The Ultimate No-Bull Speed

Development Manual

A step-by-step guide for transforming an
everyday Joe (or Jane), into a FREAKY FAST,
agile, and EXPLOSIVE athlete

For Athletes, Coaches, and Parents

By: Kelly Baggett




Copyright 2006 © by Kelly Baggett. All Rights
Reserved.




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No portion of this manual may be used, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic of mechanical, including fax, photocopy, recording or any information
storage and retrieval system by anyone but the purchaser for their own personal use. This
manual may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of
Kelly Baggett, except in the case of a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages for the
sake of a review written for inclusions in a magazine, newspaper, or journal – and these
cases require written approval from Kelly Baggett prior to publication.

For more information, please contact:

Kelly Baggett
649 Fruit Farm Road
Hollister, MO 65672

Email: Kelly@higher-faster-sports.com
Website: www.higher-faster-sports.com


Disclaimer

The information in this book is offered for educational purposes only; the reader should
be cautioned that there is an inherent risk assumed by the participant with any form of
physical activity. With that in mind, those participating in strength and conditioning
programs should check with their physician prior to initiating such activities. Anyone
participating in these activities should understand that such training initiatives may be
dangerous if performed incorrectly. The author assumes no liability for injury; this is
purely an educational manual to guide those already proficient with the demands of such
programming.








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Table of Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………….……….5
Part I- Linear Speed………………………………………………………………….……5
Speed Is Simple!……………………………………………………………………….….6
How Trainable Is Running Speed Anyway?………………………………………...…….7
Gross Motor Skills Vs Fine Motor Skills…………………………………………...…….8
Speed = Stride length Times Stride Frequency………………………………...…………9
Stride Length is King!…………………………………………………………….……….9
Factors Involved In Increasing Ground Reaction Force……………………………...….11
Strength = The Backbone……………………………………………………..…………15
How Strong Is Strong Enough?…………………………………………….……………15
What Horsepower Looks Like……………………………………………..…………….16
What Can Strength Do For You?……………………………………………...…………16
Building Strength…………………………………………………………….…………..18
Muscle Mass Increases For a Speed Athlete? – Blah!……………...……………………22
Strength and Its Relationship To Power…………………………………………………25
Best Exercises?…………………………………………………………………………..27
"Slow" Strength Training Movements vs "Fast" Strength Training Movements……..…27
Strength Work and Fatigue………………………...…………………………………….29
Improving Stride Rate…………………………………...……………………………….30
Top Speed vs Acceleration…………………………………………...………………….31
Sprinting Technique…………………………………………………………...…………33
Technical cues………………………………………………………………...………….34
The Stride Cycle…………………………………………………………………………36
Getting Full Extension…………………………………………………….……………..36
The Feet - Heel Running Vs Toe Running……………………………...……………38-39
Function Follows Form…………………………………………………………………..39
Hip Running vs Knee Running……………………………………………..……………43
Various Assessments To Ensure Proper Movement Efficiency…………………………44
Glute Amnesia and Tight Hip Flexors………………………………………….………..44
Assessing the Balance Between the Glutes and Hams…………………………………..45
Is The Psoas Muscle Strong Enough?……………..…………………………..…………46
Evaluating Core Stability………………………..……………………………………….46
The Execution Of The 40-yard Dash………………………...…………………………..47
Starting From Blocks……………………………………….……………………………49
Troubleshooting Running Mechanics……………………………...…………………….50
Setting up a routine – Volume………………………………………..………………….51
Frequency……………………………………………………………..…………………52
Maintaining Movement Proficiency vs Improving Movement Proficiency…….……….53
Rest Intervals………………………………………………………………….…………53
Distances?……………………………………………………………………….……….57
Making Things Easy……………………………………………………….…………….57
Year Around Training?…………………………………………………………………..59
Mobility Training………………………………………………………….……………..60
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Form Drills……………………………………………………………………….………64
Speed and Acceleration Drills…………………………………………….……………..64
Plyometric Training…………………………………………………………..………….65
The Entire Athletic Development Process – Being a good diagnostician……………….67
Detailed Sample 12 week programs for 40 yard dash improvement………...…………..74
12 week Program I – For the Strength Deficient Athlete……………………..…………75
12 week Program II – For The Speed Deficient Athlete…………………..…………….82
A Simple Yet “Cutting Edge” Variant – Horizontal Loading………………...…………84
Conditioning……………………………………………………………………………..86
Conditioning and No Man’s Land………………………………...……………………..87
Power vs Power Endurance………………………………………...……………………89
How To Implement Conditioning Without Interfering With Speed and Power…...…….91
Extensive Conditioning Options……………………………………..…………………..92

Part II- Getting in Game Shape, Improving Game Speed, Agility, and Quickness
Intensive Conditioning – Getting in Game Shape……………………………………….97
Improving Game Speed………………………………………………………………….99
Improving Quickness and Reaction Time…………………….……………………..…100
Improving Agility………………………………………………………………………101
Sample Off-season workouts for football…………………………………...………….103
12 Week Program I - For The Strength Dominant Athlete……………………………..105
12 Week Program II - For The Speed Dominant Athlete………………………………111
Training For Track………………………………………………………...……………116
Conclusion……………………………………………………………..……………….122

Q&A and Special Topics
14 year old with strength and coordination issues……..……………………………….123
Importance of the plantar flexors………………………….……………………………123
Too much work during the off-season?……………………………..………………….124
The need for special exercises?………………………………………...……………….125
Linear vs conjugate periodization……………………………………..………………..126
Cleans and other Olympic lifts – Yah or Nay?………………………...……………….128
Templates for combine preparation……………………………………...……………..130
Sport specific training…………………………………………………………………..131
My 40 yard dash training……………………………………………………………….133
How long does it take to see improvements?…………………………...………………134
Upper body contribution to running speed?……………………………...……………..134


Appendix A: The Simpleton's Guide To Speed Training………………………………136
Appendix B: Training Templates For Various Athletes………………………………..152
Appendix C: Various resources……………………………………………….………..161




5


Introduction

Ahhhh…..Speed…a quality coveted by many yet had by a rare few. Few things
can match the appeal of the fluidity, suppleness, grace, and power of the freaky fast
athlete. Those possessing it become the recipients of instant respect and admiration -
while those who don’t often develop a yearning for it rivaling that of man’s long search
for the fountain of youth. What is the secret they ask? In the sports world they come by
the hundreds of thousands searching for the magical speed elixir, wanting to drink from
the Fountain of Speed. Countless training methods promising magic, yet each
representing but a small fraction of the complete picture: Plyometrics, medicine balls,
ladder drills, active isolated stretching, olympic lifting, powerlifting, speed and agility
centers, form drills, high speed treadmills, dynamic mobility, creatine, sprinting
machines, rubber bands, sleds, shoes, russian secrets, soft tissue work, the list goes on
and on and on. The result is a huge speed development industry - along with what is
often a myriad of confusion for the speed-seeking athlete, parent, and coach.

With so many things to learn, so many training methods to choose from, and so
many systems all promising to be the answer, what are you supposed to do to ensure
you’re on the right path towards attaining your true athletic potential? For every speed
development technique, exercise, method, system or elixir, you’ll find the praise of
plenty, yet you will also find those ready to throw it in the grave. What to do? Can all the
various elixirs be reduced down to a simple formula incorporating basic step-by-step
principles? Is there a surefire duplicatable approach to increase speed that will work the
same for everyone, or, like the elusive fountain of youth, is it like searching for fool’s
gold?

Well, fortunately, building speed is easier than finding the fountain of youth. In
this manual I'm gonna try my very best to answer and illustrate the question, "What
simple basic principles can all the various speed training methods, techniques, gimmicks,
and elixirs be reduced down to?” I’m also gonna try to give you a step-by-step, no B.S.,
surefire approach to get you on the right path towards applying those principles and
transforming either yourself (or others) into smooth, fluid, agile, and freaky fast athletes.

Part I-
Linear Speed

So you want to get faster? Congratulations! Without a doubt improving your
speed is one of the best things you can do to improve your performance as an athlete.
One of the greatest concerns among today’s coaches and athletes in many sports is how
to improve the elusive quality of speed. This is largely due to the influence of scouting
tests like the 40-yard dash. Although tests such as the 40 and 60-yard dash could be
considered over-rated when it comes to evaluating player ability (due to the fact that the
most sports are just as much dependent on moves, agility and quickness), they’re also the
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tests that most coaches rely on when determining if a player has what it takes. When it
comes to the NFL draft, millions of dollars can be gained or lost for a player in the
difference of a couple of tenths of a second in his 40. The same goes for baseball players
and the 60-yard dash.

For those of you who have watched re-runs of the television series “Playmakers”,
it is obvious just how much emphasis is placed on speed in the 40-yard dash. In one
episode, Leon Taylor, an aging 30-year old running back, dedicates himself to improving
his performance in a variety of the same tests used at the NFL scouting combine. He
does this to show that even at 30 years of age he’s still as good or better physically than
he was at the beginning of his career. He actually improves in every single test except
the 40-yard dash, where his time goes from 4.5 seconds as a rookie to 4.6 seconds as a
30-year old. He presents a video of his performance in the various drills to his coach who
looks at all his numbers, zeroes in on the 40, and says, “You’ve slowed down.” “These
young guys don’t have your strength or tenacity but they can get through the hole
quicker.” The difference between a 4.5 and 4.6 is the difference between breaking into
the clear and getting tackled at the line of scrimmage.” Just face it you ain’t got it no
more!” Point Taken!!

Even though that example was made for television it’s still true that most team
sport coaches do place a huge emphasis on sprint times such as 40’s or 60’s, often to the
exclusion of everything else. If you as an athlete, coach, or parent want yourself, your
kids, or your athletes to impress people and get noticed, speed is where it’s at! You
probably already know this otherwise you wouldn’t have purchased this manual.
Although being fast won’t automatically make a great player it can turn some heads and
often get a foot in the door so that you can show scouts, coaches, and other talent
evaluators what you can do on the field. Regardless of what level of sport referred to, it
can also mean the difference between starting and sitting the bench.

Speed Is Simple!
The good thing is, although it is often very difficult for the average person to sort
through all the often contrasting information in the athletic development industry,
improving speed really isn’t all that complicated. Methods are many, but principles are
few. Any improvement in your athletic ability is really just a matter of increasing two
(count them, just two) foundational qualities. All of the aforementioned training methods
I talked about earlier, as well as anything else that improves performance, will affect one
or both of these. They are:

1. Movement efficiency- How you move. The ability to carry out a movement with
utmost efficiency. Think of the fluid grace of someone like a Reggie Bush moving
straight ahead like he’s shot out of a cannon, stopping on a dime, changing direction, and
doing a pirouette like a ballerina.

2. Horsepower- How much force is behind a movement. The amount of force, power,
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and speed that is exerted when you move (The difference between a ballerina sprinting
down the sideline vs a Reggie Bush sprinting down the sideline)
Any training method, gimmick, recovery aid, diet, or anything else promoted to
improve a physical quality like running speed will impact one of those factors. That’s the
only way speed (or any other physical quality) can improve. Think about it. What
determines the speed at which your legs move in something like a kick or a sprint? The
same thing that determines how fast a baseball flies through the air. How much force
(horsepower) that it’s hit with - or, in the case of running, how much force is behind the
leg. What determines the ability to run with perfect and fluid mechanics? The answer is,
the efficiency of the movement.
If I lift weights, I improve my ability to exert force (horsepower). If I get a massage
and the massage relaxes my tight muscles, that relaxation allows me to move more
efficiently, and that in turn also allows me to exert more force, right? If I drink special
blue green algae and lose weight I have less fat mass to carry around and that’ll improve
my movement efficiency. If I take supplements that increase my energy I can then exert
more force in my movements due to my greater energy levels. If I do some Yoga I might
improve my ability to relax and this helps me move better. If I use a special high-speed
treadmill that improves my power and allows me to move my legs faster when I run, I
increase my movement efficiency and my horsepower. The list goes on and on.
Here is a question for you: What if, instead of haphazardly engaging in all sorts of
training methods and then trying to determine what and how they work, we simply
worked backwards from the end results of our training and found the most direct
approach to improve movement efficiency and horsepower? In other words, since speed
improvements result from improvements in those qualities, what are the best and most
direct ways to improve those 2 qualities? We could ask, “What is the most direct and
straight line approach to improve the force I put behind my sprint movements??” After
we answered that question we’d ask, “Ok, what is the most direct way to increase my
movement efficiency?” What might happen if we took that approach?
Hmm…something to think about isn’t it? More on that in a minute, but right now let’s
talk about a few other things related to speed development.
How Trainable Is Running Speed Anyway?
It used to be thought that it was virtually impossible to improve running speed
and the predominant line of thinking in coaching circles was that fast athletes were born
but not made. Yes, there is a genetic component involved in running fast but anyone can
get faster if they train correctly. Not everyone can achieve world-class 100-meter
sprinter speed but, based on my experience, any relatively untrained individual can
improve their speed in something like a 40-yard dash by around .5 seconds or more.
More importantly, team sport speed, or game speed, is HIGHLY trainable.
If you’ve read some of my other material you probably already have a good
understanding of the training methods required to increase running speed. If you’ve read
8
my vertical jump manual the same things you learned there can be applied here. Speed
and acceleration over short distances tends to correlate quite well with performance in the
vertical jump. In other words, the training methods that increase one tend to increase the
other. When was the last time you saw a really fast guy who couldn’t jump? Running
speed and leaping ability are both heavily dependent upon lower body relative power,
with the only real differences being technical. Relative Power is just a fancy term for how
explosive you are relative to your body weight.
If we wanted to get technical we could say power equals force times velocity
(P=F*V), with the force component primarily determined by your pound per pound
strength and the velocity component determined by how quickly you can utilize that
strength. Put all that together and you get explosiveness.
Explosiveness= pound per pound strength + how quickly you utilize that
strength
With regard to technique, whether your focus is running or jumping, you need to
spend enough time learning the technique to be proficient at either, but the performance
characteristics and strength qualities tend to correlate quite well. An athlete with less
than optimal technique can improve their speed by improving that technique and
optimizing their economy
Gross Motor Skills Vs Fine Motor Skills
Running is a gross whole body motor skill, which basically means it doesn’t
require much conscious effort to perfect. This also means that performance is largely
determined by strength qualities and is not as reliant on technical skill. Gross motor
skills are kind’ve like riding a bike. Once you learn them they don’t require much
conscious input. Once you learn how to ride a bike you don’t have to think about it much
do you? Crawling, walking, running, jumping, and throwing a punch or kick can all be
put into this gross motor skill category. I also call these primal movement patterns
because they’re highly instinctual. Now, contrast those physical skills to something like
threading a needle or executing a double twisting back-flip. These require much more
skill, concentration, and focus.
Here’s an example of what I mean by instinctual: Imagine you’re walking
through the woods and a bear comes out and jumps your butt. Are you gonna think to
yourself, “Ok, in order to get away quickly I need to pull my right heel up 45 degrees and
extend up onto my left toe and cycle my right ankle over my left knee.” Or are you just
gonna run!? I would hope instead of overanalyzing things you just get up off your butt
and run!
The reason I bring this up is because throughout this manual we’re gonna talk
quite a bit about a multitude of factors involved in running fast, including many technical
issues, but don’t lose sight of the fact that running is predominately a primal gross motor
skill. If you’re constantly overanalyzing things the bear will catch you!
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What is Speed?
Let me break running speed down into a very simple equation. Here it is. Speed
over a given distance can be determined by:
Stride length X Stride frequency.
Stride length- is the distance you cover with each stride as you run.
Stride frequency- is the number of strides you take in a given time
Thus, you can improve your speed by either covering more ground with each
stride, by taking faster steps, or by both. If you increase your stride length while keeping
stride frequency constant you will run faster and vice versa. If two individuals possessed
the exact same technique, the individual who could move their legs faster (stride rate) and
cover more ground in a single stride (stride length) would be the eventual winner.
Stride Length is King!
When it comes to in¡·o.in¡ n¡·o.in¡ n¡·o.in¡ n¡·o.in¡ your speed, stride frequency is nv.n ìc.. nv.n ìc.. nv.n ìc.. nv.n ìc.. important than
stride length. In other words, the speed at which your legs move is actually not all that
important.
To illustrate this for yourself, try this drill: Lie on your back with your feet up in
the air and cycle your legs mimicking a sprint stride. Next, get a stopwatch and either
time yourself or get someone to time you and see if you can get 5 strides per second
while lying on your back. Most of you will probably be able to do it. Realize an elite
level sprinter will take around 5 strides per second in a sprint. Therefore, chances are you
can already move your legs fast enough to be an elite level sprinter! But does that mean
you can cycle your legs at 5 strides per second while striding down the track while using
good mechanics? Probably not. Why not? Because in a real sprint, instead of just
cycling your legs through the air, you also have to propel your bodyweight down the
track with each stride. Yet, based on that example, it should be easy to see that the
absolute speed at which you can move your legs is not the limiting factor in the sprint, -
the limiting factor is the ability to overcome your bodyweight and move your body down
the track or field.
From a speed improvement standpoint, this is also good because the absolute
speed at which your legs move is under more genetic influence than the amount of
ground you cover with each stride. For example, you can take a group of young athletes
and have them do the above drill or have them run in place cycling their legs as fast as
possible. Just count how fast they can move their legs and feet. Next, have them practice
that same drill for 2 years and re-test them. Even with all the practice you’re unlikely to
find a ton of improvement. You’ll probably only find an average improvement of
around 10% or so.
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Yet take the same beginning group of young athletes, time them over a given
distance, count their steps and monitor how much ground they cover per stride. Next,
train them properly for 2 years and re-evaluate them. Not only will you find they get a
whole lot faster, but you’re also likely to find major improvements of 25 to 50% or more
in their stride length.
Speed Improvements and Stride Length
Most .¡ccv in¡·o.cncnì. .¡ccv in¡·o.cncnì. .¡ccv in¡·o.cncnì. .¡ccv in¡·o.cncnì. come from increasing stride length and the fastest athletes
tend to have very good stride lengths relative to their size. Deion Sanders has the fastest
recorded 40-yard dash ever at the NFL scouting combine and also had a stride length of
8ft 10 inches, which is very impressive. If you watch people run on a consistent basis
what you’ll generally notice is that the fastest runners inherently cover more ground
.iìnovì .iìnovì .iìnovì .iìnovì making any deliberate intention to do so and .iìnovì .iìnovì .iìnovì .iìnovì intentionally over-striding.
Most sub 4.4 second 40 yard dash guys are under 20 steps for the entire 40. One extreme
example is Matt Jones of the Jacksonville Jaguars. When he runs he looks like he’s in
slow motion, until you see him blowing by everybody on the football field. That’s
because he’s covering about 10 feet per stride.
Don’t Get Carried Away………
A word of caution: Don’t get too carried away with this and think that all you
have to do to get faster is make a conscious effort to increase the length of your stride.
That would actually be one of the worst things you could do. When you over-stride you
reach and actually slow yourself down because you create a braking effect. Your legs
have to remain under your center of gravity and your stride has to increase naturally.
Ideally, you want your stride length to increase naturally without detracting from
your technique. You do that by increasing the amount of force you put into the ground
while still maintaining sound mechanics. When you increase the amount of force you put
into the ground, each time your foot “reacts” against the ground, you go further. This is
also called ¡·ovnv ·cv.ìion {o·.c. ¡·ovnv ·cv.ìion {o·.c. ¡·ovnv ·cv.ìion {o·.c. ¡·ovnv ·cv.ìion {o·.c. When you properly increase ground reaction force you’ll
never really be conscious of it and the technique won’t really “feel” any different then
normal. You’ll just feel .¡·in¡ic· .¡·in¡ic· .¡·in¡ic· .¡·in¡ic· and sort of feel like you’re {ìovìin¡ {ìovìin¡ {ìovìin¡ {ìovìin¡.
So, the real key is to apply more force into the ground, which you do by
increasing reaction force. How do you improve reaction force? Let’s start off with a
more detailed discussion on how to do exactly that:



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Factors Involved in Increasing Ground Reaction Force and
Stride Length
Increasing stride length is about getting more power into the ground with each
stride. Several factors affect how much power gets into the ground, they include the
following:

1. Strength- Besides the obvious influence on your ability to create and generate force,
strength is also important for absorbing force. With each foot-strike in the sprint an
athlete must be able to support 3 to 7 times his bodyweight on each leg. That obviously
requires a good degree of strength. If an athlete isn’t strong enough to absorb the
reaction forces he creates, his legs will crumple under his bodyweight. If this occurs he
obviously won’t be able to put out any force either. The ability to withstand force is just
as, if not more important, than the ability to put out force.
2. “Stiffness” and Plyometric Ability- When I'm referring to stiffness I'm not referring
to flexibility, but rather the ability to efficiently stabilize and transfer force like a
basketball rebounding off the ground. This largely involves the above capacity to
withstand high forces without folding under the tension. Watch a weak or slow athlete
run and you'll notice that various parts of their legs tend to do a lot of bending under
pressure. There's a lot of give with each foot-strike - particularly right behind the knee, at
the hips, and the heels. Watch a fast athlete run and there's little give. They stay on the
balls of their feet and just kind of "bounce" over the ground with seemingly little effort –
like a rock skipping across water. Therefore, stiffness in this sense is a positive thing.
What causes stiffness? Simple. It’s a combination of how much force the
muscles can develop, how fast and proficiently they develop that force, and how
proficiently the muscles and tendons work together to transfer force and create
movement. With each foot-strike in a sprint the muscles have to "lock up", or contract, to
withstand the oncoming force that occurs at footstrike. The muscles themselves lock up
and this allows the tendons to serve as movement generators. This entire process is also
known as plyometric ability. To illustrate how simple this concept is try these 2 drills:

A: First, stand on 2 feet, lock your knees, and simply bounce up and down on the
balls of your feet in a rhythmic manner. Each time you hit the ground I want you
to concentrate on LOCKING UP your calf muscles as fast and hard as you can so
that your heels drop as little as possible after impact. What happens? First, your
calf muscles lock up and absorb the force created from the impact against the
ground. Next, your achilles tendon stretches like a rubber band and then recoils.
What happens next? You kind've rebound off the ground effortlessly. The
quicker you can lock your muscles up, the less your heels give at impact, and the
quicker you can rebound up. That entire sequence is also known as a plyometric
movement.
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B: Now, try something a bit more advanced. Stand on the ball of only one foot
this time and bounce up and down on one leg at about the pace you'd be moving if
you were swinging a jump rope. Stay on the ball of your foot and as soon as you
hit the ground try to avoid letting your heel descend down any lower. Next, pick
up the pace and do the same thing but in a more intense rhythmic fashion. Get a
little higher with each hop. What happened? Well, providing you are strong
enough to absorb the forces, you were probably able to bounce up and down in a
rhythmic fashion with little to no effort and your heels probably didn't collapse
much. If not, you probably collapsed at the ankle, didn't move worth a darn, and
may have even noticed some pain. It should be noted that the forces generated in
a sprint are more like that drill then they are the first. Improving stiffness and
plyometric proficiency is an important part of getting faster. You can fail to be
plyometrically proficient for one of 3 reasons:

1: Your muscles aren't able to produce enough force when they contract against
oncoming force, so they give too much at impact. (You lack strength)

2: You aren’t able to lock your muscles up quickly enough (or produce force
quickly) enough, so your muscles give too much at impact.
3: You are able to lock up and absorb force proficiently, yet are unable to
efficiently spring out and use the tendons as movement generators. (You lack
movement efficiency and coordination)

A flat basketball can’t bounce off the ground because it gives too much.
What causes the give? Lack of stiffness (air pressure). The same thing happens
with a weak athlete. The lack of strength makes his legs give at ground contact
just like the flat basketball. He can’t absorb force. Now, think of what happens
when you throw a softball against a slab of concrete. The softball is strong enough
to absorb the force, yet doesn’t bounce back really well. Why not? Because it
doesn’t have a whole lot of rebound to it. In human terms, the soft ball would be
the guy who is really strong but who lacks spring. Now think of a golf ball. Not
only is it stiff and resilient, yet also fairly springy. When it comes to plyometric
ability, you want to be more like the golf ball. Resilient and springy.

3. Mobility- Mobility refers to range of motion. Obviously, before you can generate
extreme power and tension in a movement, you have to be able to get into an optimal
position to carry out the movement to begin with. The sprint stride obviously doesn't
require the mobility of a contortionist, yet there are certain muscle groups that can
become tight which can cause certain movements to become inhibited. This can
negatively affect the fluidity of the sprinting stride cycle. This will be covered in detail in
a later chapter.
13

4. Bodyweight to strength ratio- Imagine what would happen if you put a 20,000
pound weight and attached it to a funny car prior to the beginning of a race? Instead of
seeing a drag race you’d be watching a tractor pull! Well, the same thing happens if
you're hauling around a 10 to 50 pound tub of lard around your gut or your butt. Being
fat simply ain't gonna cut it! If you want to be a fast and agile athlete, a certain level of
leanness is desirable.
Having said that, bodyweight increases in the form of muscle mass increases
aren’t necessarily a bad thing. How many really fast athletes do you see that don’t carry
at least a decent amount of muscle? When a muscle increases in size, it also increases its
strength potential. Let’s say you take your bodyweight from 150 to 175, while your squat
and deadlift go from 200 to 400 pounds. Did your bodyweight to strength ratio go into
the crapper? No, it improved! Therefore, one should strive to be lean, yet should not be
deathly afraid of bodyweight increases.
Instead of focusing so much on bodyweight I believe it’s better for an athlete to
focus on body-fat. I consider 6 to 12% body-fat ideal for a male and 12-20% ideal for a
female. The following internet URL has a handy calculator you can use to identify with
quite amazing accuracy what your body-fat level is. Simply take your waist
measurement, plug it into the space provided, and figure out where you are at:
http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/bmi.html#waist

5. Body structure- Take a 12-inch bat and hit a baseball with it. Next, take a 32-inch bat
and hit the same baseball. Which one goes further? Probably the one hit with a 32-inch
bat. This is because the longer bat gives you a longer lever, which gives you more
leverage, which means you can generate more power at the moment of impact.

When sprinting think of a leg as being the same thing as a bat. A longer leg serves as a
longer lever and, assuming the amount of force generated by the hips and legs is equal,
the longer leg can generate more power at ground contact. So, with the amount of force
generated by the hips being equal, a person with longer legs will tend to run faster. Is
there anything a person with shorter legs can do to bridge the gap? Yes. They can
produce more force. Let’s use a real life example: Imagine if you gave me a 32-inch
baseball bat and gave Barry Bonds a 15-inch bat and asked us both to hit a baseball as far
as we could. Who do you think would hit the ball further? Do you think the fact that I
had a longer bat and more leverage would make up for Bonds superior strength and
power? Hardly. He’d still blow me away. Heck, he’d probably even blow me away if
he was using a 6 inch bat. He’s simply too strong and too powerful in his swing for me
to compete, regardless of how much leverage I have with a longer bat. This is how a
600-pound squatting Pit Bull type sprinter like Ben Johnson was able to beat a weaker
Greyhound type sprinter like Carl Lewis. Disadavantageous limb ratios can often be
overcome by disproportionate strength.
14
The same process I described above with regard to leg length is also true when we
refer to variability in the length of the tendons, particularly the length of the Achilles
tendon. Take a look at the calf muscles of the average elite level sprinter or any high
level athlete participating in a speed dominant sport and compare them to the calf
muscles of an average person. Most fast sprinters have a short high calf muscle that
forms just a tight little ball way up by the knee. Their Achilles tendons also tend to be
longer than average. The longer the Achilles tendon, the greater the potential for speed.
Achilles Tendon

Why is a longer Achilles tendon advantageous for speed? Well, providing the
muscles from the hip down can properly absorb force, with each foot-strike in the sprint
the tendons stretch and recoil like rubber bands. Take a small rubber band, pull it back,
and see how far you can shoot it across the room. Next, take a longer rubber band and do
the same thing. Which one flew further? Probably the longer one. A person with longer
Achilles tendons basically has a longer rubber band in his legs and that can offer an
advantage when sprinting (or jumping). Is there anything a person cursed with a short
Achilles can do to bridge that gap? Yep. The solution to the “Achilles” curse is the same
solution as the “short-legged” curse. Disadvantageous tendon lengths can also be
overcome by disproportionate muscular strength. ** Which is again why pit bull type
sprinters like Maurice Green, Ben Johnson, and Kelly White can often beat their gazelle
like counterparts.
** The reverse is also true in that people with naturally good structural and muscular qualities can often perform while
being weaker then their opposition. The weak athlete who can jump out of the gym is a perfect example.
6. Movement efficiency- Movement efficiency is simply the ability to carry out a
movement with optimum efficiency so as to generate the greatest amount of power with
the least amount of effort. Before you can move with great speed and power at a high
intensity, you have to be able to move well at a lower intensity. Before you can be light
on your feet when moving at breakneck speed, you gotta be light and smooth on your feet
at slow speeds. Movement efficiency can be impacted by a ton of things like mobility
and muscle balance, but what I want to touch on here is technique. I will delve fairly
heavily into technical topics in just a bit, but when running a lot of people tend to try too
hard to run fast and thus actually limit how fast they run. A relaxed and smooth stride is
always more powerful and efficient than a tight and forced stride.

15
Strength = The Backbone
Now, I’d like to spend a bit more time talking about strength. In essence, for an
athlete, maximal strength is like the horsepower of the engine in a vehicle. The more
strength we have the higher our other physical attributes can potentially go. A car with a
200-horsepower motor doesn’t necessarily always run twice as fast as one with a 100
horsepower motor, but it certainly has the POTENTIAL to run a heckuva faster if all
things are equal. Just like horsepower is the foundation for how fast a car can go,
maximal strength is the foundation for our physical attributes. These attributes include
power, strength endurance, and endurance (all of them) – all of which can be limited by
insufficient strength.
When training for speed over short distances you need to realize how important it is
to be STRONG! Not all athletes are built the same and not everyone displays their
strength in the same manner, yet I have yet to see a weak individual run a great 40-yard
dash. For some reason this seems to be a difficult concept for many people to grasp.
Think about this: You never see guys with 100 pound bench presses winning any shotput
medals do you? It obviously takes a strong individual to be a good shotputter. Even a
kindergardner can comprehend that. Yet when planting our feet and throwing our own
bodyweight through the air (which is exactly what we do when we run), people don't
seem to comprehend or appreciate the importance of raw horsepower. It’s kind’ve funny
because when we run (or jump) our bodyweight actually offers more resistance than a
shotput does for a thrower! It's a lot easier for someone to do a set of 100 bench presses
with a shotput in each hand than it is a set of 100 bodyweight squats! What about doing
100 squats on one leg? Forget it! Now not all athletes in all sports need lots of weight
room training to increase their speed. For example, a 1500-meter runner never uses
maximal forces and momentum is responsible for much of their speed. Yet, in terms of
the ability to accelerate to top speed when starting from a standstill, moving your
bodyweight from a dead stop requires a lot of explosive strength to get going. A funny
car with a 5 horsepower motor ain’t going anywhere in a hurry, and neither is an athlete
with a 50 pound squat or deadlift!
This is why good sprinters are almost always very strong and powerful relative to
their bodyweight. The stronger you are in the lower body the more force you can put into
the ground with each stride, and, as you already know, the more force you put into the
ground with each stride, the further and faster you go. This is why some Olympic
weightlifters and throwing athletes are nearly as fast as sprinters out to 30 meters. They
don’t get that fast from practicing sprinting, they get that fast by being very strong and
having the ability to utilize that strength very quickly.
How Strong Is Strong Enough?
So how strong is strong enough? Well, some sprinters and other speedy athletes
will routinely throw around 3 times their bodyweight in movements such as the squat, so
chances are you don’t have to worry about becoming too strong. In my experience, if
you aren’t squatting more than 3 times your body weight, your maximal strength isn’t
16
hurting you. That’s 450 pounds for a 150-pound athlete – not a common feat. Even
then, the problems don’t really occur from excessive strength, they occur from the
excessive size, muscular development, and the total investment of time required to build
that strength – a time investment that takes away from the time available to focus on
other qualities. Most of you don’t have to worry about getting too strong, but you may
need to worry about making better use of the strength you have.
Having said all that, assuming 10% body-fat, a nininvì nininvì nininvì nininvì level of strength would be
a 1.5 x bodyweight squat and a 2x bodyweight deadlift with proper form (eg. No back
rounding). Any athlete can easily achieve those numbers with a modicum of proper
training.
What Can Strength Do For You?
Realize that improvements in speed are related to 2 major factors that can be
modified by getting stronger the weight room:
a) Force
b) Rate of force development
Increasing both of these factors will increase power, which is force x speed.
You improve {o·.c {o·.c {o·.c {o·.c anytime you increase your strength. You improve ·vìc o{ {o·.c ·vìc o{ {o·.c ·vìc o{ {o·.c ·vìc o{ {o·.c
vc.cìo¡ncnì vc.cìo¡ncnì vc.cìo¡ncnì vc.cìo¡ncnì when you learn to utilize that strength quickly.
Let’s talk about the importance of having both good force and good rate of force
development.
WHAT FORCE AND HORSEPOWER REALLY LOOK LIKE

Bodyweight Maximum force or
strength
without time
constraint
(squat)

Max force per
sprint stride (.2
seconds)

Athlete
A

175 lbs. 400 lbs. 200 lbs.
Athlete
B

175 lbs. 300 lbs. 225 lbs.

Look at the chart for a moment and try to decide which athlete would have an
advantage in the sprint. Assuming athlete A and B are both the same size, you
17
can see how they have very different strength patterns. Both of them weigh 175 lbs.
Now look at the row that says “maximum force or strength without time
constraint”. All we’re describing here is how much force these athletes can put out
regardless of how long it takes them to apply that force. A maximum squat is an example
of this, since, during a squat, we have ample time to generate max force.

Power-lifting, arm wrestling, and tug-of-war are some sports that come pretty
close to measuring maximum force. In practically every other athletic event, the
movements occur so quickly there isn’t enough time to allow true maximum force to be
developed. In this case you see that athlete A reaches a higher peak force and squats more
weight, 400 lbs versus 300 lbs, yet if you look at the 3rd row, the amount of force he can
put out in .2 seconds, (which is roughly the same amount of time it takes to complete a
stride during the first 25 yards of a sprint stride), - athlete A’s force output is lower then
that of athlete B. Thus, his rate of force development is lower. Therefore, athlete A is
going to be able to squat more than athlete B, but athlete B is probably going to smoke
athlete A in sprint.**

** In order to progress, athlete A would need to improve his ability to quickly express his strength in the sprints, which he
could do by something as simple as engaging in more sprinting practice, which would be specific training for the task at hand.

So, how much force you can put out in a short period of time is going to
determine performance. Don’t get too carried away with this just yet though. Although
being able to apply force rapidly is a very useful quality, you still need to have enough
raw horsepower (or raw force), to tap into for anything significant to happen. The 6’3”,
200 lb guy with a max squat of 100 lbs is not going to be getting down the track quickly,
even if he can apply all that force very rapidly.

Here is an example of what that very weak athlete might look like on paper when
we break his strength qualities down like we did above:



Bodyweight Max force
(strength) in the
Squat

Max force per
sprint stride
Weak Athlete 150 lbs 100 lbs 95 lbs

Even though this athlete expresses the little bit of strength that he has very
effectively and is able to utilize 95% of his force potential (95 lbs) in the sprint stride, he
still doesn’t have enough baseline force to tap into for that awesome rate of force
development to do much good. He’s only capable of squatting 100 lbs and, even though
he’s getting 95% of that into the track, he’s still only putting out 95 lbs of force which
isn’t going to do a whole lot for him!

Now, here is an example of what an ideal athlete’s maximal force and rate of
force development profile might look like:
18

Bodyweight Max force
(strength) in the
squat

Max force per
sprint stride
Ideal
Athlete
175 lbs 400 lbs 325 lbs

This athlete is very strong and is also capable of utilizing a large percentage of his
max force in a very short time-span, which is ideal. His max squat is 400 lbs. and he’s
able to utilize over 75% of that, or 325 lbs., during a sprint stride.

Building Strength….
With that information the foundational role that strength plays in the speed
development process should be evident. When it comes to building strength, it really
doesn’t matter how you go about doing it. People really seem to get confused on this
topic. You'll find recommendations touting countless schemes and exercises all supposed
to be better than any other. Some people preach only uni-lateral exercises. Some people
preach only squats while others say NEVER do squats. Some people preach deadlifts as
the cure-all for everything. Some say a person shouldn’t lift weights and should instead
do something like push trucks. The average person is often left so confused they don't
have a clue where to start. To be honest, it really doesn't matter how you go about
getting stronger as long as you do it somehow. At the end of the day, all that really
matters is that you're improving your ability to bend your knees, extend your hips and
apply force. You're strengthening the muscles of your hips, quads, hamstrings, and lower
back. There are a myriad of ways to do that. The most common and some of the most
effective exercises that will do that are basic squats, deadlifts etc. The general idea is you
go in and lift a progressively heavier load. You rest a given amount of time, which might
be one day, 2 days, 3 days, on up to a week. Then you come back and lift a heavier
weight. If the bar weight you’re lifting on basic movements is increasing on a consistent
basis, so is your strength.
What Strength Really Is…
Let’s talk for a moment about what strength really is. Strength is really just
another name for the ability to produce tension, or force.
Strength=Tension or Force
Strength is made up of 2 parts: One aspect is determined by how efficient you
and your nervous system are at firing and coordinating the muscles involved in a
movement, which is called neural efficiency. The other main aspect is how big the
muscles are that are fired, which determines how much force is generated when they fire.
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Put those 2 things together and you have muscular strength. So, you can get stronger
either by boosting neural efficiency, or by increasing the size of your muscles.
First let's talk about improving the neural aspect of strength. There are two
primary ways the nervous system influences your muscular strength. The first process is
called motor unit recruitment. Specifically, I'm referring to your nervous system's ability
to turn on and fire more motor units. A motor unit is just a grouping of muscle cells or
fibers. A given motor unit may contain a few muscle cells, or it may contain several
hundred. When you decide to fire a muscle a message goes from your brain and down
your spinal cord where it eventually reaches and signals individual muscle motor units to
fire. When a motor unit fires so do all the muscle cells under its control. The more
motor units (muscle fibers) you recruit, the more force you'll produce. Small force tasks
recruit few motor units; large force and/or explosive tasks recruit many motor units. Full
muscular recruitment occurs when maximal force output reaches around 80-85% of your
maximum. So, if your 1 repetition maximal arm curl is 100 pounds and you perform a
set with 80 pounds (80%), you'll be recruiting all of your muscle fibers in the biceps.
However, it's also safe to say that under normal circumstances few people are
capable of utilizing all of their potential strength in a given movement. In fact, an
untrained person may only be able to utilize 50% of their strength potential. Why is that?
Because there's another aspect of neural efficiency called rate coding. Rate coding
allows your muscles to develop more force by enhancing the speed and amplitude at
which electrical neural signals get sent to your muscles telling them to contract. At very
high intensities, a given motor unit will continuously fire and relax and repeat that
process at a very high rate of speed. The repetitive firing of all available motor units
occurs so quickly that there's a summation of force and the ability to produce tension is
magnified. However, the body normally inhibits the full potential of this process as a
protective mechanism to protect you from injuring yourself. If your body didn’t have this
safeguard in place and you could easily call upon your full strength potential you’d
definitely very strong and powerful, yet you'd probably also stand a good chance of
ripping your tendons right off the bone!
A few examples where you see this protective mechanism naturally over-ridden
are in extreme life or death type circumstances where the body produces tons of
adrenaline. If you’ve ever heard of small women lifting cars up off their children or PCP
users busting out of handcuffs, what happens in these situations is the extra adrenaline
boosts rate coding and over-rides various mechanisms that normally inhibit the display of
full force potential. But what happens to people in these situations? They often end up
injuring themselves. Some people have a natural propensity to have elevated adrenal
related discharges from the CNS and naturally have better rate coding.*** Fortunately,
with training, one can vastly improve this capacity naturally, which is how powerlifters
and Olympic lifters in the lighter weight classes are able to get so strong.
Let's say you have a strength potential of 200 pounds in the leg curl. This means,
based on the amount of muscle contained in your hamstrings and your body structure, if
all of your available motor units were firing and you were utilizing 100% of your rate
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coding capacity, you'd be able to lift 200 pounds. However, an untrained person might
only be able to lift 100 pounds, or 50% of their potential. A highly trained and super
motivated (a.k.a adrenalized) person might be able to lift 180 pounds, or 90% of his
potential.**** So, basically, you can fail to capture a large portion of your force
potential due to either lack of training experience, or lack of time. As mentioned earlier,
in a "fast" movement like a sprint, there's so little time that it's difficult to fully display
your full force capacity.
*** This also explains why those who are naturally very fast, strong, explosive, or powerful often tend to share some common
psychological characteristics (e.g. explosive temperament or the ability to easily become "adrenalized”)
**** This extra motor unit recruitment from adrenaline explains why people tend to be stronger, more powerful, and faster in
competitive situations. For example, a powerlifter will tend to deadlift a lot more weight in a meet than in the gym. A basketball
player will tend to jump higher prior to a big game then in training. A sprinter will tend to run faster at a meet than in training etc.
So, with training, you increase your ability to fire motor units and coordinate
motor unit firing (rate coding). That's the major reason why when people first start
strength training they gain a whole lot of strength even in the complete absence of any
size improvements. Obviously, both motor unit recruitment and rate coding take place
when you produce high levels of force with your muscles and they are both involved in a
sprint. Why? Because you need to contract a lot of muscles, very quickly. Importantly,
the neural gains in motor unit recruitment and rate coding that occur through traditional
strength training have a global foundational transference and serve as a foundation for
neural gains occurring in speed-strength activities like a sprint.
Next, let's talk about how the nervous system and muscular system work together
to produce force. Obviously, before a muscle cell can contract, it has to be recruited, or
turned on, by the nervous system. Once it is recruited, it always fires with all of its
force. How much force a muscle cell generates when it fires is determined by how much
protein is contained in it, or how big it is. Some muscle cells are bigger than others, but
how much tension they generate will always be determined by how big they are. When
you add muscle size, the amount of protein contained in your muscle cells increases and
they (the individual muscle cells), get bigger. Thus, each individual muscle cell produces
more force than before. Thus, the tension generated by a given muscle, such as your
biceps, is determined by how many individual bicep muscle cells your nervous system
can turn on and coordinate during a movement, along with the total amount of protein
(size) contained in those muscle cells being recruited.
Strength = Muscle cell recruitment + Frequency of recruitment (rate coding)
+ total size of all the muscle cells being recruited
As an illustration, let’s say you have 2 athletes and you want to measure and
compare their strength in the arm curl. Both of them have 100 total muscle cells in the
bicep. Athlete B’s muscle cells are twice as big as Athlete A’s, yet athlete A is twice as
efficient at firing and coordinating the muscle cells in his bicep:

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Total
Muscle
Cells
Size of
the
Muscle
Cells
Total Tension
Generated if All
Muscle Cells
Were to Fire
Optimally
(potential
strength)
Total Muscle Cells
Athlete Can
Coordinate and
Recruit In the Arm
Curl (actual
strength)
Amount of
Tension
Generated –
(weight
lifted)
Athlete
A
100 Big 100 pounds 100 100 pounds
Athlete
B
100 Twice as
big
200 pounds 50 100 pounds
You can see that they generate the same amount of tension but through very
different means. Athlete A has to take full advantage of his muscular recruitment and
rate coding capacity to generate 100 pounds of tension while athlete B, due to his bigger
muscles, only has to use half of his neural capacity. Thus, athlete A has twice the neural
efficiency of athlete B, but athlete B has twice the muscular size of athlete A. The result
is a wash.
Most people are like Athlete B in that they’re not capable of utilizing all of their
muscles in a given task. The more efficient you get at coordinating and firing your
muscles, the better your neural efficiency gets. This is how weight lifters in the lighter
weight classes and people like gymnasts are able to get so strong for their bodyweight.**
They have extreme neural efficiency. Improvements in neural efficiency allow you to
bridge the gap between your potential strength and actual strength,*** and enable you to
utilize more of the muscle you have.
** From a speed perspective, there is definitely an advantage to having good neural efficiency.
*** The difference between your potential strength and actual strength is also called the strength deficit.
Fortunately, for the above athlete A, he is capable of utilizing all his strength
potential in this task, but unfortunately for athlete B, he is not. If he was he’d be
generating twice the tension of athlete A. In athlete B’s case, he could get significantly
stronger simply by boosting his ability to coordinate and utilize the muscle he already
has. He could do this without any increase in muscle size whatsoever. In contrast, the
only way athlete A will get stronger is if he gets a bigger arm.
So, the point to take home is that strength can improve either through increased
neural efficiency, increased muscle size, or both. When it comes to lifting, performing
sets of 3 and below primarily train the neural efficiency aspect. Sets of 6 and more
primarily boost the size aspect. Sets of 3-5 do both. There is a lot of crossover and you
can’t totally restrict gains to either neural or muscular, but that’s the basic gist of it.

