th anniversary celebration of Superman that year. This edition reprinted only the Superman story, with a 50¢ U.S.A. cover price. The complete issue was reprinted in 1998 with an additional half-cover featuring the Superman stamp from the U.S. Postal Service's "Celebrate the Century" commemorative stamp series along with a "First Day of Issue" cancellation. It was sold by the U.S. Postal Service, shrinkwrapped, for $7.95. The complete issue, except for the inside front, inside back, and outside back cover, was reprinted in 2000 as part of DC Comics' Millennium Edition series of reprints of famous DC comics. Here is a complete list of the Action Comics #1 Reprints provided by AWOwens. 1974 Famous First Edition C-26 $1.00 price tag Oversized Soft Cover 1974 Famous First Edition C-26 $1.00 price tag Oversized Hard Cover 1976 reprint Sleeping Bag Offer on back cover, 10¢ cover price. Paper cover, 16 pages. 1976 reprint Safeguard giveaway (Safeguard Coupon on back cover). Paper cover, 16 pages. 1983 reprint Superman Peanut Butter (often confused for a 1983 Nestle Quik edition which did not come out until 1987), 10¢ cover price. Superman holding Peanut Butter jar. 1987 reprint Nestle Quik, 10¢ cover price. Nestle rabbit on back cover. Interior front cover gives year of 1983 and 1987 (often confused for 1983 as well because people don't finish reading to find the 1987 date which is the publishing date). 1988 reprint, 50¢ cover price. Price in white box. Direct Sale no UPC. 1988 reprint, 50¢ cover price. Price in white box. Newsstand edition with UPC. 1990 reprint , 50¢ cover price. Price in black box. (I am not sure where this reprint came from at this time). 1993 reprint, $1.00 cover price. Distributed with Death Of Superman trade paperback 1993. 1993 reprint, $1.00 cover price. Signed By Jerry Siegel, 2000 copies Distributed by DNY Forces. 1993 reprint, 10 ¢ cover price (I am not sure where this reprint came from at this time). 1998 reprint, USPS Extra outer half-cover with first day issuance of Superman stamp. 2000 reprint. Millenium Edition w/Gold stamp. Mini Reprint included in DC Direct's First Appearance Series 2: Superman Action Figure Other Reprints known are the Unauthorized "Copied Edition" which has unknown origins and the famous Unauthorized "Exact Copy" which had every detection point as the Original 1938 issue but was to big until later cut down and put back up for auction.

Action Comics 1


2011 version
In the spring of 2011, DC Comics announced plans to reboot and reset 52 of its ongoing titles. This included ending the original 73-year run of Action Comics with issue #904, scheduled for publication in late August 2011. The title Action Comics is being retained for a new publication, which is scheduled to launch on September 2011, with a new issue #1.

[1] Muir, John Kenneth (July 2008). The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kdMzAQAAIAAJ). McFarland & Co. p. 539. ISBN 978-0786437559. . Retrieved 2011-05-31. [2] "Action Comics" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ objects/ 740/ 740475. html). IGN. . Retrieved 2007-04-25. [3] Miller, John Jackson (February 22, 2010). "Million-dollar Action #1 copy was once one-in-200,000" (http:/ / blog. comichron. com/ 2010/ 02/ million-dollar-action-1-copy-was-once. html). The Comics Chronicles. . Retrieved 2010-02-23. [4] Nash, Eric P. (December 13, 2000). "Jack Liebowitz, Comics Publisher, Dies at 100" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=940CE0DD103FF930A25751C1A9669C8B63). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-08-01. [5] Knowles, Chris (November 28, 2007). "The Action Comics #1 Cover Debate – Part 1" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=12056). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2008-08-01. [6] Knowles, Chris (November 29, 2007). "The Action Comics #1 Cover Debate – Part 2" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=12067). Comic Book Resources. . [7] "Happy Anniversary, Superman!" (http:/ / superman. nu/ a/ siegel. php). . Retrieved 2007-04-25. [8] Cronin, Brian (December 28, 2006). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #83" (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2006/ 12/ 28/ comic-book-urban-legends-revealed-83/ ). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2007-04-25. [9] "Action Comics, No. 1" (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~UG02/ yeung/ actioncomics/ page1. html). . Retrieved 2010-02-22. [10] "From Papers to Comics to Papers" (http:/ / scoop. diamondgalleries. com/ scoop_article. asp?ai=1119& si=126). Diamond Galleries. . Retrieved 2007-04-26. [11] "Nostomania's 100 Most Valuable Comic Books" (http:/ / www. nostomania. com/ servlets/ com. nostomania. CatPage?name=Top100ComicsMain). Nostomania. . Retrieved 2007-04-26. [12] "World’s Most Valuable Comic Books" (http:/ / www. neatorama. com/ 2006/ 09/ 20/ worlds-most-valuable-comic-books/ ). Neatorama. September 20, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-04-26. [13] "Superman's debut sells for $1M at auction" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5nlh9imNu). Associated Press via Crain's New York Business. February 22, 2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. crainsnewyork. com/ article/ 20100222/ FREE/ 100229983) on 2010-02-23. . [14] "Mastro to Offer 'Forgotten' Action #1" (http:/ / scoop. diamondgalleries. com/ scoop_article. asp?ai=14803& si=123). Diamond Galleries. . Retrieved 2007-04-26. [15] "The Most Valuable Comic Books in the World" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080522091739/ http:/ / comics. drunkenfist. com/ the-most-valuable-comic-books-in-the-world/ ). It's All Just Comics. Archived from the original (http:/ / comics. drunkenfist. com/ the-most-valuable-comic-books-in-the-world/ ) on 2008-05-22. . Retrieved 2008-07-18. [16] "An Interview with William M. Gaines". The Comics Journal (81): 55. May 1983. [17] "The Online Marketplace for Comic Buyers & Sellers" (http:/ / www. comicconnect. com/ ). ComicConnect. . Retrieved 2010-06-17. [18] Sanchez, Ray (August 3, 2010). "Superman Comic Saves Family Home From Foreclosure Unexpected Find of Action" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ Business/ superman-comic-saves-familys-home/ story?id=11306997). ABC News. . Retrieved 2010-08-04. [19] "Comic with first Superman story sells for $1.5m" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ americas/ comic-with-first-superman-story-sells-for-15m-1930852. html). The Independent. March 30, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-03-30. [20] "Rare comic of Superman debut fetches $1.5 million" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2010/ SHOWBIZ/ 03/ 30/ superman. comic/ index. html). CNN. March 30, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-03-30. [21] Harris, Mike (April 10, 2011). "Simi man helps recover $1 million comic book stolen from Nicolas Cage" (http:/ / www. vcstar. com/ news/ 2011/ apr/ 10/ simi-man-helps-recover-1-million-comic-book-from/ ). Ventura County Star. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [22] "Beware of 1st Superman reprints" (http:/ / reviews. ebay. com/ ACTION-COMICS-1-1st-Superman-BEWARE-OF-REPRINTS_W0QQugidZ10000000000083834QQ_trksidZp3286. c0. m17). eBay. . Retrieved 2008-08-06.




Promotional art for Superman No.204 (vol. 2, April 2004) by Jim Lee and Scott Williams Publication information Publisher First appearance Created by DC Comics Action Comics #1 (published April 18, 1938, cover-dated June) Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster In-story information Alter ego Place of origin Team affiliations Kal-El/Clark Kent Krypton The Daily Planet Justice League Legion of Super-Heroes Batman Wonder Woman


Notable aliases Gangbuster, Jordan Elliot, Nightwing, Supernova, Superboy, The (Red Blue) Blur, Superman Prime, Commander El Abilities Superhuman strength, speed, stamina, invulnerability, senses, reflexes, regeneration, longevity, super breath, freeze breath, heat vision, x-ray vision, microscopic vision, telescopic vision, and flight

Superman is a fictional comic book superhero appearing in publications by DC Comics, widely considered to be an American cultural icon.[1] [2] [3] [4] Created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian-born American artist Joe Shuster in 1932 while both were living in Cleveland, Ohio, and sold to Detective Comics, Inc. (later DC Comics) in 1938, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 (June 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, television programs, films, newspaper strips, and video games. With the success of his adventures, Superman helped to create the superhero genre and establish its primacy within the American comic book.[1] The character's appearance is distinctive and iconic: a blue, red and yellow costume, complete with cape, with a stylized "S" shield on his chest.[5] [6] [7] This shield is now typically used across media to symbolize the character.[8] The original story of Superman relates that he was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton, before being rocketed to Earth as an infant by his scientist father Jor-El, moments before Krypton's destruction. Discovered and adopted by a Kansas farmer and his wife, the child is raised as Clark Kent and imbued with a strong moral compass. Very early he started to display superhuman abilities, which upon reaching maturity he resolved to use for the benefit of humanity.

Superman Superman has fascinated scholars, with cultural theorists, commentators, and critics alike exploring the character's impact and role in the United States and the rest of the world. Umberto Eco discussed the mythic qualities of the character in the early 1960s, and Larry Niven has pondered the implications of a sexual relationship the character might enjoy with Lois Lane.[9] The character's ownership has often been the subject of dispute, with Siegel and Shuster twice suing for the return of legal ownership. Superman placed 1st on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes in May 2011.[10]


Publication history
Creation and conception
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster had initially created a bald telepathic villain bent on dominating the world, in the short story "The Reign of the Super-Man" in Science Fiction #3, a fanzine Siegel published in 1933.[11] Siegel re-envisioned the character later that year as a hero bearing no resemblance to his villainous namesake, visually modeling Superman on Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and his bespectacled alter ego, Clark Kent, on Harold Lloyd.[12] [13] Siegel and Shuster then began a six-year quest to find a publisher. Titling it The Superman, Siegel and Shuster offered it to "The Reign of the Super-Man" in the fanzine Science Fiction, No.3 Consolidated Book Publishing, who had published a (June 1933). 48-page black-and-white comic book entitled Detective Dan: Secret Operative No. 48. Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Consolidated never again published comic books. Shuster took this to heart and burned all pages of the story, the cover surviving only because Siegel rescued it from the fire. Siegel and Shuster each compared this character to Slam Bradley, an adventurer the pair had created for Detective Comics No.1 (March 1937).[14] Siegel contacted other artists to collaborate on the strip, according to Gerard Jones feeling that "Superman was going nowhere with Joe".[15] Tony Strobl, Mel Graff and Russell Keaton were all contacted as potential collaborators by Siegel.[15] Artwork produced by Keaton based on Siegel's treatment shows the concept evolving. Superman is now sent back in time as a baby by the last man on Earth, where he is found and raised by Sam and Molly Kent.[16] However Keaton did not pursue the collaboration, and soon Siegel and Shuster were back working together on the character.[15] The pair re-envisioned the character, who became more of a hero in the mythic tradition, inspired by such characters as Samson and Hercules,[17] who would right the wrongs of Siegel and Shuster's times, fighting for social justice and against tyranny. It was at this stage the costume was introduced, Siegel later recalling that they created a "kind of costume and let's give him a big S on his chest, and a cape, make him as colorful as we can and as distinctive as we can."[5] The design was based in part on the costumes worn by characters in outer space settings published in pulp magazines, as well as comic strips such as Flash Gordon,[18] and also partly suggested by the traditional circus strong-man outfit, which comprised a pair of shorts worn over a contrasting bodysuit.[5] [19] However, the cape has been noted as being markedly different from the Victorian tradition. Gary Engle described it as without "precedent in popular culture" in Superman at Fifty: The Persistence of a Legend.[20] The circus performer's shorts-over-tights outfit was soon established as the basis for many future superhero outfits. This third version of the character was given extraordinary abilities, although this time of a physical nature as opposed to the mental abilities of the villainous Superman.[5]

Superman The locale and the hero's civilian names were inspired by the movies, Shuster said in 1983. "Jerry created all the names. We were great movie fans, and were inspired a lot by the actors and actresses we saw. As for Clark Kent, he combined the names of Clark Gable and Kent Taylor. And Metropolis, the city in which Superman operated, came from the Fritz Lang movie [Metropolis, 1927], which we both loved".[21] Although they were by now selling material to comic book publishers, notably Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publishing, the pair decided to feature this character in a comic strip format, rather than in the longer comic book story format that was establishing itself at this time. They offered it to both Max Gaines, who passed, and to United Feature Syndicate, who expressed interest initially but finally rejected the strip in a letter dated February 18, 1937. However, in what historian Les Daniels describes as "an incredibly convoluted turn of events", Max Gaines ended up positioning the strip as the lead feature in Wheeler-Nicholson's new publication, Action Comics. Vin Sullivan, editor of the new book, wrote to the pair requesting that the comic strips be refashioned to suit the comic book format, requesting "eight panels a page". However Siegel and Shuster ignored this, utilizing their own experience and ideas to create page layouts, with Siegel also identifying the image used for the cover of Action Comics No.1 (June 1938), Superman's first appearance.[22] In February 2010, an original Action Comics #1 was sold at auction for $1,000,000.[23] Siegel may have been inspired to create the Superman character due to the death of his father. Mitchell Siegel was an immigrant who owned a clothing store on Cleveland's near-east side. He died during a robbery attempt in 1932, a year before Superman was created. Although Siegel never mentioned the death of his father in interviews, both Gerard Jones and Brad Meltzer believe it must have affected him. "It had to have an effect," says Jones. "There's a connection there: the loss of a dad as a source for Superman." Meltzer states: "Your father dies in a robbery, and you invent a bulletproof man who becomes the world's greatest hero. I'm sorry, but there's a story there."[24]


Superman's first appearance was in Action Comics #1, published on April 18, 1938 (cover-dated to June 1938).[25] In 1939, a self-titled series was launched. The first issue mainly reprinted adventures published in Action Comics, but despite this the book achieved greater sales.[26] The year 1939 also saw the publication of New York World's Fair Comics, which by summer of 1942 became World's Finest Comics. With issue No.7 of All Star Comics, Superman made the first of a number of infrequent appearances, on this occasion appearing in cameo to establish his honorary membership in the Justice Society of America.[27] Initially Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster provided the story and art for all the strips published. However, Shuster's eyesight began to deteriorate, and the increasing appearances of the character meant an increase in the workload. This led Shuster to establish a studio to assist in the production of the art,[26] although he insisted on drawing the face of every Superman the studio produced. Outside the studio, Jack Burnley Superman making his debut in Action Comics No.1 (June 1938). Cover art by Joe Shuster. began supplying covers and stories in 1940,[28] and in 1941 artist Fred Ray began contributing a stream of Superman covers, some of which, such as that of Superman No.14 (February 1942), became iconic and much reproduced. Wayne Boring, initially employed in Shuster's studio, began working for DC in his own right in 1942 providing pages for both Superman and Action Comics.[29] Al Plastino was hired initially to copy Wayne Boring but was eventually allowed to create his own style and became one of the most prolific Superman artists during the Gold and Silver Ages of comics.[30]

Superman The scripting duties also became shared. In late 1939 a new editorial team assumed control of the character's adventures. Whitney Ellsworth, Mort Weisinger and Jack Schiff were brought in following Vin Sullivan's departure. This new editorial team brought in Edmond Hamilton, Manly Wade Wellman, and Alfred Bester, established writers of science fiction.[31] By 1943, Jerry Siegel was drafted into the army in a special celebration, and as a result his contributions diminished. Don Cameron and Alvin Schwartz joined the writing team, Schwartz teaming up with Wayne Boring to work on the Superman comic strip, which had been launched by Siegel and Shuster in 1939.[29] In 1945, Superboy made his debut in More Fun Comics #101. The character moved to Adventure Comics in 1946, and his own title, Superboy, was launched in 1949. The 1950s saw the launching of Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen (1954) and Superman's Girlfriend Lois Lane (1958). By 1974 these titles had merged into Superman Family, although the series was canceled in 1982. DC Comics Presents was a series published from 1978 to 1986 featuring team-ups between Superman and a wide variety of other characters of the DC Universe. In 1986, a decision was taken to restructure the universe the Superman character inhabited with other DC characters in the mini-series Crisis on Infinite Earths, resulting in the publication of "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow", a two-part story written by Alan Moore, with art by Curt Swan, George Pérez and Kurt Schaffenberger.[32] The story was published in Superman No.423 and Action Comics No.583 and presented what Les Daniels notes as "the sense of loss the fans might have experienced if this had really been the last Superman tale."[33] Superman was relaunched by writer & artist John Byrne, initially in the limited series The Man of Steel (1986). The year 1986 also saw the cancellation of World's Finest Comics, and the Superman title renamed Adventures of Superman. A second volume of Superman was launched in 1987, running until cancellation in 2006. After this cancellation, Adventures of Superman reverted to the Superman title. Superman: The Man of Steel was launched in 1991, running until 2003, while the quarterly book Superman: The Man of Tomorrow ran from 1995 to 1999. In 2003 Superman/Batman was launched as well as the Superman: Birthright limited series, with All-Star Superman launched in 2005 and Superman Confidential in 2006 (this title was canceled in 2008). He also appeared in the TV animated series-based comic book tie-ins Superman Adventures (1996–2002), Justice League Adventures, Justice League Unlimited (canceled in 2008) and The Legion of Super-Heroes In The 31st Century (canceled in 2008). Current ongoing publications that feature Superman on a regular basis are Superman, Action Comics, Superman/Batman and Justice League of America. The character often appears as a guest star in other series and is usually a pivotal figure in DC crossover events.


Superman's origin is revamped in The Man of Steel No.1 (July 1986), written and drawn by John Byrne.

An influence on early Superman stories is the context of the Great Depression. The left-leaning perspective of creators Shuster and Siegel is reflected in early storylines. Superman took on the role of social activist, fighting crooked businessmen and politicians and demolishing run-down tenements.[34] This is seen by comics scholar Roger Sabin as a reflection of "the liberal idealism of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal", with Shuster and Siegel initially portraying Superman as champion to a variety of social causes.[35] In later Superman radio programs the character continued to take on such issues, tackling a version of the KKK in a 1946 broadcast.[36] [37] Siegel and Shuster's status as children of Jewish immigrants is also thought to have influenced their work. Timothy Aaron Pevey has

Superman argued that they crafted "an immigrant figure whose desire was to fit into American culture as an American", something which Pevey feels taps into an important aspect of American identity.[38] Siegel himself noted that the mythic heroes in the traditions of many cultures bore an influence on the character, including Hercules and Samson.[5] Scott Bukatman sees the character to be "a worthy successor to Lindberg ... (and) also ... like Babe Ruth", and is also representative of the United States dedication to "progress and the 'new'" through his "invulnerable body ... on which history cannot be inscribed."[39] Further, given that Siegel and Shuster were noted fans of pulp science fiction,[11] it has been suggested that another influence may have been Hugo Danner. Danner was the main character of the 1930 novel Gladiator by Philip Wylie, and is possessed of the same powers of the early Superman.[40] Comics creator and historian Jim Steranko has cited the pulp hero Doc Savage as another likely source of inspiration, noting similarities between Shuster's initial art and contemporary advertisements for Doc Savage: "Initially, Superman was a variation of pulp heavyweight Doc Savage".[41] Steranko argued that the pulps played a major part in shaping the initial concept: "Siegel's Superman concept embodied and amalgamated three separate and distinct themes: the visitor from another planet, the superhuman being and the dual identity. He composed the Superman charisma by exploiting all three elements, and all three contributed equally to the eventual success of the strip. His inspiration, of course, came from the science fiction pulps",[41] identifying another pulp likely to have influenced the pair as being "John W. Campbell's Aarn Munro stories about a descendant of earthmen raised on the planet Jupiter who, because of the planet's dense gravity, is a mental and physical superman on Earth."[41] Because Siegel and Shuster were both Jewish, some religious commentators and pop-culture scholars such as Rabbi Simcha Weinstein and British novelist Howard Jacobson suggest that Superman's creation was partly influenced by Moses,[42] [43] and other Jewish elements. Superman's Kryptonian name, "Kal-El", resembles the Hebrew words ‫ ,קל-אל‬which can be taken to mean "voice of God".[44] [45] The suffix "el", meaning "(of) God"[46] is also found in the name of angels (e.g. Gabriel, Ariel), who are flying humanoid agents of good with superhuman powers. Jewish legends of the Golem have been cited as worthy of comparison,[47] a Golem being a mythical being created to protect and serve the persecuted Jews of 16th century Prague and later revived in popular culture in reference to their suffering at the hands of the Nazis in Europe during the 1930s and 1940s. Superman is often seen as being an analogy for Jesus, being a savior of humanity.[35] [43] [47] [48] Whilst the term Superman was initially coined by Friedrich Nietzsche, it is unclear how influential Nietzsche and his ideals were to Siegel and Shuster.[43] Les Daniels has speculated that "Siegel picked up the term from other science fiction writers who had casually employed it", further noting that "his concept is remembered by hundreds of millions who may barely know who Nietzsche is."[5] Others argue that Siegel and Shuster "could not have been unaware of an idea that would dominate Hitler's National Socialism. The concept was certainly well discussed."[49] Yet Jacobson and others point out that in many ways Superman and the Übermensch are polar opposites.[42] Nietzsche envisioned the Übermensch as a man who had transcended the limitations of society, religion, and conventional morality while still being fundamentally human. Superman, although an alien gifted with incredible powers, chooses to honor human moral codes and social mores. Nietzsche envisioned the perfect man as being beyond moral codes; Siegel and Shuster envisioned the perfect man as holding himself to a higher standard of adherence to them.[50] Siegel and Shuster have themselves discussed a number of influences that impacted upon the character. Both were avid readers, and their mutual love of science fiction helped to drive their friendship. Siegel cited John Carter stories as an influence: "Carter was able to leap great distances because the planet Mars was smaller that the planet Earth; and he had great strength. I visualized the planet Krypton as a huge planet, much larger than Earth".[21] The pair were also avid collectors of comic strips in their youth, cutting them from the newspaper, with Winsor McKay's Little Nemo firing their imagination with its sense of fantasy.[51] Shuster has remarked on the artists which played an important part in the development of his own style, whilst also noting a larger influence: "Alex Raymond and Burne Hogarth were my idols – also Milt Caniff, Hal Foster, and Roy Crane. But the movies were the greatest influence on


Superman our imagination: especially the films of Douglas Fairbanks Senior."[52] Fairbanks' role as Robin Hood was certainly an inspiration, as Shuster admitted to basing Superman's stance upon scenes from the movie.[53] The movies also influenced the storytelling and page layouts,[54] whilst the city of Metropolis was named in honor of the Fritz Lang motion picture of the same title.[21]


Copyright issues
As part of the deal which saw Superman published in Action Comics, Siegel and Shuster sold the rights to the company in return for $130 and a contract to supply the publisher with material.[55] [56] The Saturday Evening Post reported in 1940 that the pair was each being paid $75,000 a year, a fraction of National Comics Publications' millions in Superman profits.[57] Siegel and Shuster renegotiated their deal, but bad blood lingered and in 1947 Siegel and Shuster sued for their 1938 contract to be made void and the re-establishment of their ownership of the intellectual property rights to Superman. The pair also sued National in the same year over the rights to Superboy, which they claimed was a separate creation that National had published without authorization. National immediately fired them and took their byline off the stories, prompting a legal battle that ended in 1948, when a New York court ruled that the 1938 contract should be upheld. However, a ruling from Justice J. Addison Young awarded them the rights to Superboy. A month after the Superboy judgment the two sides agreed on a settlement. National paid Siegel and Shuster $94,000 for the rights to Superboy. The pair also acknowledged in writing the company's ownership of Superman, attesting that they held rights for "all other forms of reproduction and presentation, whether now in existence or that may hereafter be created",[58] but DC refused to re-hire them.[59] In 1973 Siegel and Shuster again launched a suit claiming ownership of Superman, this time basing the claim on the Copyright Act of 1909 which saw copyright granted for 28 years but allowed for a renewal of an extra 28 years. Their argument was that they had granted DC the copyright for only 28 years. The pair again lost this battle, both in a district court ruling of October 18, 1973 and an appeal court ruling of December 5, 1974.[60] [61]

In 1975 after news reports of their pauper-like existences, Warner Communications gave Siegel and Shuster lifetime pensions of $20,000 per year and health care benefits. Jay Emmett, then executive vice president of Warner Bros., was quoted in the New York Times as stating, "There is no legal obligation, but I sure feel there is a moral obligation on our part."[57] Heidi MacDonald, writing for Publishers Weekly, noted that in addition to this pension "Warner agreed that Siegel and Shuster would henceforth be credited as creators of Superman on all comics, TV shows and films".[56] The year after this settlement, 1976, the copyright term was extended again, this time for another 19 years for a total of 75 years. However, this time a clause was inserted into the extension to allow authors to reclaim their work, reflecting the arguments Siegel and Shuster had made in 1973. The new act took effect in 1978 and allowed a reclamation window in a period based on the previous copyright term of 56 years. This meant the copyright on Superman could be reclaimed between 1994 to 1999, based on the initial publication date of 1938. Jerry Siegel having died in January 1996, his wife and daughter filed a copyright termination notice in 1999. Although Joe Shuster died in July 1992, no termination was filed at this time by his estate.[62] In 1998, the copyright was extended again with the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. This time the copyright term was extended to 95 years with a further window for reclamation introduced. In January 2004 Mark Peary, nephew and legal heir to Joe Shuster's estate, filed notice of his intent to reclaim Shuster's half of the copyright, the termination effective in 2013.[62] The status of Siegel's share of the copyright is now the subject of a legal battle. Warner Bros. and the Siegels entered into discussions on how to resolve the issues raised by the termination notice, but these discussions were set aside by the Siegels and in October 2004 they filed suit alleging

Jerry Siegel, with wife Joanne and daughter Laura in 1976. Joanne and Laura Siegel filed a termination notice on Jerry Siegel's share of the copyright of Superman in 1999.

Superman copyright infringement on the part of Warner Bros. Warner Bros. counter sued, alleging that the termination notice contains defects, among other arguments.[63] [64] On March 26, 2008, Judge Larson of the United States District Court for the Central District of California ruled that Siegel's estate was entitled to claim a share in the United States copyright. The ruling does not affect the International rights, which Time Warner holds on the character through DC. Issues regarding the amount of monies owed Siegel's estate and whether the claim the estate has extends to derivative works such as movie versions will be settled at trial, although any compensation would only be owed from works published since 1999. Time Warner offered no statement on the ruling but do have the right to challenge it.[65] [66] The case was scheduled to be heard in a California federal court in May, 2008.[67] A similar termination-of-copyright notice filed in 2002 by Siegel's wife and daughter concerning the Superboy character was ruled on in their favor on March 23, 2006.[68] However, on July 27, 2007, the same court issued a ruling[69] reversing the March 23, 2006 ruling. This ruling is currently subject to a legal challenge from Time Warner, with the case as yet unresolved.[65] A July 9, 2009, verdict on the case denied a claim by Siegel's family that it was owed licensing fees. U.S. District Court judge Stephen G. Larson said Warner Bros. and DC Comics have fulfilled their obligations to the Siegels under a profit-sharing agreement for the 2006 movie Superman Returns and the CW series Smallville. However, the court also ruled that if Warner Bros. does not start a new Superman film by 2011, the family will have the right to sue to recover damages.[70]


Fictional Character Biography
Superman, given the serial nature of comic publishing and the length of the character's existence, has evolved as a character as his adventures have increased.[71] The details of Superman's origin, relationships and abilities changed significantly during the course of the character's publication, from what is considered the Golden Age of Comic Books through the Modern Age. The powers and villains were developed through the 1940s, with Superman developing the ability to fly, and costumed villains introduced from 1941.[72] The character was shown as learning of the existence of Krypton in 1949. The concept itself had originally been established to the reader in 1939 in the Superman comic strip.[73] The 1960s saw the introduction of a second Superman. DC had established a multiverse within the fictional universe its characters shared. This allowed characters published in the 1940s to exist alongside updated counterparts published in the 1960s. This was explained to the reader through the notion that the two groups of characters inhabited parallel Earths. The second Superman was introduced to explain to the reader Superman's membership in both the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America and the 1960s superhero team the Justice League of America.[74]



The 1980s saw radical revisions of the character. DC decided to remove the multiverse in a bid to simplify its comics line. This led to the rewriting of the back story of the characters DC published, Superman included. John Byrne rewrote Superman, removing many established conventions and characters from continuity, including Superboy and Supergirl. Byrne also re-established Superman's adoptive parents, The Kents, as characters.[75] In the previous continuity, the characters had been written as having died early in Superman's life (about the time of Clark Kent's graduation from high school). In 1993 Superman was killed by the villain Doomsday,[76] although the character was soon resurrected.[77] Superman also marries Lois Lane in 1996. His origin is again revisited in 2004.[78] In 2006 Superman is stripped of his powers,[79] although these are restored within a fictional year.[80] After a confrontation with Brainiac that results in his father's death, Superman discovers the lost city of Kandor, which contains 10,000 Superman dies in Lois Lane's arms: Superman Kryptonians. Their stay on Earth causes trouble, and the Kryptonians No.75 (vol. 2, January 1993). Art by Dan Jurgens and Brett Breeding. create their own planet, New Krypton. Eventually, New Krypton wages war against Earth. The two sides sustain major casualties and most of the Kryptonians are killed. Superman then starts a journey to reconnect with his adopted home world.

In the original Siegel and Shuster stories, Superman's personality is rough and aggressive. The character was seen stepping in to attack and terrorize wife beaters, profiteers, a lynch mob and gangsters, with rather rough edges and a looser moral code than audiences may be used to today.[34] Later writers have softened the character and instilled a sense of idealism and moral code of conduct. Although not as cold-blooded as the early Batman, the Superman featured in the comics of the 1930s is unconcerned about the harm his strength may cause, tossing villainous characters in such a manner that fatalities would presumably occur, although these were seldom shown explicitly on the page. This came to an end late in 1940 when new editor Whitney Ellsworth instituted a code of conduct for his characters to follow, banning Superman from ever killing.[73] This change would even be reflected in the stories themselves, in which it would occasionally be pointed out in the narrative or dialogue that Superman had vowed never to take human life—and that if he ever did so, he would hang up his cape and retire. Today, Superman is commonly seen as a brave and kind-hearted hero with a strong sense of justice, morality and righteousness. He adheres to a strict moral code often attributed to the Midwestern values with which he was raised. His commitment to operating within the law has been an example to many other heroes but has stirred resentment among others, who refer to him as the "big blue boy scout." Superman can be rather rigid in this trait, causing tensions in the superhero community, notably with Wonder Woman (one of his closest friends) after she killed Maxwell Lord.[81] Having lost his home world of Krypton, Superman is very protective of Earth, and especially of Clark Kent’s family and friends. This same loss, combined with the pressure of using his powers responsibly, has caused Superman to feel lonely on Earth, despite his many friends, his wife and his parents. Previous encounters with people he thought to be fellow Kryptonians, Power Girl[82] (who is, in fact from the Krypton of the Earth-Two universe) and Mon-El,[83] have led to disappointment. The arrival of Supergirl, who has been confirmed to be not only from Krypton but also his cousin, has relieved this loneliness somewhat.[84]

Superman In Superman/Batman No.3 (December 2003), Batman observes, "It is a remarkable dichotomy. In many ways, Clark is the most human of us all. Then... he shoots fire from the skies, and it is difficult not to think of him as a god. And how fortunate we all are that it does not occur to him."[85] Later, as Infinite Crisis began, Batman admonished him for identifying with humanity too much and failing to provide the strong leadership that superhumans need.[86] Superman has sometimes portrayed as a vegetarian, while at other times, an omnivore; indeed, it is often unclear as to whether he even needs to eat. In Superman: Birthright, Superman is portrayed as a strict vegetarian. However, in Straczynski's "Superman: Grounded" he ordered a "philly cheese steak" sandwich.[87] In the 1966 Broadway play It's a Bird...It's a Plane...It's Superman, Superman (portrayed by Bob Holiday) sings, "Gosh I'm hungry, I'd sure like a T-bone steak."[88]


Other versions
Both the multiverse established by the publishers in the 1960s and the Elseworlds line of comics established in 1989 have allowed writers to introduce variations on Superman. These have included differences in the nationality, race and morality of the character. Alongside such reimaginings, a number of characters have assumed the title of Superman, especially in the wake of "The Death of Superman" storyline, wherein four newly introduced characters are seen to claim the mantle.[89] In addition to these, the Bizarro character created in 1958 is a weird, imperfect duplicate of Superman.[90] Other members of Superman's family of characters have borne the Super- prefix, including Supergirl, Superdog and Superwoman. Outside comics published by DC, the notoriety of the Superman or "Übermensch" archetype makes the character a popular figure to be represented through an analogue in entirely unrelated continuities. For example, Roy Thomas based rival publisher Marvel Comics' Hyperion character on Superman.[91] [92] [93] [94]

Powers and abilities
As an influential archetype of the superhero genre, Superman possesses extraordinary powers, with the character traditionally described as "faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, and able to leap tall buildings in a single bound", a phrase coined by Jay Morton and first used in the Superman radio serials and Max Fleischer animated shorts of the 1940s[95] as well as the TV series of the 1950s. For most of his existence, Superman's famous arsenal of powers has included flight, super-strength, invulnerability to non-magical attacks, super-speed, vision powers (including x-ray, heat-emitting, telescopic, infra-red, and microscopic vision), super-hearing, and super-breath, which enables him to blow out air at freezing temperatures, as well as exert the propulsive force of high-speed winds.[96] As originally conceived and presented in his early stories, Superman's powers were relatively limited, consisting of superhuman strength that allowed him to lift a car over his head, run at amazing speeds and leap one-eighth of a mile, as well as an incredibly dense body structure that could be pierced by nothing less than an exploding artillery shell.[96] Siegel and Shuster compared his strength and leaping abilities to an ant and a grasshopper.[97] When making the cartoons, the Fleischer Brothers found it difficult to keep animating him leaping and requested to DC to change his ability to flying; this was an especially convenient concept for short films, which would have otherwise had to waste precious running time moving earthbound Clark Kent from place to place.[98] Writers gradually increased his powers to larger extents during the Silver Age, in which Superman could fly to other worlds and galaxies and even across universes with relative ease.[96] He would often fly across the solar system to stop meteors from hitting the Earth, or sometimes just to clear his head. Writers found it increasingly difficult to write Superman stories in which the character was believably challenged,[99] so DC made a series of attempts to rein the character in. The most significant attempt, John Byrne's 1986 rewrite, established several hard limits on his abilities: he barely survives a nuclear blast, and his space flights are limited by how long he can hold his breath.[100] Superman's power levels have again increased since then, with Superman currently possessing enough strength to hurl mountains, withstand nuclear blasts with ease, fly into the sun unharmed, and survive in the vacuum of outer space without

Superman oxygen. The source of Superman's powers has changed subtly over the course of his history. It was originally stated that Superman's abilities derived from his Kryptonian heritage, which made him eons more evolved than humans.[73] This was soon amended, with the source for the powers now based upon the establishment of Krypton's gravity as having been stronger than that of the Earth. This situation mirrors that of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter. As Superman's powers increased, the implication that all Kryptonians had possessed the same abilities became problematic for writers, making it doubtful that a race of such beings could have been wiped out by something as trifling as an exploding planet. In part to counter this, the Superman writers established that Kryptonians, whose native star Rao had been red, only possessed superpowers under the light of a yellow sun.[101] Superman is most vulnerable to green Kryptonite, mineral debris from Krypton transformed into radioactive material by the forces that destroyed the planet. Exposure to green Kryptonite radiation nullifies Superman's powers and immobilizes him with pain and nausea; prolonged exposure will eventually kill him. The only substance on Earth that can protect him from Kryptonite is lead, which blocks the radiation. Lead is also the only known substance that Superman cannot see through with his x-ray vision. Kryptonite was first introduced to the public in 1943 as a plot device to allow the radio serial voice actor, Bud Collyer, to take some time off.[71] Although green Kryptonite is the most commonly seen form, writers have introduced other forms over the years: such as red, gold, blue, white, and black, each with its own effect.[102]


Supporting cast
Clark Kent, Superman's secret identity, was based partly on Harold Lloyd and named after Clark Gable and Kent Taylor.[12] [13] Creators have discussed the idea of whether Superman pretends to be Clark Kent or vice versa, and at differing times in the publication either approach has been adopted.[103] [104] Although typically a newspaper reporter, during the 1970s the character left the Daily Planet for a time to work for television,[104] whilst the 1980s revamp by John Byrne saw the character become somewhat more aggressive.[100] This aggressiveness has since faded with subsequent creators restoring the mild mannerisms traditional to the character. Superman's large cast of supporting characters includes Lois Lane, perhaps the character most commonly associated with Superman, being portrayed at different times as his colleague, competitor, love interest and/or wife. Other main supporting characters include Daily Planet coworkers such as photographer Jimmy Olsen and editor Perry White, Clark Kent's adoptive parents Jonathan and Martha Kent, childhood sweetheart Lana Lang and best friend Pete Ross, and former college love interest Lori Lemaris (a mermaid). Stories making reference to the possibility of Superman siring children have been featured both in and

Harold Lloyd, one of the inspirations for Clark Kent

out of mainstream continuity. Incarnations of Supergirl, Krypto the Superdog, and Superboy have also been major characters in the mythos, as well as the Justice League of America (of which Superman is usually a member). A feature shared by several supporting characters is alliterative names, especially with the initials "LL", including Lex Luthor, Lois Lane, Linda Lee, Lana Lang, Lori Lemaris and Lucy Lane,[105] alliteration being common in early comics. Team-ups with fellow comics icon Batman are common, inspiring many stories over the years. When paired, they are often referred to as the "World's Finest" in a nod to the name of the comic book series that features many team-up

Superman stories. In 2003, DC began to publish a new series featuring the two characters titled Superman/Batman.


Superman also has a rogues gallery of enemies, including his most well-known nemesis, Lex Luthor, who has been envisioned over the years in various forms as both a rogue scientific genius with a personal vendetta against Superman, or a powerful but corrupt CEO of a conglomerate called LexCorp who thinks Superman is somehow hindering human progress by his heroic efforts.[106] In the 2000s, he even becomes president of the United States,[107] and has been depicted occasionally as a former childhood friend of Clark Kent. The alien android (in most incarnations) known as Brainiac is considered by Richard George to be the second most effective enemy of Superman.[108] The enemy that accomplished the most, by actually killing Superman, is the raging monster Doomsday. Darkseid, one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe, is also a formidable nemesis in most post-Crisis comics. Other important enemies who have featured in various incarnations of the character, from comic books to film and television include the fifth-dimensional imp Mister Mxyzptlk, the reverse Superman known as Bizarro and the Kryptonian criminal General Zod, among many others.

Cultural impact
Superman has come to be seen as both an American cultural icon[109] [110] and the first comic book superhero. His adventures and popularity have established the character as an inspiring force within the public eye, with the character serving as inspiration for musicians, comedians and writers alike. Kryptonite, Brainiac and Bizarro have become synonymous in popular vernacular with Achilles' heel, extreme intelligence[111] and reversed logic[112] respectively. Similarly, the phrase "I'm not Superman" or alternatively "you're not Superman" is an idiom used to suggest a lack of invincibility.[113] [114] [115]

Inspiring a market
The character's initial success led to similar characters being created.[116] [117] Batman was the first to follow, Bob Kane commenting to Vin Sullivan that given the "kind of money [Siegel and Shuster were earning with their superhero] you'll have one on Monday".[118] Victor Fox, an accountant for DC, also noticed the revenue such comics generated and commissioned Will Eisner to create a deliberately similar character to Superman. Wonder Man was published in May 1939, and although DC successfully sued, claiming plagiarism,[119] Fox had decided to cease publishing the character. Fox later had more success with the Blue Beetle. Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel, launched in 1940, was Superman's main rival for popularity throughout the 1940s and was again the subject of a lawsuit, which Fawcett eventually settled in 1953, a settlement which involved the cessation of the publication of the character's adventures.[120] Superhero comics are now established as the dominant genre in American comic book publishing,[121] with many thousands of characters in the tradition having been created in the years since Superman's creation.[122]

Superman became popular very quickly, with an additional title, Superman Quarterly, rapidly added. In 1940 the character was represented in the annual Macy's parade for the first time.[123] In fact Superman had become popular to the extent that in 1942, with sales of the character's three titles standing at a combined total of over 1.5 million, Time was reporting that "the Navy Department (had) ruled that Superman comic books should be included among essential supplies destined for the Marine garrison at Midway Islands."[124] The character was soon licensed by companies keen to cash in on this success through merchandising. The earliest paraphernalia appeared in 1939, a button proclaiming membership in the Supermen of America club. By 1940 the amount of merchandise available increased dramatically, with jigsaw puzzles, paper dolls, bubble gum and trading cards available, as well as wooden or metal figures. The popularity of such merchandise increased when Superman was licensed to appear in other

Superman media, and Les Daniels has written that this represents "the start of the process that media moguls of later decades would describe as 'synergy.'"[125] By the release of Superman Returns, Warner Bros. had arranged a cross promotion with Burger King,[126] and licensed many other products for sale. Superman's appeal to licensees rests upon the character's continuing popularity, cross market appeal and the status of the "S" shield, the stylized magenta and gold "S" emblem Superman wears on his chest, as a fashion symbol.[127]


The "S" shield by itself is often used in media to symbolize the Superman character. It has been incorporated into the opening and/or closing credits of several films and TV series.

In other media
The character of Superman has appeared in various media aside from comic books. This is in some part seen to be owing to the character's cited standing as an American cultural icon,[129] with the concept's continued popularity also being taken into consideration,[130] but is also seen in part as due to good marketing initially.[125] The character has been developed as a vehicle for serials on radio, television and film, as well as feature length motion pictures, and video games have also been developed featuring the character on multiple occasions. The first adaptation of Superman was as a daily newspaper comic strip, which was launched on January 16, 1939. The strip ran until May 1966 and significantly, Siegel and Shuster used the first strips to establish Superman's background, adding details such as the planet Krypton and Superman's father, Jor-El, concepts not yet established in the comic books.[73] Following on from the success of this was the first radio series, The Adventures of Superman, which premiered on February 12, 1940, and featured the voice of Bud Collyer as Superman. The series ran until March 1951. Collyer was also cast as the voice of Superman Superman as he was depicted in Fleischer in a series of Superman animated cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios's Superman theatrical cartoons Studios and Famous Studios for theatrical release. Seventeen shorts (1941–1943) were produced between 1941 and 1943. By 1948 Superman was back in the movie theatres, this time in a filmed serial, Superman, with Kirk Alyn becoming the first actor to portray Superman on screen. A second serial, Atom Man vs. Superman, followed in 1950.[131] In 1951 a television series was commissioned, Adventures of Superman starring George Reeves, with the 25th and 26th episodes of the series being adapted from the theatrical release of the movie Superman and the Mole Men. The series ran for 104 episodes, from 1952–1958. The next adaptation of Superman occurred in 1966, when Superman was adapted for the stage in the Broadway musical It's a Bird...It's a Plane...It's Superman. Despite good reviews, the play closed after only 129 performances.[132] The original cast album recording was released and continues to be available.[133] However, in 1975 the play was remade for television. Superman was again animated, this time for television, in the series The New Adventures of Superman. Sixty-eight shorts were made and broadcast between 1966 and 1969. Bud Collyer again provided the voice for Superman. Then, from 1973 until 1984, ABC broadcast the Super Friends series, this time animated by Hanna-Barbera.[134] Superman returned to movie theaters in 1978 with director Richard Donner's Superman starring Christopher Reeve. The film spawned three sequels, Superman II (1980), Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987).[135] In 1988 Superman returned to television in the Ruby Spears animated series Superman,[136] and also in Superboy, a live-action series that ran from 1988 until 1992.[137] In 1993 Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman premiered on television starring Dean Cain as Superman and Teri Hatcher as Lois Lane; the series ran until 1997. Superman: The Animated Series was produced by Warner Bros. and ran from 1996 until 2000 on The

Superman WB Television Network.[138] The early 21st century brought an increased presence of Superman in live-action media. In 2001, the Smallville television series was launched, focusing on the adventures of Clark Kent as a teenager before he dons the mantle of Superman; Tom Welling stars as Clark. The series ended after ten seasons in May 2011. In 2006, Bryan Singer directed Superman Returns starring Brandon Routh as Superman. The film was presented as a loose sequel to the first two Christopher Reeve films. In 2007, Welling was in consideration for the role of Superman in the planned film Justice League: Mortal, to be directed by George Miller.[139] The film was to feature Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman and other prominent members of DC Comics' Justice League of America. Though never officially announced, D.J. Cotrona was cast in the part of Superman, but the film was canceled before production began.[139] In 2010, the story of Superman's creation and his relationship with Jerry Siegel was dealt with in David Bar Katz's play The History of Invulnerability, which premiered at the Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park.[140] [141] A new feature film, Man of Steel, will appear in theaters in December 2012.[142] The film, directed by Zack Snyder with Henry Cavill in the starring role, will reboot the Warner Bros. film franchise in a fashion similar to the 2005 film Batman Begins.[142] Cavill had auditioned and was considered for the lead role in Superman Returns before the part was offered to Routh.


