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ELECTROPLATING Electroplating is the use of electrolysis to apply a thin layer of one metal over another.

ELECTRO-REFINING of COPPER Electrolysis allows the dissolution of copper from the impure (blister) copper anode and deposition of pure copper on the copper cathode.

Reactions: At the cathode:

Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) At the anode:

Cu(s) Cu 2+(aq) + 2e-

EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM FROM BAUXITE Electrolysis of aluminium oxide dissolved in cryolite (Na3AlF6) results in harvesting of pure aluminium.

Chemical reactions:
At the cathode: Al3+ + 3e- Al(l) The liquid aluminium forms a layer of molten aluminium at the bottom of the cell. At the anode:

2O2- O2(g) + 4eoxygen reacts with the carbon electrode to form carbon dioxide.