22
Muscle Mass Increases For a Speed Athlete? – Blah!
Although a lot of people preach that a speed athlete should never seek size
increases, a cursory look around at the muscular development of fast athletes tells
otherwise. Look at the lower body hamstring and glute development of a typical fast
athlete in comparison to that of a normal person. Quite a difference isn’t there? Lots of
people are born with lots of muscle cells, good muscular development, and lots of
strength in certain areas of their body, such as the hamstrings and glutes. Others are
gonna have to work to add muscle in the right areas so that they can generate more force
from key muscle groups. In other words, if you naturally have an ass like a pancake and
hamstrings resembling toothpicks, you’re probably gonna have a hard time generating
much force by those muscle groups until you put some muscle on them, regardless of
how neurally efficient you are.

This Type of Build Ain’t Gonna Cut It! This is more like it!
A Simple Way To Get Strength Up
Honestly, one of the easiest and simplest routines to get strength up to optimal
levels is to embark on a twice-weekly squat or deadlift routine. Get in the gym on
Monday and work up to a max set of 4-6 reps. Get back in the gym on Thursday or
Friday and work up to another max set of 4-6 reps. Start at 4 reps with a given load.
Once you get 6 reps with that load increase the weight by 5% the following workout and
work back up to 6. Throw in an assistance exercise at the end (such as glute ham raises),
and that’s it. Nothing complicated about it. People lacking strength can typically
progress for months on end on a routine that simple.
Here’s another very simple approach: An acquaintance of mine wanted to get
stronger but admittedly told me he was too lazy to train consistently. All he did was put a
loaded bar in the garage. Once every day or two he'd go in there and pick the bar up off
the floor for a single or double. He progressively added weight over time. In 6 months
he'd put over 100 pounds on his deadlift and really didn't even have a routine...just a
loaded bar sitting in the garage that he'd make sure to lift occasionally. A simple set-up
like that may not be optimal for everyone, but increasing strength need not be overly
complicated.

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Basic Strength Training Principles
Considering that a complete athletic development program would include work on
mobility, recovery, strength, speed, plyometric, and conditioning work, there's obviously
quite a bit of knowledge that goes in to putting together a complete program. Now, when
you try to make sense of all the complicated and often conflicting information just on the
strength aspect of a program alone, is it any wonder why the process can be so
confusing? Honestly, you could start reading everything there is to read about strength
training and program design today, and 5 years from today you still might not feel totally
confident about what you're doing, simply because there are SO many ways of doing
things and none are really right or wrong. Methods are many but principles are few. All
that really matters is that you're applying progressive resistance (tension) to your
musculature. The body really does not know whether you're doing a higher-faster-sports,
westside, HIT, swiss ball, gymnastics, kettlebell, or any other system. It only knows
tension! Most training schemes do provide some stimulation and no routine is perfect.
Exercises and routines are just tools to improve performance. No tool is more
important then whether or not the tool gets the job done. If your car breaks down, it
doesn't matter if you use a rock, a crescent wrench, bailing wire, or an entire set of snap
on tools to fix it, the important thing is that it gets fixed. Raising performance or getting
stronger is the same way. I like to tell people to imagine yourself out on a deserted island
without any technology, tools, or anything. Strength stimulation for someone in this
situation would consist of dealing with everyday life (chasing prey, running away from
predators, lifting rocks to build a hut etc.) You could take an athlete today, put him on a
deserted island, and he could stimulate performance improvements without a single
modern day tool to work with or any specialized strength training knowledge - his life
would depend on it.
Having said that I'd like to give you some general principles or guidelines to
follow as far as frequency, volume, intensity, and content of strength work.
1. When it comes to lifting frequency, twice a week per muscle group or per lift works
just as good as 3 times per week. You don’t make gains when you train, you make gains
when you recover from the training that you do. Athletes engaged in lots of practice,
games, or other work can even progress just fine with an exposure of once per week.
2. When it comes to how much weight to use (intensity), strength responds best to loads
between 70 and 100% of your 1rm. That generally means you perform anywhere from 1
to 15 reps per set. The more advanced you become, the better you tend to respond to
lower reps and weights of at least 80% 1rm.
3. When it comes to volume, there really aren't any strict minimal or maximal volume
rules, but there are guidelines. The lower the reps, the more sets you'll want to perform.
If you don’t feel like counting sets, one simple way to monitor volume is by the drop-off
method. Work up to a hard maximal effort for a given number of reps. Let’s say you
work up to 100 pounds for 5 reps on a given exercise. Keep performing sets with the
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same weight until you can no longer get 5 reps. Simple but effective. This works
particularly well for pure neural-related strength gains. For neural and muscular (a.k.a.
size) related strength gains, which do require a fatigue component, you might work up to
a hard effort and stop when your performance drops off by more than a couple of reps.
So, using the above example of working up to a hard set of 100 pounds for 5 reps, you’d
continue to perform sets until you could only perform 3 reps.
4. When it comes to content, compound multi-joint movements are superior to isolation
movements. One exercise per major muscle group is generally sufficient.
5. When it comes to percentages, I generally recommend basing your loads on effort
rather then percentages. In other words, if a scheme calls for you to do sets of 5, instead
of worrying about what percentage to follow, simply work with a weight that allows you
to complete about 5 reps in good form and increase weight when you can.
6. As far as periodization goes, people that have been training for a while tend to note
slightly better gains by varying the sets and reps on a weekly basis in a step type loading
approach. You slightly increase or cycle the load up and down for several weeks then
take a step back to allow recovery to take place. Once every 3 to 6 weeks you'll generally
want to have an "easy" or unloading week, where you reduce the volume by about 40 to
50%. I prefer a 4-week cycle for most athletes. Generally speaking, the set and rep
scheme will vary depending on the level of athlete.
A weekly set and rep scheme for a beginner or intermediate might look like this:
Week 1: 3x6
Week 2: 4x5
Week 3: 5x4
Week 4: 3x4
A stronger more advanced athlete might follow something like this:
Week 1: 4x3
Week 2: 5x3
Week 3: 6x2
Week 4: 3x3 (easy)
There are countless ways to set things up based on this principal of step type loading,
undulating periodization, or whatever you want to call it, but the general theme is a
variance in sets and reps. I prefer to increase the weight and fluctuate the volume on a
25
weekly basis but there are hundreds of ways of approaching it. A simple cookie cutter
whole body program for high school athletes might follow a scheme like this:
Monday - Back Squat, Bench Press, Pullup
Wednesday – Power Clean, Trap Bar Deadlift
Friday – Front Squat, Incline Bench, Pullup
Week 1: 3 x 6
Week 2: 5 x 5
Week 3: 5 x 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
Week 4: 3 x 3
Not perfect, but gets the job done. Just keep in mind, regardless of what you do
or how you go about doing it, when it comes to building strength, you're increasing your
ability to exert force. All that requires is some form of tension. There are plenty of tools
at your disposal. As I will talk about later on, at times you can also benefit from fancy
specialty exercises such as sled pulls, truck pushes, and the like.
Strength and Its Relationship To Power, Strength Expression,
and Rate of Force Development
You can use terms like strength expression and rate of force development
interchangeably. In the big scheme of things they pretty much mean the same thing,
which is the ability to quickly demonstrate strength. You can basically think of them as
the speed aspect of power and explosiveness. Since explosiveness (power) is a function
of force and speed (force x speed), and sprinting is a display of explosiveness, often just
increasing the force potential, or strength, of the appropriate muscles, will provide a
world of improvement.
For example, if a strength score for an athlete was 2, and the athlete's speed score was
also 2, his explosiveness rating would be 4:
2(speed) x 2(strength) = 4 (explosiveness)
Doubling the athlete’s strength would double his explosiveness:
2(speed) x 4(strength) = 8 (explosiveness)
Doubling the athlete’s speed without altering strength would also double his
explosiveness: **
4(speed) x 2(strength) = 8(explosiveness)
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**This is really a pretty unrealistic example because the speed part of the equation is under a lot more genetic control than the
strength part. This is why you never see someone double or triple the absolute speed they can move their hands or feet through the
air, yet it’s not at all uncommon to see them double their strength on basic movements (bench press, squat etc.).
If the same athlete made a 50 percent gain in both speed and strength his explosiveness
rating would be:
3(speed) x 3(strength) = 9 (explosiveness)
So, it should be obvious an increase in explosiveness (horsepower), and thus running
speed, will result if you either increase the baseline levels of strength, the speed at which
you demonstrate strength, or both.
**Relative to this example you increase strength anytime you increase the poundages of key exercises like deadlifts and squats. You
increase speed anytime you increase the ability to express that strength.
So, basically there are 3 ways to improve explosiveness. You can:
1. Focus more on the speed side of the equation. Here you’re training the nervous system
to ultimately produce faster contractions. You’re bridging the gap between the amount of
total force you can exert regardless of speed, (or the amount of strength you have), and
the amount of that force you can display at high speeds. ** Examples are: sprints,
plyometric exercises, loadless (bodyweight) exercises, medicine ball tosses, sled sprints,
Olympic lifts, and weight training using 60% of your max or less performed with great
acceleration.
** The difference between the amount of strength you have and the amount of strength you can display at high speeds is also
known as the explosive strength deficit.
2. You can also improve explosiveness through focusing on the strength side of the
equation. Here you’re simply improving the raw strength you have. This could take the
form of 2 general approaches. They are:
A: Using 80-90% of your max in a given exercise for multiple sets of low repetitions in
an effort to improve neural efficiency. (E.g. 3-5 sets of 2-3 reps)
B: Using 60-80% of your max for higher reps in an effort to induce muscle growth. (E.g.
3-4 sets of 8-10 reps)
3. You can do both.
Now, with so many options to choose from, which approach would be optimal for
you? It's really quite simple. The optimal approach requires either zeroing in on your
weak area, whether it’s raw strength or the speed at which you display strength, while
maintaining the other, or improving them both simultaneously.
Obviously, if both factors can be improved with a specific routine it would be
more efficient than just improving one aspect.
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So, how can you improve the speed at which you display strength while
simultaneously getting stronger? Well, the intent to contract explosively provides a high
velocity specific effect and improves neural efficiency. When you lift heavy loads to
improve your strength, the resistance may move fairly slowly, yet as long as some inìcnì inìcnì inìcnì inìcnì
to move fairly explosively is there, the explosive nature of the contraction results in
improvements in both maximal strength and rate of force development. Thus you get the
best of both worlds.
Best Exercises?
When it comes to exercise choice, I prefer to keep it simple. Some of the best
exercises for an athlete interested in speed development include general strengthening
exercises such as squats, deadlifts, lunges, glute-ham raises, leg curls, romanian deadlifts,
reverse hyperextensions, and split squats. More specific explosive strength exercises
such as speed squats and jump squats can also be used. The above exercises should be
performed with a controlled lowering phase and some emphasis on accelerating through
the concentric phase of the movement.

Additionally, we can also utilize high velocity movements that allow us to zero in
on the speed part of explosive strength. Plyometric drills along with sprinting itself fit
the bill here.
“Slow” Strength Training Movements vs “Fast” Strength
Training Movements
One debate that often arises between coaches and athletes is whether basic heavy
strength training movements such as squats and deadlifts with heavy (80% + loads) are
superior or inferior to lighter weight, high speed strength training movements (also called
power movements) such as olympic lifts, speed squats, jump squats etc. Really, there is
no doubt that the heavy strength training movements are far superior when it comes to
increasing strength. The only real way to increase baseline levels of strength is to lift a
fairly heavy load (70-100% of 1 rep max). When lifting such a load, the weight does not
move very fast, because it is obviously too heavy to move all that fast.
However, some say, “Well, since our objective is to move fast on the field, we
must move fast when we train! This leads some to favor using loads with 20-60% of their
1 rep max on basic exercises such as squats and performing the lifts with great speed.**
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This is otherwise known as power, or explosive strength training. This type of training
can help an athlete learn to express his strength more quickly, yet before an athlete can
express strength, he has to have some strength to express, which is one reason why one
who hasn't achieved a minimal level of strength should focus on the heavy basics in the
weight room, and for the most part, stay away from the lighter weight high speed
variations.
** The Olympic lifts such as the power clean and snatch are inherently high-speed power movements so one need not train with
lighter percentages on these lifts to be in the “power- training” zone. Even an 80-90% snatch or clean, although heavy, still must be
performed fast or it simply won’t go up!
Another way of looking at it is to think of basic strength as the size of an engine
and explosive strength, power, rate of force development etc. as the modifications you
can make to that engine to make it run faster, or express its horsepower better. You can
make a smaller motor run faster by boring out the cylinders, inserting high tech spark
plugs, running special fuel, and doing a ton of other high tech things. However, if you
don't have a big enough motor to start with in the first place, you can do all the
modifications you want but it won't do you any good! A weak athlete choosing lots of
high speed lighter weight training movements over basic strength movements would be
like someone trying to race a stock issue Honda Civic against F-1 race cars thinking he
could get his Honda as fast as the F-1 cars by simply modifying the engine! There's
simply not enough basic horsepower to compete, regardless of what modifications are
made. Therefore, it's much more economical for an athlete to spend the time laying down
a strength foundation before attempting to get overly "cute" in the weight room trying to
better express strength that he doesn’t even have.
What's also debatable is whether or not performing lighter weight exercises such
as olympic lifts, speed squats, and jump squats can offer an athlete any extra ability to
express his strength that he wouldn't get from simply participating in sport. Since
sporting movements are already faster than any explosive movements that can be
performed in the weight room and these activities by themselves will also develop the
speed side of the explosive power equation, what's the point of trying to work on learning
to express strength better in the weight room? Why not just take the straight line
approach and build the size and horsepower of the motor in the weight room and let the
on-field activities such as sprinting, agility, plyometric work etc. take care of the
conversion and modifications? Since movements like sprinting, jumping, agility work,
and plyometrics are inherently performed very fast and already help us express strength
quicker, is there any need for specific explosive work in the weight room if one is
engaging in these activities? Some say yes and some say no. It's an interesting
argument.
So what Does Kelly Say?
Although I often do recommend some explosive weight room training like jump
squats, lighter box squats, and Olympic lifts, if I had to choose one or the other, I tend to
lean more towards the camp that says the weight room should serve as a place to develop
strength while the sport and other activities more closely resembling it (sprinting,
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plyometrics, etc.) should be used as the place where the athlete teaches his system how to
demonstrate that strength quicker. In other words, if you’re strong but have a hard time
expressing your strength in the sprint in my opinion the best thing you can do to gain that
ability is engage in sprinting type activities. If you need to learn to express your strength
better in the jump the single best thing you can do is jump. If you’re a football player
and you wanna be a hitting machine get very strong relative to your bodyweight and
master the art of hitting. Nothing really complicated about it.
Having said that, from a loading standpoint, there is some value in performing
specific explosive variations in the weight room. One of the advantages is that the
explosive variations are inherently less draining then heavier movements and offer an
athlete a chance to stimulate the body without causing excessive drain. Heavy strength
training induces a lot of neuromuscular fatigue and can take quite a bit of time to recover
from. The stronger an individual is, the more fatigue he tends to induce from a heavy
session. A very strong athlete might come in the gym on a Monday, perform a heavy
squat ordeadlift session, and might not be able to repeat and improve upon that session
again until the following Monday. However, after that heavy Monday workout he could
probably get back in the gym on Thursday or Friday and do a workout consisting of
something like lighter speed squats with 50-60% of his 1 rep max. That would allow him
to get some stimulation on his body while still allowing recovery to take place. The
following Monday he'd be ready to tackle his heavy workout again.
In addition, working with the power movements can allow us to get some speed
and acceleration work in during times of the year when we might not be out on our feet
much working on those things. For example, a sprinter who lives in the north might use
movements like hang cleans and jump squats with a bit more regularity during the dead
of the winter, because chances are he’s gonna be snowed in and not able to get out on his
feet. These movements will allow him to stimulate his nervous system in a high-velocity
manner and help him avoid any explosive type detraining that takes place.
Strength Work and Fatigue…..
Additionally, when an athlete is really working to peak, or demonstrate, his
explosiveness, he wants to be as fresh as possible. As mentioned, the heavier strength
movements can cause a lot of neuromuscular fatigue and that fatigue can temporarily
mask his fitness state. When an athlete really wants to focus on his speed and
explosiveness he can replace some of the heavier strength movements with lighter more
explosive variations so that he can remove some fatigue. That would allow him to really
demonstrate his true explosiveness. If an athlete had an important upcoming testing or
timing date somewhere between 1-4 weeks prior to the test date I'd taper the strength
training down to a low maintenance level (a couple of heavy sets of 3 once per week) and
replace that volume with either more explosive weight room work (speed squats, jump
squats, o-lifts etc.) or more specific on-field activity (plyometrics, sprints, etc.).
An athlete that is already strong but who really needs lots of work on speed and
movement efficiency work could also benefit from less heavy weight training for the
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same reason. By not creating excessive fatigue he'd be better able to direct his energy
towards improving those qualities.
Those Squats Make Me Feel Slow……
The issue of fatigue is also one reason why people may not always feel as
explosive or springy when they're engaging in a lot of strength training, yet as soon as
they reduce the volume of strength work they remove a lot of that fatigue and suddenly
VOILA...they're running on water and jumping out of the gym! They got a lot stronger
and were getting more explosive from the strength training, they just weren’t able to
properly display that explosiveness until they removed some of the fatigue. Fatigue
masks fitness. They didn’t get faster by eliminating the squats, they got faster by
removing the fatigue the squats were creating in their legs. Sometimes you have to
temporarily take a step back in order to take a step forward.
The take-home point is this: If you have to choose one or the other, when you’re
in the weight room, always go with the basic heavy strength training movements for reps
of 8 or less. You can't fire a cannon out of a canoe and make sure you have a good
foundation in place and a base of horsepower to display before you get too cute and
worry about modifying that horsepower.
Improving Stride Rate
I touched on stride rate earlier and noted that there is a strong genetic component
regarding how fast your legs move. There is also an important quality involved in how
much force you can produce per foot-strike when your legs are moving at a very rapid
rate. Why is it that some people can accelerate very quickly and are very fast over short
distances but don’t have great top speed? Why is it that some people have great top
speed but don’t accelerate real well? Basically, some people are better at creating force
at high speeds while others are better at creating force at slower speeds. One of the
things we can do to help elucidate this concept is look at research that compares sprinting
speeds to the vertical jump.
Research has shown a strong correlation between maximal top sprinting speed
and the ratio between vertical jump height and ground contact times during the execution
of the vertical jump. You might want to read that line again because I know it sounds
confusing. Basically what the research demonstrates is this: Athletes who could jump
the highest with the shortest ground contact times during their amortization phase (switch
from down to up at the plant), typically had greater top running speeds. Therefore, those
who spend less time on the ground when they jump, also tend to run at peak higher
velocities.
Some athletes might have a great vertical jump, yet they develop their power from
a deeper knee bend and longer amortization phase. These athletes may have great
acceleration abilities, but not a great top speed when they run.
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How does this relate to what I said about some people being better at creating
force at high speeds while others are better at applying force at slower speeds? Well,
during the acceleration phase of a sprint, the feet stay in contact with the ground longer,
which allows people more time to utilize their leg strength. For overall top speed, you
must be able to train yourself to apply force quicker to enhance the other half of the speed
equation - that being stride rate. Having good stride rate is obviously more important as
one reaches tops speed. When running at top speed an athlete maintains speed by
continually applying great forces with quick limb movements.
So how do we improve stride rate? Well, as noted, the bad thing about improving
stride rate is that it does have a significant genetic component. However, like anything
else, genetics may be a big factor, but not the only factor. Stride rate can be improved to
a good extent by the same process that improves stride length. Think about it. The
harder you bounce a basketball against the court, the faster the basketball comes back at
you during the rebound phase. The more force you put into the ground during a foot-
strike and the more proficient you are at absorbing that force, the faster and easier your
foot rebounds off the ground. So not only can improving ground reaction force improve
your stride length, it can also improve your stride rate.
You can also engage in specific short response plyometric drills. Short response
means that the time your feet spend on the ground in these drills is very quick, around
100-150 milliseconds. Probably the best short response plyometric drill is the act of
sprinting itself. Accelerating to top speed and holding that top speed is likely the best
plyometric drill there is for training short response time, which can lead to an
improvement in stride rate. A flying 20-yard dash is an example of a good short
response reactive drill. Here you accelerate to top speed and try to hold top speed for 20
yards.
Over-speed training, which calls for using devices such as treadmills, decline
running, and elastic tubing to move you at speeds exceeding your normal maximum
speed is often advertised as an excellent method to increase stride rate, yet it also may
cause a deterioration in running technique. Therefore, I don’t recommend it. The
world’s best sprinters don’t use these techniques and I wouldn’t recommend you use
them either. Now, having said all that, as it turns out, having a great stride rate vnv a
great top speed are not all that important for improving something like a 40-yard dash
anyway. To understand why, let’s take a look at the differences between top speed and
acceleration.
Top Speed vs Acceleration
In a sprint, force can either be primarily generated by the muscles, or it can be
generated primarily by the tendons. When force is generated by the muscles, we call this
.oìvnìv·, c_¡ìo.i.c {o·.c .oìvnìv·, c_¡ìo.i.c {o·.c .oìvnìv·, c_¡ìo.i.c {o·.c .oìvnìv·, c_¡ìo.i.c {o·.c. When the force is primarily generated by the tendons, we call this
in.oìvnìv·, ·cv.ìi.c {o·.c in.oìvnìv·, ·cv.ìi.c {o·.c in.oìvnìv·, ·cv.ìi.c {o·.c in.oìvnìv·, ·cv.ìi.c {o·.c. **
Voluntary explosive force=force generated by the muscles
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Involuntary reactive force=force generated by the tendons
**We also call involuntary force, plyometric force or reactive strength
The difference between the 2 is fairly easy to comprehend. One is voluntary,
which basically means we have to work for it. The other is involuntary, which basically
means it comes for free. Crouch down into a quarter squat, pause for 3 seconds, and
jump as high as you can. Next, jump like you normally would (stand tall and execute a
quick countermovement and jump). Why is it harder to jump from the pause position?
Because all the force you generate is pure voluntary muscular force. Why can you get
higher by using a quick countermovement? Because when you perform your quick
countermovement you stretch the tendons and they act like rubber bands giving you extra
involuntary reactive force. Did you have to try any harder to generate that extra force?
No, it came entirely for free. Now, say you take a big running start and jump. You get
even higher don’t you? That’s because by moving into your jump at a good rate of speed
you gain even more involuntary reactive force then normal. Simple concept.
Let’s talk about how this relates to sprinting: The greater the movement speed
and the less time your feet spend on the ground the more involuntary reactive force tends
to dominate. Therefore, the start of a sprint is nearly all voluntary explosive strength
while sprinting at top speed is nearly all involuntary reactive force.
At the start of a race, when you’re accelerating, you’re not gonna be moving as
fast as you are when you reach top speed. Not exactly an observation worthy of a nobel
prize but true nonetheless. Your feet are gonna be on the ground longer. Thus, you have
more time to plant your feet, push, and generate voluntary force. Nothing too
complicated about that. For this reason, your pound per pound strength (relative
strength) is much more important at the start of the race than it is once top speed is
reached. With the shorter ground contact times inherent to top speed sprinting, most of
the force generated is involuntary reactive force generated by the tendons.
As you accelerate and go faster the length of time you spend on the ground
naturally diminishes so your window, or time you have to apply force, decreases. At the
beginning of a race your feet might be on the ground .2 seconds. At top speed the foot
might be on the ground .1 seconds (1 tenth of a second). Any decent athlete will spend
very, very, little time on the ground when they hit top speed. A good 100-meter sprinter
will typically reach top speed at around 50-60 meters. An average athlete might reach
top speed at 30-40 meters.
Now pay attention here: Individual ability for an athlete to v..cìc·vìc v..cìc·vìc v..cìc·vìc v..cìc·vìc to their top
speed, what their ìo¡ .¡ccv ìo¡ .¡ccv ìo¡ .¡ccv ìo¡ .¡ccv is once it is reached, and their ability to noìv noìv noìv noìv that top speed, can
vary quite a bit between athletes. This can be exemplified by looking at a shot putter or
Olympic lifter. These athletes can develop great power, typically jump high, accelerate
very quickly, and they are very fast over short distances. However, they may not have a
high top sprinting speed or ability to hold that speed over distances. This can also work
the other way. An athlete may have a very good top speed yet not be able to accelerate to
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that top speed very quickly. Generally speaking, the stronger an athlete is relative to his
bodyweight, the faster he will be over short distances. The more gifted an athlete is in
the ideal sprinting structure department, the more potential he has for a great top speed.
In the case of something like a 40-yard dash, it is definitely an event of short
distance and acceleration, so your ability to be extremely efficient applying force with
very short ground contact times and having a great top speed is not nearly as important as
it is if you were running a distance of 60-100 meters. Because of this, relative body
strength, voluntary explosive strength, and acceleration ability** are more important in
a 40 yard dash then they might be in a 100 meter dash, where the ability to have a high
top speed and generate lots of involuntary reactive force becomes more important!
Again, this is also why many athletes can be competitive in short distances but not long.
They lack the quick natural reflexive ability demanded by that short ground contact times
that are inherent when speed increases – a lot of that is also dependent upon body
structure (limb lengths and tendon lengths).
**All of these are highly trainable qualities
In conclusion, greater acceleration and speed can be accomplished by improving
relative strength and rate of force development. Relative and explosive strength can be
developed in the weight room by lifting heavy weights with intense effort. You can get
significantly faster by becoming stronger. High-speed strength adaptations can be
achieved with the intent to contract explosively. In other words, the muscle can become
more powerful (force x speed) even if the limbs move fairly slowly due to the inertia of a
heavy weight.
Obviously, you must always take your training improvements out to the track or
field and refine the co-ordination needed to move as efficiently as possible. Once a
foundation of strength, explosiveness, and acceleration is in place, stride rate can be
improved by decreasing contact time by engaging in specific practice running at top
speed.
Sprinting Technique
No two athletes run exactly the same way however, sprinting mechanics should
remain relatively the same for all athletes. Running is instinctive so if you try to make
big changes to your technique, or run like a robot, your performance will probably be less
than optimal. As an athlete, you must be aware of what is natural and what is unnatural.
If you are unaware of this difference your voluntary effort to dramatically change
technique can slow you down. Often athletes feel that they have to bear down and stay
low and pull in order to run fast. The scientific analysis of running suggests just the
opposite. Reaching maximum speed depends greatly upon how relaxed you can keep
your body in a naturally upright position. The human body is much better at pushing
than pulling, therefore, the suggestion to stay low and pull prevents maximum speed.
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If you want to run faster, remember that sprinting is primarily a reflexive action
against the ground. When your foot makes contact with the ground, it must be directly
under your body’s center of gravity. Therefore, you shouldn’t reach or pull excessively.
When the foot makes contact with the ground, it will be moving slightly backward yet the
feel should be of pushing nearly straight down.
If you increase your natural reaction forces against the ground you will inherently
drive the body’s center of mass further forward which lengthens the stride naturally. If
you were to think to yourself, “Ok I’m really gonna try to apply a lot of force and I’m
gonna try to cover as much ground as possible”, your hips will lower and your lead foot
will just end up landing too far out in front of your body ahead of your center of gravity.
At the same time, your trail leg will flail way behind you. This is known as over-striding
and it will cause a braking effect resulting in a loss of speed. Along these same lines,
trying to force a greater stride frequency by consciously taking quicker steps will only
produce a shorter stride length and result in a loss of speed. You need to learn to stay
relaxed and run and let your body take its natural course.
Relax and Let It Happen……..
According to world famous sprint coach Charlie Francis, sprinting is a primitive
hindbrain reflexive activity. Remember what I was saying about primal movements.
You can’t try to turn the sprint stride into a calculus equation. You can anticipate the
ground contact phase and prepare your body ahead of time, yet if you try to voluntarily
do anything during the ground contact phase itself, you will just mess everything up.
This becomes more important the further into a sprint you go.
You can often get away with bad mechanics during the initial acceleration phase
which is one reason why a lot of athletes who don't do any sprinting can still be fast out
of the gate. Yet get past 20-30 yards out and you'll run into problems.
Let me give you an example that coach Francis uses to describe what I see
happening with a lot of people. Have you ever ridden a scooter? Imagine taking off on a
scooter. As you accelerate you reach ahead with your foot, bend the knee of your plant
leg, dig in, and pull. However, what happens if you try to do this once you get going at a
really good clip? Once you reach a certain speed you just slow yourself down by trying to
grab and "dig in". Once you’re going at a decent clip on the scooter the only way to go
faster is by applying very short and quick strokes down and back into the pavement.
Sprinting is the same way. The faster you try to go, and the more you try to reach
and push, the worse your mechanics get.
A Few Simple Cues
After giving this much thought and observation, I now use just a few very simple
cues. They are smooth, up, over, and down.
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A: Smooth stands for smooth on the feet. In order to be smooth you can't be
back on your heels. Get someone to watch or record you sprinting normally. Make sure
you're striking the ground with the front half or the balls of your feet and not the heels. If
you’re heel-striking, you’ll hear it. This will also help to cure problems with over-
striding.
B: Up and over- When your plant foot comes off the ground (recovers), pull your
knee through and allow the foot of your off leg to come up and over your support leg at a
height just below the knee of the support leg. When your foot comes off the ground, the
foot itself should be point down, but the big toe should be pulled up.
C: Is Down. When you go to strike the ground, simply push down directly under
your center of gravity at the same angle as the upper body lean. Instead of trying to do
something overly dramatic like reaching out, pulling back, or bearing down, just focus on
standing tall and pushing down into the ground with each stride. There is obviously some
horizontal backward force that occurs in the sprint. If the force was only vertical you
would only go up. However, the backward forces will be there naturally without any
deliberate attempt to emphasize them. The proper backward action happens over such a
short period of time that it can barely be sensed, any attempt to emphasize the backward
motion will result in a breakdown of form.

Up and Over
If a person just does those simple things everything else will pretty much take
care of itself and the stride will resemble a nice and tight circle. Staying on the balls of
the feet inherently will keep the hips elevated and eliminate over-striding and heel
striking. Pushing down directly under the center of gravity will do the same. Allowing the
off foot to come up towards the support knee will cure an assortment of other common
mechanical problems.
One drill I like to use to help drive home basic technique is known as the wall
slide. Simply get on the balls of the feet and take natural strides up and down like a
piston.
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The Stride Cycle
Now that I’ve given you the cues, let’s talk a minute about the specifics of what
those cues are designed to address. During your running stride, your leg cycles through
three different phases: the drive phase, when the foot is in contact with the ground; the
recovery phase, when the leg swings from the hip while the foot clears the ground; and
the support phase, when your weight is on the entire foot.

During the drive phase, the power comes from a pushing action off the ball of the
foot. Recall that stride length is the result of ground reaction forces. The goal of the
drive phase is to create the maximum reaction force off the ground. The ball of the foot
is the only part of the foot capable of creating an efficient and powerful push. Some
people believe the pushing action should come from the toes. However, pushing from the
toes reduces both power and stability and slows the runner.

Getting Full Extension

As you drive off the ball of your foot, your plant leg should extend fully with each
stride so that you don’t chop your stride short. ** Full extension should happen
automatically. Although the movement is more of a push than a pull, it’s actually more
of a natural plant rather than a push. Your focus should only be on absorbing the ground
reaction force. If you intentionally try and/or think about pushing, you’ll just end up
lowering your center of gravity and bending your plant leg excessively so that you can
create more momentum to push with. This is a big mistake and is something that many
athletes do. It tends to eliminate the posterior chain from the movement and kills
involuntary ground “reaction” forces and turns them into voluntary “push” forces. Or in
other words, it means you’re muscling the movement.

** Getting full extension is something many young athletes may not be able to do initially because they’re not strong enough in key
muscle groups.



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Trying to muscle a sprint will cut down on your stride length and royally screw up
your technique. Watch how people run. Watch how straight the plant leg is at ground
contact and watch if it extends fully with each stride. If there is a lack of full extension,
the athlete is either too weak or he’s under utilizing the hamstrings and over utilizing the
quadriceps. By relaxing and getting full extension, the involuntary muscle activation in
the hamstrings is 120-140% of what it is with regular voluntary effort. (Wiemann, Tidow,
1995) If you try to push or pull too much, your hips will lower and this makes it about
impossible to naturally react against the ground - Instead of reacting you'll be pushing.
This is why struggling to go faster doesn't do any good and will in fact slow you down!

Stand straight up with your feet shoulder width apart. Lift one knee up, keep your
chest high, keep your plant leg completely straight, and rise up on the ball of your plant
foot. Do you feel your hamstring contract? Now do the same thing but bend the knee of
your plant leg. Do you feel your quadriceps and glutes? Ideally, you want to emphasize
the first position. Keep your hips high and get that full extension of the plant leg with
each stride. During the acceleration phase of a race you don’t want to try to rise up into
the tall position too quickly, but even at the very start you want to get a full extension.

What follows are some illustrations of full and partial extension:


minor lack of full extension (weak hamstrings) good extension of the plant leg



Hips too low, plant leg bent excessively, collapsing heels- too much “voluntary pushing”


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Good hip height – good “reaction” against the ground – good engagement of the posterior
chain

Recovery Phase

During the recovery phase the knee joint closes and the swing foot cycles through
as it comes close to the body. As the knee joint opens and the swing leg begins to
straighten, the foot comes closer to the ground in preparation for the support phase. An
important point to remember about the recovery phase is that you should not reach for
the ground or try to force a stamping action. The leg should remain relaxed and you
should allow the foot to naturally strike the ground. You shouldn’t focus on thrusting the
knees high or any other exaggerated movement. Just swing the ankle of the swing leg up
towards the knee of the support leg, step over, and down.

Arm Action

Arm action in sprinting is important when trying to develop an efficient stride.
The arms work in opposition to the legs, with the right arm and left leg coming forward
as the left arm and right leg go backward and vice versa. You should pump the arms with
the emphasis on the down stroke. The shoulders should be as relaxed as possible with the
swing coming from the shoulder joint. The shoulders should stay square to the direction
of the run. The swing should be strong but relaxed. The hands should also be relaxed.
The elbows should stay close to the body. Attempts to keep the elbows away from the
body will prevent relaxation of the shoulders and limit efficient running mechanics. The
arm action in sprinting is never forced or tense. If you have problems relaxing one thing
you can do is hold a potato chip in each hand as you run. If you smash the chips you
know you’re tightening up too much.


The Feet

During the support phase the foot makes the initial contact with the ground on the
ball of the foot. The weight of the body is then supported at a point that varies according
to how fast you’re going. The faster the speed, the higher the contact point on the ball of
the foot. Striking the ground first with this part of the foot serves to maximize speed but
takes great energy. At a slower speed, jogging for example, the contact point moves
toward the rear of the foot between the arch and heel. At all running speeds, the support
phase begins with a slight load on the support foot that then rides onto the full sole.
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When running at full speed, the feeling should be that of running up on the balls of the
feet, but the heel can and often does make a brief contact with the ground. It is difficult if
not impossible to reach maximum speed by consciously running way up on your toes.


Heel Running Vs Toe Running

Now, having said that, I would like to introduce the concept of what I call heel
running vs that of toe running. When I talk about some of the aforementioned problems
like lack of extension, this is a big part of that. Watch fast people run and watch slow
people run and note the differences. One thing you'll probably notice is that slow people
have a tendency to run back on their heels and they make a lot of noise when they run.
Slap, slap, slap. Fast people appear as if they’re running more up on the balls of their feet
and are typically as smooth and quiet as a butterfly. They naturally get full extension and
react off the ground with each footstrike - like a rock skipping across water.

Function Follows Form

One of the major things that causes the differences is muscle balance. With
sprinting, function largely tends to follow form. In other words, sprinting technique is
largely dependent upon what muscles are strong and what muscles are weak. A lot of
people have strength but they don't have balanced strength. They're strong in the wrong
muscle groups, weak in the wrong muscle groups, and their running technique tends to
reflect that. The main contributors to the sprint stride are the muscles of the quadriceps,
glutes, and hamstrings. For technique and function to be optimal, the sprint stride should
be posterior chain dominant. This means the prime movers should be the muscles of the
glutes and hamstrings. A lot of people think the feet and calves are really important for
all athletes, but the hips are what produce force. When the hips and hamstrings are the
prime movers, the stride tends to be characterized by the sprinter being nice and smooth
up on the balls of his feet with little knee bend at impact and without the appearance of
lots of bending and pushing. His feet will tend to strike the ground right under his center
of gravity. In contrast, when the quadriceps are excessively dominant or when the
posterior chain is weak, the stride tends to be characterized by being back on the heels
with lots of knee bend, lots of noise, and lots of pushing. People will bend their knees and
get back on their heels in an effort to utilize their stronger quadriceps. They’ll also tend
to reach out in front of their body with their plant leg and strike on their heels.

Take a group of athletes, get behind them, and simply watch them take off in a
sprint. You can immediately tell which ones are which. A quadricep dominant sprint
stride makes it difficult to sprint effectively particularly at top speeds. Therefore, in my
opinion one should seek a posterior chain dominant sprint cycle.

Although it's difficult to get really accurate measures when assessing the balance
between the quadriceps vs the posterior chain, it's probably safe to assume the average
trainee has a ratio of about 70% quadricep to 30% hamstring strength ratio. This means
the quadriceps are twice as strong as the hamstrings. Contrast this to elite sprinters, who
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may lean towards a 60:40 hamstring to quadricep ratio. One simple way you can help
assess your balance in this department is to compare your standing broad jump to a single
leg triple jump. First measure your normal standing broad jump. Next, stand on one leg
and execute 3 consecutive single leg jumps. The total distance of the 3 jumps should be
approaching 2.5 to 3 times the distance of your standing broad jump.

Another assessment you can do is check the mobility of the quadriceps and rectus
femoris. I have noticed one with excessively dominant quadriceps will tend to be very
tight in these areas.** The rectus femoris is the muscle that attaches to your hip and runs
straight down the middle of your thigh.

Rectus femoris

One simple way you can check mobility in this area is just reach back, grab your
heel and pull it up to the butt. If the quads or rectus femoris are overly tight, pulling the
heel up to the glute will often be difficult.

Good quadriceps/rectus femoris flexibility


Tight Quadriceps/rectus femoris (over-dominant quads)


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Someone with this problem will really need to stretch the quads and rectus
femoris at least twice a day for 20 seconds, utilize plenty of dynamic stretches, and get
away from any quadricep dominant activity. ***

**A recent study also indicated that having excessively tight quadriceps and rectus femoris was the best predictor of knee pain.

*** Dynamic stretching will be covered further along in this manual.

Quad/RF stretch


How do we get a dominant posterior chain and how does a person become
excessively quad dominant in the first place? Well, the quadriceps can NEVER be too
strong, they can only be too strong for the other muscle groups. The quadriceps are
important, particularly for the start of a sprint. However, if a person is either born with
dominant quadriceps or does lots of squatting to the exclusion of all else they will often
tend to develop some of these problems. One with excessively strong and tight
quadriceps, along with weak hamstrings, should, in my opinion, avoid most squat
variations and use either deadlift variations or wide stance box squats as foundational
strength training movements. ***


Box Squat

*** The box squat is much more of a glute and hamstring dominant movement.

What about people who don’t have tight quadriceps but do appear to have a weak
posterior chain? That’s a group that will actually include the large majority of young
athletes. Fortunately, that problem will remedy itself with time and proper training as I
lay out in this manual. What about everyone else? Just make sure you ALWAYS
prioritize hamstrings and glutes in your training. The best exercise for the glutes is the
basic barbell squat, yet it's also the best exercise for the quadriceps. There's nothing
wrong with developing strong quadriceps, you just gotta make sure the hamstrings stay in
balance and mobility is maintained in the quads and rectus femoris. Glute ham raises, leg
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curls, pull throughs, reverse hyper-extensions, good mornings, and sled drags, are all
effective hamstring exercises and should be utilized.

“Heavy” Feet

If a person has good muscle balance and flexibility and they’re still heavy on their
feet they might just have problems with their footwork and may need to spend some time
performing drills specifically designed to get them more coordinated and fluid on their
feet. You can have a car with the most powerful motor in the world, yet if it’s got flat
tires it’s not going anywhere! The same thing goes with an athlete and his feet. You can
be a PERFECT athlete from the ankles up but your feet are what get power into the
ground. One thing that can cause this problem is today’s popular footwear. Many
athletes wear shoes that are too heavy, too big, and too supportive for them ever to learn
to move efficiently on their feet. Although shoe companies probably mean well, science
has determined that highly supportive footwear actually hinders performance.
Additionally, there is actually more stress absorbed into the foot with shoes then without.
The quietest and smoothest athlete I ever saw on his feet was a guy who grew up one of
15 children in a poor rural area in Louisiana. He was so smooth and quiet on his feet he
could run full speed across nails and you wouldn’t hear a thing. I asked him how he got
so light on his feet and he replied, “Oh, when I was growing up I never had shoes so I just
learned to live without them. In fact I still don’t like wearing them.” Point taken.

** Some shoe companies have now caught on to this problem and are now offering “functional” footwear that come fairly
close to mimicking bare feet. The Nike “Free” is an example of such a shoe.

One other thing that can contribute to heavy feet is lack of mobility in the calf
region. Put your hands straight out in front of you with your feet shoulder width apart
and squat. If your heels come up off the ground your calves are tight. If that’s the case I
recommend, at the very least, you stretch your calves morning and night for 20 seconds.

A sample Calf Stretch



Of course, the most obvious thing that can cause heavy feet is lack of simple
movement efficiency and coordination. In today’s day and age kids and athletes tend to
spend too much time sitting around on the computer and playing Madden instead of being
outside moving around playing games. There are no longer any physical education
43
classes in most elementary schools. The result is a world chock full of heavy-footed
athletes who have never learned how to carry out basic movement patterns on their feet.
Activities like hopscotch and jump rope that were commonplace in every elementary
school 15 years ago are now almost instinct. If you think you need specific work on
getting lighter on your feet it’s really simple to fix. Work on getting more proficient up
on the balls of your feet!! Here’s a sample drill:

Simply draw a line on the ground or take a piece of rope about 12 inches long.
Stand on one foot and bounce back and forth over the line for 10 seconds while trying to
keep your plant leg straight and your hips high. Then go front to back. Repeat with the
other leg. Do that drill every day and you’ll be well on your way towards getting more
efficient on your feet. From basic drills like those that establish proper coordination of
the feet while in a basic posture, you could move into hops done up on the balls of your
feet while maintaining a squat position, which develops the ability to coordinate your feet
with your hips. From there you could move towards lower altitude drop and depth jump
variations, which help develop the ability to deal with high forces. An example of an
altitude drop is dropping off a box while landing nice and quiet up on the balls of your
feet.

** Cueing an athlete to get in the habit of moving up on the balls of the feet can also be useful

Hip Running vs Knee Running

Yet another concept that ties in nicely with the above differentiation between “toe
runners” versus “heel runners” is that of running through the hips vs running through
the knees. Some people run through their hips and some people run through their knees.
The observations and differences between hip runners and knee runners are exactly the
same as toe runners and heel runners. Knee runners tend to run on their heels with a lot
of knee bend, lots of quadriceps activation, and lots of noise. Hip runners run through
their glutes and hamstrings, are much smoother and quieter, and appear as if they’re more
up on the balls of their feet.

The glutes are the strongest muscles in the body and an efficient athlete will
always primarily move through the hips. The thighs, calves, and feet simply serve to
transfer force from the hips down into the ground. Problems that can prevent a person
from utilizing the hips effectively can occur for the following reasons:

A: One is weak in the posterior chain and simply does not utilize the glutes effectively as
prime movers.

B: One is overly tight in the quadriceps and hip flexors.

C: One is weak in the hamstrings and thus the leg buckles behind the knee at impact and
does not transfer force into the ground effectively.

D: One lacks proper coordination with their feet. (AKA – heavy footed)
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One drill I like to use to teach people the concept of running through the hips, is
the above mentioned wall slide drill. Lean up against a wall, rise up on the balls of your
feet, and elevate your hips as high as you can. From this position, simply take strides
trying not to bend your knees much at impact, and look to feel the movement coming
from your glutes and hamstrings.

Other Assessments

A couple of other assessments you’ll want to check that can influence the above
mentioned problems are the mobility of the major hip flexors as well as the ability to
activate the glutes.** When the hip flexors are tight the glutes will be inhibited and
won’t activate optimally, which means you won’t be able to get as much power out of
them as you could. Many people have what some have termed glute amnesia, or
inability to properly activate and utilize the glutes. Since the glutes are the strongest
muscle group in the lower body we definitely want to optimize their function. Here is
how you can check for tight hip flexors: Lie on your back with both legs extended. Keep
a neutral spine and bring one knee all the way up to your chest while you keep the other
leg straight and the foot of the off leg planted on the floor. If the knee of the down leg
rotates out or if the foot of that leg comes off the ground, your hip flexors are tight.