Musical references, parodies, and homages
Superman has also featured as an inspiration for musicians, with songs by numerous artists from several generations celebrating the character. Donovan's Billboard Hot 100 topping single "Sunshine Superman" utilized the character in both the title and the lyric, declaring "Superman and Green Lantern ain't got nothing on me".[143] Folk singer/songwriter Jim Croce sung about the character in a list of warnings in the chorus of his song "You Don't Mess Around with Jim", introducing the phrase "you don't tug on Superman's cape" into popular lexicon.[144] Other tracks to reference the character include Genesis' "Land of Confusion",[145] the video to which featured a Spitting Image puppet of Ronald Reagan dressed as Superman,[146] "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman" by The Kinks on their 1979 album Low Budget and "Superman" by The Clique, a track later covered by R.E.M. on its 1986 album Lifes Rich Pageant. This cover is referenced by Grant Morrison in Animal Man, in which Superman meets the character, and the track comes on Animal Man's walkman immediately after.[147] Crash Test Dummies' "Superman's Song", from the 1991 album The Ghosts That Haunt Me explores the isolation and commitment inherent in Superman's life.[148] Five for Fighting released "Superman (It's Not Easy)" in 2000, which is from Superman's point of view, although Superman is never mentioned by name.[149] Parodies of Superman did not take long to appear, with Mighty Mouse introduced in "The Mouse of Tomorrow" animated short in 1942.[150] While the character swiftly took on a life of its own, moving beyond parody, other animated characters soon took their turn to parody the character. In 1943 Bugs Bunny was featured in a short, Super-Rabbit, which sees the character gaining powers through eating fortified carrots. This short ends with Bugs stepping into a phone booth to change into a real "Superman" and emerging as a U.S. Marine. In 1956 Daffy Duck assumes the mantle of "Cluck Trent" in the short "Stupor Duck", a role later reprised in various issues of the Looney Tunes comic book.[151] In the United Kingdom Monty Python created the character Bicycle Repairman, who fixes bicycles on a world full of Supermen, for a sketch in series of their BBC show.[152] Also on the BBC was the sit-com "My Hero", which presented Thermoman as a slightly dense Superman pastiche, attempting to save the world and pursue romantic aspirations.[153] In the United States, Saturday Night Live has often parodied the figure, with Margot Kidder reprising her role as Lois Lane in a 1979 episode. Jerry Seinfeld, a noted Superman fan, filled his series Seinfeld with references to the character and in 1997 asked for Superman to co-star with him in a commercial for American Express. The commercial aired during the 1998 NFL Playoffs and Super Bowl, Superman animated in the style of artist Curt Swan, again at the request of Seinfeld.[154] Superman has also been used as reference point for writers, with Steven T. Seagle's graphic novel Superman: It's a Bird exploring Seagle's feelings on his own mortality as he struggles to develop a story for a Superman tale.[155]

Superman Brad Fraser used the character as a reference point for his play Poor Super Man, with The Independent noting the central character, a gay man who has lost many friends to AIDS as someone who "identifies all the more keenly with Superman's alien-amid-deceptive-lookalikes status."[156] Thom Zahler's romantic comedy Love and Capes is a parody of the entire genre, with the love story between a Superman analog ("Please, I'm iconic!") and his non-super fiancée as the primary focus.


Literary analysis
Superman has been interpreted and discussed in many forms in the years since his debut. The character's status as the first costumed superhero has allowed him to be used in many studies discussing the genre, Umberto Eco noting that "he can be seen as the representative of all his similars".[157] Writing in Time Magazine in 1971, Gerald Clarke stated: "Superman's enormous popularity might be looked upon as signalling the beginning of the end for the Horatio Alger myth of the self-made man." Clarke viewed the comics characters as having to continuously update in order to maintain relevance, and thus representing the mood of the nation. He regarded Superman's character in the early seventies as a comment on the modern world, which he saw as a place in which "only the man with superpowers can survive and prosper."[158] Andrew Arnold, writing in the early 21st century, has noted Superman's partial role in exploring assimilation, the character's alien status allowing the reader to explore attempts to fit in on a somewhat superficial level.[159] A.C. Grayling, writing in The Spectator, traces Superman's stances through the decades, from his 1930s campaign against crime being relevant to a nation under the influence of Al Capone, through the 1940s and World War II, a period in which Superman helped sell war bonds,[160] and into the 1950s, where Superman explored the new technological threats. Grayling notes the period after the Cold War as being one where "matters become merely personal: the task of pitting his brawn against the brains of Lex Luthor and Brainiac appeared to be independent of bigger questions", and discusses events post 9/11, stating that as a nation "caught between the terrifying George W. Bush and the terrorist Osama bin Laden, America is in earnest need of a Saviour for everything from the minor inconveniences to the major horrors of world catastrophe. And here he is, the down-home clean-cut boy in the blue tights and red cape".[161]

Clark Kent, argued by Jules Feiffer to be the most innovative feature of Superman

Scott Bukatman has discussed Superman, and the superhero in general, noting the ways in which they humanize large urban areas through their use of the space, especially in Superman's ability to soar over the large skyscrapers of Metropolis. He writes that the character "represented, in 1938, a kind of Corbusierian ideal. Superman has X-ray vision: walls become permeable, transparent. Through his benign, controlled authority, Superman renders the city open, modernist and democratic; he furthers a sense that Le Corbusier described in 1925, namely, that 'Everything is known to us'."[39] Jules Feiffer has argued that Superman's real innovation lay in the creation of the Clark Kent persona, noting that what "made Superman extraordinary was his point of origin: Clark Kent." Feiffer develops the theme to establish Superman's popularity in simple wish fulfillment,[162] a point Siegel and Shuster themselves supported, Siegel commenting that "If you're interested in what made Superman what it is, here's one of the keys to what made it universally acceptable. Joe and I had certain inhibitions... which led to wish-fulfillment which we expressed through our interest in science fiction and our comic strip. That's where the dual-identity concept came from" and Shuster supporting that as being "why so many people could relate to it".[163] Ian Gordon suggests that the many incarnations of Superman across media use nostalgia to link the character to an ideology of the American Way. He defines this ideology as a means of associating individualism, consumerism, and

Superman democracy and as something that took shape around WWII and underpinned the war effort. Superman he notes was very much part of that effort.[164] Superman's immigrant status is a key aspect of his appeal.[165] [166] [167] Aldo Regalado saw the character as pushing the boundaries of acceptance in America. The extraterrestrial origin was seen by Regalado as challenging the notion that Anglo-Saxon ancestry was the source of all might.[168] Gary Engle saw the "myth of Superman [asserting] with total confidence and a childlike innocence the value of the immigrant in American culture." He argues that Superman allowed the superhero genre to take over from the Western as the expression of immigrant sensibilities. Through the use of a dual identity, Superman allowed immigrants to identify with both their cultures. Clark Kent represents the assimilated individual, allowing Superman to express the immigrants cultural heritage for the greater good.[166] Timothy Aaron Pevey has argued other aspects of the story reinforce the acceptance of the American dream. He notes that "the only thing capable of harming Superman is Kryptonite, a piece of his old home world."[38] David Jenemann has offered a contrasting view. He argues that Superman's early stories portray a threat: "the possibility that the exile would overwhelm the country."[169] David Rooney, a theater critic for the New York Times, in his evaluation of the play, Year Zero, considers Superman to be the "quintessential immigrant story...(b)orn on an alien planet, he grows stronger on Earth but maintains a secret identity tied to a homeland that continues to exert a powerful hold on him even as his every contact with those origins does him harm."[170] Even an episode of 9-11 showed school children bullying dark-skinned classmates one of whom was reading Superman. Told that Superman was American, the boy reminded them that Superman is an alien, and furthermore that Wonder Woman is a foreigner.


Critical reception and popularity
The character Superman and his various comic series have received various awards over the years. • Empire magazine named him the greatest comic book character of all time.[171] • The Reign of the Supermen is one of many storylines or works to have received a Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award, winning the Favorite Comic Book Story category in 1993.[172] • Superman came at number 2 in VH1's Top Pop Culture Icons 2004.[173] • Also in 2004, British cinemagoers voted Superman as the greatest superhero of all time.[174] • Works featuring the character have also garnered six Eisner Awards[175] [176] and three Harvey Awards,[177] either for the works themselves or the creators of the works. • The Superman films have received a number of nominations and awards, with Christopher Reeve winning a BAFTA for his performance in Superman. • The Smallville television series has garnered Emmys for crew members and various other awards.[178] [179] [180] • Superman as a character is still seen as being as relevant now as he has been in the seventy years of his existence.[181]

Video games
While Superman is largely considered to be the archetypal superhero, and the flagship character of DC Comics, he has enjoyed virtually no success in video games. Ever since 1978, when the first game was released on the Atari 2600, numerous developers have tried at making a Superman game that was generally well-received, although none have succeeded. One of the most notorious examples is the 1999 game for the Nintendo 64, simply titled "Superman" (although often erroneously called "Superman 64" due to the tradition of N64 games putting the number "64" at the end of several titles), which is largely considered to be one of the worst games of all time.



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[133] " It's A Bird ... It's A Plane ... It's Superman (1966 Original Broadway Cast): Music: Charles Strouse, Lee Adams" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Bird-Plane-Superman-Original-Broadway/ dp/ B0000027WB). . Retrieved January 11, 2007. [134] Daniels (1998), pp. 111–115 [135] Daniels (1998), pp. 141–143 [136] "Backgrounder" (http:/ / www. rubyspears. com/ film. shtml). Ruby-Spears Productions. . Retrieved January 11, 2007.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yMpMzGHX). [137] Daniels (1998), pp. 164–165. [138] Daniels (1998), pp. 172–174. [139] "A Film’s Superheroes Face Threat of Strike" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 03/ 01/ movies/ 01justice. html). New York Times. March 1, 2008. . Retrieved April 11, 2011. [140] Pender, Rick (April 11, 2010). "The History of Invulnerability" (http:/ / www. citybeat. com/ cincinnati/ article-20359-the-history-of-invulnerability-(review). html). Cincinnati CityBeat. . Retrieved May 1, 2011.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yMp8zzpt). [141] Harris, Rachel Lee (April 3, 2011). "Steinberg Prize Awarded" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 04/ 04/ theater/ steinberg-prize-awarded. html). The New York Times. .. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yMpbWMYH). [142] "Henry Cavil cast as Superman" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118031149). Variety. January 30, 2011. . Retrieved April 11, 2011. [143] Donovan. "Sunshine Superman". Sunshine Superman. Epic, 1966. [144] Jim Croce. "You Don't Mess Around with Jim". You Don't Mess Around with Jim. ABC/Vertigo, 1972. [145] Genesis. "Land of Confusion". Invisible Touch. Atlantic Records, 1986. "Ooh Superman where are you now, When everything's gone wrong somehow". [146] Lloyd, John & Yukich, Jim (Directors). (1986). "Land of Confusion". [Music video]. Atlantic Records. [147] Morrison (w), Grant; Truog, Chas, Hazlewood, Doug and Grummet, Tom (a) (2002) [1991]. "2: Life In The Concrete Jungle". In Michael Charles Hill (ed.). Animal Man. John Costanza (letterer) & Tatjana Wood (colorist) (1st ed.). New York: DC Comics. p. 45. ISBN 1-56389-005-4. "R.E.M. starts singing "Superman." My arm aches and I've got déjà vu. Funny how everything comes together." [148] Lyrics to "Superman's Song". [149] "Five For Fighting: Inside Track" (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ artists/ spotlight/ inside_track/ five_for_fighting/ interview. jhtml). VH1. . Retrieved June 17, 2010. [150] Turner, Robin (August 8, 2006). "Deputy Dawg". Western Mail: p. 21. [151] "Looney Tunes # 97" (http:/ / www. comics-db. com/ comic-book/ 1046821-Looney_Tunes_97. html). Big Comicbook Database. . Retrieved January 16, 2007. [152] Clarke, Mel (August 1, 2004). "The Pitch". The Sunday Times: p. 34. [153] Kinnes, Sally (January 30, 2000). "The One To Watch". The Sunday Times: p. 58. [154] Daniels (1998), p. 185. [155] "Steven Seagle Talks It's a Bird" (http:/ / www. ugo. com/ channels/ comics/ features/ itsabird/ default. asp). . Retrieved January 16, 2007. "the semi-autobiographical tale of Steven being given the chance to write a Superman comic but stumbling when he can't figure out how to relate to the character. Through the course of the story, Seagle finds his way into Superman by looking at it through the lens of his own mortality." [156] Taylor, Paul (September 21, 1994). "Theatre". The Independent (UK). [157] Eco, Umberto (2004) [1962]. "The Myth of Superman". In Jeet Heer & Kent Worcester. Arguing Comics. University Press of Mississippi. p. 162. ISBN 1-57806-687-5. [158] Clarke, Gerald (December 13, 1971). "The Comics On The Couch" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,842864,00. html). Time: pp. 1–4. ISSN 0040-781X. . Retrieved January 29, 2007. [159] Arnold, Andrew (October 6, 2005). "The Hard Knock Life" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ columnist/ arnold/ article/ 0,9565,1115061,00. html). Time. ISSN 0040-781X. . Retrieved January 29, 2007. "much of The Quitter involves the classic American literary theme of assimilation. Though extremely popular in other mediums, this theme, again, has gotten little attention in comix except obliquely, through such genre works as Seigel and Shuster's Superman character." [160] Daniels (1995), p. 64. [161] Grayling, A C (July 8, 2006). "The Philosophy of Superman: A Short Course" (http:/ / www. spectator. co. uk/ archive/ features/ 23525/ the-philosophy-of-superman. thtml) (Fee required). The Spectator (UK). ISSN 0038-6952. . Retrieved January 29, 2007. [162] Jules Feiffer The Great Comic Book Heroes, (2003). Fantagraphics. ISBN 1-56097-501-6 [163] Andrae (1983), p.10 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20031207220852/ superman. ws/ seventy/ interview/ ?part=10). [164] Ian Gordon "Nostalgia, Myth, and Ideology: Visions of Superman at the End of the 'American Century"in Michael Ryan, ' 'Cultural Studies: An Anthology' '(2007). Blackwell ISBN 978-1405145770 (http:/ / nus. academia. edu/ IanGordon/ Papers/ 509594/ Nostalgia_Myth_and_Ideology_Visions_of_Superman_at_the_End_of_the_American_Century). [165] Fingeroth, Danny Superman on the Couch (2004). Continuum International Publishing Group p53. ISBN 0-8264-1539-3 [166] Engle, Gary "What Makes Superman So Darned American?" reprinted in Popular Culture (1992) Popular Press p331-343. ISBN 0-87972-572-9 [167] Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer (2006). The Art of Superman Returns. Chronicle Books. p. 92. ISBN 0811853446.


[168] Regalado, Aldo "Modernity, Race, and the American Superhero" in McLaughlin, Jeff (ed.) Comics as Philosophy (2005). Univ of Mississippi Press p92. ISBN 1-57806-794-4 [169] Jenemann, David (2007). Adorno in America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 180. ISBN 0816648093. [170] Rooney, David (June 3, 2010). "Finding America, Searching for Identity" (http:/ / theater. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 06/ 03/ theater/ reviews/ 03year. html). New York Times. . Retrieved June 11, 2010. [171] "''Empire'' | The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters" (http:/ / www. empireonline. com/ 50greatestcomiccharacters/ default. asp?c=1). Empire. December 5, 2006. . Retrieved June 17, 2010. [172] Miller, John Jackson (June 9, 2005). "CBG Fan Awards Archives" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070311003351/ http:/ / www. cbgxtra. com/ default. aspx?tabid=42& view=topic& forumid=34& postid=147). Krause Publications. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cbgxtra. com/ default. aspx?tabid=42& view=topic& forumid=34& postid=147) on March 11, 2007. . Retrieved January 29, 2007. "CBG Fan Award winners 1982–present" [173] "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons List: The Folks that Have Impacted American Society" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080106102417/ http:/ / www. azreporter. com/ entertainment/ television/ news/ 200popicons. shtml). October 27, 2003. Archived from = Arizona Reporter the original (http:/ / www. azreporter. com/ entertainment/ television/ news/ 200popicons. shtml) on January 6, 2008. . Retrieved December 8, 2006. Syndicated reprint of a Newsweek article [174] "Superman is 'greatest superhero'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ film/ 4090207. stm). BBC. December 22, 2004. . Retrieved February 18, 2007. [175] Joel Hahn (2006). "Will Eisner Comic Industry Award: Summary of Winners" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070216072911/ http:/ / users. rcn. com/ aardy/ comics/ awards/ eisnersum. shtml). Comic Book Awards Almanac. Joel Hahn. Archived from the original (http:/ / users. rcn. com/ aardy/ comics/ awards/ eisnersum. shtml) on February 16, 2007. . Retrieved January 17, 2007. [176] "Alan Moore Back on Top for 2006 Eisner Awards" (http:/ / www. comic-con. org/ cci/ cci_eisners_06rcv. shtml). Comic-Con International. July 2006. . Retrieved January 17, 2007. [177] Joel Hahn (2006). "Will Harvey Award Winners Summary" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070313185222/ http:/ / users. rcn. com/ aardy/ comics/ awards/ harveysum. shtml). Comic Book Awards Almanac. Joel Hahn. Archived from the original (http:/ / users. rcn. com/ aardy/ comics/ awards/ harveysum. shtml) on March 13, 2007. . Retrieved January 17, 2007. [178] "CNN's 2002 Emmy Winners" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080316123053/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ SPECIALS/ 2002/ emmys/ print. ballot. html). CNN. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ SPECIALS/ 2002/ emmys/ print. ballot. html) on March 16, 2008. . Retrieved July 13, 2009. [179] "2006 Primetime Emmy Winners" (http:/ / www. emmys. org/ downloads/ images/ 2006emmys/ PrimetimeNoms. php). . Retrieved August 23, 2007. [180] (August 19, 2006). "The 2006 Creative Arts Emmy winners press release" (http:/ / www. emmys. org/ media/ releases/ 2006/ crtvarts2006_rel. pdf) (PDF). Press release. . Retrieved August 23, 2007. [181] Wright, B. W. (2001). "Spider-Man at Ground Zero". Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University. p. 293. ISBN 0801874505.


• Andrae, Tom; Blum, Geoffry & Coddington, Gary (August 1983). "Of Superman and Kids With Dreams". Nemo, the Classic Comics Library (2): 6–19. ISSN 07469438. • Daniels, Les (1998). Superman: The Complete History (1st ed.). Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-988-7. • Daniels, Les (1995). DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favourite Comic Book Heroes (First ed.). Virgin Books. ISBN 1-85227-546-4. • Dean, Michael (October 14, 2004). "An Extraordinarily Marketable Man: The Ongoing Struggle for Ownership of Superman and Superboy" ( n_marketable.html). The Comics Journal (263): 13–17. Archived from the original ( n_marketable.html) on December 1, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2006. • Eury, Michael; Adams, Neal, Swan, Curt et al..  (2006) [July 27, 2006]. The Krypton Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905616.



Further reading
• Michael J. Hayde (2009). Flights of Fantasy. Albany: BearManor Media. ISBN 1-59393-344-4. • Tom De Haven (2009). Our Hero: Superman on Earth. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300118179.

External links
• Official Superman website ( • Golden Age (, Silver Age (http://www.comicbookdb. com/character.php?ID=296) and Modern Age ( Superman at the Comic book database • Superman ( at the Open Directory Project • , a DC Comics wiki • Superman ( at the Internet Movie Database

Detective Comics


Detective Comics
Detective Comics

Detective Comics #1 (March 1937) Cover art by Vin Sullivan. Publication information Publisher Detective Comics, Inc. (1–119) National Comics Publications (120–296) National Periodical Publications (297–467) DC Comics (468–current) Monthly Ongoing series March 1937 – Present

Schedule Format Publication date Number of issues Main character(s)

881 (plus issues numbered 0 and 1,000,000, and 12 annuals)

Since #27: Batman Other characters: Batgirl, Robin, Manhunter, Green Arrow Creative team


Bill Finger, Frank Robbins, Denny O'Neil, David V. Reed, Gerry Conway, Steve Englehart, Bob Rozakis, Ed Brubaker, Greg Rucka Bob Kane, Dick Sprang, Sheldon Moldoff, Carmine Infantino, Bob Brown, Neal Adams, Irv Novick, Gil Kane, Don Heck, Frank Robbins, Jim Aparo, Walter Simonson, Ernie Chua, José Luis García-López, Mike Grell, Marshall Rogers, Don Newton, Gene Colan, Tom Mandrake, Alan Davis, Norm Breyfogle, Pete Woods, Ramon Bachs, J. H. Williams III, Don Kramer Jerry Robinson, Charles Paris, Sid Greene, Joe Giella, Murphy Anderson, Dick Giordano, Terry Austin, Alfredo Alcala, Shawn McManus, Paul Neary, Wayne Faucher Adrienne Roy




Detective Comics is an American comic book published monthly by DC Comics since 1937, best known for introducing the iconic superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27. It is, along with Action Comics, the book that launched with the debut of Superman, one of the medium's signature series, and the source of its company's name. With 881 monthly issues published as of August 2011 (the last issue before a new #1), it is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States.[1]

Detective Comics


Publication history
Detective Comics was the final publication of the entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, whose comics company, National Allied Publications, would evolve into DC Comics, one of the world's two largest comic book publishers, though long after its founder had left it. Wheeler-Nicholson's first two titles were the landmark New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 (Feb. 1935), colloquially called New Fun Comics #1 and the first such early comic book to contain all-original content, rather than a mix of newspaper comic strips and comic-strip-style new material. His second effort, New Comics #1, would be retitled twice to become Adventure Comics, another seminal series that ran for decades until issue #503 in 1983, and was later revived in 2009. The third and final title published under his aegis would be Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated Dec. 1936, but eventually premiering three months late, with a March 1937 cover date. In 1937, however, Wheeler-Nicholson was in debt to House ad for Detective Comics #1. Note the printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld, who originally planned cover date of December 1936. was as well a pulp-magazine publisher and a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News. Wheeler-Nicholson took Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1 through the newly formed Detective Comics, Inc., with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Wheeler-Nicholson was forced out a year later. Originally an anthology comic, in the manner of the times, Detective Comics #1 (March 1937) featured stories in the "hard-boiled detective" genre, with such stars as Ching Lung (a Fu Manchu-style "yellow peril" villain); Slam Bradley (created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster before their character Superman saw print two years later); and Speed Saunders, among others. Its first editor, Vin Sullivan, also drew the debut issue's cover.

Detective Comics


Detective Comics #27 (May 1939) featured the first appearance of Batman (as "The Bat-Man"). That superhero would eventually become the star of the title, the cover logo of which is often written as "Detective Comics featuring Batman". Because of its significance, issue #27 is widely considered one of the most valuable comic books in existence, with one copy selling for $1,075,000 in a February 2010 auction.[2] Issue #38 (April 1940) introduced Batman's sidekick Robin (billed as "The Sensational Character Find of 1940" on the cover). Robin's appearance and the subsequent increase in sales of the book soon led to the trend of superheroes and young sidekicks that characterize the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books. In addition to the Batman stories, the comic also had numerous back up strips such as "The Strange Experiment of Dr. Erdel" in Detective Comics #225, the story which introduced Martian Manhunter. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the magazine adopted the expanded format used by the canceled Batman Family, adding solo features including "Robin: the Teen Wonder", "Batgirl", the "Human Target" and the anthology "Tales of Gotham City", which featured the stories of the ordinary people of Gotham City. Also used during the 1980s was the use of serialization of the main Batman story, with stories from Detective Comics and Batman directly flowing from one book to another, with cliffhangers at the end of each book's monthly story that would be resolved in the other title of that month. A single writer handled both books during that time beginning with Gerry Conway and followed up by Doug Moench. Batwoman In 2009, as part of planned reorganization of the Batman universe due to the events shown in Batman R.I.P. and Final Crisis, Detective Comics went on hiatus for three months while DC Comics published the Battle for the Cowl miniseries. Upon its return, the series featured the newly reintroduced (in 52) Batwoman as the new star of the book, as well as a 10-page back-up feature starring Renee Montoya as the new Question.[3] The series returned Batman to a starring role in early 2010.
Detective Comics #27 (May 1939), the debut of Batman. Cover art by Bob Kane.

In June 2011 DC Comics announced that it is planning to relaunch Detective Comics with issue #1 in September 2011. The series will be written and drawn by Tony Daniel.[4] DC Comics is referring to Detective Comics as its new "flagship title". In the first arc of the series, Batman will face an enemy known only as the "Gotham Ripper".

The "Manhunter" series that ran as a backup in Detective Comics from 1973 to 1974 won the Shazam Award for Best Individual Short Story (Dramatic) in 1974 for the story "Cathedral Perilous" in issue #441, written by Archie Goodwin and Walt Simonson.

Detective Comics


Character debuts
Character Slam Bradley Crimson Avenger Batman Commissioner James Gordon Joe Chill Hugo Strange Robin Clayface (Basil Karlo) Penguin Two-Face Tweedledum and Tweedledee Riddler Red Hood Firefly Batmen of All Nations Martian Manhunter Batwoman Calendar Man Bat-Mite Clayface (Matt Hagen) Catman Blockbuster Cluemaster Batgirl (Barbara Gordon) Jason Bard Man-Bat Talia al Ghul Harvey Bullock Leslie Thompkins The Calculator Rupert Thorne Silver St. Cloud Clayface (Preston Payne) Maxie Zeus Killer Croc Jason Todd Onyx Issue #1 #20 #27 #27 #33 #36 #38 #40 #58 #66 #74 #140 #168 #184 #215 #225 #233 #259 #267 #298 #311 #345 #351 #359 #392 #400 #411 #441 #457 #463 #469 #470 #478 #483 #523 #524 #546 Publication date March 1937 October 1938 May 1939 May 1939 November 1939 February 1940 April 1940 June 1940 December 1941 August 1942 April 1943 October 1948 February 1951 June 1952 January 1955 November 1955 July 1956 September 1958 May 1959 December 1961 January 1963 November 1965 May 1966 January 1967 October 1969 June 1970 May 1971 July 1974 March 1976 September 1976 May 1977 June 1977 July 1978 May 1979 February 1983 March 1983 January 1985

Detective Comics

Ventriloquist (Arnold Wesker) #583 Ratcatcher Anarky Renee Montoya Stephanie Brown Crispus Allen Sasha Bordeaux Nyssa Raatko Ventriloquist (Peyton) #585 #608 #642 #647 #742 #751 #783 #827 February 1988 April 1988 November 1989 March 1992 August 1992 March 2000 December 2000 August 2003 March 2007

Collected editions
The Detective Comics series has been collected into a number of trade paperbacks: • Batman Archives (seven volumes): • Vol. 1, collects #27-50, November 1997, ISBN 978-0930289607 • Vol. 2, collects #51-70, November 1997, ISBN 978-1563890000 • Vol. 3, collects #71-86, November 1997, ISBN 978-1563890994 • Vol. 4, collects #87-102, December 1998, ISBN 978-1563894145 • Vol. 5, collects #103-119, April 2001, ISBN 978-1563897252 • Vol. 6, collects #120-135, August 2005, ISBN 978-1401204099 • Vol. 7, collects #136-154, November 2007, ISBN 978-1401214937 • The Batman Chronicles (ten volumes): • Vol. 1, collects #27-38 and Batman #1, April 2005, ISBN 978-1401204457 • Vol. 2, collects #39-45, Batman #2-3, and The New York World's Fair Comics #2, September 2006, ISBN 978-1401207908 • Vol. 3, collects #46-50, Batman #4-5, and World's Finest Comics #1, May 2007, ISBN 978-1401213473 • Vol. 4, collects #51-56, Batman #6-5, and World's Finest Comics" #2-3, October 2007, ISBN 978-1401214623 • Vol. 5, collects #57-61, Batman #8-9, and World's Finest Comics #4, April 2008, ISBN 978-1401216825 • Vol. 6, collects #62-65, Batman #10-11, and World's Finest Comics #5-6, October 2008, ISBN 978-1401219611 • Vol. 7, collects #66-70, Batman #12-13, and World's Finest Comics #7, March 2009, ISBN 978-1401221348 • Vol. 8, collects #71-74, Batman #14-15, and World's Finest Comics #8-9, October 2009, ISBN 978-1401224844 • Vol. 9, collects #75-77, Batman #16-17, and World's Finest Comics #10, March 2010, ISBN 978-1401226459 • Vol. 10, collects #78-81, Batman #18-19, and World's Finest Comics #11, December 2010 • Batman: The Dynamic Duo Archives (two volumes): • Vol. 1, collects #327-333 and Batman #164-167, March 2003, ISBN 978-1563899324 • Vol. 2, collects #334-339 and Batman #168-171, June 2006, ISBN 978-1401207724 • Showcase Presents: Batman (four volumes): • • • • Vol. 1, collects #327-342 and Batman #164-174, August 2006, ISBN 978-1401210861 Vol. 2, collects #343-358 and Batman #175-186, June 2007, ISBN 978-1401213626 Vol. 3, collects #359-375 and Batman #189-202, July 2008, ISBN 978-1401217198 Vol. 4, collects #376-390 and Batman #202-215, July 2009, ISBN 978-1401223144

Detective Comics • Manhunter: The Special Edition, collects Manhunter backup stories from #437-442 and the Batman/Manhunter crossover in #443, Manhunter #1, and Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #100, June 1999, ISBN 978-1563893742 • Batman: Strange Apparitions, collects #469-476, #478-479, December 1999, ISBN 978-1563895005 • Batman: Year Two, collects #575-578, January 1990, ISBN 978-0930289492 • Batman: Blind Justice, collects #598-600, May 2005, ISBN 978-1563890475 • Batman: Anarky, collects #608-609, Batman Chronicles #1, Batman: Shadow of the Bat #40-41, and Anarky #1-4, February 1999, ISBN 978-1563894374 • Batman: Evolution, collects #743-750, August 2001, ISBN 978-1563897269 • Batman: The Man Who Laughs, collects #784-786 and Batman: The Man Who Laughs (one-shot), February 2009, ISBN 978-1401216269 (Hardcover: January 2008, ISBN 978-1401216221) • Batman: War Drums, collects #790-796 and Robin (vol. 2) #126-128, October 2004, ISBN 978-1401203412 • Batman: City of Crime, collects #800-808, #811-814, July 2006, ISBN 978-1401208974 • Batman: Face the Face, collects #817-820 and Batman #651-654, September 2006, ISBN 978-1401209100 • Batman: Detective, collects #821-826, April 2007, ISBN 978-1401212391 • Batman: Death and the City, collects #827-834, November 2007, ISBN 978-1401215750 • Batman: Private Casebook, collects #840-845 and DC Infinite Halloween Special, November 2009, ISBN 978-1401220150 (Hardcover: December 2008, ISBN 978-1401220099) • Batman: Heart of Hush, collects #846-850, March 2010, ISBN 978-1401221249 (Hardcover: April 2009, ISBN 978-1401221232) • Batwoman: Elegy, collects #854-860, June 2011, ISBN 978-1401231460 (Hardcover: July 2010, ISBN 978-1401226923)


[1] Action Comics has amassed more individual issues due to 42 issues (#601-642) in 1988–89 that were published weekly, and because of Detective Comics' bi-monthly run in the 1970s. The American record-holder for most issues published is Dell Comics' Four Color series, which amassed more than 1,300 issues over a 23-year run. [2] "Batman, Superman comic books set records for sale price" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2010/ 02/ 26/ AR2010022605938. html). The Washington Post. February 27, 2010. . Retrieved March 15, 2011. [3] "Batwoman takes over 'Detective'" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 14269. html). ICv2. February 9, 2009. . Retrieved February 10, 2009. [4] Batman Relaunch: New #1s for "Batgirl", "Batman", "Detective", "Catwoman", "Birds of Prey" (UPDATED) (http:/ / www. comicsalliance. com/ 2011/ 06/ 06/ new-dcu-batman-detective-batgirl), Comics Alliance, June 6, 2011

Further reading
• Jones, Gerard (2004). Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books. ISBN 0-4650-3657-0.

External links
• DC Comics official site ( • Detective Comics ( at the Grand Comics Database • Detective Comics ( at the Big Comic Book DataBase • Batman: Yesterday, Today, & Beyond - Comics ( • Detective Comics cover gallery (




Promotional art for Batman #608 (Oct. 2002, second printing) Pencils by Jim Lee and inks by Scott Williams Publication information Publisher DC Comics

First appearance Detective Comics #27 (May 1939) Created by Bob Kane (concept) [1] Bill Finger (developer, uncredited) In-story information Alter ego Bruce Wayne

Team affiliations Batman Family Justice League Wayne Enterprises Outsiders Partnerships Robin Batgirl Superman Matches Malone, Sir Hemingford Grey, Mordecai Wayne, The Insider • • • • • • • • • High human strength, agility, athleticism and peak conditions Skilled hand-to-hand combatant/Master Martial artist Use of high tech equipment, weapons & gadgets Stealth/sneaking/infiltration Genius-level intellect Proficient with technology Excellent observational skills Regarded as the world's greatest detective/crime solver Master strategist

Notable aliases Abilities

Batman is a fictional character created by the artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger. A comic book superhero, Batman first appeared in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939), and since then has appeared in many of DC Comics’ publications. Originally referred to as "the Bat-Man" and still referred to at times as "the Batman", he is additionally known as the "Caped Crusader",[2] the "Dark Knight",[2] and the "World's Greatest Detective,"[2] among other titles. In the original version of the story and the vast majority of retellings, Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, an American millionaire (later billionaire) playboy, industrialist, and philanthropist. Having witnessed the murder of his

Batman parents as a child, he swore revenge on crime, an oath tempered with the greater ideal of justice. Wayne trains himself both physically and intellectually and dons a bat-themed costume in order to fight crime.[3] Batman operates in the fictional American Gotham City, assisted by various supporting characters including his crime-fighting partner, Robin, his butler Alfred Pennyworth, the police commissioner Jim Gordon, and occasionally the heroine Batgirl. He fights an assortment of villains such as the Joker, the Riddler, the Penguin, Two-Face, Poison Ivy and Catwoman. Unlike most superheroes, he does not possess any superpowers; he makes use of intellect, detective skills, science and technology, wealth, physical prowess, martial arts skills, an indomitable will, fear, and intimidation in his continuous war on crime. Batman became a very popular character soon after his introduction and gained his own comic book title, Batman, in 1940. As the decades wore on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in the 1986 miniseries Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, by writer-artist Frank Miller, while the successes of Tim Burton's 1989 film Batman and Christopher Nolan's 2005 reboot Batman Begins also helped to reignite popular interest in the character.[4] A cultural icon, Batman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film, and appears on a variety of merchandise sold all over the world such as toys and video games. In May 2011, Batman placed 2nd on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time.[5]


Publication history
In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at the comic book division of National Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man."[6] Collaborator Bill Finger recalled "Kane had an idea for a character called 'Batman', and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of ... reddish tights, I believe, with boots ... no gloves, no gauntlets ... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign ... BATMAN."[7] Finger offered such suggestions as giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves, and removing the red sections from the original costume.[8] [9] [10] [11] Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Bruce, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock ... then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne."[12] He later said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar as well.[13] Various aspects of Batman's personality, character history, visual design, and equipment were inspired by contemporary popular culture of the 1930s, including movies, pulp magazines, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and even aspects of Kane himself.[14] Kane noted especially the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro (1920) and The Bat Whispers (1930) in the creation of the iconography associated with the character, while Finger drew inspiration from literary characters Doc Savage, The Shadow, and Sherlock Holmes in his depiction of Batman as a master sleuth and scientist.[15] Kane, in his 1989 autobiography, detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at'. He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look

Batman more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit; the wings, trunks, and mask were black. I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark gray to make it look more ominous'. The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action, and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope. Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.[13] Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics. This byline did not, originally say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits. Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman #169 (February 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career. He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by."[12] At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman co-creator. Jerry Robinson, who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit. He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with The Comics Journal: Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why... [he was] going to leave [Kane's employ]. ... [Kane] should have credited Bill as co-creator, because I know; I was there. ... That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman. As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer and artist.[16] Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a 1965 open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' [sic] as well as Robin and all the other leading villains and characters. This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue." Kane himself also commented on Finger's lack of credit. "The trouble with being a 'ghost' writer or artist is that you must remain rather anonymously without 'credit'. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator."[17] In 1989, Kane revisited Finger's situation, recalling in an interview, In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it [the comic strip] — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version. So Bill never asked me for it [the byline] and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he [Finger] died.[18]




Early years
The first Batman story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate," was published in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps,"[19] and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals. Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940, while continuing to star in Detective Comics. By that time, National was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.[20] The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved. Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, Batman made his debut in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Cover art by Bob Kane and lengthened the ears on the costume. "About a year later he was [21] almost the full figure, my mature Batman," Kane said. Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the boomerang-like batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle, the Batplane, in #31 (September 1939). The character's origin was revealed in #33 (November 1939), unfolding in a two-page story that establishes the brooding persona of Batman, a character driven by the death of his parents. Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals."[22] [23] [24] The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940) with the introduction of Robin, Batman's kid sidekick.[25] Robin was introduced, based on Finger's suggestion Batman needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk.[26] Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks."[27] The first issue of the solo spin-off series Batman was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent antagonists, the Joker and Catwoman, but for a story in which Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death. That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun.[28] By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos.[29] In the years following World War II, DC Comics "adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy." The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.[30]

1950s and early 1960s
Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman #76 (June 1952), Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discovers each other's secret identity.[31] Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running before.[32] The team-up of the characters was "a financial

Batman success in an era when those were few and far between";[33] this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986. Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent in 1954. Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupt the morals of the youth. Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers.[34] Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority. The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code.[35] It has also been suggested by scholars that the characters of Batwoman (in 1956) and the pre-Barbara Gordon Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel.[36] In the late 1950s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.[37] New characters such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite were introduced. Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. In 1960, Batman debuted as a member of the Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February 1960), and went on to appear in several Justice League comic series starting later that same year.


"New Look" Batman and camp
By 1964, sales on Batman titles had fallen drastically. Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether."[38] In response to this, editor Julius Schwartz was assigned to the Batman titles. He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 1964's Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), which was cover-billed as the "New Look". Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories. He brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia. The space aliens and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Batman's butler Alfred was killed off (though his death was quickly reversed due to fan response) while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson.[39] The debut of the Batman television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies.[40] Elements such as the character of Batgirl and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books."[41] Starting in 1969, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night."[42] O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after."[43] O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" (Detective Comics #395, January 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous."[44] Giordano said: "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well... Even today we're still using Neal's Batman with the long flowing cape and the pointy ears."[45] While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to help declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart and penciler Marshall Rogers in Detective Comics #471–476 (August 1977 – April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie

Batman Batman and be adapted for Batman: The Animated Series, which debuted in 1992.[46] Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985.[47]


The Dark Knight Returns and later
Frank Miller's limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (February–June 1986), which tells the story of a 50-year old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated the character. The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones.[48] The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.[49] That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.[50] One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman #404–407 (February–May 1987), in which Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli redefined the character's origins. Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara, and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically. The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes (see Batman: A Death in the Family).[51] The following year saw the release of Tim Burton's Batman feature film, which firmly brought the character back to the public's attention, grossing millions of dollars at the box office, and millions more in merchandising. However, the three sequels, Tim Burton's Batman Returns and director Joel Schumacher's Batman Forever and Batman & Robin, did not perform as well at the box office. The Batman movie franchise was rebooted with director and co-writer Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins in 2005 and The Dark Knight in 2008. In 1989, the first issue of Legends of the Dark Knight, the first new solo Batman title in nearly fifty years, sold close to a million copies.[52] The 1993 "Knightfall" story arc introduced a new villain, Bane, who critically injures Bruce Wayne. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit during Wayne's convalescence. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall," and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s. 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land", a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. At the conclusion of "No Man's Land", O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck. Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries ("The Long Halloween" and "Dark Victory") that pit an early in his career version of Batman against his entire rogue's gallery (most notably Two-Face, whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb) while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman, of which the former was the subject of intense debate and speculation amongst Batman fans. In 2003, Loeb teamed with artist Jim Lee to work on another mystery arc: "Batman: Hush" for the main Batman book. The twelve issue storyline saw Batman and Catwoman running the gauntlet against Batman's entire rogue's gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd, while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush. While the character of Hush failed to catch on with readers, the arc was a sales success for DC. As the storyline was Jim Lee's first regular
The first issue of Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, which redefined Batman in the 1980s. Cover art by Frank Miller.

Batman comic book work in nearly a decade, the series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman #500 (October 1993) and Jason Todd's appearance laid the groundwork for writer Judd Winick's subsequent run as writer on Batman, with another multi-issue epic, "Under the Hood," which ran from Batman #637–650. In 2005, DC launched All-Star Batman and Robin, a stand-alone comic series set outside the existing DC Universe. Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics[53] [54] though widely panned by critics for its writing.[55] [56] Starting in 2006, the regular writers on Batman and Detective Comics were Grant Morrison and Paul Dini, with Grant Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore (most notably, the science fiction themed storylines of the 1950s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training) into the character. Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R.I.P.", which brought Batman up against the villainous "Black Glove" organization, which sought to drive Batman into madness. "Batman R.I.P." segued into Final Crisis (also written by Morrison), which saw the apparent death of Batman at the hands of Darkseid. In the 2009 miniseries Batman: Battle for the Cowl, Wayne's former protégé Dick Grayson becomes the new Batman, and Wayne's son Damian becomes the new Robin.[57] [58] In June 2009, Judd Winick returned to writing Batman, while Grant Morrison was given his own series, titled Batman and Robin.[59] In 2010, the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day. Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman as well. Bruce decided to take his war on crime globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated. DC Comics would later announce that Grayson would be the main character in Batman, Detective Comics and Batman and Robin, while Wayne would be the main character in Batman Incorporated. Also, Bruce appeared in another ongoing series, Batman: The Dark Knight.


2011 Relaunch
In 2011, it was announced that the entire line of Batman books would be rebooted in September to match DC Comics' move to relaunch all their publications and reboot the DC continuity. Bruce will be the only character to be identified as Batman and will be featured in Batman, Detective Comics, Batman and Robin, and Batman: The Dark Knight. Dick will return to the mantle of Nightwing and appear in his own ongoing series.

Fictional character biography
Batman's history has undergone various revisions, both minor and major. Few elements of the character's history have remained constant. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades."[60] The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story.[61] As a little boy, Bruce Wayne is horrified and traumatized to see his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, being murdered by a mugger in front of his very eyes. This drives him to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman. Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number,"[61] a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.[62]



Golden Age
In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics #27, he is already operating as a crime fighter.[63] Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics #33 (Nov. 1939), and is later fleshed out in Batman #47. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor, with its wealthy splendor, and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill while on their way home from a movie theater. Bruce Wayne swears an oath to rid the city of the evil that had taken his parents' lives. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough. "Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot," Wayne remarks, "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible..." As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to take on the persona of Batman.[64] In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police. During this period Wayne has a fiancée named Julie Madison.[65] Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his sidekick, Robin. Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America,[66] although he, like Superman, is an honorary member,[67] and thus only participates occasionally. Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department.[68] During this time, butler Alfred Pennyworth arrives at Wayne Manor, and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities joins their service.[69]

Silver Age
The Silver Age of Comic Books in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of The Flash. Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature a large number of science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series. After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the 1960s, DC established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle (as shown in Superman Family #211) and fathers Helena Wayne, who, as the Huntress, becomes (along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin) Gotham's protector once Wayne retires from the position to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike The Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would on occasion make reference to stories from the Golden Age.[70] Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208, January/February 1969) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively.[71] [72] In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history. Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends. Batman becomes a founding member of the Justice League of America, appearing in its first story in 1960s Brave and the Bold #28. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different DC Universe superhero each month.

Batman In 1969, Dick Grayson attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics. Additionally, Batman also moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of the Joker as a homicidal psychopath, and the arrival of Ra's al Ghul, a centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity. In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing.[3] In the final issue of Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the Outsiders. He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title.


Modern Batman
After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline "Year One" from Batman #404–407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character.[73] Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. While Dick Grayson's past remains much the same, the history of Jason Todd, the second Robin, is altered, turning the boy into the orphan son of a petty crook, who tries to steal the tires from the Batmobile.[74] Also removed is the guardian Phillip Wayne leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred Pennyworth. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Various stories from Jeph Loeb and Matt Wagner also touch upon this era. In 1988's "Batman: A Death in the Family" storyline from Batman #426–429 Jason Todd, the second Robin, is killed by the Joker.[3] Subsequently Batman begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crime-fighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin.[75] In 2005, writers resurrected the Jason Todd character and have pitted him against his former mentor. Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, DC published both the "Death of Superman" storyline and "Knightfall" . In the Knightfall storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall," the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd," as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains to return to the role.[76] The 1994 company-wide crossover Zero Hour changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force. Similarly, the Waynes' killer is never caught or identified, effectively removing Joe Chill from the new continuity, rendering stories such as "Year Two" non-canon. Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. While Batman contributes greatly to many of the team's successes, the Justice League is largely uninvolved as Batman and Gotham City face catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States Government afterwards. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from

Batman legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land". Meanwhile, Batman's relationship with the Gotham City Police Department changed for the worse with the events of "Batman: Officer Down" and "Batman: War Games/War Crimes"; Batman's long-time law enforcement allies Commissioner Gordon and Harvey Bullock are forced out of the police department in "Officer Down", while "War Games" and "War Crimes" saw Batman become a wanted fugitive after a contingency plan of his to neutralize Gotham City's criminal underworld is accidentally triggered, resulting in a massive gang war that ends with the sadistic Black Mask the undisputed ruler of the city's criminal gangs. Other troubles come for Batman in the form of Lex Luthor (secretly behind the events of "No Man's Land"), who seeks revenge for Bruce Wayne cancelling all of his company's government contracts upon Luthor being elected President of the United States. Luthor arranges for the murder of Batman's on-again, off-again love interest Vesper (introduced in the mid-1990s) during the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs. Though Batman is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn states evidence against her employer. While he was unable to prove that Luthor was behind the murder of Vesper, Batman does get his revenge with help from Talia al Ghul in Superman/Batman #1–6: not only does he bring down Lex Luthor's Presidency but also engages in a hostile take-over of Luthor's corporate holdings, bankrupting the villain in the process. DC's 2005 limited series Identity Crisis reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories to prevent him from stopping the League from lobotomizing Dr. Light after he raped Sue Dibny. This served as a retcon for Batman's complete distrust for his fellow superheroes, which, under writers such as Mark Waid in the "Tower of Babel" arc in JLA, manifested itself in the form of Batman keeping extensive files on how to kill his fellow superheroes. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and if necessary, kill the other heroes. It is eventually co-opted by Maxwell Lord, who then kills superhero Blue Beetle to keep him from alerting the Justice League of the existence of Batman's murderous creation. The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. In Infinite Crisis #7, Alexander Luthor, Jr. mentions that in the newly rewritten history of the "New Earth", created in the previous issue, the murderer of Martha and Thomas Wayne – again, Joe Chill – was captured, thus undoing the retcon created after Zero Hour. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs, though at the very end Batman reaches his apparent breaking point when Alexander Luthor Jr. seriously wounds Nightwing. Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger. Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson (having recovered from his wounds), and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman."[77] In the Face the Face storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence. Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman fighting his inner demons.[78] Later on in 52, Batman is shown undergoing an intense meditation ritual in Nanda Parbat. This becomes an important part of the regular Batman title, which reveals that Batman is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind.[79] [80] At the end of the "Face the Face" story arc, Bruce officially adopts Tim (who had lost both of his parents at various points in the character's history) as his son.[81] The follow-up story arc in Batman, Batman & Son, introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series,[82] and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.[83] Grant Morrison's 2008 storyline, Batman R.I.P., featuring Batman being physically and mentally broken by the enigmatic "Black Glove," garnered much news coverage in advance of its highly promoted conclusion, which would supposedly feature the death of Bruce Wayne.[84] [85] The original intention was, in fact, not for Batman to die in the pages of "R.I.P.," but for the story to continue with the current DC event Final Crisis and have the death occur there.


