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Aluminium and Titanium by Abhishek Jaguessar

Aluminium and Titanium by Abhishek Jaguessar

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Published by reedoye21
Titanium ( /taɪˈteɪniəm/ ty-tay-nee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal with a silver color.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils.[2] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[3] or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[4] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.[2]

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.[2]

The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal.[5] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter.[6] There are two allotropic forms[7] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[8] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, because both of them have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table.
Titanium ( /taɪˈteɪniəm/ ty-tay-nee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal with a silver color.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils.[2] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[3] or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[4] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.[2]

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.[2]

The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal.[5] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter.[6] There are two allotropic forms[7] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[8] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, because both of them have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table.

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Published by: reedoye21 on Sep 01, 2011
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Aluminium and Titanium

These are two metals with a low density which means they are lightweight for their size.
Aluminium is used for aircraft, trains, overhead power cables, saucepans and cooking foil.

Titanium, when pure, is a lustrous, white metal.

The metal burns in air and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. It is marvellous in fireworks.

Aluminium and Titanium resist corrosion as they have a very thin layer
of their oxides on the surface, which stops air and water getting to the metal.

Extraction
Unlike iron, aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon because:

Aluminium is more reactive than carbon, so the reaction does not work. Titanium forms titanium carbide with carbon, which makes the metal brittle.

Aluminium is mined in huge scales as bauxite.
• In order to isolate pure aluminium, impurities must be removed from the bauxite. • This is done by the Bayer process, which involves treatment with sodium hydroxide solution, followed by purification using electrolysis.

Titanium is isolated using the Kroll method.

This involves the action of chlorine and carbon on the titanium ore followed by fractional distillation and then reduction with magnesium.

COST
Aluminium extraction is expensive because the process needs a lot of electrical energy. Titanium extraction is expensive because the process involves several stages and a lot of energy. This especially limits the uses of titanium.

Summary
• Aluminium and Titanium both have a low density which means they are lightweight for their size. • They resist corrosion.

• They cannot be extracted by reduction.
• Extraction is expensive because there are several stages involved and the processes require a lot of energy.

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