Mobile Hip Flexors Hip Flexor Stretch

**The aforementioned rectus femoris also functions as a hip flexor.

Next, you’ll want to assess your ability to activate your glutes. Lie on your
stomach with your legs extended. Lift one leg up off the ground. Get someone to keep
an eye on your glutes, your lower back, and your leg as you do this drill. As soon as the
leg starts to move up the person watching should be able to observe the glute tightening
up. Faulty glute activation can be identified by either delayed or absent activation of the
glute, or excessive arching of the lower back.

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Glute Activation Drill

One simple thing everyone can do to help improve their ability to get the most out
of their glutes is to get in the habit of contracting the glutes at heel strike when walking
around periodically throughout the day. It’s a very simple habit that can go a long way.

What About The Balance Between The Hamstrings and
Glutes?

I talked about the balance between the posterior chain and the quadriceps, but
what about the balance between the muscles of the hamstrings and glutes? It is fairly
common to see athletes with glutes that are too strong for their hamstrings. The way you
can identify this characteristic is to watch the feet. An athlete whose glutes are
dominating the hamstrings will also run back on the heels, but the key characteristic is
their feet will often turn out when they run (and often when they walk).

Feet turned out

Athletes who fit this description will also almost ALWAYS have overly dominant
quadriceps as well. The solution for this problem would typically be to get away from
glute and quadriceps activity, mobilize those muscles, and strengthen the hamstrings.
That means exercises like glute ham raises with the feet in a neutral position would form
the bulk of strength work for this type of athlete. Supplemental drills like straight leg
sprints and bounds could also be utilized. Also pay attention to the flexibility of the
quadriceps, hip flexors, and glutes.

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Glute Stretch Glute-Ham Raise**

**Although touted as a glute-ham-gastrocnemius movement, the glute-ham raise is primarily a hamstring movement.


Testing The Psoas

The next thing you'll want to test is the strength of the psoas muscle, which is one
of the major hip flexors. The psoas is the hip flexor muscle responsible for moving the
hip past 90 degrees, or bringing the knee up to the chest. If the psoas is weak you will
tend to substitute hip flexion with lumbar flexion. In other words, you'll tend to round
your back a lot when you move or when you run. You will also be more succeptible to
strains of the rectus femoris muscle when sprinting, which is fairly common and is also
known as a quad pull. Anyone who has suffered one of these knows how annoying they
can be. A strained quad once cost yours truly a starting spot in jr. high football.

Here is how you test the psoas: Stand with your back flat against a wall. Be
careful not to let your back round. Lift one knee up towards your chest and release.
Inability to keep the knee above 90 degrees for at least 10 seconds indicates a weak
psoas. Cramps, forward or backward leaning, and large shifts of the hip to one side or the
other also indicate a failed test. Fortunately, one can strengthen the psoas by engaging in
the actual testing protocol itself for a couple of sets a few days per week.


Psoas Strength Test

Evaluating Core Stability

In my opinion, the majority of isolated core training for various parts of the “abs” is
over-rated and often unnecessary due to the fact that the abdominals will tend to get as
strong as they need to simply by virtue of one training with basic whole body movements
such as squats, deadlifts, split squats and the like. Having said that, in order to engage in
those exercises safely as well as help ensure proper movement, one thing many people
could use more of is a baseline level of core stability. The body’s ‘core’ includes the
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trunk, pelvis, hips, abdominal muscles and small muscles along the spinal column. Core
stability is the interaction of strength and coordination of these muscles during activity.
Core stability adapts posture and muscle activity to ensure the spine is stabilized and
provides a firm base to support both powerful and very basic movement of the
extremities. If there is lack of stability not only is movement faulty but injury can result.

To evaluate core stability use a bridge, a side bridge, and a back extension.


Bridge Side Bridge Back Extension

You should be able to hold a normal bridge with a neutral spine for about 2
minutes. You should be able to hold a side bridge for 65% of the time you can hold a
back extension. If you fail the tests, simply engage in the actual tests a couple of days per
week for a couple of sets until you can complete as required.


The Execution Of The 40-yard Dash

As you well know, many sporting coaches and professionals use the 40-yard dash
to evaluate an athlete’s speed. However, most athletes do not understand how to start or
race the 40-yard dash. Team sport athletes rarely take the time to work on an effective
start and the proper way to run it.

The 40 is an extremely short test that doesn’t allow much margin for error. A
simple mistake can cost you dearly in terms of speed. A fast time in the 40 can easily be
made or lost with a good or poor start. Thus, for an improved 40, you must look to
master your start.

The first phase to examine is the start stance.

1. Step up to the start line, aligning the toes of both feet on the edge of the line.

2. Have your stronger leg, usually the leg you jump off of, in front. For most
athletes, if you are right-handed, your left leg will be your stronger leg. I’ll
describe the start assuming you’re right handed.

3. To begin the setup, place your left foot a few inches directly behind your right
foot. The front of your left foot will be about 16 inches behind the start line.

4. Kneel down, placing your right knee directly next to the ball of your left foot.
Keep your right knee and your left foot roughly 6 to 8 inches apart.
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5. Place your right hand on the start line, spreading your fingers wide and arching
your palm so as to keep it off the ground. Keep your left arm back.

6. Your weight should be balanced with the majority being supported by your legs
but some being supported by your left foot. The power at the start comes from
your legs, not your arm. Don’t lean too far forward so that too much weight is on
your arm.

7. Your left leg should be bent at a 90-degree angle.

8. Your right leg should be bent at a 135-degree angle.

9. Your right hand should be on the ground and extended up on the fingertips with
the fingers far apart. Spreading your fingers will give you more stability. The left
arm should rest on the thigh of the right leg or in a position behind the body as if
in a running position. Assume a relaxed position with most of your bodyweight
on the legs and a small amount of your weight on the extended front arm.

10. Relax your body and visualize a successful start. Explode forward off your lead
leg and don’t raise your head too quickly. Keep your head in line with your torso.



The most important thing you can do for your start is practice it. It takes time to
develop an effective start and it’s probably not something you’re gonna learn overnight.
The most important thing you want to do is get in the habit of really extending and
exploding out of the gate so that it becomes 2
nd
nature. Ideally, you wanna be covering a
lot of ground over your first 5-7 steps. Some people say the first 5-10 yards should be
covered in a given number of steps, such as three steps for the first 5 yards and 5 steps
over 10 yards. This is a good general recommendation for a typical high level athlete
like a D1 football player, however, when considering the differences in power, leg length
and structural characteristics between different people, this recommendation obviously
can’t serve everyone and can actually lead to bad habits for those who try to follow it and
don’t have the structure or the power to do it. Over-striding is a common problem during
the start and occurs when people try to cover too much ground. If you over-stride your
heels will be contacting the ground first and your torso will rise too soon. Your steps
should fall where they may based on your explosiveness and your structural
characteristics. It’s best not to try and force anything unnaturally.

A couple of good drills that will help develop good starting mechanics are sprints
starting from a pushup position and forward dives onto a mat out of a sprinting stance.
49
These drills inherently help develop proper starting mechanics and don’t require any
conscious input.

**Another good way to grasp correct mechanics for the start is to simply sprint up short hills from a standing position.

The Race

When you run the 40 you should accelerate steadily from the initial drive off the
line all the way through to the finish. Aim to relax as much as possible throughout the
entire race. It is important to accelerate smoothly from start to finish. Analysis of
sprinting has shown that you can’t run at your very top speed for much more than one
second. When you watch the world's great 100-meter sprinters it always appears that they
hit another gear in the last 20 meters and blow everyone else away. Not so. What they
are actually doing is maintaining their top speed longer. Maintaining top speed is strictly
a function of relaxing and using smooth, fluid sprinting mechanics.

When running a 40 many athletes think they have to run at maximum speed over
the entire distance. They come out of the gate and immediately raise their head and look
straight up. They hit top speed 20 yards out, tighten up, and start to slow down 25 yards
in. The more efficient approach is to accelerate smoothly over the entire distance in order
to reach the top speed towards the end of the race. Your fastest times will tend be
recorded when you feel yourself accelerating through the finish line. Drive out from the
start position, keep your head in line with your body, and gradually and smoothly relax
and come up into full running position. You must learn to stay relaxed.

Starting From Blocks

The start I described above assumes you are starting without the aid of blocks. If
you compete in track and have the benefit of using blocks, the technique is a bit different.
Here are some general recommendations for a block start:

Foot placement and block settings: The standard placement is to have the front block
two foot lengths back from the line and the back foot three foot lengths back. The front
block should always be 1 notch lower than the back.

The upper body: When you drive out, the leading hand should be the same as the
forward leg. Hand width is determined by strength. A wider spread requires more
strength. A good place to start is to place the hands under the shoulders and work from
there. The shoulders should be slightly forward of hands on the “take your mark”
command. On the “set” command simply lift your butt straight up.

Technique: The eyes should look down so that the spine, neck, and back of head all
form a straight line. On the “go” command, the only cue you really need is to think of
clearing the lead hand out. If you pump the arms correctly, the legs will follow.
To clear the lead hand, just flick the hand up at eye level. Don't think power, just make
like a cat trying to catch a fly.
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Troubleshooting Running Mechanics

The Start: Other than over-striding and raising the head up too soon, the most common
problem that occurs in the start is lack of hip extension (a.k.a. - Posterior chain
activation). When you lack hip extension power, you will cover little ground per stride
and it will look like your feet are on the ground at almost the same time. When an athlete
shows good hip extension they cover a lot of ground and their push off leg will form a
straight line from the ground to the head.



Lack of hip extension is typically caused by lack of power in the posterior chain (glutes
and hams). To cure a hip extension problem, anything that increases power in these
muscle groups can be utilized. This includes strength movements like deadlifts, reverse
hypers, and split squats, as well as explosive strength movements like sled pulling.
Supplementary plyometric exercises like single leg bounding and dives onto a mat out of
a sprint stance can be utilized. Specific movements like starts from a pushup position,
falling starts, and hill starts are also of value.

Arm Action. If you run with tense arms practice loose, swinging movements from a
standing position. Swing from the shoulder and keep the arms relaxed.

Body Lean. Your body should have a slight lean in the direction that you are running but
this lean comes from the ground and not from the waist. The lean is a result of displacing
the center of gravity in the direction you are running. Trying to lean too far forward by
bending at the waist interferes with the correct mechanics of sprinting.

Collapsing Heels: Running back on the heels often indicates lack of basic movement
efficiency and/or quadriceps dominance. This can often be cured by emphasizing basic
movements like single leg line hops as well as power movements such as depth drops off
a box.

Running With The Feet Turned Out: Running with the feet turned out indicates overly
dominant glutes and quadriceps and/or weak hamstrings.

Over-Striding. Don’t reach and over-stride to try to increase stride-length. Keep your
hips high and keep your strides under you. Plant against the ground naturally and let the
foot land under your center of gravity. Any excessive placement of your foot in front of
your center of gravity will cause you to slow down.

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Under-Striding. Trying to move you feet too fast will cause you to practically run fast
in place and you won’t cover much ground. Someone who naturally under-strides will
often lack relative lower body power - particularly in the posterior chain. The solution to
this problem is the same solution that cures a faulty start - build hip extension power.

Relaxation. Don’t try to power your way through a race. To run fast, you must stay
relaxed.

Setting up a routine

Alright, now I am going to talk a little bit about setting up a routine. First of all,
let's talk about volume.

Volume

How much speed training is enough per session or per week? How much is too
much? There is quite a bit of variance in the recommendations you’ll find in this area.
I’ve seen sprint routines calling for enough sprint volume to kill an elephant and I’ve also
seen routines calling for 5 minutes of sprints per week. I get a lot of questions like "Ok,
how many sprints do I need to run for session and how often?" It's really very simple. To
understand my volume recommendations it helps to understand how improvements in
speed occur. Gains in running speed can occur in 2 ways. These are:

1. Gains in inter-muscular coordination- This is otherwise known as simple
coordination and is highly relevant to improvements in movement efficiency. With
gains in inter-muscular coordination, the various muscle groups involved in the sprint
cycle become more proficient at carrying out the movement. Think of a youngster first
learning to walk or run. Initially, their arms and legs are flailing all over the place and
they have a hard time coordinating their movements. With practice they become more
proficient until one day they just get it. If the coordination is lacking, one will initially get
faster just from the improvements in coordination that occur as they practice running fast.
It should be noted that one can only gain so much from increased coordination. This is
particularly true of gross primal movement patterns like sprinting, jumping, punching and
the like, which really don't require a whole lot of technique in the first place. Once a
person develops a certain level of coordination in a movement they don't need to focus
near as much on it. It’s kind’ve like riding a bike. Once you learn how to do it you don’t
forget. I haven’t been on a bike in over 3 years but I’m sure I could get on one tomorrow
and be just fine. Muscle memory is very real. As an example of how this relates to
running fast I’ve known several people who have gotten totally away from any sprinting
activity for periods as long as 6 months or more at a time. When they do get back on the
track they'll initially feel a little discombobulated, yet within a couple of weeks their
technique and coordination will be right back where it was before. More on that in a
minute.

2. Gains in intramuscular coordination – The 2
nd
way gains in running speed can
improve is through gains in intra-muscular coordination. This is what I often refer to as
52
horsepower. With gains in intra-muscular coordination, each muscle group involved in
the movement becomes more proficient at generating force in the movement. Activities
like weight training work by boosting this aspect.

So, like I mentioned earlier, you can get faster by improving your ability to carry
out and coordinate a movement pattern, or you can get faster by putting more force
behind that movement pattern. It should be noted that gains in coordination generally
always occur prior to gains in horsepower. One first learns to carry out the movement
pattern effectively and then learns to put more force behind the same movement pattern.

Frequency

As far as frequency goes, gains in .oo·vinvìion .oo·vinvìion .oo·vinvìion .oo·vinvìion respond better to increased
frequency. This is why when a baby is first learning to walk he or she doesn’t get up and
try to do it just once every few days. No - he practices constantly. Running is the same
way and so is any other type of movement or skill. A sprinting frequency of 3-7 times
per week is optimal for gains in coordination . The more quality exposures you get when
learning a movement pattern, the faster you pick up the technique required to efficiently
carry out the movement pattern.

In contrast, gains in horsepower respond well to lower frequency with much more
intensity per session. In this respect, gains in intramuscular coordination for a sprinter
are much like gains in strength for an advanced lifter. Think about that. A very strong
powerlifter will often only train a lift once every 7 to 10 days. His technique for the lift is
well developed and he doesn't need endless repetition practicing the various lifts. Rather,
his time is spent stimulating and strengthening the muscles involved in the powerlift.
After a hardcore workout it'll often take his muscles and nervous system a week or more
to recover. Because he's already spent years perfecting his technique, he need not worry
about losing any technical prowess not hitting his lifts every other day. He can simply
focus on getting stronger in the various muscle groups overall and then apply that
increased strength to his powerlifts.

The same sort've thing can also be observed in sprinting. This is why you can
take an active group of young athletes off the track and throw them in the weight room
for 3 months and get them really strong. Providing they maintain their mobility and
leanness you can take them back out on the track and within 3 sessions most of them will
be setting PRs in the sprints. They didn't lose much technique from not sprinting because
it’s something they’ve probably been doing since they were kids. However, they did
gain a lot of strength, which they were then able to transfer to the sprints. This is one
good reason why one need not spend endless hours all year around out on the track
sprinting, providing they’ve reached a baseline level of proficiency in their ability to
move efficiently when they run. Sprinting is a simple gross movement pattern and,
providing one has at some point learned how to perform it with some proficiency, ** they
can often get away from it and focus on the strength qualities that will make them run fast
and then transfer that increased strength to the track. So, you use frequency to learn.
You use intensity to enhance what’s learned.
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** In this day and age, it isn’t a given that young athletes have ever learned how to move and run correctly. Kids often do so much
sitting around they never learn how to run. Watch a group of teenagers engaged in a sports practice and it’s not uncommon to see
arms and legs flailing all over the place, heels stomping, and an assortment of other indicators that tell that a person has never
learned how to move with a whole lot of proficiency. This type of athlete would need to spend some time focusing more on movement
skills.

Maintaining Movement Proficiency vs Improving Movement
Proficiency

It takes a lot less volume to maintain a skill, movement pattern, or strength
quality then it does to improve a quality. In general, it only takes 1/3 the volume to
maintain a given movement pattern as it does to improve that quality. In other words,
you might become more coordinated by sprinting 3 times per week, but once you've
made those improvements, you can maintain the majority of them sprinting one time per
week. ** Activities like football and soccer practice or games, or anything else involving sprinting at a high intensity, can count
as training.

Rest Intervals

Regardless of whether you're training for increased coordination or increased
horsepower, gains will occur much more readily if each and every sprint or movement
you do is performed in a fresh state. This means you should take a full recovery between
sprints so that fatigue does not interfere with muscular recruitment.

Many people think the way to get faster and more explosive is to perform multiple
sprints with short rests to the point where they’re huffing and puffing and the muscles are
really burning. This type of training definitely hurts, requires a lot of mental toughness,
and may improve conditioning, or the number of sprints you can run in a fatigued state,
yet it won’t do a thing for the speed of your fresh sprints. Think about it. If a powerlifter
wants to increase his maximum bench press how does he do it? Does he train with light
weights and very short rest intervals to the point where his muscles are burning and
cramping? Or does he lift really heavy weights for low reps with long rest intervals so
that he can be as fresh as possible for each lift?

The way to increase your speed is to train exactly like you would if you were
training for maximum strength. Sprint over fairly short distances (10 to 60 yards) and use
long rest intervals. Trying to train for maximum speed by running in a state of fatigue is
like trying to increase your bench press by training with foo-foo weights and short rest
intervals. It simply doesn’t work! As a general recommendation, you should rest 1
minute for every 10 yards you sprint. So, if you sprint 10 yards, you'd rest 1 minute. If
you sprint 40 yards you'd rest 4 minutes. To avoid fatigue interfering with quality work,
this also means that a speed session should be stopped prior to, or as soon as, you start
to slow down on your sprint times in the workout. That generally means a speed workout
will not exceed 500 yards per session and will often be as short as 100 yards. Personally,
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when I made my best gains in the 40 yard dash, each workout consisted of 3 to 5 all out
sprints and that's it. Nothing complicated about it!

More On Volume and Training Frequency

So, when training to improve running speed and not just training to improve
conditioning, you should terminate a sprint session prior to, or as soon as, your
performance starts do decline during a workout. The same goes for any other movement
skill or explosive movement you're trying to improve. Wanna improve your agility?
Your jumping? Your footwork? Your martial arts kicks? Your gymnastics ability? Then
treat all those just like you would sprints. Perform a lot of quality reps with good
recovery and stop a session as soon as fatigue begins to interfere with performance. It
will work for the acquistion and improvement of any movement or skill you’re trying to
improve. That's the simplest way to monitor volume you'll ever hear and it's also highly
effective. The reason it’s so effective is because these gains are mostly all neurological
in nature and making neural improvements requires fresh exposures.

Now, as mentioned above, when training for increased coordination, movement
proficiency, and skill, you can and should train more often. A frequency of 3-5 days per
week or even every day works very well for coordination and movement acquisition for
something like a sprint. The more fresh exposures you give yourself to a given skill or
movement, the more proficient you're gonna get at carrying out that movement. As long
as fatigue is not accumulating on a day-to-day basis and as long as your performance is
not deteriorating on a day-to-day basis, you can train as often as possible.

Frequency When Training For Horsepower

When I refer to horsepower I'm referring to things like weight training and any
plyometric training other than very basic low intensity movement efficiency drills like
jump rope. In these higher intensity tasks, you're trying to improve the amount of
“oomph” that you put behind your movements. In other words, squats and depth jumps
don’t improve the coordination of your sprint stride, they improve the amount of force
you put behind each stride. Prescribing frequency when training for horsepower is a
little more difficult. Why is this? Well, the main reason is because most of the things
associated with boosting horsepower tend to be highly intense activities that tend to
causes a significant amount of whole body central nervous system fatigue or muscular
micro-trauma. Either of these will require recovery time. How do you tell if something is
causing whole body fatigue and/or micro-trauma? Very simple: If you perform a task
today and can't come back the very next day and repeat the task at the same level, your
body is not recovered.

I went in the gym yesterday and did a fairly heavy squat session. I could not come
back and repeat that same session tomorrow with the same weights. In fact, I'd probably
have to wait 4-5 days before I could repeat that same squat session. If I were to do some
depth jumps tomorrow those depth jumps would induce enough fatigue that I probably
wouldn't be able to come back the next day and jump as well either. I wouldn't have to
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rest 4-5 days like I would with the squats, but I probably would have to rest 48 hours or
so. The more micro-trauma (muscular damage) that you induce in any given workout the
longer it's going to take to recover. This is why weight training tends to require the most
recovery time. However, nervous system fatigue can be induced even without micro-
trauma. The depth jumps don't induce much micro-trauma yet still drain the system
enough that they require some recovery time.

One other very important point: Things like basic sprinting and jumping, when
performed at a high level, can also require significant recovery time. An elite level
sprinter may only be able to sprint maximally 2-3 days per week. If he tried to sprint at
full speed every day he’d most likely find his times from one day to the next would get
slower and slower as he builds up fatigue. But allow him a day of rest between
maximum sprints and he’s fine. However, a grade schooler can sprint every day with no
day to day deterioration in performance. Why is this? Since the elite sprinter is much
more advanced shouldn't he be able to sprint more often? You would think so. So what's
going on? Well, the body can double, triple, or quadruple the capacity to generate stress
(increase performance), yet the capacity to recover from that stress does not improve
nearly as much from baseline. The elite level sprinter is putting out a TON of force when
he sprints and, in comparison to the lower level athlete, puts a lot more stress on his body
and nervous system. Have you ever wondered why pro athletes or sprinters tear and
strain hamstrings left and right yet you never see a single person in a class full of
kindergardners have any such problems? They're simply not able to create enough stress
to challenge their bodies. It’s like the difference between a thoroughbred and a camel or
a funny car and a Honda civic. The thoroughbred and funny car are so strong and
powerful they’ll blow out if you try to run them full bore all the time. The camel and
Honda Civic don’t operate such a high intensity and thus can be ridden further and more
often.

You see the same thing in lifting. A very strong powerlifter with an 800-pound
deadlift might only be ABLE to deadlift once every 7 to 10 days without any
performance deterioration yet when he was a beginning lifter only deadlifting 200 he
could probably lift maximal weights every other day. The bigger weights he's lifting
simply require more recovery time because over time he’s turned himself into more of a
thoroughbred. An explosive athlete is the same way.

The point to take home is this: If you perform a task today and can't come back
the very next day and repeat the exact same task, you need some recovery time. Activities
such as heavy weight training may require 2-7 days recovery while activities such as
intense plyometric and speed will typically require 48 hours recovery. It’s generally best
to allow 48-hours rest between any highly intense activities for a given muscle group.
So, if I did a heavy squat session today I wouldn’t wanna come back tomorrow and
perform depth jumps or sprints. I’d wanna give my legs and my nervous system at least
48 hours rest. For that reason, for those athletes who have advanced past the
coordination stage, it’s often best to put any activities that require significant recovery
time all on the same training day. So, instead of performing weight training one day,
high intensity plyometrics the next day, and sprinting the next day, you’d do them all on
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the same day with 48 hours rest in between workouts. On the days in between your
higher intensity workouts you could either rest or engage in lower intensity activities.

Activities that could generally be considered “High-Intensity” activities would be the
following:

1. Strength work (anything above 80% of 1rm for lower body and "whole
body"movements such as deadlifts, cleans etc.)
2. Maximum effort lower body bodybuilding work (8-12 reps to failure)
3. Maximum effort speed work with full recovery between reps
4. Maximum effort plyometric work (depth jumps)
5. Maximum effort agility and deceleration work will full recovery between reps
6. Maximum effort conditioning work (ie. Timed max effort intervals)
7. Martial arts or boxing sparring and heavy bag
9. Any activity performed with heightened and competitive emotional intensity
(competitions)
10. Any activity performed under the influence of artificial stimulants
(ephedrine, various energizing supplements)
11. For advanced athletes only - any activity involving PR type performances

Activities that could generally be considered “Low-Intensity” activities would be the
following:

1. Aerobic work
2. Sub-maximal conditioning work
3. Dynamic warm-ups and form running drills
4. Sub-maximal bodybuilding or upper body isolation bodybuilding work
5. Sub-maximal speed work (runs less than 80% top speed)
6. Easy plyometric work (basic uni-lateral and bi-lateral hops etc.)
7. Footwork drills (agility ladders and dot drills)
8. Jump rope
9. Martial arts kata, mitt work, or shadowboxing

These activities that don't induce much if any fatigue and can be repeated on a daily basis
if desired.

A sample weekly split encompassing these principles might look something like this:

Mon: Lower body weight training, sprints, high intensity plyometrics

Tues: Upper body weight training, low intensity movement work (jump rope, agility
ladders, basic movement efficiency drills)

Wed: off

Thurs: Lower body weight training, sprints, high-intensity plyometrics
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Fri: Low intensity movement work

Sat: Upper Body weight training, sprints, high intensity plyometrics

With that set-up you’re allowing your lower body 48-hours rest between high-intensity
bouts of activity.

Distances?

What about distances? This can vary depending upon your unique needs but
generally speaking an athlete should spend the majority of their time sprinting distances
that will actually enhance their speed and acceleration abilities. For most athletes I
consider distances of 0 to 30 yards acceleration, 30 to 50 yards max speed, and distances
over 50 yards speed endurance. That means the large majority of individual reps should
be made up of distances from 10 to 50 yards. If you’re a team sport athlete there’s little
reason to sprint further than 40 yards unless you’re sprinting as a form of conditioning
work. Additionally, for optimum gains, I always recommend a short to long approach to
speed development. In other words, develop your speed and acceleration first over
shorter distances and then extend that speed out over longer distances. If you were
interested in improving your 40-yard dash you’d ideally start off with the majority of
your focus spent improving your 10 and 20 yard sprints and work your way out towards
40 yards.

Making Things Easy

I will give some highly detailed examples of sprint workouts later, but a speed
workout need not require a masters degree in advanced calculus to be effective. Simpler
is often better. A sprint workout can be something as simple as going out to the track or
field twice per week and, after an easy warm-up, running repeat 30 yard sprints one day
and repeat flying 20 yard sprints a few days later. Rest fully between each repetition,
time each repetition, and stop the workout as soon as the times start to decline. It's as
simple as that.

A sample template that has been used with good success for off-season youth speed and
athletic development programs might look something like this:

Frequency: Alternate Between Workout A & Workout B on an every other day basis 3
times per week.

Workout A:

Dynamic mobility: (see mobility section)

Speed drills: high knees, skips, straight leg sprints etc.
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Short linear sprints or sled sprints: 10's, 20's, and 30's

Plyometric work: hops, jumps, box jumps, knees to chest tuck jumps, etc.

Speed lift: Jump squat variation, snatch, or clean

Lower body lift: Squat, deadlift, Front squat, split squat, lunge

Upper Body push: Bench press, push press, incline press

Upper body pull: pullup, row

Core movement: plank, medicine ball circuit, woodchop, side bend, swiss ball crunch,
etc.

Conditioning: intervals, shuttle runs

Workout B:

Dynamic mobility: See mobility section

Speed drills: High knees, skips, straight leg sprints, etc.

Lateral movement work: Shuffle, crossover, various agility drills

Lateral plyometric work: Various hops and jumps moving side to side

Speed Lift: Jump squat variation, snatch, or clean

Lower body lift: Squat, Deadlift, front squat, split squat, lunge

Upper body push: Bench press, push press, incline press

Upper body pull: Pullup, row

Core: Plank, medicine ball circuit, woodchop, side bend, swiss ball crunch, etc.

Conditioning: intervals or shuttle runs

Static Stretching: Stretches for quadriceps, hip flexors, hamstrings, glutes, calves, lats,
pecs

Simply pick one exercise from each category and have at it. All in all you're looking at
about 2 hours of total work including warm-ups, stretching, and conditioning. In an
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optimal environment, you'd be able to split things up a bit more, yet with large groups
this can work very effectively.

A sample daily workout might look like this:

1. Dynamic mobility (see mobility section)
2. High knees, skips, straight leg sprints - 25 yards x 3
3. Sled sprints- (using light load) - 3-4 x 25 yards
4. Sled marching- (using bodyweight)- 2-3 x 25 yards
5. Single leg linear hops onto a low box- 2-3 x 10-15 seconds per set
6. Hang Snatch- 4 x 3
7. Squat- 3 x 5
8. Incline press- 4 x 5
9. Pullup- 2 x max reps per set
10. Hi to low cable woodchop - 2 x 12-15
11. 100-yard shuttle runs at 70% max effort- 8 sets with 45 seconds rest between each.

Keep in mind this type of template would be ideal for youth who could benefit more from
boosting the inter-muscular coordination aspects of their performance. They might need
quite a bit of basic coordination and movement efficiency work, therefore the total
volume of speed, lateral movement, and plyometric work would be rather high.

Year Around Training?

When discussing training, assuming you’re a team sport athlete, the volume and
frequency of specific sprint work will vary depending upon the time of year. In the pre-
season and during the season itself, there is often no need or time for specific sprint work
as simply participating in practices and the sport itself will give plenty of exposure to
speed and acceleration work. As a general recommendation, during the off-season,
unless an athlete is significantly deficient in them, both speed work and lateral movement
work (agility), sessions should be performed only once or twice per week. Here is an
example of what a yearly plan might look like for a football player.

January – Mid-May (focus: Strength and muscle mass accumulation)

Mon: Lower body lifting
Tues: Upper body lifting
Thurs: Low volume speed and movement work (speed, agility), lower body lifting
Fri: Upper body lifting

Late May – Late June (focus: Continue strength and power development – begin
conditioning)

Mon: Speed training, Upper body lifting
Wed: Speed training, lower body lifting
Fri: Upper body lifting
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Sat: Conditioning (using football agility drills with short rest intervals)

July – Mid-August (focus: Improve conditioning – Maintain strength, speed, and
explosiveness)

Mon: Upper body lifting, anaerobic conditioning using sprint intervals
Tues: Lower body lifting
Wed: Anaerobic conditioning using football agility drills
Thurs: Upper Body lifting
Friday: Anaerobic conditioning

Mid-August – November (focus: maintain strength)

Wed: Full body lifting
Sun: Full body lifting

Mobility Training…

Now it's time to talk a little more about specific mobility training. Sporting
movements are obviously dynamic, or performed with movement. If you don’t have the
mobility necessary to carry out some of these movements you risk faulty movement
efficiency and perhaps even strained and/or torn muscles. Ever seen what happens when
you take a strong so called muscle-bound bodybuilder type and throw him out in a flag
football game? Strained hip flexors and a host of other injuries are the norm. What most
people call a muscle-bound state isn’t caused from excessive muscle, it’s caused by lack
of mobility. I like to think of mobility training as lubrication for the moving parts of an
athlete - similar to the oil in the motor of a car or the grease that lubricates various
working parts. If you run a car without oil or run a wheel without grease you get all sorts
of clanking, squeaking, and other annoying problems. It's the same way for an athlete
without mobility. Lack of mobility causes movement to be restricted and you get all sorts
of squeaks, clanks and other assorted problems, often involving injury. Mobility training
is like grease or oil that helps parts run smoother.

There are 2 types of stretching that I recommend. Dynamic and static. In a
dynamic stretch, you're simply carrying out some of the movements that occur in sport
over a greater range of motion. You're integrating mobility into the actual movements
that occur when you move. To maintain and/or gain the mobility necessary to move and
run correctly, I recommend each workout can be preceeded by a dynamic warm-up that
includes exercises for the hip flexors, calves, glutes, hams, quadriceps, and lower back.
The purpose of the warm-up is to make gains in active range of motion, provide a proper
neural stimulus, and obviously get your muscles warmed up and ready to go for the more
intense work to come. Go through each movement for 1-2 sets of 8-10 reps per move.
There are countless dynamic mobility exercises but what follows are some that I prefer:



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Deep twisting lunge



Calf stretch


Cross under lunge





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Pullback butt-kick walking forward



Straight leg kick moving forward (keep leg straight)


Sumo squat




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Walk forward elbow to foot


Hurdle duck under (use real or imaginary hurdle)




What About Static Stretching?

Static stretching is the traditional type of stretching where you take a muscle into
a stretched position and hold the stretch without movement. Static stretching is useful to
help relax tight muscles and may help to reform tight tissue, yet does little to integrate the
acquired range of motion into the desired movements, which is why I recommend both
static and dynamic stretching. I generally recommend you perform static stretching if
you need to further address certain mobility problems you've identified. These include
the aforementioned tight hip flexors, tight quadriceps/rectus femoris, tight glutes, or tight
calves. Those are gonna be the common problems that might need some extra mobility
work. One thing you generally don’t want to do is static stretch prior to your workout or
it might interfere with your strength by relaxing muscles that you don’t want relaxed. In
my opinion, the best time to engage in static stretching is right after your workout, first
thing in the morning, and right after you get out of a warm shower. If you have the time
or inclination, you can also perform static stretching periodically throughout the day. It
need not be overly complicated. Simply stretch the muscle to a point where you feel a
stretch and hold the stretch for 2 sets of 20 seconds.

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Sprinting Form Drills

Form running drills help to establish correct movement patterns and also serve as
good general warm-ups. One needn’t participate in endless amounts of drills, yet
establishing mistake free movement patterns may help to eliminate wasted energy that
does not contribute to forward movement.

High knees. Run while lifting your knees up to your hip joints and then drive them down
in a fast and constant pace.

Butt-kicks. While moving forward in a slow jog, kick your heels up to your buttocks.
Your upper leg should not move much. Try to place emphasis on allowing your heel to
come up to your butt.

Skips. Skip with your lead knee coming up and down with a rhythmic cadence. The
emphasis is on decreasing your ground contact time by hitting the ground with the ball of
the foot and getting off as quickly as possible. In turn, the effort on the ground should
bounce your leg up into the high knee position.

Strides. A stride is just an easy run at a speed in between a jog and a sprint. They are
used as a warm-up drill and the idea is to focus on running form while preparing the body
for the more intense work to come in the workout.

Buildups. Start from a standing start into a slow run, concentrating on good running
form. Gradually build up speed until you at nearly full speed at 40 yards. Once full
speed is achieved, gradually slow down over the final 20 yards.


Speed and Acceleration Drills

Starts. In the following programs I give, you’ll see a variety of starts: Starts from a
push-up position, falling starts, starts from a 2-point start, and starts from a 3-point start.
Most are self-explanatory. A 2-point start is done from a standard wide receiver stance (2
limbs on the ground). A 3-point start is done with one hand on the ground. A start from a
pushup position is done with you starting from a push-up position. A falling start is done
out of a 2-pt. stance with you falling forward. Simply let yourself fall forward. As you
lose your balance you accelerate out. The idea is to develop explosive running starts and
work on your initial acceleration coming out of the hole from a variety of positions.

Flying 10’s 20’s and 30’s. Set up a course with the 30-yard point marked. Start off slow
and gradually pick up speed over 30 yards. By the time you reach the 30-yard mark you
should be running at nearly full speed (flying). Continue this full speed sprinting for
10,20, or 30 more yards. Do not accelerate too fast or too slow; it’s like a buildup except
you should be running full speed at 30 yards.

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Accelerations. From a jog gradually stride in smoothly and approach a predetermined
acceleration point 10-20 yards away. Once you hit the predetermined spot, accelerate as
fast as possible over the required distance.

Plyometric Training

The main purpose of plyometric drills is to enhance the ability to better express
strength, develop reactive rebound type strength**, and improve your capacity to use
your tendons as movement generators. As described earlier, the foundation for great
plyometric efficiency is a base of strength, so that the muscles can lock up and absorb
force. Plyometric drills enhance the absorption, stabilization, and release of force that
occurs with movement. They enable you to express your strength in a high-velocity
specific manner. Sprinting itself is very plyometric in nature. For this reason, anyone
doing more than a modicum of sprinting doesn’t typically need to utilize a ton of
plyometric drills.

**Plyometric strength is also termed elastic strength, reactive strength, reversal strength, and rebound strength. Don’t let the
terminology confuse you! They all mean the same thing.

When engaging in a bout of plyometric training, it’s not necessary to use a ton of
various plyo drills in order to have an effective workout. People tend to overcomplicate
plyometric work to the point where many think they need to have a master’s degree in
Russian training secrets to undestand it! I've probably been guilty of overcomplicating
the subject myself, but the reality is plyometric work is really quite simple. All lower
body plyometric drills do basically the same thing. They all involve some type of
hopping, bouncing, jumping, or running variation. There is no real magic in any
exercise. The only magic is in the intensity of exercise. There are low intensity
movements like the single legged line hops I mentioned earlier, which work best to train
movement efficiency and basic coordination on the feet. There are very high intensity
movements like depth jumps, which build max power. If possible you should try to
choose exercises that most closely hone in on your specific needs and you should always
choose exercises that correspond to your level of development.

For example, someone with good strength yet poor power in his posterior chain,
might utilize an exercise of 3 consecutive single leg hops for max distance. Someone
with bad feet and collapsing heels might utilize depth drops off a box equivalent to the
height of his best vertical jump, landing up on the balls of his feet. Someone with lack of
power in his hips might utilize low squat hops or alternating lunge jumps.

Alternating Lunge Jumps

Remember to choose exercises based on your developmental level. A depth jump
would be too intense for a beginner or someone who lacks strength. Youngsters should
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spend the majority of time working with basic low intensity hops, skips, and jumps until
they have a modicum of strength in place.

** The general recommendation is that an athlete should be capable of a 1.5 x BW squat before participating in high intensity
plyometrics.

If in doubt, realize that specific sporting movements can also serve as excellent
plyometric exercises. In other words, if you wanted to jump higher and determined you
needed to focus on expressing your strength better, a simple running jump for maximum
height is an excellent plyometric movement itself and it’s also 100% specific to the goal
of jumping higher. Sprinting itself is also a specific plyometric exercise. You’re not
gonna lose out on anything by not performing a ton of plyometric drills yet they can
provide some variety and sometimes they can help you hone in on a specific weakness.
A sample workout might have 1 to 3 exercises. The movements and the workouts
themselves don't need to be complicated. Keep each set less than 10 seconds in duration
and always stop any plyometric workout following the same guidelines as you would for
volume of sprint work. Stop the workout before or as soon as your performance in the
movements begins to decline. Get creative with the exercises. Here are some ideas.

Low Intensity Plyo Exercises

Draw a line on the ground and jump side to side over it with 2 legs - 1 leg

Do the above front to back

Draw 4 imaginary stars on the ground forming a box with each star separated by 12-18
inches. Hop around the box on one leg

Get in a squat position up on the balls of your feet and bounce in place

Put a low box in front of you - jump up on it and step off. Do the same with one leg.
From the side…..from the other side.

Medium Intensity Plyo Exercises

Get underneath a basketball goal and rhythmically jump up and try to touch as high as
you can

Get in a lunge position and jump up as high as possible landing in the same position as
you started. Switch legs in midair

Jump side to side over a cone, bench, or other knee-high object

Jump high and bring your knees to your chest

Put a medium to high box (18 to 40 inches) in front of you and jump up on it

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Put a low box (6-12 inches high) and bounce rhythmically up and down off and on it with
one leg...repeat from the side, repeat from the other side

Skip for max distance

Skip for max height

Stand on a box about 18 to 24 inches high, step off the box, and land softly up on the
balls of your feet in a motionless position (depth drops)

Perform a standing broad jump

High Intensity Plyo Exercises

Hop forward on one leg

Hop sideways on one leg

Sprint with exaggerated strides trying to get up as high as possible and cover as much
ground as possible with each stride (bounding)

Stand on a box, step off, hit the ground, and jump as high as possible...repeat to the left,
to the right (depth jump)

Plyometrics really don’t need to be complicated. That's all there is to it!!


The Entire Athletic Development Process

Now, what I'd like to do is go through a simple man's approach to the entire process
of building an efficient and speedy athlete. It should be obvious by now that a cookie
cutter approach isn’t optimal, yet you’re probably wondering how to determine where to
focus your efforts and what type of training will be best for you. Now I’m gonna try to
answer those questions. Hopefully, this will give you an idea on my thought process
when it comes to evaluating an athlete. This should read sort of like a checklist:

1. Are you trying to run on flat tires? The first thing you’ll want to do is make sure
you've established proper movement efficiency, coordination, and movement
patterns. Take a look at your ability to move efficiently at a low intensity. Before
you can move well at a high intensity (jumping, cutting, sprinting, changing
direction, etc.), you have to be able to move properly at a low intensity (bouncing
and moving around with quick and light feet). Think of a game like hopscotch or
jump rope or the myriad of mostly useless type drills that a football player would
go through in training camp such as agility ladders, cone drills, dot drills and
other related drills. How efficiently can you move? Are you somewhat light on
your feet or are you heavy footed and find drills like these a real challenge for
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you? Answer honestly. You shouldn't really have to think too hard about this.
One easy little test you can use to test basic movement efficiency is draw a line or
place a piece of tape on the ground. Stand on both legs and hop forward and back
over the line for 10 seconds. Repeat with one leg. You oughta be able to get
around 60 total hops with both legs and 30-40 on one leg within those 10 seconds.
If you find it difficult to count fast enough just count the forward hops. Aim for
30 on both legs and 15-20 on one.

You don't need to be like Allen Iverson or Ladanian Tomlinson but ask yourself
these questions:

A: Do people call you quick and agile or slow and heavy-footed?

B: Can you carry out the movements in your sport properly or are coaches
constantly telling you that you need to work on your footwork?

C: Do you sound like an elephant when you run or are you as smooth and quiet as
a butterfly?

Remember, you don’t have to be superb in this department, you just need to make
sure you have a little air in your tires. A race car with flat tires ain't going
nowhere in a hurry and neither are you! If you aren't satisfied with your score
here the next step is to figure out what the problem is. If you score less than
satisfactory here, take a look at 1a through 1d to determine what problems you
might need to correct. If you pass, go on to number two.

1a.You're too fat!? What's your body-fat like? Remember, if you have to haul
around a 50 pound tub of lard it’s gonna slow you down! If you’re overweight
look at your diet and activity levels. Cut down on sugars and increase the
consumption of things you can actually shoot or grow. If you’re overweight, you
also probably lack basic fitness, or GPP. The solution is to get up off your butt
and get involved in more activity. Have fun and PLAY your way into shape.

1b. You lack coordination or you're just heavy footed? This probably means
you just never learned to move efficiently as a youngster and you need to spend
time doing that. This means you should probably spend quite a bit of time
developing the capacity to move lighter on your feet. Break out the jump rope,
agility ladder, SAQ (speed, agility and quickness) type drills, and other basic
lower intensity plyometric and agility type drills. You have a couple of options.
You can either PLAY and get involved in as many activities as you can, or you
can make an effort to spend at least 20-minutes 3 days per week working on
various drills designed to get you more coordinated on your feet - or you can do
both.

1c. You lack mobility? Go through the mobility tests I described earlier. Can
you perform a squat without your heels rising up? Can you bring your heel up to
69
your butt without much effort? Can you lie on your back and bring one knee to
your chest without tearing a hip flexor? Are you supple and mobile or are you
tighter than a drum? If you have mobility problems the best way to fix them is to
spend 20 seconds twice a day with specific static stretches and perform plenty of
dynamic stretches prior to your workout. If your calves are tight simply stretch
your calves. If your hip flexors are tight stretch your hip flexors. If your quads
are tight stretch your quads.

2. Assuming you've met all the basic requirements for #1, now it's time to assess
your relative strength. Are you strong enough to be an explosive athlete? A
modicum of strength is necessary. What are your lifting numbers like? Do you
squat and deadlift at least 1.5 to 2 x your bodyweight? If yes you can go on to
number 3. If not you need to get stronger overall. That shouldn't be too difficult.
Take a look at the first workout in the next session and take a look at some of the
templates in appendix B.