Batman As such, a two-issue bridge arc was designed called "Last Rites" that showed Batman survive his helicopter crash into the Gotham City River and return to the Batcave, only to be summoned to the Hall of Justice by the JLA to help investigate Orion's death. This in turn led into the events of "Final Crisis" (which began publication during the conclusion of "Batman RIP"), where Batman is kidnapped by Granny Goodness. "Last Rites" told the tale of Batman being mentally probed by Darkseid's minions Mokkari and Simyon, in an attempt to cull the personality traits that make Batman the successful superhero that he is in order to transplant them into cloned bodies. The plan fails due to the clones, unable to handle the stress and grief Batman processes on a daily basis choose to kill themselves rather than endure such a tortured existence. The two-parter concludes with a major "Final Crisis" plot point, as it is revealed that Batman kept the bullet used to kill Orion in his utility belt.[86] The Batman's apparent death occurs in Final Crisis #6 when he confronts Darkseid. Batman announces that he will break his "no gun" rule while facing the villain. Wielding a sidearm made by Apokolips, Batman shoots Darkseid in the chest with a bullet made of Radion (the same bullet used to kill Orion), just as Darkseid unleashes his Omega Sanction, or the "death that is life", upon Batman.[87] However, the Omega Sanction does not actually kill its target, but sends its consciousness into parallel worlds. Although the presence of Batman's corpse would suggest that he is dead, at the conclusion of Final Crisis it is revealed that Batman has been sent to the distant past where he is able to watch the passing of Anthro.[88] [89] The three-issue Battle for the Cowl miniseries, ('cowl' referring to Batman's mask) sees those closest to Wayne compete for the "right" to assume the role of Batman. Eventually, Grayson reluctantly assumes the role.[90] Tim Drake takes on the identity of Red Robin, questing around the world searching for Bruce Wayne, who he believes is still alive.[91] In Blackest Night, the villain Black Hand is seen digging up Bruce Wayne's body, stealing his skull, and recruiting it into the Black Lantern Corps.[92] Deadman, whose body has also become a Black Lantern, rushes to aid the new Batman and Robin, along with Red Robin against the Gotham villains who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns, as well as their own family members.[93] The skull was briefly reanimated as a Black Lantern, reconstructing a body in the process by Black Hand's lord, Nekron, to move against the Justice League and the Titans. After the Black Lantern Batman created several black power rings to attach to and kill the majority of the Justice League, the skull was returned to normal after Nekron explained it served its purpose as an emotional tether. Nekron also referred to the skull as "Bruce Wayne", knowing that the body was not authentic.[94] In Batman and Robin's third storyline, "Blackest Knight," it is revealed that the body left behind at the end of Final Crisis #6 was actually a clone created from a failed attempt by Darkseid to amass an army of "Batmen". Because of this, the skull that was used by the Black Lantern Corps and reanimated by Nekron was a fake. Dick Grayson, thinking it was Bruce Wayne's real body, attempted to resurrect it in a Lazarus Pit only to be met with a fierce, mindless combatant. He then realized the truth about the body.[95] [96] Morrison's storyline continues with the miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne. In the miniseries, Bruce travels through time from the prehistoric era back to present-day Gotham. However, the Dark Knight must overcome unforeseen obstacles: unbeknownst to the hero, Darkseid turned him into a living doomsday weapon when he sent him back in time, which forces Batman's allies to stop him.[97] [97] [98] [99] Thanks to his allies, Batman is able to foil Darkseid's final plan and return to the present. After Bruce's return, he returns to his role as the Dark Knight on a global scale, thus allowing Dick and Damian to continue as Gotham's Dynamic Duo. This is seen in the new ongoing series Batman, Inc., where Batman will form an army of heroes that will serve as the Batman on every country of the world. To this end, Bruce publicly announces that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated." Also, Batman will be the protagonist in the new title Batman: The Dark Knight, which will be written and drawn by David Finch. This new title will also see Batman remaining in Gotham to investigate about the disappearance of his friend Dawn Golden. This new title will see Batman investigating themes about mysticism and magic.




Relaunch Batman
In September, Batman, Detective Comics and Batman: The Dark Knight will be relaunched to match DC Comics's move to relaunch every major book and reboot the DC continuity. In the new series, Bruce Wayne will be the sole character to be identified as Batman while Dick Grayson will return to the Nightwing codename.

Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession."[61] The details and tone of Batman comic books have varied over the years due to different creative teams. Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: "Julie Schwartz did a Batman in Batman and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other. Julie and Murray did not coordinate their efforts, did not pretend to, did not want to, were not asked to. Continuity was not important in those days."[100] The driving force behind Batman's character is from his childhood. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes."[101] Despite his trauma, he is driven to train to become a brilliant scientist[102] [103] and train his body into absolute physical perfection[102] [103] to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman, an inspired idea from Wayne's insight into the criminal mind.[102] [103] Another of Batman's characterizations is a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break laws himself. Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions".[104] The origin is the source of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures.[61] Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order."[105] Dressed as a bat, Batman deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime-fighting,[106] a fear that originates from the criminals' own guilty conscience.[107]

Bruce Wayne
In his secret identity, Batman is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy businessman who lives in Gotham City. To the world at large, Bruce Wayne is often seen as an irresponsible, superficial playboy who lives off his family's personal fortune (amassed when his family invested in Gotham real estate before the city was a bustling metropolis)[108] and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, a major private technology firm that he inherits. However, Wayne is also known for his contributions to charity, notably through his Wayne Foundation, a charity devoted to helping the victims of crime and preventing people from becoming criminals.[109] Bruce creates the playboy public persona to aid in throwing off suspicion of his secret identity, often acting dim-witted and self-absorbed to further the act.[110] Among the more noted measures he uses to maintain the facade is pretending he is a heavy drinker by claiming his glasses of ginger ale are strong beverages; Bruce is actually a strict teetotaler to maintain his physical fitness and mental acuity. Writers of both Batman and Superman stories have often compared the two within the context of various stories, to varying conclusions. Like Superman, the prominent persona of Batman's dual identities varies with time. Modern age comics have tended to portray "Bruce Wayne" as the facade, with "Batman" as the truer representation of his personality[111] (in counterpoint to the post-Crisis Superman, whose "Clark Kent" persona is the 'real' personality, and "Superman" is the 'mask').[112] [113] In Batman Unmasked, a television documentary about the psychology of the character, Associate Professor of Social Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and an adjunct behavioral scientist at the Rand Corporation Benjamin Karney, notes that Batman's personality is driven by Bruce Wayne's inherent humanity; that "Batman, for all its benefits and for all of the time Bruce Wayne devotes to it, is ultimately a tool for Bruce Wayne's efforts to make the world better".

Batman As noted in the Will Brooker book, Batman Unmasked, "the confirmation of Batman's identity lies with the young audience...he doesn't have to be Bruce Wayne; he just needs the suit and gadgets, the abilities, and most importantly the morality, the humanity. There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him... and they're never wrong."[114] Finger came up with the name "Bruce Wayne" for the superhero's secret identity. In Jim Steranko's History of the Comics, vol. 1, Bill Finger reveals, "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock...then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." In T. James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All, he explores the extent to which money is important in Bruce Wayne's life.[115]


Dick Grayson
While Wayne traveled through time to get back to the present, Dick Grayson became the new Batman. This was the second time he had taken on the mantle in Bruce Wayne's absence, albeit the first time (when Wayne was recovering from his broken back) reluctantly. After Wayne's "death", Dick stated that he had no problem becoming Batman, but Wayne had left a prerecorded message telling him not to take up the mantle and to continue fighting crime as Nightwing with Robin at his side. Realizing that Gotham still needed the Dark Knight, Dick retired his Nightwing mantle to become the new Batman. With Wayne's return and plans to launch Batman worldwide, Dick remained the Batman of Gotham City. After the events of Flashpoint, Dick will return to being Nightwing. In an interview with IGN, Morrison details that having Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as Robin will be a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin." Morrison explains his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero. The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans, and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe. So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed."[57]

Skills, abilities, and resources
There are a plethora of superheroes without superpowers, but of them all the Batman character relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess."[25] In the stories Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives.[116] In Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA, Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth," able to defeat a team of superpowered aliens by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates.[117] He is a master of disguise, often gathering information under the identity of Matches Malone, a notorious gangster. Additionally, the Batman has been repeatedly described as one of the greatest martial artists in the DC Universe, having either trained with or fought against the very best of them including such notables as Lady Shiva, Bronze Tiger, and Richard Dragon.

Batman's costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals.[118] The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through various stories and media, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape, a cowl covering most of the face featuring a pair of batlike ears, and a stylized bat emblem on the chest, and the ever-present utility belt. The costumes' colors are traditionally blue and grey,[118] although this colorization arose due to the way comic book art is colored.[118] Finger and Kane conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue.[118] This coloring has been claimed by Larry Ford, in Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film, to be a reversion of conventional color-coding symbolism, which sees "bad guys" wearing dark colors.[119] Batman's gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops. A yellow ellipse around the bat logo on the character's chest was added

Batman in 1964, and became the hero's trademark symbol, akin to the red and yellow "S" symbol of Superman.[120] The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist. Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same . . . Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it."[121]


Batman uses a large arsenal of specialized gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif. Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939) and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics #31 and #32 (September; October, 1939).[21] Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile, which is usually depicted as an imposing black car with large tailfins that suggest a bat's wings. Batman's other vehicles include the Batplane (aka the Batwing), Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle.

The 1966 television Batmobile was built by George Barris from a Lincoln Futura concept car.

In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in batmobile or batarang) is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series) stretched the practice to campy proportions. The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat-shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope. The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own. Batman keeps most of his field equipment in a utility belt. Over the years it is shown to contain a virtually limitless variety of crime-fighting tools. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in either pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it. A typical major exception to the range of Batman's equipment are conventional firearms, which he refuses to use on principle considering that weapon class was the instrument of his parents' murder. Modern depictions of Batman have him compromise for practicality by arming his vehicles mainly for the purpose of removing obstacles or disabling enemy vehicles.

When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman TV series, Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent cake cover on top. The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor, specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.



The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor. It serves as his command center for both local and global surveillance, as well as housing his vehicles and equipment for his war on crime. It also is a storeroom for Batman's memorabilia. In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat (issue #45) and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad. Of the heroes and villains who see the Batcave, few know where it is located.

Supporting characters
Batman's interactions with the characters around him, both heroes and villains, help to define the character.[61] Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon, Batman's ally in the Gotham City police, debuted along with Batman in Detective Comics #27 and has been a consistent presence since then. Later on, Batman gained Alfred as his butler and Lucius Fox as his business manager and apparently unwitting armorer. However, the most important supporting role in the Batman mythos is filled by the hero's young sidekick Robin.[122] The first Robin, Dick Grayson, eventually leaves his mentor and becomes the hero Nightwing, though he and Batman would still continue to work together. The second Robin, Jason Todd, is badly beaten and then Batman with his sidekick Robin. Painting by killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but later returns as an adversary. Alex Ross, based on the cover of Batman #9 by Tim Drake, the third Robin, first appeared in 1989 and went on to star Jack Burnley. in his own comic series. Alfred, Bruce Wayne's loyal butler, father figure, and one of the few to know his secret identity, "[lends] a homey touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.[123] Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman has often been paired in adventure with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and Superman/Batman series. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they have a mutually respectful but uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice. In Superman/Batman #3 (December 2003), Superman observes, "Sometimes, I admit, I think of Bruce as a man in a costume. Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him."[124] Batman is involved romantically with many women throughout his various incarnations. These range from society women such as Julie Madison, Vicki Vale, and Silver St. Cloud, to allies like Wonder Woman and Sasha Bordeaux, to even villainesses such as Catwoman and Talia al Ghul, with the latter of whom he sired a son, Damian, and with the former of whom sired a daughter, Helena (on Earth-Two). While these relationships tend to be short, Batman's attraction to Catwoman is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear. Authors have gone back and forth over the years as to how Batman manages the 'playboy' aspect of Bruce Wayne's personality; at different times he embraces or flees from the women interested in attracting "Gotham's most eligible bachelor." Other supporting characters in Batman's world include former Batgirl Barbara Gordon, Commissioner Gordon's daughter who, now using a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, serves the superhero community at large as the computer hacker Oracle; Azrael, a would-be assassin who replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman for a time; Cassandra Cain, an assassin's daughter who became the new Batgirl, Huntress, the sole surviving member of a mob family turned Gotham vigilante who has worked with Batman on occasion, Stephanie Brown, the daughter of a criminal who operated as the Spoiler and temporarily as Robin, Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's Canine partner;[125] and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp who idolizes Batman.[125]



Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains. The list is one of the most recognizable in popular culture, many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.[123] Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker, a psychopathic, clown-like criminal who, as a "personification of the irrational", represents "everything Batman [opposes]."[29] Other long time recurring antagonists include Catwoman, the Scarecrow, the Penguin, Two-Face, the Riddler, Mr. Freeze, Poison Ivy, and Ra's al Ghul, among many others.

A gathering of Batman's villains. Art by Jim Lee.

Cultural impact
Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness."[52] In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, The Guardian wrote, "Batman is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture. He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century."[126] In addition, media outlets have often used the character in trivial and comprehensive surveys — Forbes magazine estimated Bruce Wayne to be the 9th-richest fictional character with his $5.8 billion fortune, several places after Iron Man, who is at 6.[127] BusinessWeek listed the character as one of the ten most intelligent superheroes appearing in American comics.[128] Entertainment Weekly named Batman as one of The 20 All Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture.[129] He also was placed on AFI's 100 Years…100 Heroes and Villains from the 1989 feature film by the American Film Institute.[130]

In other media
The character of Batman has appeared in various media aside from comic books. The character has been developed as a vehicle for newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television, and several theatrical feature films. The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943.[131] That same year the character was adapted in the 15-part serial Batman, with Lewis Wilson becoming the first actor to portray Batman on screen. While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearance in The Adventures of Superman starting in 1945 on occasions when Superman voice actor Bud Collyer needed time off.[132] A second movie serial, Batman and Robin, followed in 1949, with Robert Lowery taking over the role of Batman. The exposure provided by these adaptations during the 1940s "helped make [Batman] a household name for millions who never bought a comic book."[132] In the 1964 publication of Donald Barthelme's collection of short stories "Come Back, Dr. Caligari", Barthelme wrote "The Joker's Greatest Triumph." Batman is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.[133]



The Batman television series, starring Adam West, premiered in January 1966 on the ABC television network. Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon, and a deliberate one, at that. The series ran for 120 episodes, ending in 1968. In between the first and second season of the Batman television series the cast and crew made the theatrical release Michael Keaton as Batman in Tim Burton's Batman (1966). The Kinks performed the theme song from the Batman Batman (1989) series on their 1967 album Live at Kelvin Hall. The popularity of the Batman TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman in the series The Batman/Superman Hour;[134] the Batman segments of the series were repackaged as The Adventures of Batman and Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977. From 1973 until 1986, Batman had a starring role in ABC's Super Friends series, which was animated by Hanna-Barbera. Olan Soule was the voice of Batman in all these series, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends by Adam West, who voiced the character in Filmation's 1977 series The New Adventures of Batman. In 1989, Batman returned to movie theaters in director Tim Burton's Batman starring Michael Keaton as the title character. The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history.[135] The film spawned three sequels: Batman Returns (1992), Batman Forever (1995), and Batman & Robin (1997), the latter two of which were directed by Joel Schumacher instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton as Batman with Val Kilmer and George Clooney, respectively. The second Schumacher film, while a box office success, failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned, causing Warner Bros. to cancel the planned fifth film, Batman Triumphant, and place the film series on hiatus. In 1992, Batman returned to television in Batman: The Animated Series, which was produced by Warner Bros. and broadcast on the Fox television network. Author Les Daniels described the series as "[coming] as close as any artistic statement has to defining the look of Batman for the 1990s."[136] The success of Batman: The Animated Series led to the animated spin-off film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993), as well as various other animated series set in the same continuity, including The New Batman Adventures, Batman Beyond, and Justice League. As with Batman: The Animated Series, each of Batman as he was depicted in Batman: The these productions featured Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman. In Animated Series (1992–1995) 2004, a new animated series titled The Batman made its debut with Rino Romano as the title character. In 2008, this show was replaced by another animated series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, with Diedrich Bader as Batman. In 2005, Batman Begins, a reboot of the film series, was released, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale as Batman. Its sequel, The Dark Knight (2008), set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.S., earning approximately $158 million,[137] and became the fastest film to reach the $400 million mark in the history of American cinema (eighteenth day of release).[138] These record breaking attendances saw The Dark Knight listed as the third-highest domestic grossing film of all time with $533 million, bested only by Titanic and Avatar.[139] Another sequel, The Dark Knight Rises, is expected to be released in 2012, and is said to be the final Batman film to feature Nolan and Bale as director and lead actor respectively.



Homosexual interpretations
Further information: Homosexuality in the Batman franchise Controversy has arisen over various sexual interpretations made regarding the content of Batman comics in the early decades. Homosexual interpretations have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist Fredric Wertham asserted in his Seduction of the Innocent in 1954 that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual." He claimed, "The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious." Wertham wrote, "Only someone ignorant of the fundamentals of psychiatry and of the psychopathology of sex can fail to realize a subtle atmosphere of homoeroticism which pervades the adventures of the mature 'Batman' and his young friend 'Robin.'"[140]

Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson. Panel from Batman #84 (June 1954), page 24.

Andy Medhurst wrote in his 1991 essay "Batman, Deviance, and Camp" that Batman is interesting to gay audiences because "he was one of the first fictional characters to be attacked on the grounds of his presumed homosexuality," "the 1960s TV series remains a touchstone of camp," and "[he] merits analysis as a notably successful construction of masculinity."[141] Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay. Denny O'Neil's Batman, Marv Wolfman's Batman, everybody's Batman all the way back to Bob Kane... none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view." Writer Devin Grayson has commented, "It depends who you ask, doesn't it? Since you're asking me, I'll say no, I don't think he is ... I certainly understand the gay readings, though."[142] While Frank Miller has described the relationship between Batman and the Joker as a "homophobic nightmare,"[143] he views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crimefighting, concluding, "He'd be much healthier if he were gay."[144] Burt Ward, who portrayed Robin in the 1960s television show, has also remarked upon this interpretation in his autobiography Boy Wonder: My Life in Tights; he writes that the relationship could be interpreted as a sexual one, with the show's double entendres and lavish camp also possibly offering ambiguous interpretation.[145] Such homosexual interpretations continue to attract attention. One notable example occurred in 2000, when DC Comics refused to allow permission for the reprinting of four panels (from Batman #79, 92, 105 and 139) to illustrate Christopher York's paper All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s.[146] Another happened in the summer of 2005, when painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive and sexually explicit poses.[147] DC threatened both artist and the Kathleen Cullen Fine Arts gallery with legal action if they did not cease selling the works and demanded all remaining art, as well as any profits derived from them.[148]



[1] Goulart, Ron, Comic Book Encyclopedia (Harper Entertainment, New York, 2004) ISBN 0-06-053816-3 [2] Fleisher, Michael L. The Encyclopedia of Comic Book Heroes Volume 1 Batman Collier Books 1976 ISBN 0-02-080090-8 p. 31 [3] Beatty, Scott (2008). "Batman". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 40–44. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. [4] "The Big Question: What is the history of Batman, and why does he still appeal?" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ film-and-tv/ features/ the-big-question-what-is-the-history-of-batman-and-why-does-he-still-appeal-873780. html). The Independent (London). July 22, 2008. . [5] "Batman – Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" (http:/ / www. ign. com/ top/ comic-book-heroes/ 2). IGN Entertainment. . Retrieved May 27, 2011. [6] Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0, pg. 18 [7] Steranko, Jim. The Steranko History of Comics 1. Reading, PA: Supergraphics, 1970. (ISBN 0-517-50188-0) [8] Daniels (1999), pg. 21, 23 [9] Havholm, Peter; Sandifer, Philip (Autumn 2003). "Corporate Authorship: A Response to Jerome Christensen". Critical Inquiry 30 (1): 192. doi:10.1086/380810. ISSN 00931896. [10] Biography by Joe Desris, in Batman Archives, Volume 3 (DC Comics, 1994), p. 223 ISBN 1-56389-099-2 [11] Daniels, Les (1999). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. pp. 21, 23. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0. [12] Kane, Andrae, p. 44 [13] Kane, Andrae, p. 41 [14] Daniels, Les. DC Comics: A Celebration of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York: Billboard Books/Watson-Guptill Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-8230-7919-8, pg. 23 [15] Boichel, Bill. "Batman: Commodity as Myth." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 6–7 [16] Groth, Gary (October 2005). "Jerry Robinson" (http:/ / www. tcj. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=350& Itemid=48). The Comics Journal 1 (271): 80–81. ISSN 0194-7869. . Retrieved November 18, 2007. [17] Comic Book Artist 3. Winter 1999. TwoMorrows Publishing [18] "Comic Book Interview Super Special: Batman" Fictioneer Press, 1989 [19] Daniels (1999), pg. 25 [20] Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5, pg. 19 [21] Daniels (1999), pg. 29 [22] Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p), Sheldon Moldoff (i). "The Batman and How He Came to Be" Detective Comics 33: 1–2 (November, 1939), DC Comics [23] Detective Comics #33 (http:/ / www. comics. org/ details. lasso?id=560) (November 1939), Grand Comics Database [24] John Jefferson Darowski, " The Mythic Symbols of Batman (http:/ / www. pdfdownload. org/ pdf2html/ pdf2html. php?url=http:/ / contentdm. lib. byu. edu/ ETD/ image/ etd2158. pdf& images=yes)" December 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2008. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5WSVLWqAU) on 2008-03-20. [25] Wright, pg. 17 [26] Daniels (1999), pg. 38 [27] Daniels (2003), pg. 36 [28] Daniels (1999), pg. 42 [29] Boichel, pg. 9 [30] Wright, pg. 59 [31] Edmund Hamilton (w), Curt Swan (p). "The Mightiest Team In the World" Superman #76 (June 1952), DC Comics [32] Daniels (1999), pg. 88 [33] Daniels (1999), pg. 91 [34] Daniels (1999), pg. 84 [35] Boichel, pg. 13 [36] York, Christopher (2000). "All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s". The International Journal of Comic Art 2 (2): 100–110. [37] Daniels (1999), pg. 94 [38] Daniels (1999), pg. 95 [39] Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "Gotham Gang Line-Up!" Detective Comics 328 (June, 1964), DC Comics [40] Benton, Mike. The Comic Book in America: An Illustrated History. Dallas: Taylor, 1989. ISBN 0-87833-659-1, pg. 69 [41] Daniels (1999), pg. 115 [42] Wright, pg. 233 [43] Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 18 [44] Daniels (1999), pg. 140

[45] Daniels (1999), pg. 141 [46] SciFi Wire (March 28, 2007): "Batman Artist Rogers is Dead" (http:/ / www. scifi. com/ scifiwire/ index. php?category=5& id=40748): "Even though their Batman run was only six issues, the three laid the foundation for later Batman comics. Their stories include the classic 'Laughing Fish' (in which the Joker's face appeared on fish); they were adapted for Batman: The Animated Series in the 1990s. Earlier drafts of the 1989 Batman movie with Michael Keaton as the Dark Knight were based heavily on their work." [47] Boichel, pg. 15 [48] Daniels (1999), pg. 147, 149 [49] Wright, pg. 267 [50] Daniels (1999), pg. 155, 157 [51] Daniels (1999), pg. 161 [52] Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William. "Introduction." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 1 [53] "Diamond's 2005 Year-End Sales Charts & Market Share" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060525013002/ http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ marketreport/ 05Year_End. html) (http). 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ marketreport/ 05Year_End. html) on May 25, 2006. . Retrieved October 26, 2006. [54] "July 2005 Sales Charts: All-Star Batman & Robin Lives Up To Its Name" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060907063905/ http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ marketreport/ july05sales. html) (http). 2005. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ marketreport/ july05sales. html) on September 7, 2006. . Retrieved October 26, 2006. [55] Review by Iann Robinson (http:/ / www. craveonline. com/ articles/ comics/ 04649326/ all_star_batman_and_robin. html), Crave Online [56] Review by William Gatevackes (http:/ / www. popmatters. com/ comics/ all-star-batman-robin-1-3. shtml), PopMatters, February 10, 2006 [57] Phillips, Dan (August 8, 2009). "Grant Morrison's New Batman and Robin" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 986/ 986031p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved August 8, 2009. [58] George, Richard (March 11, 2009). "Morrison discusses Batman and Robin" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 961/ 961488p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved August 6, 2009. [59] Wilkins, Alasdair (June 27, 2009). "Batman Is Reborn...With A Vengeance" (http:/ / io9. com/ 5303197/ batman-is-rebornwith-a-vengeance). io9. Gawker Media. . Retrieved August 6, 2009. [60] Pearson, pg. 185 [61] Pearson; Uricchio. "'I'm Not Fooled By That Cheap Disguise.'" Pg. 186 [62] Pearson, pg. 191 [63] Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate" Detective Comics #27 (May, 1939), DC Comics [64] Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). "The Batman Wars Against the Dirigible of Doom" Detective Comics #33 (November, 1939), DC Comics [65] She first appears in Detective Comics #31 (Sept. 1939) [66] Paul Levitz (w), Joe Staton (p). "The Untold Origin of the Justice Society" DC Special 29 (August/September 1977), DC Comics [67] Gardner Fox (w). All Star Comics 3 (Winter 1940/41), DC Comics [68] Bill Finger (w), Bob Kane (p). Batman 7 (November, 1941), DC Comics [69] Batman #16 (May 1943); his original last name, Beagle, is revealed in Detective Comics #96 (Feb. 1945) [70] One example is the Englehart/Rogers run of the late 1970s, which has editorial notes directing readers to issues such as Batman #1 [71] Bill Finger (w), Sheldon Moldoff (p). "The First Batman" Detective Comics 235 (September, 1956), DC Comics [72] Edmond Hamilton (w), Dick Sprang (p). "When Batman Was Robin" Detective Comics 226 (December, 1955), DC Comics [73] Miller, Frank; David Mazzucchelli and Richmond Lewis (1987). Batman: Year One. DC Comics. p. 98. ISBN 1-85286-077-4. [74] Max Allan Collins (w), Chris Warner (p). "Did Robin Die Tonight?" Batman 408 (June, 1987), DC Comics [75] Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p). "Master of Fear" Batman 457 (December, 1990), DC Comics [76] Dixon, Chuck. et al. "Batman: Prodigal". Batman 512–514, Shadow of the Bat 32–34, Detective Comics 679–681, Robin 11–13. New York: DC Comics, 1995. [77] "Infinite Crisis" #7, p. 32 [78] 52 #30 [79] Batman #673 [80] Batman #681 [81] James Robinson (w), Don Kramer (p). "Face the Face – Conclusion" Batman 654 (August, 2006), DC Comics [82] Brad Meltzer (w), Ed Benes (p). "The Tornado's Path" Justice League of America (vol. 2) 1 (August, 2006), DC Comics [83] Chuck Dixon (w), Julian Lopex (p). Batman and the Outsiders (vol. 2) 1 (November, 2007), DC Comics [84] Rothstein, Simon. " Batman killed by his OWN dad (http:/ / www. thesun. co. uk/ sol/ homepage/ showbiz/ film/ article1982939. ece)." November 28, 2008. The Sun. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5cfbusPBI) November 28, 2008. [85] Adams, Guy. " Holy smoke, Batman! Are you dead? (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ americas/ holy-smoke-batman-are-you-dead-1038882. html)" November 28, 2008, The Independent. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5cfcFZA9F) November 28, 2008. [86] Newsarama: "Batman R.I.P. – Finally?" (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ comics/ 010915-Batman-RIP-Finally. html) January 15, 2009 [87] Grant Morrison (w), J.G. Jones (p). "How to Murder the Earth" Final Crisis #6 (January 2009), DC Comics [88] Grant Morrison (w). Final Crisis #7 (January 2009), DC Comics


[89] "Grant Morrison: Final Crisis Exit Interview, Part 2" (http:/ / newsarama. com/ comics/ 020904-Grant-FC2. html). . [90] Tony Daniel (w). Battle for the Cowl #3 (May 2009), DC Comics [91] Chris Yost (w). Red Robin #1 (August 2009), DC Comics [92] Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night #0 (June 2009), DC Comics [93] Peter J. Tomasi (w). Blackest Night: Batman #1 (October 2009), DC Comics [94] Geoff Johns (w). Blackest Night #5 (January 2010), DC Comics [95] Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin #7 (January 2010), DC Comics [96] Grant Morrison (w). Batman and Robin #8 (February 2010), DC Comics [97] Geddes, John (December 9, 2009). "Grant Morrison on return of original Batman" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ comics/ 2009-12-09-morrison-bruce-wayne-st_N. htm?loc=interstitialskip). USA Today. . Retrieved December 10, 2009. [98] Segura, Alex (December 9, 2009). "DCU in 2010: The Return of Bruce Wayne hits in April" (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2009/ 12/ 09/ dcu-in-2010-the-return-of-bruce-wayne-hits-in-april/ ). The Source. DC . Retrieved December 10, 2009. [99] "Batman solicitations for May 2010 at DC's The Source" (http:/ / dcu. blog. dccomics. com/ 2010/ 02/ 11/ take-an-early-look-at-batman-titles-for-may/ #more-7397). February 11, 2010. . Retrieved June 17, 2010. [100] Pearson; Uricchio. "Notes from the Batcave: An Interview with Dennis O'Neil" p. 23 [101] Daniels (1999), pg. 31 [102] DETECTIVE Comics #33, November 1939, Bill Finger, Bob Kane [103] BATMAN #1 Spring 1940,Bill Finger, Bob Kane [104] Pearson, pg. 194 [105] Sharrett, Christopher. "Batman and the Twilight of the Idols: An Interview with Frank Miller." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 44 [106] Pearson, pg. 208 [107] Dennis O'Neil, Wizard Batman Special 1998 [108] Dennis O'Neil Batman: Knightfall. 1994, Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-09673-7 [109] Pearson, pg. 202 [110] Daniels, 1999, pg. ?? [111] Scott Beatty, The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. 2005, Quirk Books, p51. ISBN 1-59474-023-2 [112] Aichele, G. (1997). Rewriting Superman. In G. Aichele & T. Pippin (Eds.), The Monstrous and the Unspeakable: The Bible as Fantastic Literature (pp. 75–101). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. [113] Superman vol. 2, #53 [114] Brooker, Will (2001). Batman Unmasked (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=GNRreYO91ogC& pg=PA137& dq=Unmasking+ Batman). NY/London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 368. ISBN 0-8264-1343-9. . [115] T. James Musler. 2006. Unleashing the Superhero in Us All. [116] Mike Conray, 500 Great Comicbook Action Heroes. 2002, Collins & Brown. ISBN 1-84411-004-4 [117] Grant Morrison (w), Howard Porter (p). "War of the Worlds" JLA 3 (March, 1997), DC Comics [118] Daniels (1999) [119] Larry Ford, "Lighting and Color in the Depiction" in Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film, Stuart C. Aitken, Leo Zonn, Leo E. Zonn eds. 1994 Rowman & Littlefield, p132. ISBN 0-8476-7826-1 [120] Daniels (1999), pg. 98 [121] Daniels (1999), pg. 159–60 [122] Boichel, pg. 7 [123] Boichel, pg. 8 [124] Loeb, Jeph (w), McGuinness, Ed (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Running Wild" Superman/Batman 3 (December 2003), DC Comics [125] Daniels (1995), pg. 138 [126] Finkelstein, David; Macfarlane, Ross (March 15, 1999). "Batman's big birthday" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ g2/ story/ 0,,314504,00. html). The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). . Retrieved June 19, 2007. [127] Noer, Michael; David M. Ewalt (December 18, 2008). "In Pictures: The Forbes Fictional 15" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18/ bruce-wayne-money-oped-fictional1508-cx_de_1218batman. html). Forbes. . Retrieved April 13, 2009. [128] Pisani, Joseph (2006). "The Smartest Superheroes" (http:/ / images. businessweek. com/ ss/ 06/ 05/ smart_heroes/ index_01. htm). . Retrieved November 25, 2007. [129] "Entertainment Weekly's 20 All Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ gallery/ 0,,20268279_3,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved May 21, 2010. [130] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains" (http:/ / connect. afi. com/ site/ DocServer/ handv100. pdf?docID=246). . Retrieved May 21, 2010. [131] Daniels (1999), pg. 50 [132] Daniels (1999), pg. 64 [133] Olsen, Lance. "Linguistic Pratfalls in Barthelme", South Atlantic Review 5.4 (1986), pp. 69–77. Stable URL: http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 3199757 [134] Boichel, pg. 14


[135] "Batman (1989)" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo. com/ movies/ ?id=batman. htm). . Retrieved May 27, 2007. [136] Daniels (1999), pg. 178 [137] "Opening Weekends" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. com/ alltime/ weekends/ ). . Retrieved July 20, 2008. [138] "Fastest to $400 million" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. com/ alltime/ fastest. htm?page=400& p=. htm). . Retrieved August 6, 2008. [139] "All Time Domestic Box Office Results" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo. com/ alltime/ domestic. htm). . Retrieved November 23, 2008. [140] Wertham, Fredric. Seduction of the Innocent. Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1954. pg. 189–90 [141] Medhurst, Andy. "Batman, Deviance, and Camp." The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7, pg. 150 [142] "Is Batman Gay?" (http:/ / www. comicsbulletin. com/ panel/ 106070953757230. htm). . Retrieved December 28, 2005. [143] Sharrett, pg. 37–38 [144] Sharrett, pg. 38 [145] "Bruce Wayne: Bachelor" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050428003852/ http:/ / www. ninthart. com/ display. php?article=963). Ninth Art: Andrew Wheeler Comment. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ninthart. com/ display. php?article=963) on April 28, 2005. . Retrieved June 21, 2005. [146] Beatty, Bart (2000). "Don't Ask, Don't Tell: How Do You Illustrate an Academic Essay about Batman and Homosexuality?". The Comics Journal (228): 17–18. [147] "Mark Chamberlain (American, 1967)" (http:/ / www. artnet. com/ Galleries/ Artists_detail. asp?G=& gid=423822183& which=& aid=424157172& ViewArtistBy=online& rta=http:/ / www. artnet. com/ ag/ fulltextsearch. asp?searchstring=Mark+ Chamberlain). Artnet. . [148] "Gallery told to drop 'gay' Batman" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4167032. stm). BBC News (BBC). August 19, 2005. .


• Beatty, Scott; et al. (2005). The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual.. Quirk Books. ISBN 1-59474-023-2. • Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0 • Daniels, Les. DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch, 1995. ISBN 0-8212-2076-4 • Jones, Gerard. Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books, 1995. ISBN 0-465-03657-0 • Pearson, Roberta E.; Uricchio, William (editors). The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. Routledge: London, 1991. ISBN 0-85170-276-7 • Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5

External links
• • • • • • • • • • Official website ( Earth-1 Batman Index ( Earth-2 Batman Index ( Post-Crisis Batman Index ( Batman Bio at the Unofficial Guide to the DC Universe ( php?name=BATMAN) , a DC Comics wiki The Batman Wiki ( Another Earth-1 Batman Index ( – present) | Batman ( 01b8774d-ecd5-4843-b456-9bf100018b07/Batman(1940) Batman ( at the Open Directory Project

Stan Lee


Stan Lee
Stan Lee

Stan Lee in 2007 Born Stanley Martin Lieber December 28, 1922 New York City, US American Writer, editor, publisher, producer, actor, reality show host

Nationality Area(s)

Notable works Spider-Man Fantastic Four X-Men Avengers Hulk Iron Man Thor Daredevil Doctor Strange Awards Jack Kirby Hall of Fame Signature

Stan Lee (born December 28, 1922)[1] is an American comic book writer, editor, actor, producer, publisher, television personality, and the former president and chairman of Marvel Comics. In collaboration with several artists, most notably Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, he co-created Spider-Man, Iron Man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, and many other fictional characters, introducing complex, naturalistic characters[2] and a thoroughly shared universe into superhero comic books.[3] In addition, he headed the first major successful challenge to the industry's censorship organization, the Comics Code Authority, and forced it to reform its policies.[4] Lee subsequently led the expansion of Marvel Comics from a small division of a publishing house to a large multimedia corporation. He was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995.

Stan Lee


Early life and career
Stan Lee was born Stanley Martin Lieber in New York City on December 28, 1922, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents, Celia (née Solomon) and Jack Lieber,[1] [5] at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan.[1] His father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, and the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue,[6] in Washington Heights, Manhattan. When Lee was nearly 9, his only sibling, brother Larry Lieber, was born.[7] He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies, particularly those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles.[8] By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in a one-bedroom apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back", with him and his brother sharing a bedroom and his parents using a foldout couch.[7] Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in The Bronx,[9] where his family had moved next. A voracious reader who enjoyed writing as a teen, he has said that as a youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center; delivering sandwiches for the Jack May pharmacy to offices in Rockefeller Center; working as an office boy for a trouser manufacturer; ushering at the Rivoli Theater on Broadway; and selling subscriptions to the New York Herald Tribune newspaper. He graduated high school early, at age 16½ in 1939, and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project. With the help of his uncle, Robbie Solomon,[10] [11] Lee that same year became an assistant at the new Timely Comics division of pulp magazine and comic-book publisher Martin Goodman's company.[11] Timely, by the 1960s, would evolve into Marvel Comics. Lee, whose cousin Jean[12] was Goodman's wife, was formally hired by Timely editor Joe Simon.[11] His duties were prosaic at first. "In those days [the artists] dipped the pen in ink, [so] I had to make sure the inkwells were filled", Lee recalled in 2009. "I went down and got them their lunch, I did proofreading, I erased the pencils from the finished pages for them".[13] Marshaling his childhood ambition to be a writer, young Stanley Lieber made his comic-book debut with the text filler "Captain America Foils the Traitor's Revenge" in Captain America Comics #3 (May 1941), using the pseudonym "Stan Lee", which years later he would adopt as his legal name. Lee later explained in his autobiography and numerous other sources that he had intended to save his given name for more literary work. This initial story also introduced Captain America's trademark ricocheting shield-toss, which immediately became one of the character's signatures.[14]

A text filler in Captain America Comics #3 (May 1941) was Lee's first published work. Cover art by Alex Schomburg.

He graduated from writing filler to actual comics with a backup feature, "'Headline' Hunter, Foreign Correspondent", two issues later. Lee's first superhero co-creation was the Destroyer, in Mystic Comics #6 (Aug 1941). Other characters he created during this period fans and historians call the Golden Age of comics include Jack Frost, debuting in USA Comics #1 (Aug. 1941), and Father Time, debuting in Captain America Comics #6 (Aug. 1941).[15] When Simon and his creative partner Jack Kirby left late in 1941, following a dispute with Goodman, the 30-year-old publisher installed Lee, just under 19 years old, as interim editor.[16] The youngster showed a knack for the business that led him to remain as the comic-book division's editor-in-chief, as well as art director for much of that time, until 1972, when he would succeed Goodman as publisher.[17] [18]

Stan Lee Lee entered the United States Army in early 1942 and served stateside in the Signal Corps, writing manuals, training films, and slogans, and occasionally cartooning. His military classification, he says, was "playwright"; he adds that only nine men in the U.S. Army were given that title.[19] Vincent Fago, editor of Timely's "animation comics" section, which put out humor and funny animal comics, filled in until Lee returned from his World War II military service in 1945 and rented the top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan.[20] He married Joan Clayton Boocock on December 5, 1947,[1] and in 1949, the couple bought a two-story, three-bedroom home at 1084 West Broadway in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952.[21] By this time, the couple had daughter Joan Celia "J.C." Lee, born in 1950; another child, Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953.[1] Lee by this time had bought a home at 226 Richards Lane in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, where he and his family lived from 1952 to 1980,[22] including the 1960s period when Lee and his artist collaborators would revolutionize comic books. In the mid-1950s, by which time the company was now generally known as Atlas Comics, Lee wrote stories in a variety of genres including romance, Westerns, humor, science fiction, medieval adventure, horror and suspense. By the end of the decade, Lee had become dissatisfied with his career and considered quitting the field.[23] [24]


Marvel revolution
In the late 1950s, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz revived the superhero archetype and experienced a significant success with its updated version of the Flash, and later with super-team the Justice League of America. In response, publisher Martin Goodman assigned Lee to create a new superhero team. Lee's wife urged him to experiment with stories he preferred, since he was planning on changing careers and had nothing to lose.[23] [24] Lee acted on that advice, giving his superheroes a flawed humanity, a change from the ideal archetypes that were typically written for pre-teens. His heroes could have bad tempers, melancholy fits, vanity, greed, etc. They bickered amongst themselves, worried about paying their bills and impressing girlfriends, got bored or even were sometimes physically ill. Before him, most superheroes were idealistically perfect people with no serious, lasting problems.[25] The first superhero group Lee and artist Jack Kirby created was the The Fantastic Four No.1 (November 1961). Fantastic Four. The team's immediate popularity led Lee and Marvel's Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciller) and an illustrators to produce a cavalcade of new titles. With Kirby primarily, unconfirmed inker. Lee created the Hulk, Iron Man, Thor and the X-Men; with Bill Everett, Daredevil; and with Steve Ditko, Doctor Strange and Marvel's most successful character, Spider-Man. Comics historian Peter Sanderson wrote that in the 1960s: DC was the equivalent of the big Hollywood studios: After the brilliance of DC's reinvention of the superhero ... in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it had run into a creative drought by the decade's end. There was a new audience for comics now, and it wasn't just the little kids that traditionally had read the books. The Marvel of the 1960s was in its own way the counterpart of the French New Wave.... Marvel was pioneering new methods of comics storytelling and characterization, addressing more serious themes, and in the process keeping and attracting readers in their teens and beyond. Moreover, among this new generation of readers were people who wanted to write or draw comics themselves, within the new style that Marvel had pioneered, and push the creative envelope still further.[26]

Stan Lee Stan Lee's Marvel revolution extended beyond the characters and storylines to the way in which comic books engaged the readership and built a sense of community between fans and creators.[27] [28] Lee introduced the practice of including a credit panel on the splash page of each story, naming not just the writer and penciller but also the inker and letterer. Regular news about Marvel staff members and upcoming storylines was presented on the Bullpen Bulletins page, which (like the letter columns that appeared in each title) was written in a friendly, chatty style. Throughout the 1960s, Lee scripted, art-directed, and edited most of Marvel's series, moderated the letters pages, wrote a monthly column called "Stan's Soapbox," and wrote endless promotional copy, often signing off with his trademark phrase "Excelsior!" (which is also the New York state motto). To maintain his taxing workload, yet still meet deadlines, he used a system that was used previously by various comic-book studios, but due to Lee's success with it, became known as the "Marvel Method" or "Marvel style" of comic-book creation. Typically, Lee would brainstorm a story with the artist and then prepare a brief synopsis rather than a full script. Based on the synopsis, the artist would fill the allotted number of pages by determining and drawing the panel-to-panel storytelling. After the artist turned in penciled pages, Lee would write the word balloons and captions, and then oversee the lettering and coloring. In effect, the artists were co-plotters, whose collaborative first drafts Lee built upon. Because of this system, the exact division of creative credits on Lee's comics has been disputed, especially in cases of comics drawn by Kirby and Ditko. Similarly, Lee shares co-creator credit with Kirby on the two Fantastic Four films, while also sharing the same credit with Ditko with the Spider-Man feature film series.


Amazing Fantasy#15 (1962), the first appearance of Spider-Man. Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciller) & Steve Ditko (inker).