3. Assuming you've met all the basic requirements for #1 and #2, now it's time to
dig a little deeper to see how to continue building your athleticism. Once you've
reached this level, improving your performance is a matter of either A, putting a
bigger engine in your car (getting stronger), or B, modifying your engine to better
express it’s horsepower (working on explosiveness to better express your
strength):

A: Putting a bigger engine in your car

Putting a bigger engine in your car just means that you'd continue to build your
strength and size so that you have more oomph behind your movements. You can
only modify the engine in a race-car so much. Eventually, the only way you’re
gonna make the car any faster is to put a bigger engine in the SOB. It’s the same
with athletes. You can work on various explosive drills, run sprints every day,
work on mobility, nutrition, and a host of other things, but eventually you reach a
point where you’re not gonna get any faster or more explosive until you put a
bigger engine underneath your hood. You do that by getting bigger and stronger
overall. To drive this point home think of this: Why can't a 14 year elite athlete
run as fast as a 25 year old elite athlete no matter how well they move or how
much power training they do? Why can’t an average girl throw as far as an
average guy, hit as hard as a guy, run as fast as a guy, or jump as high a guy?
Because they're not as big and strong!! I’ve actually worked with a lot of athletes
in this category who enhanced their speed and vertical jumps by a significant
amount with doing any specific speed, jump, or movement training
WHATSOEVER; they just got stronger overall!

or

B: Modifying the engine in your car so that you get more horsepower out of
your existing motor
70

Modifying the motor in your car just means that you'd train yourself to get more
oomph out of the muscle and strength you already have. You do this by working
on better expressing your strength, or building up your explosiveness, so that you
apply more force in less time, which you'd do by engaging in more explosive,
plyometric, and speed oriented work.

Ok. Now, the way we determine whether you need a bigger engine or a modified
engine is to take a close look at your performance in various tasks. We have to
determine whether you’re stronger then you are fast, or whether you’re faster
then you are strong. Look at the following evaluations:

A: First off, take a look at your lifting numbers in relationship to athletic
measures such as vertical jump, 40-yard dash, and agility drills. Are you one of
those guys who is stronger than an ox in the weight room - a guy who squats and
bench presses a ton yet whose speed and vertical jumping ability pales in
comparison? Or are you one of those guys who is weaker than a kitten yet fairly
explosive and fast? Are you one of those people who gets off the line like a raging
bull the first 10 yards of a sprint but is slower than molasses after 20 yards yards?
If so, you're stronger then you are fast. Or are you one of those guys whose initial
acceleration is slow but your top speed is impressive? If so, you're faster then you
are strong.

If you perform the Olympic lifts and if you have really good technique with them,
you can look at the ratio between the various lifts to get an idea where you stand
in this department. An athlete that is faster than strong will tend to have a clean
that is more than 70% of his back squat and a snatch that is more than 65% of his
front squat.

When making these observations and determinations there really aren’t any hard
and fast guidelines here and there's not really a chart you can look at to see where
you stack up. You have to use some common sense.

If you're the guy who is stronger then you are fast, you probably should focus on
improving your explosiveness, which you'd do by following a routine such as the
2nd workout in the next section. If you're the type of guy who is faster then you
are strong, you could benefit from driving up your strength.

What about everyone else? What if you're not sure where you fit in? Then you’ll
have to take a closer look. One of the things I do is take a close look at several
various jumping related tests. Here are the tests:

1. First, record your normal standing vertical jump. Next, stand on a box 12-18
inches high and execute a depth jump for maximum height. Simply step off the
box, hit the ground, and rebound up as high as possible. Record the results of
those 2 tests. If your jump from the ground is higher than your bounce jump, you
71
most likely need more work on explosiveness. If your bounce jump is higher than
your jump from the ground, you could probably benefit from more strength and
raw horsepower.

2. Next, compare your best bilateral (2-legged) running vertical jump and
compare it to your best unilateral (single leg) running jump. Simply take a
running start and jump as high as you can. Record the results of those 2 tests. If
your bilateral jump is significantly (20% +) higher then your unilateral jump, you
probably could benefit from focusing more on explosiveness. (You could also
probably benefit from focusing more on hamstring and glute strength). If your
uni-lateral jump is higher then your bilateral jump, you could probably benefit
from more basic strength and hypertrophy work.

Those observations will tell you a lot, but you can even take things a step further:

4. How does your game speed rank in relationship to your linear speed?***
***This will be covered in detail in a later chapter

Are you as agile as you are fast? One thing you can do to help make this
evaluation is compare your straight ahead linear speed to a test of speed that
requires change of direction. Record your best 40-yard dash and compare it to
your best 20-yard shuttle. If you don't know how to do a 20-yard shuttle here's
how. Take 3 cones and place them 5 yards apart so that they look like this

A-------B--------C
----10 yards

Start at B and face the direction of B with one hand on the ground. Whenever
you’re ready, start by running to A and touching the line, then run to C and touch
the line, then run back the other direction through B. Stop the clock as soon as
you run through B the 2
nd
time.

Next, compare the results of that 20-yard shuttle to your best 40-yard dash. The
20-yard shuttle should be at least .4 seconds faster than the 40. If it’s not, you
could probably stand to work a bit more on your lateral movement and agility.

5. Next, you basically take all that material and mull it over and determine the
best course of action for yourself as an athlete, or for your athletes if you’re a
coach. It's probably not something you'll ever feel that you've completely
mastered. It's an ongoing process and the things you learn as an athlete or as a
coach are always improving as you learn more and find better ways of assessing
things, but this will get the job done.

Additionally, make sure you use some common sense when reading in to the
testing. If you lack explosiveness in relationship to your strength, is it really
because of your motor abilities or is their some other problem? In other words,
could it be that you carry too much excess weight? Do you play a sport like
72
basketball or track and have to work under a coach that believes that waking up at
5 am and hitting the pavement for 5 miles every day (and burning up your fast
twitch muscle), is the way to get you in shape? Are you over-trained in general?
Or do you have a build that is good for strength but not really conducive to
displaying great speed (very thick joints with ultra short legs) Any of those things
can kind've masks the results of those evaluations. There's not always a clear-cut
answer but most of the time there is.

6. Assuming you've met the requirements for #1, #2, and #3, meaning that you've
established proper movement efficiency, you're not fat, you're mobile, you're
strong enough, and you still can't determine exactly what type of training you
should do, I'd recommend you start off focusing on more of an explosive oriented
routine to start. Keep in mind, when training to better display your strength
(display explosiveness), a general reduction in volume is necessary as these gains
occur most readily when the body is in a fairly well rested state. In general it only
takes about 60% of the volume to generate explosive gains as it does to generate
gains in strength. In fact, a lot of times just reducing volume overall will
generate gains in speed and explosiveness as many people are over-reached
or slightly over-trained and don’t even know it. If someone is not making
gains I’ve often found it's because they’re training with too much junk
volume and throwing too many conflicting signals at the body. By simply
optimizing their recovery, they allow a lot of fatigue to dissipate and start to
progress.

Examples:

A sample of an off-season explosive oriented workout might look something like this.
The goal here is to maintain strength while focusing on better displaying that strength.
This workout would be for someone who is stronger than they are fast.

Monday

Dynamic warm-up

**Depth Drops- 6 x 3 (stand on a box equivalent to your best vertical jump, drop off the
box, and freeze up on the balls of your feet at impact)

20-yard sprint- repeat until times begin to decline


Wednesday

Dynamic warm-up

40-yard sprints - repeat until time declines

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Jump squat- 6 x 5 at 20-30% of max squat

Deadlift - 3 x 3 @ 80-85% ***

Friday or Saturday
Dynamic warmup

Depth jumps- 6-8 x 3

Glute Ham raise- 4 x 6-8

Follow that format for 4 weeks and eliminate the Wednesday workout the last week.

Note: An explosive oriented phase is also a great time to implement horizontal loading
(towing), as I will talk about later.

** Depth drops can be performed a variety of ways. Moving forward off the box, moving sideways off the box, landing in a lunge off
the box, single-legged etc.

** Strength can be maintained with 1/3 the volume it took to build that strength, providing the intensity (load) is maintained. For
someone looking to maintain strength, I would typically prescribe 2-3 sets of 2-3 reps with an 85 to 90% load once per week.

A sample of an off-season strength oriented workout might look like this. The goal here
is to push up strength, and perhaps even hypertrophy, while maintaining the ability to
display that strength:

Monday

Short Sprints (10’s, 20’s or 40’s) - ~4-6 reps each. Stop prior to any noticeable drop-off
in performance.

Squat- 5 x 5 @85% (try to increase the weight or reps each week- work up to a set of 5
using several warm-up sets and then maintain the same weight for all 5 sets. You might
only get 2 or 3 reps on your last 2 sets. When you get all 5 sets of 5, increase the load the
next workout - make sure you're doing a true deep back squat)

Leg curl, glute ham, or romanian deadlift - 4 x 6-8

Thursday or Friday

Jump Squat with pause 4 x 3 @ 30% of max squat, (perform these by lowering into a full
squat position, pausing for 3-5 seconds, and exploding up into a jump)

Deadlift- 4 x 3 @85-90% (try to increase the weight or reps each week- work up to a
heavy set of 3 using several warm-up sets and then maintain the same weight for all the
remaining sets. You might only get 1 or 2 reps on your last 2 sets.
When you get all 4 sets of 3 reps increase the load the following workout)

74
Bulgarian split squat or lunge- 2 x 6-8 per leg


Detailed Programs For 40-yard Dash

In this segment I’m going to write out a couple of more detailed sprint programs
designed to improve the 40-yard dash. The programs are 8 weeks long and the goal is to
maximize running speed. You will find the listed programs have 2 lower body workouts
per week and 2 upper body workouts per week. Although you could consider the upper
body workouts optional, I realize most of you will want to train upper body as well, if
nothing more then the vanity effect!

Exercises include both those designed to develop your maximum strength and
those designed to improve your ability to develop force quickly. Exercises such as heavy
squats and deadlifts are used for maximum strength while exercises such as jump squats
and other high-speed movements are used for rate of force development.

A surefire method to raising your performance is by paying attention to your
progress in the various exercises. If your heavy lifts such as deadlifts and squats are
getting heavier, your higher speed lifts such as speed squats are getting faster and more
explosive, and your jumps are getting higher, your sprints should be getting faster as
well.

Program Flow

You will notice the actual sprinting portion of the programs flows from short to
long over the 8 weeks. That is, speed is first developed over shorter distances through
shorter sprints and that speed is then carried out over further distances. This is the same
method used by most top sprint coaches today, which allows one to work high quality
speed with short sprints and then work on extending that speed over longer distances.
This method has proven more fruitful then programs that build speed over longer
distances that then try to apply that speed endurance to short distances. That system is
inferior, because the longer distances don’t recruit the same quality of muscle fibers or
reflect the training specificity of the shorter distances. The general order of progression
is to emphasize acceleration, speed, then speed endurance. Since athletes in team sports
rarely sprint more than 40 yards, there is no need to train for speed endurance.

Sample Programs

Keep in mind these programs are just examples that are designed for intermediate
level athletes. A cookie-cutter set-up is never optimal and in a perfect world any training
you do would be completely individualized just for you, but these examples should serve
well for the majority of athletes. To avoid placing everybody on the same cookie cutter
set-up, I have 2 different programs. Some people will have solid coordination and
movement efficiency already in place and will benefit more from strength training. These
75
people will be faster than they are strong. They should perform program I. Others will
need to work more on movement efficiency and plyometric training. They will be
stronger than they are fast. These people should perform program II.

Perform program I if you fit most of the following characteristics:

A: Your strength is not dramatically ahead of your speed (e.g. –You don’t squat 2 x or
more your bodyweight and only run a 5.0 fourty yard dash)
B: You squat 1.5 x your bodyweight or less
C: Your start (first 20 yards) is not dramatically faster then your top speed.
D: Your best bilateral (2-legs) vertical jump from either a run-up or a depth jump is
about 20% or more higher then your best jump from a standstill.
E: You are fairly well coordinated and move fluidly (e.g. people don’t tell you that
you’re “heavy” on your feet).

Perform program II if you fit any of the following characteristics:

Perform this program if you’re obviously much stronger then you are fast, which can be
identified by a majority of the following characteristics:

A: You will tend to be much faster at the start than the finish of a race
B: You will tend to have a thicker build with large ankles, short legs, and long torso.
C: Your running vertical jump will be nearly the same as your standing vertical jump.
D: Your strength will be ahead of your speed and movement efficiency (you have good
weight room numbers but not so impressive speed and vertical jump numbers).


Program I – For the Strength Deficient Athlete

Day and Exercise Week #1 Week #2 Week #3 Week #4 Comments
Sun: Off
Monday: Lower
Body

Warm-up:
Dynamic warm-
up as written
Twisting
lunge, calf
stretch, sumo
squat, hurdle
duck under,
straight leg
kick,
pullback
buttkick
walking
forward,
elbow to foot
walking
Warm-up
stays
constant for
all speed
workouts
76
foward
High knees, butt
kicks, skips
3 x 25 yards Same Same Same
50 yard buildups 3 3 3 3 Walk back to
the start
Acceleration
work
4x10 yard
starts from
pushup
position
stance
4x 20yard
falling starts

4 x 10 yd
starts from
pushup
position
4 x 20 yd
falling starts
2x30 yards
from 2 pt
stance
3 x 10 yd
starts from 3
pt stance
3 x 20 yd
falling starts
2x 30 yd
starts from 2
pt stance
2 x 40 yd
sprints from
3 pt stance
3 x 10 yd
starts
from 3 pt
stance
2x20 yd
falling
starts
2x40 yd
sprints
from 3 pt
stance

Separate the
speed work
from the rest
of the
workout if
desired. Ex:
perform
sprints and
plyos in the
a.m and lift
in the p.m.
Plyometrics
Single leg hops
forward
2 x 20 yards
per leg
Same Same Same Do these on
grass. Focus
on
“absorbing”
with the
plant leg,
with the hips
held high,
and let the
“rebound”
action take
care of itself
Snatch Grip
Deadlift
3 x 5 4 x 3 4 x 2 2 x 2
(fairly
light)

DB Split squat 2 x 6-8/leg Same Same Same
Leg curl or Glute
Ham raise
4 x 5 Same Same Same
Tues: Off
Wed:
Plyometric/Upper
Body

Lateral cone
jump-
3 x 10 3 x 10 3 x 10 Eliminate Use a
medium
sized object
about knee
level in
height. Hop
77
back and
forth over it.
Each ground
contact = 1
rep

Box Squat jump- 4 x 6 Same Same eliminate Sit back on a
chair or
boxes –pause
and jump up
as high as
possible for
2 sets and
out as far as
possible for
2 sets. You
can also use
objects to
jump on or
over to make
the exercise
more
challenging
Bench press-


4 x 5 5 x 4 5x3,3,2,2,1
(3 minute
rest
intervals)
minute rest
intervals)

3 x3
(easy)

One arm dumbell
row
3 x 8 Same Same Same
Front raise

2 x 8 Same Same same
Optional Beach
work (10 min
biceps/triceps
etc.)

Thursday: Off
Friday: Speed
Work and Lower
Body work

Speed and
Acceleration
20-yard
accelerations
x 3 (use 10
yard stride in
20-yard
accelerations
x 3
Flying 20’s
30-yard
accelerations
x 3
Flying 20’s
Timed
40’s x 3-
5 (or stop
when
Separate the
speed work
from the rest
of the
78
and
accelerate for
20 yards)
Flying 20’s x
2


x 3

x 3


time
starts to
drop-off)

workout if
desired. Ex:
perform
sprints and
plyos in the
a.m and lift
in the p.m.
Single leg on box
jump

2 x 5/leg 2 x 5/leg 2 x 5/leg eliminate Use box
about 12-18
inches high.
Stand on one
leg and jump
up on the
box.
Speed Squats

4 x 3 at 30-
40%

Same Same eliminate (Drop down
into a squat
and explode
up – drop
down into
the hole at
good speed)

Drop and catch
leg curls or
Reactive Glute
Ham Raise-
4 x 5 4 x 5 4 x 5 eliminate (If using the
leg curl,
raise the
weight with
2 legs – relax
and let the
weight fall
and catch it
with one leg
midway
down
attempting to
“hold” the
weight in
place)
Saturday – Upper
Body

Dumbell Bench
Press-





2 x 10-15 Same Same Same
79

Chinup- Max reps
with bodyweight

2 sets 2 sets 2 sets 2sets
Weighted swiss
ball crunch
2 x 15-20 2 x 15-20 2 x 15-20 2 x 15-
20

Decline leg raise 2 x as many
reps as
possible
2 x as many
reps as
possible
2 x as many
reps as
possible
2 x as
many
reps as
possible

Beach Work – 10
minutes
(optional) work
on pecs, biceps,
triceps, etc.



Phase II

Day and
Exercise
Week #1 Week #2 Week #3 Week #4 Comments
Sun: Off
Mon: Speed
Work/
Lower Body

Dynamic
Warmup as
per above –
Normal
warm-up
High knee,
butt kick,
skip 25 yds x
3
Same Same Same
Acceleration
and speed
work

3x30 yd
from 2 pt.
Stance
2x40 yd
from 3 pt.
Stance
1 x60 yards
from 3 pt
stance



3x30 yds
from 3 pt
stance
2x40 yds
from 3 pt
stance
1 x60 yards
from 3 pt
stance

3x30 yds
from 2 pt
stance
3x40 yds
from 2 pt
stance
1 x 60 yards
from 3 pt
stance


Test 40
Separate the
speed work
from the rest of
the workout if
desired. Ex:
perform sprints
in the a.m and
lift in the p.m.
Barbell Back
Squat


4 x 5



5 x 3, 3, 2,
2, 1


Eliminate



Eliminate




80
Step-up


n/a n/a 2 x 6-8 reps 2 x 6-8
Romanian
Deadlift-

2 x 6-8 2 x 6-8 eliminate eliminate
Glute ham
raise, leg
curl, or
reverse
hyper

V-sit

3 x 6-8





2 x max reps
3 x 6-8





2 x max reps
3 x 6-8





2 x max reps
Eliminate





2 x max
reps




Tues: Off
Wed: Plyo
Work/
Upper Body
Work

Side to Side
box depth
jump




4x8 4 x 8 4 x 8 2 x 8 (Stand on box
and step off to
one side,
rebound back
up, step off to
the other side,
rebound back
up. Use a box
approximately
12-18 inches
high – each
ground contact
equals 1
On-box
jump
2 x 4 2 x 4 2 x 4 2 x 4 Simply stand in
place and jump
up onto a box
and step off.
Use a box high
enough to be
somewhat
challenging
Incline
Bench Press

4 x 5 5 x 5 5x5,4,3,2,1 3 x 3
(easy)

Seated Row-


4 x 6 4 x 6 4 x 6 3 x 6
(easy)

81
Weighted
Dip- 4x6-8
2 x6-8 2 x 6-8 2 x 6-8 2 x 6-8
Optional
Beach work-
10-15 min
arms

Thurs: Off
Fri: Speed
Work /
Lower body

Warm-up:
As per usual

Speed Work 30 yd
accelerations
x 3
50 yd x 2 (2
pt start)

30 yd
accelerations
x 3
50 yd x 2 (2
pt start
40 yd
accelerations
x 4
50 yd x 2 (3-
pt start)
40 yd test Separate the
speed work
from the rest of
the workout if
desired. Ex:
perform sprints
and plyos in the
a.m and lift in
the p.m.
Depth jump

4 x 4 4 x 4 4x 4 Use about an
18 inch box
Jump Squat
with pause
4 x 3 at 30%
of max squat
4 x 3 at 30% 4 x 3 at 30% Use 3 second
pause at
parallel and
explode up
Drop and
catch leg
curl, reactive
glute ham,
or reverse
hyper

3 x 5, 3 x 10
seconds, or 3
x 5
3 x 10
seconds, or 3
x 5
3 x 5, 3 x 10
seconds, or 3
x 5

Saturday:
Upper Body

Push press

4 x 4 4 x 3 5 x 2 3 x 3

Pull-ups-
max reps in
10 seconds

2 sets 3 sets 3 sets 2 sets
Side
dumbell
lateral
2 x 12 2 x 12 2 x 12 2 x 12
82
Arm curl-
(any
variation)
3x12


2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10
Tricep
pushdown-

2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10
Kneeling
cable crunch
2 x 12-15 Same Same Same


Program II – For The Speed Deficient Athlete

Keep the warm-ups, the upper body workouts, as well as the lower body plyometric work
that you use in workout B the same. Replace workouts A & C with the following:
Phase I (Weeks 1-4)
Exercise Week#1 Week#2 Week#3 Week#4 Comments
Workout A:
30 yard
sprints
4 5 5 3 Separate the speed work
from the rest of the workout
if desired. Ex: perform
sprints in the a.m and lift in
the p.m.
Single leg
hops left,
right and
forward
2 x 5 per
leg to
each side
Same same same Stand on one leg and take 5
big hops to your left then 5
big hops back to your right,
then 5 hops forward. Take a
brief rest in between each set
of 5.
Jump squat
with barbell
2x12
(10% of
max
squat)
3x10
(15%)
3x8
(20%)
2x6
(25%)
Perform rhythmically and
continuously – The
percentage given is the % of
max squat
Romanian
Deadlift
2x6
(70%)
3x5
(75%)
3x4
(80%)
2x3
(85%)
The percentages listed are
guidelines
Full Squat 2x6
(75%)
3x5
(80%)
4x4
(80%)
3x3
(85%)

Workout B:
Flying 20
yard sprints
4 5 5 3 Accelerate smoothly over 30
yards then hold top speed for
20 yards. Separate the speed
work from the rest of the
83
workout if desired. Ex:
perform sprints in the a.m
and lift in the p.m.
Single leg
triple jump
3
sets/side
Same Same Same Focus more on the
“absorbing” then the pushoff.
Depth
Jumps
2x5 2 x 5 2 x 5 2x5 2 minutes rest – use box
about 18 inches high
Jump Squat
with Barbell
2x12
(10%)
3x10
(15%)
3x8
(20%)
2x6
(25%)
Perform continuously – 2
minutes rest
Glute ham
or leg curl
3 x 5 3 x 5 4 x 4 3 x 5
Phase II (weeks 5-8)
Exercise Week#1 Week#2 Week#3 Week#4 Remarks
Workout
A:

Single leg
box jumps
front,
medial, and
lateral
3 x 5 front,
left, right
3 x 5
front,
left, right
3 x 5
front, left,
right
2x 3
front, left
right
Use a low box, step, or
stair about 6-12 inches
high. Stand on one leg,
face the box, jump on
the box, pause, and then
step off the box. Do 5
reps facing the box, 5
reps with the box
directly to your right,
and 5 reps with the box
directly to your left
Depth jumps 3x5 4x5 4x5 2x5 Use moderately high
box around 18 inches
Jump squat
with barbell
3x12
(15%)
3x10
(20%)
4x8
(25%)
2x5
(30%)

Reverse
hyper, Leg
curl or glute
ham
3 x 6 3 x 6 3 x 6 3 x 6
Full squat 2x6 (75%) 3x5
(80%)
Eliminate eliminate
Workout B:
40 yard dash Perform
reps until
time
declines
Same Same Same Separate the speed
work from the rest of
the workout if desired.
Ex: perform sprints in
the a.m and lift in the
p.m.
Jump squat 3x12 3x10 3x8 2x5
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with barbell (15%) (20%) (25%) (30%)
Speed box
Squat
4 x 3
(60%)
4 x 3
(55%)
4x 3
(50%)
3 x 3
(60%)
Sit back on the box,
pause, and explode out
as fast as possible
Drop and
catch leg
curl, reverse
hyper or
explosive
glute-ham
raise
3 x 5 (leg
curl) or 3 x
10 seconds
(reverse
hyper or
glute ham)
3 x 5 or
3 x 10
seconds
3 x 5 or 3
x 10
seconds
3 x 5 or 3
x 10
seconds
From the top of a leg
curl, drop the weight,
let it fall, “catch” past
the mid-point, and
explode back up


A Simple Yet “Cutting Edge” Variant – Horizontal Loading

Yet another variation to use in a training split would be to use a form of horizontal
loading as a form of strength training. When I refer to horizontal loading I'm referring to
exercises like sled pulls and similar movements where the resistance comes in a
horizontal plane rather than a vertical plane. Even a loaded shopping cart can offer an
effective means of horizontal loading.** Think about this for a second. Almost all the
popular primary strength-training movements available to us in the weight room offer
resistance in a vertical plane. In other words, the resistance is coming "down". However,
sprinting occurs in a horizontal plane. Vertical loading is still effective because the
objective of general strength training is to stimulate and strengthen the muscles involved
in the movement and stimulate the magnitude of muscular recruitment - not necessarily
mimick the exact movement pattern involved. Movements such as squats, lunges, and
split squats are staples for speed development because they recruit and strengthen the
glutes, quadriceps, and hamstrings effectively. Having said that, horizontal loading may
offer some advantages as a form of special and specific strength training. Before
explaining why, I’d like to briefly discuss general to specific training methods.

General strength training exercises strengthen and stimulate the muscles
involved in a movement pattern and do not attempt to duplicate the sports movement.
These exercises are necessary to develop the force component of power. Examples are
deadlifts, squats, etc. Special strength training exercises attempt to convert general
strength to explosiveness. Examples are jump squats, speed lifts, and olympic lifts.
Specific strength exercises are utilized to develop the velocity component of power and
attempt to provide power improvement in a way that is specific to the required technique
of an athlete. Examples of such exercises would include bounding, jumping, hopping, and
various sprint variations. Towing exercises can really fit in all 3 categories, depending
upon how much resistance is used.

The ability to get force into the ground and create forward movement occurs
when the foot is placed under the center of gravity and pushed back. A weighted sled
offers resistance that must be propelled horizontally. I would consider horizontal loading
for the sprints as a special type of reverse leg press or a reverse hyperextension with your
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feet on the ground. Pulling a heavy sled or using some other form of horizontal
resistance can also offer some advantages for strengthening the specific muscles involved
in the sprint, primarily the hamstrings and glutes.

** A device called a power-runner can also be used for this purpose

The current most popular line of thinking when using sleds and other forms of
towing is that the resistance should not be so great so as to interfere with sprinting
mechanics. Therefore, various coaches have often recommended sprinters and other
speed seeking athletes sprint 10-40 yards towing a very lightly loaded sled using a
resistance that causes no more than a 10% reduction in sprint times. Their reasoning is
that if the sled is too heavy the runners technique is excessively compromised. So, if
you were going to use loaded sprints as a form of specific resistance training over 40
yards, and your best 40 was 5.0, you wouldn’t want to use so much resistance that you
couldn’t at least run a 5.5 second 40. (5.0 + 10%).

However, rather than use towing as a form of specific sprint loading to provide a
bit of resistance to a normal sprint, I also recommend using heavier sled pulls more as a
form of special or general strength training. In other words, sack up to a heavy sled
strong man style and pull or march with all your might for 5-15 seconds per set and really
try to pound the lower body. One need not use a ton of resistance but enough resistance to
make pulling the sled a bit of a challenge. Try pulling your bodyweight. Keep in mind
your technique really doesn’t have to resemble a perfect sprint. You’re using this more
as a form of strength training then you are sprint training. You can perform them both
linearly (straight ahead), and laterally (sideways). Based on results I've seen, athletes can
benefit from using heavier sled pulls as a form of strength training and greatly enhance
the acceleration phase of a sprint without interfering with sprint mechanics.

For optimal results, you can even use both heavier and lighter towing in a given
training cycle. Use heavier towing for strength in one workout and lighter more specific
sprint-oriented towing in another workout. A sample split I've used with some athletes
that I've seen great results out of looks like this:

Day 1-
A1.dynamic warmup
B1.short sprints- 10's and 20's- 4-6 reps each
C1.Heavier sled pulls (linearly and lateral)- 6-8 total sets x 10-20 seconds each

Day 2-
off- dynamic warmup

Day 3-
dynamic warmup
lightly loaded sprints- x 30-40 yards (use enough resistance to cause a
~10% reduction in normal sprint times)
bodyweight sprints- x 30-40 yards
Alternate 1 set of lightly loaded sprints with 1 set of bodyweight sprints. Repeat until the
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times of the unloaded sprints begin to decline.

Day 4- off dynamic warmup

Day 5- repeat workout #1


Conditioning
I’m going to spend quite a bit of time talking about conditioning because it’s a
topic that many people seem to screw up in one form or another. Obviously, a certain
amount of conditioning is necessary. You can’t train unless you’re in shape and if doing
something as simple as getting your butt of the couch causes you to huff and puff, you’re
obviously not in shape to train. However, when training to develop speed and power we
must be careful that we send our body the right messages. Think of the difference
between a marathon and a 50-yard sprint. They both involve running but that’s where the
similarities end. As far as energy systems go, they’re at 2 entirely ends of the spectrum.
One requires your body to make use of the aerobic (oxygen) system to supply 90% of the
energy. One is pure anaerobic (without oxygen).
The adaptations that make you extremely aerobically efficient are in nearly
complete opposition to those required that make you extremely anaerobically efficient
and vice versa. Which means the adaptations that allow you to run marathons as
efficiently as possible inhibit the adaptations that allow you to sprint 50 yards as fast as
possible. The adaptations that allow you to sprint 50 yards as fast as possible inhibit the
adaptations that allow you to run marathons. Which is primarily why sprinters and
marathon runners look and perform nothing alike whatsoever. Not exactly scientific but
true nonetheless. One is muscular, strong, powerful, and fast over very short distances.
The other is weak, lacks power, and is usually quite slow, but can run slow for a very
long time. ***
Along those same lines, we could also compare sprinters to milers, powerlifters to
rowers, throwers to 800-meter sprinters, Olympic lifters to cross country skiers, or
football players to soccer players.
*** A typical marathon runner often has a vertical jump no higher than 12 inches.
The Spectrum
Think of 2 ends of a spectrum. One represents speed, strength, and power. The
other represents endurance:
speed, strength,power--------------------------------------------------------------endurance
A sprinter, powerlifter, Olympic lifter, thrower, gymnast, and football player
operate at one end of the spectrum, that being the strength/speed/power end. The
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distance runner, cross-country skier, rower, or swimmer reside at the other end of the
spectrum, that being the endurance end. The 800 meter runner, basketball player, boxer,
soccer player, etc. reside somewhere in the middle.
Those on the speed, strength, and power end are characterized by being very fast,
very strong, and very powerful. Those on the endurance end are characterized by being
like an energizer bunny. They ain’t gonna turn any heads with their speed, but they’ll
keep going and going and going. Those in the middle are a mix of both. They don’t have
the power, speed, or strength of the sprinters, throwers, gymnasts, or football players; and
they don’t have the endurance of the marathon runner, cyclist, or cross country skiers, but
they have a good mix of both.
Conditioning and No Man’s Land
The point of all this is the effect conditioning has on your speed, strength, and
power gains. You can do EVERYTHING 100% correct when training for increased
speed, explosiveness, and strength, yet if you expose your body to too much endurance
oriented training you end up in what I call No Man’s Land, which means you end up in
the land of the boxer, 800 meter runner, or soccer player whose speed, strength, and
power are limited by the amount of conditioning work they must endure.
There’s a mentality in this world that more is always better and you’re a lazy bum
unless you have the endurance of a NAVY SEAL. But if you try to train for an iron man
triathlon and a sprint race at the same time, you’re sending a message that says, “Ok
muscles – you need LOADS of endurance”. That’s all well and good if that’s your goal,
but as noted, the same adaptations that lead to great endurance (increased mitochondrial
density) also severely ìiniì ìiniì ìiniì ìiniì adaptations towards speed and power. Try to train for both
simultaneously and your body will develop the endurance you need but you’ll severely
limit your gains in speed and explosiveness. This is particularly true when you’re trying
to make nc. nc. nc. nc. strength and power gains. ^vinìvinin¡ ^vinìvinin¡ ^vinìvinin¡ ^vinìvinin¡ strength and power while building
endurance is one thing. Improving strength and power while dramatically improving
endurance is another thing altogether.
When most people think of high flying athletes with great vertical jumps they
probably think of basketball players. Yet realize this: The average professional
basketball player is doing good to vertical jump 30 inches while many NFL football
players (excluding offensive lineman), regularly approach 40 inch verticals. Why is this?

Well, for one thing basketball play itself is fairly aerobic. Basketball players have
to engage in a lot of running and conditioning just playing their sport. The average
football play lasts 4-6 seconds and is followed by a 30 second pause. Basketball guys are
essentially running intervals for 30-48 minutes. This has a negative affect on maximal
strength and power production.
We also have to consider how a typical basketball player would train. The
popular approach is for basketball players to spend their entire off-season playing 2 hours
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of street-ball 3-5 days per week and 1 or 2 AAU games for almost the entire summer.
It’s basketball and more basketball – playing and conditioning but no real training.
Basketball players and coaches also don’t tend to appreciate strength training as much as
football players. The average football player has no problem getting in the weight room
and getting after it but the average basketball player in the weight room is a lot like many
girls when it comes to the iron. Many girls are afraid they’re gonna “get too big”, or
“bulk up”** Many basketball players are afraid those weights are gonna make them slow
or muscle-bound. As a result, if the basketball player does any extraneous training at all,
it’s more likely to be a ton of plyometric work, which is the last thing he needs. The
result is the average basketball player spins his wheels in the off-season while football
players tend to come back faster and stronger year-after-year simply because, if nothing
else, they’re continually boosting up their core motor abilities like strength. Football
players don’t play in the off-season; they hit the weights.
**I realize this doesn’t describe all basketball players but I’m really not joking when I say this. I actually know several coaches who
won’t train basketball players for this exact reason.
Now, what happens when we do run across the rare basketball player who
actually does value the weight room and decides to take a no-holds barred attitude
towards getting his strength up in the off-season? Well, chances are pretty good he’s also
gonna wanna play about 12 hours of basketball per week. What do you think is gonna
happen? Not a whole lot! He’ll probably end up running himself right into the ground
due to all that volume and conditioning. His conditioning is always there yet little ever
happens to his maximal strength. In reality, a much better way to approach the off-season
for the basketball player would be to reduce on-court time by a significant margin,
maintain his skill work, and focus more on foundational qualities such as maximal
strength.
My Own Experience With “No Man’s Land”
A couple of years ago at the age of 30 I decided I wanted to box competitively.
At the time my training more closely resembled that of a sprinter. For the most part I
trained according to the principles outlined in this manual. Even though I had some minor
injuries I had a vertical jump of 35 inches or better and could knock off a 4.4 second 40
yard dash. My endurance left a lot to be desired though. If you'd asked me to run repeat
40-yard dashes with 1 minutes rest I'd probably only be able to run 5 or 6 below 5
seconds before I'd just gas out. My best mile run was probably above 7 minutes. I'd get
in the boxing ring and was quicker and stronger then most of my opponents but I’d be on
the floor sucking wind inside of 2 rounds. My fitness state was pretty good compared to
the average person but left a lot to be desired when it came to the conditioning needed to
box at a high level.
Obviously, my training had to change. That meant instead of lots of speed and
explosive training I had to start engaging in lots of endurance oriented training. That
meant tons of long intervals consisting of workouts like 3-minute agility drills out in the
hot sun with only 1 minute breaks, 3 mile runs, and plenty of general boxing training
including: Jump rope, heavy bag work, and lots of sparring. After 2 months of that
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torture I'd definitely built up a significant amount of endurance. I could go out and easily
run ten 100 yard sprints under 15 seconds with about 45 seconds rest. I could go 6 three-
minute rounds in the ring with 30 seconds rest with no problem. However, in order to
build that endurance I had to trade some of my explosiveness. Even though I lost weight,
no longer could I vertical jump 35 inches and no longer could I hit a 4.4 second 40. My
best vertical jump declined to around 32 inches and my best 40 was around 4.65. Oh, my
power endurance was very good - I could run repeat 4.9 second 40's with 45 seconds rest
all day long and I could probably hit a 30 inch vertical jump for 100 consecutive jumps
without declining. But in order to build that kind've power endurance I had to trade off a
bit of my top end.
Now, if you're a football player, basketball player, or even a soccer player, that's
kind've an extreme example because boxing requires an EXTREME amount of
conditioning. You're not gonna need that type of conditioning. If you’re an athlete in
one of those sports, providing you approach it properly, you can build all the endurance
you need without having to trade off anything if you approach things correctly, as I will
describe in just a minute.
The point of all this is that you gotta remember, you’re training for speed over
very short distances, not for marathons! You don’t wanna put yourself in NO MAN’S
LAND where you sacrifice power for power endurance at an inappropriate time.
Power vs Power Endurance
Regardless of what measure of performance you’re talking about (running,
jumping, throwing a fastball etc.), you have to develop the level of your freshest peak
effort before you develop the ability to extend that effort, otherwise, you won’t be
preparing for maximal performance, you’ll just be conditioning yourself for prolonged
sub-maximal performance. Here’s an example to illustrate my point:
Let's say you have 2 basketball players and both of them play guard. Player A
takes his off-season and really works on becoming faster and more explosive overall. He
reduces his on-court time and really devotes himself to strength and power training. The
result is he comes out of the off-season running a 2.5 second 20-yard dash with a 40-inch
vertical jump. However, player B really takes a hardcore no-holds barred approach to
conditioning for his entire off-season and, in addition to playing several full-court games
per week, also devotes himself to getting up at 5am and running 5 miles per day, running
up long hills in the mountains, and all kinds of other hardcore metabolic conditioning
stuff so that he can be the “go-to” guy and be just as fresh in the 4th quarter as he was in
the first quarter. He (Player B) ends up running a 3.0 second 20-yard dash and he has a
30-inch vertical jump. Just based on this information we know that Player A will be able
to get up and down the court faster than player B and jump quite a bit better too.
However, let’s assume player B’s efforts paid off so his endurance is twice as
good. In other words, throughout a game his initial starting performance only declines
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half as much as player A. Player A drops off at 5% per quarter while player B only drops
off at 2.5% per quarter.
So, if we measured the performance of these 2 athletes in the 20-yard sprint and
vertical jump from quarter to quarter it might look something like this:
Quarter Player A Player B
20 yard dash - Vertical Jump 20 yard dash-Vertical Jump
1 2.5 seconds 40 inches 3.0 seconds 30 inches
2 2.62 seconds 38 inches 3.07 seconds 29 inches
3 2.75 seconds 36.1 inches 3.14 seconds 27.5 inches
4 2.88seconds 34.2 inches 3.22 seconds 26.8 inches
OT 3.00 seconds 32.4 inches 3.30 seconds 26.1 inches
Even though player A’s starting sprint times and vertical jump declined more than
25% over the course of the game his sprint time after 4 full quarters and an overtime was
still just as fast as Player B's freshest sprint and his vertical jump was still better than
player B’s was at the very beginning!
Anybody can build endurance and it responds quickly. But building the
foundational qualities necessary for great speed and explosiveness takes time and is more
difficult. Put it this way. I can go to any major American city and probably find at least
1000 people on any given day that are capable of running a marathon. Conversely, in
those same cities, if I'm lucky I might be able to find 50 people that can run 4.4 seconds
over 40 yards or vertical jump 40 inches....if that many.
Now, just imagine what would happen if you took Player A and "appropriately"
conditioned him with the right stuff at the right time of the year so that he could sustain
his performance at a level close to player B? He'd be running circles around everyone
and jumping over everyone throughout all 4 quarters.
Don’t Go Overboard……
Now, all this doesn't mean you should sit on your butt and turn into a fat out of
shape slob during the off-season because you're totally paranoid about any conditioning
work interfering with your gains. A modicum of conditioning should be maintained year
around and you can develop a level of conditioning that’ll make you like an energizer
bunny in your sport, you just have to approach it the right way. You have to build the
power first and add the intensive conditioning at the right time. As I mentioned earlier,
there's a big difference between maintaining a decent level of conditioning while
improving power and strength, versus trying to vastly improve conditioning while also
trying to simultaneously improve power and strength. In the first case your gains will be
good. In the second case they’ll likely be non-existent.
The correct approach to improving your game conditioning is to lay down your
strength, power, and speed first, then work on maintaining those qualities while you take
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a short time to bring up your conditioning. Since this manual is about IMPROVING
your speed, I'm mainly gonna talk about the type of conditioning you can do that won't
interfere with that. Additionally, I'll also give a few examples of how to go about really
boosting your conditioning when it's time to get in game shape for your sport.
How To Implement Conditioning Without Interfering With
Speed, Strength and Power?
During the off-season when your focus is on strength, power, and speed it’s ok to
add in some extra conditioning work, you just have to make sure you don’t go overboard
to the point where it interferes with your gains. If implemented correctly and at optimal
volumes, the addition of .onc .onc .onc .onc lower intensity work can serve to maintain your
conditioning, keep you lean, and even improve recovery.
So how do we get the benefits of extra conditioning work without stimulating
negative endurance adaptations? Well, we do the following things:
A: We have to make sure we give our fast twitch muscles and our nervous system time
to recover between bouts of intense exercise. High intensity speed training can be
considered any speed training activity where you run at 80% or more of maximum effort
or speed. Other intense forms of training include weight training, moderate to high-
intensity plyometric work, and intense agility training. Putting out this level of effort is
not only demanding on muscular system, but more importantly, it is very demanding on
the central nervous system. The central nervous system requires about 48 hours for
recovery after high intensity activity! Therefore, if you try to train at high intensity for 2
days in a row you’ll be apt to run into problems with recovery. In order to avoid burnout
while still being in a position to incorporate extra training on your off days, you must
make sure the extra conditioning work you do is performed at a lower level of effort -
otherwise it will interfere with your recovery.
B: The primary stress that causes fast explosive oriented muscle fibers to transfer into
slower endurance oriented muscle fibers is bathing the fast twitch muscles in lactic acid.
This occurs with intensive intervals like traditional gassers and other intense aerobic
work, where the level of effort is high and the level of muscular recruitment is fairly high,
yet so is the fatigue level and burn. This type of work not only recruits a lot of fast
twitch muscle fiber but also stimulates a lot of lactic acid accumulation. Lactic acid is
what gives you the “burn” whenever you run intense intervals. Intensive means the
workout gets progressively harder because of pace and/or volume and you leave the
workout feeling dead tired. Therefore, when our focus is on increasing neuromuscular
qualities like strength, power, speed, and explosiveness, we want to avoid this type of
intensive conditioning work and make sure we engage in extensive conditioning work,
which doesn’t recruit the fast twitch fibers and doesn’t bathe them in lactic acid. Our fast
twitch muscle fibers get recruited plenty from our speed, power, and strength training
work. Recruiting them even more through conditioning work just tells them, “Ok boys
you need to trade some of your explosiveness for some endurance.” That’s not what you
want.
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C: To avoid unnecessary negative adaptations, you’ll want to emphasize intensive (a.k.a.
– puke inducing) type conditioning only at certain times of the year such as the late off-
season and preseason. The rest of the time you’ll want to emphasize extensive
conditioning work.
Extensive conditioning work- also called tempo work, is any fairly low to moderate
effort work that stimulates recovery, work capacity development, and elevates or
maintains your fitness state without detracting from your specific training goals.
Extensive tempo can be viewed in many different ways and achieved in many different
ways. The two ways I view it:

1) A way to increase fitness and work capacity
2) A regeneration tool from harder work
Extensive means the workout can be finished and you can leave feeling refreshed. During
the off-season if you choose to engage in extensive conditioning work it should be
performed at an intensity and volume low enough that you feel better afterwards and
don’t wear yourself out to the point that you leave the workout not being able to perform
as good as you did at the beginning of the workout. An extensive tempo day should not
have you throwing up or feeling dead.
Ideally, we want to stimulate the cardiovascular system, improve blood flow to
the muscles, and stay active - but we want to do so in a manner that is speed specific
without being too demanding on either the muscular or the central nervous system.
This type of work also has other benefits as well. It serves as a form of active
recovery, enhancing blood flow and increasing capillary density in the musculature. It
stimulates the metabolism, and promotes a lean body composition.
Extensive Conditioning Options
You have several options at your disposal. One of them is to simply engage in
your sport at a lower level of effort. A football player might go out a couple of days per
week and run some pass routes. A basketball player might go out and work on his ball
handling or engage in some shooting skill work. Not exactly hardcore, but better than
nothing.

Another obvious option is running. You can run over fairly short distances (100-
400 yards/meters) at a lower level of effort (60-70% of max speed) with fairly short rest
intervals between runs (30-45 seconds).

Guidelines For Speed of Extensive Conditioning Session

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The speed at which you perform these runs is important. If you perform them too
fast (over 80% of max effort), you recruit the fast twitch muscle fibers and that will
hamper your ability to recover from your main training session. Regular interval
training methods do exactly this. The speed is too fast and too demanding to fully allow
recovery to take place, but too slow to improve speed. If you run at 65-75% of maximum
speed, the speed is fast enough to stay sprint specific, and slow enough as to not be too
draining on the muscular or nervous system. The pace should be done so that you’re
running smoothly and effortlessly - going faster then a jog but not an all out sprint. The
last run should be just as easy as the first. If not, you’re probably creating excessive
fatigue and need to cut down on speed. Because we want to emphasize recovery and not
speed it’s also a good idea to do this training on a soft surface such as grass or sand, so
that you can avoid excessive wear and tear on the feet.

Guidelines For Rest Intervals

With extensive tempo work, you can stimulate the cardiovascular system by using
fairly short rest intervals. The rest intervals should be set up so that they are short enough
that you place some strain on your cardiovascular system, but long enough so that your
muscular system stays relatively fresh. If you’re generating a lot of lactic acid in your
legs, or getting a burn, you need to rest longer between runs. You should be breathing
fairly hard yet your muscles should not be trashed.