In 1971, Lee indirectly reformed the Comics Code. The US Department of Health, Education and Welfare asked Lee to write a story about the dangers of drugs and Lee wrote a story in which Spider-Man's best friend becomes addicted to pills. The three-part story was slated to be published in Amazing Spider-Man #96–98, but the Comics Code Authority refused it because it depicted drug use;[29] the story context was considered irrelevant.[30] [31] [32] With his publisher's approval, Lee published the comics without the CCA seal.[33] [34] The comics sold well and Marvel won praise for its socially conscious efforts.[35] The CCA subsequently loosened the Code to permit negative depictions of drugs, among other new freedoms.[36] Lee also supported using comic books to provide some measure of social commentary about the real world, often dealing with racism and bigotry. "Stan's Soapbox", besides promoting an upcoming comic book project, also addressed issues of discrimination, intolerance, or prejudice.[37] [38] In addition, Lee took to using sophisticated vocabulary for the stories' dialogue to encourage readers to learn new words. Lee has justified this by saying: "If a kid has to go to a dictionary, that's not the worst thing that could happen."[36]

Stan Lee


Later career
In later years, Lee became a figurehead and public face for Marvel Comics. He made appearances at comic book conventions around America, lecturing at colleges and participating in panel discussions, and by now owning a vacation home on Cutler Lane in Remsenburg, New York[39] and, from 1975 to 1980, a two-bedroom condominium on the 14th floor of 220 East 63rd Street in Manhattan.[40] He moved to California in 1981 to develop Marvel's TV and movie properties. He has been an executive producer for, and has made cameo appearances in Marvel film adaptations and other movies. He and his wife bought a home in West Hollywood, California previously owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer, Don Wilson.[41] Lee was briefly president of the entire company, but soon stepped down to become publisher instead, finding that being president was too much about numbers and finance and not enough about the creative process he enjoyed.[1] Peter Paul and Lee began to start a new Internet-based superhero creation, production and marketing studio, Stan Lee Media, in 1998. It Signed photo of Lee at the 1975 San Diego grew to 165 people and went public, but near the end of 2000, Comic Con. investigators discovered illegal stock manipulation by Paul and corporate officer Stephan Gordon.[42] Stan Lee Media filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February 2001.[43] Paul was extradited to the U.S. from Brazil, and pleaded guilty to violating SEC Rule 10b-5 in connection with trading of his stock in Stan Lee Media.[44] [45] Lee was never implicated in the scheme. Some of the Stan Lee Media projects included the animated Web series The 7th Portal where he voiced the character Izayus; The Drifter; and The Accuser. The 7th Portal characters were licensed to an interactive 3-D film attraction in four Paramount theme parks. In the 2000s, Lee did his first work for DC Comics, launching the Just Imagine... series, in which Lee reimagined the DC superheroes Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern and the Flash. Lee created the risqué animated superhero series Stripperella for Spike TV. In 2004 he announced a superhero program that would feature Ringo Starr, the former Beatle, as the lead character.[46] Additionally, in August of that year, Lee announced the launch of Stan Lee's Sunday Comics,[47] hosted by, where monthly subscribers could read a new, updated comic and "Stan's Soapbox" every Sunday. The column has not been updated since February 15, 2005. In 2005, Lee, Gill Champion and Arthur Lieberman formed POW! (Purveyors of Wonder) Entertainment to develop film, television and video game properties. POW! president and CEO Champion said in 2005 that Lee was creating a new superhero, Foreverman, for a Paramount Pictures movie, in tandem with producer Robert Evans and Idiom Films, with Peter Briggs hired to collaborate with Lee on the screenplay.[48] In 2006, Marvel commemorated Lee's 65 years with the company by publishing a series of one-shot comics starring Lee himself meeting and interacting with many of his co-creations, including Spider-Man, Doctor Strange, the Thing, Silver Surfer and Doctor Doom. These comics also featured short pieces by such comics creators as Joss Whedon and Fred Hembeck, as well as reprints of classic Lee-written adventures. In 2007, POW! started a series of direct-to-DVD animated films under the Stan Lee Presents banner. Each film focuses on a new superhero, created by Stan Lee for the series. The first two releases were Mosaic and The Condor. In June of that year, Walt Disney Studios entered into an exclusive multi-year first-look deal with POW!

Stan Lee Entertainment.[49] On March 15, 2007, Stan Lee Media's new president, Jim Nesfield, filed a lawsuit against Marvel Entertainment for $5 billion, claiming that the company is co-owner of the characters that Lee created for Marvel.[50] On June 9, 2007, Stan Lee Media sued Lee; his newer company, POW! Entertainment; POW! subsidiary QED Entertainment; and other former Stan Lee Media staff at POW![51] In 2008, Lee wrote humorous captions for the political fumetti book Stan Lee Presents Election Daze: What Are They Really Saying?.[52] In April of that year, at the New York Comic Con, Viz Media announced that Lee and Hiroyuki Takei were collaborating on the manga Karakuridôji Ultimo, from parent company Shueisha.[53] That same month, Brighton Partners and Rainmaker Animation announced a partnership POW! to produce a CGI film series, Legion of 5.[54] That Lee at the San Diego Comic-Con International in July 2010. same month, Virgin Comics announced Lee would create a line of [55] superhero comics for that company. He is also working on a TV [56] adaptation of the novel Hero. He wrote the foreword to the 2010 non-fiction e-book memoir Skyscraperman by skyscraper fire-safety advocate Dan Goodwin, who had climbed skyscrapers dressed as Spider-Man.[57] In 2009, he and the Japanese company Bones produced its first manga feature, Heroman, serialized in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan; the feature was adapted to anime in April 2010.[58] [59] In October 2010, Guardian Media Entertainment, a partnership of Lee, SLG Entertainment and NHL Enterprises, created hockey-themed superheroes called "Guardians" for each of the 30 teams in the National Hockey League. The venture includes a graphic novel.[60] [61] Lee made a guest appearance as himself in the season-seven episode "Bottom's Up" of the TV series Entourage. He is set to guest-star in season five of Eureka.[62] In 2011, Lee was writing a superhero comic-book adaptation of Romeo and Juliet, titled Romeo and Juliet: The War in Mid-2011, as well as a live-action musical, The Yin and Yang Battle of Tao.[63]


Lee's favorite authors include Stephen King, H. G. Wells, Mark Twain, Arthur Conan Doyle, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and Harlan Ellison.[64] He also likes movies starring Bruce Lee (no relation).[65]

Awards and honors
• Lee has received several awards for his work, including being inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995. • On November 17, 2008, Stan Lee was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[66] [67] • The County of Los Angeles declared October 2, 2009 Stan Lee Day.[68] • The City of Long Beach declared October 2, 2009 Stan Lee Day.[68] • Lee won the Comic-Con Icon Award 2009 at Scream Awards.[69] • Lee received the 2,428th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on January 4, 2011.

Stan Lee


Stan Lee Foundation
The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy, education and the arts. Its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy, culture and the arts.[70]

Action figure
At the 2007 Comic-Con International, Marvel Legends introduced a Stan Lee action figure. The body beneath the figure's removable cloth wardrobe is a re-used mold of a previously released Spider-Man action figure, with only minor changes.[71]

Fictional portrayals
Stan Lee and his collaborator Jack Kirby appear as themselves in The Fantastic Four No.10 (January 1963), the first of several appearances within the fictional Marvel Universe.[72] The two are depicted as similar to their real-world counterparts, creating comic books based on the "real" adventures of the Fantastic Four. Kirby later portrayed himself, Lee, production executive Sol Brodsky, and Lee's secretary Flo Steinberg as superheroes in What If #11, "What If the Marvel Bullpen Had Become the Fantastic Four?", in which Lee played the part of Mister Fantastic. Lee has also made numerous cameo appearances in many Marvel titles, appearing in audiences and crowds at many characters' ceremonies and parties, and hosting an old-soldiers reunion in Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos No.100 (July 1972). Lee appeared, unnamed, as the priest at Luke Cage and Jessica Jones' wedding in New Avengers Annual #1. He pays his respects to Karen Page at her funeral in the Daredevil "Guardian Devil" story arc, and appears in The Amazing Spider-Man (June 1977). In Marvel's July 1997 "Flashback" event, a top-hatted caricature of Lee as a ringmaster introduced stories which Lee and Kirby (lower left) as themselves on the covers of The detailed events in Marvel characters' lives before they Fantastic Four No.10 (Jan. 1963). Art by Kirby & Dick Ayers. became superheroes, in special "-1" editions of many Marvel titles. The "ringmaster" depiction of Lee was originally from Generation X No.17 (July 1996), where the character narrated a story set primarily in an abandoned circus. Though the story itself was written by Scott Lobdell, the narration by "Ringmaster Stan" was written by Lee himself, and the character was drawn in that issue by Chris Bachalo. Bachalo's depiction of "Ringmaster Stan" was later used in the heading of a short-lived revival of the "Stan's Soapbox" column, which evolved into a question & answer format. In his given name of Stanley Lieber, Stan Lee appears briefly in Paul Malmont's 2006 novel The Chinatown Death Cloud Peril. Lee and other comics creators are mentioned in Michael Chabon's 2000 novel about the comics industry The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay.

Stan Lee On one of the last pages of Truth: Red, White, and Black, Lee appears in a real photograph among other celebrities on a wall of the Bradley home. In Stan Lee Meets Superheroes, Stan Lee comes in to contact with some of his favorite creations. The series was written by Lee himself. The appearance of Dr. Dunstan in the manga series Karakuri Dôji Ultimo is based on Lee. Stan Lee and Jack Kirby appear as professors in Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #19.


Film and television appearances
Marvel film properties
Lee has had cameo appearances in many films based on Marvel properties: • In the TV-movie The Trial of the Incredible Hulk (1989), Lee's first appearance in a Marvel movie or TV project is as a jury foreman in the trial of Dr. David Banner. • In X-Men (2000), Lee appears as a hotdog stand vendor on the beach when Senator Kelly emerges naked onshore after escaping from Magneto. • In Spider-Man (2002), he appeared during Spider-Man's first battle with the Green Goblin, pulling a little girl away from falling Lee as Willie Lumpkin in Fantastic Four, 2005. debris. In the DVD's deleted scenes, Lee has an expanded cameo in which he plays a street vendor who tries to sell Peter Parker a pair of sunglasses "just like the X-Men wear." • In Daredevil (2003), as a child, Matt Murdock stops Lee from crossing the street and getting hit by a bus. • In Hulk (2003), he appears walking alongside former TV-series Hulk Lou Ferrigno in an early scene, both as security guards at Bruce Banner's lab. It was his first speaking role in a film based on one of his characters. • In Spider-Man 2 (2004), Lee again pulls an innocent person away from danger during Spider-Man's first battle with Doctor Octopus. In a hidden scene shown in the bloopers section, Stan has another cameo, where he says "Look, Spider-man stole that child sneakers" but he messes up the last word. • In Fantastic Four (2005), Lee appears for the first time as a character from the comics, in a role credited as Willie Lumpkin, the mail carrier who greets the Fantastic Four as they enter the Baxter Building. • In X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), Lee and Chris Claremont appear as two of Jean Grey's neighbors in the opening scenes set 20 years ago. Lee, credited as "Waterhose man," is watering the lawn when Jean telekinetically redirects the water from the hose into the air. • In Spider-Man 3 (2007), Lee appears in a credited role as "Man in Times Square". He stands next to Peter Parker, both of them reading a news bulletin about Spider-Man, and commenting to Peter that, "You know, I guess one person can make a difference". He then says his catch phrase, "'Nuff said." • In Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007), Lee appears as himself at Reed Richards' and Susan Storm's first wedding, being turned away by a security guard for not being on the guest list. In Fantastic Four Annual No.3 (1965), in which the couple married, Lee and Jack Kirby are similarly turned away. • In Iron Man (2008), Lee (credited as "Himself") appears at a gala cavorting with three blond women, where Tony Stark mistakes him for Hugh Hefner.[73] In the theatrical release of the film, Stark simply greets Lee as "Hef" and

Stan Lee moves on without seeing Lee's face; another version of the scene was filmed where Stark realizes his mistake, but Lee graciously responds, "That's okay, I get this all the time."[74] In The Incredible Hulk (2008), Lee appears as a hapless citizen who accidentally ingests a soft drink mixed with Bruce Banner's blood, leading to the discovery of Dr. Banner's location in a bottling plant in Brazil. In Iron Man 2 (2010), during the Stark Expo, Lee, wearing suspenders and a red shirt and black and purple tie, is greeted by Tony Stark as "Larry King". In Thor (2011), Lee appears among many people at the site where Thor's hammer Mjolnir lands on earth. He tears the back off his pickup truck in an attempt to pull Mjolnir out of the ground with a chain and causes everyone to laugh by asking, "Did it work?". In Captain America: The First Avenger (2011), Lee is again used as comic relief, this time portraying a general in World War II. When Captain America/Steve Rogers is queued to a stage to receive an award, a man goes on stage to tell the presenter that Rogers will not be attending. The general mistakes the man for Rogers, commenting, "I thought he'd be taller." Lee said in April 2011, "Marvel Studios has upgraded my cameo for the Captain America movie! They’ve given me one more word of dialogue than originally planned![75] In The Avengers (2012), Lee will have a cameo unless the filmmakers "shoot it on the moon".[76] In The Amazing Spider-Man (2012), Lee is scheduled to have a cameo in an action scene where he plays a librarian oblivious to the fight between Spider-Man and the Lizard happening behind him.[77]


• • •

• •

Warner/DC properties
• In the original broadcast airing of the Superman: The Animated Series episode "Apokolips... Now! Part 2", an animated Stan Lee was visible mourning the death of Daniel "Terrible" Turpin, a character based on Marvel Comics Universe co-creator and Marvel main artist Jack Kirby. The scene also included such Marvel characters as the Thing, Reed Richards, Sue Storm, Nick Fury, Johnny Storm, Steve Rogers, Tony Stark, and Peter Parker, Jack Kirby DC characters as Big Barda, Scott Free, Orion, Kamandi, comics artists Bruce Timm, Alex Ross and his father Norman Ross, and TV producers and writers Glen Murakami, Dan Riba, Paul Dini, Alan Burnett and Mark Evanier. This shot appeared in the completed episode and was aired on February 7, 1998 in WB Kids, but was later modified to remove the likeness of Marvel characters in the Superman: The Animated Volume 3 DVD box set.[78]

• Dr.Pepper television advertisements with Thor tie-in.
Stan Lee mourning on Dan Turpin's funeral. Above TV capture from original episode and below storyboard art by Bruce Timm and text comments by Paul Dini.

Other film, TV, and video
• He appeared as Dr. Lee in the Eureka episode titled "Glimpse".

• He is the host of the 2010 History Channel documentary series Stan Lee's Superhumans. • Lee makes a cameo appearance as the "Three Stooges Wedding Guest" in the 2004 Disney film The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement. • Lee hosted and judged contestants in the SyFy series Who Wants to Be a Superhero? • Lee appears with director Kevin Smith and 2000s Marvel editor-in-chief Joe Quesada in the DVD program Marvel Then & Now: An Evening with Stan Lee and Joe Quesada, hosted by Kevin Smith.

Stan Lee • One of Lee's earliest contributions to animation based on Marvel properties was narrating the 1980s Incredible Hulk animated series, always beginning his narration with a self-introduction and ending with "This is Stan Lee saying, Excelsior!" Lee had previously narrated the "Seven Little Superheroes" episode of Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, which the Hulk series was paired with for broadcast. • Lee did the narration for the original 1989 X-Men animated series pilot titled X-Men: Pryde of the X-Men. • Lee was interviewed on the History Channel Show Superhuman by Daniel Browning Smith, who held several Guinness Records for extreme flexibility[79] due to having Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, a genetic condition affecting collagen formation. Smith had created his own comic book to display his own struggles as an outcast for his flexibility, and legitimately surprised Lee with a quick demonstration of his talent. • In the animated series Jim Henson's Muppet Babies, Lee plays himself in a live-action scene of the "Comic Capers" episode. • Lee was an executive producer of the 1990s animated TV series Spider-Man. He appeared as himself in animated form in the series finale episode titled "Farewell, Spider-Man". Spider-Man is transported by Madame Web into the "real" world where he is a fictional character. He meets Lee and the two swing around until Spider-Man drops him off on top of a building; Madame Web appears and brings Spider-Man back to his homeworld. Realizing he is stuck on a roof, Lee muses, hoping the Fantastic Four will show up and lend a hand. • He also voices the character "Frank Elson" in an episode of Spider-Man: The New Animated Series series broadcast by MTV in 2003, and titled "Mind Games" (Parts 1 & 2, originally aired on August 15 & 22, 2003). • He voiced a loading dock worker named Stan on The Spectacular Spider-Man in the episode "Blueprints". • Lee has an extensive cameo in the Kevin Smith film Mallrats. He once again plays himself, this time visiting "the" mall to sign books at a comic store. Later, he takes on the role of a sage-like character, giving Jason Lee's character, Brodie Bruce (a longtime fan of Lee's), advice on his love life. He also recorded interviews with Smith for the non-fiction video Stan Lee's Mutants, Monsters, and Marvels (2002). • Lee appeared as himself in an extended self-parodying sketch on the episode "Tapping a Hero" of Robot Chicken. • Lee appears as himself in writer-director Larry Cohen's The Ambulance (1990), in which Eric Roberts plays an aspiring comics artist. • In The Simpsons episode "I Am Furious Yellow" (April 28, 2002), Lee voices the animated Stan Lee, who is a prolonged visitor to Comic Book Guy's store. He asks if Comic Book Guy is the stalker of Lynda Carter – the star of the 1970s show Wonder Woman – and shows signs of dementia, such as breaking a customer's toy Batmobile by trying to cram a Thing action figure into it (claiming that he "made it better"), hiding DC comics behind Marvel comics, and believing that he is the Hulk (and fails trying to become the Hulk, while Comic Book Guy comments he couldn't even change into Bill Bixby). Lee also appeared on the commentary track along with other Simpsons writers and directors on the episode for The Simpsons Season 13 boxset released in 2010. In a later Simpsons episode, "Worst Episode Ever", Lee's picture is seen next to several others on the wall behind the register, under the heading "Banned for life". • Lee also appears as himself in the Mark Hamill-directed Comic Book: The Movie (2004), a direct-to-video mockumentary primarily filmed at the 2002 San Diego Comic-Con. • Lee also made an appearance on December 21, 2006, on the NBC game show Identity. • Lee appeared as himself in episode 3.16 of The Big Bang Theory.[80] • Lee appears in the manga and anime series of Heroman as a regular at a diner. He is voiced by Atsushi Ii in the Japanese anime. • Lee voices the Mayor of Superhero City in the Super Hero Squad Show. • He plays a bus driver in the 16th episode of the first season of Heroes.[81] • Lee appeared as himself in the 5th episode of the seventh season of the HBO series Entourage. • Lee appeared as himself on "The Excelsior Acquisition" episode of The Big Bang Theory. • Lee appears in the October 7, 2010, episode of Nikita, "The Guardian", as Hank Excelsior, a witness to a bank robbery.


Stan Lee • Lee helped host the documentary Stan Lee's Superhumans. • Lee was interviewed in the 2011 documentary Superheroes. • Lee is scheduled to appear on X Japan's music video "Born to be Free".[82]


Video games
• Lee narrates the 2000 video game Spider-Man, the 2001 sequel Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro and 2010's Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions. • Lee plays a senator named after himself in Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2.

Lee's comics work includes:[83]

• Just Imagine Stan Lee creating: • Aquaman (with Scott McDaniel) (2002) • Batman (with Joe Kubert) (2001) • • • • • • • • • • • Catwoman (with Chris Bachalo) (2002) Crisis (with John Cassaday) (2002) Flash (with Kevin Maguire) (2002) Green Lantern (with Dave Gibbons) (2001) JLA (with Jerry Ordway) (2002) Robin (with John Byrne) (2001) Sandman (with Walt Simonson) (2002) Secret Files and Origins (2002) Shazam! (with Gary Frank) (2001) Superman (with John Buscema) (2001) Wonder Woman (with Jim Lee) (2001)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • Amazing Spider-Man #1–100, 105–110, 116–118, 200 (1962–80) Avengers #1–35 (1963–66) Captain America #100–141 (1968–71) Daredevil, vol. 1, #1–9, 11–50, 53 (1964–69) Daredevil, vol. 2, No.20 (backup story) (2001) Fantastic Four #1–114, 120–125 (1961–72); No.296 (1986) The Incredible Hulk #1-6, 102-120 (1962–1969) Journey into Mystery (Thor) #97–125 (1963–66) Ravage 2099 #1–7 (1992–93) Savage She-Hulk No.1 (1980) Sgt. Fury #1–28 (1963–66) Silver Surfer #1–18 (1968–70) Solarman #1–2 (1989–90)

• Strange Tales (diverse stories): #9, 11, 74, 89, 90–100 (1951–62); (Human Torch): #101–109, 112–133; (Human Torch and Doctor Strange): #110–111, 115–134 (1962–65); (Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. and Dr. Strange features): #135–147, 150–157 (1965–67)

Stan Lee • Tales to Astonish (diverse stories): #1, 6, 12–13, 15–17, 24–33 (1956–62); Ant-Man/Giant Man: #35-69 (1962–65) (Incredible Hulk: #59-101 (1964–1968); Sub-Mariner: #70-101 (1965–68) • Tales of Suspense (diverse stories): #7, 9, 16, 22, 27, 29–30 (1959–62); (Iron Man and Captain America): #39–99 (1963–68) • Thor #126–192, 200 (1966–72), 385 (1987) • What If (Fantastic Four) No.200 (2011) • X-Men vol. 1 #1-19 (1963–66)


[1] Lee, Stan, and Mair, George. Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee (Fireside, 2002), p.5. ISBN 0-684-87305-2 [2] Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), ISBN 978-0-8018-7450-5, p. 207 [3] Wright, p. 218 [4] Wright, p. 239 [5] "Stan Lee" (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 93/ Stan-Lee. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [6] Edward, Lewine (September 4, 2007)). "Sketching Out His Past: Image 1" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070613/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_2. html). The New York Times Key Magazine. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_2. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [7] Lewine. "Image 2" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070610/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_3. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_3. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [8] Kugel, Allison (March 13, 2006). "Stan Lee: From Marvel Comics Genius to Purveyor of Wonder with POW! Entertainment" (http:/ / www. pr. com/ article/ 1037). . Retrieved May 28, 2011.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zMEIYaZE). [9] "Biography" (http:/ / www. stanleeweb. com/ stan_bio. htm). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [10] "'I Let People Do Their Jobs!': A Conversation with Vince Fago – Artist, Writer, and Third Editor-in-Chief of Timely/Marvel Comics" (http:/ / www. twomorrows. com/ alterego/ articles/ 11fago. html), Alter Ego vol. 3, #11, November 2001. WebCitation archive (http:/ / webcitation. org/ 5lXJBJPZ1). [11] Lee's account of how he began working for Marvel's predecessor, Timely, has varied. He has said in lectures and elsewhere that he simply answered a newspaper ad seeking a publishing assistant, not knowing it involved comics, let alone his cousin's husband:

"I applied for a job in a publishing company ... I didn't even know they published comics. I was fresh out of high school, and I wanted to get into the publishing business, if I could. There was an ad in the paper that said, "Assistant Wanted in a Publishing House." When I found out that they wanted me to assist in comics, I figured, 'Well, I'll stay here for a little while and get some experience, and then I'll get out into the real world'. ... I just wanted to know, 'What do you do in a publishing company?' How do you write? ... How do you publish? I was an assistant. There were two people there named Joe Simon and Jack Kirby – Joe was sort-of the editor/artist/writer, and Jack was the artist/writer. Joe was the senior member. They were turning out most of the artwork. Then there was the publisher, Martin Goodman.... And that was about the only staff that I was involved with. After a while, Joe Simon and Jack Kirby left. I was about 17 years old [sic], and Martin Goodman said to me, 'Do you think you can hold down the job of editor until I can find a real person?' When you're 17, what do you know? I said, 'Sure! I can do it!' I think he forgot about me, because I stayed there ever since". — Lee, in Plume, Kenneth (June 26, 2000). "Stan Lee interview part 1 of 5" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60bTUWCWn). Archived from the original (http:/ / filmforce. ign. com/ articles/ 035/ 035881p1.html) on July 31, 2011. .
However, in his above-cited, 2002 autobiography, Excelsior! The Amazing Life of Stan Lee, he says:

"My uncle, Robbie Solomon, told me they might be able to use someone at a publishing company where he worked. The idea of being involved in publishing definitely appealed to me. ... So I contacted the man Robbie said did the hiring, Joe Simon, and applied for a job. He took me on and I began working as a gofer for eight dollars a week...."
Joe Simon, in his 1990 autobiography The Comic Book Makers (cited under References, below), gives the account slightly differently:

Stan Lee "One day [Goodman's relative known as] Uncle Robbie came to work with a lanky 17-year-old in tow. 'This is Stanley Lieber, Martin's wife's cousin', Uncle Robbie said. 'Martin wants you to keep him busy'". In an appendix, however, Simon appears to reconcile the two accounts. He relates a 1989 conversation with Lee: Lee: I've been saying this [classified-ad] story for years, but apparently it isn't so. And I can't remember because I['ve] said it so long now that I believe it". ... Simon: "Your Uncle Robbie brought you into the office one day and he said, 'This is Martin Goodman's wife's nephew'. [sic] ... You were seventeen years old". Lee: "Sixteen and a half!" Simon: "Well, Stan, you told me seventeen. You were probably trying to be older.... I did hire you".
[12] Lee and Mair, Excelsior, p.22 [13] Boucher, Geoff, "Hero Complex" (column): "Jack Kirby, the abandoned hero of Marvel's grand Hollywood adventure, and his family's quest" (http:/ / herocomplex. latimes. com/ 2009/ 09/ 25/ jack-kirby-the-forgotten-hero-in-marvels-grand-hollywood-adventure/ ), Los Angeles Times, September 25, 2009 (online; scheduled for print edition September 27, 2009) [14] Thomas, Roy, Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe (Sterling Publishing, New York, 2006), p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5


The line reads: "With the speed of thought, he sent his shield spinning through the air to the other end of the tent, where it smacked the knife out of Haines' hand!" It became a convention starting the following issue, in a Simon & Kirby's comics story depict the following: "Captain America's speed of thought and action save Bucky's life—as he hurls his shield across the room".
[15] Thomas, Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe, pp. 12–13 [16] Thomas, Roy; Stan Lee (2006). Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe. Sterling Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1402742258. [17] Kupperberg, Paul (2006). The Creation of Spider-Man. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 12. ISBN 1404207635. [18] Brooks, Brad; Tim Pilcher (2005). The Essential Guide to World Comics. London: Collins & Brown. p. 13. ISBN 1-84340-300-5. [19] McLaughlin, Jeff; Stan Lee (2007). Stan Lee: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi. p. 59. ISBN 1578069858. [20] Lewine. "Image 3" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070631/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_4. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_2. htm) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [21] Lewine. "Images 4-5" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070611/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_5. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_5. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [22] Lewine. "Images 6-7" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070612/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_7. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_7. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [23] Kaplan, Arie (2006). Masters of the Comic Book Universe Revealed!. Chicago Review Press. p. 50. ISBN 1556526334. [24] McLaughlin, Jeff; Stan Lee (2007). Stan Lee: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi. p. 138. ISBN 1578069858. [25] Noted comic-book writer Alan Moore described the significance of this new approach in Comic Book Resources (January 27, 2005): "Chain Reaction" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=4533): "The DC comics were ... one dimensional characters whose only characteristic was they dressed up in costumes and did good. Whereas Stan Lee had this huge breakthrough of two-dimensional characters. So, they dress up in costumes and do good, but they've got a bad heart. Or a bad leg. I actually did think for a long while that having a bad leg was an actual character trait". [26] Sanderson, Peter. (October 10, 2003): Comics in Context #14: "Continuity/Discontinuity" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 595/ 595576p1. html) [27] "Marvel Bullpen Bulletin – December 1965" (http:/ / costa. lunarpages. com/ bp/ bp6512. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [28] "Marvel Bullpen Bulletins 1965–1970" (http:/ / costa. lunarpages. com/ bp/ bullpen. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [29] "Amazing Spider-Man Masterworks Vol. 10" (http:/ / www. marvelmasterworks. com/ marvel/ mm/ spidey/ asm_mm10. html). August 20, 2008. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [30] "Marvel Comics History and Marvel Comics Background" (http:/ / www. worldcollectorsnet. com/ comics/ marvel-comics. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [31] "Spiderman | Hulk | Wolverine |" (http:/ / www. marvel-comics. co. uk/ index. html). Marvel Comics. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [32] "History of Comic Book Rating Systems " Moshe’z" (http:/ / moshez. wordpress. com/ 2009/ 02/ 25/ history-of-comic-book-rating-systems/ ). February 25, 2009. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [33] "chronocomic: Amazing Spider-Man #96–98" (http:/ / www. supermegamonkey. net/ chronocomic/ entries/ amazing_spiderman_9698. shtml). SuperMegaMonkey. May 1, 1971. . Retrieved April 27, 2010.

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[34] McGinn, Andrew (May 4, 2007). "Spider-Man A to Z" (http:/ / www. springfieldnewssun. com/ e/ content/ oh/ story/ entertainment/ movies/ 2007/ 05/ 03/ ddn050407gospidermanAtoZ. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [35] July 2, 2007 (July 2, 2007). "The Five Most Controversial Moments in Comic Book History | Pulp Secret – Comics News and Reviews" (http:/ / www. pulpsecret. com/ post/ 1019/ the-five-most-controversial-moments-in-comic-book-history). Pulp Secret. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [36] "Stan Lee Super Hero- Excelsior!" (http:/ / www. solcomhouse. com/ stanlee. htm). July 27, 2006. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [37] "NEA News Room: 2008 National Medal of Arts – Stan Lee" (http:/ / arts. endow. gov/ news/ news08/ medals/ Lee. html). November 17, 2008. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [38] "Silver Age Marvel Comics Cover Index Reviews" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070716185903/ http:/ / www. samcci. comics. org/ reviews/ review011p. htm). July 16, 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. samcci. comics. org/ reviews/ review011p. htm) on July 16, 2007. . Retrieved February 6, 2011. [39] Lewine. "Image 8" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070608/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_9. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_9. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [40] Lewine. "Image 10" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070613/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_11. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_11. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [41] Lewine. "Image 11" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090424070606/ http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_12. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2007/ 09/ 04/ realestate/ keymagazine/ 20070909STANLEE_12. html) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [42] SEC Litigation Release No. LR-18828, August 11, 2004. [43] "Stan Lee Media CEO Kenneth Williams Accused of Shareholder Fraud and Libel in Court Filing By Former Stan Lee Media Executive: Accusations Against Peter Paul Retracted and Corrected in Court Filing" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ stan-lee-media-ceo-kenneth-williams-accused-of-shareholder-fraud-and-libel-in-court-filing-by-former-stan-lee-media-executive-71643937. html), Freund & Brackey LLP press release, May 7, 2001. WebCitatin archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60bRdkOTp), [44] United States Attorney's Office (March 8, 2005). "Peter Paul, Co-founder of Stan Lee Media, Inc., Pleads Guilty to Securities Fraud Fraud Scheme Caused $25 Million in Losses to Investors and Financial Institutions" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050311195609/ http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ usao/ nye/ pr/ 2005mar8. htm). press release. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. usdoj. gov/ usao/ nye/ pr/ 2005mar8. htm) on March 11, 2005. . Retrieved July 31, 2011. [45] Witt, April . "House Of Cards: What do Cher, a Hollywood con man, a political rising star and an audacious felon have in common? Together they gave Bill and Hillary Clinton a night they'll never forget – no matter how hard they may try" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2005/ 10/ 04/ AR2005100401150. html), The Washington Post, October 9, 2005, p. W10 [46] "Ringo Starr to become superhero" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4212335. stm). BBC. August 6, 2004. . [47] "Stan Lee Launches New Online Comic Venture" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071212014505/ http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ story/ arts/ national/ 2004/ 08/ 06/ Arts/ lee040806. html). CBC. August 6, 2004. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ arts/ story/ 2004/ 08/ 06/ lee040806. html) on August 4, 2010. . [48] Foreman, Liza (March 1, 2005). "Lee, Evans' POW! fields 'Foreverman'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930235956/ http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/ search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1000819063). The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/ search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1000819063) on September 30, 2007. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [49] "Disney Studios Signs Exclusive Deal With Stan Lee" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60bSsEBNx). Disney Studios press release via (fan site). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. magicalmountain. net/ disney-news/ disney-news-detail. aspx?id=1569) on July 31, 2011. . Retrieved June 15, 2007. [50] "Stan Lee Media Sues Marvel" (http:/ / strange. commongate. com/ post/ Stan_Lee_Media_Sues_Marvel_5B). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. redherring. com/ Article. aspx?a=21665& hed=Stan+ Lee+ Media+ Sues+ Marvel:+ $5B) on Sept. 22, 2007. . [51] "June 9: Stan Lee Media, Inc. Files Expected Lawsuit Against Stan Lee" (http:/ / www. comicsreporter. com/ index. php/ june_9_stan_lee_media_inc_files_aggressive_lawsuit_against_stan_lee/ ). Daily Blog. The Comic Reporter. . Retrieved Sept. 22, 2007. [52] (Filsinger Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9702631-5-5) [53] "NYCC 08: Stan Lee Dives Into Manga" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 864/ 864777p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved April 8, 2008. [54] "Stan Lee Launching Legion of 5" (http:/ / www. comingsoon. net/ news/ movienews. php?id=44144). . Retrieved April 16, 2008. [55] Stan Lee to oversee Virgin Comics' superheroes (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080502165435/ http:/ / www. latimes. com/ entertainment/ news/ la-et-virgin19apr19,1,7072456. story), LA Times, April 19, 2008 [56] Stan Lee 'to create world's first gay superhero (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ northamerica/ usa/ 4237161/ Stan-Lee-to-create-worlds-first-gay-superhero. html). The Daily Telegraph, January 14, 2009 [57] "Skyscraperman" (http:/ / skyscraperman. com). . Retrieved Sept. 15, 2009. [58] "Stan Lee, Bones Confirmed to be Working on Hero Man – Anime News Network" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-04-10/ stan-lee-bones-confirmed-to-be-working-on-hero-man). Anime News Network. April 10, 2008. . Retrieved Mar. 9, 2010.


Stan Lee
[59] "Stan Lee & Bones' Heroman Anime Now in Production – Anime News Network" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-10-06/ stan-lee-and-bones-heroman-anime-now-in-production). Anime News Network. October 6, 2009. . Retrieved Mar. 9, 2010. [60] "The Guardian Project" (http:/ / www. guardianproject30. com/ ). Guardian Media Entertainment. . Retrieved January 22, 2011.. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60TZcx1uY). [61] Friedman, Wayne. "NHL's 'Guardian Project' Strikes Marketing Deal With NBCU' (http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=152537), Media Daily News, June 16, 2011 [62] "Exclusive: Stan Lee to Guest-Star on Eureka" (http:/ / www. tvguide. com/ News/ Stan-Lee-Eureka-1022057. aspx). . Retrieved August 19, 2010. [63] Hetrick, Adam. "Stan Lee Encouraged by Spider-Man; New Projects on the Horizon" (http:/ / www. playbill. com/ news/ article/ 146343-Stan-Lee-Encouraged-by-Spider-Man-New-Projects-on-the-Horizon),, January 4, 2011. Accessed July 31, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 60bODaDKg). [64] Stan's Soapbox, Bullpen Bulletins, October 1998 [65] Stan's Soapbox, Bullpen Bulletins, October 2000 [66] Garreau, Joel. "Arts, Humanities Medals Awarded; Bush Awardees Include Stan Lee, Olivia de Havilland" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2008/ 11/ 17/ AR2008111701659. html), The Washington Post, November 18, 2008; Page C02 [67] Boucher, Geoff. Hero Complex (section): "Thor's cartoon, Stan Lee's medal and Dick Tracy's fate all in Everyday Hero headlines" (http:/ / herocomplex. latimes. com/ 2008/ 11/ 17/ thors-cartoon-s/ ), Los Angeles Times, November 17, 2008 [68] Meeks, Robert (October 2, 2009). "L.B. Comic Con: It's Stan Lee Day!" (http:/ / www. insidesocal. com/ modernmyth/ 2009/ 10/ its-stan-lee-day. html). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [69] "TV: Video Highlights from the 2009 Spike TV Scream Awards" (http:/ / www. bloody-disgusting. com/ news/ 17772). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [70] Stan Lee Foundation (http:/ / www. stanleefoundation. org/ ) official site [71] "Stan Lee: Marvel Legends" (http:/ / www. oafe. net/ yo/ mlh2_sl. php). . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [72] Stan Lee (http:/ / www. marvunapp. com/ Appendix/ leestanl. htm) (as a character) at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe [73] Eric Goldman (May 4, 2007). "Stan Lee's Further Superhero Adventures" (http:/ / uk. tv. ign. com/ articles/ 785/ 785824p3. html). IGN. . Retrieved May 14, 2007. [74] Iron Man Ultimate 2-Disc Edition DVD, disc 2, "I Am Iron Man" documentary [75] Davidson, Danica. "'Captain America: The First Avenger' To Film in L.A. this Weekend, Stan Lee Tweets on Cameo" (http:/ / splashpage. mtv. com/ 2011/ 04/ 07/ captain-america-stan-lee-cameo/ ), "Splash Page" (column),, April 7, 2011. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yI7MAMbH). [76] "Stan Lee Talks Upcoming Cameo Roles" (http:/ / www. superherohype. com/ news/ articles/ 167299-stan-lee-talks-upcoming-cameo-roles). 2011-05-17. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zxBobWWA) from the original on 2011-07-05. . Retrieved 2011-07-15. [77] Douglas, Edward (January 10, 2011). "Stan Lee Back in Action for Next Spider-Man" (http:/ / www. superherohype. com/ news/ articles/ 113392-stan-lee-back-in-action-for-spider-man-reboot). . Retrieved January 10, 2011. [78] The original sketches created by Bruce Timm and commented by Paul Dini appears in the book The Krypton Companion (TwoMorrows Publishing) [79] "Contortionist Daniel Browning Smith the Rubberboy" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20100427000000/ www. therubberboy. com/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. therubberboy. com/ ) on April 27, 2010. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [80] "" (http:/ / www. digitalspy. com/ ustv/ news/ a199794/ stan-lee-to-play-himself-on-big-bang. html). Jan. 28, 2010. . Retrieved April 27, 2010. [81] Julia Ward (February 7, 2007). "Stan Lee to make Heroes cameo" (http:/ / www. tvsquad. com/ 2007/ 02/ 07/ stan-lee-to-make-heroes-cameo/ ). TV Squad. . Retrieved September 17, 2010. [82] "Yoshiki teams up with Stan Lee for comic book series" (http:/ / www. tokyograph. com/ news/ id-6778). Tokyograph. October 10, 2010. . Retrieved October 9, 2010. [83] Stan Lee (http:/ / www. comics. org/ search. lasso/ ?sort=chrono& query=Stan+ Lee& type=writer) at the Grand Comics Database


Further reading
• Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster, 1974; Marvel Entertainment Group, 1997 reissue, ISBN 0-7851-0551-4) • McLaughlin, Jeff, ed. Stan Lee: Conversations (University Press of Mississippi, 2007), ISBN 978-1578069859 • Ro, Ronin. Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee, and the American Comic Book Revolution (Bloomsbury USA, 2005 reissue) ISBN 1-58234-566-X • Raphael, Jordan, and Spurgeon, Tom. Stan Lee and the Rise and Fall of the American Comic Book (Chicago Review Press, 2003) ISBN 1-55652-506-0

Stan Lee • Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4; reissued (Vanguard Productions, 2003) ISBN 1-887591-35-4


External links
• • • • • POW! Entertainment ( (official site) Stan Lee ( on Twitter Stan Lee's Fan Site ( McCave, Joseph. "SDCC 2009: Stan Lee Talks 'Time Jumper'!" ( b16172_sdcc_2009_stan_lee_talks_lsquotime.html), July 27, 2009 Framingham, Mass. "Myth and the Hero's Journey: Big Screen Blockbusters – Star Wars, Spider-Man Tell Timeless Tales" (, Daily News (May 5, 2002), by Chris Bergeron Archive of "Fast Chat: Stan Lee" ( Newsday, April 1, 2007. Online version March 31, 2007. Stan Lee at ComiCon in Seattle ( Stan Lee ( HTM#N162) at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

• • •

• Stan Lee ( at the Comic Book DB • Stan Lee ( at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database • Stan Lee ( at the Internet Movie Database Audio/video • Audio of Merry Marvel Marching Society record ( 51.142.186/~dogatco/mmms/mmms65.mp3), including voice of Stan Lee • Stan Lee ( telling his life story at Web of Stories (http://webofstories. com) • Comic Geek Speak: Episode 83 ( – Stan Lee interview podcast, December 12, 2005 • Mahalo Daily with Veronica Belmont: "MD044 – Stan Lee Interview" ( 20080129203237/, January 28, 2008 • Stan Lee receives 1st New York comics legend award ( stan-lee-the-man/) April 17, 2008 • "Authors@Google: Stan Lee" (, Authors@Google, "AtGoogleTalks", YouTube, July 18, 2008. (Video podcast) • Conan, Neal (October 27, 2010). "Stan Lee, Mastermind Of The Marvel Universe" ( templates/story/story.php?storyId=130862700). Talk of the Nation (National Public Radio). (Radio broadcast)




From The Amazing Spider-Man #547 (March 2008) Art by Steve McNiven & Dexter Vines Publication information Publisher Marvel Comics

First appearance Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962) Created by Stan Lee, Steve Ditko In-story information Alter ego Species Peter Benjamin Parker Human Mutate

Team affiliations Daily Bugle Front Line New Fantastic Four Avengers New Avengers Future Foundation Heroes for Hire Partnerships Venom Scarlet Spider Wolverine Human Torch Daredevil Black Cat Punisher Toxin Iron Man Ms. Marvel Ricochet, Dusk, Prodigy, Hornet, Ben Reilly/Scarlet Spider • • • • • • • Superhuman strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, and durability Accelerated healing factor Ability to cling to most surfaces Able to shoot extremely strong and durable spider-web strings from wrists Precognitive spider sense Genius-level intellect Master hand-to-hand combatant

Notable aliases Abilities

Spider-Man is a fictional Marvel Comics superhero. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). Lee and Ditko conceived of the

Spider-Man character as an orphan being raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben, and as a teenager, having to deal with the normal struggles of adolescence in addition to those of a costumed crime fighter. Spider-Man's creators gave him super strength and agility, the ability to cling to most surfaces, shoot spider-webs using devices of his own invention which he called "web-shooters", and react to danger quickly with his "spider-sense", enabling him to combat his foes. When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist. The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a teenage high school student to whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate.[1] Unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man did not benefit from being the protégé of any adult mentors like Captain America and Batman, and thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story, but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben. Marvel has featured Spider-Man in several comic book series, the first and longest-lasting of which is titled The Amazing Spider-Man. Over the years, the Peter Parker character has developed from shy, high school student to troubled but outgoing college student, to married high school teacher to, in the late 2000s, a single freelance photographer, his most typical adult role. As of 2011, he is additionally a member of the Avengers and the Fantastic Four, Marvel's flagship superhero teams. In the comics, Spider-Man is often referred to as "Spidey", "web-slinger", "wall-crawler", or "web-head". Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes.[2] As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in many forms of media, including several animated and live-action television shows, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and a series of films starring Tobey Maguire as the "friendly neighborhood" hero in the first three movies. Andrew Garfield will take over the role of Spider-Man in a planned reboot of the films.[3] Reeve Carney stars as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[4] Spider-Man placed 3rd on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time in 2011.[5]


Publication history
Creation and development
In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.[7] :1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider as a great influence,[6] :130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[8] Looking back on the creation of Spider-Man, 1990s Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco stated he did Richard Wentworth a.k.a. the Spider in the pulp not believe that Spider-Man would have been given a chance in today's magazine The Spider. Stan Lee stated that it was comics world, where new characters are vetted with test audiences and the name of this character that grabbed him to [6] marketers.[7] :9 At that time, however, Lee had to get only the consent create the character that would be Spider-Man. [7] :9 of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval. In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[9] Goodman

Spider-Man eventually agreed to let Lee try out Spider-Man in the upcoming final issue of the canceled science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (Aug. 1962).[10] :95 Comics historian Greg Theakston says that Lee, after receiving Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept, approached artist Jack Kirby. Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference" and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker.[11] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly — it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[12] :12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled: One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[13] Although the interior artwork was by Ditko alone, Lee rejected Ditko's cover art and commissioned Kirby to pencil a cover that Ditko inked.[14] As Lee explained in 2010, "I think I had Jack sketch out a cover for it because I always had a lot of confidence in Jack's covers."[15] In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal."[16] At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands".[12] :14 Kirby disputed Lee's version of the story, and claimed Lee had minimal involvement in the character's creation. According to Kirby, the idea for Spider-Man had originated with Kirby and Joe Simon, who in the 1950s had developed a character called The Silver Spider for the Crestwood comic Black Magic, who was subsequently not used.[17] Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputed Kirby's account, asserting that Black Magic was not a factor, and that he (Simon) devised the name "Spider-Man" (later changed to "The Silver Spider"), while Kirby outlined the character's story and powers. Simon later elaborated that his and Kirby's character conception became the basis for Simon's Archie Comics superhero the Fly. Artist Steve Ditko stated that Lee liked the name Hawkman from DC Comics, and that "Spider-Man" was an outgrowth of that interest.[13] The hyphen was included in the character's name to avoid confusion with DC Comics' Superman.[18] Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[19] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to also draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".[20] :127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man as drawn and envisioned by Kirby was too similar to the Fly.[20] :127 Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that, "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel


Spider-Man breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man".[21] Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did".[22] Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]".[23] Writer Al Nickerson believes "that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko created the Spider-Man that we are familiar with today [but that] ultimately, Spider-Man came into existence, and prospered, through the efforts of not just one or two, but many, comic book creators".[24] In 2008, an anonymous donor bequeathed the Library of Congress the original 24 pages of Ditko art of Amazing Fantasy #15, including Spider-Man's debut and the stories "The Bell-Ringer", "Man in the Mummy Case", and "There Are Martians Among Us".[25]


Commercial success
A few months after Spider-Man's introduction in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), publisher Martin Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it to have been one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.[10] :97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series[1] :211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us."[1] :223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers but which lasted only two issues.[26] Nonetheless, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.

An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.[1] :239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.[1] :239

Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). The issue that first introduced the fictional character. It was a gateway to the commercial success to the superhero and inspired the launch of The Amazing Spider-Man comics. Cover art by Jack [10] Kirby (penciller) & Steve Ditko (inker).

Spider-Man In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. In 1976, his second solo series, The Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985, replacing Marvel Team-Up. The launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time. There have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series.[1] :279 The original Amazing Spider-Man ran through issue #441 (Nov. 1998). Writer-artist John Byrne then revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (Dec. 1998 - Oct. 1999, with an issue #0 midway through and some months containing two issues), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel.[27] Running concurrently, The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (Jan. 1999). With what would have been vol. 2, #59, Marvel reintroduced the original numbering, starting with #500 (Dec. 2003). By the end of 2007, Spider-Man regularly appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, New Avengers, Spider-Man Family, and various limited series in mainstream Marvel Comics continuity, as well as in the alternate-universe series The Amazing Spider-Girl, the Ultimate Universe title Ultimate Spider-Man, the alternate-universe tween series Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane, the alternate-universe children's series Marvel Adventures Spider-Man, and Marvel Adventures: The Avengers. When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (Dec. 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546-549 (each Jan. 2008). The three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648-649 (each Nov. 2010).




Comic book character
In Forest Hills, Queens, New York City,[28] high school student Peter Parker is a science whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid."[29] Along with super strength, he gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, he dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben."[30] Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"[30] Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial [31] [32] wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. As he battles his enemies for the first time,[14] Parker finds juggling his personal life and costumed adventures difficult. In time, Peter graduates from high school,[33] and enrolls at Empire State University (a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University).,[34] where he meets roommate and best friend Harry Osborn and first girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[35] and Aunt May introduces him to Mary Jane Watson.[14] [36] [37] As Peter deals with Harry's drug problems, and Harry's father is revealed to be Spider-Man's nemesis the Green Goblin, Peter even attempts to give up his costumed identity for a while.[38] [39] Gwen's Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, Nov. 1970).[40] In the course of his adventures Spider-Man has made a wide variety of friends and contacts within the superhero community, who often come to his aid when he faces problems that he cannot solve on his own.
The spider bite that gave Peter Parker his powers. Amazing Fantasy #15, art by Steve Ditko.

In issue #121 (June 1973),[14] the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text).[41] [42] She dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her."[43] The following issue, the Goblin appears to accidentally kill himself in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.[44] Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers."[45] Parker graduates from college in issue #185,[14] and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat,[46] whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).[14] From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a different costume than his original. Black with a white spider design, this new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains.[47] Not unexpectedly, the change to a longstanding character's iconic design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals

Spider-Man Superman and Batman."[48] The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject the symbiote after a difficult struggle,[49] though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.[14] Parker proposes to Watson in The Amazing Spider-Man #290 (July 1987), and she accepts two issues later, with the wedding taking place in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21 (1987)—promoted with a real-life mock wedding using actors at Shea Stadium, with Stan Lee officiating, on June 5, 1987.[50] [51] Although David Michelinie, who scripted based on a plot by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, said in 2007, "I didn't think they actually should [have gotten] married. ... I had actually planned another version, one that wasn't used."[50] In a controversial storyline, Goletz, Andrew, and Glenn Greenberg. Peter becomes convinced that Ben Reilly, the Scarlet Spider (a clone of Peter created by his college professor Miles Warren) is the real Peter Parker, and that he, Peter, is the clone. Peter gives up the Spider-Man identity to Reilly for a time, until Reilly is killed by the returning Green Goblin and revealed to be the clone after all.[52] In stories published in 2005 and 2006 (such as "The Other"), he develops additional spider-like abilities including biological web-shooters, toxic stingers that extend from his forearms, the ability to stick individuals to his back, enhanced Spider-sense and night vision, and increased strength and speed. Peter later becomes a member of the New Avengers, and reveals his civilian identity to the world,[53] furthering his already numerous problems. His marriage to Mary Jane and public unmasking are later erased in the storyline "One More Day" in a Faustian bargain with the demon Mephisto, resulting in several adjustments to the timeline, such as the resurrection of Harry Osborn and the return of Peter's mechanical web-shooters and loss of his additional spider-like abilities.[54] The controversial[55] storyline, "One More Day", rolled back much of the fictional continuity at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man".[55] It caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so.[56] At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was ...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...[I]t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....[56]


"People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience." Comics historian Peter Sanderson

As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women. He is anti-social, [sic] castration-ridden, racked with Oedipal guilt, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic".[28] Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.[58] Notes cultural historian Bradford W. Wright,

Spider-Man Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.[1] :212 The mid-1960s stories reflected the political tensions of the time, as early 1960s Marvel stories had often dealt with the Cold War and Communism.[1] :220-223 As Wright observes, From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University. ... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.[1] :234-235


Other versions
Due to Spider-Man's popularity in the mainstream Marvel Universe, publishers have been able to introduce different variations of Spider-Man outside of mainstream comics as well as reimagined stories in many other multiversed spinoffs such as Ultimate Spider-Man, Spider-Man 2099, and Spider-Man: India. Marvel has also made its own parodies of Spider-Man in comics such as Not Brand Echh, which was published in the late 1960s and featured such characters as Peter Pooper alias Spidey-Man,[59] and Peter Porker, the Spectacular Spider-Ham, who appeared in the 1980s. The fictional character has also inspired a number of deratives such as a manga version of Spider-Man drawn by Japanese artist Ryoichi Ikegami as well as Hideshi Hino's The Bug Boy, which has been cited as inspired by Spider-Man.[60] Also the French comic Télé-Junior published strips based on popular TV series. In the late 1970s, the publisher also produced original Spider-Man adventures. Artists included Gérald Forton, who later moved to America and worked for Marvel.[61]

Powers and equipment
A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers.[62] In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists.[62] Brilliant, Parker excels in applied science, chemistry, and physics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius. However, later writers have depicted the character as a genius.[63] With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters.[62] This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, a single strand for yanking opponents into objects, strands for whipping foreign objects at enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically.



Supporting characters
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.[29] J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Although his publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is alway depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.[31] Eugene "Flash" Thompson is commonly depicted as Parker's high school tormentor and bully but in some comic issues as a friend as well.[31] Meanwhile Harry Osborn, son of Norman Osborn, is most commonly recognized as Peter's best friend but has also been depicted sometimes as his rival in the comics.[14] Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan,[31] to having his first date with Jameson's secretary, Betty Brant,[64] the secretary to Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[14] [35] daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man.[40] [40] Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife.[50] Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.[46]

Writers and artists over many years have managed to establish a notable fictional rogues gallery of classic villains to face Spider-Man. As with Spider-Man, the majority of these villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, trends include a few animal-themed costumes or powers and a few of them having green costume as well.[65] Early on Spider-Man faced supervillains and foes such as the Chameleon (introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #1, March 1963), the Vulture (#2, May 1963), Doctor Octopus (#3, July 1963), the Sandman (#4, Sept. 1963), the Lizard (#6, Nov. 1963), Electro (#9, Feb. 1964), Mysterio (#13, June 1964), the Green Goblin (#14, July 1964), Kraven the Hunter (#15, Aug. 1964),the Scorpion (#20, Jan. 1965), the Rhino (#41, Oct. 1966)—the first original Lee/Romita Spider-Man villain[66] —the Shocker (#46, March 1967), and the physically powerful and well-connected criminal capo Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin.[14] The Clone Saga reveals a supporting character called Miles Warren turn into the villain called the Jackal, the antagonist of the storyline.[35] After Norman Osborn was killed off, a new more mysterious villain called the Hobgoblin was developed to replace him in #238 until Norman was revised later on.[67] After Spider-Man turned away his dark costume, there revealed a new popular antagonist with Eddie Brock as Venom in issue #298 (May 1988),[14] although he was an ally to Spider-Man with a much darker version of him called Carnage in issue #344.[68] At times these enemies of Spider-Man have formed groups such as the Sinister Six to oppose Spider-Man.[69] The Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus and Venom are generally described or written as one of his greatest and most ruthless enemies.[70] [71] [72]



Cultural influence
Comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg, in The Creation of Spider-Man, calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".[73] :5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama." Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems." This idea spawned a "comics revolution."[73] :6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.[74] Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.[75]
Spider-Man sign appearing in front of The

Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character, and has often Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man in Universal Studios Florida's Islands of Adventure. been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.[1] :254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.[76] Spider-Man joined the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade from 1987 to 1998 as one of the balloon floats,[77] designed by John Romita Sr.,[78] one of the character's signature artists. A new, different Spider-Man balloon float is scheduled to appear from at least 2009 to 2011.[77] In 1981, skyscraper-safety activist Dan Goodwin, wearing a Spider-Man suit, scaled the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, the Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Texas, and the John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois.[79] When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[80] In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity,[81] an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.[82] In 2008, Marvel announced plans to release a series of educational comics the following year in partnership with the United Nations, depicting Spider-Man alongside UN Peacekeeping Forces to highlight UN peacekeeping missions.[83] A BusinessWeek article listed Spider-Man as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics.[84] Spider-Man was named Empire magazine's fifth-greatest comic book character,[85] and rated him as #7 on their 100 Greatest Fictional Characters list.[86]



In other media

Tobey Maguire (top) and Andrew Garfield (bottom) have both portrayed Spider-Man in film.

Spider-Man has appeared in comics, cartoons, movies, coloring books, novels, records, and children's books.[75] On television, he appeared as the main character in the animated series Spider-Man, which aired from 1967–1970 on ABC,[87] the live-action series The Amazing Spider-Man (1978–1979) starring Nicholas Hammond, the syndicated cartoon Spider-Man (1981–1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–1983), Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994–1998), Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2000), Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003), and The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–2009). A new animated series titled Ultimate Spider-Man, based on the alternate-universe comic-book series of the same name, is scheduled to air on Disney XD in 2012.[88] A tokusatsu show featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man".[89] Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr.[90] Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms. Spider-Man was also featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the title superhero. The first Spider-Man film was released on May 3, 2002; its first sequel, Spider-Man 2, was released on June 30, 2004 and the next sequel, Spider-Man 3, was released on May 4, 2007. A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided the franchise would be rebooted and a new director and cast would be introduced. The reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, is scheduled to be released on July 3, 2012, directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man.[91] [92] [93] [94] [95] A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010 at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011.[96] [97] The music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa.[98] Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million.[99] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to be about $1.2 million per week.[100]



Awards and honors
From the character's inception, Spider-Man stories have won numerous awards, including: • 1962 Alley Award: Best Short Story—"Origin of Spider-Man" by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, Amazing Fantasy #15 • 1963 Alley Award: Best Comic: Adventure Hero title—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1963 Alley Award: Top Hero—Spider-Man • 1964 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1964 Alley Award: Best Giant Comic - The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 • 1964 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man • 1965 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1965 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man • 1966 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1966 Alley Award: Best Full-Length Story - "How Green was My Goblin", by Stan Lee & John Romita, Sr., The Amazing Spider-Man #39 • 1967 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Costumed or Powered Hero—Spider-Man • 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Male Normal Supporting Character—J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man • 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Female Normal Supporting Character—Mary Jane Watson, The Amazing Spider-Man • 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Supporting Character - J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man • 1969 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man • 1997 Eisner Award: Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team—1997 Al Williamson, Best Inker: Untold Tales of Spider-Man #17-18 • 2002 Eisner Award: Best Serialized Story—The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #30–35: "Coming Home", by J. Michael Straczynski, John Romita, Jr., and Scott Hanna • No date: Empire magazine's fifth-greatest comic book character.[85] • No date: Spider-Man was the #1 superhero on Bravo's Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains show.[101]

[1] Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation. Johns Hopkins Press : Baltimore. ISBN 0801874505. [2] "Why Spider-Man is popular." (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ Entertainment/ story?id=101230& page=1). . Retrieved 18 November 2010. [3] "It's Official! Andrew Garfield to Play Spider-Man!" (http:/ / www. comingsoon. net/ news/ movienews. php?id=67468). 2010-07-02. . Retrieved 2010-10-09. [4] "Complete Cast Announced for Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark" (http:/ / www. broadway. com/ shows/ spider-man-turn-off-the-dark/ buzz/ 153279/ complete-cast-announced-for-spider-man-turn-off-the-dark/ ). 2010-08-16. . Retrieved 2010-10-09. [5] "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" (http:/ / www. ign. com/ top/ comic-book-heroes/ 3). . Retrieved 2011-05-09. [6] Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2. [7] DeFalco, Tom; Lee, Stan (2001). O'Neill, Cynthia. ed. Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 078947946X. [8] Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2. "He goes further in his biography, claiming that even while pitching the concept to publisher Martin Goodman, "I can't remember if that was literally true or not, but I thought it would lend a big color to my pitch."" [9] Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an

average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy". [10] Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3821-9. [11] Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, 'Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero — Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'". [12] Theakston, Greg (2002). The Steve Ditko Reader. Brooklyn, NY: Pure Imagination. ISBN 1-56685-011-8. [13] Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063. [14] Amazing Fantasy (http:/ / www. comics. org/ series/ 1514/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [15] "Deposition of Stan Lee" (https:/ / docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer& chrome=true& srcid=0B_lZovnpi13JNWQ5MDJmOTgtZDMzYy00MzI3LTllYjctNmM0ZWE4NjgyOWEx& hl=en_US). Los Angeles, California: United States District Court, Southern District of New York: "Marvel Worldwide, Inc., et al., vs. Lisa R. Kirby, et al.". December 8, 2010. p. 37. . [16] Ditko, Steve; Martin, Gary (1965). "Steve Ditko - A Portrait of the Master" (http:/ / www. ditko. comics. org/ ditko/ artist/ arcomicf. html). Comic Fan #2, Summer 1965. . Retrieved 2008-04-03. [17] Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan". [18] "Spider-Man: The Birth of an Icon" (http:/ / www. thehotspotonline. com/ blahblah/ articles/ spidy. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [19] Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added". [20] Evanier, Mark; Gaiman, Neil (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. Abrams. ISBN 081099447X. [21] Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (2008). Fantagraphic Books.p.54-57. [22] Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird," May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May, 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16 [23] Ross, Jonathon. In Search of Steve Ditko, BBC 4, September 16, 2007. [24] Nickerson, Al. " Who Really Created Spider-Man? (http:/ / alnickerson. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ who-really-created-spider-man. html)" P.I.C. News, 5 February 2009. Accessed 2009-02-17. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5eea8wTXN) 2009-02-17. [25] "Library of Congress Receives Original Drawings for the First Spider-Man Story, 'Amazing Fantasy' #15" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ today/ pr/ 2008/ 08-089. html), Library of Congress press release, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5q8m1QvXp). Additionally: Raymond, Matt. "Library of Congress Acquires Spider-Man's 'Birth Certificate'" (http:/ / blogs. loc. gov/ loc/ 2008/ 04/ library-of-congress-acquires-spider-mans-birth-certificate), Library of Congress Blog, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5q8mun5gG). [26] Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment", p. 31 [27] Michael Thomas. "John Byrne: The Hidden Story" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=151=article). Comic book resources. . Retrieved May 27, 2011. [28] Kempton, Sally, "Spiderman's [sic] Dilemma: Super-Anti-Hero in Forest Hills", The Village Voice, April 1, 1965 [29] Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (August 1962), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [30] Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1991) ISBN 0-8109-3821-9, p. 95 [31] Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, p. 21


[32] Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "Spider-Man"; "Spider-Man vs. The Chameleon"; "Duel to the Death with the Vulture; "The Uncanny Threat of the Terrible Tinkerer!" The Amazing Spider-Man 1-2 (March, May 1963), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [33] Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "The Menace of the Molten Man!" The Amazing Spider-Man 28 (September 1965), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [34] Saffel, p. 51 [35] Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 1-14653-141-6. [36] Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (a). "The Birth of a Super-Hero!" The Amazing Spider-Man 42 (November 1966), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [37] Saffel, p. 27 [38] Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (p), Mickey Demeo (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [39] Lee, Stan (w), Kane, Gil (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The Spider or the Man?" The Amazing Spider-Man 100 (September 1971), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [40] Saffel, p. 60 [41] Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics." [42] Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 84, notes, "[W]hile the script described the site of Gwen's demise as the George Washington Bridge, the art depicted the Brooklyn Bridge, and there is still no agreement as to where it actually took place." [43] Saffel, p. 65 [44] Conway, Gerry (w), Kane, Gil (p), Romita, John (i). "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" The Amazing Spider-Man 121 (June 1973), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [45] Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 85 [46] Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 83 [47] Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Michael (p), Beatty, John, Abel, Jack, and Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion" Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars 8 (December 1984), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [48] Leupp, Thomas. "Behind the Mask: The Story of Spider-Man's Black Costume" (http:/ / www. reelzchannel. com/ article. aspx?articleId=292),, 2007, n.d. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5qn5Uiwyw). [49] Simonson, Louise (w), LaRocque, Greg (p), Mooney, Jim and Colletta, Vince (i). "'Til Death Do Us Part!" Web of Spider-Man 1 (April 1985), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [50] Saffel, p. 124 [51] Shooter, Jim and Michelinie, David (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "The Wedding" The Amazing Spider-Man Annual 21 (1987), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [52] ""Life of Reilly", 35-part series, GreyHaven Magazine, 2003, n.d." (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 19960101-re_/ http:/ / www. newcomicreviews. com/ GHM/ specials/ LifeOfReilly/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. newcomicreviews. com/ GHM/ specials/ LifeOfReilly/ ) on 1996-01-01. . [53] Millar, Mark (w), McNiven, Steve (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Civil War" Civil War 2 (August 2006), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [54] Straczynski, J. Michael (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Miki, Danny (i). "One More Day Part 4" The Amazing Spider-Man 545 (Dec. 2007), New York, NY: Marvel Comics [55] Weiland, Jonah. storyline "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 1 of 5" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=12230), Newsarama, December 28, 2007. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5qkzIuMKI). [56] Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 2 of 5" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=12238), Newsarama, December 31, 2007. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5qkz3fKei). [57] Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe: The Complete Encyclopedia of Marvel's Greatest Characters (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, p. 75 [58] Daniels, p. 96 [59] "examples of "Not Brand Echh" comics" (http:/ / www. dialbforblog. com/ archives/ 180/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [60] McCarthy, Helen, 500 Manga Heroes and Villains (Barron's Educational Series, 2006), ISBN 978-0-7641-3201-8, [61] Lambiek comic shop and studio in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. "Lambiek Comiclopedia: Gérald Forton" (http:/ / lambiek. net/ artists/ f/ forton_gerald. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [62] Gresh, Lois H., and Robert Weinberg. "The Science of Superheroes" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0-471-02460-0 ( preview (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=TCv0LyEnzsUC& pg=PA65#PPA66,M1)) [63] Kiefer, Kit; Couper-Smartt, Jonathan (2003). Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 4: Spider-Man. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-785-11304-5. [64] Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974) p. 137


[65] Mondello, Salvatore (Mar 2004). "Spider-Man: Superhero in the Liberal Tradition". The Journal of Popular Culture X (1): 232–238. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1976.1001_232.x. "a teenage superhero and middle-aged supervillains—an impressive rogues' gallery which includes such memorable knaves and grotesques as the Vulture,". [66] Saunders, et al, Marvel Chronicle, p. 119 [67] DeFalco, Tom (2004). Comics Creators on Spider-Man. Titan Books. ISBN 1840234229. [68] "2004" Maximum Carnage (May - August 1963), Marvel Comics, ISBN 0-7851-0987-0 [69] "Broadway's 'Spider-Man spin's magic'." (http:/ / www. kansascity. com/ 2011/ 05/ 21/ 2892683/ robert-trussell-broadways-spider. html). Kansas City Star. . Retrieved May 26, 2011. [70] Goldstein, Hilary (2006-02-01). "Spider-Man villain poll" (http:/ / uk. comics. ign. com/ articles/ 684/ 684904p5. html). IGN. . Retrieved 2006-10-01. [71] "The 20 Greatest Spider-Man Villains" (http:/ / blogzarro. com/ 2007/ 05/ 20-greatest-spider-man-villains/ ). . Retrieved 2010-03-20. [72] "Fans : Top Ten : Top Ten Greatest Spider-Man Villains" (http:/ / www. spiderfan. org/ fans/ topten/ 2003/ 0901. html). 2003-09-01. . Retrieved 2010-03-20. [73] Kupperberg, Paul (2007). The Creation of Spider-Man (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=4m1IM8L0hr0C& pg=PP1& dq=spiderman+ legacy+ ditko+ lee). The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1404207635. . [74] Fleming, James R. (2006). "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us about Ourselves and Our Society. By Danny Fingeroth" (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ imagetext/ archives/ v2_2/ reviews/ fleming. shtml). ImageText (University of Florida). ISSN 1549-6732. . Retrieved Fleming. [75] Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner. Weiser. p.  139 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=93Mv-1R5yskC& pg=PA139). [76] "Spider-Man Weaving a spell" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20020524/ intcov. html). Screen India. 2002. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [77] "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede" (http:/ / www. wcbs880. com/ pages/ 5021372. php?), Associated Press via WCBS (AM), 17 August 2009 [78] Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality". [79] "Skyscraper Defense" (http:/ / skyscraperdefense. com/ building_climbs. html). . Retrieved 2011-07-04. [80] Yarbrough, Beau (2001-09-24). "Marvel to Take on World Trade Center Attack in "Amazing Spider-Man"" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=418). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2008-04-28. [81] Staff (2006-06-15). "Spider-Man Removes Mask at Last" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 5084326. stm). BBC. . Retrieved 2006-09-29. [82] Brady, Matt (2006-06-14). "New York Post Spoils Civil War #2" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071011110225/ http:/ / newsarama. com/ marvelnew/ CivilWar/ CivilWar2_End. html). Newsarama. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ marvelnew/ CivilWar/ CivilWar2_End. html) on October 11, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-04-02. [83] Lane, Thomas (2008-01-04). "Can Spider-Man help UN beat evil?" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ 7172016. stm). BBC. . Retrieved 2008-04-29. [84] Pisani, Joseph (June 1, 2006). "The Smartest Superheroes" (http:/ / images. businessweek. com/ ss/ 06/ 05/ smart_heroes/ index_01. htm). Business Week Online. . Retrieved 2007-11-25. [85] "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters" (http:/ / www. empireonline. com/ 50greatestcomiccharacters/ default. asp?c=5). Empire Online. . Retrieved 2009-02-08. [86] "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters" (http:/ / fandomania. com/ 100-greatest-fictional-characters-10-6/ ). Fandomania. . Retrieved September 23, 2010. [87] "Spider-Man (1967)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080424153033/ http:/ / www. ugo. com/ comic-con/ ?cur=spiderman-1967). UGO Networks. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ugo. com/ comic-con/ ?cur=spiderman-1967) on 2008-04-24. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [88] "Ultimate Spider-Man" (http:/ / www. superherohype. com/ features/ articles/ 100587-animated-ultimate-spider-man-coming-to-disney-xd). . Retrieved 18 November 2010. [89] "Japanese Spider-Man" (http:/ / marvel. com/ movies/ spider-man. japanese_spiderman). . Retrieved 18 November 2010. [90] "John Romita Interview" (http:/ / www. keefestudios. com/ studio/ romita/ interview. htm). . Retrieved 2009-02-08. [91] "EXCLUSIVE: 'Spider-Man 4' Scrapped; Sam Rami & Tobey Maguire & Cast Out; Franchise Reboot for 2012" (http:/ / www. deadline. com/ 2010/ 01/ urgent-spider-man-4-scrapped-as-is-raimi-and-cast-out-franchise-reboot-planned/ ). January 11, 2010. . Retrieved January 11, 2010. [92] ""Spider-Man" Film Gets Reboot; Sam Raimi, Tobey Maguire Out" (http:/ / blog. zap2it. com/ frominsidethebox/ 2010/ 01/ spider-man-film-gets-reboot-sam-raimi-tobey-maguire-out. html). January 11, 2010. . Retrieved January 11, 2010. [93] "Maguire, Raimi out of 'Spider-Man' franchise" (http:/ / www. wate. com/ Global/ story. asp?S=11804771). Associated Press. Yahoo! Movies. January 11, 2010. . Retrieved January 11, 2010. [94] DiOrio, Carl (2010-02-10). "'Spider-Man' reboot will be in 3D" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/ content_display/ news/ e3i0040e099982664b684cff507e86c3a14). . Retrieved 2010-03-20.


[95] Leins, Jeff (2010-07-01). "Andrew Garfield is the New Spider-Man" (http:/ / www. newsinfilm. com/ 2010/ 07/ 01/ andrew-garfield-is-the-new-spider-man/ ). . Retrieved 2010-07-01. [96] Lustig, Jay. "Spider-Man: Turn off the Dark" (http:/ / www. nj. com/ entertainment/ music/ index. ssf/ 2011/ 01/ spider-man_turn_off_the_dark_-. html). New Jersey On-Line. January 18, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011. [97] Gans, Andrew. "Reeve Carney, Jennifer Damiano, Patrick Page to Star in Spider-Man; Performances Begin in November" (http:/ / www. playbill. com/ news/ article/ 141945-Reeve-Carney-Jennifer-Damiano-Patrick-Page-to-Star-in-Spider-Man-Performances-Begin-in-November)., August 10, 2010 [98] "" (http:/ / spidermanonbroadway. marvel. com/ ). . Retrieved 2010-04-10. [99] Hetrick, Adam. "Troubled Spider-Man Turn Off the Dark Delays Broadway Opening Again" (http:/ / www. playbill. com/ news/ article/ 146654-Troubled-Spider-Man-Turn-Off-the-Dark-Delays-Broadway-Opening-Again). January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011. [100] "Could Spider-Man the Musical be the 'biggest disaster in Broadway history'?" (http:/ / theweek. com/ article/ index/ 206033/ spider-man-the-musical-an-instant-guide). The Week. August 13, 2010 (updated November 4, 2010). [101] "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains Episode Guide 2005 - Ultimate Super Villains" (http:/ / www. tvguide. com/ detail/ tv-show. aspx?tvobjectid=191868& more=ucepisodelist& episodeid=4615590). . Retrieved 2010-10-09.


References External links
• Official website ( • Spider-Man ( at the Marvel Universe wiki • Spider-Man ( at the Comic Book DB • "Venom: The Sordid History of Spider-Man's Black Costume" ( at • Spider-Man ( at Don Markstein's Toonopedia • SpiderFan ( • Spider-Man ( at the Open Directory Project

Fantastic Four


Fantastic Four
Fantastic Four

Promotional art for Fantastic Four #509 (March 2004) by Mike Wieringo and Karl Kesel. Group publication information Publisher First appearance Created by Marvel Comics The Fantastic Four #1 (November 1961) Stan Lee and Jack Kirby In-story information Type of organization Base(s) Team Baxter Building (formerly Avengers Mansion, Four Freedoms Plaza, Pier 4) Mister Fantastic Invisible Woman Human Torch The Thing Roster See: List of Fantastic Four members


Fantastic Four
The Fantastic Four #1 (November 1961). Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciller) and unconfirmed inker

Series publication information Schedule Format Genre Monthly Ongoing series Superhero

Fantastic Four

(vol. 1) November 1961 – September 1996 (vol. 2) November 1996 – November 1997 (vol. 3) January 1998 – August 2003 (vol. 1 cont.) September 2003 – April 2011 (vol. 1): 416 (vol. 2): 13 (vol. 3): 70 (vol. 1 cont.): 89 Creative team

Publication date

Number of issues


(vol. 1) Stan Lee, Roy Thomas, Len Wein, Marv Wolfman, John Byrne, Roger Stern, Steve Englehart, Walt Simonson, Tom DeFalco (vol. 2) Jim Lee (vol. 2) Scott Lobdell, Chris Claremont, Mark Waid (vol. 1 cont.) Mark Waid, Jonathan Hickman (vol. 1) Jack Kirby, John Buscema, Rich Buckler, George Pérez, John Byrne, Walt Simonson, Paul Ryan (vol. 2) Jim Lee, Breth Booth (vol. 3) Alan Davis, Salvador Larroca, Mike Wieringo (vol. 1 cont.) Mike Wieringo, Mike McKone, Bryan Hitch, Dale Eaglesham, Steve Epting (vol. 1) Joe Sinnott, Danny Bulanadi (vol. 3) Art Thibert, Karl Kesel (vol. 1 cont.) Karl Kesel Stan Lee and Jack Kirby Collected editions




Essential Fantastic Four: Volume 1

ISBN 0-7851-1828-4

The Fantastic Four is a fictional superhero team appearing in comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group debuted in The Fantastic Four #1 (November 1961), which helped to usher in a new level of realism in the medium. The Fantastic Four was the first superhero team created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist and co-plotter Jack Kirby, who developed a collaborative approach to creating comics with this title that they would use from then on. As the first superhero team title produced by Marvel Comics, it formed a cornerstone of the company's 1960s rise from a small division of a publishing company to a pop-culture conglomerate. The title would go on to showcase the talents of comics creators such as Roy Thomas, John Byrne, Steve Englehart, Walt Simonson, John Buscema, George Pérez and Tom DeFalco, and is one of several Marvel titles originating in the Silver Age of Comic Books that is still in publication today. The four individuals traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are: Mr. Fantastic (Reed Richards), a scientific genius and the

Fantastic Four leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes; the Invisible Woman (Susan "Sue" Storm), who eventually married Reed, who can render herself invisible and later project powerful force fields; the Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Sue's younger brother, who can generate flames, surround himself with them and fly; and the monstrous Thing (Ben Grimm), their grumpy but benevolent friend, a former college football star and Reed's college roommate as well as a good pilot, who possesses superhuman strength and endurance due to the nature of his stone-like flesh. Ever since the original 1961 introduction, the Fantastic Four have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic-book archetypes of the time, they would squabble and hold grudges both deep and petty, and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status. The team is also well known for its recurring struggles with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom, the planet-devouring Galactus, the sea-dwelling prince Namor, the spacefaring Silver Surfer, and the shape-changing alien Skrulls. The Fantastic Four have been adapted into other media, including four animated television series, an aborted 1990s low-budget film, and the studio motion pictures Fantastic Four (2005) and Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007).


Publication history
Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics, then known as National Periodical Publications, and that the top executive bragged about DC's success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America.[1] While film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan has debunked the particulars of that story,[2] Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of the JLA's strong sales, did direct his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes. According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. ... 'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he, 'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'"[3] :16 Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics, for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive. Determined "to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books,[4] Lee concluded that, "For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading.... And the characters would be the kind of characters I could personally relate to: they'd be flesh and blood, they'd have their faults and foibles, they'd be fallible and feisty, and — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they'd still have feet of clay."[3] :17 Lee said he created a synopsis for the first Fantastic Four story that he gave to penciller Jack Kirby, who then drew the entire story. Kirby turned in his penciled art pages to Lee, who added dialogue and captions. This approach to creating comics, which became known as the "Marvel Method", worked so well for Lee and Kirby that they used it from then on; the Marvel Method became standard for the company within a year.[5] :87 Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. Challenged with Lee's version of events in a 1990 interview, Kirby responded: "I would say that's an outright lie",[6] :39 although the interviewer, Gary Groth notes that this statement needs to be viewed with caution.[7] Kirby claims he came up with the idea for the Fantastic Four in Marvel's offices, and that Lee had merely added the dialogue after the story had been pencilled.[6] :38 Kirby has also sought to establish, more credibly and on numerous occasions, that the visual elements of the strip were his conceptions. He regularly pointed to a team he had created for rival publisher DC Comics in the 1950s, Challengers of the Unknown. "[I]f you notice the uniforms, they're the same... I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt... the Challengers and the FF have a minimum of decoration. And of course, the Thing's skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the

Fantastic Four monotony of the blue uniform."[8] :4 The characters wear no uniforms in the first two issues. Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to identify with precise detail who created the Fantastic Four. Although Stan Lee's typed synopsis for the Fantastic Four exists, Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal, points out that its existence doesn't assert its place in the creation; "[W]e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas".[9] :78 Comics historian R.C. Harvey believes that the Fantastic Four was a furtherance of the work Kirby had been doing previously, and so "more likely Kirby's creations than Lee's".[10] :69 But Harvey notes that the Marvel Method of collaboration allowed each man to claim credit,[10] :68 and that Lee's dialogue added to the direction the team took.[10] :69 Wells argues that it was Lee's contributions which set the framework within which Kirby worked, and this made Lee "more responsible".[9] :85 Comics historian Mark Evanier, a studio assistant to Jack Kirby in the 1970s, says that the considered opinion of Lee and Kirby's contemporaries was "that Fantastic Four was created by Stan and Jack. No further division of credit seemed appropriate".[11] :122


The release of The Fantastic Four #1 (Nov. 1961) was an unexpected success. Lee had felt ready to leave the comics field at the time, but the positive response to Fantastic Four persuaded him to stay on.[12] The title began to receive fan mail, and Lee started printing the letters in a letter column with Issue #3. Also with the third issue, the Fantastic Four starting wearing costumes at a letter writer's suggestion, and Lee created the hyperbolic slogan "The Greatest Comic Magazine in the World!!" With the following issue, the slogan was changed to "The World's Greatest Comic Magazine!", and became a fixture on the issue covers into the 1990s,[5] :87 and on numerous covers in the 2000s. Issue #4 (May 1962) reintroduced Namor the Sub-Mariner, an aquatic antihero who was a star character of Marvel's earliest iteration, Timely Comics, during the late 1930s and 1940s period that historians and fans call the Golden Age of Comics. Issue #5 (July 1962) introduced the team's most frequent nemesis, Doctor Doom. These earliest issues were published bimonthly. With issue #16 (July 1963), the cover title dropped its The and became simply Fantastic Four. While the early stories were complete narratives, the frequent appearances of these two antagonists, Doom and Namor, in subsequent issues indicated the creation of a long narrative by Lee and Kirby that extended over months. Ultimately, according to comics historian Les Daniels, "only narratives that ran to several issues would be able to contain their increasingly complex ideas".[5] :88 During its creators' lengthy run, the series produced many acclaimed storylines and characters that have become central to Marvel, including the hidden race of alien-human genetic experiments, the Inhumans;[13] the Black Panther,[14] an African king who would be mainstream comics' first Fantastic Four #48 (Sept. 1966): The Watcher warns, in part one of the landmark "Galactus black superhero; the rival alien races the Kree and the shapeshifting Trilogy". Cover art by Kirby and Joe Sinnott. Skrulls; Him, who would become Adam Warlock; the Negative Zone; and unstable molecules. The story frequently cited as Lee and Kirby's finest achievement[15] [16] is the three-part "Galactus Trilogy" that began in Fantastic Four #48 (March 1966), chronicling the arrival of Galactus, a cosmic giant who wanted to devour the planet, and his herald, the Silver Surfer.[17] Daniels noted that "[t]he mystical and metaphysical elements that took over the saga were perfectly suited to the tastes of young readers in the 1960s", and Lee soon discovered that the story was a favorite on college campuses.[5] :128

Fantastic Four Kirby left Marvel in mid 1970, having drawn the first 102 issues plus an unfinished issue later completed and published as Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure (April 2008), Fantastic Four continued with Lee, Roy Thomas, Gerry Conway and Marv Wolfman as its consecutive regular writers, working with artists such as John Romita, Sr., John Buscema, Rich Buckler and George Pérez, with longtime inker Joe Sinnott adding some visual continuity. Jim Steranko also contributed several covers during this time.


1980s and early 1990s
John Byrne joined the title with issue #209 (Aug. 1979), doing pencil breakdowns for Sinnott to finish. Byrne then wrote two tales as well (#220-221, July–Aug. 1980) before writer Doug Moench and penciller Bill Sienkiewicz took over for 10 issues. With issue #232 (July 1981), the aptly titled "Back to the Basics", Byrne began his run as writer, penciller and inker, that last under the pseudonym Bjorn Heyn for this issue only.[18] Byrne revitalized the slumping title with his run.[19] :265 Originally, Byrne was slated to write with Sienkiewicz providing the art. Sienkiewicz left to do Moon Knight, and Byrne ended up as writer, artist, and inker. Various editors were assigned to the comic; eventually Bob Budiansky became the regular editor. Byrne told Jim Shooter that he could not work with Budiansky, although they ultimately continued to work together. In 2006, Byrne said "that's my paranoia. I look back and I think that was Shooter trying to force me off the book". Byrne eventually left in the middle of a story arc, explaining he could not recapture the fun he had previously had on the series.[20] One of Byrne's changes was making the Invisible Girl into the Invisible Woman: assertive and confident. During this period, fans came to recognize that she was quite powerful, whereas previously, she had been primarily seen as a superpowered mother and wife in the tradition of television moms like those played by Donna Reed and Florence Henderson.[21] Byrne also staked new directions in the characters' personal lives, having the married Sue Storm and Reed Richards suffer a miscarriage, and the Thing quitting the Fantastic Four, with She-Hulk being recruited as his long-term replacement. Byrne was followed by a quick succession of writers: Roger Stern, Tom DeFalco, and Roy Thomas. Steve Englehart took over as writer for issues 304–332 (except #320). The title had been struggling, so Englehart decided to make radical changes. He felt the title had become stale with the normal makeup of Reed, Sue, Ben, and Johnny, so in issue #308 Reed and Sue retired and were replaced with the Thing's new girlfriend, Sharon Ventura, and Johnny Storm's former love, Crystal. The changes increased readership through issue #321. At this point, Marvel made decisions about another Englehart comic, West Coast Avengers, that he disagreed with, and in protest he changed his byline to S.F.X. Englehart (S.F.X. is the abbreviation for Simple Sound Effects). In issue #326, Englehart was told to bring Reed and Sue back and undo the other changes he had made. This caused Englehart to take his name entirely off the book. He used the pseudonym John Harkness, which he had created years before for work he didn't want to be associated with. According to Englehart, the run from #326 through his last issue, #332, was "one of the most painful stretches of [his] career."[22] Writer-artist Walt Simonson took over as writer with #334 (December 1989), and three issues later began pencilling and inking as well. With brief inking exceptions, two fill-in issues, and a three-issue stint drawn by Arthur Adams, Simonson remained in all three positions through #354 (July 1991).

John Byrne gets "Back to the Basics" in #232 (July 1981), his debut as writer-artist. Cover art by Byrne and inker Terry Austin.

Fantastic Four Simonson, who had been writing the team comic The Avengers, had gotten approval for Reed and Sue to join that team after Engelhart had written them out of Fantastic Four. Yet by The Avengers #300, where they were scheduled to join the team, Simonson was told the characters were returning to Fantastic Four. This led to Simonson quitting The Avengers after that issue. Shortly afterward, he was offered the job of writing Fantastic Four. Having already prepared a number of stories involving the Avengers with Reed and Sue in the lineup, he then rewrote these for Fantastic Four. Simonson later recalled that working on Fantastic Four allowed him the latitude to use original Avengers members Thor and Iron Man, which he had been precluded from using in The Avengers.[23] After another fill-in, the regular team of writer and Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco, penciller Paul Ryan and inker Dan Bulanadi took over, with Ryan self-inking beginning with #360 (Jan. 1992). That team, with the very occasional different inker, continued for years through #414 (July 1996). DeFalco nullified the Storm-Masters marriage by retconning that the alien Skrull Empire had kidnapped the real Masters and replaced her with a spy named Lyja. Once discovered, Lyja, who herself had fallen for Storm, helped the Fantastic Four rescue Masters. Ventura departed after being further mutated by Doctor Doom. Ryan's lengthy run is behind only those of Jack Kirby and John Byrne in number of issues drawn. Although some fans were not pleased with DeFalco's run on Fantastic Four, calling him "The Great Satan", the title's sales increased over the period.[24] Other key developments included Franklin Richards being sent into the future and returning as a teenager; the return of Reed's time-traveling father, Nathaniel, who is revealed to be the father of time-travelling villain Kang; and Reed's apparent death at the hands of a seemingly mortally wounded Doctor Doom. It would be two years before DeFalco resurrected the two characters, revealing that their "deaths" were orchestrated by the supervillain Hyperstorm. The ongoing series was canceled with issue #416 (Sept. 1996) and relaunched with vol. 2, #1 (Nov. 1996) as part of the multi-series "Heroes Reborn" crossover story arc. The year-long volume retold the team's first adventures in a more contemporary style, and set in a parallel universe. Following the end of that experiment, Fantastic Four was relaunched with vol. 3, #1 (Jan. 1998). Initially by the team of writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Alan Davis, it went after three issues to writer Chris Claremont (co-writing with Lobdell for #4-5) and penciller Salvador Larroca; this team enjoyed a long run through issue #32 (Aug. 2000).


Following the run of Claremont, Lobdell and Larocca, Carlos Pacheco took over as penciller and co-writer, first with Rafael Marín, then with Marín and Jeph Loeb. This series began using dual numbering, as if the original Fantastic Four series had continued unbroken, with issue #42 / #471 (June 2001). (At the time, the Marvel Comics series begun in the 1960s, such as Thor and The Amazing Spider-Man, were given such dual numbering on the front cover, with the present-day volume's numbering alongside the numbering from the original series.) After issue #70 / #499 (Aug. 2003), the title reverted to its original vol. 1 numbering with issue #500 (Sept. 2003). Karl Kesel succeeded Loeb as co-writer with issue #51 / #480 (March 2002), and after a few issues with temporary teams, Mark Waid took over as writer with #60 / 489 (October 2002) with artist Mike Wieringo (with Marvel releasing a promotional variant edition of their otherwise $2.25 debut issue at the price of nine cents US).[25] Pencillers Mark Buckingham, Casey Jones, and Howard Porter variously contributed through issue #524 (May 2005), with a handful of issues by other teams also during this time. Writer J. Michael Straczynski and penciller Mike McKone did issues #527-541 (July 2005 - Nov. 2006), with Dwayne McDuffie taking over as writer the following issue, and Paul Pelletier succeeding McKone beginning with #544 (May 2007). As a result of the events of the "Civil War" company-crossover storyline, Reed and Susan Richards were temporarily replaced on the team by the Black Panther and Storm. During that period, the Fantastic Four also appeared in Black Panther,[26] written by Reginald Hudlin and pencilled primarily by Francis Portela. Beginning with issue #554 (April 2008), writer Mark Millar and penciller Bryan Hitch began what Marvel announced as a sixteen-issue run.[27] Following the Summer 2008 crossover storyline, "Secret Invasion", and the 2009 aftermath "Dark Reign",

Fantastic Four chronicling the U.S. government's assigning of the Nation's security functions to the seemingly reformed supervillain Norman Osborn, the Fantastic Four starred in a five-issue miniseries, Dark Reign: Fantastic Four (May–Sept. 2009), written by Jonathan Hickman, with art by Sean Chen.[28] [29] [30] Hickman took over as the series regular writer as of issue #570 with Dale Eaglesham and later Steve Epting on art.


In the storyline "Three", which concluded in Fantastic Four #587 (cover date March 2011, published January 26, 2011), the Human Torch appears to die stopping a horde of monsters from the other-dimensional Negative Zone. The series ended with the following issue, #588, and relaunched in March 2011 as simply FF.[31] [32] [33] The relaunch saw the team adopt a new name, the Future Foundation, and new black-and-white costumes, and accept Spider-Man as a member.[34] [35]

Ancillary titles and features spun off from the flagship series include the 1970s quarterly Giant-Size Fantastic Four and the 1990s Fantastic Four Unlimited and Fantastic Four Unplugged; Fantastic Force, an 18-issue spinoff (November 1994 – April 1996) featuring an adult Franklin Richards, from a different timeline, as Psi-Lord. A 12-issue series Fantastic Four: The World's Greatest Comics Magazine ran in 2001, paying homage to Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's legendary run. A spinoff title Marvel Knights 4 (April 2004 – June 2006) was written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa and illustrated by Steve McNiven in his first Marvel work. As well, there have been numerous limited series featuring the group. In 2004, Marvel launched Ultimate Fantastic Four. Part of the company's Ultimate Marvel imprint, the series reimagined the team as teenagers. The series ran 60 issues (Feb. 2004 - Feb. 2009). In 2008, Marvel launched Marvel Adventures: Fantastic Four, an out-of-continuity series aimed at younger readers.

The Human Torch solo
The Human Torch was given a solo strip in Strange Tales in 1962 in order to bolster sales of the title.[5] :98 The series began in Strange Tales #101 (October 1962), in 12- to 14-page stories plotted by Lee and initially scripted by his brother, Larry Lieber, and drawn by penciller Kirby and inker Dick Ayers. Here, Johnny was seen living with his elder sister, Susan, in fictional Glenview, Long Island, New York, where he continued high school and, with youthful naiveté, attempted to maintain a "secret identity". In Strange Tales #106 (March 1963), Johnny discovered that his friends and neighbors knew of his dual identity all along, from Fantastic Four news reports, but were humoring him. Supporting characters included Johnny's girlfriend, Doris Evans, usually in consternation as Johnny cheerfully flew off to battle bad guys. She was seen again in a 1970s issue of Fantastic Four, having become a heavyset but cheerful wife and mother. Ayers took over the penciling after ten issues, later followed by original Golden Age Human Torch creator Carl Burgos and others. The Fantastic Four made occasional cameo appearances, and the Thing became a co-star with issue #123 (Aug. 1964). The Human Torch shared the "split book" Strange Tales with fellow feature "Doctor Strange" for the majority of its run, before finally flaming off with issue #134 (July 1965), replaced the following month by "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.". The Silver Age stories were republished in 1974, along with some Golden Age Human Torch stories, in a short-lived ongoing Human Torch series. A later ongoing solo series in Marvel's manga-influenced Tsunami imprint, Human Torch, ran 12 issues (June 2003 – June 2004), followed by the five-issue limited series Spider-Man/Human Torch (March–July 2005), an "untold tales" team-up arc spanning the course of their friendship.

Fantastic Four


The Thing solo
The Thing appeared in two team-up issues of Marvel Feature (#11-12, September–November 1973). Following their success, he was given his own regular team-up title Marvel Two-in-One, co-starring with Marvel heroes not only in the present day but occasionally in other time periods (fighting alongside the World War II-era Liberty Legion in #20 and the 1930s hero Doc Savage in #21, for example) and in alternate realities. The series ran 100 issues (January 1974 – June 1983), with seven summer annuals (1976–1982), and was immediately followed by the solo title The Thing #1-36 (July 1983 – June 1986). Another ongoing solo series, also titled The Thing, ran eight issues (January–August 2006).