Guidelines For Volume

The volume should be set so that you stay sprint specific and get a workout in
without generating a lot of excessive fatigue. For a 100-meter sprinter, total volumes
generally run 1000-3000 meters total over a session. I recommend most people stick to
volumes around 1000-2000 yards total.

Examples of workouts

Here are some sample extensive running workouts you can use:

Option 1:
3 sets of 5x110 yard runs at 60-70% max speed
rest :30 seconds between each sprint
After each set of 5 sprints walk 110 yards

Option 2:
8 sets of 220-yard runs at 60-70%
:45 seconds rest between runs

Option 3:
+ denotes 50 yard walk
set #1 100+100+100
set #2 100+200+100
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set #3 200+100+200
set#4 100+200+100
set#5 100+100+100

rest 1:30 between each set.

Option 4:
150-yard shuttle runs at 70% max effort. (change directions every 25 yards)
4-8 total sets with 1:00 rests between each one.

The main focus during tempo runs is on running but we can also get creative and throw in
various other activities such as calisthenics or any type of activity that is stimulating yet
not too demanding. Here are some ideas:

Treadmill walking - Any cardiovascular activity that you do at 75% or less of your
maximum heart rate and DOESN'T put a lot of pounding on your feet or create a lot of
lactic acid (burn) is OK. Walking on the treadmill, stairclimbing etc. are all fine to use as
"tempo" variations for 20-30 minutes. What you want to avoid is this type of long
duration cardio performed at a rapid pace.

Treadmill Intervals – You can also do interval sprints on the treadmill. Sprint 20-30
seconds at 10 mph followed by a 1-minute walk. Go for 20-30 minutes total

Rowing - Hey try the rowing machine at your gym every once in a while. You might
enjoy it.

Heavy Bag Work - Not only is this fun but it will also give you a great workout and is a
heckuva lot funner than moving along aimlessly on a treadmill. Work on your jabs, right
crosses, and hooks. When you become proficient at these start adding in other
combinations. Go anywhere from 1-3 minutes with about 1 minute rest intervals each
round. Go for about 20-30 minutes total

Sledgehammer Work - Get a sledgehammer and beat the heck out of an old tire with it.
You can either go for time or number of strikes. I recommend either an 8-12 lb
sledgehammer to start off with. Focus on 2 different strikes - a diagonal strike and
vertical strike. Swing left handed and right handed. The form is natural for most people
and is basically like swinging an axe. I like to use rounds of 1-3 minutes just like with the
heavy bag work. A good pace is about 30-40 strikes per minute. Rest for 1 minute in
between sets and repeat for 3-6 total sets.

Swimming - Use the stroke of your choice and either go for time or for intervals. The
more proficient at your stroke you are, the longer you can go. I recommend beginners tart
off with intervals. Swim a couple of laps, rest a minute, and repeat. Gradually build up
your capacity. If you're quite proficient you can also vary your strokes every couple of
laps.

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Sandbag Lifting - This is definitely an old school way of getting a conditioning workout
in. You'll need a bag and a table. A Fifty to 70 pound sandbag oughta be about right for
most people. Remember we're not trying to set any records here and we don't want to get
injured, we just want to get a decent workout in. So don't try to use a bag so heavy that
it's gonna fry your lower back. The tailgate of a truck works fine as a table. Simply take a
sandbag off the ground, pick it up and set it on a table, then pick it back up and set it
down. Start off with about 30-50 repetitions per set and increase as your capacity grows.

Medicine Ball Complexes - If you have a wall or a partner and a 5 to 15 pound medicine
ball you can put together a great workout. Here’s an example:

Perform 10 reps of each exercise. Perform the entire circuit non-stop or with very shorts
rest intervals (10-30 seconds) between exercises. After completion of the circuit, rest 1
minute and repeat for 3-5 circuits.

Med ball chest pass feet stationary
Chest pass stepping left leg forward
Chest pass stepping right leg forward
Overhead pass stationary
Overhead pass stepping left leg forward
Overhead pass stepping right leg forward
Scoop toss - (throw straight up in the air and catch)
Twisting toss left
Twisting toss right
Slam toss (slam into the ground)

You can also mix medicine ball complexes with light running. For example, a great
tempo workout for a football team is to perform a med ball exercise, jog 55 yards across
the field, perform another med. ball exercise, and continue in that fashion for 10 or so
circuits.

Calisthenic or mobility circuits

Put together a series of calisthenic or mobility movements in combination and
perform them one right after another. I recommend you go for 3-4 minutes total per set
with 30 seconds to 1 minute per movement. After each round, take a 1-minute break and
repeat. Some possible exercises you can throw together include:

Jumping jacks, bodyweight squats, alternate lunges, straight leg front kicks, burpees, run
in place, run in place with high knees, mountain climbers, situps, slalom jump, shuffle
splits, roundhouse kick, good morning, skip in place, pushup, v-up, twisting lunge, duck
back and forth under imaginary hurdle, slalom jumps.

Jump rope- This is a great activity but due to the impact forces this is an activity that big
guys might want to reconsider. I recommend you build towards doing 3-minute rounds
with 1-minute breaks in between rounds. Repeat for 6 rounds total.
96

With all these variations you should have plenty of options to choose from and
shouldn’t ever get bored. In addition to the options already mentioned you also have
plenty of other options available such as: Slideboards, kettlebell swings, and tennis. Don't
be afraid to get creative and throw things together. Often what I like to have people do is
take a few of the above variations, put them together in stations, and go from station to
station with 1-minute rest intervals. We might start off with heavy bag boxing for 3
minutes, jump rope for 3 minutes, med-ball tosses for 3-minutes, agility ladder for 3
minutes, sledgehammer strike for 3 minutes, calisthenics for 3 minutes, and repeat the
entire circuit for 20-30 minutes total with 1 minutes rest between each station. Don’t be
afraid to get creative.


Guidelines for Frequency of Extensive “Tempo” Workouts

These workouts are optional and when your {o.v. {o.v. {o.v. {o.v. is on building your speed they
should be done depending upon how motivated you are to train. If you are tired and
don’t feel like training then don’t!! However, if you’re on an off day and feel like doing
something a low intensity session is a good way to get some training in without running
yourself into the ground and interfering with your next major speed or strength workout.
The maximum volume I recommend for these extra workouts is 3 times per week. I
generally feel more comfortable prescribing them once or twice per week. On the
programs laid out earlier in this manual, conditioning can be implemented on Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday. You don’t have to necessarily stick with the tempo
workouts I’ve laid out, these are just examples. The combinations are endless but the
guidelines should stay the same. Remember the goal is to get some blood flowing
without getting overly intensive.













97
Part II- Getting in Game Shape, Improving Game Speed,
Agility, and Quickness

Intensive Conditioning – Getting in Game Shape

If you've followed my guidelines thus far, you know you should focus on
building your speed, power, and strength during the off-season while you maintain some
basic fitness with extensive conditioning or "tempo" work. A few months prior to your
season you’d begin introducing some specific conditioning work. This is the intensive
type of conditioning I was referring to earlier specifically designed to get you in game
shape. The focus on intensive conditioning is getting you ready to play. This is where
you’d introduce more traditional high effort, puke inducing, conditioning methods such
as gassers and such.

In an ideal situation you'd have spent the bulk of your off-season dramatically
improving your strength, speed, power, and explosiveness. Thus, entering your pre-
season you'd have those qualities in place and would only need to maintain them.
Depending on the sport, I'd begin introducing intensive conditioning 2-3 months prior to
preseason workouts. The more aerobic the sport and the more out of shape you are, the
sooner you'd need to start specific conditioning. For a football player who needed to
report to preseason in awesome game shape I'd introduce them 6-8 weeks prior to camp.
For another football player who could use the preseason as a means to get in game shape
we might just introduce them a few weeks ahead of time. What about basketball players?
Well, the basketball player in all likelihood could simply play more basketball and play
himself into shape. :)

So, how do we go about introducing intensive conditioning? Does that mean
we’d break out the boot camp mentality and engage in lots of intense 3-mile runs and the
like? Absolutely not! In fact, for sports like football, volleyball, soccer, and even
basketball, you can improve both the aerobic and anaerobic system through anaerobic
work. There is NO need for concentrated low intensity work such as the age old popular
long duration jogging. Therefore, for a football player, that would generally mean
sometime between mid-May and June we'd add in one day per week of intensive
anaerobic conditioning, such as sprints or agility drills, performed with short rest
intervals. During this time, we'd still be training to improve our general speed,
explosiveness and strength. Thus, the focus of our workout would stay the same. In July,
however, we'd increase the volume of weekly conditioning to 2-3 sessions and we'd then
look to maintain our strength, speed, and power via reductions in volume, while our
focus shifts towards improving game type conditioning. What follows is an example of a
weekly set-up for a football player during the last month of off-season:



98
July – Mid-August (focus: Improve conditioning – Maintain strength, speed, and
explosiveness)

Mon: Upper body lifting, anaerobic conditioning using sprint intervals
Tues: Lower body lifting
Wed: Anaerobic conditioning using football agility drills
Thurs: Upper Body lifting
Friday: Off
Sat: Anaerobic conditioning

** For more information on the entire process of addressing off-season training needs with appropriate conditioning, I recommend
Eric Cressey’s Ultimate Offseason Training Manual.

Examples of anaerobic conditioning methods include:

Agility drills: Perform maximum effort agility drills with short rest intervals. An
example might be a simple 40-yard shuttle drill where you sprint 10 yards, shuffle 10
yards, backpedal 10 yards, and sprint forward 10. Perform 6-10 sets per workout. Start
off with 40-second rest intervals and progress down to 15-20 second rest intervals.
Subtract 5 seconds rest per week. Any type of agility drill can easily be used as a
conditioning method. Others include a 10 yard backpedal into a 5-10-5 sprint.

Sprints:

Option A: Run 40-yard repeats at max (or near max) speed with short rest intervals of
30 seconds. Stop when you drop more than .5 seconds off your best time. Rest 3
minutes and repeat.

Option B: Use the same examples I gave for extensive intervals but increase the speed
and reduce the rest interval:

Example: + denotes 25 yard walk
set #1 100+100+100
set #2 100+200+100
set #3 200+100+200
set #4 100+200+100
set #5 100+100+100

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Run each sprint at a fairly high effort. Rest 1:30 between each set subtracting 15 seconds
per workout until you're down to 45 seconds.

Improving Game Speed

I know I've spent this entire manual telling you how to get faster and boost your
sprinting speed, but now I wanna talk about using what you've learned to improve your
game speed. Game speed consists of physical qualities like linear speed, lateral speed,
agility, quickness, reaction time and overall athleticism. These physical attributes will
then be magnified by mental qualities like knowledge and attitude.

Unfortunately, I can't do a whole lot for your knowledge or attitude in your
chosen sport - that's up to you. In my opinion, attitude is best developed with confidence
and the way you become a confident athlete is by paying your dues and becoming a
student of your sport. If you're a football player that means knowing what the heck
you're doing on the football field and mastering the technique required of your position.
If you're a basketball player that means hours and hours of practice. The same goes for
any other sport. The greater the degree of mastery you have in your sport, the more
confidence you will have. You’ll play faster because you will be able to react
instinctually instead of having to think about everything.

When you're in a high-pressure situation and the adrenaline is flowing you'll
instinctively tend to revert to the things that come to you instinctually. Ever heard of
accomplished martial artists getting whipped in bar fights against ordinary Joes? Unless
the black belt is the type who has a lot of actual street fighting experience most of the
time when he gets in a street fight the majority of his training will go out the window. If
he's lucky, he'll revert to 1 or 2 moves he feels most comfortable with that have become
part of his instinct. It’s possible he'll forget EVERYTHING he ever learned in the dojo.
The same thing happens with athletes. Throw them into a high-pressure situation and
they'll revert to the few things that come to them instinctively. Part of becoming a great
athlete is expanding your instincts so that the things you do become 2nd nature. The way
you do that is through repetition, confidence, and plenty of exposure to game type
conditions.

I’m sure you could take Steve Nash and line him up against every other point
guard in the NBA and put them all through a battery of tests designed to evaluate their
athleticism - a sprint, agility drill, vertical jump, or what have you. If you were to do that
I guarantee Nash would finish last in just about every category. Yet Nash can PLAY the
game of basketball extremely fast because he is so in tune with what he's doing on the
court. The same goes for a guy like John Lynch in football. He's probably one of the
slowest safeties in the league but he plays extremely fast because he's such a student of
the game and knows exactly what he’s doing on each and every play. Becoming a
student of your sport is up to you. What I can do is give you the knowledge you need to
improve your various physical qualities and hopefully you can put that together with your
ability to play your chosen sport and really become a game breaker.

100
Improving Quickness

First let's talk about quickness. Technically, quickness is the ability to move in
the absence of much external force and without any wind-up. How fast are your hands
and feet in simple unloaded movements? A person can be very quick but not really fast
in a sprinting sense, and vice versa. From a technical standpoint, there's a very strong
genetic component when it comes to being quick. As I mentioned earlier, take a group of
athletes and see how many times they can stand and tap their feet in place over a given
interval. Or see how many punches you can throw in a given time interval.
Measurements like those are good measurements of pure quickness. If you aren’t
naturally all that quick there's not a whole lot you can do about it - at least not if you're
referring to the technical definition of "quick".

However, in the real world, quickness is really just another name for reaction
time and first step explosiveness. Reaction time refers to how long it takes you to react
to a stimulus. Think of a sprinter reacting to the gun going off. The reaction range is
typically 0.2 to 0.3 seconds and is improvable around 10 to 20%. The younger and less
coordinated the athlete, the greater the potential for improvements. Probably the best real
world way you improve your reaction time is by mastering your sport – Know what’s
going on and be in the right position to make a play.

A form of over-speed training can also be of use for those that have access to it.
With this type of training you learn to react to things that move much faster than those
that occur in your sport. A baseball player might take batting practice while using a
special pitching machine that throws pitches at 130 to 150 miles per hour. His brain
would adapt to seeing the faster pitches. In turn, this would improve his ability to react to
a 90 to 100 mile an hour pitch. A NASCAR driver might use a special driver simulation
device that mimicks driving a race car at 200 plus miles per hour. This makes driving at
130 miles per hour seem slow and easy by comparison. You don’t necessarily need a
special machine. For example, an offensive tackle who has bad reaction time and
continuously gets beat off the ball against defensive ends might practice pass protection
drills against speedier linebacker types. Their greater speed would improve his ability to
react to the slower defensive end.

The way you improve first step explosiveness is by boosting the same qualities
that make you fast and apply them to the movements in your sport. With all things being
equal, a fast athlete will always have an advantage over a slower athlete in first step
explosiveness. In other words, if you were a defensive back and you were playing in a
deep zone, who would you rather have catch the ball in front of you: The 5.2 second 40-
yard dash guy or the 4.2 guy? Case closed.

Next, let's talk about agility and overall athleticism.

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Improving Agility

Agility and overall athleticism influence your ability to cut, change direction, stop
on a dime, accelerate, and do all those other things most people refer to when they refer
to game speed.

Fortunately, the same training principles and core motor abilities that improve
linear speed will also improve agility. The only other thing that needs to be incorporated
when seeking agility is the skill needed to properly carry out the agility movements
themselves. In other words, improvements in agility come about through the same core
qualities that bring about improvements in linear speed - those being improvements in
explosive power. The only factor that really separates the 2 is the application of your
speed and power. You must be able to apply your speed and power towards properly
carrying out the actual movements that you want to be agile on. Let's use a real world
example:

Take an olympic 100-meter sprint champion, throw him on an NFL football field
as a cornerback, and ask him to cover receivers and move like a cornerback is supposed
to move. Even though he's obviously fast and athletic enough is he gonna be very good
at it? Probably not! He'll probably be stumbling all over the place and will likely find it
extremely difficult to carry out the moves of a cornerback. Yet give him a year or 2 to
practice and master the specific movements a defensive back needs and he'll probably be
pretty good at it, simply because he already has the core speed and quickness necessary to
do so. Let's use another example: Take 2 groups of 5 people and time them on a 20-yard
shuttle drill. Let's say neither one of these groups has ever done the shuttle before. All
you know is that one group averages a 4.5 second 40-yard dash and the other group
averages a 5.0 second 40-yard dash. Which group do you think will have the fastest 20-
yard shuttle times? Definitely the 4.5 group.

The best way to improve agility as it relates to your sport is to focus on
optimizing your motor abilities, such as explosive strength and reactivity, while
perfecting the no.c. no.c. no.c. no.c. required in your sport. If you were a defensive back you'd practice
covering receivers. If you were a running back you’d practice running around tacklers.
If you're a basketball player practice driving to the hole or defending an opponent. You
obviously can't always do this year around in all sports, but providing you take the time
and recovery necessary to boost your general motor qualities (strength, explosiveness -
the same qualities that make you run faster), actually ¡v·ìi.i¡vìin¡ ¡v·ìi.i¡vìin¡ ¡v·ìi.i¡vìin¡ ¡v·ìi.i¡vìin¡ in your sport will vì.v,. vì.v,. vì.v,. vì.v,.
be the best way to improve your agility in a given sport. No amount of specific agility
DRILLS can match the real thing.

What About Agility “Drills”?

Having said that, the benefit of using agility drills is they allow you to duplicate
some of the movements that occur in your sport if you don't have the option of working
102
with a real live opponent, and, even if you do have live opponents to work with, they
allow you to zero in on a particular movement pattern. That's why football players go
through such a wide variety of drills during pre-season practices. Not only do they
practice against live opponents, but they also break down the specific moves and
movement patterns required of them and seek to improve those movements or isolated
parts of those movements.

When most of us think of agility drills we probably think of a course full of cones
or bags that we go out and run through in a pre-determined pattern. Drills like these are
called closed-loop drills. These can be helpful to make sure your body can carry out a
movement and they can also be effective as conditioning tools, but the BEST way to run
agility DRILLS is to utilize drills where you have to react to a signal or command in a
reactionary fashion. These are called open-loop drills. For example, a defensive back
might pack-pedal at the snap and break right or left depending upon a coaches signal.

If you feel you need specific agility and quickness drills keep the following points
in mind:

1. Just like the act of sprinting itself, once a given level of proficiency has been reached,
you DON'T need to spend all year out on your feet doing various drills. Don't let them
interfere with your improvement in more general motor qualities. In other words, if
you're a football player, the first few months of your off-season is a time to improve your
general motor qualities such as strength and power, and IS NOT the time you need to be
out in the heat running hours of conditioning and agility drills every day. The time for
agility drills is during the late off-season and pre-season. Use the off-season to improve
your strength and speed. Often the best way to get faster and more agile is to simply get
stronger overall. As a general rule of thumb, many athletes can see dramatic
improvements in both linear and lateral speed and agility without training these qualities
directly with traditional drills. This is obvious if you take a weak and scrawny athlete
and focus on strengthening his lower body for an entire off-season. Throw him back out
on the track and he’s floating like never before and his mechanics are better then ever
before. He’s more explosive, quicker, and is 10 times more agile then before. He didn’t
improve from performing drills, he improved by getting a bigger and more powerful
motor.

2. Generally speaking, during the off-season, unless an athlete is significantly deficient in
them, both speed work and lateral movement work (agility) sessions should be performed
only once or twice per week. Traditional speed and agility drills can be more valuable for
those athletes with favorable strength qualities, muscular balance, and dynamic
flexibility, but poor sprinting speed and agility. These athletes would want to engage in
some type of movement work a minimum of 3 days per week and often as frequently as 6
days per week.

3. Keep the distances and length per set specific to your sport. A football player would
run an assortment of drills 5-10 seconds long since that's the average length of a play.

103
4. When IMPROVEMENT in agility is a goal, take full recoveries between sets and
stop the workout prior to or as soon as your performance starts to decline. It is important
to allow complete or near-complete recovery between sets in all movement training.

5. If you’re using agility drills as a form of conditioning work, disregard #4.

6. If the goal is to improve agility AND conditioning, start the workout off performing
high quality repetitions with full recovery where the focus in on improvement. Finish up
with the conditioning.

7. Always take a day off in between bouts of intense agility work.**

8. If you're going to mix linear speed with agility training, do the agility first.

9. Get creative with the drills. Grab some cones and make up obstacle courses or
whatever you wanna do. There are no shortage of agility drills out there.

10. Youngsters and those who struggle with heavy feet can benefit the most from
traditional closed loop agility type drills. These include things like agility ladders, dot
drills, hurdle drills, cone drills etc. They can also do them more frequently. (every day or
every other day)

11. More advanced athletes should use reactionary drills, where they have to react to a
signal or command.

**By”intense”, I’m referring to drills that incorporate a lot of explosiveness, knee bending, and stopping on a dime (deceleration). A
20-yard shuttle run would be an example of an intense agility drill. Agility ladders and dot drills would not considered intense since
there isn’t much intense stopping and changing direction.

Sample Off-season workouts for football

What follows are examples of fairly detailed off-season workouts that I have used
with football players. Although I had a football player in mind when I wrote them, they
can be utilized by athletes in any sport requiring speed, strength, and size. Football is a
special sport because realistically, it can be just as much about bodybuilding as it is
performing. Yes I did say bodybuilding there. Football players not only have to be
faster and stronger every year, but they often gotta get significantly bigger too. How
many times have you heard a football coach say, “Son, I want you at (fill in the blank
bodyweight) next year.” With that in mind, what I’m going to lay out next is a sample 12
week off-season program for football where the focus is not only on getting stronger,
faster, and more explosive, - but also a tad bigger too. ***

When a person has accumulated some training experience and has reached a point
where training all the major qualities with equal volumes throughout a training week no
longer works quite so well, that is the time when more focus addressing the deficiencies
of a given athlete will be the best course of action to take for increased performance. As I
mentioned earlier, if you’re stronger then you are fast you’ll tend to improve athleticism
104
by focusing a bit more on your speed and explosiveness. If you are faster then you are
strong you’ll tend to improve by increasing your strength. But what if you need to get
bigger, stronger, and faster? Then you have to approach things a tad differently. The
following 12-week workouts include sample workouts for strength-dominant athletes
and workouts for speed-dominant athletes. Each 12-week workout is broken down into
three 4-week phases.

The main difference in the training of the speed dominant athlete and that of the
strength dominant athlete is the latter (strength dominant) needs to spend a bit more time
on his feet working on things related to his movement proficiency and general
explosiveness. The former (speed dominant) can focus more on pure strength and
hypertrophy work. Despite considerable differences in the structure of the following
programs between the 2 groups throughout the first 8 weeks, the final 4-week phase
appears quite similar, as both groups will be working towards some personal records in
various field tests. At the conclusion of the programs not only should athletes following
these workouts be bigger and stronger, but they’ll hopefully finish up having set some
PR’s in the 40, vertical jump, and agility drills.

In my opinion a football player should have his speed and explosiveness in place
just prior to the time when he starts implementing his conditioning work, which might be
early June or might be July. Assuming one could start base off-season training in January
and assuming they’d start conditioning in June, that would allow approximately 20 weeks
of off-season workouts. I’ve given examples for 12 weeks here. For a 20-week off-
season a person might perform phase 1, 2, and 3 over twelve weeks then repeat phase 1
and phase 3 once more over the final 8 weeks. Someone with a slightly longer off-season
might have time to go through each phase twice. Remember, even though there is quite a
bit of individuality written into the programs these are just examples and can’t be perfect
for everyone.

*** With the increased size aspect in mind, during phase I of the following workouts the most important thing an athlete can do is
make sure he takes in enough nutrition. The focus should really be on taking a no-holds barred attitude when it comes to tieing on the
feed bag and getting that scale weight up.












105

Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase I

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
Single leg lateral line jump
(hop back and forth quickly
over a line)


Altitude drop jump into lunge
landing on balls of feet (use
box up to the height of your
best vertical jump)
3x10
seconds/leg

3x6/leg
3x 10 seconds


4x6
3 x 10
seconds

4x6
2 x 10
seconds

eliminate
A) Snatch Grip Deadlift 3x5 4 x 3 4x2
3x3 (should
be easy)
B) DB Bulgarian Split Squat 2x6/leg 2x6 2x6 1 x 6
C1) Weighted Glute-Ham
Raise, Reverse Hyper, or leg
curl
3x8 3x8 3x8 2x8 (easy)
C2) Decline leg raise 2x max reps 3x max reps 3 x max reps 3 x max reps

Tuesday: Rest day, Skill work
or tempo


Wednesday: Upper Body
Power Skipping into sprint


Single leg on box Jump (jumps
onto a box)
3x25 yards
skip/25 yards
sprint

4x5/leg
4x25/25 yards



4x5
4 x 25/25
yards


4 x 5
2 x 25/25



2 x 5
A1) Incline Press 3x 8 4 x 6 4 x 3
3x 3 (light
weight) -
should be
easy)
106
A2) Chest-Supported Row -
Pronated Grip
3x8 4x8 4x8 2x8 (easy)
B1) Incline trap raise 3x15/side 3x15/side 3x15/side 3x15/side
B2) Full Contact Twist 3x8/side 2x8/side 4x8/side 2x8/side
Optional beach work: 10
minutes biceps, triceps,
“beach” muscles



Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase I

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Rest day, Skill
work, or tempo


Friday:
Single-leg Lateral/medial Box
Jump (onto a box from the left
and from the right)
3x5/side
4x5/side

4x5/side 2 x 5/side
Lateral depth drop on toes
(step off box to the side and
land up on the balls of the feet)
3x8/side
3x6/side
(higher box)
4x8/side 2 x 8
A) Box Squat 6 x 2 at 60% 6x2 at 55% 6 x 2 at 50% 4 x 2 at 60%
B) Single Leg RDL 2x5/side 3x5 3x5 2x5
C) DB Step-up 2 x 6/side 2x6/side 2x6/side Eliminate
D) Side bridge hold 2 x 30s/side 3 x 30s/side 3 x 30s/side 2 x 30s/side

Saturday:
A1) Speed Bench Press – Max
Reps in 10 seconds
3 sets at 65%
1RM
4 sets at 65% 4 sets at 65% 2 sets at 65%
A2) Close Grip Chin-up 3x5 4x5 4x5 2 x 5
B1) Incline Barbell front raise 3 x 6-10 3 x 6-10 3 x 6-10 2 x 6-10
107
C1) side cable external
Rotation
3x12/side 3x12/side 3x12/side 2 x12/side
Optional Beach work: 10
minutes arms, delts etc.



Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase II

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
Lateral Barrier Jump (knee high
barrier)

Single leg triple jump (take 3
hops forward on one leg)
3x10

4 sets/leg
3x10

4 sets/leg
3x10

4 sets/leg
3 x 10

eliminate
A) Low Bar Power Squat 4 x 3 5 x 2
5 x 1
(working up
to max single)
3x3 (should
be easy)
B) Glute Ham, Reverse Hyper, or
cable pull through
2x6 3x6 3x6 2x6 (easy)
C) Hanging knee raise 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps

Tuesday: off day, skill work, or
tempo,


Wednesday: Upper Body
Standing Knees to Chest Tuck
Jumps
3x5 4x5 4x5 2 x 5
Lateral barrier jump + 10-yard
Sprint (jump over cone, chair or
other obstacle and immediately
sprint forward)
3 sets 4 sets 4 sets 2 x 5
A1) Barbell Floor Press 4 x 3 5 x 2 5 x 1 3 x 3 (easy)
B1) Flat DB Press 2 x 6 2 x 6 2 x 6
2 x 6 (easy
light weight)
108
B2) One-Arm DB Row 3x6/side 3x5/side 3x6/side
2x6/side
(easy)
C1) High to low cable woodchop 2x10/side 3x10/side 3x10/side 2x10/side
Optional Beach Work: 10
minutes biceps, triceps, delts etc.


Strength DominantAthlete: Phase II

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Off day, skill work, or
tempo


Friday: Lower Body
Single leg 4 star hop (hop around
in a square)

50 yard sprints at 80% max speed
4 x 20
seconds/leg

3-4 sprint reps
4 x 20
seconds

3-4
4 x 20
seconds

3-4
2 x 20
seconds

3-4
A) Barbell Jump Squat
4 x 5 @ 30%
of 1RM squat
4x5 @ 25% 4x5@ 25% 3 x 5@15%
B) Dumbell reverse lunge (step-
back lunge)
2 x 5/side 3 x 5/side 3 x 5/side Eliminate
C) Cable Pull through, reverse
hyperextension, or glute-ham
raise
2x10 3 x 10 3x10 2x10
D) V-sit 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps
Saturday: Upper Body
A1) Seated semi-supinated DB
Press
3x4 4x4 5x4 2x5
A2) (Weighted) Mid-Grip Pull-up 3x4 4x4 5x2 2 x 5 (easy)
B1) Prone Trap Raise 3x12 3x12 3x12 2x12
C1) Side raise lying in back
extension device
2 x max reps
per side
2 x max reps
per side
2 x max reps
per side
2 x max reps
per side
Optional 10 minutes beach work



109
Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase III

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
20 yard dash


Depth jump for maximum height
- Find box height that maximizes
jump height.
Stop at first
sign of
performance
drop-off

4 x 3
Same




4 x 3
Same




4 x 3
Same




4 x 3
A) Deadlift 2 x 3 3 x 2 2 x 2 at 80% eliminate
B) Peterson step-up (low box
step-up) use box approximately
mid-shin level in height – use a
controlled 3-5 second eccentric
tempo
2 x 12-15/leg 3x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg eliminate
C1) Reactive Glute-Ham Raise
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
4 x max reps
in 10 seconds
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
C2) Cable pull-ins 2 x 15-20 3x 15-20 3x 15-20 2 x 15-20

Tuesday: off, skill work, or
tempo


Wednesday: Upper Body
Pro-Agility (5-10-5 Drill)
Stop at first
sign of drop-
off
Same same same
A1) Decline Bench Press 3x5 4x5 5 x 3 2x 5
B1) Chest supported row 3x8 4x6 4x8 2 x 8
B2) Decline Tricep extension 2x10 2x10 2x10 eliminate
C1) Face Pull 3x10 3x10 3x10 3x10
C2) Medium Cable Woodchop 2x10 2x10 3x10 2x10
110


Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase III

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Rest, Skill work, or
tempo


Friday: Lower Body



40 yard dash
Stop at first
sign of
performance
dropoff
To first sign
of dropoff
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of dropoff
A1) Squat
2 x 3 at 85-
90%
3 x 2 at 85-
90%
eliminate eliminate
A2) Single leg back extension 2x10 2x10 eliminate eliminate
Saturday: Upper Body
Depth jump for maximum height
- Find box height that maximizes
jump height.
Stop at first
sign of
performance
drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
A1) Push Press 3 x 5 4 x 4 5 x 3 2 x 4 (easy)
A2) Wide Grip Sternum Pullup 3 x max reps 4x max reps 4 x max reps
2 x max reps
(easy)
B1) Incline DB Lateral 3x12 3x12 3x12 2 x 12
B2) Cable external rotation 3x12 3x12 3x12 2x10









111
Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase I

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
Depth drop landing on balls of
feet – (use box equaling best
vertical jump height)

A) Snatch Grip Deadlift
4 x 4



4 x 5
4 x 4



4 x 4
4 x 4


3 x 1
2 x 3
2 x 4



3x 3 (easy)
B) DB Bulgarian Split Squat 2x8/side 3x8/side 3x8/side
2x8/side
(easy)
C1) Glute-Ham Raise, Reverse
hyper, or Leg curl
4x8 3x8 4x8 2x8 (easy)
C2) Decline Leg raise 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12

Tuesday: Off day, Skill work
or tempo (your choice)


Wednesday: Upper Body -
A1) Neutral Grip DB Bench
Press
3x8 4x8 4x8 2x8 (easy)
A2) Chest-Supported Row -
Pronated Grip
3x8 4x8 4x8 2x8 (easy)
B1) Single arm cable lateral 3x12/side 3x12/side 3x12/side 2x12/side
B2) Prone Trap Raise 3x12-15 3x12-15 3x12-15 2x12-15
C) Decline Russian twist with
med/ball
2x 15-20 3 x 15-20 3 x 15-20 2 x 15-20
Optional 10 minutes beach
work (biceps, triceps, etc.)



112

Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase I

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Off day, skill
work, or tempo


Friday: Lower Body
Depth Drop into Lunge Stance
(landing on balls of feet)

A) Front Squat
4 x 4/side


4 x 3
4 x 4/side


5 x 2
4 x 4/side


4 x 1
2 x 4/side


3 x 2 (easy)
B) Russian Good morning
(close stance arched back good
morning)
2 x 6 3x5 3 x 6 2x5
C) Side raise lying in back
extension device
2 x max reps/
side
2 x max
reps/side
2 x max
reps/side
2 x max
reps/side

Saturday: Upper Body
A1) Bench Press - max reps at
bodyweight (as many reps as
possible with bodyweight)
2 sets 3 sets 4 sets 2 sets
A2) Bodyweight pull-ups –
max reps with bodyweight
2 sets 3 sets 4 sets 2 sets
B1) Bicep exercise of choice 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10
B2) Tricep exercise of choice 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10
C1) Side lying DB external
rotation
2 x 12-15 2 x 12-15 2 x 12-15 2 x 12-15









113
Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase II

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
Single leg backwards low depth
drop landing on ball of foot

A) Power Squat
4 x 4/side

3 x 5/ 1 x 15-
20
4 x 4/side

3 x 5/1 x 15-
20
4 x 4/side


3 x 5
2 x 4/side


3 x 3 (easy)
B) Stiff-Legged Deadlift 2x6 3x6 3 x 6 2x6 (easy)
C) Full Contact twist 2x12 2x12 3x12 2x12

Tuesday: off day, skill work, or
tempo


Wednesday: Upper Body
A) Bench Press (Wks. 1,2)
Barbell Floor Press (Wks. 3,4)
4 x 3 5-6 x 1-2 3 x 2/ 3 x 3
3x3
(easy)
B1) Incline barbell front raise 3x8 4x8 4x8 2x8 (easy)
B2) One-Arm DB Row 2x6/side 3x6/side 3x6/side
2x6/side
(easy)
C1) Pulldown cable crunch 3x15 3x15 3 x 15 2 x 15
Optional 10 minutes beach work
(biceps, triceps, etc.)








114
Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase II

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Off day, skill work, or
tempo


Friday: Lower Body
Single Leg low backwards depth
drop landing on ball of foot

A) Speed Deadlift
4 x 4/side


4 x 3 at 70%
4 x 4/side


4 x 3 at 70%
4 x 4/side


4 x 3 at 70%
2 x 4/side


Eliminate
B) Reverse Lunge (step back
lunge)
2 x5 /leg 2 x 5/leg 2 x 5/leg 2x5/leg
C1) Cable Pull-Through 2x12 3x12 3x12 2x12
C2) Weighted Swiss ball crunch 2x10 3x10 3x10 2x10

Saturday: Upper Body
A1) Semi-Supinated DB
Overhead press
3 x 5 4 x 5 4 x 4
2 x 5 (easy
weight)
A2) (Weighted) Mid-Grip Pull-up 3x4 4x4 1 x 3, 2 x 4
2 x 5 (easy
weight)
C1) Prone Trap Raise 3x12 3x12 3x12 2x12
C2) Hanging leg raise 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps
Optional 10 minutes beach work










115
Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase III

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Sunday: Off

Monday: Lower Body
20-yard dash





Depth Jump for maximum height
(use box that maximizes jump
height)
Stop at first
sign of
performance
drop-off – use
full recoveries


4 x 3
Same






4 x 3
Same






4 x 3
Same






4 x 3
A) Deadlift 2 x 3 3 x 2
2 x 2 at 80-
85%
eliminate
B) Peterson step-up (low box
step-up)
2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg
C1) Reactive Glute-Ham Raise
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
2 x max reps
in 10 seconds
C2) Cable leg raises 2 x 15-20 3x 15-20 3x 15-20 2 x 15-20

Tuesday: off day, skill work, or
tempo


Wednesday: Upper Body
Pro-Agility (5-10-5 Drill)
Stop at first
sign of
performance
drop-off
Same same same
A1) Decline Bench Press 3x5 4x4 4x3 2x 5
A2) Chest Supported row 3x8 4x6 4x8 2 x 8
B1) Decline Tricep extension 2x10 2x10 2x10 eliminate
B2) Medium Cable Woodchop 2x10 2x10 3x10 2x10

116
Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase III

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Thursday: Off day, skill work,
or tempo


Friday: Lower Body



40 yard dash
Stop at first
sign of
performance
dropoff
To first sign
of
performance
dropoff
To first sign
of
performance
drop-off
To first sign
of
performance
dropoff
A1) Squat
2x3 at 85-
90%
3 x 3 at 85-
90%
eliminate eliminate
A2) Single leg back extension 2x10 2x10 eliminate eliminate
Saturday: Upper Body
Depth Jump for maximum height
- Find box height that maximizes
jump height.
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
To first sign
of drop-off
A1) Push Press 3 x 5 4 x 5 5 x 3 3 x 8 (easy)
A2) Wide Grip Seated Row 3 x 8 4x 6 4 x 6 3x6 (easy)
B1) Incline DB Lateral 3x12 3x12 3x12 3 x 12
B2) Cable external rotation 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x10


Training For Track

What about training for competitive sprinting? How would you go about
implementing a plan for a sprinter?

Well, just follow the same basic principles and address your deficiencies as an
athlete. Build your speed and acceleration over short distances then carry that out over
longer distances. I find a lot of sprinters get carried away thinking they have to follow
very elaborate models. In my observation, most sprinters spend too much time on the
track and perform an excessive amount of running in general. The result is many that
I’ve worked with tend to be chronically over-reached. I’ve yet to see a sprinter who
117
didn’t make good results scaling back on overall volume and putting in more quality
work. That usually means a reduction in conditioning and tempo work is a good thing.

Sample Programs For Track

Here is how you might set up a sprinters workout for a strength deficient athlete:

Phase I GPP – 4-8 weeks – Get In Shape/Hypertrophy
Exercise and Day Volume Comments
Monday
Short Sprints 10’s and 20’s – up
to 10 reps each
Add 5 meters per
week to each sprint.
Walk back recovery
Weights
Squat 4 sets of 8
Row 4 sets of 8
Bench 4 sets of 8
Leg curl or Glute
Ham
4 sets of 8
Tuesday- Off day,
tempo, extensive
intervals
Up to 1500 meters
running – Add up to
250 meters per week
not surpassing 3000
Wednesday:
Short Sprints 20’s and 40’s – up
to 10 reps each
Walk back recovery
Deadlift 4 sets of 5
Pullup 4 sets of 8
Dip 4 sets of 8
Thursday- Off day,
tempo, extensive
intervals
Up to 1500 meters
running – Add up to
250 meters per week
not surpassing 3000
Friday: Same As Monday Same As Monday
Saturday: Same as Tuesday
and Thursday
Same as Tuesday
and Thursday

Phase II – Max Strength – 4-8 weeks
Exercise and
Day
Week 1 Week
2
Week 3 Week 4 Comments
Monday:
Starts, 20’s and
30’s
Stop Prior to
any
noticeable
drop-off in
Same Same Same Do these with full
recoveries – Perform
from various starts –
blocks etc.
118
time
Weights
Squat 4 x 3 5 x 2 5 x 1
(not to
failure)
3 x 3 at
80% 1rm

Glute Ham 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
Pullup 4 x 5 5 x 5 5 x 4 3 x 3
(easy)

Bench 4 x 5 5 x 5 5 x 4 3 x 3
(easy)

Tuesday: Off
day, tempo,
extensive
intervals
1500-2000 meters total
tempo – These are also
a training option on
Thursday and Saturday.
If you perform them, do
them 1 or 2 days per
week, but not 3.
Wednesday:
60’s or flying
20’s
Stop when
time declines
Same Same Eliminate Do these with full
recoveries
Weights
Optional 15-20
minutes easy
upper body
work

Thursday: Same as
Tuesday

Friday:
30’s Stop when
time declines
Same Same Same
Weights
Snatch Grip
Deadlift
3 x 3 4 x 2 5 x 1 3 x 2
(easy)


DB Bulgarian
split squat
2 x 5/leg Same Same Eliminate
Row 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
DB Bench
Press
3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
Saturday Same as
Tuesday and
Thursday






119
Phase III – Competition Phase

Day and Exercise Volume Comments
Monday:
Flying 20’s Stop when time
declines

Weights
Squat 3 x 3 at 80-90%
Bench 3 x 3 at 85-90%
Row 3 x 3 at 85-90%
Tuesday: Off day
Wednesday:
30’s Stop prior to time
declining

Thursday: Extensive interval
circuits
Keep volume and intensity
low
Friday: Off day
Saturday: Competition

Here’s what a plan might look like for a speed deficient athlete

Phase I GPP – 4-8 weeks – Get In Shape/Strength
Exercise and Day Volume Comments
Monday
Short Sprints 10’s and 20’s – up
to 10 reps each
Add 5 meters per
week to each sprint.
Walk back recovery
Weights
Squat 4 sets of 5
Row 4 sets of 8
Bench 4 sets of 8
Leg curl or Glute
Ham
4 sets of 5
Tuesday- Off day,
tempo, or extensive
intervals
Up to 1500 meters
running – Add up to
250 meters per week
not surpassing 3000
Wednesday:
Short Sprints 20’s and 40’s – up
to 10 reps each
Walk back recovery
Deadlift 4 sets of 3
Pullup 4 sets of 8
Dip 4 sets of 8
Thursday- Off day,
tempo, extensive
Up to 1500 meters
running – Add up to
120
intervals 250 meters per week
not surpassing 3000
Friday: Same As Monday Same As Monday
Saturday: Same as Tuesday
and Thursday
Same as Tuesday
and Thursday

Phase II – Max Strength and Power – 4-8 weeks
Exercise and
Day
Week
1
Week
2
Week
3
Week
4
Comments
Monday:
Starts, 20’s or
30’s


Depth Jump
Stop prior to
time declining

3 reps per set -
Do one set of
depth jumps in
between each
set of sprints
Same Same Same Do these with full
recoveries – Perform
from various starts –
blocks etc. – Use
medium height box on
depth jumps about 18
inches
Weights
Box Squat 5 x 2 at 60% Same Same Same
Glute Ham 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
Pullup 4 x 5 5 x 5 5 x 4 3 x 3
(easy)

Bench 4 x 5 5 x 5 5 x 4 3 x 3
(easy)

Tuesday: Off
day, or optional
tempo, extensive
intervals
1500-2000 meters total
tempo – These are also
a training option on
Thursday and Saturday.
If you perform them,
pick 1 or 2 days per
week, but not 3.
Wednesday:
60’s Stop when
time declines
Same Same Eliminate Do these with full
recoveries
Weights
Optional 15-20
minutes easy
upper body work

Thursday: Same as
Tuesday

Friday:
30’s


Depth Jump
Stop when
time declines

4 x 3
Same Same Same

Use box about 18
inches high
121

Weights
Jump Shrug or
Snatch Pull
3 x 3 4 x 2 5 x 1 3 x 2
(easy)


Row 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
DB Bench Press 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5 3 x 5
Saturday Same as
Tuesday and
Thursday


Phase III – Competition Phase

Day and Exercise Volume Comments
Monday:
Flying 20’s Stop when time
declines

Weights
Speed Squat 3 x 3 at 70% Go down under control –
explode on the way up
Bench 3 x 3 at 85-90%
Row 3 x 3 at 85-90%
Tuesday: Off day
Wednesday:
30’s Stop prior to time
declining

Thursday: Optional Extensive
interval circuits
Keep volume and intensity low
Friday: Off day
Saturday: Competition














122
Conclusion

To review, building great speed and athleticism is just a matter of implementing the
following basic principles:

1. Establish efficient movement patterns and coordination (learn to move fluidly on
your feet, drive from the hips, and control your body efficiently)
2. Establish or maintaining baseline levels of general fitness
3. Get and/or keep yourself lean
4. Establish good mobility
5. Establish baseline levels of strength
6. Identify whether you are stronger then you are fast, or faster then you are strong.
7. Focus on your weak points.
8. Get out and let the horses run!

Or, (since I know you aren't tired of hearing this yet), if we were to look at this from
the same perspective as if we were building a racecar, what we're really doing is this:

1. Making sure we invest in good tires to get our car down the road. (getting good feet)
2. Making sure we invest in a good frame
3. Making sure we have a big enough motor to get us down the road. (getting strong and
powerful in the hips)
4. Making sure we take care of our motor and keep all moving parts well lubricated.
(establishing and maintaining proper mobility)
5. Determining whether we should invest in a bigger motor, or whether we would be best
served to modify our motor to get the car faster.
6. Taking the time to make the necessary modifications.
7. Have fun, take our car out to the track, and turn it loose!

When you really boil it down to the sheer nuts and bolts, getting faster or more
explosive really just involves 2 very simple points:

A: Get strong and increase your ability to exert force.