The Fantastic Four is formed when during an outer space test flight in an experimental rocket ship, the four protagonists are bombarded by a storm of cosmic rays. Upon crash landing back on Earth, the four astronauts find themselves transformed with bizarre new abilities. The four then decide to use their powers for good as superheroes. In a significant departure from preceding superhero conventions, the Fantastic Four make no effort to maintain secret identities, instead maintaining a high public profile and enjoying celebrity status for scientific and heroic contributions to society. At the same time they are often prone to arguing and even fighting with one another. Despite their bickering, the Fantastic Four consistently prove themselves to be "a cohesive and formidable team in times of crisis."[19] :204–205 While there have been a number of lineup changes to the group, the four characters who debuted in Fantastic Four #1 remain the core and most frequent lineup. • Mister Fantastic (Reed Richards), a scientific genius, can stretch, twist and re-shape his body to inhuman proportions. Mr. Fantastic serves as the father figure of the group, and is "appropriately pragmatic, authoritative, and dull".[19] :19 Richards blames himself for the failed space mission, particularly because of how the event transformed pilot Ben Grimm.[19] :205 • Invisible Girl/Invisible Woman (Susan Storm), Reed Richards' girlfriend (and eventual wife) has the ability to bend and manipulate light to render herself and others invisible. She later develops the ability to generate force fields, which she uses for a variety of defensive and offensive effects. • The Human Torch (Johnny Storm), Sue Storm's younger brother, possesses the ability to control fire, allowing him to project fire from his body, as well as the power to fly. This character was loosely based on a Human Torch character published by Marvel's predecessor Timely Comics in the 1940s, an android that could ignite itself. Lee said that when he conceptualized the character, "I thought it was a shame that we didn't have The Human Torch anymore, and this was a good chance to bring him back".[5] :85 Unlike the teen sidekicks that preceded him, the Human Torch in the early stories was "a typical adolescent — brash, rebellious, and affectionately obnoxious."[19] :204 Johnny Storm was killed in the 2011 storyline "Three".[32] • The Thing (Ben Grimm), Reed Richards' college roommate and best friend, has been transformed into a monstrous, craggy humanoid with orange, rock-like skin and super-strength. The Thing is often filled with anger, self-loathing and self-pity over his new existence. He serves as "an uncle figure, a long-term friend of the family with a gruff Brooklyn manner, short temper, and caustic sense of humor".[19] :204 In the original synopsis Lee gave to Kirby, The Thing was intended as "the heavy", but over the years, the character has become "the most lovable group member: honest, direct and free of pretension".[5] :86 The Fantastic Four has had several different headquarters, most notably the Baxter Building, located at 42nd Street and Madison Avenue in New York City. The Baxter Building was replaced by Four Freedoms Plaza at the same location after the Baxter Building's destruction at the hands of Kristoff Vernard, adopted son of the team's seminal foe Doctor Doom (Prior to the completion of Four Freedoms Plaza, the team took up temporary residence at Avengers Mansion.[36] ). Pier 4, a waterfront warehouse, served as a temporary headquarters after Four Freedoms Plaza was destroyed by the ostensible superhero team the Thunderbolts[37] shortly after the revelation that they were

Fantastic Four actually the supervillain team the Masters of Evil in disguise. Pier 4 was eventually destroyed during a battle with the longtime Fantastic Four supervillain Diablo,[38] after which the team received a new Baxter Building, courtesy of one of team leader Reed Richards' former professors, Noah Baxter. This second Baxter Building was constructed in Earth's orbit and teleported into the vacant lot formerly occupied by the original.[39]


Supporting characters
Allies and supporting characters
A number of characters are closely affiliated with the team, share complex personal histories with one or more of its members but have never actually held an official membership. Some of these characters include, but are not limited to: Namor the Sub-Mariner (previously an antagonist), Alicia Masters, Lyja the Lazerfist, H.E.R.B.I.E., Kristoff Vernard (Doctor Doom's former protégé), Wyatt Wingfoot, governess Agatha Harkness, and Reed and Sue's children Franklin Richards and Valeria Richards. Several allies of the Fantastic Four have served as temporary members of the team, including Crystal, Medusa, Power Man, Nova (Frankie Raye) (as the Human Torch), She-Hulk, Ms. Marvel II, Ant-Man II, Namorita, Storm, and the Black Panther; a temporary lineup from Fantastic Four #347-349 consisted of the Hulk, Spider-Man, Wolverine, and Ghost Rider II. Other notable characters who have been involved with the Fantastic Four include Alyssa Moy, Caledonia (Alysande Stuart of Earth-9809), Fantastic Force, the Inhumans (particularly Black Bolt, Crystal, Medusa, Gorgon, Karnak, Triton, and Lockjaw), Nathaniel Richards, Silver Surfer (previously an antagonist), Thundra, Willie Lumpkin the postal worker, and Uatu The Watcher. Author Christopher Knowles states that Kirby's work on creations such as the Inhumans and the Black Panther served as "a showcase of some of the most radical concepts in the history of the medium".[40]

Writers and artists over many years have created a variety of characters to challenge the Fantastic Four. Knowles states that Kirby helped to create "an army of villains whose rage and destructive power had never been seen before," and "whose primary impulse is to smash the world."[40] Some of the team's oldest and most frequent enmities have involved such foes as the Mole Man, the Skrulls, Namor the Sub-Mariner, Doctor Doom, Puppet Master, Kang the Conqueror/Rama-Tut/Immortus, Blastaar, the Frightful Four, Annihilus, Galactus, and Klaw. Other prominent antagonists of the Fantastic Four have included the Wizard, Impossible Man, Red Ghost, Mad Thinker, Super-Skrull, Molecule Man, Diablo, Dragon Man, Psycho-Man, Ronan the Accuser, Salem's Seven, Terrax, Terminus, Hyperstorm, and Lucia von Bardas.

Cultural impact
The Fantastic Four's characterization was initially different from all other superheroes at the time. One major difference is that they do not conceal their identities, leading the public to be both suspicious and in awe of them. Also, they frequently argued and disagreed with each other, hindering their work as a team.[19] Described as "heroes with hangups" by Stan Lee,[41] the Thing has a temper, and the Human Torch resents being a child among adults. Mr. Fantastic blames himself for the Thing's transformation. Social scientist Bradford W. Wright describes the team as a "volatile mix of human emotions and personalities". In spite of their disagreements, they ultimately function well as a team.[42] The first issue of The Fantastic Four proved a success, igniting a new direction for superhero comics and soon influencing many other superhero comics.[43] Readers grew fond of Ben's grumpiness, Johnny's tendency to annoy others, and Reed and Sue's spats. Stan Lee was surprised at the reaction to the first issue, leading him to stay in the

Fantastic Four comics field despite previous plans to leave. Comics historian Stephen Krensky said that "Lee's natural dialogue and flawed characters appealed to 1960s kids looking to 'get real'".[12] As of 2005, 150 million comics featuring the Fantastic Four have been sold.[41] A Fantastic Four film was released in 2005, and a sequel in 2007.


In other media
There have been four The Fantastic Four animated TV series and three feature films (though one of the movies went unreleased, and is only available in a widely circulated bootleg). The Fantastic Four also guest-starred in the "Secret Wars" story arc of the 1990s Spider-Man animated series and the Thing guest-starred (with a small cameo from the other Fantastic Four members) in the "Fantastic Fortitude" episode of the 1996 Hulk series. There was also a very short-lived radio show in 1975 that adapted early Kirby/Lee stories, and is notable for casting a pre-Saturday Night Live Bill Murray as the Human Torch. Also in the cast were Bob Maxwell as Reed Richards, Cynthia Adler as Sue Storm, Jim Pappas as Ben Grimm and Jerry Terheyden as Doctor Doom. Other Marvel characters featured in the series included Ant-Man, Prince Namor, Nick Fury, and the Hulk. Stan Lee narrated the series, and the scripts were taken almost verbatim from the comic books. The team made only one other audio appearance, on the Power Records album The Amazing Spider-Man and Friends. The Way It Began featured Stan Lee himself in the role of Johnny Storm and saw Ben Grimm reliving the origin of the FF, before leaving the Baxter Building to find their original nemesis the Mole Man, and a possible cure for Alicia's blindness. The story was never followed up on any further Power Records albums. In 1979, the Thing was featured as half of the Saturday morning cartoon Fred and Barney Meet the Thing. The character of the Thing was given a radical make-over for the series. The title character for this program was Benji Grimm, a teenage boy who possessed a pair of magic rings which could transform him into the Thing. The other members of the Fantastic Four do not appear in the series, nor do the animated The Flintstones stars Fred Flintstone and Barney Rubble, despite the title of the program.

Animated series
The Fantastic Four have been the subject of four different cartoon television series. The first Fantastic Four series, produced by Hanna-Barbera, ran for 20 episodes from September 9, 1967–March 15, 1970. The second Fantastic Four series, produced by DePatie-Freleng, lasted only 13 episodes and ran from September 9, 1978–December 16, 1978; this series features a H.E.R.B.I.E. Unit in place of the Human Torch. The third Fantastic Four was broadcast under the Marvel Action Hour umbrella, with introductions by Stan Lee; this series ran for 26 episodes from September 24, 1994–February 24, 1996. The fourth series, Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes, debuted on September 2, 2006 on Cartoon Network and has thus far run for 26 episodes. The Fantastic Four have made appearances on the animated children's series The Super Hero Squad Show. Different Fantastic Four members appear (briefly and with little or no dialogue) and are mentioned various times throughout the first season of The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. Reed Richards is mentioned in the episode "Some Assembly Required" when Iron Man states that he and Richards are working to develop a new supervillain prison in the Negative Zone (as a result of the events of the two-part episode "Breakout"). Reed is mentioned again in the episode "The Man Who Stole Tomorrow" when the prison he and Stark (and, as revealed in this episode, Dr. Henry Pym) designed, named "42" because it is the 42nd idea that Richards, Stark, and Pym thought of to make the world a better place, is introduced and featured in an episode for the first time. In this same episode, a photo of the entire team is seen in the Avengers' mansion. The Human Torch and the Thing were seen helping the Avengers fight the evil forces of Malekith the Accursed in the episode "The Casket of Ancient Winters". Thing, voiced by Fred Tatasciore, has a small amount of dialogue in this episode. In the first episode of the second season, "The Private War of Dr. Doom", the entire team finally appears as as whole (with lots of dialogue and a major role) when they

Fantastic Four team up with the Avengers to fight Dr. Doom. This episode is the first "in-person" appearance of the Invisible Woman. At the end of the episode, Dr. Doom discovers that Invisible Woman has been replaced by a Skrull imposter (the same fate Captain America and Viper suffered in this series).


Video games
The Fantastic Four starred in a 1997 Fantastic Four video game. The team appeared appeared in the Spider-Man: The Animated Series video game, based on the 1990s Spider-Man animated series, for the Super NES and Sega Genesis. The Thing and the Human Torch appeared in the 2005 game Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects. All of the Fantastic Four appear as playable characters in the game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance with Doctor Doom being the main enemy. The members of the Fantastic Four are also featured in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, although the team is separated over the course of the game. The Human Torch has an appearance in a mini-game where the player races against him in all versions of Ultimate Spider-Man, except on the Game Boy Advance platform. The Fantastic Four star in games based on the 2005 movie Fantastic Four and its 2007 sequel.

A movie adaptation of The Fantastic Four was completed in 1994 by B movie producer Roger Corman. While this movie was never released to theaters nor video, it has been made available from various bootleg video distributors. Another feature film adaptation of Fantastic Four was released July 8, 2005 by Fox, and directed by Tim Story. Fantastic Four opened in approximately 3,600 theaters and despite mixed reviews[44] grossed US$156 million in North America and US$329 million worldwide, Promotional poster for Fantastic Four (2005), weighed against a production budget of $100 million[45] and an featuring Chris Evans, Michael Chiklis, Jessica undisclosed marketing budget. It stars Ioan Gruffudd as Reed Alba, and Ioan Gruffudd Richards/Mr. Fantastic, Jessica Alba as Susan Storm/Invisible Woman, Chris Evans as Johnny Storm/Human Torch, Michael Chiklis as Ben Grimm/The Thing and Julian McMahon as Victor Von Doom/Dr. Doom, with Stan Lee making a cameo appearance as Willie Lumpkin, the mailman. A sequel, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, directed by Story and written by Don Payne, was released June 15, 2007. Despite mixed reviews, the sequel brought in US$132 million in North America and a total of US$288 million worldwide.[46] On 31 August 2009 Fox announced a reboot of the Fantastic Four franchise.[47]

Fantastic Four


Collected editions
The Fantastic Four stories have been collected into several trade paperback and hardcover editions. As part of the Essential Marvel range:
Title Years covered 1961–1963 Material collected Pages Publication date November 1998 October 1999 ISBN

The Fantastic Four, Vol. 1 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 2 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 3 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 4 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 5 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 6 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 7 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 8

The Fantastic Four #1-20, Annual #1




The Fantastic Four #21-40, Annual #2; Strange Tales Annual #2 528



The Fantastic Four #41-63, Annual #3-4


August 2001



The Fantastic Four #64-83, Annual #5-6


June 2005



The Fantastic Four #84-110, Annual #7-8


June 2006



The Fantastic Four #111-137


May 2007



The Fantastic Four #138-159; Giant-Size Super-Stars #1; Giant-Size Fantastic Four #2-4; Avengers #127 The Fantastic Four #160-179, #181-183, Annual #11; Marvel Two-in-One #20, Annual #1


July 2008




May 2010


As part of the Marvel Masterworks series:
# Title Material collected Pages First edition Second edition ISBN

Hardcovers 2 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 1 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 2 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 3 The Silver Surfer, Vol. 1 The Fantastic Four #1-10 256 November 1987 October 1988 June 2003 978-0785111818


The Fantastic Four #11-20, Annual #1


July 2003



The Fantastic Four #21-30


September 1990 June 1991

September 2003 June 2003



The Silver Surfer #1-6; The Fantastic Four Annual #5 The Fantastic Four #31-40, Annual #2




The Fantastic Four, Vol. 4 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 5 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 6 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 7 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 8 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 9


November 1992 October 1993

November 2003 978-0785111832


The Fantastic Four #41-50, Annual #3


January 2004



The Fantastic Four #51-60, Annual #4


October 2000

March 2004



The Fantastic Four #61-71, Annual #5


August 2004




The Fantastic Four #72-81, Annual #6


March 2005




The Fantastic Four #82-93, Annual #7


November 2005



Fantastic Four

The Fantastic Four #94-104 272 May 2006 N/A 978-0785120612


The Fantastic Four, Vol. 10

103 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 11 132 The Fantastic Four, Vol. 12

The Fantastic Four #105-116


September 2008 February 2010



The Fantastic Four #117-128




Trade paperbacks Fantastic Four, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four, Vol. 3 Fantastic Four, Vol. 4 Fantastic Four, Vol. 5 The Fantastic Four #1-10 The Fantastic Four #11-20, Annual #1 The Fantastic Four #21-30 The Fantastic Four #31-40, Annual #2 The Fantastic Four #41-50, Annual #3 256 295 234 264 240 March 2009 July 2009 February 2010 October 2010 February 2011 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 978-0785137108 978-0785137122 978-0785142966 978-0785145660 978-0785150589

Title Material collected Writer Publication date June 2005 ISBN

Fantastic Four Visionaries: George Pérez, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four Visionaries: George Pérez, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 0 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 3 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 4 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 5 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 6 Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 7

Fantastic Four #164-167, #170, #176-178, #184-186


Fantastic Four #187-188, #191-192, Annual #14-15; Marvel Two-in-One #60; Adventures of the Thing #3 Fantastic Four #215-218, #220-221; Marvel Team-Up #61-62; Marvel Two-in-One #50

April 2006


January 2009 978-0785137610

Fantastic Four #232-240

November 2001


Fantastic Four #241-250

May 2004


Fantastic Four #251-257, Annual #17; Avengers #233; Thing #2

January 2005 978-0785116790

Fantastic Four #258-267; Alpha Flight #4; Thing #10

March 2005


Fantastic Four #268-275, Annual #18; Thing #19

December 2005


Fantastic Four #276-284; Secret Wars II #2; Thing #23

September 2006


Fantastic Four #285-286, Annual #19; Avengers #263, Annual #14; X-Factor #1

June 2007


Fantastic Four

Fantastic Four #287-295 December 2007 978-0785127369

Fantastic Four Visionaries: John Byrne, Vol. 8 Fantastic Four Visionaries: Walt Simonson, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four Visionaries: Walt Simonson, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four Visionaries: Walt Simonson, Vol. 3 Fantastic Four: Trial of Galactus

Fantastic Four #334-341

May 2007


Fantastic Four #342-346

August 2008


Fantastic Four #347-350, #352-354

November 2009


Fantastic Four #242-244, #257-262; What the--?! #2

John Byrne

September 1990


Fantastic Four: Monsters Fantastic Four #347-349 Unleashed Fantastic Four: Nobody Gets Out Alive Fantastic Four: Heroes Reborn Fantastic Four: Heroes Return Fantastic Four #387-392

Walt Simonson

January 1992 978-0871358776

Tom DeFalco

February 1995 July 2000


Fantastic Four vol. 2, #1-12

Brandon Choi, Jim Lee


Fantastic Four vol. 3, #1-4

Fantastic Four: Flesh and Fantastic Four vol. 3, #35-39 Stone Fantastic Four: Into the Breach Fantastic Four vol. 3, #40-44

Jeph Loeb III, Rafael Marin, Carlos Pacheco Jeph Loeb III, Rafael Marin, Carlos Pacheco Karl Kesel, Rafael Marin, Carlos Pacheco Mark Waid

November 2000


January 2002 978-0785108658

Fantastic Four/Inhumans Fantastic Four vol. 3, #51-54; Inhumans #1-4



Fantastic Four, Vol. 1: Imaginauts Fantastic Four, Vol. 2: Unthinkable Fantastic Four, Vol. 3: Authoritative Action Fantastic Four, Vol. 4: Hereafter Fantastic Four, Vol. 5: Disassembled Fantastic Four, Vol. 6: Rising Storm

Fantastic Four vol. 3, #56, #60-66

April 2003


Fantastic Four vol. 3, #67-70, #500-502

Mark Waid

December 2003 December 2003 August 2004


Fantastic Four #503-508

Mark Waid


Fantastic Four #509-513

Mark Waid


Fantastic Four #514-519

Mark Waid

December 2004 June 2005


Fantastic Four #520-524

Mark Waid


Fantastic Four by J. Fantastic Four #527-532 Michael Straczynski, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four: The Life Fantastic Fantastic Four #533-535; Fantastic Four Special #1; Fantastic Four: The Wedding Special; Fantastic Four: A Death in the Family Fantastic Four #536-537; New Avengers: Illuminati; The Amazing Spider-Man #529-531

J. Straczynski

January 2006 978-0785117162

J. Straczynski

September 2006


The Road to Civil War

Brian Bendis, J. Straczynski

February 2007


Fantastic Four

Fantastic Four #538-543 J. Straczynski, Dwayne MacDuffie Dwayne MacDuffie Dwayne MacDuffie May 2007 978-0785122272

Fantastic Four: Civil War The New Fantastic Four Fantastic Four: The Beginning of the End Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Fantastic Four: The Master of Doom Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 3 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 4

Fantastic Four #544-550 Fantastic Four #525-526, #551-553; Isla de la Muerte Fantastic Four #554-561

May 2008 May 2008

978-0785124832 978-0785125549

Mark Millar

March 2009


Fantastic Four #562-569

Mark Millar

January 2010 978-0785129677

Fantastic Four #570-574

Jonathan Hickman

July 2010


Fantastic Four #575-578

Jonathan Hickman

December 2010


Fantastic Four #579-582

Jonathan Hickman

April 2011


Fantastic Four #583-585

Jonathan Hickman

Fantastic Four vs. X-Men Fantastic Four vs. X-Men #1-4 Fantastic Four: Foes Fantastic Four/Spider-Man Classic Fantastic Four: Foes #1-6 The Fantastic Four #218; Marvel Team-Up #100, #132-133; The Amazing Spider-Man #1; The Spectacular Spider-Man #42; Untold Tales of Spider-Man Annual '96

Chris Claremont Robert Kirkman

October 1991 978-0871356505 January 2005 978-0785116622 978-0785118039

Kurt Busiek, Chris Claremont, April 2005 John Marc DeMatteis, Stan Lee, Bill Mantlo

Fantastic Four/Iron Man: Fantastic Four/Iron Man: Big in Japan #1-4; Big in Japan Spider-Man Unlimited #8 House of M: Fantastic Four/Iron Man Fantastic Four: First Family Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four: Silver Rage Fantastic Four: House of M #1-3; Iron Man: House of M #1-3 Fantastic Four: First Family #1-6

Zeb Wells

June 2006


John Layman

July 2006


Joe Casey

November 2006


Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four #1-4

Jeff Parker

October 2007 978-0785126737

Secret Invasion: Fantastic Fantastic Four #300, #357-358; Secret Invasion: Four Fantastic Four #1-3 Fantastic Four: True Story Fantastic Four: Lost Adventures Dark Reign: Fantastic Four Fantastic Four: True Story #1-4

Roberto Aquirre-Sacasa

February 2009 May 2009


Paul Cornell


Fantastic Four #296, #543; Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure; The Last Fantastic Four Story

Stan Lee

September 2009


Dark Reign: Fantastic Four #1-5; Dark Reign: The Jonathan Hickman Cabal

October 2009 978-0785139089

Fantastic Four


Title Material collected Writer Publication date June 2005 ISBN

The Best of the Fantastic Four

Fantastic Four #1, #39-40, #51, #100, #116, #176, #236, #267; Fantastic Four vol. 3, #56, #60; Marvel Fanfare #15; Marvel Two-in-One #50; Marvel Knights 4 #4 Fantastic Four #1-30, Annual #1

John Byrne, Archie Goodwin, Karl Kesel, Stan Lee, Roy Thomas, Barry Windsor-Smith


Fantastic Four Omnibus, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four Omnibus, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four: In Search of Galactus Fantastic Four: Resurrection of Galactus Fantastic Four, Vol. 1

Stan Lee

November 2007 June 2007


Fantastic Four #31-60, Annual #2-4

Stan Lee


Fantastic Four #204-214

Marv Wolfman

February 2010


Fantastic Four vol. 3, #46-50, Annual 2001

Jeph Loeb, Raphael Marin

January 2011 978-0785144762

Fantastic Four vol. 3, #60-70; Fantastic Four #500-502 Fantastic Four #503-513 Fantastic Four #514-524

Mark Waid

August 2004


Fantastic Four, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four, Vol. 3

Mark Waid Mark Waid, Karl Kesel

March 2005 November 2005

978-0785117759 978-0785120117

Fantastic Four by J. Fantastic Four #527-532 Michael Straczynski, Vol. 1 The New Fantastic Four Fantastic Four #544-550

J. Straczynski

January 2006 978-0785120292

Dwayne MacDuffie

November 2007


Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Fantastic Four: The Master of Doom Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 1 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 2 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 3 Fantastic Four by Jonathan Hickman, Vol. 4

Fantastic Four #554-561

Mark Millar

January 2009 978-0785132257

Fantastic Four #562-569

Mark Millar

October 2009 978-0785133704

Fantastic Four #570-574

Jonathan Hickman

March 2010


Fantastic Four #575-578

Jonathan Hickman

July 2010


Fantastic Four #579-582

Jonathan Hickman

November 2010


Fantastic Four #583-588

Jonathan Hickman

May 2011


Fantastic The Fantastic Four #218; Marvel Team-Up #100, Four/Spider-Man Classic #132-133; The Amazing Spider-Man #1; The Spectacular Spider-Man #42; Untold Tales of Spider-Man Annual '96 X-Men/Fantastic Four X-Men/Fantastic Four #1-5

Kurt Busiek, Chris Claremont, January 2005 978-1415607190 John Marc DeMatteis, Stan Lee, Bill Mantlo

Akira Yoshida

February 2005


Fantastic Four

Fantastic Four #296, #543; Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure; The Last Fantastic Four Story Stan Lee July 2008 978-0785130970

Fantastic Four: Lost Adventures

House of M: Spider-Man, Fantastic Four: House of M #1-3; Spider-Man: Fantastic Four, and House of M #1-5; Black Panther vol. 4, #7; New X-Men Thunderbolts #11; Uncanny X-Men #462-465

Chris Claremont, Reginald Hudlin, John Layman, Fabian Nicieza, Tom Peyer, Mark Waid Chris Claremont

December 2009


Fantastic Four vs. X-Men Fantastic Four vs. X-Men #1-4; Fantastic Four #28

January 2010 978-0785138075

International publication
North America
The Fantastic Four has been published in translation around the world, beginning in the late 1960s in Mexico (Los Cuatro Fantásticos, published by La Prensa until the mid-1970s, then by Macc Division until 1980, and finally by Novedades Editores during the early 1980s) and French-speaking Canada (Les Fantastic Four, from 1969–1986, after which the title was merged with the Spider-Man title for 3 more years). Mexican translators were not consistent in their translations of the characters' code names; The Thing was called Coloso (Colossus) in the first series, La Mole in the second and the third (which was the name used for The Hulk in the first series). The other three main characters had more stable translated names: Mister Fantástico (sometimes translated as Señor Fantástico), La Chica (or La Mujer) Invisible, and La Antorcha Humana. Dr. Doom was Doctor Destino and She-Hulk was La Mujer Hulk in her run in the Fantastic Four. In the movie, and in current appearances in Mexico, Mister Fantastic is referred to as "El Hombre Elástico" (Elastic Man). Canada rarely translated character names from their English version, although sometimes switching back and forth between English and French names in the same issue (The Thing / La Chose, Mister Fantastic / Monsieur Fantastic, Invisible Girl / Fille (or Femme) Invisible, Human Torch / Torche Humaine). The names of Dr. Doom and She-Hulk were not translated into French for the Canadian reprints.

United Kingdom
British publication of the series began in the anthology title Mystic. Later, the Fantastic Four appeared in Mighty World of Marvel alongside Spider-Man and Hulk reprints when Marvel Comics began the imprint Marvel UK in the 1970s. The feature next appeared in Marvel UK's The Titans, starting with issue #27. After a few months, the feature moved first to Captain Britain Weekly, and then, after that title's demise, into the new title The Complete Fantastic Four. After that series ended, the feature appeared once again in Mighty World Of Marvel. During 1985 the Fantastic Four (along with other Marvel titles such as New Mutants, Avengers and X-men) were included in the Secret Wars II reprint title. This mostly focused on issues which crossed over into the Secret Wars II maxi series. As of 2011, the super-team also appears in Fantastic Four Adventures, published by Panini Comics.

Publication history in France started with the reprinting of the first 10 pages of Fantastic Four #50 in 1967 in an anthology title called "Les Chefs-d'Oeuvres de la Bande Dessinée" [Comic Book Masterpieces]. In 1974, the first 4 issues of the title were published, one page at a time, in the daily newspaper "France Soir". But primarily, rights to the Fantastic Four in France were held by a company called Editions Lug, which began publishing Fantastic Four first in an 1969 anthology title called Fantask, along with Spider-Man and Silver Surfer, then in another anthology called "Marvel". The censors objected to the content of the book, and citing "nightmarish visions" and "terrifying science fiction" as the reasons, forced their cancellations after respectively 7 and 13 issues. Although other anthologies featuring Marvel strips continued, notably "Strange" (featuring X-Men, Iron Man & Silver Surfer), the Fantastic Four remained unpublished in France until 1973. Editions Lug created a format aimed more for adults; an

Fantastic Four 80-page series called Les Fantastiques debuted where the old series left off, with the stories that introduced the Inhumans and Galactus. That series lasted over 15 years, coming out 4 times a year. In the mid-1970s, a title called Spidey was released by Editions Lug. Primarily featuring reprints from the juvenile "Spider Super Stories", it also featured a similarly themed FF series produced in France. These original stories had art that closely resembled the work of Jack Kirby or John Buscema, but the storylines themselves included watered-down super-villains, the FF on vacation, and even Santa Claus. This series was replaced by 1960s era X-Men reprints when Marvel demanded the same royalties for Editions Lug's original stories that they did for the US reprints. Eventually, a regular monthy series began publication in France, and the Fantastic Four took over the headlining position in the pocket format anthology "Nova" (sharing the title with Spider-Woman, Peter Parker, She-Hulk, and Silver Surfer)and lasted until Marvel began publishing its own titles under the newly-formed "Marvel France" line in the late 1990s. Fantastic Four shared space in the Silver Surfer's own book until the Heroes Reborn storyline created their own title, supported by Captain America. "Fantastic Four" then appeared in the anthology "Marvel Legends" and currently appears in "Marvel Icons", sharing that title with The Avengers. Two different French companies held rights to Marvel Comics at the same time in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Lug (which eventually changed its name to Semic) published Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, X-Men, Daredevil, and Iron Man, and most related series, while Aredit held the rights to Avengers, Hulk, Thor, Captain America, Sub-Mariner and many of the 1970s-era modern series like Ghost Rider, Man-Thing, Power Man, and the first She-Hulk series. Often, crossovers would force one company to publish another's title, i.e. the Marvel Two-In-One and Fantastic Four annuals that crossed over into the Invaders story would have to be published by the "other" company, and in fact that particular cross-over was published twice, once by each company. This resulted in different translations of the characters names — Susan Storm Richards was called Jane in her own title by Editions Lug (presumably because the name "Sue" is a form of the verb "to sweat" in French), and Reed was called Red, a combination of letters easier to pronounce than the double E sound. When Aredit published a Fantastic Four appearance they kept the traditional US names. Generally speaking, their names in France were: Monsieur Fantastic (although Mister was often used as well), L'Invisible, La Chose, and La Torche. (Rarely was "Humaine" used in the French editions.) Dr. Doom was called Docteur Fatalis, and She-Hulk was called Miss Hulk.


"Die Fantastischen Vier" First appeared in Hit Comics, a weekly title that rotated the main feature with other Marvel titles. Williams Comics eventually obtained the rights to Marvel's line and began publishing (for the first time in color) in the mid-1970s. Fantastic Four was backed up with Daredevil, and began with iussue #1. Condor Comic carried the title in the 1980s & 1990s, and published a series of pocket format books at about 300 pages each. They also published a paperback series in a similar format to the Marvel Graphic Novels. Marvel Deutschland currently publishes "Die Fantastischen Vier". The German names of the characters are Das Ding (The Thing), Die Fackel or Die menschliche Fackel (The Human Torch), Die Unsichtbare (The Unseen One), and Mr. Fantastisch (Mr. Fantastic). Silver Surfer and She Hulk retained their english names. Some editions refer to Dr. Doom as "Doktor Unheil".

I Fantastici Quattro was published in Italy in their own title (shared first with Captain Marvel, then rotating with other back up features) by Corno, then Star Comics in the 1990s, and are currently published by Marvel Italia. Character's names are typically translated as la Cosa (The Thing), la Torcia Umana (Human Torch), la Donna Invisibile (Invisible Woman) and Mister Fantastic. Dr. Doom is Dottor Destino; She-Hulk and Silver Surfer kept their English names. Also released in Italy was the series I Fantastici Quattro Gigante, an oversized magazine reprinting in chronological order all the super-team's appearances including the Human Torch solo series from Strange Tales.

Fantastic Four


[1] That DC all-star superhero team had debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February 1960) before going on to its own hit title (premiere cover date November 1960). [2] Uslan, in a letter published in Alter Ego #43 (December 2004), pp. 43–44, writes: "Irwin Donenfeld said he never played golf with Goodman, so the story is untrue. I heard this story more than a couple of times while sitting in the lunchroom at DC's 909 Third Avenue and 75 Rockefeller Plaza office as Sol Harrison and [production chief] Jack Adler were schmoozing with some of us... who worked for DC during our college summers.... [T]he way I heard the story from Sol was that Goodman was playing with one of the heads of Independent News, not DC Comics (though DC owned Independent News). ... As the distributor of DC Comics, this man certainly knew all the sales figures and was in the best position to tell this tidbit to Goodman. ... Of course, Goodman would want to be playing golf with this fellow and be in his good graces. ... Sol worked closely with Independent News' top management over the decades and would have gotten this story straight from the horse's mouth." [3] Lee, Stan (September 1974). Origins of Marvel Comics. Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books. ISBN 978-0671218638. [4] Lee, Stan (September 1974). Origins of Marvel Comics. Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books. ISBN 978-0671218638. "[My wife] Joan was commenting about the fact that after 20 years of producing comics I was still writing television material, advertising copy and newspaper features in my spare time. She wondered why I didn't put as much effort and creativity into the comics as I seemed to be putting into my other freelance endeavors. ...[H]er little dissertation made me suddenly realize that it was time to start concentrating on what I was doing — to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books." [5] Daniels, Les (1993). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-8146-7. [6] Groth, Gary (February 1990). "Interview III: 'I've never done anything halfheartedly'". The Comics Journal (134). Reprinted in George, Milo, ed (May 2002). The Comics Journal Library Volume 1: Jack Kirby. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-434-6. [7] Groth explains in his 2002 introduction to the interview that Kirby's state of mind needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating certain statements within the interview. Kirby was involved in an acrimonious dispute with Marvel Comics regarding the return of his artwork, and his relationship with Lee had deteriorated, in part due to this dispute but also due to Lee's public statements through the years, which Kirby saw as diminishing his role. Groth states: "Lee's contribution is a matter for endless speculation, but most observers and historians consider Kirby's claims here to be excessive." [8] Kirby, Jack. Interview with Tim Skelly. Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost'. The Great Electric Bird. WNUR-FM. May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27. Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library. [9] Wells, Earl (October 1995). "Once and For All, Who Was the Author of Marvel". The Comics Journal (181). Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library. [10] Harvey, R. C. (April 1994). "What Jack Kirby Did". The Comics Journal (167). Reprinted in George, The Comics Journal Library. [11] Evanier, Mark (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. Abrams Books. ISBN 0-8109-9447-X. [12] Krensky, Stephen (2007). Comic Book Century (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=n23M0Bn0JmwC& pg=PA58& dq="fantastic+ four"). Twenty-First Century Books. p. 59. ISBN 978-0822566540. . [13] Cronin, Brian (September 18, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 261" (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2010/ 09/ 18/ a-year-of-cool-comics-day-261/ ). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2010-09-29. [14] Cronin, Brian (September 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 262" (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2010/ 09/ 19/ a-year-of-cool-comics-day-262/ ). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2010-09-29. [15] Thomas, Roy (2006). "Moment 29: The Galactus Trilogy". Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe. New York: Sterling Publishing. pp. 112–115. ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5. [16] Hatfield, Charles (February 2004). "The Galactus Trilogy: An Appreciation". The Collected Jack Kirby Collector 1: 211. [17] Cronin, Brian (February 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 50" (http:/ / goodcomics. comicbookresources. com/ 2010/ 02/ 19/ a-year-of-cool-comics-day-50/ ). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2010-09-29. [18] Fantastic Four #232 (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 35487/ ) at the Grand Comics Database [19] Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. [20] Cooke, Jon B.; Eric Nolen-Weathington (2006). Modern Masters Volume Seven: John Byrne. TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-1893905566. [21] "Jessica Alba - Fantastic Four Girls" (http:/ / fantasticfour. ugo. com/ ?cur=jessica-alba& gallery=true). UGO. . Retrieved 2009-03-06. [22] Englehart, Steve. "Fantastic Four 304–332" (http:/ / www. steveenglehart. com/ Comics/ Fantastic Four 304-321. html). pp. 1–3. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [23] Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2006). Modern Masters Volume Eight: Walter Simonson (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ILopomw3UpMC& pg=PA65& dq="fantastic+ four"+ Steve+ Englehart). TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1893905641. . [24] Manning, Shaun (January 15, 2008). "Brand New (May) Day: DeFalco talks 'Amazing Spider-Girl'" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=12309). Comic Book Resources. . Retrieved 2009-03-10. [25] "The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: 'Fantastic Four (III) (1998–2003)'" (http:/ / www. maelmill-insi. de/ UHBMCC/ fantfou5. htm#S462). . Retrieved 2010-04-27.

Fantastic Four
[26] Hudlin, Reginald (w), Portela, Francis, Andrea Di Vito (p), Olazaba, Victor, Francis Portela, Andrea Di Vito (i). "Two Plus Two Part One: Home Invasion", "Two Plus Two Part Two", "Hell of a Mess Part 1", "From Bad to Worse Part 2", "Absolutely No Way to Win Part 3", "Dead or Alive Part 1", "Gangsta Lean Part 2", "Ready to Die Part 3", "Endgame Conclusion" Black Panther v4, 26-34 (May 2007–March 2008), New York: Marvel Comics [27] "Mark Millar: Tripping the Light Fantastic" (http:/ / www. comicsbulletin. com/ features/ 120286510850855. htm). Comics Bulletin. February 12, 2008. . [28] "The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators: Dark Reign: Fantastic Four (2009)" (http:/ / www. maelmill-insi. de/ UHBMCC/ dreign. htm#S568). . Retrieved 2010-04-27. [29] Smith, Zack (January 12, 2009). "Jonathan Hickman - Secret Warriors, the FF and More" (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ comics/ 010912-Hickman. html). Newsarama. . [30] Richards, Dave (February 13, 2009). "Osborn Supremacy: Fantastic Four" (http:/ / www. comicbookresources. com/ ?page=article& id=20040). Comic Book Resources. . [31] Ching, Albert (January 25, 2011). "Associated Press Spoils Fantastic Four #587 Hours Before Comic Goes on Sale" (http:/ / blog. newsarama. com/ 2011/ 01/ 25/ associated-press-spoils-fantastic-four-587-hours-before-comic-goes-on-sale/ ). Newsarama. . [32] Ching, Albert (January 25, 2011). "Hickman Details Fantastic Four #587's Big Character Death" (http:/ / www. newsarama. com/ comics/ hickman-fantastic-four-587-110125. html). Newsarama. . [33] Moore, Matt (January 25, 2011). "After Half Century, It's 1 Fantastic's Farewell" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w83Ujd0O). Associated Press via ABC News. Archived from the original (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ Entertainment/ wireStory?id=12753404) on 2011-01-30. . [34] Khouri, Andy (February 9, 2011). "Fantastic Four Get a New Name, New Costume and an Old Spider-Man" (http:/ / www. comicsalliance. com/ 2011/ 02/ 09/ fantastic-four-FF-new-costumes-spider-man/ ). ComicsAlliance. . [35] Hanks, Henry (February 11, 2011). "Spider-Man replacing Human Torch on new 'FF' team" (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2011/ SHOWBIZ/ 02/ 10/ spiderman. ff. go/ index. html?hpt=C2). CNN. . [36] Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Towards Infinity!" Fantastic Four 282 (September 1985), New York: Marvel Comics [37] Busiek, Kurt (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Russell, Vince (i). "Heroes' Reward" Thunderbolts 10 (January 1998), New York: Marvel Comics [38] Pacheco, Carlos, Rafael Marín (w), Pacheco, Carlos (p), Merino, Jesus (i). "Shadows in the Mirror!", "Day of the Dark Sun" Fantastic Four v3, 35-36 (November–December 2000), New York: Marvel Comics [39] Pacheco, Carlos, Rafael Marín (w), Pacheco, Carlos (p), Merino, Jesus (i). "Things Change" Fantastic Four v3, 39 (March 2001), New York: Marvel Comics [40] Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. Weiser. p.  173 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=93Mv-1R5yskC& pg=PA173)–174. ISBN 1578634067. [41] Bing, Jonathon (July 2005). "The Doom-Defying, Two-Fisted Marketing of Fantastic Four" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ wired/ archive/ 13. 07/ fantastic. html?pg=2& topic=fantastic& topic_set=). Wired. . Retrieved 2009-02-25. [42] Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=9pPgDE63U9oC& pg=PA204& dq="fantastic+ four"). JHU Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0801865145. . [43] Fein, Eric (2006). The Creation of the Fantastic Four (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=n1KHmaeMvwcC& printsec=frontcover& dq="fantastic+ four"). The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-1404207653. . [44] "Fantastic Four" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ fantastic_four/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2010-04-27. [45] Fantastic Four (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo. com/ movies/ ?id=fantasticfour. htm) at Box Office Mojo [46] "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo. com/ movies/ ?id=fantasticfour2. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-02-15. [47] Fleming, Michael (August 31, 2009). "Fox Sets 'Fantastic' Reboot" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118007959. html?categoryid=13& cs=1). Variety. .


Further reading
• Gresh, Lois H.; Robert Weinberg (2002). The Science of Superheroes ( ?id=TCv0LyEnzsUC). John Wiley & Sons. p.  21 ( pg=PA21)–29. ISBN 0471024600.

External links
• Fantastic Four ( at the Marvel Universe wiki • Fantastic Four (1961 series) ( at the Grand Comics Database • Fantastic Four ( at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

Fantastic Four • Fantastic Four ( at the Comic Book DB • Fantastic Four ( at the Open Directory Project • Archive of Database ( database/) from the original page (



Postmodern Heroes
Frank Miller (comics)
Frank Miller

Miller at Comic-Con 2008 Born January 27, 1957 Olney, Maryland, U.S. American Writer Penciller Inker Film director Screenwriter Actor

Nationality Area(s)

Notable works Batman: The Dark Knight Returns Batman: Year One Sin City Daredevil: Born Again 300 Ronin Give Me Liberty Awards Numerous Official website [1]

Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957)[2] is an American comic book artist, writer and film director best known for his dark, film noir-style comic book stories and graphic novels Ronin, Daredevil: Born Again, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, Sin City and 300. He also directed the film version of The Spirit, shared directing duties with Robert Rodriguez on Sin City and produced the film 300.

Frank Miller (comics)


Personal life
Miller was born in Olney, Maryland,[3] and raised in Montpelier, Vermont,[3] the fifth of seven children of a nurse mother and a carpenter/electrician father.[4] His family was Irish Catholic.[5] Living in New York City's Hell's Kitchen influenced Miller's material in the 1980s. Miller lived in Los Angeles, California in the 1990s, which influenced Sin City.[6] Miller moved back to Hell's Kitchen by 2001 and was creating Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again as the 9/11 terrorist attacks occurred not far from that neighborhood.[7]

Setting out to become an artist, Miller received his first published work at Western Publishing's Gold Key Comics imprint, on the licensed TV-series comic book The Twilight Zone drawing the story "Royal Feast" in issue #84 (June 1978), and "Endless Cloud" in #85 (July 1978).[8] One-time Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter recalled Miller going to DC Comics after having broken in with "a small job from Western Publishing, I think. Thus emboldened, he went to DC, and after getting savaged by Joe Orlando, got in to see art director Vinnie Colletta, who recognized talent and arranged for him to get a one-page war-comic job".[9] The Grand Comics Database does not list the job, which may or may not have been signed; Miller's first listed work is the six-page "Deliver Me From D-Day", by writer Wyatt Gwyon, in Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978).[10] A two-page story, however, written by Roger McKenzie and titled "Slowly, painfully, you dig your way from the cold, choking debris...", appears in Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978).[11] Other fledgling work at DC included the six-page "The Greatest Story Never Told", by writer Paul Kupperberg, in that same issue, and the five-page "The Edge of History", written by Elliot S. Maggin, in Unknown Soldier #219 (Sept. 1978). and his first work for Marvel Comics, penciling the 17-page story "The Master Assassin of Mars, Part 3" in John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18 (Nov. 1978).[12] Miller had a letter he wrote to Marvel as a comics fan published several years earlier in 1973 (The Cat #3) [13] At Marvel, Miller would settle in as a regular fill-in and cover artist, working on a variety of titles. One of these jobs was drawing Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man #27–28 (Feb.–March 1979), which guest-starred Daredevil. At the time, sales of the Daredevil title were poor; however, Miller saw something in the character he liked and asked editor-in-chief Jim Shooter if he could work on Daredevil's regular title. Shooter agreed and made Miller the new penciller on the title. As Miller recalled in 2008, When I first showed up in New York, I showed up with a bunch of comics, a bunch of samples, of guys in trench coats and old cars and such. And [comics editors] said, 'Where are the guys in tights?' And I had to learn how to do it. But as soon as a title came along, when [Daredevil signature artist] Gene Colan left Daredevil, I realized it was my secret in to do crime comics with a superhero in them. And so I lobbied for the title and got it".[4]

Frank Miller (comics)


Daredevil and the early 1980s
Daredevil #158 (May 1979), Miller's debut on that title, was the finale of an ongoing story written by Roger McKenzie. Although still conforming to traditional comic book styles, Miller infused this first issue with his own film noir style.[14] After this issue, Miller became one of Marvel's rising stars, and began plotting additional stories with McKenzie. Learning from Neal Adams, Miller would sit for hours sketching the roofs of New York in an attempt to give his Daredevil art an authentic feel not commonly seen in superhero comics at the time. Miller was so successful with the title that Marvel began publishing the Daredevil comic monthly (as opposed to its previous bimonthly publication period). With issue #168 (Jan. 1981), Miller took over full duties as writer and penciller, with Klaus Janson as inker. Issue #168 saw the first appearance of the ninja mercenary Elektra, who despite being an assassin-for-hire would become Daredevil's love-interest. Miller would write and draw a solo Elektra story in Bizarre Adventures #28 (Oct. 1981).
Miller at the 1982 Comic-Con

With his creation of Elektra, Miller's work on Daredevil was characterized by darker themes and stories. This peaked when in #181 (April 1982) he had the assassin Bullseye kill Elektra. Miller made it clear with the next few issues that he intended Elektra to remain dead, but nonetheless she was revived during his time as writer. Miller finished his Daredevil run with issue #191 (Feb. 1983); in his time he had transformed a second-tier character into one of Marvel's most popular. Additionally, Miller in 1980 drew a short Batman Christmas story, "Wanted: Santa Claus - Dead or Alive", written by Denny O'Neil for DC Special Series #21. This was his first professional experience with a character with which, like Daredevil, he would become closely associated. As penciler and co-plotter, Miller, together with writer Chris Claremont, produced the miniseries Wolverine #1-4 (Sept.-Dec. 1982), inked by Josef Rubinstein and spinning off from the popular X-Men title. Miller used this miniseries to expand on Wolverine's character while featuring more manga-influenced art. The series was a critical success and further cemented Miller's place as an industry star.

Daredevil #168 (Jan. 1981), Elektra's debut. Cover art by Miller and Klaus Janson.

His first creator-owned title was DC Comics' six-issue miniseries Ronin (1983–1984). Here Miller not only refined his own art and storytelling techniques, but also helped change how creator rights were viewed. After Ronin, Miller returned to Marvel for Daredevil #219, inspired by the film High Plains Drifter.

Frank Miller (comics)


Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and the late 1980s
In 1986, DC Comics released writer-penciler Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, a four-issue miniseries printed in what the publisher called "prestige format" — squarebound, rather than stapled; on heavy-stock paper rather than newsprint, and with cardstock rather than glossy-paper covers. It was inked by Klaus Janson and colored by Lynn Varley. The story tells how Batman retired after the death of the second Robin (Jason Todd), and at age 55 returns to fight crime in a dark and violent future. Miller created a tough, gritty portrayal of Batman, who was often referred to as the "Darknight Detective" in 1970s portrayals. Released the same year as Alan Moore's and Dave Gibbons' DC miniseries Watchmen, it showcased a new form of more adult-oriented storytelling to both comics fans and a crossover mainstream audience. The Dark Knight Returns influenced the comic-book industry by heralding a new wave of darker characters. The trade paperback collection proved to be a big seller for DC and remains in print 20 years after first being published.