B: Do enough running, mobility work, and other movement work to either maintain or
improve the efficiency and proficiency of your movements.

If you take nothing else from this manual I hope you remember those 2 very simple
points.

In conclusion, creating a speedy, fluid, and agile athlete is a relatively simple process.
Hopefully, with this information, I’ve been able to give you a solid road map to work
from. Building athleticism is not easy and does require a lot of hard work, but providing
you’re willing to work hard, consistent success is there for the taking.

-Kelly
123
Q&A

Q: I have a 14-year old son who seems to lack strength and movement efficiency.
Can you give me an example of workout you would set him up on?

A: You might want to go check out my training templates article included here under
Appendix B.

Here is an example of a weekly phase I’ve used for an athlete of that age.

Monday

Dynamic warmup
Lateral single leg hops in place - 2-3 x 15-20 reps (or 5-10 seconds)
Single leg on-box jumps- 3 sets of 3 reps forward and to each side
20-yard accelerations - 5-8 reps
Squat- 3-5 sets x 5-8 reps
Glute ham raise or leg curl- 4 sets x 6-8 reps

Wednesday

Dynamic warmup
Low squat hops in place- 2-3 x 15-20 reps
Single leg hop in place - 2-3 x 15-20 reps
Deadlift- 2-3 x 3 reps
Dumbell Split Squat- 2-3 x 6-8

Friday

Dynamic warmup
4 square hops - 2-3 sets x 20 seconds
Knees to chest jumps- 3-4 sets x 8-15 reps
20-yard sprints - 5-8 reps
Squat - 3-5 sets x 5-8 reps
Glute-ham raise or leg curl- 4 sets x 6-8 reps

Add in some upper body movements such as dips, bench presses, pull-ups, and rows, and
that’s really all he’d need. You could actually cut the workout down to 2 days per week
and be just fine. Realistically, he really wouldn’t even need to do as much sprinting as I
gave in this example. You could that down by 50% and he’d do fine.


Q: You've talked about the importance of running through the hips and the toes
but what about the various muscles involved like the calves? I've heard some people
say they're totally unimportant and others say that they are the secret key to
unlocking athletic potential. Is calf strength a limiting factor towards being fast,
124
agile, and moving efficiently? Should a person do specific drills for the calves or are
they over-rated?

A: The importance of the calves is more along the lines of their function and not
necessarily their strength. Their main purpose is to control the feet and transfer forces
from the larger and stronger hip, hamstring, and quadriceps into the ground. You build
function in the calves by learning proper movement patterns and developing the ability to
become light on your feet. If you don't become well coordinated on your feet at an early
age you may have a propensity to become heavy-footed unless you correct that.
Obviously, if you have 2 broken ankles or 2 flat tires on your car you ain't going
anywhere in a hurry! Therefore it's really just a movement efficiency issue.

Strength can be a factor for some people. If you’re not strong enough to stride forward at
an easy pace on the balls of your feet, or bounce up and down on one foot without your
heel striking, you could probably stand to incorporate some calf raise variations, but that
probably won’t be an issue for most people. Drive by a playground and watch little kids
move. Pay attention and you’ll see plenty of 6 and 8 year olds move smoother on their
feet then a lot of adults. They don't move better because they're stronger in the calves,
they move better because they're more fluid on their feet. In other words, they
CONTROL their feet, ankles, and calves better. So, performing a multitude of specific
drills and engaging in lots of strength work just for the calves is usually not needed, but
establishing proper movement efficiency is. The calves will usually get as strong as they
need to get just by virtue of being involved in all the activities that an athlete participates
in. So, if you're not already, simply work on getting light on your feet and get to the
point where you can move efficiently. How do you do that? Well, get up off your butt
and stop playing so much x-box and get away from the computer for one thing! Get
outside and move! All the assorted plyo, agility, and even sprint drills are good for that
purpose. Jump rope, hopscotch, tag, dodgeball, you name it. If needed, probably the best
drill for developing specific calf (plantar flexor) power, is dropping off a box and landing
up on the balls of your feet.

Q: You talked about the importance of using the off-season to focus on core
neuromuscular qualities like strength and minimizing sport and conditioning while
minimizing anything that interferes with that. You used the example of basketball
players that play too much. Does that mean you’re saying an athlete should not
participate in their sport?

A: I’m not saying to ignore everything related to the sport but a lot of people go way
overboard. A game or 2 each week ain’t gonna kill a basketball player but 2 hour games
every day will. I would normally recommend basketball players focus more on their skill
work. That includes shooting, one-on-one play etc. Karl Malone didn’t play basketball
AT ALL during the off-season and it never affected him in a negative way. A receiver in
football might practice running some routes and catching passes a few days per week. A
soccer player would get out and mess around with soccer related ball drills. No need to
get totally away from everything, but you wanna cut down on the hardcore conditioning.

125
Q: You're saying that if my goal was to run faster and the testing indicates that I
need to learn to better express my strength that all I really would need to do is get
out and focus more on sprinting? I wouldn't need to necessarily do any plyometrics,
explosive weight training etc? All I would really need to do is sprint?

A: Yes that's pretty much spot on. If you were to do nothing except get out and run
sprints at a high intensity 2-3 days per week you could get good results without adding
anything else. Having said that, you might get slightly better results engaging in a bit
more specific explosive work like jump squats and various plyometric type drills which
increase the magnitude of tension of specific weak areas, movements, or muscles. For
example, when simply jumping from one leg to the other the dynamic characteristics of
the push-off are greater than the dynamic characteristics involved with running.
Therefore, jumps like these and other similar drills can be an excellent form of power
training for a sprinter.

Another beneficial thing to do would be to incorporate at least enough heavy weight
training to maintain your strength. But if in doubt keep things simple. I’ve said before
that a person can get just about as fast as they’ll ever need to be using a total of only 3
exercises. Those exercises are squats, glute ham raises, and sprints. Or deadlifts, split
squats, and sprints.

Q: Why do you recommend approaching things in phases instead of using the
conjugate periodization and hitting everything at once? You recommend a
strength-dominant phase, explosive-dominant phase etc. Isn’t this just basic linear
periodization? Isn’t it better to focus on all qualities so you don’t lose any of them?
A: There is often quite a bit of confusion as to what conjugate periodization is so let me
clarify that. A lot of people think true conjugate periodization is where you train all the
necessary strength qualities at the same time without getting away from any of them. For
example, you'd train maximum strength, reactive strength, explosive strength, and
endurance with equal volumes during the same training week so as to address every
quality. But that’s not really true.
There are essentially two main systems of organizing long-term training:
A: The concurrent system
B: The conjugate sequence system.
The concurrent system involves the simultaneous training of several motor abilities, such
as strength, speed, and endurance, over the same period of time, with the intention of
developing all of them simultaneously. Sound familiar? Although research has
corroborated the effectiveness of this system, the subjects used in these studies were
generally conducted on athletes of lower qualification. While the negatives of the
concurrent system are not apparent with less advanced athletes, they become very
noticeable with elite athletes. It produces only average results in higher level athletes
126
simply because, when you try to train everything at the same time, you limit the amount
that you can focus on any given quality. Advanced athletes tend to need more focus on a
given quality in order to improve that quality.
To create a more powerful training effect in advanced athletes it is better to use intense
phases with a singular focus and to arrange these phases in an order that produces a sum
greater then it's parts. This is precisely the purpose of the conjugate system.
The conjugate sequence system involves successively introducing into the training
program specific phases, each of which has a progressively stronger training effect, and
sequencing them in a way that creates favorable conditions to grasp a greater net effect of
all the training loads.
The conjugate sequence is characterized by a concentrated focus on developing
individual specific motor abilities (strength, speed, strength endurance etc.), each of
which is confined largely to a given period.
So each phase builds off the next and because of the concentration used, each phase has
delayed effects, which carry over into the next phase. To give you an example, for
someone in a speed dominant sport the sequence of phases would look something like
this:
Gpp (4-6 weeks---->Strength-(4-12 weeks)---->explosive strength (4-12 weeks)
(shock/plyometric/speed)---->competitive
Gpp builds a base of basic fitness by using a higher volume of low intensity work. This
leads into a strength phase, which uses a high volume of strength loading. This leads into
a shock phase where the focus is on displaying strength. During this phase, the total
amount of work is lower but the intensity is higher. Not only will the body be adapting
positively to the shock loading itself, but it will also be super-compensating positively
from the previous phase of high volume strength work, as fatigue is allowed do dissipate.
So, as you’re entering an explosive oriented phase you get the delayed transformation
effect of the previous strength work, therefore you're getting stronger, faster, and more
explosive at the same time.
It should be noted that reversing the order of the training sequence will not always
produce the same summation of training effects. It's also worth noting that some phases
can be lengthened, that's just a general outline. Simple enough!
There was an old Soviet study done pertaining to the vertical jump that really helps
elucidate this topic. What they did was take 4 groups of athletes and had each group
perform one of 4 different types of training for 4 weeks each over a total of 16 weeks.
All 4 groups hit each type of training but in varying sequences. The various phases
looked like this:
A: Basic low intensity jumps
127
B: Heavy weight training (squats and assorted lifts)
C: Lighter explosive weight training and jumps with weights
D: Intense plyometric training (depth jumps).
One group performed D for 4 weeks followed by B for 4 weeks, followed by C for 4
weeks, followed by A for 4 weeks.
Another group performed B, followed by D, followed by A, followed by C, for 4 weeks
each
Another group performed A, B, C, and D all at the same time.
Another group performed A, followed by B, followed by C, followed by D, for 4 weeks
each.
At the conclusion of the study, it was found that the group that performed A, B, C, and D
all at the same time got inferior results compared to the other groups.
It was found that whenever any group happened to be performing D they got a quick
boost in vertical jumping ability, but stagnated just as quickly. In other words, the group
that performed depth jumps in the second 4-week period did improve their vertical jump
during that period, but failed to improve through the final two 4 week phases.
The group that performed A, followed by B, followed by C, followed by D got the best
results overall, and the results improved linearly nice and smooth through the entire
study. It makes sense if you think about it.
They started off with basic low intensity jumps, which allowed the athletes to establish
basic movement efficiency and ingrain basic motor patterns.
They followed that up with heavy weight training, which allowed them to build up their
relative strength levels.
They followed that up with explosive weight training and jumps with weights, which
allowed them to better display the strength they had built.
They followed that up with depth jumps, which provided a means to further intensify the
display of strength in a high intensity manner.
So: movement efficiency, strength, strength expression.
Now does that mean when you're focusing on one quality that you should totally avoid
the other qualities?? No! It just means that those other qualities would be maintained with
less volume and intensity. If you were a speed athlete and you were in more of a strength
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focused phase, your speed workouts might consist of performing low intensity technical
drills and running one day per week. If you were in a speed phase your strength work
might consist of lifting done as infrequently as once per week consisting of 3 x 3 at 80-
85% for a few movements.
In summary, beginner and low-level intermediate athletes do fine working on all qualities
simultaneously, but more advanced athletes will need more focus.
Q: I have a question about what you said regarding there not being much of a need
to engage in explosive weight room work like cleans etc. I love the hang power
clean. Are you saying that improving the clean doesn’t also improve explosivness in
other activities?

Just like any other explosive movement, the clean can help bridge the gap between total
strength and total useable strength, if that is an area lacking. However, by itself it isn’t a
miracle exercise. I love performing hang cleans myself, but a good clean is really a
demonstration or indicator of explosiveness, just like a fast sprint and a good vertical
jump are good demonstrations of explosiveness. Let's just say for the sake of argument
that the clean correlates perfectly with your on-field explosiveness (running and jumping
etc.) So, any improvements you make to your clean will be transferred into your running
speed. You'd obviously want to get your clean poundages as high as possible right? With
that being said, what is the best way to get your clean up to 315 pounds? Can the guy
with a 200-pound squat build his clean up to 315 pounds by just performing cleans and
associated lifts? No. Can the guy with a 300-pound squat clean 315? No. Can the guy
who practices cleans every day of his life, yet only squats 300 pounds, clean as much as
the 700 pound squatting powerlifter who comes into the gym and does cleans for the first
time in his life? No. My point is this: How much you can clean is highly dependent on
how strong you are overall and cleans don’t really make you stronger overall. Regardless
of how good your technique is on cleans and how much you practice them, the only way
you're gonna clean 315 is if you get your overall body strength up to the point where you
are capable of at least a ~400 pound squat and 400 pound deadlift. Once you've
mastered the technique in the lift and learned to express your strength in the lift, the only
way to continue driving your clean poundages up is to get stronger overall.

The clean is really about 1/3 technique, 1/3 explosiveness, and 1/3 strength. Initially,
clean poundages will increase as you master the correct technique. Once you've mastered
the proper technique, you'll continue to make some gains as you better learn to express
your strength, or become more explosive in the exercise. If you're the guy who squats 500
pounds and only cleans 175, you obviously have a lot of room for improvement. You'd
probably be able to take your clean all the way up to 315 by doing nothing but cleans.
But if you're the guy who squats 300 pounds and cleans 225, you'd probably never get
any better at cleans by just practicing cleans. At some point, you'd have to pay your dues
in the power rack getting your strength up on basic movements like squats and deadlifts
so that you’d have more raw strength to express.

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Now, let's look at a sprint the same way we would the clean. It's a demonstration of
explosiveness. Since actually practicing the clean is the best way to learn to express your
strength in the clean, wouldn't it make sense that practicing variations of the sprint (and
things closely related to that like plyometrics), would be the best way to learn to express
your strength in the sprint? There is a lot of specifity involved with improvements in
speed-strength movements and the carryover from one activity to the next is fairly small.
If you couldn't express your strength very good in the sprint, what makes you think you'd
best improve upon that by engaging in cleans?

Improvements in the sprint are just like improvements in the clean. Initially you'll
improve as you master the correct technique. You'll continue to improve as you are
better able to express your strength in the sprint. If you're the 175 pound guy who squats
500 and only runs a 5.2 40 yard dash, you will probably have a lot of room for
improvement. But if you're the 175 pound guy who only squats 250 and already runs a
4.55 forty yard dash, you're probably not gonna get much faster by just sprinting. At
some point, just like the clean, you're gonna have to pay your dues with the heavy iron
and get your strength up so that you have more raw horsepower to tap into.

Now, let's assume that you already spend a significant amount of time in the weight room
getting stronger overall. Let's also assume that you spend a fair amount of time
performing a nice assortment of sprint, movement, and plyo work. So, in the weight
room you're driving your strength and baseline levels of horsepower up. On the field,
you're better learning to express that strength in the most direct way possible - by
engaging in the very things that you're trying to improve (sprinting), and very similar
activities, like jumping. Since you're already addressing your baseline strength, and
you're already directly addressing your ability to express strength in the sprints, what are
cleans gonna give you that you're not already getting? I hope that makes sense. It’s not
that cleans will hurt you by any means, I like them too and think they’re fun, but it’s not
like you need them.

Having said all that, the best utility for the cleans and other explosive weight room
movements would be for someone like I mentioned above who had a 500 pound squat (or
whatever), and slow running times. His maximum strength is already there and it need
not be a big focal point, so, instead of just getting him stronger in the weight room, we
could focus on getting him to express his strength better in all his activities, including the
weight room. He could use lots of speedier type exercises like cleans, speed box squats,
and jump squats while also working on getting more explosive in field activities. Where
cleans and related exercises would REALLY be more beneficial is for this same “strong
but slow” type of guy who also, for whatever reason, isn’t able to get out and engage in
much specific sprint, movement, and plyo work. They wouldn’t be as effective as the
specific sprint, movement, and plyo work, but would at least allow him to train his
nervous system to produce faster contractions with some type of accelerative emphasis.

One other good utility for the clean and associated movements is this: Assuming that one
has pretty good technique in the clean, it can also be used as a pretty good gauge to
ensure that you're building useable strength, or strength that you can use in a fairly high-
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velocity manner. In other words, let's assume that I determine that a person that can clean
75% of his best back squat is doing a pretty good job utilizing the raw strength that he
has. So, assuming that technique is good, a person squatting 200 pounds should be able
to clean 150, while a person squatting 400 pounds should be able to clean 300. Let's say
you have an athlete that squats 400 pounds but only cleans 200. From that information,
we know that he's not able to utilize his strength in a high velocity specific manner very
effectively, so he would best work on bridging the gap between his strength and useable
strength. In other words, instead of continually trying to push up his squat weight, he'd
be best to focus on more explosive oriented work in his training. In contrast, the guy
squatting 400 and cleaning 300 is already doing a pretty good job using the strength he
has, and, assuming his field related tests didn’t show any explosive deficiencies, he’d
know that in order to improve he could just get stronger overall.

Q: Can you give some examples of what sort've templates you would use for
combine preparation for a strength dominant and speed dominant athlete
respectively?

A: You have to keep in mind that most people don't typically have a ton of time to
prepare for a combine and there is a lot of technique involved in the various tests that
must be addressed. For the speed deficient athlete, you might use the sled as the major
strength movement. For the strength deficient athlete, I'd have just one heavy lower body
session per week.

The templates might look something like this:

Speed Deficient Athlete

MONDAY – dynamic warmup, vertical jump, and 40 yard dash (Initially focus on
technique for the start and work your way out each week)

TUESDAY – Heavy upper body lifting

WEDNESDAY – Dynamic warm-up, 3-cone, 20-yard shuttle, heavy sled marching (use
heavy sled)

THURSDAY – Off

FRIDAY – Lighter upper body strength training (225 test for reps)

SATURDAY – Dynamic warm-up, Broad jump, Resisted sled sprints (use light sled),
alternated with normal sprints (focus on distances between 20 and 40 yards)

SUNDAY - Off

When regulating volume of the various movement work, use the drop-off method, or stop
the workouts with any performance drop-off
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Strength Deficient Athlete

MONDAY - Dynamic warm-up 40-yard dash technique work, Heavy Upper body
strength training (For the 40 yard dash, Initially focus on the starts and work your way
out each week)

TUESDAY – Mobility drills, vertical jump & broad jump

WEDNESDAY - Dynamic warm-up, pro-agility & 3-cone

THURSDAY - Lighter upper body strength training

FRIDAY - Dynamic warm-up, 40-yard dash

SATURDAY – Heavy lower body strength training

SUNDAY – OFF

Q: How do you feel about popular sport specific training methods and specialized
implements like bosu balls, unstable object training etc?

Let's start off with a definition of sport-specific. A truly sport specific exercise must:

A: Duplicate the exact movement witnessed in certain actions of the sports skill

B: The exercise must involve the same type of muscular contraction used in the skill
execution.

C: Develop strength and flexibility in the same range of motion (ROM) as the actual skill.

As an example, alternating bounds duplicate the extension witnessed in the sprint stride
over the same range of motion. They also duplicate the type of contraction found in the
sprint. The difference is, the magnitude of force and tension in the bound upon both
landing and toe-off is greater, which can provide a positive training effect to the
extension and plant that occurs during the acceleration phase of a sprint.

Classifying Exercises

There are basically 3 classifications of exercise along the general to specific continuum.

General strength exercises - These exercises are necessary to develop general muscle
strength (force component of power) and do not need to duplicate sporting tasks. (Squats,
front squats, deadlifts etc.) These exercises are heavy and slow in nature thus do not
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replicate the exact demands of sport and power events. They are, however, specific to the
sport of powerlifting. Anything that increases general strength could be considered a
general strength exercise. Exercises that best impact general strength are the best general
strength exercises.

Special strength exercises - These exercises attempt to convert general strength to power
but are still "strength" oriented. Most explosive oriented loaded lifts and movements fit in
this category. Some examples include: Olympic lifts, medicine ball tosses, jump squats,
heavier sled towing, and various kettlebell swings.

Specific strength exercises- These exercises attempt to provide power improvement in a
way which is very specific to the required technique of an athlete. Examples of such
exercises would include: Unloaded and lightly loaded plyometric exercises, sprint drills,
and towing a very lightly loaded sled. The most specific strength exercise for any given
movement is the actual movement skill itself. Thus, the most specific exercise for a
sprinter is a sprint. The most specific exercise for a boxer is a punch.

A loaded specific strength exercise should not be loaded to the extent that an athlete's
technique is compromised much at all. So, someone using loaded sprints as a specific
strength exercise would not use a load that causes his sprint times to drop off by more
than ~10%. In contrast, someone using loaded sprints as a special strength exercise could
use more weight as he's seeking more of a general effect on explosiveness. He would not
need to worry so much about the load interfering with his technique in the sprint.

Exercises typically are described as either general or sport-specific. However, there is a
range along which all exercises fall. It's probably more accurate to describe exercises as
either more or less specific in relation to one another. Where a particular exercise falls on
this continuum depends upon how well it meets the criteria for a specific movement for a
particular sport.

So What is Sport Specific Again?

Based on that information, it should be obvious that unless you're a skateboarder, surfer,
or trapeze artist, most unstable implements and exercises are not really sport-specific at
all! Wobble boards, bosu balls and the like would be general training movements - just
not very potent general training movements. This is due to the lighter loads they
inherently entail.

The Recipe

To improve athletic performance, general strength exercises should be used in the initial
stages to build a base. The goal of these movements is to stimulate and strengthen the
same muscles involved in the sports skill. Once a strength base is in place, exercises that
are truly specialized (sport-specific) can be incorporated to zero in on targeted
weaknesses involved in the sports skill or to help enhance the transformation of general
strength into specific strength. In this way, maximal strength is developed initially and
then used to enhance explosive strength that can be incorporated into the sport action.
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I think there is a time and place for exercises in every category depending on the situation
of a given athlete or coach, however, there's also not exactly anything wrong with taking
the straight line approach.

The Straight Line Approach

The straight-line approach would entail taking the most direct approach to boosting up
the general strength (lift heavy and get stronger in basic movements), and engage in and
hone the technique of the most specific strength exercise. You’d practice the specific
movement you're trying to improve in order improve the capacity to express strength in
that movement, - whether it's sprinting, jumping or whatever. With this approach you
have both ends covered. Although simple, this can work well because a lot of people
already do plenty of sport-specific exercise just by virtue of playing their sport. In fact,
many people are apt to regress by partaking in an excessive volume of sport specific
work while neglecting general supportive work.

Additionally, research comparing groups of people who use a very multifaceted approach
to development to those who use the simple straight-line approach to development, don't
tend to demonstrate many advantages for the multi-faceted approach. In other words. let's
say we take 2 groups of sprinters:

Group A: Squats heavy, engages in explosive lifts (cleans or jump squats etc.), pulls
loaded sleds, engages in plyometrics, and sprints.

Group B: Just squats heavy and runs sprints.

Despite the more holistic and multifaceted approach implemented with the group A, you
don't tend to see a consistent variance in improvements between the 2 groups.

The ability to properly administer the more multifaceted approach takes more knowledge
and skill. Ideally, you'd individually evaluate and assign target exercises based upon
individual needs.
Q: I heard you ran a sub 4.3 second 40-yard dash. What routine did you use to get
that fast?
A: In high school the fastest 40-yard dash I timed was 4.9. That was without any specific
sprint training. I was, however, a late bloomer and was very weak so I probably did have
quite a bit of latent ability. I started training and lifting fairly seriously around age 18-19
to prepare for martial arts. I rarely ran sprints but one day at the age of 21 I decided to
run a timed 40 and clocked a 4.8. So, between the ages of 18-21 I actually improved my
times despite not running any sprints during that time span AT ALL. At about that time I
decided to make a deliberate attempt to try and improve my 40 and in my ignorance I
came up with the workout I’m getting ready to show you. I used this workout on 3
different occassions. The first time I followed it was when I was 21. My 40 went from
4.8 to 4.6 within a month. The next time I followed it was at age 24. This time I got my
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40 down to 4.4 seconds. A year later I used it again and on 2 different occassions ran a
4.27. That is a handheld time taken off video from the first movement so not quite as fast
as a legit electronic time. Unfortunately, at the time I didn’t know how to start from a 3-
pt stance so just ran like a wide receiver out of a 2 pt. stance. It would’ve been nice to
see how fast I would’ve run if I knew what I do now but oh well. The routine is not
perfect but got the job done, which is what counts. Here it is:
Workout 1:
Squats: work up to 3rm with as heavy a weight as possible
Reverse hypers: 2 sets x 12-15 reps with as heavy a weight as possible (the first time I
went through the workout at age 21 the workout reverse hypers were not a common
exercise so I did leg curls instead).
Repeat workout every 4th to 5th day
Workout 2:
40 yard sprints: Warm-up and go for PRs – Stop the workout as soon as it was obvious I
wasn’t gonna improve on my times for the day. (this would generally mean I’d run 5 to 7
total sprints. I’d typically hit my best efforts on the 3
rd
attempt.) I’d perform workout
two 2 days after workout 1.
I’d just alternate those 2 workouts back and forth. So I might perform workout 1 on a
Monday, workout 2 on a Wednesday, workout 1 again on Saturday, workout 2 the next
Monday and so forth. The only other activities incorporated were a couple of upper body
workouts. I also played some half court 3-on-3 basketball a couple of days per week.
That was my "tempo" work. I'd do a dynamic warm-up before each workout and quite a
bit of mobility work each and every day (which I still do). That's about it.
Q: How long should it take to see results in speed and explosiveness?
A: It really depends on the level of athlete. If you’re really slow and lack coordination
anything you do will improve your speed and it will improve very quickly. That’s why
it’s not uncommon for high school athletes to go to these combine camps and get a .2 to
.3 improvement in 40-yard dash in less than a week. However, if you’re advanced, it
might take 6 to 8 weeks training 5 days per week to see any significant speed gain. Also,
keep in mind sometimes you have to take the time to bring up indirect qualities and then
apply those gains to speed. For example, an athlete might spend 6 to 12 weeks bringing
up his strength levels and not see any speed improvement in speed until he applies those
gains with a block of speed and explosive oriented training.
Q: How much does the upper body contribute to running speed?
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A: The arms are what drive the legs so it does serve some importance, however, I don’t
think it’s nearly as important to support the volume some speed-seeking athletes and
sprinters train their upper body with. Many sprinters like to do a lot of upper body work
because they want to look good and brag about their strength. That’s the truth.
Assuming you can knock out a set of 10 or more pull-ups and bench press your
bodyweight, you’re probably strong enough. A fast athlete will tend to be strong in his
entire body and will have a strong upper body just on account of being strong all over.
Core lower body movements like squats and deadlifts will also give you some degree of
strength in the upper body because they have global effects on your nervous system.
Now, if you’re a football player or even a basketball player, sure you want to be strong in
your upper body. But that doesn’t mean you need to have a 500-pound bench press in
order to run fast.























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Appendix A:

The Simpleton's Guide To Speed Training
By: Kelly Baggett

Warning: The following contains profanity that some may find offensive. If
you don't like it, that's too bad. It is meant to be informative as well as
hopefully at least mildly entertaining.

Spend a few minutes listening to people and gurus talk about speed training
nowadays and it shouldn't be too hard to understand why the average person can
leave a speed training conversation with a billion more questions then they had when
they started. With so many gimmicks and all kinds of routines it's no wonder. What
should you be doing if you wanna get faster? You can open up a catalog and order
special speed training chutes, shoes, vests, rubber bands, ladders, and god knows
what else all promising to get you blazing. Chances are there's a local SAQ (speed,
agility, and quickness) center somewhere near you that promises to get you
blazingly fast for only $xxxx per month with 3 weekly sessions consisting of about 2
hours of running drills, stretches, plyometrics, sprints, and dynamic mobility work. If
that doesn't suit your needs you can always go to the other side of town where they
have a special high speed treadmill they can hook you up to while they're trained
technicians analyze your stride. Of course if your broke you can always enter a
school or college track program and take your chances letting a part time marathon
runner set you up on a sprint routine to get you blazing. If that won´t work you can
always call upon your local "functional" training guru who can get you bouncing down
the track on a bosu ball while simultaneously doing the splits and holding a
kettlebell.

There certainly aren't a shortage of options for the person interested in getting
faster. Whether any of those options are worth a damn is another thing altogether.

A Rant

So anyway, because of all the apparent confusion and the fact that I'm facing a 3rd
consecutive day of being snowed in here in NW Arkansas and have built up a decent
amount of aggression, I thought I´d put together this "rant¨ that summarizes my
thoughts on speed training. Before I get into all the details let me attach a couple of
qualifications to this material. First of all, this information is set up to meet what I
call my "golden rule¨. That rule means that when I write this I am taking the
approach that I am talking to an average 16 year old teenager and I have about 20
minutes to explain the entire topic to him or her in a way in which he understands.
If I can´t do that I am either talking out of my ass or overcomplicating things.
Second of all, the information here applies to developing acceleration and top speed
for athletes involved mainly in team sports and is less applicable to sprinters. The
type of "speed training¨ I´m talking about here is applicable to distances of up to
about 50 or 60 yards. The general concepts apply yet I do not talk about speed
endurance or any of the other complexities of competitive sprinting necessary in an
event like the 100-meter dash. I will basically give you the complete "big picture" of
what I think athletes should be trying to accomplish to get faster and then I'll give
you a few specific examples.

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Learn Your Game and Be An Athlete

Now the rest of this article might seem to contradict what I'm about to say but I'm
gonna say it anyway. I know a lot of people reading this are gonna be football
players who want to get faster and there's nothing wrong with that. I'm gonna talk
about getting fast. Yet before I begin, I want to say that I believe a lot of people
would be better off paying more attention to their game instead of obsessing so
much about their "40 times" and all these other "measures" of athletic ability. If you
want to be a football player then be a football player. Learn the ins and outs of the
game of football and learn to play your position with technique. There are 2 speeds
in the game of football. Fast enough and too slow. Either you're fast enough to play
or you aren't. Same goes for size and height. Either you're big and tall enough to
play at a certain level or you're not. At each level the minimum requirements
increase. Yet as long as you meet the minimums for speed, height, and weight, the
rest is about football.

There are damn good running backs in the NFL like Priest Holmes who ran 4.75 over
40 yards and other guys that ran 4.2s. That's a pretty wide range. There are
"smallish" all pro cornerbacks running "slow" 4.65s. Any improvements you can
make in your football playing technique and knowledge will improve your game
speed just as much if not more then improving your straight ahead sprinters speed
will. That's how a guy like John Lynch can be a fine football player despite being slow
as molasses. The 4.8 guy can succeed for the same reason the 75 year old 10th
degree black belt can often kick the shit out of the athletic 25 year old first degree
black belt. Is he as fast? Nope. Is he as quick? Nope. Is he as strong? Nope. But
he's smarter and knows what the hell he's doing. I mention this become I am
amazed at the number of people who waste so much time, money, and effort
focusing on combines and the like thinking speed by itself will magically get them a
call by some recruiter. Most of the time it won't.

40 times - overhyped?? Naaaa

Like Most Other Things - the media creates hype. I've come to the conclusion that
the extreme obsession about 40 times and all this is largely a media creation so that
people who don't know shit about football will have something to argue about.
Scouts wanna see "football" players with physical skills not just guys who are fast.
Nobody ever talks about the "football" specific drills at these combines yet they are
just if not more-so important as the events themselves. None are as important as
game film. If you don't have game film 99% of the time nobody will give you a 2nd
look, regardless of how fast you can run. And I'll tell you right now if you're a
relatively unknown guy or a guy on the "cusp" and you're looking to advance to the
next level, scouts don't wanna spend 18 hours going through all your team game
films looking for the plays you're involved in so you better help them out. If you ask
me, providing you can meet the minimum requirements for your position, a simple
highlight video is 50 times more important then a combine performance. If you
don't have a highlight video then you better get one and do whatever it takes to get
one.

What Does Science Say?

Alright, now that I've finished that little rant and probably pissed a few people off
lets get back to the subject, which is getting faster.
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Let's start by taking a look at what science has to say on the subject:

Science says that running Speed consists of 2 very simple things:

A: The rate at which you take steps as you run (stride rate).

B: The amount of ground you cover with each stride (stride length)

It´s really not any more complicated then that. Any improvement brought about to
your sprinting speed consists of improving one or both of those factors. Whether
you improve them at the saq center, high speed treadmills, soviet secrets training,
or whatever is irrelevant. Those are the only 2 ways to improve running speed.

Runners that take more frequent steps should run faster than if they took steps less
frequently. If those runners decided to increase the distance between each step
(Stride Length), their speed should also increase. A combination of the two, longer
distance between steps and more frequent steps would be a third alternative to
increasing speed.

Taken a step further, the three components that affect stride rate and stride length
are actually this:

1. How often you contact the ground

2. How much muscular force you can deliver during ground contact of each stride

3. How much ground contact time is available to deliver that force.

Force Per Stride Is King

Now, the one thing that really stands out when you analyze the science is that the
predominant factor in running faster for teenage and adult athletes is the ability to
generate and transmit additional muscular force to the ground. If you take a look out
on the playground and watch the kindergardener's run a race, the kids that take
steps the fastest win. But that's because none of them are really strong enough to
propel their body with much force. For more mature athletes, the speed at which
the legs move is not that important rather the amount of force per stride is king. As
I´ve said many times, anyone can lie on their back or stand in place and cycle their
legs as fast as the fastest men in the world at 5 strides per second. Try it if you
don´t believe me. Along the same lines, there are people who can move their legs
extremely fast in the absence of resistance such as kicking or shuffling their feet in
place, yet they may not run fast. That's because sprinting requires a resistance
component in the form of your own bodyweight. With each step you take you also
have to move about 90% of your bodyweight.

Therefore, we can say that the speed the legs move is not all that important. Faster
running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces in relationship to
mass. Greater ground forces in relationship to mass. What the hell does that
mean? Well, it's very simple really. Ground force in relationship to mass is the
amount of force you put into the ground relative to the weight of your own body. Put
more force into the ground and you cover more ground.
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When you cover more ground per stride you increase your stride length. Watch
how many steps fast guys take over a given distance when they run. Watch how
many steps slow guys take. At 5´9 and probably a 32 inch inseam a Steve Smith will
cover 10 yards in 3.5 steps. Moonshine Jones ran a 4.3 over 40 yards and probably
took about 14 steps the entire race. Does this mean you should "intentionally" try to
lengthen your stride as you run? No, if you do you will actually create a braking
effect and slow down. Your legs have to stay under your center of gravity. If you
overstride you destroy that. Improvements in stride length have to come naturally
via increases in lower body strength and explosiveness not through intentionally
manipulating your technique by over-striding. Getting more force into the ground
also helps optimize your stride rate as you will "react" off the ground and get into
your next step more efficiently, - Kind've like the harder you throw a tennis ball
against a wall the faster it comes back to you.

Getting Faster - As simple as Putting a More Powerful Motor In
a Car

The stronger you are relative to your bodyweight the more force you're gonna put
into the ground and the faster you're gonna go. This is so obvious it should be a
rule. In one study Olympic weightlifters were damn near as fast as sprinters out to
30 meters. They didn´t get that speed from sprinting they got it from their strength.
Having stronger legs in general give you more potential that you can transfer into
running. General leg strengthening exercises include exercises like squats, deadlifts,
lunges, etc. Anything that strengthens the muscles of the glutes, quads, hamstrings,
and spinal erectors is fair game. The squat is probably the most popular exercise as
researchers like Mike Stone have found relative strength in the squat to correlate
best to performance in the 40 yard dash: How Strong is Strong Enough

So a 150 lb guy squatting 300 lbs will always run faster then a 200 lb guy
squatting 300 lbs?

Most of the time but not always. Limb lengths, tendons, bones, neurological
differences, and other factors affect how efficiently force gets delivered into the
ground and expressed by different individuals. A guy with longer limbs, smaller
joints, longer tendons, and better reflexes naturally shares an advantage. Therefore,
say you compare Randy Moss and Terrell Owens. Say Moss squats 250 and Owens
400. Owens should blow him away in a sprint right? Not necessarily. Moss has a
much more efficient structure for sprinting so what force he can deliver gets
delivered and "expressed" much more efficiently. The only way a guy like Owens is
gonna beat Moss is if he makes up for that with far superior horsepower. It´s like the
difference between a pit bull and a greyhound. If the pit bull is gonna beat a
greyhound in a race he has to have a much more powerful motor. He obviously does,
but that still is not enough for him to overcome the structural advantages
demonstrated by the greyhound. Now, compare Ben Johnson to Carl Lewis. In this
instance, the Pit Bull type body structure of Johnson was able to overcome the
perfect lines and greyhound type structural characteristics of Lewis, due largely to
Johnson's 600 lb squat. Unfavorable leverages can sometimes be overcome
with favorable strength levels.

The Very Simple Approach

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Now, what's important to note is that, for any given individual, an increase in general
strength at a given bodyweight ALMOST ALWAYS transfers into increased speed
providing the technique in the sprint remains the same. So, a 150 pound guy
squatting 400 lbs will ALWAYS run faster then that same 150 lb guy squatting 200
lbs, with the caveat that his technique in the sprint remains equal. Now I know
some of you are thinking, "Well my friend Billy Bob went of to college and he trained
like a bodybuilder. He got stronger but also slower.¨ Yeah, but did he maintain his
ability to sprint? If all he did was drink beer and turn into a fat ass and didn´t do a
single sprint at all during that same span of time what can you expect?

So for the simplest answer to speed development you will ever hear, "It's just a
matter of getting as strong as you can at a given bodyweight while maintaining or
improving the efficiency of the sprinting movement itself".

We'll cover the "efficiency of the sprint" part here in a minute but first let's see if
you're strong enough to run fast. The Bigger-Faster-Stronger organization isn't
perfect and I don't necessarily agree with all their recommendations but they have
some very good charts here that illustrate specific strength standards for males and
females of different heights and weights:

Men's and Women's strength standards

How is Strength Per Pound of Bodyweight Best Achieved?

Now, let's go back to strength per unit of body weight. How is that best achieved?
Hmmm.Does that mean in an effort to optimize your "weight to strength ratio" you
need to diet like an anorexic and sit around scared to death of any increases in
bodyweight or muscle mass increases? No, because, a muscle can only become so
strong until the only way to make it stronger is to make it bigger. A bigger muscle is
a potentially stronger muscle. Most importantly, until you are a very advanced
trainee, an increase in muscular bodyweight comes with a disproportionate
increase in strength. That´s why sprinters like Mo Green, Ben Johnson, Lynford
Christie etc. were big and strong and why you don´t see many scrawny 130 pound
outfits winning any type of sprint races. Until you´ve been training for a number of
years you will tend to gain 30% strength for every 10% increase in muscle
mass.

Say you currently weigh 170 and squat 300. Let's say you increase your
bodyweight by 17 lbs. Well, your squat should go up to a minimum of 390. That
means even though your bodyweight went up your strength per lb or bodyweight, or
relative strength, went up as well. That's why on paper you would think the
fastest men in the world and the fastest football players would be very, very small
guys. There certainly isn't a shortage of people weighing less then 140 lbs in this
world. Well, not if you eliminate the US anyway. But in the real world the fastest
guys often weigh 190-200 lbs or more.

What about maintaining or improving the efficiency of the
sprint itself? How about mechanics, video analysis, running
technique, drills, and all that? What do I need to be doing to
improve that?

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Short answer: Just Run!
With the exception of the sprint start and the ability to maintain top speed over
longer distances, accelerating to top speed is easy. Video analysis can be useful to
see how a person is moving, yet most of the talk about sprint mechanics, form, and
various complicated drills can for the most part all be thrown together into a big
heaping pile of bullshit. Let´s talk about why. Neurological and technical
improvements in a movement come about from one of 2 factors. These are:

1. Intermuscular coordination- Which is coordination between different
muscle groups involved in a movement that allow you to carry out the
movement.

2. Intramuscular coordination- Increased firing and coordination within a
given muscle which allows more force to be put out by a muscle in a
particular movement.

Don't worry you don't have to memorize those terms just understand the
concepts. Whenever a skill or movement is first being learned intermuscular
coordination dominates as the individual learns how to properly coordinate all the
muscles involved in the task. Imagine a baby learning to walk or crawl around.
He/she trips, falls down, loses balance, etc. as he/she learns to control her body
and all the various muscles involved. This is intramuscular coordination. The
same thing happens as kids learn to run. Their legs and feet flop around and
they look discombobulated when they run. Yet, as they become more proficient
at the skill they eventually reach a point where they get the various muscle
groups coordinated together and learn to run with some effectiveness. They
continue to get faster as they gain coordination, yet eventually they reach a point
where their coordination is about as good as it's gonna get and at that point they
won't get faster unless they either get bigger or stronger. It is at this point that
intramuscular coordination, or horsepower, begins to dominate.

Use Frequency To Learn, - Use Intensity to Enhance What's
Learned

With regards to training, during the initial stages of movement mastery,
intermuscular coordination requires more frequency and practice to fully master.
That´s why any new skill set whether it´s crawling, walking, running, squatting or
even taking a dump initially requires more practice. Even in lifting, beginning
lifters make the best progress hitting a given lift 3 times per week because they
have to learn the lift. That´s why those SAQ type of centers are in my opinion
much more valid options for athletes under the age of around 14 or so. They go
and run their ass off 3 times per week and if nothing else they learn how to get
coordinated and move correctly.

Now, as an individual becomes proficient at the basic movement pattern and
learns how to coordinate the various muscle groups involved in the movement
pattern the pattern becomes hardwired in the brain and no longer "forgotten¨ as
easily so frequency becomes less important.

At this point the movement becomes somewhat ingrained. Proper performance of
the movement itself no longer becomes such an issue, thus further performance
improvements result from increasing the horsepower behind the muscles involved
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in the particular movement. For that purpose, intensity is more important then
frequency. This is why intermediate and advanced strength athletes have been
found to get their best strength training gains on a 2 x per week schedule while
beginners require at least 3. The "intensity" part of Improving
intramuscular coordination is all about improving on previous
performances. Endless drills carried out in a low intensity fashion that may
have helped to "coordinate" the body when first learning a movement, are no
longer as important. In the case of the sprints, neither is sprinting just to sprint.
Once a skill is mastered or performed correctly frequency is no longer near as
important. That´s why a 15 or 16 year old can for the most part sit on his ass the
entire summer and come back in august and test faster in the 40 yard dash.
He´s growing a lot thus getting bigger and stronger and the gains he made in
those areas over the course of 1 summer make up for any losses in his sprinting
technique since the movement was virtually ingrained in him early on.

Easy Movements vs Difficult Movements

It also helps if we talk about gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Gross
movements are whole body movements that don't require much skill, technique,
or thinking. They're for the most part instinctive and easy. I suppose you could
also call these "primal" movement patterns. Imagine you're out walking in the
woods and a bear comes out nowhere and jumps your ass. What are you gonna
do? Well, if you're like most people you're gonna run. Now, whenever you're
running from that bear do you think to yourself, "ok I have to tilt my hips up and
cross my right ankle over the knee and extend my hips fully at a 70 degree angle
and make sure my torso is in line with my feet and all this bullshit, or are you
just gonna run? Well, if you plan on surviving, I hope you just run! Now, there
are also fine movement skills. These are more difficult and require more control
and skill. Threading a needle is a fine motor skill and so is something like a
twisting single leg back flip off a bosu ball that requires much more skill and body
control to execute. Moves like sprinting, walking and running are gross motor
skills thus shouldn't and don´t require much conscious voluntary input once
learned.

The importance of all of this is that technical improvements in gross motor skills
are limited because there´s not a whole lot to complicate or screw up in the first
place. How complicated is sprinting really? Put one foot in front of the other with
as much force and speed as possible. Duh!. It's a natural gross motor pattern
that people have been doing since they were kids. Improvements mainly come
about via improvements in the muscular horsepower behind the movement. For
that reason if you take a random sample of athletes who haven't been doing any
sprint work and you do nothing else but take them out and run them on the track
a couple of times per week most will quickly progress in their times for all of
about 3 sessions but after that little happens because they've made the majority
of technical improvements they're gonna make during that time span!

Sprinting Is Not That Hard!

How long have you been running? How long did it take you to run correctly?
Assuming you at some point learned how to run as an adolescent and didn´t set
on your butt for 12 hours a day playing Nintendo, chances are you already went
through the "intermuscular coordination¨ stage. That´s not a given however (as
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lazy as kids are today it's not a given that people even know how to run
correctly) but assuming it is, How much running do you think it'll take you to
maintain your current ability? In general, it takes 1/3 the frequency and
volume to maintain a skill as it does to learn a skill, providing the
intensity is maintained. So if 3 times per week were necessary to optimize a
movement pattern then the proficiency of that movement can be maintained with
around 1 exposure per week. For an athlete that exposure can come from any
sprinting that you do..sprinting out on a football field to catch a pass, sprinting
down the basketball court, or any other athletic endeavor.

Now, what if you´re one of these people who either:

A: Did play Nintendo for 12 hours per day through your adolescent years and
thus never learned how to sprint

Or

B: Have some other excuse such as extreme height, extreme growth spurts, or
something else that affected your ability to learn how to run properly?