By this time, Miller had returned as the writer of Daredevil. Following his self-contained story "Badlands", penciled by John Buscema, in #219 (June 1985), he co-wrote #226 (Jan. 1986) with departing writer Dennis O'Neil. Then, with artist David Mazzucchelli, he crafted a seven-issue story arc that, like The Dark Knight Returns, similarly redefined and reinvigorated its main character. The storyline, Daredevil: Born Again, in #227-233 (Feb.-Aug. 1986) chronicled the hero's Catholic background, and the destruction and rebirth of his real-life identity, Manhattan attorney Matt Murdock, at the hands of Daredevil's archnemesis, the crime lord Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin. Miller and artist Bill Sienkiewicz produced the graphic novel Daredevil: Love and War in 1986. Featuring the character of the Kingpin, it indirectly bridges Miller's first run on Daredevil and Born Again by explaining the change in the Kingpin's attitude toward Daredevil. Miller and Sienkiewicz also produced the eight-issue miniseries Elektra: Assassin for Epic Comics. Set outside regular Marvel continuity, it featured a wild tale of cyborgs and ninjas, while expanding further on Elektra's background. Both of these projects were well-received critically. Elektra: Assassin was praised for its bold storytelling, but neither it nor Daredevil: Love and War had the influence or reached as many readers as Dark Knight Returns or Born Again. Miller's final major story in this period was in Batman issues 404-407 in 1987, another collaboration with Mazzuchelli. Titled Batman: Year One, this was Miller's version of the origin of Batman in which he retconned many details and adapted the story to fit his Dark Knight continuity. Proving to be hugely popular, this was as influential as Miller's previous work and a trade paperback released in 1988 remains in print and is one of DC's best selling books. Miller had also drawn the covers for the first twelve issues of First Comics English language reprints of Kazuo Koike and Goseki Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. This helped bring Japanese manga to a wider Western audience. During this time, Miller (along with Marv Wolfman, Alan Moore and Howard Chaykin) had been in dispute with DC Comics over a proposed ratings system for comics. Disagreeing with what he saw as censorship, Miller refused to do any further work for DC,[14] and he would take his future projects to the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics. From then on Miller would be a major supporter of creator rights and be a major voice against censorship in comics.

Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1 (Feb. 1986). Cover art by Miller.

Frank Miller (comics)


The 1990s Sin City and 300
After announcing he intended to release his work only via the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics, Miller completed one final project for Epic Comics, the mature-audience imprint of Marvel Comics. Elektra Lives Again was a fully painted graphic novel written and drawn by Miller and colored by longtime partner Lynn Varley. Telling the story of the resurrection of Elektra from the dead and Daredevil's quest to find her, it was the first example of a new style in Miller's art, as well as showing Miller's will to experiment with new story-telling techniques. 1990 saw Miller and artist Geof Darrow start work on Hard Boiled, a three-issue miniseries which suffered from long delays between issues. The title, a mix of violence and satire, was praised for Darrow's highly detailed art and Miller's writing. At the same time Miller and artist Dave Gibbons produced Give Me Liberty, a four-issue miniseries for Dark Horse. A mixture of action and political satire, the title sold well and cemented Miller's reputation as a writer of mature-audience comics. Give Me Liberty was followed by sequel miniseries and specials expanding on the story of protagonist Martha Washington, an African-American woman in modern and near-future southern North America, all of which were written by Miller and drawn by Gibbons. Miller also wrote the scripts for the science fiction films RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3, about a police cyborg. Neither was critically well-received. Afterward, Miller stated he would never allow Hollywood to make movie adaptations of his comics, being disgusted with what he characterized as studio interference with his scriptwriting. Miller would come into contact with the fictional cyborg once more, Marv walking through the rain in the The Hard however, writing the comic-book minieries, RoboCop vs. The Goodbye cover by Frank Miller Terminator, with art by Walter Simonson. In 2003, Miller's screenplay for RoboCop 2 was adapted by Steven Grant for Avatar Press's Pulsaar imprint. Illustrated by Juan Jose Ryp, the series is called Frank Miller's RoboCop and contains plot elements that were divided between RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3. In 1991, Miller started work on his first Sin City story. Serialized in Dark Horse Presents #51-62, Miller wrote and drew the story in black and white to emphasize its film noir origins. Proving to be another success, the story was released in a trade paperback. This first Sin City "yarn" was rereleased in 1995 under the name The Hard Goodbye. Sin City proved to be Miller's main project for much of the remainder of the decade, as Miller told more Sin City stories within this noir world of his creation, in the process helping to revitalize the crime comics genre. Sin City proved artistically auspicious for Miller and again brought his work to a wider audience without comics. Daredevil: Man Without Fear was a five issue miniseries published by Marvel Comics in 1993 based on an earlier film script. In this Miller and artist John Romita Jr. told Daredevil's origins differently than in the previous comics, and provided additional detail to his beginnings. Miller also returned to superheroes by writing issue #11 of Todd McFarlane's Spawn, as well as the Spawn/Batman crossover for Image Comics. In 1995, Miller and Darrow collaborated again on Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot, published as a two-part miniseries by Dark Horse Comics. In 1999 it became an animated series on Fox Kids. During this period, Miller became one of the founding members of the comic imprint Legend, under which many of his Sin City works were released, via Dark Horse. Also, it was during the 1990s that Miller did cover art for many titles in the Comics Greatest World/Dark Horse Heroes line. Written and illustrated by Frank Miller with painted colors by Varley, 300 was a 1998 comic-book miniseries, released as a hardcover collection in 1999, retelling the Battle of Thermopylae and the events leading up to it from

Frank Miller (comics) the perspective of Leonidas of Sparta. 300 was particularly inspired by the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, a movie that Miller watched as a young boy. In 2007, 300 was adapted by director Zack Snyder into a successful film.


Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again and the 2000s
Miller started the new millennium off with the long awaited sequel to Batman: The Dark Knight Returns for DC Comics after Miller had put past difference with DC aside. Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again was initially released as a three issue series. Miller also returned to writing Batman in 2005, taking on the writing duties of All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder, a series set inside of what Miller describes as the "Dark Knight Universe."[15] and drawn by Jim Lee. Miller has said he opposes naturalism in comic art. In an interview on the documentary Legends of the Dark Knight: The History of Batman, he said, "People are attempting to bring a superficial reality to superheroes which is rather stupid. They work best as the flamboyant fantasies they are. I mean, these are characters that are broad and big. I don't need to see sweat patches under Superman's arms. I want to see him fly." Miller's previous attitude towards movie adaptations was to change after he and Robert Rodriguez made a short film based on a story from Miller's Sin City entitled "The Customer is Always Right". Miller was Miller's cover to Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again #1. pleased with the result, leading to him and Rodriguez directing a full length film, Sin City using Miller's original comics panels as storyboards. The film was released in the U.S. on April 1, 2005. The film's success brought renewed attention to Miller's Sin City projects. Similarly, a film adaptation of 300, directed solely by Zack Snyder, brought new attention and controversy to Miller's original comic book work. A sequel to the film, based around Miller's first Sin City series, A Dame to Kill For, has been reported to be in development.[16]

Critical reaction
Miller's work has often been met with positive reception. Daredevil: Born Again and The Dark Knight Returns were both a critical success, and Batman: Year One was met with even greater praise for its gritty style. Most of his previous work such as Ronin, 300 and Sin City were very successful. However, Miller's later work often has been met with criticism. Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again received mixed to negative reviews. All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder in particular was met with harsh criticism.[17] [18] [19] Some of Miller's works have been accused of lacking humanity,[20] particularly in regard to the abundance of prostitutes portrayed in Sin City.[21] When it was released in 2008, Miller's film adaptation of Will Eisner's The Spirit met with largely negative reviews, earning a metascore of 30/100 at the review aggregation site[22] Outside of the comic and political circuit, his influence includes art historian Kenneth Clark, and the animation by Fleischer Studios.

Frank Miller (comics)


Cameo appearances
Frank Miller has appeared in five films in small roles, dying in each. • In RoboCop 2 (1990), he plays "Frank, the chemist" and dies in an explosion in the drug lab. • In Jugular Wine: A Vampire Odyssey (1994), he is killed by vampires in front of Marvel Comics' Stan Lee, who compares his killers to "angels". • In Daredevil (2003), he appears as a corpse with a pen in his head, thrown by Bullseye, who steals his motorcycle. The credits list Frank Miller as "Man with Pen in Head".
Frank Miller (right) appearing as illegal drug chemist "Frank" in RoboCop 2 alongside Tom Noonan as "Cain" (left).

• In Sin City (2005), he plays the priest killed by Marv in the confessional.[23] • In The Spirit (2008), which was written and directed by Miller, he appears as "Liebowitz", the officer whose head is ripped off by the Octopus and thrown at the Spirit. The name alludes to Jack Liebowitz, a co-founder of what would become DC Comics.[24]

DC Comics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • All-Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder #1-10 (writer, with art by Jim Lee, 2005–08) Batman #404-407 (writer, with art by David Mazzucchelli, 1987) Batman and the Outsiders Annual #1 (cover, 1984) Batman: Black and White #2 (cover, 1996) Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1-4 (miniseries) (writer/artist, 1986) Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again #1-3 (miniseries) (writer/artist, 2001) DC Special Series #21 (artist, with writer Denny O'Neil, 1979) 'Mazing Man #12 (cover, 1986) New Adventures of Superboy #51 (cover, 1984) Orion #3 (artist, with writer Walt Simonson, 2000) Ronin #1-6 (miniseries) (writer/artist, 1983) Superman #400 (artist, 1984) Superman: The Secret Years #1-4 (covers, 1985) Unknown Soldier #219 (artist, 1978) Weird War Tales #64, 68 (artist, 1978) Wonder Woman #298 (cover, 1982)

Frank Miller (comics) Marvel Comics • The Amazing Spider-Man #203, 218-219 (covers, 1980–81); Annual #14-15 (artist, with writer Denny O'Neil, 1980–81) • Bizarre Adventures #28 (Elektra) (writer/artist, 1981), #31 (artist, 1982) • Captain America #255 (Cover with Joe Rubenstein) • Daredevil #158-161, 163-167 (artist, 1979–1980); #168–184, 191 (writer/artist, 1981–83); #185-190 (writer, with art by Klaus Janson, 1982–83); #219 (writer, with art by John Buscema, 1985); #226-233 (writer, with art by David Mazzucchelli, 1985–1986) • Daredevil: Love and War (writer, with art by Bill Sienkiewicz, 1986) (graphic novel ISBN 0-87135-172-2) • Daredevil: The Man Without Fear #1-5 (miniseries) (writer, with art by John Romita, Jr., 1993) • Elektra: Assassin #1-8 (miniseries) (writer, with art by Bill Sienkiewicz, 1986) • Elektra Lives Again (graphic novel ISBN 0-7851-0890-4) (writer/artist, 1990) • Incredible Hulk Annual #11 (artist, with writer Mary Jo Duffy, 1981) • John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18 (artist, with writer Chris Claremont, 1978) • Marvel Fanfare #18 (Captain America) (writer/artist, 1984) • Marvel Spotlight (vol. 2) #8 (artist, with writer Mike W. Barr, 1980) • Marvel Team-Up #100 (artist, with writer Chris Claremont, 1980), Annual #4 (writer, art by Herb Trimpe, 1981); #95, 99-100, 102, 106 (covers, 1980–81) • Marvel Two-in-One #51 (artist, with writer Peter Gillis, 1979) • Power Man and Iron Fist #76 (1981) (artist, with writers Chris Claremont and Mike W. Barr, 1981) • Spectacular Spider-Man #27–28 (artist, with writer Bill Mantlo, 1979); #46, 48, 50-52, 54-57, 60 (covers, 1980–81) • Spider-Man and Daredevil Special Edition (cover, 1984) • Star Trek #5, #10 (covers) • What If? #28, 34-35 (writer/artist, 1981–82) • Wolverine #1-4 miniseries (artist, with writer Chris Claremont, 1982) Dark Horse • • • • • • • • • • • A Decade of Dark Horse #1 "Daddy´s Little Girl" story (writer/artist, 1993) Autobiografix one-shot (writer/artist among other authors, 2003) (tpb ISBN 1-59307-038-1) Dark Horse Maverick 2000 one-shot (writer/artist among other authors, 2000) Dark Horse Maverick: Happy Endings one-shot (writer/artist among other authors, 2002) (trade paperback ISBN 1-56971-820-2) Dark Horse 5th Anniversary (writer/artist) Dark Horse Presents #51-62 (writer/artist, 1991–92) Give Me Liberty #1-4 (writer, with art by Dave Gibbons, 1990) Hard Boiled #1-3 (writer, with art by Geof Darrow, 1990–92) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-878574-58-2) Madman #6-7 (writer, 1995) RoboCop vs. The Terminator #1-4 (writer, with art by Walter Simonson, 1992) Sin City (writer/artist) includes: • • • • A Dame to Kill For #1-6 (1994) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-59307-294-5) The Big Fat Kill #1-5 (1994) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-59307-295-3) That Yellow Bastard #1-6 (1996) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-59307-296-1) Family Values (1997) (graphic novel ISBN 1-59307-297-X) • The Babe Wore Red (And Other Stories) (1994) • Silent Night (1994)


• Booze, Broads, & Bullets (1998) (trade paperback ISBN 1-59307-298-8) collects:

Frank Miller (comics) • Lost, Lonely, & Lethal (1996) • Sex & Violence (1997) • Just Another Saturday Night (1997) • Hell and Back #1-9 (1999) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-59307-299-6) • The Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot #1-2 (writer, with art by Geof Darrow, 1995) (also trade paperback ISBN 1-56971-201-8) • 300 #1-5 (writer/artist, 1998) (also hardcover ISBN 1-56971-402-9) Valiant Comics Miller drew the covers for all the August 1992 dated Valiant Comics as part of the Unity crossover: • • • • • • • Archer & Armstrong #1 (cover) Eternal Warrior #1 (cover) Harbinger #8 (cover) Magnus, Robot Fighter #15 (cover) Rai #6 (cover) Shadowman #4 (cover) Solar, Man of the Atom #12 (cover)


• X-O Manowar #7 (cover) Other publishers • • • • • • • Bone #38 (cover, 2000) Destroyer Duck #7 (cover) (Eclipse Comics) Holy Terror (graphic novel, Legendary Comics, 2011)[25] Spawn #11 (writer) (Image Comics) Spawn/Batman (writer, with art by Todd McFarlane, 1994) Twilight Zone #84-85 (artist) (Gold Key Comics) 1978 Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow (cover) [26]

Compilations • • • • • • • • • • • • Batman: Year One ISBN 0-930289-33-1 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (trade paperback ISBN 1-56389-342-8) Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again (trade paperback ISBN 1-56389-929-9) Complete Frank Miller Spider-Man (includes PPTSSM #27-28, ASM Annual #14–15, MTU #100, Annual #4 and all his covers for MTU, PPTSSM and ASM) (trade paperback ISBN 0-7851-0899-8) Daredevil: Born Again (collects Daredevil #227–233 (1985–86) ISBN 0-87135-297-4) Daredevil: The Man Without Fear (trade paperback ISBN 0-7851-0046-6) Daredevil Visionaries – Frank Miller Vol.1 tpb (collects Daredevil #158–161, #163–167) Daredevil Visionaries – Frank Miller Vol.2 tpb (collects Daredevil #168–182) ISBN 0-7851-0771-1 Daredevil Visionaries – Frank Miller Vol.3 tpb (collects Daredevil #183–191, What If...? #28, 35, Bizarre Adventures #28) ISBN 0-7851-0802-5 Elektra: Assassin (tpb ISBN 0-87135-309-1) Spawn/Batman ISBN 1-58240-019-9 Sin City: The Hard Goodbye (1991) (collects Dark Horse Presents #51-62 and Dark Horse Presents Fifth Anniversary #1) (also trade paperback featuring the full version, ISBN 1-59307-293-7)

• The Life and Times of Martha Washington in The Twenty-First Century (writer, with art by Dave Gibbons, Dark Horse Comics, hardcover, 600 pages, July 2009, ISBN 1-59307-654-1) collects: • Give Me Liberty #1-4 (mini-series, 1990, tpb, ISBN 0-440-50446-5)

Frank Miller (comics) • • • • • Martha Washington Goes to War #1-5 (mini-series, 1994, tpb, ISBN 1-56971-090-2) Happy Birthday, Martha Washington (one-shot, 1995) Martha Washington Stranded in Space (one-shot, 1995) (features The Big Guy) Martha Washington Saves the World (3-issue mini-series, 1997, tpb ISBN 1-56971-384-7) Martha Washington Dies (one-shot, 2007)


• Tales to Offend #1 (1997) (collects two Lance Blastoff stories and "Sin City: Daddy's Little Girl")

• RoboCop 2 Miller's original script was heavily edited through rewrites as it was deemed unfilmable. The original script was adapted in 2003 by Steven Grant into the comics series, Frank Miller's RoboCop. • RoboCop 3 Miller co-wrote this with the film's director Fred Dekker. • Batman: Year One This was co-written and was due to be directed by Darren Aronofsky until Warner Bros. cancelled the project opting for Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins. • Sin City • The Spirit Although Miller co-directed Sin City this is his first solo directing project. • Sin City 2 Miller confirmed along with Robert Rodriguez that they will be working on a sequel to Sin City at a 2007 comic-con. Miller was a producer for the film 300, which was adapted shot for shot into a feature film in 2007. The 2003 film version of Daredevil predominantly use the tone established and stories written by Miller, who had no direct creative input on the film (except for a little cameo appearance).

Eisner Awards • Best Short Story - 1995 "The Babe Wore Red", in Sin City: The Babe Wore Red and Other Stories (Dark Horse/Legend) • Best Finite Series/Limited Series - 1991 Give Me Liberty (Dark Horse), 1995 Sin City: A Dame to Kill For (Dark Horse/Legend), 1996 Sin City: The Big Fat Kill (Dark Horse/Legend), 1999 300 (Dark Horse) • Best Graphic Album: New - 1991 Elektra Lives Again (Marvel) • Best Graphic Album: Reprint - 1993 Sin City (Dark Horse), 1998 Sin City: That Yellow Bastard (Dark Horse) • Best Writer/Artist - 1991 for Elektra Lives Again (Marvel), 1993 for Sin City (Dark Horse), 1999 for 300 (Dark Horse) • Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team - 1993 for Sin City (Dark Horse) Kirby Awards • Best Single Issue - 1986 Daredevil #227 "Apocalypse" (Marvel), 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1 "The Dark Knight Returns" (DC) • Best Graphic Album, 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC) • Best Writer/Artist (single or team) - 1986 Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli, for Daredevil: Born Again (Marvel) • Best Art Team - 1987 Frank Miller, Klaus Janson and Lynn Varley, for Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC) Harvey Awards • Best Continuing or Limited Series - 1996 Sin City (Dark Horse), 1999 300 (Dark Horse) • Best Graphic Album of Original Work - 1998 Sin City: Family Values (Dark Horse) • Best Domestic Reprint Project - 1997 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, 10th Anniversary Edition (DC) Cannes Film Festival • Palme d'Or - 2005 (nominated) Sin City (Dimension Films)

Frank Miller (comics) Scream Awards • The Comic-Con Icon Award - 2006


[1] http:/ / frankmillerink. com [2] Comics Buyer's Guide #1650; February 2009; Page 107 [3] Webster, Andy (July 20, 2008). "Artist-Director Seeks the Spirit of 'The Spirit'" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 20/ movies/ 20webs. html). The New York Times. . [4] Lovece, Frank (December 22, 2008). "Spirit guide: Frank Miller adapts Will Eisner's cult comic" (http:/ / www. filmjournal. com/ filmjournal/ content_display/ esearch/ e3i8a7ba6d185c56a44dde220cb5168caff). . [5] Applebaum, Stephen (December 22, 2008). "Frank Miller interview: It's no sin" (http:/ / thescotsman. scotsman. com/ features/ Frank-Miller-interview-It39s-no. 4812742. jp). The Scotsman. . Retrieved 26 May 2010. [6] Brady, Matt. "Frank Miller Spotlight Panel, Part 1" (http:/ / forum. newsarama. com/ showthread. php?t=60099), Newsarama, February 20, 2006 [7] David Brothers. Sons of DKR: Frank Miller x TCJ (http:/ / www. 4thletter. net/ 2009/ 04/ sons-of-dkr-frank-miller-x-tcj/ ), 4thletter, April 6, 2009 [8] "The Complete Frank Miller: The Twilight Zone" (http:/ / moebiusgraphics. com/ comics/ twilightzone. php). . [9] "Interview with Jim Shooter" (http:/ / www. manwithoutfear. com/ interviews/ ddINTERVIEW. shtml?id=Shooter),, July 1998. WebCitation archive (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5r3SdPRzM). [10] Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 32316/ #199299) at the Grand Comics Database [11] Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978) (http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 32672/ #200551) at the Grand Comics Database [12] Frank Miller (http:/ / www. comics. org/ search/ advanced/ process/ ?target=sequence& method=icontains& logic=True& order1=date& order2=series& order3=& title=& feature=& job_number=& pages=& script=Frank+ Miller& pencils=Frank+ Miller& inks=Frank+ Miller& colors=Frank+ Miller& letters=Frank+ Miller& story_editing=Frank+ Miller& genre=& characters=& synopsis=& reprint_notes=& notes=& start_date=1976& end_date=& pub_name=& pub_notes=& series=& series_notes=& tracking_notes=& publication_notes=& language=en& issues=& volume=& issue_date=& brand=& indicia_publisher=& price=& issue_pages=& format=& issue_editing=Frank+ Miller& issue_notes=& is_indexed=None) at the Grand Comics Database. NOTE: A different artist named Frank Miller was active in the 1940s. He died December 3, 1949 [13] http:/ / www. comics. org/ issue/ 26128/ [14] Flinn, Tom. "Writer's Spotlight: Frank Miller: Comics' Noir Auteur," ICv2: Guide to Graphic Novels #40 (Q1 2007). [15] "A Quick Miller Minute on All-Star Batman and Robin" (http:/ / forum. newsarama. com/ showthread. php?s=& threadid=27218), Cliff Biggers Newsarama, February 9, 2005 [16] Adler, Shawn (May 26, 2007). "Depp, Banderas To Call 'Sin City' Home?" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ news/ articles/ 1555630/ 20070326/ story. jhtml). MTV News. . [17] Gatevackes, William (February 10, 2006). "All-Star Batman & Robin #1-3" (http:/ / www. popmatters. com/ comics/ all-star-batman-robin-1-3. shtml). . [18] Biggers, Cliff. Comic Shop News #1064, November 7, 2007 [19] Robinson, Iann. "Review" (http:/ / www. craveonline. com/ articles/ comics/ 04649326/ all_star_batman_and_robin. html). Crave Online. . [20] Scott, A. O. (April 24, 2005). "The Unreal Road From Toontown to 'Sin City'" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 04/ 24/ movies/ 24scot. html?ex=1271995200& en=83f36c443f1c41eb& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). The New York Times. . [21] Dargis, Manohla (April 1, 2005). "A Savage and Sexy City of Pulp Fiction Regulars" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 04/ 01/ movies/ 01sin. html?_r=1& ex=1153281600& en=7e266ef33d532f3a& ei=5070& oref=slogin). The New York Times. . [22] (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ film/ titles/ spirit2008?q=the spirit), [23] "Frank Miller's Sin City" (http:/ / movies. tvguide. com/ frank-millers-sin-city/ cast/ 137842) TV Retrieved August 21, 2011 [24] "The Annotated Spirit: A Guide to the Movie's In-joke References" (http:/ / www. filmjournal. com/ filmjournal/ content_display/ esearch/ e3i8a7ba6d185c56a44dde220cb5168caff). 2008-12-22. . Retrieved 2010-11-08. [25] http:/ / robot6. comicbookresources. com/ 2011/ 07/ sdcc-11-legendary-reveals-trailer-for-frank-millers-holy-terror/ [26] "Gravity's Rainbow (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition): Thomas Pynchon, Frank Miller: Books" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0143039946). . Retrieved 2010-11-08.

Frank Miller (comics)


External links
• • • • • ] Official website ( Frank Miller ( at the Comic Book DB The Complete Works of Frank Miller ( Frank Miller ( at the Internet Movie Database Frank Miller (,_Frank/) at the Open Directory Project

David Mazzucchelli


David Mazzucchelli
David Mazzucchelli
Born Nationality Area(s) 1960 American Cartoonist

Notable works Asterios Polyp Daredevil Batman: Year One Rubber Blanket City of Glass: The Graphic Novel Awards Swann Foundation for Caricature and Cartoon; New Jersey State Council on the Arts Fellowship; Japan/U.S. Friendship Commission Creative Artists Fellowship; [1] Los Angeles Times Book Prize

David Mazzucchelli (born 1960) is an American comic book artist and writer. His latest work is the award-winning graphic novel, Asterios Polyp.

Mazzucchelli received his BFA from the Rhode Island School of Design and started working in comics in the early 1980s, first at Marvel Comics where, after a few fill-in jobs, he became the regular artist on Daredevil. He developed his skills working with writer Denny O'Neil and culminated his work on this title with the popular and critically acclaimed Daredevil: Born Again story arc, written by Frank Miller (now collected in book form). Mazzucchelli began as a traditional superhero artist but over the span of his time on Daredevil, his work became more nuanced and expressionistic. Miller and Mazzucchelli collaborated again on the graphic novel, Batman: Year One, serialized in issues 404 through 407 of DC Comics' monthly Batman title, and published in a single volume soon after that. Batman: Year One is considered one of the best Batman stories ever produced, and has served as a model for many subsequent creators. After Batman: Year One Mazzucchelli abandoned the superhero genre to focus on more personal projects.[2] He published three issues of his own independent anthology, Rubber Blanket, co-edited by his wife, the painter Richmond Lewis, in which he began finding his voice as a writer in addition to exploring new avenues of visual expression. His evocative and haunting stories in Rubber Blanket, notably "Near Miss," "Dead Dog," "Discovering America," and "Big Man," set the stage for his work to come. With writer/artist Paul Karasik, he co-wrote and illustrated an adaptation of Paul Auster's City of Glass, published first by Avon Books in 1994, then by Picador in 2004 as City of Glass: The Graphic Novel. (Auster's later book The Brooklyn Follies features a character with the name Nancy Mazzucchelli, an homage to David.) He continued to write and draw short comics for various publishers up to the year 2000. In 2009, Pantheon Books published Mazzucchelli's most ambitious work yet, the critically lauded graphic novel, Asterios Polyp.[3] A tour de force of comics technique, Asterios Polyp tells the complex and moving story—laced with humor— of the title character's journey of self-discovery. In his review in The New York Times, Douglas Wolk wrote, "'Asterios Polyp' is a dazzling, expertly constructed entertainment, even as it’s maddening and even suffocating at times. It demands that its audience wrestle with it, argue with it, reread and re-examine it." The New

David Mazzucchelli York Times included it in its 100 Notable Books of 2009, and The Los Angeles Times awarded it the first Book Prize in the category of Graphic Novel the following year. Mazzucchelli has also done illustrations for various publications, including interior pieces and covers for The New Yorker. Mazzucchelli taught a course in comics at the Rhode Island School of Design for several years, and currently teaches an undergraduate course for seniors majoring in cartooning at the School of Visual Arts.[4]


Graphic novels • Asterios Polyp (Pantheon Books, 2009) ISBN 978-0-307-37732-6 • Paul Auster's City of Glass, with Paul Karasik (Avon Books, 1994). Reprinted by Macmillan Publishers, 2004, ISBN 9780312423605 • Batman: Year One (DC, 1988), originally published in Batman #404–407 by Miller/Mazzucchelli

Alternative comics
• Rubber Blanket #1–3 (Rubber Blanket Press, 1991–1993)

DC Comics
• Batman #404–407: "Batman: Year One" story arc with writer Frank Miller (1987) • Superman and Batman: World's Funnest: "Darkseid" with writer Evan Dorkin (Elseworlds) (2000)
Mazzucchelli's cover to Batman #407, the fourth chapter of 1987's Batman: Year One.

• World's Finest Comics #302: Justice League/Outsiders story with writer David Anthony Kraft (1984)

Marvel Comics
• • • • • • • Daredevil #206, 208–217, 220–223, 225–233; mainly with writers Denny O'Neil and Frank Miller (1984–1986) Further Adventures of Indiana Jones #14 with writer David Michelinie (1984) Marvel Fanfare #40: (Angel story) with writer Ann Nocenti (1988) Marvel Team-Up Annual #7: Human Torch/Black Panther story, with writer Bob De Natale (1984) Master of Kung Fu #121 with writer Steven Grant (1983) Star Wars #84 with writer Roy Richardson (1984) X-Factor #16 with writer Louise Simonson (1987)

David Mazzucchelli Cover artist only • • • • Batman and Other DC Classics (DC, 1989) Cheval Noir #40 (Dark Horse, 1993) G.I. Joe #31 (Marvel, 1985) Rom #61 (Marvel, 1984)


Anthologies • • • • • • • • • • Snake Eyes #1 (Fantagraphics Books, 1991) "Cold Truth" in Nozone #3 (Nozone, 1991) "It's a beautiful day..." in Drawn & Quarterly Vol. 1, #9 (Drawn & Quarterly, July 1992) "A Brief History of Civilization" in Drawn & Quarterly Vol. 1, #9 (Drawn & Quarterly, July 1992) "Phobia" in Snake Eyes #3 (Fantagraphics Books, 1993) "Sorry" in Nozone #5 (Nozone, 1993) "Rates of Exchange" in Drawn & Quarterly Vol. 2, #2 (Drawn & Quarterly, Dec. 1994), also cover art Nozone #6 (Nozone, 1995?) "Stop the Hair Nude" in Zero Zero #2 (Fantagraphics Books, 1995) "Midori" in Manga Surprise #1

• "Stubs" in Zero Zero #11 (Fantagraphics Books, 1996) • "Still Life" in Zero Zero #27 (Fantagraphics Books, 2000) • "The Fisherman and the Sea Princess" in Little Lit: Folklore & Fairy Tale Funnies (Joanna Cotler/HarperCollins, 2000) • "The Boy Who Loved Comics" in The Comics Journal Special #1 (Fantagraphics Books, 2001)

Newspapers & magazines
• • • • • • • "Castles in the Sand", cover of The New Yorker, July 26, 1993 "The Fine Art of Hanging Ryman" in The New Yorker, Oct 4, 1993 "May Day", cover of The New Yorker, May 2, 1994 "Post Mort on Columbus Circle" in The New Yorker, May 16, 1994 "Monday in the Park with Marlon" in The New Yorker, Sept 19, 1994 "Fall", cover of The New Yorker, Oct 24, 1994 "New String" in The Village Voice, 1994

• Daredevil: Love's Labors Lost (Marvel, 2002), collects Daredevil #215–217, 220–222, 225 by O'Neil/Mazzucchelli, #219 by Miller/Buscema, & #226 by O'Neil/Miller/Mazzucchelli • Daredevil: Born Again (Marvel, 1987), collects Daredevil #227–233 by Miller/Mazzucchelli • Big Man (Coconino Press, 2000) • Discovering America (Coconino Press, 2001) • David Mazzucchelli Sketchbook (Kaleidoscope, 2001), features preliminary pencils from Daredevil and Batman: Year One and rare work published in Japan

David Mazzucchelli


• • • • • • • • Marvel Age #36: "Miller and Mazzucchelli on Daredevil" (Marvel, 1986), also cover art Amazing Heroes #102 (Fantagraphics Books, 1986), also cover art Comic Culture Vol. 2 #4 (Richard Relkin, 1995) The Comics Journal #152 (Fantagraphics Books, 1992) The Comics Journal #194 (Fantagraphics Books, 1997), also cover art Panel Discussions: Design in Sequential Art Storytelling (TwoMorrows Publishing, 2002) Indy Magazine [5] (2004) The Comics Journal #300 [6], interview/discussion with artist Dash Shaw (Fantagraphics Books, 2009)

Other work
• • • • "Tribute: People of Note Pay Homage to the Batman" in Detective Comics #598 & 600 (DC, 1989), pin-ups The Comics Journal #188 (Fantagraphics Books, 1996), cover artist Small Press Expo SPX 2002 (Comic Book Legal Defense Fund, 2002), cover artist "Paying Homage: Tribute to the Great Will Eisner" in Comic Book Artist #6 (Top Shelf Productions, 2005), testimonials and artwork by authors, artists and other creative types influenced by Will Eisner • "Spotlight: Rubber Blanket" in Negative Burn #10 (Caliber Comics, 1994) • "Sketchbook" in Negative Burn #17 (Caliber Comics, 1994)

• • • • • • • • • • • • The American Comic Book Awards, 1985 Kirby Award—Best Single Issue (Daredevil #227), 1986 Kirby Award—Best Writer/Artist (single or team), 1986 Haxtur Award—Best Drawing, 1987 New Jersey State Council on the Arts Fellowship, 1994 Swann Foundation for Caricature and Cartoon, 1993 Japan/US friendship Commission Creative Artists Fellowship, 2000 Los Angeles Times Book Prize Graphic Novel award, 2009[7] Reuben Award (National Cartoonists Society)—Best Graphic Novel 2009 (Asterios Polyp), 2010 Eisner Awards—Best New Graphic Novel (Asterios Polyp); Best Single Issue or Story; Best Lettering, 2010 Harvey Awards—Best Original Graphic Novel (Asterios Polyp); Best Writer/Artist; Best Letterer, 2010 Grand Jury Prize, Angoulême International Comics Festival, 2011 (for Asterios Polyp)

[1] Biography from "Comics On the Verge" exhibition (http:/ / www. mica. edu/ comics/ artist_mazzucchelli. html) [2] Young, Frank. "Comics Used to be about Telling Stories: David Mazzucchelli Discusses his Transition from Mainstream to Independence", The Comics Journal #152 (August 1992), pp. 114–199. [3] Reid, Calvin. "Fall 2008: New Comics from Pantheon", [[Publishers Weekly (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6500578. html)] (Nov. 13, 2007).] Accessed Jan. 26, 2009. [4] SVA Events for November 19, 2008 (http:/ / www. schoolofvisualarts. edu/ events/ index. jsp?sid0=70& page_id=181& content_id=2662) [5] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080503002157/ http:/ / www. indyworld. com/ indy/ spring_2004/ mazzucchelli_interview/ index. html [6] http:/ / classic. tcj. com/ tcj-300/ tcj-300-conversations-david-mazzucchelli-dash-shaw/ [7] Garrison, Jessica (April 24, 2010). "Rafael Yglesias’ ‘A Happy Marriage’ wins Times Book Prize for fiction" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ local/ la-me-0424-bookprize-20100424,0,1170338. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved April 24, 2010.

David Mazzucchelli


External links
• David Mazzucchelli ( at the Comic Book DB • Biography ( from the 2004 exhibit "Comics On the Verge" ( • Mazzucchelli in Little Lit ( • Mazzucchelli bio at Read Yourself Raw ( profile_mazzucchelli.htm) • Mazzucchelli bio at ( • Mazzucchelli at the International Who is Who in Cartooning ( whoswho-M.html) • Mazzucchelli interview (, indy magazine (spring 2004) • David Mazzuchelli: El Naturalismo Expresionista ( index.htm)

Batman: Year One


Batman: Year One
"Batman: Year One"

Cover to Batman #407, the conclusion to Year One. Art by David Mazzucchelli. Publisher Publication date Genre Title(s) Main character(s) DC Comics February – May 1987 Superhero Batman #404-407 Batman Jim Gordon Carmine Falcone Creative team Writer(s) Artist(s) Letterer(s) Colorist(s) Editor(s) Frank Miller David Mazzucchelli Todd Klein Richmond Lewis Dennis O'Neil Collected editions Batman: Year One Deluxe Edition (softcover) Deluxe Edition (hardcover) ISBN 0930289331 ISBN 1401207529 ISBN 1401206905

"Year One", later referred to as "Batman: Year One", is an American comic book story arc written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzucchelli, colored by Richmond Lewis, and lettered by Todd Klein. It originally appeared in issues #404 to #407 of DC Comics' Batman comic title in 1987. There have been several reprints of the story: a hardcover, multiple trade paperback editions (one in standard comics paper with simpler coloring and one deluxe version with rich detailing in the colors — both colored by Richmond Lewis) and it has been included in The Complete Frank Miller Batman hardcover.

Batman: Year One


The story recounts the beginning of Bruce Wayne's career as Batman and Jim Gordon's with the Gotham City Police Department. Bruce Wayne returns home to Gotham City from training abroad in martial arts, manhunting, and science for the past 12 years, and James Gordon moves to Gotham with his wife, Barbara, after a transfer from Chicago. Both are swiftly acquainted with the corruption and violence of Gotham City, with Gordon witnessing his partner Detective Flass assaulting a teen for fun. On a surveillance mission to the seedy East End, a disguised Bruce is propositioned by teenaged prostitute Holly Robinson. He is reluctantly drawn into a brawl with her violent pimp and is attacked by several prostitutes, including dominatrix Selina Kyle. Two police officers shoot and take him in their squad car, but a dazed and bleeding Bruce breaks his handcuffs and causes a crash, dragging the police to a safe distance before fleeing. He reaches Wayne Manor barely alive and sits before his father’s bust, requesting guidance in his war on crime. A bat crashes through a window and settles on the bust, giving him the inspiration to become a bat. Gordon soon works to rid corruption from the force, but, on orders from Commissioner Gillian Loeb, several officers attack him, including Flass, who personally threatens Gordon’s pregnant wife. In revenge, the recovering Gordon tracks Flass down, beats and humiliates him, leaving him naked and handcuffed in the snow. As Gordon becomes a minor celebrity for several brave acts, Batman strikes for the first time, attacking a group of thieves. Batman soon works up the ladder, even attacking Flass while he was accepting a drug dealer’s bribe. After Batman interrupts a dinner party attended by many of Gotham’s corrupt politicians and crime bosses, including Carmine "The Roman" Falcone, Loeb orders Gordon to bring him in by any means necessary. As Gordon tries in vain to catch him, Batman attacks Falcone, stripping him naked and tying him up in his bed after dumping his car in the river, further infuriating the mob boss. Assistant district attorney Harvey Dent becomes Batman’s first ally, while Detective Sarah Essen and Gordon, after Essen suggested Bruce Wayne as a Batman suspect, witness Batman save an old woman from a runaway truck. Essen holds Batman at gunpoint while Gordon is momentarily dazed, but Batman disarms her and flees to an abandoned building. Claiming the building has been scheduled for demolition, Loeb orders a bomb dropped on it, forcing Batman into the fortified basement, abandoning his belt as the explosives inside catch fire. A trigger-happy SWAT team led by Branden is sent in, who Batman attempts to trap in the basement. They soon escape and, after tranquilizing Branden, Batman dodges as the rest open fire, barely managing to survive after two bullet wounds. Enraged as the team’s carelessly fired bullets injure several people outside, Batman beats the team into submission and, after using a device to attract the bats of his cave to him, he flees amid the chaos. Selina Kyle, after witnessing him in action, dons a costume of her own to begin a life of crime. Gordon has a brief affair with Essen, while Batman intimidates a mob drug dealer for information. The dealer comes to Gordon to testify against Flass, who is brought up on charges. Upset with Gordon's exploits, Loeb blackmails Gordon against pressing charges with proof of his affair. After bringing Barbara with him to interview Bruce Wayne, investigating his connection to Batman, Gordon confesses the affair to her. Batman sneaks into Falcone’s manor, overhearing a plan against Gordon, but is interrupted when Selina Kyle, hoping to build a reputation after her robberies were pinned on Batman, attacks Falcone and his bodyguards, aided from afar by Batman. Identifying Falcone’s plan as the morning comes, the uncostumed Bruce leaves to help. While leaving home, Gordon spots a motorcyclist enter his garage. Suspicious, Gordon enters to see Johnny Vitti, Falcone’s nephew, and his thugs holding his family hostage. Gordon decisively shoots the thugs and chases Vitti, who has fled with the baby. Bruce Wayne, on a motorcycle, also rushes out to chase Vitti. Gordon blows out Vitti's car tire on a bridge and the two fight hand-to-hand, with Gordon losing his glasses, before Vitti and James Gordon Junior fall over the side. Bruce leaps over the railing and saves the baby. Gordon realizes that he is standing before an unmasked Batman, but says that he is "practically blind without [his] glasses," and lets Bruce go.

Batman: Year One In the final scenes of the comic, Flass turns on Loeb, supplying Dent with evidence and testimony, and Loeb resigns. Gordon is promoted to captain and stands on the rooftop waiting to meet Batman to discuss somebody called The Joker, who is plotting to poison the reservoir.


Critical reaction
IGN Comics ranked Batman: Year One at the top of a list of the 25 greatest Batman graphic novels, saying that "no other book before or since has quite captured the realism, the grit and the humanity of Gordon and Batman so perfectly."[1] The website added, "It's not only one of the most important comics ever written, it's also among the best."[2]

Batman: Year One exists not only in the mainstream DC-continuity, but also in the same continuity as the other storylines in Miller's "Dark Knight Universe", consisting of The Dark Knight Returns, its sequel The Dark Knight Strikes Again, Spawn/Batman, All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder.[3] Following Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC rebooted many of its titles. Year One was followed by Batman: Year Two, but the 1994 Zero Hour: Crisis in Time crossover erased Year Two from continuity. In another continuity re-arrangement, Catwoman: Year One (Catwoman Annual #2, 1995) posited that Selina Kyle had not actually been a prostitute, but, rather, a thief posing as one in order to commit crimes. Launched in 1989, following the success of the film Batman, the title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight examines crime-fighting exploits primarily, not exclusively, from the first four to five years of Batman's career. This title rotated in creative teams and time placement, but several stories directly relate to the events of Year One, especially the first arc "Batman: Shaman". In 1998, Jeph Loeb and Tim Sale created Batman: The Long Halloween and Batman: Dark Victory, two 13-issue maxiseries that recounted Batman's early years as a crime-fighter following the events of Miller's original story and retold the origins of Two-Face and Dick Grayson. The Year One story was continued in the 2005 graphic novel Batman: The Man Who Laughs, following up on Gordon informing Batman about the Joker, and thus recounting their first official encounter. Two other stories, Batman and the Monster Men and Batman and the Mad Monk tie into the same time period of Batman's career, filling in the gaps that exist in Miller's original story. Following the 2007 cancellation of Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, Batman Confidential began publication, depicting Batman's early years, although some of these stories take place several years after Miller's Year One story because Batman is depicted wearing his "yellow oval" costume.

Cancelled live-action film
Further information: Batman in film#Batman: Year One In 2000, Warner Bros. hired Darren Aronofsky to write and direct a reboot of the Batman film franchise.[4] This reboot was to be based on Batman: Year One. Accordingly, Aronofsky collaborated with Frank Miller who finished an early draft of the script.[4] The script, however, was a loose adaptation, as it kept most of the themes and elements from the graphic novel but shunned other conventions that were otherwise integral to the character.[5] It was eventually shelved by the studio and both Aronofsky and Miller moved on to other projects.[6] Bruce is seen eschewed from his wealth and lifestyle following his parent's murder; as a child he is found by "Big Al" (this world's version of Alfred Pennyworth, reinvented as an African-American junkyard owner). Bruce grows to maturity, haunted by his nightmares while working in the junkyard. Across the street lay the remnants of Crime Alley, now turned into a prostitute ring and cat-house where the dominatrix Selina Kyle works. Bruce's decision to fight criminals precipitates when he watches rookie cop James Gordon on TV apprehending a perpetrator at a

Batman: Year One hostage situation. Initially, Bruce dons a cape and hockey mask to fight crime. However, the costume evolves to a more stylized version as Bruce gathers a variety of gadgets and weapons. Bruce rebuilds a black Lincoln Continental into an improvised Batmobile. In his new disguise as "The Batman," Bruce battles street level thugs and high-ranking officials, including Police Commissioner Loeb and Mayor Noone. Meanwhile, the executors of the Wayne family estate search for Bruce.[7] Gordon grows more determined to maintain law and order, befriending Assistant District Attorney Harvey Dent. Notable translations from the book involve Gordon being beaten up by Detective Flass and his goons at the precinct parking lot, his silent battle against Commissioner Loeb, and Gordon's initial speculations about Harvey Dent being the vigilante. Gordon chronicles the corruption he sees in the Gotham PD in a 'Corruption Log'. He contacts Mayor Noone only to later realize that the Mayor too is under Loeb's influence. The log is eventually stolen and then retrieved by Selina Kyle, who hands it over to the Batman. Gordon is given his log back by the Batman, thus cementing their mutual trust and Batman's role as a force for good. In scenes adapted from the book, Batman is cornered by the GCPD in an abandoned tenement fire, Gordon and Flass brawl at night, and Gordon's family is attacked by Loeb's men. The Batman and Gordon are able to subdue Loeb and his men, with Flass and Loeb being convicted of criminal charges. Bruce eventually comes to accept his dual identity as heir to the Wayne family estate and the Batman. In the epilogue, when Selina dons her costume and becomes 'Catwoman', she recognizes Bruce's face when he has reintegrated into society.[7]


Animated film
In 2011, a film in the DC Universe Animated Original Movies series was made as an adaptation of Frank Miller's story "Batman: Year One" from 1987 in the main Batman title, featured in issues #404–407. It is produced by Bruce Timm, co-directed by Lauren Montgomery and Sam Liu.[8] It features the voices of Benjamin McKenzie as Bruce Wayne/Batman, Bryan Cranston as James Gordon, Eliza Dushku as Selina Kyle/Catwoman, Katee Sackhoff as Sarah Essen, Grey DeLisle as Barbara Gordon, Jon Polito as Commissioner Loeb, Alex Rocco as Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone.[9] The movie premiered at Comic-Con, with direct-to-video DVD and Blu-ray available in October. [10]

Influence in other adaptations
Batman: Mask of the Phantasm
In the critically acclaimed Batman: Mask of the Phantasm animated movie, creators Bruce Timm, Paul Dini and Alan Burnett draw aspects from Batman: Year One during the flashback scenes, these include: • A young and inexperienced Bruce Wayne fighting street thugs and realizing his shortcomings. • The scene where Batman/Bruce is cornered by Bullock's SWAT Team adheres to a similar setting from the graphic novel as mentioned above (the abandoned tenement fire from issue #3).

Batman Begins and The Dark Knight
Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins and its sequel The Dark Knight are set during the same timespan and has indeed adapted several elements directly from the graphic novel. While the thematic elements cannot be stressed here (corruption at GCPD, Bruce's personal vocation, Jim Gordon etc.), some of the more direct interpretations include: • Major characters like Commissioner Loeb, Detective Flass and Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone who are featured prominently in Batman Begins. • The scene with Bruce Wayne returning from years of training abroad on board a plane reminisces the first page of the graphic novel. • Christian Bale's 'street attire' in Batman Begins mimics the clothes in the first issue of Batman: Year One when Bruce is walking down the Lower East End.