Well, if that describes you, you're gonna need more frequency until you learn
how to control your body properly. The general most basic recommendation is
get out and run with enough frequency that you become somewhat proficient at
it. SAQ places and the like are wonderful for this type of athlete. Basically you
just need to get out and run a minimum of 3 times per week or whatever. Now,
how can you tell if you fit in this group? Well, if you feel uncoordinated when you
run, can't run without tripping over your feet, or if people can your hear coming
from a mile away due to the sounds of your feet slapping the surface then you're
probably in that group. Spend 3-6 months or so learning how to control your
body then follow the rest of my advice.

How About Everybody Else?

Ok now, getting back to the point, with the exception of those who really need to
build up coordination in the sprint itself (and the technique for the the start which
can be a bit more technical), a persons sprinting speed and their technique in the
sprint are more of a "display" of existing horsepower then it a display of their
sprinting "skill".

So you’re saying that once a baseline level of technique is learned that there’s
nothing that can be done to really change a person’s sprinting technique?

No, I´m saying function follows form. Physical changes drive the technical changes in
the sprint.

If there are problems with a sprinters stride (other then performance of the start
which does require some technique), it's generally due to problems with his body
and not with the technique of the sprint itself. Work on the cause of the problem
and not the problem itself. These can be problems such as lack of strength, lack of
muscle balance, and in some instances lack of flexibility. It is usually NOT due to
lack of exposure to a certain drill or lack of sprint work.

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For example, one problem everyone demonstrates until they develop the strength is
a lack of hip extension. They never fully straighten and drive off their plant leg
because they're not strong enough to do so. This "technical problem" is "cured¨ by
strengthening the hip extensors and naturally improves to a large extent as people
get older. Other people have feet that collapse when they run which can be caused
by the aforementioned lack of coordination, Bad Feet, weakness in the entire lower
body, or a host of foot related problems such as pronation or supination of the feet.
Other people have muscle balance issues the most common being there front half of
the body overpowers the back half of their body. These people will often be strong
but tend to run flat footed with excessive knee bend. Those problems are talked
about here: http://www.higher-faster-sports.com/SquatsandSpeed.html

The basic tenet is change the body to change the function. Faulty technique can be
made up for by correcting the muscular issues and does not require a bunch of
specific drills.

Think of it like this. A boat with a 5 horsepower motor running at full speed doesn't
have enough "oomph" to get up on top of the water and glide. Yet, if you put a 150
horsepower motor in that same boat and run it at full speed it'll be up gliding on top
of the water almost flying. The boat itself didn't change the only thing that changed
was the strength powering it. Technical changes in the sprint tend to be the same
way.

What about Flexibility?

The extreme devotion to flexibility hype is in my opinion also overblown as well
because the sprint stride really does not challenge the limits of a person's range of
motion. Now, let me qualify that statement. Flexibility training is like working on a
car. It should be done to fix and/or prevent certain problems. Other then your
regularly scheduled maintenance like oil changes, do you send your car to the
mechanic for the hell of it?? Probably not. You send the car to the mechanic when
something isn't running right. Hardcore stretching is the same way. It's effective to
prevent and/or correct identified problems. I´m not against stretching to correct
and or prevent certain problems what I mainly want to address is the notion that
everybody needs to stretch EVERYTHING ALL the time, that everyone who sprints
needs a $200 per week flexibility guru to put them on some elaborate stretching plan
that has to be done for 2 hours per day, and the notion that anybody who doesn´t
stretch for hours on end is gonna suck as a sprinter.

In a sprint your legs are basically cycling directly under you and pumping up and
down like a piston. Stand in place and slowly mimick a sprinting action. Do you feel
any tightness or restrictions?? Probably not. Then why all the focus on flexibility for
sprinting? Probably because gurus need something to talk about, something to
complicate and that´s all they´ve been told from the gurus they learned from.

Put it this way, flexibility is no important then muscular strength or weakness.

For a better understanding of what flexibility training can and can´t do please read
this: flexibility

Now, a simple dynamic warm-up is not something I really consider flexibility
"training¨ but more of a warm-up which I´m all for. A cat flexing it´s back after a nap
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is also a dynamic warm-up as are any other movements that slightly exaggerate the
movements encountered in your sport. Whether you warm-up with a dynamic warm-
up, lower intensity sprints, or whatever is probably not worth arguing about.

Setting Up a Routine

Alright, now I wanna talk about setting up a routine. There are no secrets in the
speed training world that I can see. I´ve looked at most of the types of training
plans and most of them are variations of the same thing. Which is usually just go out
and do way too much and run tired all the time and hope you either have a natural
talent who can survive the training or time your taper/peak correctly. Many training
businesses have no choice but to do this because their athletes are paying them
good money to be trained. For example, take a look at many of these combine prep
places and speed development places. An athlete is gonna have a hard time paying
$600-$2000 per week if they´re only training 3-4 hours per week. So the common
theme is to bring a guy in and train him 4 hours per day at least 5 days per week for
a month and then give him a week off and hope he recovers. Variations of that
approach can work particularly for advanced athletes as I alluded to towards the end
of this article: http://www.higher-faster-sports.com/PlannedOvertraining.html
However, most athletes are not near to the point where they need something so
dramatic.

Speed Training Requires Quality

Sprinting is a high intensity event, far more akin to something like powerlifting or
shotputting. Quality should take precedence over quantity. Everytime you sprint
with the intention of getting faster, you should sprint at a high intensity and rest fully
between reps. If you run in a state of fatigue you may improve your conditioning,
but you will not improve your speed. A speed training session should be terminated
as soon as your performance (speed) on any given rep is slower then the previous,
or 300 total yards, whichever comes first. Distances should be kept under 60 yards,
unless you're running interval conditioning drills.

Every time you hit the track you should "want" to be out there. The same goes for
lifting. If you don't feel like being at the track or in the gym chances are you're not
gonna make much progress when you are. Likewise, if you feel like sprinting or
lifting chances are you're gonna do pretty good when you do.

Sprinting in the absence of fatigue keeps you much fresher. This is also important for
relative beginners, the last thing you want to do is run in a constant state of fatigue
and ingrain bad habits.

Many people look at what I recommend and go "That's not enough training" "That's
suitable for a punk but not for a high level athlete." Which is probably why most of
the people I see training to improve their sprint speed are over-trained and almost
always make good progress when they switch to something more along the lines of
what I recommend.

General Recommendation

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The best "general" recommendation I can make is do enough sprinting to maintain
efficiency in the act of sprinting itself and spend the majority of the time focusing on
getting more power into the ground relative to the size of the body via putting a
bigger and more powerful motor in the car (your body particularly your legs).

For some people the training is really important while for others the dinner table is
very important. Remember, the key issue is getting more power into the ground
relative to bodyweight - That might mean body-fat loss for some, that might mean
muscle and strength gain for others, while for others (most) it might mean both
body-fat loss as well as muscle and strength gain, while for others it might mean
improving the ability to display their existing strength levels (explosiveness).
Anybody who sprints once per week should be able to maintain efficiency in the
movement itself though.

A Sample Training Schedule

Basically I´ve found that simple strength focused cycles alternated with explosive
oriented cycles to give very good results for all but the most advanced athletes. The
basic tenet is you really focus on increasing general strength in one phase while you
really focus on expressing that strength (or transferring it to the field) in the
following phase. In each phase you do enough to maintain the qualities that you're
not focusing on. When this quits working then you can try something a little more
elaborate. A very basic scheme would involve this:

Basic Setup

Get to the gym every Monday and Friday or Monday and Thursday. On one day
knock out sets of 3-5 in the squat followed by some Glute Hams for sets of 6-8. On
the other day knock out sets of 6-8 in the bulgarian split squat followed by some
more glute hams. Maybe do some light squats as well just to keep the feel of the
movement. Some people "forget" how to do a movement if they don't hit it at least
twice a week. Every time you hit Monday's workout try to put more weight on the
bar. Do this until you can throw around at least twice your bodyweight for reps.
Prior to your workouts on Monday and Friday do a low volume of some garden
variety plyometric drills such as a few sets of lateral jumps, low squat hops and low
box depth jumps or whatever else you want. On 1 of those days you might practice
some starts out to 10-20 yards. On one of those days, get out and run some sprints
out to 40-60 yards for no more then 300 yards total. You might do a few 20's, a few
40's and call it a day.

For volume you´d do sets of 4-5 sets for squats and GHR. 2-3 sets for split squats.

So basically it´d look something like this:

Monday-
Easy warmup-
Plyo drills- 2-3 sets of whatever
Starts - 5-10 reps or however many you feel like doing
Squat 4-5 sets of 3-5 reps (try to add weight to the bar each week)
Glute Hams 4-5 sets of 5-10 reps


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Friday
Easy warm-up
Sprints 30-50 yards- go until you start to slow down.
Light squats - 3-4 sets x 3-5 reps with 10-20% less weight then Mondays workout
Bulgarian split squat- 3-5 sets of 6-8 reps/leg
Glute hams - 4-5 sets of 5-10 reps

Follow that routine there until your strength gains start to stagnate. If you´re a
beginner that might be a year or longer. If you´re more advanced it might be 3-4
weeks. It just depends on you. If you´re less then an advanced trainee you´ll likely
find your speed will increase along with your strength on that routine. Regardless,
once you have built up your strength you will now have a bigger motor in your car
and can then shift to an explosive oriented phase, where you will focus on modifying
that now larger motor to get the most out of it.

Explosive Setup

Now for a sample explosive type phase keep the same basic schedule in place.
Monday and Thursday or Monday and Friday etc. On one day do some starts and
some shorter sprints out to 40 yards. Follow this up with some explosive oriented
weight room work such as wave loaded jump squats for sets of 5-10 reps for about
6-8 sets of squats. The squat weights will vary between 10-40% of your max. Do
one set with more weight followed by one set with lighter weight and alternate back
and forth until you've done all 8 sets. Either that or you can do something like speed
oriented box squats with 50-70% of your max. Any sort've explosive work is fine. In
this phase, you could even eliminate weight room work altogether and use a specific
strength training method like sled sprints. On the other weekly workout, make it a
workout based around sprinting for PRs. Simply go out and get warmed up and try to
run PRs at a distance somewhere between 30 and 60 yards. At the very end of your
workout you might do a few sets of 2-3 reps working up to 90% of your squat, as
well as a few glutehams, just to maintain your strength.

So the explosive phase might look something like this:

Monday
Warmup
Starts- 5-10 reps (or whatever)
20-30 yard sprints (run reps until you start to slow down)
jump squat variation with 30% x 5 (3-4 sets total)
jump squat variation with 15% x 5 (3-4 sets total)
glute ham- 2 sets x 5-8 reps

Thursday
Warmup
Starts- 5-10 reps (or whatever)
40 yard sprints (run reps until you start to slow down)
depth jumps- 4 sets x 3 reps
normal squat 3 sets x 3 reps with 85-90% of max

You´d follow this phase for 3-6 weeks and then embark on another strength type
phase and maybe make a few adjustments like changing the focus from a squat to a
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snatch grip deadlift or something similar. Nothing complicated. Those are just a few
very basic examples that could be adjusted to fit your needs. The exercises
themselves aren't as important as the principles employed. I guarantee you that
very simple split right there can take you very far and make you very fast if you
follow it over a period of time.

The Start

With the sprint starts they do require practice. Get in the right position. Lead foot 1.5
to 2 foot lengths behind the start line. Back foot one foot length behind the lead foot.
Get in position and practice. Make sure you're pushing from both legs, extending
fully from the start and not taking short choppy steps. In fact it often helps if you
concentrate on pushing first with the trail leg. Make sure your heals aren't hitting
first. If they are you're over-striding.

Common Errors

Now, let me talk about some of the most common training related errors.

1. Too much –
As I alluded to above the biggest error I see is people that simply do too much
running. They think they need to be on their feet out running all the damn time to
be effective. There must be something about runners in general that breeds this
problem because I notice it in all times of runners at every distance. They sprint and
lift one day. The next day they´re out running conditioning. The next day they're
lifting and running again. That might be fine for marathon runners but sprinting is
more like lifting then it is marathon running. Science has found that improvements
in lifting performance occurs best with an average frequency of 2 x per week.
Improving lifts requires recovery and maximum focus and so does maximum
sprinting.

Sometimes ignorance is bliss. About 12 years ago I made up a routine that I pulled
out of my ass that had me sprinting once every 5 days. At the time I knew nothing
about training for the sprints I just made this up based on what had given me results
with lifting and other endeavors. My basic tenet was to make progress or go home.
My feeling was that it´s better to train with 100% intensity less frequently and make
progress every session then it is to train half assed in a state of fatigue. I wanted to
apply this concept to sprints and see what happened. Therefore, I sprinted once
every 5
th
day always 2 days after a heavy lower body workout. I would simply get
out out and attempt to sprint as fast as possible with full recoveries. Honestly, even I
didn't expect it to work very well but boy was I wrong. I used that exact routine to
improve my speed by over .5 of a second over 40 yards. I thought maybe it was a
fluke but since then I´ve noticed other people getting great results from similar
routines involving less frequent but maximum effort sprinting. There are some
limitations to this type of setup but over short periods of time it is very effective for
the reasons I've already described.

2. Too Little-
Don´t be like the guy I mentioned earlier who spends all his time in the weight room
and at the dinner table yet never does any other activity or speed work. You don´t
have to get out and run sprints all the time but at least engage in some type of sport
a minimum of once per week or you risk losing your movement efficiency.
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3. Weak as a Kitten-

Guys who can´t handle the dedication and pain it takes to get stronger are also a
dime a dozen. These guys will commonly spend all sorts of time and money on
every gimmick you can think of like rubber bands, weighted vests, sleds, and all
kinds of other gimmicks but won´t spend 5 minutes per week in the squat rack or on
the platform. Providing you do get them to actually lift they'll then complain about
being sore and feeling slow. Until you´ve come close to equaling at least the
minimum standards listed here you´re not even close to being strong enough to
sprint:
http://www.higher-faster-sports.com/standards.html

4. Skinny and afraid to eat-

This guy (or more often, girl) also tends to fall into the "too much" category. This is
often the guy who needs to get stronger to improve his performance. The problem is
he is addicted to being a skinny GQ looking cat and afraid to let his body-fat creep
up out of fear of getting fat. Thus he/she won't gain the weight he needs to get
stronger. This is the person who spends all day worrying about his six pack yet is
afraid to sit down at the dinner table and do enough serious eating to pack on some
muscle and strength. He also tends to do too much conditioning work and won't let
his body rest long enough to ever be fresh. Like I said before, you don´t see any 120
lb guys winning any type of sprint races and until you´re an advanced trainee you will
gain a 30% increase in strength for every 10% increase in muscle mass. Muscle and
strength both require good food intake.

5. Being Fat is not Phat-

This guy has the opposite problem of the aforementioned skinny guy. It´s hard to
get down the track or field at a good rate of speed if you´re hauling a 50 lb sack of
shit around your midsection. For many people the quickest way to improve their
speed is to decrease the load that they´re carrying around. That means less crap in
the diet and more activity. Cut down on sugars and increase the protein. Eliminate
the cokes, cakes, candy, pizza and ice cream and increase the consumption of
anything you can shoot or grow.

6. Trying to do everything at once -

With the popularization of conjugate training there are many athletes who think they
need to be addressing everything they can all of the time in any given mesocycle.
Therefore they´re always lifting with the volume that would oftentimes kill a
powerlifter and sprinting with the volume that would challenge a professional
sprinter. What these people need to realize is you can't always focus on everything
all of the time. There is often a delayed training effect for a given regime of work.
For example, heavy strength work is necessary. It sets the foundation for
everything and makes you stronger. But it is also fatiguing on both the nervous and
muscular system and thus, it often takes recovery time to really see the benefits of
strength work. It's difficult to run your fastest during the middle of a highly intense
concentrated strength phase because your neuromuscular system will simple be too
fatigued. Along the same lines, a surefire way to kill the effectiveness of a strength
phase is to do too much specific work like running. Likewise, one of the quickest
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ways to kill the effectiveness of an explosive oriented phase is to drain the hell out of
yourself with too much strength work. A better approach is to alternate the "focus¨
of your training. Work on building up your strength for a while while you maintain
your speed. Then work on "maintaining¨ your strength while you focus on your
speed.

7. Too much conditioning-

Putting out a very low amount of energy for a prolonged period of time and putting
out a whole lot of energy over a short period of time are qualities that reside at 2
opposite ends of the athletic performance spectrum. To put it simpler, if you want to
run marathons at a rapid pace don´t expect to be very good at running sprints. If
you want to be as fast as possible, don´t expect to be able to run any marathons. If
you try to do both, your body would rather sacrifice the ability to run sprints then it
would sacrifice the ability to run marathons. You will gain endurance at the expense
of speed. That's why marathon runners average about a 12 inch vertical jump. The
quickest way to destroy fast twitch muscle fibers is to bathe them in lactic acid for
prolonged periods of time. That's what you do with high intensity conditioning
training and/or intense cardiovascular activity. What´s funny is the explosiveness of
an athlete is directly inverse to the amount of conditioning in their training. For
example throwing athletes like shotputters, hammer throwers, as well as Olympic
lifters are the most powerful athletes around and you'll have a hard time getting
these guys to take a walk around the park much less engage in any type of
conditioning. The secret is to have that kind've explosiveness while being relatively
strong, lean, AND in condition. Look to your diet and try to get as much of your
conditioning through playing sports if possible. Basketball, flag football, tennis,
boxing, wrestling etc. are all good activities. Providing you can get enough frequency
in, nothing beats playing yourself into shape. If you find it necessary to engage in
extra conditioning work I suggest you follow these guidelines:

Guidelines for normal "cardio"

a. If you´re doing it to drop body-fat, look to your diet first.
b. If you engage in long duration cardio keep it easy so that the slow twitch fiber
does the work. There's a big difference between running a 4.5 minute mile
and running an 8 minute mile. The former will make you weak and slow as
your body calls upon fast twitch fibers which must adapt to accomplish the
task. The latter won't have any negative effects because the slow twitch fiber
can handle the workload. The development of lactic acid is a sure sign that
you're recruiting fast twitch fibers. Make sure the lactic acid stays out of your
legs and keep the intensity to 60-70% of maximum heart rate.
c. No more then 3 days per week.

Guidelines for "intervals"

a. If you're running straight ahead keep the speed to 70% or less of your
maximum (If you're conditioning through agilities this recommendation
doesn't apply)
b. Keep the work to rest ratio to a point where your last interval can be
completed as fast as the first, except for the month or so just prior to the
beginning of your sporting season. This allows lactic acid to clear in between
reps.
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c. Never do more then 3000 yards total for a given session.
d. No more then 2 days per week.

What about agility training?

The development of agility is much like the development of running speed. Learn the
movements and then build up the body to carry out those movements with greater
power. Agility training does not need to be done year around. Here is a sample of
how you might construct a year around split for a football player:

January – Mid-May
Monday: Lower Body lifting
Tuesday: Upper Body lifting
Thursday Lower body lifting low volume movement work (sprints,
agility)
Friday: Upper Body lifting
End of May – End of June
Monday: Upper Body lifting
Tuesday: Dynamic Warm-up, Sprint and agility technique
Wednesday: Lower Body lifting
Thursday: Upper body lifting
Friday: Dynamic Warm-up, anaerobic conditioning (using football drills / agility drills)

July – Mid-August
Monday: Upper Body lifting, dynamic warm-up, anaerobic conditioning (linear)
Tuesday: Lower Body lifting
Wednesday: anaerobic conditioning (using football drills / agility drills)
Thursday: Upper body lifting
Friday: Dynamic warm-up, anaerobic conditioning

Well I think I surpassed my 20 minutes but hopefully that gives you some helpful
information when it comes to getting faster.

If you enjoyed this information and found it informative, a much more detailed
analysis on speed development and every other aspect of developing athletes will be
available in my upcoming training manual, "No Bull-Crap Sports Training". Keep an
eye out.

-Kelly










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Appendix B:

Training Templates For Various Athletes
by: Kelly Baggett

General Guidelines and Principles:
1. The body does not know whether you're doing a higher-faster-sports, westside,
HIT, swiss ball, kettlebell, or any other system. It only knows stimulation and
recovery. Most training schemes do provide some stimulation and no routine is
perfect.
1a. Exercises and routines are just "tools" to improve performance. No tool is more
important then whether or not the tool gets the job done. If your car breaks down, it
doesn't matter if you use a rock, a crescent wrench, bailing wire, or an entire set of
snap on tools to fix it, the important thing is that it gets fixed. Raising performance is
the same way.
1b. Most people probably tend to use too many "tools" per training session.
Improvement in mobility means you move more freely and easily, improvement in
speed work means you run faster in a straight line, improvement in agility means
you get better at moving while changing direction, improvement in plyo work means
you tend to get better at jumping, while improvement in strength means you get
better at developing tension typically demonstrated by an ability to lift heavier loads.
It doesn't necessarily take a boatload of tools to improve those qualities. The ability
for the human organism to adapt to stimulation existed prior to the invention of all
the high-tech training tools we have today. Stimulation for caveman consisted of
dealing with everyday life (chasing prey, running away from predators, lifting rocks
to build a hut etc.) You could take a knowledgeable athlete today and put him on a
deserted island, and, if he knew what he were doing and had enough food, he could
stimulate performance improvements without a single tool modern day tool to work
with.
1c. The ultimate goal should be to get your knowledge of "stimulation" and
"recovery" down so well that you can program your body like a computer and know
what happens in advance. (Example: Adjust this, adjust that, insert this, delete that,
and here's what's gonna happen.)
1d. Most people do too much overanalyzing of various training minutia and not
enough actual training. In in doubt, pick 3 or 4 things and get really good at them.
1e. If combining strength training, speed, agility, plyo, etc. into one workout, always
do the faster stuff first. (ex. dynamic mobility followed by speed followed by plyo
followed by weights)
1f. If workouts are separated into AM and PM sessions you have some leeway as to
what you do first (strength and/or speed)
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2. Volume of plyo, speed, and agility work should always be regulated based upon
performance. As soon as performance or speed starts to decline on a main
movement (assuming you're taking full rest intervals, which you should), stop the
workout. (It's as simple as that).
2a. Unless you're a sprinter, you should rarely ever run distances greater than ~
50+ yards for speed work.
2b. A set of plyo, speed, or agility work should rarely exceed 10 seconds in duration.
2c. The choice of drills chosen for plyo and agility work is not that important in the
grand scheme of things. Plyo consists of unilateral and bilateral (1 and 2 leg) hops,
jumps and bounds (they all do the same thing). Agility consists of moving forwards,
sideways and backward and changing direction. A simple jump for height is one of
the best plyo maneuvers there is. Basic change of direction drills will get the job
done for agility. If you play any sort've sport as frequently as two times per week,
chances are your needs for specific plyo and agility training are ZERO. Save the plyo
and agility work for the offseason and preseason.
2d. With that being said, you know that speed work should consist of sprints for 0 to
50 yards, plyo work consists of hops, jumps, and bounds for less then 10 seconds,
while agility work consists of moving forward, sideways, and backward with changes
of direction for less then 10 seconds per set. You also know that a workout for any of
those qualities should be terminated when performance declines due to fatigue. So
how difficult is it really to design and implement a plyo, speed, and agility workout?
Not very.
3. Monitoring volume strictly by "performance" on strength work is not such an
issue, as muscle growth stimulation is often a goal and does require a certain level of
fatigue, which means the load that you can lift at the end of a session may not be
the same as the load you lift at the beginning of a strength session, (which is not
true when targeting speed, agility and plyo improvements). Two to five sets per
strength movement is the norm.
3a. An upper body strength workout would generally consist of some type of upper
body push (bench press variation), some type of pull (row or pullup), along with
perhaps some supplemental shoulder and "beach" (aka arm) work.
3b. A lower body strength workout would generally consist of some type of squat or
deadlift (squat, deadlift, lunge, split squat), along with some type of assistance
movement for the glutes and hams.
3c. For strength and power, sets of 3-5 reps are optimal. For hypertrophy, sets of 5-
12 are typically optimal. Monitoring volume could be as simple as lifting in a targeted
rep bracket (3-5, 6-8, 9-12 etc.), starting off lifting at the upper end, and continuing
until your performance falls to the low end of the bracket. For example, work up to
a heavy set of 5 reps and continue performing sets until you can no longer get 4
reps.
3d. For strength development heavy loads of 85%-100% for sets of 1-5 reps are
optimal. For power development lighter loads of 10-60% are optimal.
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3e. As a general recommendation, each strength training workout you do may
consist of one core strength or power movement for sets of 1-5 reps along with 1 or
2 assistance movements for 5-12 reps, and maybe an ab movement for 2-4 sets of
10-20 reps.
3f. The need for upper body "power" work using loads of 10-60% is virtually
nonexistent for any athletes other then powerlifters. With regards to upper body
work, an athlete should be lifting heavy focusing on getting stronger and/or bigger.
3g. Until an athlete has a base of lower body strenght in place (1.5 to 2 x bw squat
and deadlift), specific lighter lower body "power" work in the weight room using
loads of 10-60% is also largely useless. These people should concentrate on core
movements with progressively heavier bar weights with an emphasis on getting
stronger and/or bigger.
3h. Most people will make excellent gains with two upper body workouts per week
and either 1 or 2 lower body workouts per week. Beginners seem to progress fastest
with 3 of each per week.
3i. Ab work might consist of weighted crunches, standing pulldown abs, kneeling
pulldown abs, decline leg raises, hanging leg raises, cable wood chops, russian
twists, dumbell and cable side bends, side bends lying sidways in back extension
device.
4. Generally speaking, it's benefical for intermediate and advanced athletes to take a
day of rest in between high intensive training elements. High intensive training
elements include the aforementioned speed, plyo, agility, and strength work. For
younger athletes (<16 years old), beginners (less then one year of training
experience), and those who are just introducing the training of certain motor
qualities into their routines (ex: a powerlifter introducing speed and agility work),
high intensive elements can be done more often.
4a. With regard to strength work, it's usually beneficial to take an "unloading" week
ever 3 to 6 weeks. There are many ways of implementing this. probably the simplest
is to cut your volume in half and decrease the load keeping things very easy. I
generally prescribe something like 3 sets of 3 reps at 80% for strength work during
an unloading week.
4b. Providing you can benefit from specific "power" work, it can often be
advantageous to alternate 2-4 weeks of heavy strength oriented training (heavy
squats and deadlifts for 3-5 reps) with 2-4 weeks of explosive oriented training
(speed box squats with 50-60%, jump squats etc.)
5. Skill work and conditioning can be done on alternate days.
6. It can often be advantageous to transition from a 4-8 week phase of higher
volume and/or greater training frequency into a phase of lower/volume and/or
frequency.
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7.If you're training consistently yet not making consistent progress or you're
regressing, chances are 10 to 1 you're doing too much. If in doubt reduce volume
and simplify your programming.
Basic Training templates
Raw Beginner
Work towards basic strength goals such as: pullup, dip, 50 bodyweight squats, one
perfect single leg squat, 25 full v-sits, 1 minute isometric front and side bridge hold
Training should consist of:
mobility, movement efficiency, and strength
For strength purposes 3 times per week get in the gym and focus on exercises such
as:
bodyweight squats, lunge, single leg squats onto a box, stepups, supine row, partner
assisted or gravitron pullups, partner assisted or gravitron dips, wall sits, plank,
glute bridges, overhead broomstick squats etc.plus light form work on box squat and
deadlift.
Just pick 4-8 bodyweight type movements for 2-4 sets each, use the bodyweight and
go after it. It's difficult to overtrain when using bodyweight as resistance.
Hit mobility, speed, agility, etc. prior to lifting or on opposite days.
Mobility might consist of:
deep walking lunge, alternate pull heel to butt walk, leg swings front to back, leg
swings side to side, deep sumo squats, cross under lunge, bird dog, arm circles
Plyo/Speed/Agility might consist of
Skips, karioka, lateral hops, agility: (ex: 5 yard backpedal into 5 yard lateral shuffle
into 20 yard sprint), and sprints over distances from 10 to 100 yards.
Standard Beginner Template
This template will also work just fine for intermediate or advanced trainees. The
format for mobility, speed, and plyo work would be the same as the raw beginner,
but now core lifts make up the strength program on what might be a 2 to 3 times
per week basis. A sample strength workout is as follows.
Session A:
Clean or Snatch
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Deadlift
Bench press
Ab movement
Session B:
Squat
Incline Press
Weighted Chin
Ab movement
*Alternate between session A & B.
Perform 2-5 sets of 2-5 reps, never to failure, using a step-type loading approach.
Increase the weight for 3 consecutive workouts then decrease it for one and build
back up.
Example:
session 1 100 x 2 x 3 (3 sets of 2 reps) session 2 105 x 2 x 3 session 3 110 x 2 x 2
session 1 105 x 2 x 3 session 2 110 x 2 x 3 session 3 115 x 2 x 2
session 1 110 x 2 x 3 session 2 115 x 2 x 3 session 3 120 x 2 x 2
Another option based on the same basic theme:
3 whole body workouts per week based on 5 sets of 5 reps:
Mobility and movement work done prior to lifting.
Mon- Squat 5 x 5, Pullup 5 x 5, Bench 5 x 5, Glute Ham 4 x 6 (sets of 5 are done
with a weight you could do 7-8 times)
Wed- Deadlift 5 x 3, Lunge 2 x 8, Row 3 x 6, DB Bench 3 x 5
Fri- Squat 5 x 5, Pullup 5 x 5, Bench 5 x 5, glute ham/leg curl 4 x 6 (sets of 5 done
working up to max 5 reps)
After 4-6 weeks this phase would be alternated with phase E or F below.
More Templates
157
Option A:
Mon and Thurs- mobility, linear (straight ahead) speed, upper body strength
Tues and Fri or Tues and Sat- mobility, plyo, agility, lower body strength
Sample week
Mon- mobility warmup, form running (high knees, skips, various quickfeet drills
etc.), 10 yard sprints x 10, 20 yard sprints x 6-8,
Weights - heavy push (some type of bench) working upto 3rm, Heavy row or pullup
same as bench, shoulder raise of some sort (front or side), beach work, crunching
type ab movement (loaded swiss ball or kneeling crunch etc.)
Tues- mobility warmup, forward and lateral single leg on box jumps x 2 sets each
leg lateral and forward, lateral barrier jump 4 sets x 8 reps, some type of agility drill
requiring lateral movement for somewhere around 4-8 reps.
weights:
Lower body: Some type of squat or deadlift movement typcially alternate 2-4 weeks
of a heavy compound movement like squats or deadlifts for 3-5 reps with 2-4 weeks
of a lighter speed movement like speed box squats or jump squats for 4-6 sets of 3-
8 reps. Follow that up with maybe some type of unilateral movement generally
bulgarian split squats during a heavy phase and steups during a lighter phase along
with some type of posterior chain assistance such as glute hams, reverse hypers,
pull throughs or whatever for 3-4 sets of 6-10 reps, some type of ab movement.
Wednesday- Off
Thursday- Repeat the basic scheme from monday's workout but perhaps do 3-4
sets of 8-10 reps on the pressing and row.
Friday or Sat- Repeat the basic theme from Tuesday's workout, but drop the
weights in the heavy compound movement or make a unilateral variation (lunge or
split squat) the "core" movement. If in a power phase just repeat the entire workout.
Option B:
Just do 2 full body workouts per week with speed/plyo on alternate days. Each
workout attempt to drive the weights up.
Example:
Mon:
Speed/Plyo (Example: 10's and 20's for 4-8 reps each)
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Tues:
Squat 3-5 x 5
Bench 3-5 x 5
Pullup 3-5 x 5
post. chain- 2-3 x 6-10
ab - pulldown abs- 2-3 x 15-20
Try to drive the weight up each workout.
Wed: off/conditioning
Thurs: Speed/Plyo (20's and 40's for 4-6 reps each or stop at first sign of
performance dropoff)
Friday: Weights
Sat: Off/conditioning
Sun: Off
Repeat same basic weight training workout. As soon as you can no longer increase
the weights take a week and just do 3 x 3 at 80% of your 3 rep max for each
workout and come back the next week and hit it hard. An example of a more
detailed lifting progression with this format can be found by David Woodhouse here:
www.power4sport.co.uk/ExampleProgram.html
Option C:
Mon- UB Pull and LB posterior chain (chinups, deadlifts)
Wed-UB- Bench, Row, Beach
Fri- UB/LB- overhead press, pullup, front squat
Option D:
Heavy/Light
Basically a repeat of option A - keep the exercises the same but make the second
workout 10-20% lighter
Option E:
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(this is one of my favorites to alternate with a higher frequency scheme)
Mon- mobility, speed, plyo, or agility and heavy upper body workout
Tues- Off (conditioning optional)
Wed- mobility, speed, plyo, or agility and heavy lower body workout
Thurs- off (skill and conditioning optional)
friday or sat - mobility, speed, plyo, or agility and hypertrophy oriented upper body
workout (sets of 5-12)
sun- off
mon- start over
Option F-
This is another one of my favorites.
Alternating every other day setup
Mon- mobility/speed/UB (ex: warmup- 20 yard sprints (stop when time declines),
Bench press variation 4 x 3, row variation 4 x 3, external rotation movement,
optional beach work, ab movement)
Wed- mobility/plyo/agility LB (ex: warmup, depth jumps -(stop when height
declines), shuttle drill 3-6 reps not all out, box squat - 4-6 x 3, glute ham - 4 x 5-8,
Abs.)
Fri - mobility/speed/UB (ex: warmup, 40 yard sprints (stop when time declines), DB
press varation - 3-4 x 8-12 reps, pullup or row variation, 3-4 x 8-12, ext. rotation
movement 2 x 12-15, beach work, abs)
Sun- plyo/agility LB (ex: warmup - depth jumps 4 x 3, shuttle drill (stop when time
declines), light box or jump squat - 4-6 x 3-5, glute ham, 4 x 5-8, abs)
Tues- Start over with Mon.
Option G
Another variant of option A above, but instead of doing movement work both on
upper and lower body days, combine it all together and do it on lower body days,
prior to your lower body lifting.
An example of how to use that schedule alternating strength and power work can be
found in the previous speed training article (Appendix A)
160
Option H
Bulk up and get strong - This is for the intermediate to advanced level guy or gal
who needs strength and size pronto. This template plus a no holds barred attitude at
the dinner table and the mindset of doing whatever it takes to get that scale weight
up will get the job done. Movement work is optional. The template is:
Mon: Lower body (quad dominant)
Tues: Upper Body (chest dominant)
Thurs: Lower body (hip and hamstring dominant)
Fri or Sat: Upper Body (shoulder dominant)
A precise example of this template can be found here:
www.t-nation.com/findArticle.do?article=04-042-training
Option I
3-day whole body routine using Auto-regulatory volume management.
Monday:
Mobility- 5-10 minutes
Hip dominant- (deadlift variation) - 4-6 rm (start off at 6 reps and continue until you
can only perform 4 reps)
Horizontal Pull (row)- 8-10 rm
Core
Tuesday:
Bodyweight conditioning circuits or tempo variation
Wednesday:
Mobility - 5-10 minutes
Upper Body Push (Bench press variation) - 4-6 rm
Knee Dominant unilateral movement (split squat,lunge)- 8-10 rm
Vertical Pull- 8-10 RM
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Thursday:
Bodyweight Conditioning circuits or tempo variation
Friday:
Mobility- 5-10 minutes
Event Specific Drills (running or jumping variation) or explosive lower body (jump
squat, speed squat) - 3 reps
Vertical Push - 8-10 rm
Trunk Flexion Hips to shoulders - 10-12 RM
Saturday and Sunday: Off



Appendix C: Various resources
Agility Ladder Drill Videos
http://www.uop.edu/AthleticPerformance/exercise%20videos/ladder%20drill%20videos/l
adder_drillsweb2.htm
Plyometric and Power Training Videos
http://exrx.net/Lists/PowerExercises.html
Dynamic Warm-up video
http://www.justintrain.com/id17C.html
Sample Agility Drills
http://www.eliteathletetraining.com/Tips/Agility.aspx
Testing Drills
Hexagonal movement efficiency test
http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/hexagonal.htm
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No portion of this manual may be used, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic of mechanical, including fax, photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system by anyone but the purchaser for their own personal use. This manual may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Kelly Baggett, except in the case of a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages for the sake of a review written for inclusions in a magazine, newspaper, or journal – and these cases require written approval from Kelly Baggett prior to publication. For more information, please contact:

Kelly Baggett 649 Fruit Farm Road Hollister, MO 65672 Email: Kelly@higher-faster-sports.com Website: www.higher-faster-sports.com

Disclaimer
The information in this book is offered for educational purposes only; the reader should be cautioned that there is an inherent risk assumed by the participant with any form of physical activity. With that in mind, those participating in strength and conditioning programs should check with their physician prior to initiating such activities. Anyone participating in these activities should understand that such training initiatives may be dangerous if performed incorrectly. The author assumes no liability for injury; this is purely an educational manual to guide those already proficient with the demands of such programming.

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Table of Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………….……….5 Part I- Linear Speed………………………………………………………………….……5 Speed Is Simple!……………………………………………………………………….….6 How Trainable Is Running Speed Anyway?………………………………………...…….7 Gross Motor Skills Vs Fine Motor Skills…………………………………………...…….8 Speed = Stride length Times Stride Frequency………………………………...…………9 Stride Length is King!…………………………………………………………….……….9 Factors Involved In Increasing Ground Reaction Force……………………………...….11 Strength = The Backbone……………………………………………………..…………15 How Strong Is Strong Enough?…………………………………………….……………15 What Horsepower Looks Like……………………………………………..…………….16 What Can Strength Do For You?……………………………………………...…………16 Building Strength…………………………………………………………….…………..18 Muscle Mass Increases For a Speed Athlete? – Blah!……………...……………………22 Strength and Its Relationship To Power…………………………………………………25 Best Exercises?…………………………………………………………………………..27 "Slow" Strength Training Movements vs "Fast" Strength Training Movements……..…27 Strength Work and Fatigue………………………...…………………………………….29 Improving Stride Rate…………………………………...……………………………….30 Top Speed vs Acceleration…………………………………………...………………….31 Sprinting Technique…………………………………………………………...…………33 Technical cues………………………………………………………………...………….34 The Stride Cycle…………………………………………………………………………36 Getting Full Extension…………………………………………………….……………..36 The Feet - Heel Running Vs Toe Running……………………………...……………38-39 Function Follows Form…………………………………………………………………..39 Hip Running vs Knee Running……………………………………………..……………43 Various Assessments To Ensure Proper Movement Efficiency…………………………44 Glute Amnesia and Tight Hip Flexors………………………………………….………..44 Assessing the Balance Between the Glutes and Hams…………………………………..45 Is The Psoas Muscle Strong Enough?……………..…………………………..…………46 Evaluating Core Stability………………………..……………………………………….46 The Execution Of The 40-yard Dash………………………...…………………………..47 Starting From Blocks……………………………………….……………………………49 Troubleshooting Running Mechanics……………………………...…………………….50 Setting up a routine – Volume………………………………………..………………….51 Frequency……………………………………………………………..…………………52 Maintaining Movement Proficiency vs Improving Movement Proficiency…….……….53 Rest Intervals………………………………………………………………….…………53 Distances?……………………………………………………………………….……….57 Making Things Easy……………………………………………………….…………….57 Year Around Training?…………………………………………………………………..59 Mobility Training………………………………………………………….……………..60

3

…………….……….……………………………123 Too much work during the off-season?…………………………….131 My 40 yard dash training………………………………………………………………..103 12 Week Program I .99 Improving Quickness and Reaction Time……………………..…………..124 The need for special exercises?……………………………………….125 Linear vs conjugate periodization…………………………………….…………84 Conditioning……………………………………………………………………………..……………….………………..65 The Entire Athletic Development Process – Being a good diagnostician……………….161 4 .91 Extensive Conditioning Options…………………………………….82 A Simple Yet “Cutting Edge” Variant – Horizontal Loading……………….…………75 12 week Program II – For The Speed Deficient Athlete………………….126 Cleans and other Olympic lifts – Yah or Nay?………………………....…………………….…………....……………116 Conclusion…………………………………………………………….130 Sport specific training…………………………………………………………………..133 How long does it take to see improvements?…………………………...74 12 week Program I – For the Strength Deficient Athlete…………………….Getting in Game Shape..64 Plyometric Training…………………………………………………………..For The Strength Dominant Athlete……………………………..67 Detailed Sample 12 week programs for 40 yard dash improvement………...........……..…100 Improving Agility………………………………………………………………………101 Sample Off-season workouts for football………………………………….105 12 Week Program II .Form Drills……………………………………………………………………….123 Importance of the plantar flexors………………………….………………………………..128 Templates for combine preparation…………………………………….. Improving Game Speed...…………………….…………….……………………89 How To Implement Conditioning Without Interfering With Speed and Power….134 Appendix A: The Simpleton' Guide To Speed Training………………………………136 s Appendix B: Training Templates For Various Athletes……………………………….122 Q&A and Special Topics 14 year old with strength and coordination issues……...………….92 Part II. and Quickness Intensive Conditioning – Getting in Game Shape………………………………………....………………134 Upper body contribution to running speed?…………………………….……………….………64 Speed and Acceleration Drills…………………………………………….For The Speed Dominant Athlete………………………………111 Training For Track………………………………………………………...87 Power vs Power Endurance………………………………………..97 Improving Game Speed…………………………………………………………………..……………..………………….86 Conditioning and No Man’s Land……………………………….…………….………………..152 Appendix C: Various resources………………………………………………..…………………. Agility..

soft tissue work. and elixirs be reduced down to?” I’m also gonna try to give you a step-by-step. parent. With so many things to learn. russian secrets.. yet you will also find those ready to throw it in the grave. so many training methods to choose from. you’ll find the praise of plenty. fortunately. building speed is easier than finding the fountain of youth. grace. form drills. The result is a huge speed development industry . In this manual I' gonna try my very best to answer and illustrate the question. and coach. high speed treadmills. techniques. medicine balls. what are you supposed to do to ensure you’re on the right path towards attaining your true athletic potential? For every speed development technique. creatine. Although tests such as the 40 and 60-yard dash could be considered over-rated when it comes to evaluating player ability (due to the fact that the most sports are just as much dependent on moves. no B. This is largely due to the influence of scouting tests like the 40-yard dash. or. speed and agility centers. they’re also the 5 . gimmicks. yet each representing but a small fraction of the complete picture: Plyometrics. Those possessing it become the recipients of instant respect and admiration while those who don’t often develop a yearning for it rivaling that of man’s long search for the fountain of youth. agile. and so many systems all promising to be the answer. system or elixir.. is it like searching for fool’s gold? Well. rubber bands.along with what is often a myriad of confusion for the speed-seeking athlete.Introduction Ahhhh…. method. sleds. wanting to drink from the Fountain of Speed. Countless training methods promising magic. ladder drills. What to do? Can all the various elixirs be reduced down to a simple formula incorporating basic step-by-step principles? Is there a surefire duplicatable approach to increase speed that will work the same for everyone. olympic lifting. shoes. exercise. One of the greatest concerns among today’s coaches and athletes in many sports is how to improve the elusive quality of speed.Speed…a quality coveted by many yet had by a rare few. sprinting machines. active isolated stretching. like the elusive fountain of youth.S. and power of the freaky fast athlete. powerlifting. fluid. What is the secret they ask? In the sports world they come by the hundreds of thousands searching for the magical speed elixir. suppleness. Few things can match the appeal of the fluidity. Part ILinear Speed So you want to get faster? Congratulations! Without a doubt improving your speed is one of the best things you can do to improve your performance as an athlete. surefire approach to get you on the right path towards applying those principles and transforming either yourself (or others) into smooth. agility and quickness). "What m simple basic principles can all the various speed training methods. the list goes on and on and on. dynamic mobility. and freaky fast athletes.

where his time goes from 4. your kids. stopping on a dime. as well as anything else that improves performance. will affect one or both of these. The amount of force. Regardless of what level of sport referred to. an aging 30-year old running back.6 is the difference between breaking into the clear and getting tackled at the line of scrimmage. The same goes for baseball players and the 60-yard dash.5 seconds as a rookie to 4. “You’ve slowed down. power. often to the exclusion of everything else.” Just face it you ain’t got it no more!” Point Taken!! Even though that example was made for television it’s still true that most team sport coaches do place a huge emphasis on sprint times such as 40’s or 60’s.” “These young guys don’t have your strength or tenacity but they can get through the hole quicker. dedicates himself to improving his performance in a variety of the same tests used at the NFL scouting combine.How much force is behind a movement. The ability to carry out a movement with utmost efficiency.6 seconds as a 30-year old. or parent want yourself. millions of dollars can be gained or lost for a player in the difference of a couple of tenths of a second in his 40. just two) foundational qualities. although it is often very difficult for the average person to sort through all the often contrasting information in the athletic development industry.tests that most coaches rely on when determining if a player has what it takes. Horsepower. and doing a pirouette like a ballerina. He actually improves in every single test except the 40-yard dash. All of the aforementioned training methods I talked about earlier. and says. When it comes to the NFL draft. 6 . but principles are few. Any improvement in your athletic ability is really just a matter of increasing two (count them. or your athletes to impress people and get noticed. Although being fast won’t automatically make a great player it can turn some heads and often get a foot in the door so that you can show scouts. For those of you who have watched re-runs of the television series “Playmakers”. zeroes in on the 40. 2. coach. In one episode. and other talent evaluators what you can do on the field. They are: 1. If you as an athlete. it can also mean the difference between starting and sitting the bench. Speed Is Simple! The good thing is.” The difference between a 4. coaches. Movement efficiency.How you move. improving speed really isn’t all that complicated. Methods are many. changing direction. Think of the fluid grace of someone like a Reggie Bush moving straight ahead like he’s shot out of a cannon. it is obvious just how much emphasis is placed on speed in the 40-yard dash. Leon Taylor. He presents a video of his performance in the various drills to his coach who looks at all his numbers. speed is where it’s at! You probably already know this otherwise you wouldn’t have purchased this manual. He does this to show that even at 30 years of age he’s still as good or better physically than he was at the beginning of his career.5 and 4.