Batman: Year One • Tying Falcone up. In the graphic novel Batman ties The Roman in his own house; in the film, he ties The Roman to a searchlight. • In the final act of Batman Begins, while being cornered by the GCPD at Arkham Asylum Batman uses a high-frequency device to attract his bats from the cave. This is taken from the final act of the graphic novel when Batman does the same thing at the abandoned tenement fire. • The concluding scene where Batman and Gordon are on top of the police headquarters continues, to an extent, the final page of the graphic novel where newly promoted Jim Gordon waits for Batman to arrive. In both the book and the film, Gordon announces the coming of a new threat: The Joker. • During the famous viral-marketing for The Dark Knight, an audio clip was available that depicted Harvey Dent walking up to a hostage situation and subduing the threat. While this may not be a direct adaptation, it does resemble the scene with the hostage situation in Batman: Year One, only replacing James Gordon with Harvey Dent (Aaron Eckhart). Although the entire incident and Dent's role occurs out of earshot and thus did not require Aaron Eckhart to play out the clip. • The concluding scene where Two-Face holds Gordon's family at gunpoint, is reminiscent of the Year One scene where Gordon's family is at danger from The Roman and Loeb's men. Batman saves Gordon's son from a fall in the film just as he does in the book.


[1] The 25 Greatest Batman Graphic Novels (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 624/ 624619p1. html), Hilary Goldstein, IGN, June 13, 2005 [2] Batman: Year One Review (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 626/ 626667p1. html), IGN, June 17, 2005 [3] Sanderson, Peter (2006-02-06). "''Comics in Context #119: All-Star Bats'' on IGN" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 685/ 685820p1. html). . Retrieved 2011-01-04. [4] Dana Harris (2000-09-21). "WB sends Pi guy into the Bat Cave" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1117786714). Variety. . Retrieved 2008-10-17. [5] Brian Linder (2000-10-16). "The Bat-Men Speak" (http:/ / movies. ign. com/ articles/ 034/ 034023p1. html). IGN. . Retrieved 2008-10-17. [6] Dana Harris (2002-06-30). "WB: fewer pix, more punch" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1117869140). Variety. . Retrieved 2008-10-17. [7] David Hughes (March 2004). "The Dark Knight Strikes Out". Tales From Development Hell. London: Titan Books. pp. 192–211. ISBN 1-84023-691-4. [8] "Batman: Year One Animated Update". June 13, 2010. [9] Kit, Borys (April 20, 2011). "'Batman: Year One' Lines Up Voice Cast, Sets Comic-Con Premiere (Exclusive)" (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter. com/ heat-vision/ batman-year-one-lines-up-179942). The Hollywood Reporter. . Retrieved June 18, 2011. [10] http:/ / www. dailyblam. com/ news/ 2011/ 06/ 07/ batman-year-one-animated-film-sneak-peek-video-character-designs

External links
• • • • Batman: Year One Movie Official Site ( Batman: Year One Movie Official Fan Page ( Current edition at DC Comics ( ISBN 0-930289-33-1 Deluxe Hardcover edition at DC Comics ( ISBN 1-4012-0690-5


Classic Innovations and Early Comics
Richard F. Outcault
Richard Felton Outcault (January 14, 1863 - September 25, 1928) was an American comic strip writer-artist. He was the creator of the series The Yellow Kid and Buster Brown, and he is considered the inventor of the modern comic strip.

Early life
Born in Lancaster, Ohio, Outcault was 15 years old when he went to Cincinnati and enrolled in the McMicken University’s School of Design where he studied for three years.

After graduation, Outcault was employed by Thomas Edison as a technical illustrator, going to Paris as the official artist for Edison’s traveling exhibit of electric lighting. In 1890, he moved to New York City, where he joined Electrical World (a magazine owned by one of Edison’s friends) and became a regular contributor to Truth magazine, Judge and Life.[1]

Richard Outcault

After he signed on with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, Pulitzer placed Outcault's comics in a color supplement, using a single-panel color cartoon on the front page called Hogan's Alley, depicting an event in a fictional slum. A character in the panel, The Yellow Kid, gave rise to the phrase "yellow journalism." Hogan's Alley debuted May 5, 1895.[2] In October 1896, Outcault defected to William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. The result of a lawsuit awarded the title "Hogan's Alley" to the World and "The Yellow Kid" to the Journal. In 1902, Outcault introduced Buster Brown, a mischievous boy dressed in Little Lord Fauntleroy style, and his dog Tige. The strip and characters were very popular, and Outcault eventually licensed the name for a number of consumer products, notably Buster Brown shoes.
Buster Brown

In the Journal, Outcault began experimenting with using multiple panels and speech balloons. Although he was not the first to use either technique, his use of them created the standard by which comics were measured.

Richard F. Outcault


The Yellow Kid

Richard F. Outcault died in 1928 in Flushing, New York. He was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.

Outcault was a 2008 Judges' Choice inductee into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame.[3]

[1] Wallace, Derek. Virtue vol. 1, no. 14. July 18, 2005. (http:/ / www. virtuemag. org/ articles/ the-yellow-kid) [2] Horn, Maurice. World Encyclopedia of Comics. Chelsea House, 1976. [3] Comic-Con: "The 2008 Eisner Awards: Eisner Hall of Fame Nominees Announced" (http:/ / www. comic-con. org/ cci/ cci_eisners_08hallfame. shtml)

External links
• Buster Brown ( • The Life and Times of Buster Brown (

The Yellow Kid


The Yellow Kid
The Yellow Kid emerged as the lead character in Hogan's Alley, drawn by Richard F. Outcault, which became one of the first Sunday supplement comic strips in an American newspaper, although its graphical layout had already been thoroughly established in political and other, purely-for-entertainment cartoons.[1] The Yellow Kid was a bald, snaggle-toothed boy who wore a yellow nightshirt and hung around in a ghetto alley filled with equally odd characters, mostly other children. With a goofy grin, the Kid habitually spoke in a ragged, peculiar ghetto argot printed on his shirt, a device meant to lampoon advertising billboards.

Magazine to newspapers
The Yellow Kid Outcault drew four black-and-white, highly detailed single panel Hogan Alley cartoons for Truth magazine in 1894 and 1895. The character who would later become the Yellow Kid had a minor supporting role in these panels. The fourth cartoon, Fourth Ward Brownies, was reprinted on 17 February 1895 in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World where Outcault worked as a technical drawing artist. The World published a new Hogan's Alley cartoon less than a month later and this was followed by the strip's first color printing on 5 May 1895.[2] Hogan's Alley gradually became a full-page Sunday color cartoon with the Yellow Kid as its lead character, which was also appearing several times a week.

The strip has been described as "... a turn-of-the-century theater of the city, in which class and racial tensions of the new urban, consumerist environment were acted out by a mischievous group of New York City kids from the wrong side of the tracks."[3] The Yellow Kid's head was drawn wholly shaved as if having been recently ridden of lice, a common sight among children in New York's tenement ghettos at the time. His nightshirt, a hand-me-down from an older sister, was white or pale blue in the first color strips.[4]

The Yellow Kid


The Yellow Kid's image was an early example of lucrative merchandising and appeared on mass market retail objects in the greater New York City area such as "billboards, buttons, cigarette packs, cigars, cracker tins, ladies’ fans, matchbooks, postcards, chewing gum cards, toys, whiskey and many other products".[5] In 1896 Outcault was hired away at a much higher salary to William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal American where he drew the Yellow Kid in a new full-page color strip which was significantly violent and even vulgar compared to his first panels for Truth magazine. Pulitzer, who had retained the copyright to Hogan's Alley, hired George Luks to continue drawing the original (and now less popular) version of the strip for the World and hence the Yellow Kid appeared simultaneously in two competing papers for about a year. Outcault produced three subsequent series of Yellow Kid strips at the Journal American, each lasting no more than four months: • McFadden’s Row of Flats (18 October 1896 - 10 January 1897) • Around the World with the Yellow Kid - a strip that sent the Kid on a world tour in the manner of Nellie Bly (17 January - 30 May 1897) • A half-page strip which eventually adopted the title Ryan’s Arcade (28 September 1897 - 23 January 1898).[6] With the Yellow Kid's merchandising success as an advertising icon the strip came to represent the crass commercial world it had originally lampooned, and publication of both versions stopped abruptly after only three years in early 1898, as circulation wars between the rival papers dwindled. Moreover, Outcault may have lost interest in the character when he realized he couldn't retain exclusive commercial control over it.[7] The Yellow Kid's last appearance is most often noted as 23 January 1898 in a strip about hair tonic. On 1 May 1898, the character was featured in a rather satirical cartoon called Casey Corner Kids Dime Museum but he was drawn ironically, as a bearded, balding old man wearing a green nightshirt which bore the words: "Gosh I've growed old in making dis collection."[8]

Richard F Outcault's last Hogan's Alley cartoon for Truth magazine, Fourth Ward Brownies, was published on 9 February 1895 and reprinted in the New York World newspaper on 17 February 1895, beginning one of the first comic strips in an American newspaper. The character later known as the Yellow Kid had minor supporting roles in the strip's early panels. This one refers to The Brownies characters popularized in books and magazines by artist Palmer Cox.

The Yellow Kid


The two newspapers which ran the Yellow Kid, Pulitzer's World and Hearst's Journal American, quickly became known as the yellow kid papers. This was contracted to the yellow papers and the term yellow kid journalism was at last shortened to yellow journalism, describing the two newspapers' editorial practices of taking (sometimes even fictionalized) sensationalism and profit as priorities in journalism.[9]
[10] [11]

In a 1902 interview, Outcault remarked: The Yellow Kid was not an individual but a type. When I used to go about the slums on newspaper assignments I would encounter him often, wandering out of doorways or sitting down on dirty doorsteps. I always loved the Kid. He had a sweet character and a sunny disposition, and was generous to a fault. Malice, envy or selfishness were not traits of his, and he never lost his temper.
A year and a half later Outcault was drawing the Yellow Kid for Hearst's New York Journal in a full-page color Sunday supplement as McFadden's Row of Flats. In this 15 November 1896 Sunday panel, word balloons have appeared, the action is openly violent and the drawing has become mixed and chaotic.

—[12] The Yellow Kid appeared now and then in Outcault's later cartoon strips, most notably Buster Brown.[13]

Word balloons
Word balloons containing characters' speech had appeared in political cartoons since at least the 18th century, including some published by Benjamin Franklin.[14] Their origins can be traced back to speech scrolls, painted ribbons of paper which trailed from the mouths of speaking subjects, depicting their words. These were in common European use by the early 16th century and similar devices had appeared in Mayan art between 600 and 900 AD. Outcault's word balloons in the Yellow Kid influenced their basic appearance and use in subsequent newspaper comic strips and comic books.

The Yellow Kid


[1] Wood, Mary (2004). The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Contemporary illustrations. Retrieved on 2007-10-17 from (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ illustrated. htm) [2] Olson, Richard D. (no date). Truth About the Creation of the Yellow Kid. Retrieved on 2007-10-17 from (http:/ / www. neponset. com/ yellowkid/ history. htm. ) [3] The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Introduction (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ intro. htm), retrieved 17 October 2007 [4] The Kid From Hogan's Alley (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9407E7DF1439F934A25751C1A963958260), John Canemaker, New York Times Book Review, retrieved 16 October 2007 [5] Wallace, Derek (2005-07-18). The Yellow Kid. Virtue Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 14, 18 July 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-16 from (http:/ / www. virtuemag. org/ articles/ the-yellow-kid. ) [6] The Ohio State University Libraries, The Yellow Kid (http:/ / cartoons. osu. edu/ yellowkid/ index. htm), retrieved 1 December 2007 [7] The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Death of the Kid (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ death_kid. htm), retrieved 17 October 2007 [8] The Ohio State University Libraries, Casey Corner Kids Dime Museum (http:/ / cartoons. osu. edu/ yellowkid/ 1898/ 1898-05-01. jpg), retrieved 11 Dec 2007 [9] The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Selling the kid (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ yj. htm), retrieved 17 October 2007 [10] The "New" Journalism (http:/ / academic2. american. edu/ ~wjc/ spanish10. htm), W. Joseph Campbell, retrieved 16 October 2007 [11] Richard D. Olson,, R. F. Outcault, The Father of the American Sunday Comics, and the Truth About the Creation of the Yellow Kid (http:/ / www. neponset. com/ yellowkid/ history. htm), retrieved 11 Dec 2007 [12] The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Origins of the Kid (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~ma04/ wood/ ykid/ origins. htm), retrieved 23 March 2011 [13] Wood, Mary (2004). Over the Bounding Main (Buster Brown Postcard). Mary Wood, from the R. F. Outcault Society's Yellow Kid Site, 10 December 2003. Retrieved on 2007-10-17 from (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ imagehtml/ society_buster. htm) [14] The Yellow Kid on paper and stage, Contemporary illustrations (http:/ / xroads. virginia. edu/ ~MA04/ wood/ ykid/ illustrated. htm), retrieved 17 October 2007

External links
• Radio piece detailing the story behind the Yellow Kid, particularly his role in commercial advertising (http:// y=11) • Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum: (88 Yellow Kid pages) ( 1895.htm) • New York Times Book Review: "The Kid From Hogan's Alley" by John Canemaker ( gst/fullpage.html?res=9407E7DF1439F934A25751C1A963958260) • R. F. Outcault Society's Yellow Kid site ( • Yellow Kid origin ( • Yellow Kid Pinbacks (

Frank King (cartoonist)


Frank King (cartoonist)
Frank King


Frank Oscar King April 9, 1883 Cashton, Wisconsin June 24, 1969 (aged 86) Winter Park, Florida American Cartoonist


Nationality Area(s)

Notable works Gasoline Alley

Frank Oscar King (April 9, 1883 – June 24, 1969) was an American cartoonist best known for his popular, long-run comic strip Gasoline Alley. In addition to innovations with color and page design, King introduced the concept of real time continuity to comic strips by showing his characters changing with age over generations. King was born in Cashton, Wisconsin, and when he was four years old, his parents, Carol and John King, moved to Tomah, Wisconsin to run the family general store. He started drawing while growing up in Tomah.[1] When he graduated from Tomah High School in 1901, he began earning $7 a week at the Minneapolis Times, doing drawings and retouching for four years.

Chicago cartoonists
In 1905-06, he studied art at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.[2] After a spell at Chicago's American, he spent three years with the Chicago Examiner, where he worked next to cartoonist T. S. Sullivant. In 1909, according to his friend, Chicago cartoonist Lew Merrell, King left the Examiner to work at the Chicago Tribune for a weekly pay increase of 50 cents.[3] [4] At the Tribune he worked alongside Dean Cornwell and Garrett Price. In Tomah, he had grown up with Delia Drew, and they married in 1911 when they were both 28 years old. The couple lived in Glencoe, Illinois.

Frank King (cartoonist)


The Rectangle
The Rectangle began as a Chicago Tribune page featuring a variety of cartoons and serial features. King's Rectangle Sunday page, usually printed in black-and-white outside the comics section, was a late addition to a page that ran for years in the Tribune. On January 9, 1913, King introduced a bounded rectangle containing themed single-panel gags (beginning with a page headed Hints to Husbandettes), but pages in that format did not appear with any regularity until February 1914. The Rectangle title was finally introduced on December 27, 1914. King created several recurring strips, including Tough Teddy, The Boy Animal 1917), two days after the U.S. entered Trainer, Here Comes Motorcycle Mike, Hi Hopper (about a frog) and his first WWI. successful full-page comic, Bobby Make-Believe (1915).[3] During World War I, King was overseas drawing scenes of the war for publication in American newspapers.[1]
Detail from The Rectangle (April 8,

Gasoline Alley
On Sunday, November 24, 1918, the bottom quadrant of The Rectangle featured Walter Wallet and his neighbors Bill, Doc and Avery as they repaired their automobiles in the alley behind their houses. The corner was titled Sunday Morning in Gasoline Alley. King recalled, "My brother had a car that he kept in the alley with a fellow by the name of Bill Gannon and some others. I'd go to his house on Sunday, and we'd go down the alley and run into somebody else and talk cars. That was the beginning of Gasoline Alley."[5] After King began the daily Gasoline Alley strip (August 24, 1919), The Rectangle appeared sporadically and finally came to an end on February 8, 1920.

Gasoline Alley (November 24, 2008)

King often credited his wife, Delia, for providing a "woman's angle" to Gasoline Alley. The central character of Walt was based on King's brother-in-law, Walter White Drew (1886–1941), and he used his own son, Robert Drew King, as the model for Skeezix. Tomah's Dr. Johnson was the inspiration for the character of Doc, and Bill in the strip was based on Bill Gannon.

Frank King (cartoonist)


King hired young Bill Perry from the Chicago Tribune's mail room and then trained him to work as his assistant. Although King leaned toward a homespun simplicity in his Sunday story situations, he also introduced some unusual experiments with time and space, as noted by comics critic Paul Gravett: Other precedents from America’s newspaper supplements were occasional experiments by Frank King in his Gasoline Alley Sunday pages where he would turn the whole page into one continuous landscape. For example, on 24 May L to r: Walter Drew (model for Walt Wallet), Frank 1931, King uses an unrealistic, almost isometric perspective King, Bill Gannon (inspiration for Bill in Gasoline to turn the page into a single image, like a diagram viewed Alley) from above, of the neighborhood and its assorted residents. This angled aerial view he divides into 12 equal panels, each containing at least one fresh character to contribute their own moment of comedy. In more of an ensemble of jokes than a strictly linear narrative, no characters appear here more than once. King went further, however, in 1934 when over three consecutive weeks he used the whole page as one image to portray a house being built, from bare site to construction to finishing touches. The first of these, dated 25 March 1934, presents repeated images of Skeezix and his pal Whimpy as they play around the foundations dug out of their favorite baseball diamond and meet a local girl. Here the threesome move around 12 identical square panels and time unfolds in sequence, although jumping ahead sometimes by a considerable period from one to the next.[6] The success of Gasoline Alley escalated until it was published in over 300 daily newspapers with a daily combined readership of over 27,000,000.[1] According to Lew Merrell, the strip and its merchandising made King a millionaire.[4] In 1929, the Kings moved to Florida. For 20 years, they lived between Kissimmee, Florida and St. Cloud at his Folly Farms estate on the northeast shore of Lake Tohopekaliga. The cartoonist's estate of 230 acres (0.93 km2) along the Lake is still there, hidden among the other houses in the Regal Oak Shores subdivision. In 1941, King wrote, "Just what the future holds for Skeezix and Gasoline Alley nobody knows. If permitted a fanciful prophecy, I should say that Skeezix will eventually marry, Frank King's Gasoline Alley (December 6, 1936) probably raise a family and make Uncle Walt a happy foster grandparent. Skeezix's offspring will in turn grow up, marry and have children. They in turn will thrive and mature and repeat the customary cycle ad infinitum."[7] At Folly Farms, during the 1940s, King spent time on his hobbies—sculpting, collecting maps, playing the fiddle and raising amaryllis bulbs. He retired from the Sunday strip in 1951, letting his assistant Bill Perry to take over. King retired from the daily in 1959, turning it over to Dick Moores, his assistant since 1956. The strip continues until the present day.[8] [9]

Frank King (cartoonist) In later years, King lived in Winter Park, Florida. On June 24, 1969, Dennis Green, a King employee for many years, arrived to prepare King's breakfast. He heard King moving around the house and later found his body on a bathroom floor.[10] King was buried in Tomah's Oak Grove Cemetery beside his wife, Delia, who died in 1959.[1] The couple's son, Robert King, lived in Des Plaines, Illinois.


Awards and exhibitions
King had one-man shows in Springfield, Illinois and Buffalo, New York, and his artwork is in the permanent collection of the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum. In 1955, he was an honored guest at Tomah's Centennial celebration and presented with an Indian headdress. His desk is on display at the Tomah Area Historical Society Museum, and in 1969, Gasoline Alley signs were placed along Superior Avenue in Tomah. King's Highway in Florida is named to honor Frank King; it runs south from Neptune Road to King's Folly Farms estate. Mr. Enray, the banker in Gasoline Alley during the late 1940s, was based on Kissimmee's real-life banker N. Ray Carroll. When Carroll was a state senator, he had the road named after King by a resolution of the Florida Legislature.[11] He was twice honored for his work by the Freedom Foundation, and he received awards three times from the National Cartoonists Society.[2] • 1949: Silver T-Square Award [12] • 1957: Humor Comic Strip Award [13] • 1958: Reuben Award [14]

[1] Tomah Chamber of Commerce History (http:/ / www. tomahwisconsin. com/ cityhistory. php) [2] Encyclopædia Britannica Online. "Frank King" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9045500/ Frank-King). . [3] Lambiek Comiclopedia. "Frank King" (http:/ / lambiek. net/ artists/ k/ king. htm). . [4] "Frank King, Gasoline Alley Creator, Dies". Dayton Beach Morning Journal, June 25, 1969. (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=cJAoAAAAIBAJ& sjid=mssEAAAAIBAJ& pg=1182,5555397& dq=gasoline+ alley+ frank-king& hl=en) [5] Stiles, Steve. "On the Road with Gasoline Alley". (http:/ / stevestiles. com/ gasalley. htm) [6] Gravett, Paul. "Gianni De Luca & Hamlet: Thinking Outside The Box", European Comic Art, Spring 2008. (http:/ / www. paulgravett. com/ index. php/ articles/ article/ gianni_de_luca_hamlet/ #3) [7] Sheridan, Martin. Comics and Their Creators. Ralph T. Hale and Company, 1942, ASIN B000Q8QGC2 [8] Don Markstein's Toonopedia. "Gasoline Alley" (http:/ / www. toonopedia. com/ gasalley. htm). . [9] I Love Comix: Gasoline Alley (http:/ / www. ilovecomixarchive. com/ G/ Gasoline-Alley) [10] "Gasoline Alley Creator Frank King Dead at 86".Sarasota Herald-Tribune, June 25, 1969 (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=WjwgAAAAIBAJ& sjid=NmYEAAAAIBAJ& pg=3400,6336576& dq=bathroom+ gasoline+ frank-king& hl=en) [11] Robison, Jim. "Kissimmee Banker Was Mr. Enray of 'Gasoline Alley'". Orlando Sentinel, May 12, 2002. (http:/ / articles. orlandosentinel. com/ 2002-05-12/ news/ 0205110105_1_ray-carroll-osceola-county-kissimmee) [12] National Cartoonists Society. "The Silver T-Square" (http:/ / www. reuben. org/ ncs/ archive/ divisions/ tsquare. asp). . [13] National Cartoonists Society. "Humor Strips" (http:/ / www. reuben. org/ ncs/ archive/ divisions/ strips. asp). .

Frank King's The Rectangle (January 1, 1918)

Frank King (cartoonist)
[14] National Cartoonists Society. "The Reuben" (http:/ / www. reuben. org/ ncs/ awards2. asp). .


External links
• Frank King biography ( • Frank King ( at Find a Grave • Sunday Press Books (

Gasoline Alley
Gasoline Alley is a long-running comic strip created by Frank King and first published on November 24, 1918. Widely recognized as an innovative pioneering strip, Gasoline Alley was the first to depict its characters aging through generations as the decades progressed.[1]

Early years
The strip originated on the Chicago Tribune's black-and-white Sunday page, The Rectangle, where staff artists contributed one-shot panels, continuing plots or themes. One corner of The Rectangle introduced King's Gasoline Alley, where characters Walt, Doc, Avery and Bill held weekly conversations about automobiles. This panel slowly gained recognition, and the daily strip began August 24, 1919 in the New York Daily News.[2]

Skeezix arrives
The early years were dominated by the character Walt Wallet. Tribune editor Joseph Patterson wanted to attract women to the strip by introducing a baby, but Walt was not married. That obstacle was avoided when Walt found a baby on his doorstep, as described by comics historian Don Markstein:

Frank King's Gasoline Alley and That Phoney Nickel (March 12, 1933)

Gasoline Alley


After a couple of years, the Tribune's editor, Captain Joseph Patterson, whose influence would later have profound effects on such strips as Terry and the Pirates and Little Orphan Annie, decided the strip should have something to appeal to women, as well, and suggested King add a baby. Only problem was the main character, Walt Wallet, was a confirmed bachelor. On February 14, 1921, Walt found the necessary baby abandoned on his doorstep. That was the day Gasoline Alley entered history as the first comic strip in which the characters aged normally. (Hairbreadth Harry had grown up in his strip, but stopped aging in his early 20s.) The baby, named Skeezix (cowboy slang for a motherless calf), grew up, fought in World War II, and is now a retired grandfather. Walt married after all, and had more children, who had children of their own. More characters entered the storyline on the periphery and some grew to occupy center stage.[1]
Promotional art by Frank King (c. 1941), highlighting

Skeezix called his adopted father Uncle Walt. Unlike most Skeezix's marriage proposal to Nina Clock. comic strip children (like the Katzenjammer Kids or Little Orphan Annie) he did not remain a baby or even a little boy for long. He grew up to manhood, the first occasion where real time continually elapsed in a major comic strip over generations. By the time the United States entered World War II, Skeezix was a fully-grown adult, courting girls and serving in the armed forces. He later married Nina Clock and had children. In the late 1960s he faced a typical midlife crisis. Walt Wallet himself had married Phyllis Blossom and had other children, who grew up and had kids of their own. During the 1970s and 1980s, under Dick Moores' authorship, the characters briefly stopped aging. When Jim Scancarelli took over, the natural aging was restored.[1]

Sunday strips
The Sunday strip was launched in 1920. The 1930s Sunday pages did not always employ traditional gags but often offered a gentle view of nature, imaginary daydreaming with expressive art or naturalistic views of small town life. Reviewing Peter Maresca and Chris Ware's Sundays with Walt and Skeezix (Sunday Press Books, 2007), comics critic Steve Duin quoted writer Jeet Heer: "Unlike the daily strips, which traced narratives that went on for many months, the Sunday pages almost always worked as discrete units," Heer writes. "Whereas the dailies allowed events to unfold, Sunday was the day to savor experiences and ruminate on life. It is in his Sunday pages that we find King showing his visual storytelling skills at their most developed: with sequences beautifully testifying to his love of nature, his feeling for artistic form, and his deeply felt response to life."[3]

Recent years
The strip is still published in newspapers. Walt Wallet is now well over a century old (111, as of March 2011[4] ), while Skeezix has become an octogenarian. Walt's wife Phyllis, age an estimated 105, died in the April 26, 2004 strip, leaving Walt a widower after nearly eight decades of marriage. Walt Wallet appeared as a guest at Blondie and Dagwood's anniversary party, and on Gasoline Alley's 90th anniversary Blondie, Dennis the Menace and Snuffy Smith each acknowledged the Gasoline Alley anniversary in their dialogue. Snuffy Smith presented a character

Gasoline Alley crossover with Walt in the doorway of Snuffy's house where he was being welcomed and invited in by Snuffy.[5]


First generation characters
Walt Wallet Full name Walter Weatherby Wallet. Patriarch of the family. For many years he ran a successful company. He has been retired for years. Phyllis Blossom Wallet. Walt's wife. They married June 24, 1926. She died April 26, 2004. Avery Walt's cranky neighbor, who drove an old car that started with a crank long after everyone else had bought a car with a starter. He died "off-stage." Bill He also died "off-stage". Doc He retired with a young woman on his arm, going off to a well-deserved retirement community. He died "off-stage". Pert A rich and miserly man. He was long the villain of many stories. Since his death his reputation has been rehabilitated a little bit, and shown to have a better character than his nephew, Senator Boggle.

Timeless characters
These characters break the strip's rule about aging with the calendar. Joel Trashman. He drives a wagon drawn by a mule. Rufus A "good-for-not-much". He frequently accompanies Joel. He always has "kitty" hanging from the crook of his arm. He lives in a shack. Magnus Rufus' no-good brother. He is usually in jail. Melba At one time mayor of the city.

Gasoline Alley


Second generation characters
Allison "Skeezix" Wallet After Walt, the central character of the strip. He was left on Walt's doorstep February 14, 1921. He was born February 9, 1921. He married Nina Clock on June 28th, 1944. For years he ran the Gasoline Alley Garage. Now he sometimes minds it when Clovia and Slim are away. Nina Clock Wallet Skeezix's wife. Corky Wallet Walt and Phyllis' son, born May 2, 1928. He married Hope Hassel on October 1, 1949. He runs a diner in a standalone building. Hope Hassel Wallet Corky's wife. Judy Wallet Grubb Left in Walt's car February 28, 1935. She married Gideon Grubb on May 4, 1961. Senator Boggle Pert's nephew. An example of a self-serving politician. When seen he is disliked and is often the villain of the current story.

Jim Scancarelli's Gasoline Alley (November 24, 2008)

Writer-artist chronology
Frank King (1918-1959) Bill Perry (Sunday strips only, 1951-1975) Dick Moores (1956-1986) Jim Scancarelli (1986-present) King was succeeded by his former assistants, with Bill Perry taking responsibility for Sunday strips in 1951 and Dick Moores, first hired in 1956, becoming sole writer and artist for the daily strip in 1959. When Perry retired in 1975, Moores took responsibility for Sunday strips as well, combining the daily and Sunday stories into one continuity starting September 28, 1975. Moores died in 1986, and since then Gasoline Alley has been written and drawn by Scancarelli, former assistant to Moores.[5]

Gasoline Alley


The strip and King were recognized with the National Cartoonists Society's Humor Strip Award in 1957, 1973, 1980, 1981, 1982 and 1985. King received the 1958 Society's Reuben Award, and Moores received it in 1974. Scancarelli received the Society's Story Comic Strip Award in 1988. The strip received an NCS plaque for the year's best story strip in 1981, 1982 and 1983.[6]

Reprint collections
Examples of the full page Sunday strip were printed in The Comic Strip Century (1995, reissued in 2004 as 100 Years of Comic Strips), edited by Bill Blackbeard, Dale Crain and James Vance. Moores' dailies and Sundays have appeared in Comics Revue monthly, as have the first Scancarelli strips. In 1995, the strip was one of 20 included in the Comic Strip Classics series of commemorative US postage stamps.

Frank King's Gasoline Alley Nostalgia Journal
In 2003, Spec Productions began a series of softcover collections, Frank King's Gasoline Alley Nostalgia Journal, reprinting the strip from the first Rectangle panel (November 24, 1918). To date, four volumes have appeared: • Volume 1, November 24, 1918 to September 22, 1919 • Volume 2, September 23, 1919 to March 2, 1920 • Volume 3, March 3, 1920 to July 25, 1920 • Volume 4, July 26, 1920 to December 31, 1920

Walt and Skeezix
In 2005, the first of a series of reprint books, Walt and Skeezix, was published by Drawn and Quarterly and edited by Chris Ware. The first volume covers 1921–22, beginning when baby Skeezix appears. These reprint only the daily strips, with Sundays slated to appear in another series:[7] • • • • Walt and Skeezix: Book One, 1921–22, ISBN 1-896597-64-5 Walt and Skeezix: Book Two, 1923–24, ISBN 1-896597-99-8 Walt and Skeezix: Book Three, 1925–26, ISBN 1-897299-09-5 Walt and Skeezix: Book Four, 1927–28, ISBN 1-897299-39-7

Gasoline Alley


Sunday Press
In 2007, Sunday Press Books published Sundays with Walt and Skeezix, which collects early Sunday strips in the original size and color.

Dick Moore
Moores' work on the strip was published in three different collections, all currently out of print: • Gasoline Alley: Comic Art as Social Comment: Changing Life in America Over More Than Half a Century as Seen Through the Eyes of a Unique 'First Family', Avon/Flare, 1976. Introduction by Nat Hentoff, history of the strip with 1970s continuities. ISBN 0-380-00761-4 • The Smoke from Gasoline Alley, Sheed and Ward, 1976. ISBN 0-8362-0670-3 • Rover from Gasoline Alley, Blackthorne, 1985. Collects the strips introducing Slim and Clovia's adopted son Rover. ISBN 0-932629-00-8

There were several radio adaptations. Gasoline Alley during the 1930s starred Bill Idelson as Skeezix with Jean Gillespie as Nina Clock. Jimmy McCallion was Skeezix in the series that ran on NBC from February 17 to April 11, 1941, continuing on the Blue Network from April 28 to May 9 of that same year. The 15-minute series aired weekdays at 5:30pm. Along with Nina (Janice Gilbert), the characters included Skeezix's boss Wumple (Cliff Soubier) and Ling Wee (Junius Matthews), a waiter in a Chinese restaurant. Charles Schenck directed the scripts by Kane Campbell. The syndicated series of 1948-49 featured a cast of Bill Lipton, Mason Adams and Robert Dryden. Sponsored by Autolite, the program used opening Frank King's Gasoline Alley (1931) theme music by the Polka Dots, a harmonica group. The 15-minute episodes focused on Skeezix running a gas station and garage, the Wallet and Bobble Garage, with his partner, Wilmer Bobble. In New York, this series aired on WOR from July 16, 1948 to January 7, 1949.[8]

Gasoline Alley


Gasoline Alley was adapted into two feature films, Gasoline Alley (1951) and Corky of Gasoline Alley (1951), replacing the Blondie film series which ended in 1950 with Beware of Blondie. The films starred Jimmy Lydon as Skeezix, known at that time for Life with Father (1947) and his earlier character of Henry Aldrich.[9]

Listen to
• Glowing Dial: Gasoline Alley: "The Adventure of Jealous Jessica" (1948-49) [10] • Radio America: Gasoline Alley, October 29, 1948. [11]

[1] Markstein, Don. Toonopedia: Gasoline Alley (http:/ / www. toonopedia. com/ gasalley. htm) [2] Stiles, Steve. "On the Road with Gasoline Alley: A Cradle to Maturity Family Saga" (http:/ / stevestiles. com/ gasalley. htm) [3] Duin, Steve. "Sundays with Walt and Skeezix," Oregonian, August 5, 2007. (http:/ / blog. oregonlive. com/ steveduin/ 2007/ 08/ sundays_with_walt_and_skeezix. html) [4] http:/ / www. gocomics. com/ gasolinealley/ 2010/ 03/ 03/ [5] Gardner, Alan. "Gasoline Alley Turns 90 Today." The Daily Cartoonist, November 24, 2008. (http:/ / dailycartoonist. com/ index. php/ 2008/ 11/ 24/ gasoline-alley-turns-90-today/ ) [6] NCS Awards (http:/ / www. reuben. org/ ncs/ awards. asp) [7] Schwartz, Ben. "See You in the (Restored, Reprinted) Funny Papers", The New York Times, January 14, 2007. (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 01/ 14/ arts/ design/ 14schw. html?ex=1169614800& en=d967000717bcdd7e& ei=5070& emc=eta1) [8] Dunning, John. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-507678-8 (http:/ / www. oldalgonquin. com/ authorPage. php) [9] IMDb (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0043427/ ) [10] http:/ / www. vintageradioplace. com/ broadcast/ arcglowingdial0402. html [11] http:/ / radioamerica. podOmatic. com/ player/ web/ 2007-03-05T07_36_20-08_00 Frank King's Skeezix Out West (Reilly & Lee, 1928)

External links
• • • • ( Wallet Family History ( I Love Comix Archive: Gasoline Alley ( Gasoline Alley (1951) ( and IMDb: Corky of Gasoline Alley (1951) ( • Right Back in the Alley with Skeezix (

Winsor McCay


Winsor McCay
Winsor McCay (September 26, 1869(?) – July 26, 1934) was an American cartoonist and animator. A prolific artist, McCay's pioneering early animated films far outshone the work of his contemporaries, and set a standard followed by Walt Disney and others in later decades. His two best-known creations are the newspaper comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland, which ran from 1905–1914 and 1924–1927, and the animated cartoon Gertie the Dinosaur, which he created in 1914. His comic strip work has influenced generations of artists, including creators such as William Joyce, André LeBlanc, Moebius, Maurice Sendak, Chris Ware and Bill Watterson.

Winsor McCay

Early life
McCay was the son of Robert McKay (later changed to McCay) and Janet Murray McKay; Robert at various times worked as a teamster, a grocer, and a real estate agent. Winsor's exact place and year of birth are uncertain — he claimed to have been born in Spring Lake, Michigan in 1871, but his gravestone says 1869, and census reports state that he was born in Canada in 1867. He was originally named Zenas Winsor McKay, in honor of his father's employer, Zenas G. Winsor. He later dropped the name Zenas. In 1886, McCay's parents sent him to Cleary's Business College in Ypsilanti, Michigan to learn to be a businessman. While in Ypsilanti, he also received his only formal art training, from John Goodison of Michigan State Normal College (now known as Eastern Michigan University). Goodison taught him the strict application of the fundamentals of perspective, which he put to significant use later in his career. Goodison, formerly a glass stainer, also influenced McCay's bold use of color.

Little Sammy Sneeze

Winsor McCay


In 1889, McCay moved to Chicago, intending to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, but due to lack of money had to find employment instead. He worked for the National Printing and Engraving Company, producing woodcuts for circus and theatrical posters. Two years later, he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio and went to work as an artist for Kohl and Middleton's Vine Street Dime Museum. While in Cincinnati he married Maude Leonore Dufour. McCay began doing vaudeville chalk talks in 1906.[1] In his The Seven Ages of Man vaudeville act, he drew two faces and progressively aged them.[2] McCay's first major comic strip series was Tales of the Jungle Imps by Felix Fiddle. Forty-three installments were published from January to November 1903, in the Cincinnati Enquirer. The strip was based on poems by George Randolph Chester, then a reporter and editor at the Enquirer. The stories concerned jungle creatures and the ways that they adapted to a hostile world, with individual titles such as How the Elephant Got His Trunk and How the Ostrich Got So Tall. His strips Little Nemo and Dreams of a Rarebit Fiend were both set in the dreams of their characters and featured fantasy art that attempted to capture the look and feel of dreams. McCay's cartoons were never overwhelmingly popular, but always had a strong following because of his expressive graphic style. Newspaper pages were physically much larger in that time and McCay usually had a half a page to work with. For fantasy art in comics, his only rival was Lyonel Feininger, who went on to have a career in the fine arts after his comics days were over.

Little Nemo in Slumberland

McCay also created a number of animated short films, in which every single frame of each cartoon (with each film requiring thousands of frames) was hand-drawn by McCay and occasionally his assistants. McCay went on vaudeville tours with his films. He presented lectures and did drawings; then he interacted with his animated films, performing such tricks as holding his hand out to "pet" his animated creations. The star of McCay's groundbreaking animated film Gertie the Dinosaur is classified by film and animation historians as the first cartoon character created especially for film to display a unique, realistic personality. In the film, Gertie causes trouble and cries when she is scolded, and finally she gives McCay himself a ride on her back as he steps into the movie picture. In addition to a series of cartoons based on his popular "rarebit" gags, McCay also created The Sinking of the Lusitania, a depiction of the attack on the maritime ship. The cartoon contained a message that was meant to inspire America into joining World War I.

Gertie the Dinosaur

Winsor McCay


Death and legacy
McCay died in 1934 and was buried at the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn. Woody Gelman discovered many of the original Little Nemo strips at a cartoon studio where Bob McCay, Winsor's son, had worked in 1966.[3] Many of the original drawings that Gelman recovered were displayed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art under the direction of curator A. Hyatt Mayor. In 1973, Gelman would publish a collection of Little Nemo strips in Italy.[3]

Comic strips
• • • • • • • Tales of the Jungle Imps by Felix Fiddle (1903) Little Sammy Sneeze (1904 to 1906) Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (1904–13) The Story of Hungry Henrietta (1905) A Pilgrim's Progress (1905 to 1910) Little Nemo in Slumberland (1905 to 1914) Poor Jake (1909 to 1911)

• Little Nemo (1911) also titled Winsor McCay, the Famous Cartoonist of the N.Y. Herald and His Moving Comics • How a Mosquito Operates (1912) also titled The Story Of A Mosquito • Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) • The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918) • Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: Bug Vaudeville (1921) • Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: The Pet (1921) • Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: The Flying House (1921) • The Centaurs (1921) • Gertie on Tour (1921) • Flip's Circus (1921) • The Barnyard Performance (1922-27?) also called Performing Animals and The Midsummer's Nightmare
Actors Benefit for Crippled Children, Winsor McCay sketching, 1908

Winsor McCay


Books and collections
• Dreams of a Rarebit Fiend Dover, ISBN 0-486-21347-1 • Little Nemo in the Palace of Ice and Further Adventures Dover, ISBN 0-486-23234-4 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. I: 1905-1907 Fantagraphics ISBN 0-930193-63-6 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. II: 1907-1908 Fantagraphics ISBN 0-930193-64-4 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. III: 1908-1910 Fantagraphics ISBN 1-56097-025-1 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. IV: 1910-1911 Fantagraphics ISBN 1-56097-045-6 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. V: In the Land of Wonderful Dreams, Part 1: 1911-12 Fantagraphics ISBN 0-924359-35-8 • The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland, Vol. VI: In the Land of Wonderful Dreams, Part 2: 1913-14 Fantagraphics ISBN 1-56097-130-4 • Little Nemo 1905-1914 Taschen, ISBN 3-8228-6300-9 • The Best of Little Nemo in Slumberland Stewart, Tabori, & Chang, ISBN 1-55670-647-2
Winsor McCay's World War I poster urging Americans to buy Liberty Bonds

• Little Nemo in Slumberland: So Many Splendid Sundays Sunday Press ISBN 0-9768885-0-5 • Little Nemo in Slumberland: Many More Splendid Sundays Sunday Press ISBN 0-9768885-5-6 • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 1 Checker, ISBN 0-9741664-0-5 (“Tales of the Rarebit Fiend” and “Little Sammy Sneeze”) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 2 Checker, ISBN 0-9741664-7-2 (More “Tales of the Rarebit Fiend” and “Little Sammy Sneeze,” “Centaurs,” “Hungry Henrietta,” and editorial illustrations.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 3 Checker, ISBN 0-9741664-9-9 (More “Tales of the Rarebit Fiend” (1907), “Little Sammy Sneeze,” “A Pilgrim’s Progress,” (1907) and editorial illustrations from New York period.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 4 Checker, ISBN 0-9753808-1-8 (more Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (early 1908), A Pilgrim’s Progress (early 1908), various Little Sammy Sneezes, and New York American editorial cartoons.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 5 Checker, ISBN 0-9753808-2-6 (Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (late 1908), A Pilgrim’s Progress (late 1908), Phoolish Phillip (all), Hungry Henrietta (all), and New York American editorial cartoons.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 6 Checker, ISBN 1-933160-05-5 (“Mr Goodenough”, Dream of the Rarebit Fiend (late 1908), A Pilgrim’s Progress (late 1908), and New York American editorial cartoons.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 7 Checker, ISBN 1-933160-05-5 (illustrations from New York editorial period, and collection of comic strips.) • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 8 Checker, ISBN 1-933160-06-3 • Winsor McCay: Early Works, Vol. 9 Checker, ISBN 978-1-933160-07-8 • Daydreams and Nightmares Fantagraphics, ISBN 1-56097-569-5 • Little Sammy Sneeze Sunday Press ISBN 0-97688-854-8

Winsor McCay


[1] Film reference: Winsor McCay (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ Writers-and-Production-Artists-Lo-Me/ McCay-Winsor. html) [2] Stabile, Carol A. and Mark Harrison. Prime Time Animation: Television Animation and American Culture. Routledge, 2003. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=H3USAr6i1e0C& pg=PA3& lpg=PA3& dq=vaudeville+ "chalk+ talks"& source=bl& ots=phFiS5z0UB& sig=n7ZqUXzoMB0TEKYkURaaR-Wdevo& hl=en& ei=bePVSrGlJJTClAf95JidCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CAwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=vaudeville "chalk talks"& f=false) [3] Mint Condition: How Baseball Cards Became an American Obsession, p.126, Dave Jamieson, 2010, Atlantic Monthly Press, imprint of Grove/Atlantic Inc., New York, NY, ISBN 978-0-8021-1939-1

• John Canemaker (2005). Winsor McCay: His Life and Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-5941-0. • Ohio State University (1 June 2006). "Cartoon Library Acquires McCay Collection" (http://www.lib.ohio-state. edu/sites/staff/Newsnotes/nn060601.pdf) (PDF). University Libraries New Notes. • Leonard Maltin (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons; Revised and Updated. Plume Books. ISBN 0-452-25993-2. • "The Cartoonist Group: Background About Winsor McCay;" ( daydream/about.php/).

External links
• Spring Lake District Library "The Talented Winsor McCay" ( Pages/ McCay/McCay.htm) • The Fales Library of NYU's guide to the David C. Bohnett Collection of Winsor McCay Drawings (http://dlib. • Meeting McCay ( • Winsor McCay ( at the Internet Movie Database on Internet Movie Database • (French) Little Nemo in Slumberland Anniversary Special ( winsor/) • Winsor McCay's The Centaurs. ( • Comic Strip Library has a complete collection of out-of-copyright Little Nemo pages (http://www.

Little Nemo


Little Nemo

Little Nemo


King Morpheus

The Imp

The Princess

Little Nemo is the main fictional character in a series of weekly comic strips by Winsor McCay that appeared in the New York Herald and William Randolph Hearst's New York American newspapers from October 15, 1905 – April 23, 1911 and April 30, 1911 – July 26, 1914; respectively. The strip was first called Little Nemo in Slumberland and then In the Land of Wonderful Dreams when it changed papers. A brief revival of the original title occurred from 1924-27.

Little Nemo


Characters and story
Although a comic strip, it was far from a simple children's fantasy; it was often dark, surreal, threatening, and even violent. The strip related the dreams of a little boy: Nemo (meaning "nobody" in Latin), the hero. The last panel in each strip was always one of Nemo waking up, usually in or near his bed, and often being scolded (or comforted) by one of the grownups of the household after crying out in his sleep and waking them. In the earliest strips, the dream event that woke him up would always be some mishap or disaster that seemed about to lead to serious injury or death, such as being crushed by giant mushrooms, being turned into a monkey, falling from a bridge being held up by "slaves", or gaining 90 years in age. The adventures leading to these disasters all had a common purpose: to get to Slumberland, where he had been summoned by Ki