If I use a special high-speed treadmill that improves my power and allows me to move my legs faster when I run. since speed improvements result from improvements in those qualities. instead of haphazardly engaging in all sorts of training methods and then trying to determine what and how they work. “What is the most direct and straight line approach to improve the force I put behind my sprint movements??” After we answered that question we’d ask. we simply worked backwards from the end results of our training and found the most direct approach to improve movement efficiency and horsepower? In other words. but right now let’s talk about a few other things related to speed development. I increase my movement efficiency and my horsepower. is HIGHLY trainable. Yes. I improve my ability to exert force (horsepower). More importantly. If I get a massage and the massage relaxes my tight muscles. recovery aid. what is the most direct way to increase my movement efficiency?” What might happen if we took that approach? Hmm…something to think about isn’t it? More on that in a minute. the efficiency of the movement. or anything else promoted to improve a physical quality like running speed will impact one of those factors. What determines the ability to run with perfect and fluid mechanics? The answer is. how much force is behind the leg. “Ok. any relatively untrained individual can improve their speed in something like a 40-yard dash by around . right? If I drink special blue green algae and lose weight I have less fat mass to carry around and that’ll improve my movement efficiency. Here is a question for you: What if. there is a genetic component involved in running fast but anyone can get faster if they train correctly. team sport speed.5 seconds or more.and speed that is exerted when you move (The difference between a ballerina sprinting down the sideline vs a Reggie Bush sprinting down the sideline) Any training method. Not everyone can achieve world-class 100-meter sprinter speed but. If I take supplements that increase my energy I can then exert more force in my movements due to my greater energy levels. and that in turn also allows me to exert more force. How much force (horsepower) that it’s hit with . or game speed. The list goes on and on. that relaxation allows me to move more efficiently. What determines the speed at which your legs move in something like a kick or a sprint? The same thing that determines how fast a baseball flies through the air. Think about it.or. in the case of running. That’s the only way speed (or any other physical quality) can improve. diet. How Trainable Is Running Speed Anyway? It used to be thought that it was virtually impossible to improve running speed and the predominant line of thinking in coaching circles was that fast athletes were born but not made. what are the best and most direct ways to improve those 2 qualities? We could ask. based on my experience. If I do some Yoga I might improve my ability to relax and this helps me move better. If you’ve read 7 . If I lift weights. gimmick. If you’ve read some of my other material you probably already have a good understanding of the training methods required to increase running speed.

Speed and acceleration over short distances tends to correlate quite well with performance in the vertical jump. An athlete with less than optimal technique can improve their speed by improving that technique and optimizing their economy Gross Motor Skills Vs Fine Motor Skills Running is a gross whole body motor skill. This also means that performance is largely determined by strength qualities and is not as reliant on technical skill. you need to spend enough time learning the technique to be proficient at either. which basically means it doesn’t require much conscious effort to perfect. These require much more skill. Gross motor skills are kind’ve like riding a bike. but the performance characteristics and strength qualities tend to correlate quite well. Relative Power is just a fancy term for how explosive you are relative to your body weight. Once you learn them they don’t require much conscious input.my vertical jump manual the same things you learned there can be applied here. in order to get away quickly I need to pull my right heel up 45 degrees and extend up onto my left toe and cycle my right ankle over my left knee. Are you gonna think to yourself. Here’s an example of what I mean by instinctual: Imagine you’re walking through the woods and a bear comes out and jumps your butt. including many technical issues. whether your focus is running or jumping. concentration. walking. When was the last time you saw a really fast guy who couldn’t jump? Running speed and leaping ability are both heavily dependent upon lower body relative power. In other words.” Or are you just gonna run!? I would hope instead of overanalyzing things you just get up off your butt and run! The reason I bring this up is because throughout this manual we’re gonna talk quite a bit about a multitude of factors involved in running fast. running. with the only real differences being technical. I also call these primal movement patterns because they’re highly instinctual. but don’t lose sight of the fact that running is predominately a primal gross motor skill. jumping. Explosiveness= pound per pound strength + how quickly you utilize that strength With regard to technique. and throwing a punch or kick can all be put into this gross motor skill category. Now. the training methods that increase one tend to increase the other. with the force component primarily determined by your pound per pound strength and the velocity component determined by how quickly you can utilize that strength. “Ok. Put all that together and you get explosiveness. If you’re constantly overanalyzing things the bear will catch you! 8 . If we wanted to get technical we could say power equals force times velocity (P=F*V). Once you learn how to ride a bike you don’t have to think about it much do you? Crawling. and focus. contrast those physical skills to something like threading a needle or executing a double twisting back-flip.

What is Speed? Let me break running speed down into a very simple equation. Next. you can improve your speed by either covering more ground with each stride.is the distance you cover with each stride as you run. get a stopwatch and either time yourself or get someone to time you and see if you can get 5 strides per second while lying on your back. Stride frequency. Next. by taking faster steps. Here it is. based on that example. For example. instead of just cycling your legs through the air. this is also good because the absolute speed at which your legs move is under more genetic influence than the amount of ground you cover with each stride. If you increase your stride length while keeping stride frequency constant you will run faster and vice versa. the speed at which your legs move is actually not all that important. you can take a group of young athletes and have them do the above drill or have them run in place cycling their legs as fast as possible. Most of you will probably be able to do it. have them practice that same drill for 2 years and re-test them. it should be easy to see that the absolute speed at which you can move your legs is not the limiting factor in the sprint. If two individuals possessed the exact same technique. chances are you can already move your legs fast enough to be an elite level sprinter! But does that mean you can cycle your legs at 5 strides per second while striding down the track while using good mechanics? Probably not. Why not? Because in a real sprint. You’ll probably only find an average improvement of around 10% or so. or by both. To illustrate this for yourself.is the number of strides you take in a given time Thus. you also have to propel your bodyweight down the track with each stride. Stride length. From a speed improvement standpoint. stride frequency is important than stride length. Just count how fast they can move their legs and feet. Therefore. the individual who could move their legs faster (stride rate) and cover more ground in a single stride (stride length) would be the eventual winner. Stride Length is King! When it comes to your speed. Even with all the practice you’re unlikely to find a ton of improvement. the limiting factor is the ability to overcome your bodyweight and move your body down the track or field. 9 . try this drill: Lie on your back with your feet up in the air and cycle your legs mimicking a sprint stride. Speed over a given distance can be determined by: Stride length X Stride frequency. Realize an elite level sprinter will take around 5 strides per second in a sprint. Yet. In other words.

count their steps and monitor how much ground they cover per stride. Deion Sanders has the fastest recorded 40-yard dash ever at the NFL scouting combine and also had a stride length of 8ft 10 inches. So. you go further. Speed Improvements and Stride Length Most come from increasing stride length and the fastest athletes tend to have very good stride lengths relative to their size. each time your foot “reacts” against the ground. If you watch people run on a consistent basis what you’ll generally notice is that the fastest runners inherently cover more ground making any deliberate intention to do so and intentionally over-striding. That would actually be one of the worst things you could do. but you’re also likely to find major improvements of 25 to 50% or more in their stride length. until you see him blowing by everybody on the football field. You do that by increasing the amount of force you put into the ground while still maintaining sound mechanics. One extreme example is Matt Jones of the Jacksonville Jaguars.Yet take the same beginning group of young athletes. Most sub 4. you want your stride length to increase naturally without detracting from your technique. the real key is to apply more force into the ground. When you over-stride you reach and actually slow yourself down because you create a braking effect. Next. Ideally. which is very impressive. Your legs have to remain under your center of gravity and your stride has to increase naturally. That’s because he’s covering about 10 feet per stride. When you increase the amount of force you put into the ground. Don’t Get Carried Away……… A word of caution: Don’t get too carried away with this and think that all you have to do to get faster is make a conscious effort to increase the length of your stride. train them properly for 2 years and re-evaluate them.4 second 40 yard dash guys are under 20 steps for the entire 40. How do you improve reaction force? Let’s start off with a more detailed discussion on how to do exactly that: 10 . Not only will you find they get a whole lot faster. This is also called When you properly increase ground reaction force you’ll never really be conscious of it and the technique won’t really “feel” any different then normal. You’ll just feel and sort of feel like you’re . time them over a given distance. When he runs he looks like he’s in slow motion. which you do by increasing reaction force.

“Stiffness” and Plyometric Ability. the less your heels give at impact. Several factors affect how much power gets into the ground. 11 . Each time you hit the ground I want you to concentrate on LOCKING UP your calf muscles as fast and hard as you can so that your heels drop as little as possible after impact. If this occurs he obviously won’t be able to put out any force either. than the ability to put out force. but rather the ability to efficiently stabilize and transfer force like a basketball rebounding off the ground. Watch a weak or slow athlete run and you' notice that various parts of their legs tend to do a lot of bending under ll pressure.particularly right behind the knee. stiffness in this sense is a positive thing. stand on 2 feet.Besides the obvious influence on your ability to create and generate force. or contract. Watch a fast athlete run and there' little give. What happens next? You kind' rebound off the ground effortlessly. The ability to withstand force is just as. to withstand the oncoming force that occurs at footstrike. That obviously requires a good degree of strength. lock your knees. There' a lot of give with each foot-strike . if not more important. they include the following: 1. and the heels. This largely involves the above capacity to withstand high forces without folding under the tension. your achilles tendon stretches like a rubber band and then recoils. What causes stiffness? Simple. It’s a combination of how much force the muscles can develop. and the quicker you can rebound up. The ve quicker you can lock your muscles up. his legs will crumple under his bodyweight. Therefore.Factors Involved in Increasing Ground Reaction Force and Stride Length Increasing stride length is about getting more power into the ground with each stride. 2. The muscles themselves lock up and this allows the tendons to serve as movement generators. your calf muscles lock up and absorb the force created from the impact against the ground. Strength. Next. strength is also important for absorbing force. and simply bounce up and down on the balls of your feet in a rhythmic manner. With each foot-strike in the sprint an athlete must be able to support 3 to 7 times his bodyweight on each leg. With each foot-strike in a sprint the muscles have to "lock up". That entire sequence is also known as a plyometric movement. If an athlete isn’t strong enough to absorb the reaction forces he creates. how fast and proficiently they develop that force. and how proficiently the muscles and tendons work together to transfer force and create movement. at s the hips. What happens? First.When I' referring to stiffness I' not referring m m to flexibility. They stay on the s balls of their feet and just kind of "bounce" over the ground with seemingly little effort – like a rock skipping across water. To illustrate how simple this concept is try these 2 drills: A: First. This entire process is also known as plyometric ability.

so they give too much at impact. It should be noted that the forces generated in a sprint are more like that drill then they are the first. yet also fairly springy. Next. Now think of a golf ball. If not. (You lack movement efficiency and coordination) A flat basketball can’t bounce off the ground because it gives too much. This will be covered in detail in a later chapter. you have to be able to get into an optimal position to carry out the movement to begin with. Mobility. you probably collapsed at the ankle. Improving stiffness and plyometric proficiency is an important part of getting faster. Resilient and springy. 3: You are able to lock up and absorb force proficiently. you were probably able to bounce up and down in a rhythmic fashion with little to no effort and your heels probably didn'collapse t much. think of what happens when you throw a softball against a slab of concrete. yet are unable to efficiently spring out and use the tendons as movement generators. What causes the give? Lack of stiffness (air pressure). pick up the pace and do the same thing but in a more intense rhythmic fashion. the soft ball would be the guy who is really strong but who lacks spring. Not only is it stiff and resilient. Stay on the ball of your foot and as soon as you hit the ground try to avoid letting your heel descend down any lower. 3. In human terms. The softball is strong enough to absorb the force. Stand on the ball of only one foot this time and bounce up and down on one leg at about the pace you' be moving if d you were swinging a jump rope. Get a little higher with each hop. The same thing happens with a weak athlete. didn'move worth a darn. He can’t absorb force. yet there are certain muscle groups that can become tight which can cause certain movements to become inhibited. This can negatively affect the fluidity of the sprinting stride cycle. yet doesn’t bounce back really well. so your muscles give too much at impact.B: Now. and t may have even noticed some pain. Why not? Because it doesn’t have a whole lot of rebound to it. Now. The lack of strength makes his legs give at ground contact just like the flat basketball. providing you are strong enough to absorb the forces. before you can generate extreme power and tension in a movement. try something a bit more advanced.Mobility refers to range of motion. The sprint stride obviously doesn' t require the mobility of a contortionist. What happened? Well. you want to be more like the golf ball. Obviously. (You lack strength) 2: You aren’t able to lock your muscles up quickly enough (or produce force quickly) enough. When it comes to plyometric ability. 12 . You can fail to be plyometrically proficient for one of 3 reasons: 1: Your muscles aren'able to produce enough force when they contract against t oncoming force.

with the amount of force generated by the hips being equal. which means you can generate more power at the moment of impact. take a 32-inch bat and hit the same baseball. I consider 6 to 12% body-fat ideal for a male and 12-20% ideal for a female. When sprinting think of a leg as being the same thing as a bat. it improved! Therefore. Next. Having said that. Body structure. How many really fast athletes do you see that don’t carry at least a decent amount of muscle? When a muscle increases in size.jwclymer/bmi. regardless of how much leverage I have with a longer bat. He’d still blow me away. a person with longer legs will tend to run faster. one should strive to be lean. Who do you think would hit the ball further? Do you think the fact that I had a longer bat and more leverage would make up for Bonds superior strength and power? Hardly. Instead of focusing so much on bodyweight I believe it’s better for an athlete to focus on body-fat. So. Did your bodyweight to strength ratio go into the crapper? No. Let’s use a real life example: Imagine if you gave me a 32-inch baseball bat and gave Barry Bonds a 15-inch bat and asked us both to hit a baseball as far as we could.000 pound weight and attached it to a funny car prior to the beginning of a race? Instead of seeing a drag race you’d be watching a tractor pull! Well.4. This is because the longer bat gives you a longer lever. 13 . Is there anything a person with shorter legs can do to bridge the gap? Yes. Simply take your waist measurement. the longer leg can generate more power at ground contact. it also increases its strength potential.nuvox. a certain level of t leanness is desirable.net/~on. bodyweight increases in the form of muscle mass increases aren’t necessarily a bad thing. This is how a 600-pound squatting Pit Bull type sprinter like Ben Johnson was able to beat a weaker Greyhound type sprinter like Carl Lewis. and figure out where you are at: http://members. plug it into the space provided. They can produce more force. Heck. which gives you more leverage. Disadavantageous limb ratios can often be overcome by disproportionate strength.Take a 12-inch bat and hit a baseball with it. The following internet URL has a handy calculator you can use to identify with quite amazing accuracy what your body-fat level is.Imagine what would happen if you put a 20. Which one goes further? Probably the one hit with a 32-inch bat. Let’s say you take your bodyweight from 150 to 175. Being re fat simply ain'gonna cut it! If you want to be a fast and agile athlete. A longer leg serves as a longer lever and. Bodyweight to strength ratio.html#waist 5. he’d probably even blow me away if he was using a 6 inch bat. the same thing happens if you' hauling around a 10 to 50 pound tub of lard around your gut or your butt. yet should not be deathly afraid of bodyweight increases. while your squat and deadlift go from 200 to 400 pounds. assuming the amount of force generated by the hips and legs is equal. He’s simply too strong and too powerful in his swing for me to compete.

14 . Most fast sprinters have a short high calf muscle that forms just a tight little ball way up by the knee. you have to be able to move well at a lower intensity. you gotta be light and smooth on your feet at slow speeds. providing the muscles from the hip down can properly absorb force. Movement efficiency. I will delve fairly heavily into technical topics in just a bit. and Kelly White can often beat their gazelle like counterparts. Movement efficiency can be impacted by a ton of things like mobility and muscle balance. The longer the Achilles tendon. Which one flew further? Probably the longer one. Is there anything a person cursed with a short Achilles can do to bridge that gap? Yep. The weak athlete who can jump out of the gym is a perfect example. A relaxed and smooth stride is always more powerful and efficient than a tight and forced stride. Next. but when running a lot of people tend to try too hard to run fast and thus actually limit how fast they run. pull it back. take a longer rubber band and do the same thing. Ben Johnson. Take a look at the calf muscles of the average elite level sprinter or any high level athlete participating in a speed dominant sport and compare them to the calf muscles of an average person. and see how far you can shoot it across the room. Their Achilles tendons also tend to be longer than average. Disadvantageous tendon lengths can also be overcome by disproportionate muscular strength. ** The reverse is also true in that people with naturally good structural and muscular qualities can often perform while being weaker then their opposition. Before you can be light on your feet when moving at breakneck speed. with each foot-strike in the sprint the tendons stretch and recoil like rubber bands. 6. Before you can move with great speed and power at a high intensity.The same process I described above with regard to leg length is also true when we refer to variability in the length of the tendons. Achilles Tendon Why is a longer Achilles tendon advantageous for speed? Well. A person with longer Achilles tendons basically has a longer rubber band in his legs and that can offer an advantage when sprinting (or jumping). The solution to the “Achilles” curse is the same solution as the “short-legged” curse. but what I want to touch on here is technique. the greater the potential for speed.Movement efficiency is simply the ability to carry out a movement with optimum efficiency so as to generate the greatest amount of power with the least amount of effort. Take a small rubber band. ** Which is again why pit bull type sprinters like Maurice Green. particularly the length of the Achilles tendon.

for an athlete. maximal strength is like the horsepower of the engine in a vehicle. A car with a 200-horsepower motor doesn’t necessarily always run twice as fast as one with a 100 horsepower motor. if you aren’t squatting more than 3 times your body weight. and.Strength = The Backbone Now. but it certainly has the POTENTIAL to run a heckuva faster if all things are equal. How Strong Is Strong Enough? So how strong is strong enough? Well. For example. Just like horsepower is the foundation for how fast a car can go. It’s kind’ve funny because when we run (or jump) our bodyweight actually offers more resistance than a shotput does for a thrower! It' a lot easier for someone to do a set of 100 bench presses s with a shotput in each hand than it is a set of 100 bodyweight squats! What about doing 100 squats on one leg? Forget it! Now not all athletes in all sports need lots of weight room training to increase their speed. strength endurance. moving your bodyweight from a dead stop requires a lot of explosive strength to get going. maximal strength is the foundation for our physical attributes. These attributes include power. a 1500-meter runner never uses maximal forces and momentum is responsible for much of their speed. The more strength we have the higher our other physical attributes can potentially go. people don' t seem to comprehend or appreciate the importance of raw horsepower. Think about this: You never see guys with 100 pound bench presses winning any shotput medals do you? It obviously takes a strong individual to be a good shotputter. the more force you put into the ground with each stride. Yet. When training for speed over short distances you need to realize how important it is to be STRONG! Not all athletes are built the same and not everyone displays their strength in the same manner. they get that fast by being very strong and having the ability to utilize that strength very quickly. Even a kindergardner can comprehend that. so chances are you don’t have to worry about becoming too strong. some sprinters and other speedy athletes will routinely throw around 3 times their bodyweight in movements such as the squat. your maximal strength isn’t 15 . The stronger you are in the lower body the more force you can put into the ground with each stride. yet I have yet to see a weak individual run a great 40-yard dash. the further and faster you go. They don’t get that fast from practicing sprinting. I’d like to spend a bit more time talking about strength. For some reason this seems to be a difficult concept for many people to grasp. A funny car with a 5 horsepower motor ain’t going anywhere in a hurry. This is why some Olympic weightlifters and throwing athletes are nearly as fast as sprinters out to 30 meters. In my experience. as you already know. Yet when planting our feet and throwing our own bodyweight through the air (which is exactly what we do when we run). and endurance (all of them) – all of which can be limited by insufficient strength. and neither is an athlete with a 50 pound squat or deadlift! This is why good sprinters are almost always very strong and powerful relative to their bodyweight. In essence. in terms of the ability to accelerate to top speed when starting from a standstill.

the problems don’t really occur from excessive strength. 225 lbs.hurting you. muscular development. WHAT FORCE AND HORSEPOWER REALLY LOOK LIKE Bodyweight Maximum force or strength without time constraint (squat) 400 lbs. 200 lbs. Most of you don’t have to worry about getting too strong. assuming 10% body-fat.5 x bodyweight squat and a 2x bodyweight deadlift with proper form (eg. Let’s talk about the importance of having both good force and good rate of force development. Look at the chart for a moment and try to decide which athlete would have an advantage in the sprint. You improve anytime you increase your strength. You improve when you learn to utilize that strength quickly. you 16 . Having said all that. but you may need to worry about making better use of the strength you have. a level of strength would be a 1. No back rounding). Even then. Assuming athlete A and B are both the same size. Max force per sprint stride (. What Can Strength Do For You? Realize that improvements in speed are related to 2 major factors that can be modified by getting stronger the weight room: a) Force b) Rate of force development Increasing both of these factors will increase power. That’s 450 pounds for a 150-pound athlete – not a common feat. they occur from the excessive size. Any athlete can easily achieve those numbers with a modicum of proper training. 175 lbs. which is force x speed.2 seconds) Athlete A Athlete B 175 lbs. 300 lbs. and the total investment of time required to build that strength – a time investment that takes away from the time available to focus on other qualities.

the amount of force he can put out in . which would be specific training for the task at hand. but athlete B is probably going to smoke athlete A in sprint. and tug-of-war are some sports that come pretty close to measuring maximum force. Although being able to apply force rapidly is a very useful quality. he still doesn’t have enough baseline force to tap into for that awesome rate of force development to do much good. even though he’s getting 95% of that into the track. Don’t get too carried away with this just yet though. In practically every other athletic event. He’s only capable of squatting 100 lbs and.** ** In order to progress. So. to tap into for anything significant to happen.athlete A’s force output is lower then that of athlete B. Now look at the row that says “maximum force or strength without time constraint”. 400 lbs versus 300 lbs.2 seconds. since. he’s still only putting out 95 lbs of force which isn’t going to do a whole lot for him! Now. we have ample time to generate max force. you still need to have enough raw horsepower (or raw force). Therefore. his rate of force development is lower. the movements occur so quickly there isn’t enough time to allow true maximum force to be developed. The 6’3”. even if he can apply all that force very rapidly. Here is an example of what that very weak athlete might look like on paper when we break his strength qualities down like we did above: Bodyweight Max force (strength) in the Squat 100 lbs Max force per sprint stride 95 lbs Weak Athlete 150 lbs Even though this athlete expresses the little bit of strength that he has very effectively and is able to utilize 95% of his force potential (95 lbs) in the sprint stride. Both of them weigh 175 lbs. (which is roughly the same amount of time it takes to complete a stride during the first 25 yards of a sprint stride). athlete A is going to be able to squat more than athlete B. Thus. how much force you can put out in a short period of time is going to determine performance. here is an example of what an ideal athlete’s maximal force and rate of force development profile might look like: 17 . arm wrestling. Power-lifting.can see how they have very different strength patterns. yet if you look at the 3rd row. athlete A would need to improve his ability to quickly express his strength in the sprints. In this case you see that athlete A reaches a higher peak force and squats more weight. . 200 lb guy with a max squat of 100 lbs is not going to be getting down the track quickly. A maximum squat is an example of this. during a squat. which he could do by something as simple as engaging in more sprinting practice. All we’re describing here is how much force these athletes can put out regardless of how long it takes them to apply that force.

Some people preach deadlifts as the cure-all for everything. 2 days. 18 . The general idea is you go in and lift a progressively heavier load. The most common and some of the most effective exercises that will do that are basic squats. which is called neural efficiency. and he’s able to utilize over 75% of that. Some say a person shouldn’t lift weights and should instead do something like push trucks. extend your hips and re apply force. There are a myriad of ways to do that. deadlifts etc. Strength=Tension or Force Strength is made up of 2 parts: One aspect is determined by how efficient you and your nervous system are at firing and coordinating the muscles involved in a movement. Some people preach only uni-lateral exercises. all that really matters is that you' improving your ability to bend your knees. At the end of the day. 3 days. Building Strength…. His max squat is 400 lbs. What Strength Really Is… Let’s talk for a moment about what strength really is. or force. People really seem to get confused on this topic. You' strengthening the muscles of your hips. If the bar weight you’re lifting on basic movements is increasing on a consistent basis. With that information the foundational role that strength plays in the speed development process should be evident. The average person is often left so confused they don' t have a clue where to start. hamstrings. on up to a week. it really doesn’t matter how you go about doing it. Some people preach only squats while others say NEVER do squats. Strength is really just another name for the ability to produce tension. When it comes to building strength. so is your strength. or 325 lbs. which might be one day.. during a sprint stride. The other main aspect is how big the muscles are that are fired. which is ideal. You rest a given amount of time. it really doesn'matter how you go about t getting stronger as long as you do it somehow. quads. which determines how much force is generated when they fire. Then you come back and lift a heavier weight. You' find recommendations touting countless schemes and exercises all supposed ll to be better than any other. To be honest. and lower re back.Bodyweight Max force (strength) in the squat 400 lbs Max force per sprint stride 325 lbs Ideal Athlete 175 lbs This athlete is very strong and is also capable of utilizing a large percentage of his max force in a very short time-span.

When a motor unit fires so do all the muscle cells under its control. it' also safe to say that under normal circumstances few people are s capable of utilizing all of their potential strength in a given movement. Rate coding s allows your muscles to develop more force by enhancing the speed and amplitude at which electrical neural signals get sent to your muscles telling them to contract. Some people have a natural propensity to have elevated adrenal related discharges from the CNS and naturally have better rate coding. If your body didn’t have this safeguard in place and you could easily call upon your full strength potential you’d definitely very strong and powerful. First let' talk about improving the neural aspect of strength. Full muscular recruitment occurs when maximal force output reaches around 80-85% of your maximum. you' be recruiting all of your muscle fibers in the biceps. a given motor unit will continuously fire and relax and repeat that process at a very high rate of speed. ll However. If you’ve ever heard of small women lifting cars up off their children or PCP users busting out of handcuffs. the body normally inhibits the full potential of this process as a protective mechanism to protect you from injuring yourself. A given motor unit may contain a few muscle cells. you can get stronger either by boosting neural efficiency. large force and/or explosive tasks recruit many motor units. if your 1 repetition maximal arm curl is 100 pounds and you perform a set with 80 pounds (80%). A motor unit is just a grouping of muscle cells or fibers. The first process is called motor unit recruitment. I' referring to your nervous system' ability m s to turn on and fire more motor units. or by increasing the size of your muscles. which is how powerlifters and Olympic lifters in the lighter weight classes are able to get so strong.*** Fortunately. or it may contain several hundred. if all of your available motor units were firing and you were utilizing 100% of your rate 19 . But what happens to people in these situations? They often end up injuring themselves. Why is that? Because there' another aspect of neural efficiency called rate coding. Let' say you have a strength potential of 200 pounds in the leg curl. In fact. However. This means. So. one can vastly improve this capacity naturally. Small force tasks ll recruit few motor units. So.Put those 2 things together and you have muscular strength. When you decide to fire a muscle a message goes from your brain and down your spinal cord where it eventually reaches and signals individual muscle motor units to fire. s based on the amount of muscle contained in your hamstrings and your body structure. There are two s primary ways the nervous system influences your muscular strength. The more motor units (muscle fibers) you recruit. Specifically. the more force you' produce. The repetitive firing of all available motor units occurs so quickly that there' a summation of force and the ability to produce tension is s magnified. At very high intensities. yet you' probably also stand a good chance of d ripping your tendons right off the bone! A few examples where you see this protective mechanism naturally over-ridden are in extreme life or death type circumstances where the body produces tons of adrenaline. with training. an untrained person may only be able to utilize 50% of their strength potential. what happens in these situations is the extra adrenaline boosts rate coding and over-rides various mechanisms that normally inhibit the display of full force potential.

but how much tension they generate will always be determined by how big they are. So. along with the total amount of protein (size) contained in those muscle cells being recruited. explosive temperament or the ability to easily become "adrenalized”) **** This extra motor unit recruitment from adrenaline explains why people tend to be stronger. or 50% of their potential. However. or lack of time.a adrenalized) person might be able to lift 180 pounds. it has to be recruited. you' be able to lift 200 pounds. Obviously. Importantly. the neural gains in motor unit recruitment and rate coding that occur through traditional strength training have a global foundational transference and serve as a foundation for neural gains occurring in speed-strength activities like a sprint. or 90% of his potential. Both of them have 100 total muscle cells in the bicep. How much force a muscle cell generates when it fires is determined by how much protein is contained in it. let’s say you have 2 athletes and you want to measure and compare their strength in the arm curl. you can fail to capture a large portion of your force potential due to either lack of training experience. it always fires with all of its force. a powerlifter will tend to deadlift a lot more weight in a meet than in the gym. the tension generated by a given muscle. or how big it is. Athlete B’s muscle cells are twice as big as Athlete A’s. by the nervous system.**** So. is determined by how many individual bicep muscle cells your nervous system can turn on and coordinate during a movement. get bigger.coding capacity. or powerful often tend to share some common psychological characteristics (e. before a muscle cell can contract. Strength = Muscle cell recruitment + Frequency of recruitment (rate coding) + total size of all the muscle cells being recruited As an illustration. strong. both motor unit recruitment and rate coding take place when you produce high levels of force with your muscles and they are both involved in a sprint.k. When you add muscle size. Some muscle cells are bigger than others. As mentioned earlier. an untrained person might d only be able to lift 100 pounds. and faster in competitive situations. *** This also explains why those who are naturally very fast. Obviously. basically. the amount of protein contained in your muscle cells increases and they (the individual muscle cells). you increase your ability to fire motor units and coordinate motor unit firing (rate coding). each individual muscle cell produces more force than before. Next. more powerful. Why? Because you need to contract a lot of muscles.g. there' so little time that it' difficult to fully display s s your full force capacity. A sprinter will tend to run faster at a meet than in training etc. or turned on. explosive. very quickly. A basketball player will tend to jump higher prior to a big game then in training. in a "fast" movement like a sprint. Once it is recruited. yet athlete A is twice as efficient at firing and coordinating the muscle cells in his bicep: 20 . Thus. That' the major reason why when people first start s strength training they gain a whole lot of strength even in the complete absence of any size improvements. For example. A highly trained and super motivated (a. such as your biceps. with training. Thus. let' talk about how the nervous system and muscular system work together s to produce force.

but that’s the basic gist of it. athlete A has twice the neural efficiency of athlete B. Improvements in neural efficiency allow you to bridge the gap between your potential strength and actual strength. So. but athlete B has twice the muscular size of athlete A. for the above athlete A. there is definitely an advantage to having good neural efficiency. he is not. only has to use half of his neural capacity. Athlete A has to take full advantage of his muscular recruitment and rate coding capacity to generate 100 pounds of tension while athlete B. In contrast.** They have extreme neural efficiency. Thus. but unfortunately for athlete B. There is a lot of crossover and you can’t totally restrict gains to either neural or muscular. increased muscle size. He could do this without any increase in muscle size whatsoever. ** From a speed perspective. 21 . Fortunately.*** and enable you to utilize more of the muscle you have. the only way athlete A will get stronger is if he gets a bigger arm. The result is a wash. the better your neural efficiency gets.Total Muscle Cells Size of the Muscle Cells Athlete A Athlete B 100 100 Big Twice as big Total Tension Generated if All Muscle Cells Were to Fire Optimally (potential strength) 100 pounds 200 pounds Total Muscle Cells Athlete Can Coordinate and Recruit In the Arm Curl (actual strength) 100 50 Amount of Tension Generated – (weight lifted) 100 pounds 100 pounds You can see that they generate the same amount of tension but through very different means. due to his bigger muscles. Sets of 3-5 do both. When it comes to lifting. he could get significantly stronger simply by boosting his ability to coordinate and utilize the muscle he already has. performing sets of 3 and below primarily train the neural efficiency aspect. If he was he’d be generating twice the tension of athlete A. *** The difference between your potential strength and actual strength is also called the strength deficit. the point to take home is that strength can improve either through increased neural efficiency. This is how weight lifters in the lighter weight classes and people like gymnasts are able to get so strong for their bodyweight. The more efficient you get at coordinating and firing your muscles. In athlete B’s case. Most people are like Athlete B in that they’re not capable of utilizing all of their muscles in a given task. Sets of 6 and more primarily boost the size aspect. or both. he is capable of utilizing all his strength potential in this task.

Look at the lower body hamstring and glute development of a typical fast athlete in comparison to that of a normal person. such as the hamstrings and glutes. a cursory look around at the muscular development of fast athletes tells otherwise. A simple set-up d like that may not be optimal for everyone. regardless of how neurally efficient you are.. All he did was put a loaded bar in the garage. and lots of strength in certain areas of their body. Get in the gym on Monday and work up to a max set of 4-6 reps. Others are gonna have to work to add muscle in the right areas so that they can generate more force from key muscle groups. Here’s another very simple approach: An acquaintance of mine wanted to get stronger but admittedly told me he was too lazy to train consistently..Muscle Mass Increases For a Speed Athlete? – Blah! Although a lot of people preach that a speed athlete should never seek size increases. and that’s it. 22 . Nothing complicated about it. This Type of Build Ain’t Gonna Cut It! This is more like it! A Simple Way To Get Strength Up Honestly. Once you get 6 reps with that load increase the weight by 5% the following workout and work back up to 6. In 6 months he' put over 100 pounds on his deadlift and really didn'even have a routine. good muscular development.just a d t loaded bar sitting in the garage that he' make sure to lift occasionally. He progressively added weight over time. if you naturally have an ass like a pancake and hamstrings resembling toothpicks. In other words. Quite a difference isn’t there? Lots of people are born with lots of muscle cells. Get back in the gym on Thursday or Friday and work up to another max set of 4-6 reps. People lacking strength can typically progress for months on end on a routine that simple. Start at 4 reps with a given load. you’re probably gonna have a hard time generating much force by those muscle groups until you put some muscle on them. but increasing strength need not be overly complicated. Once every day or two he' go in there and pick the bar up off d the floor for a single or double. one of the easiest and simplest routines to get strength up to optimal levels is to embark on a twice-weekly squat or deadlift routine. Throw in an assistance exercise at the end (such as glute ham raises).

when you try to make sense of all the complicated and often conflicting information just on the strength aspect of a program alone. there really aren'any strict minimal or maximal volume t rules. 3. The lower the reps. it doesn'matter if you use a rock. recovery. Athletes engaged in lots of practice. tools. No tool is more important then whether or not the tool gets the job done. The body really does not know whether you' doing a higher-faster-sports.Basic Strength Training Principles Considering that a complete athletic development program would include work on mobility. When it comes to lifting frequency. 2. speed. bailing wire. or an entire set of snap t on tools to fix it. Let’s say you work up to 100 pounds for 5 reps on a given exercise.his life would depend on it. You don’t make gains when you train. there' obviously s quite a bit of knowledge that goes in to putting together a complete program. but there are guidelines. The more advanced you become. lifting rocks to build a hut etc. volume. plyometric. you make gains when you recover from the training that you do. swiss ball. the better you tend to respond to lower reps and weights of at least 80% 1rm. If your car breaks down. Having said that I' like to give you some general principles or guidelines to d follow as far as frequency. kettlebell. It only knows tension! Most training schemes do provide some stimulation and no routine is perfect. and 5 years from today you still might not feel totally confident about what you' doing. the more sets you' want to perform. put him on a deserted island. or other work can even progress just fine with an exposure of once per week. When it comes to how much weight to use (intensity). All that really matters is that you' applying progressive resistance (tension) to your re musculature. intensity. strength responds best to loads between 70 and 100% of your 1rm. or any other system. That generally means you perform anywhere from 1 to 15 reps per set. is it any wonder why the process can be so confusing? Honestly. or anything. games. gymnastics. ll If you don’t feel like counting sets. I like to tell people to imagine yourself out on a deserted island without any technology. Keep performing sets with the 23 . Work up to a hard maximal effort for a given number of reps. Raising performance or getting stronger is the same way. one simple way to monitor volume is by the drop-off method. Exercises and routines are just tools to improve performance. HIT. the important thing is that it gets fixed. and conditioning work. and he could stimulate performance improvements without a single modern day tool to work with or any specialized strength training knowledge . twice a week per muscle group or per lift works just as good as 3 times per week. Strength stimulation for someone in this situation would consist of dealing with everyday life (chasing prey. Methods are many but principles are few. re westside. a crescent wrench. you could start reading everything there is to read about strength training and program design today. running away from predators. and content of strength work. Now. simply because there are SO many ways of doing re things and none are really right or wrong. strength. 1. When it comes to volume.) You could take an athlete today.

or whatever you want to call it. you’d continue to perform sets until you could only perform 3 reps. compound multi-joint movements are superior to isolation movements. In other words. 6. This works particularly well for pure neural-related strength gains. So.k. As far as periodization goes. you might work up to a hard effort and stop when your performance drops off by more than a couple of reps. undulating periodization. I generally recommend basing your loads on effort rather then percentages.a. simply work with a weight that allows you to complete about 5 reps in good form and increase weight when you can. Generally speaking. One exercise per major muscle group is generally sufficient. I prefer to increase the weight and fluctuate the volume on a 24 . You slightly increase or cycle the load up and down for several weeks then take a step back to allow recovery to take place. I prefer a 4-week cycle for most athletes. 5. When it comes to content. size) related strength gains. When it comes to percentages. people that have been training for a while tend to note slightly better gains by varying the sets and reps on a weekly basis in a step type loading approach. For neural and muscular (a.same weight until you can no longer get 5 reps. but the general theme is a variance in sets and reps. instead of worrying about what percentage to follow. A weekly set and rep scheme for a beginner or intermediate might look like this: Week 1: 3x6 Week 2: 4x5 Week 3: 5x4 Week 4: 3x4 A stronger more advanced athlete might follow something like this: Week 1: 4x3 Week 2: 5x3 Week 3: 6x2 Week 4: 3x3 (easy) There are countless ways to set things up based on this principal of step type loading. Simple but effective. the set and rep scheme will vary depending on the level of athlete. using the above example of working up to a hard set of 100 pounds for 5 reps. Once every 3 to 6 weeks you' generally ll want to have an "easy" or unloading week. where you reduce the volume by about 40 to 50%. if a scheme calls for you to do sets of 5. 4. which do require a fatigue component.

often just increasing the force potential. Just keep in mind. There are plenty of tools at your disposal. Strength and Its Relationship To Power. and the like.weekly basis but there are hundreds of ways of approaching it. Since explosiveness (power) is a function of force and speed (force x speed). if a strength score for an athlete was 2. You can basically think of them as the speed aspect of power and explosiveness. As I will talk about later on. A simple cookie cutter whole body program for high school athletes might follow a scheme like this: Monday . and the athlete' speed score was s also 2. Bench Press. Strength Expression. 4. of the appropriate muscles. when it comes to building strength. his explosiveness rating would be 4: 2(speed) x 2(strength) = 4 (explosiveness) Doubling the athlete’s strength would double his explosiveness: 2(speed) x 4(strength) = 8 (explosiveness) Doubling the athlete’s speed without altering strength would also double his explosiveness: ** 4(speed) x 2(strength) = 8(explosiveness) 25 . Incline Bench. truck pushes. 1 Week 4: 3 x 3 Not perfect. but gets the job done. Trap Bar Deadlift Friday – Front Squat. or strength.Back Squat. which is the ability to quickly demonstrate strength. For example. Pullup Wednesday – Power Clean. In the big scheme of things they pretty much mean the same thing. you' increasing your re ability to exert force. at times you can also benefit from fancy specialty exercises such as sled pulls. and sprinting is a display of explosiveness. 3. All that requires is some form of tension. regardless of what you do or how you go about doing it. 2. will provide a world of improvement. and Rate of Force Development You can use terms like strength expression and rate of force development interchangeably. Pullup Week 1: 3 x 6 Week 2: 5 x 5 Week 3: 5 x 5.

This could take the form of 2 general approaches. yet it’s not at all uncommon to see them double their strength on basic movements (bench press. and weight training using 60% of your max or less performed with great acceleration.**This is really a pretty unrealistic example because the speed part of the equation is under a lot more genetic control than the strength part. will result if you either increase the baseline levels of strength. while maintaining the other. Now. The optimal approach requires either zeroing in on your s weak area. Focus more on the speed side of the equation. You can: 1. You’re bridging the gap between the amount of total force you can exert regardless of speed. 3-5 sets of 2-3 reps) B: Using 60-80% of your max for higher reps in an effort to induce muscle growth. (E. squat etc. You can also improve explosiveness through focusing on the strength side of the equation. You can do both. or improving them both simultaneously. If the same athlete made a 50 percent gain in both speed and strength his explosiveness rating would be: 3(speed) x 3(strength) = 9 (explosiveness) So. (or the amount of strength you have). Here you’re simply improving the raw strength you have. They are: A: Using 80-90% of your max in a given exercise for multiple sets of low repetitions in an effort to improve neural efficiency. ** Examples are: sprints. and thus running speed. 2. ** The difference between the amount of strength you have and the amount of strength you can display at high speeds is also known as the explosive strength deficit. if both factors can be improved with a specific routine it would be more efficient than just improving one aspect. basically there are 3 ways to improve explosiveness. loadless (bodyweight) exercises. Obviously. plyometric exercises. the speed at which you demonstrate strength. You increase speed anytime you increase the ability to express that strength.g. or both. (E. it should be obvious an increase in explosiveness (horsepower). 3-4 sets of 8-10 reps) 3. This is why you never see someone double or triple the absolute speed they can move their hands or feet through the air. 26 . with so many options to choose from. Olympic lifts. medicine ball tosses. **Relative to this example you increase strength anytime you increase the poundages of key exercises like deadlifts and squats. So. Here you’re training the nervous system to ultimately produce faster contractions. sled sprints. and the amount of that force you can display at high speeds.g.). whether it’s raw strength or the speed at which you display strength. which approach would be optimal for you? It' really quite simple.

the intent to contract explosively provides a high velocity specific effect and improves neural efficiency. Additionally. because it is obviously too heavy to move all that fast. reverse hyperextensions. Plyometric drills along with sprinting itself fit the bill here. how can you improve the speed at which you display strength while simultaneously getting stronger? Well. the resistance may move fairly slowly. However. the explosive nature of the contraction results in improvements in both maximal strength and rate of force development. When lifting such a load. glute-ham raises. the weight does not move very fast. high speed strength training movements (also called power movements) such as olympic lifts. we must move fast when we train! This leads some to favor using loads with 20-60% of their 1 rep max on basic exercises such as squats and performing the lifts with great speed. “Well. since our objective is to move fast on the field. speed squats.** 27 . deadlifts. The above exercises should be performed with a controlled lowering phase and some emphasis on accelerating through the concentric phase of the movement. The only real way to increase baseline levels of strength is to lift a fairly heavy load (70-100% of 1 rep max). Thus you get the best of both worlds. romanian deadlifts. “Slow” Strength Training Movements vs “Fast” Strength Training Movements One debate that often arises between coaches and athletes is whether basic heavy strength training movements such as squats and deadlifts with heavy (80% + loads) are superior or inferior to lighter weight. When you lift heavy loads to improve your strength. leg curls. we can also utilize high velocity movements that allow us to zero in on the speed part of explosive strength. Some of the best exercises for an athlete interested in speed development include general strengthening exercises such as squats. lunges. I prefer to keep it simple. jump squats etc. More specific explosive strength exercises such as speed squats and jump squats can also be used. yet as long as some to move fairly explosively is there.So. Really. Best Exercises? When it comes to exercise choice. and split squats. some say. there is no doubt that the heavy strength training movements are far superior when it comes to increasing strength.

speed squats. yet before an athlete can express strength. agility work. So what Does Kelly Say? Although I often do recommend some explosive weight room training like jump squats. Therefore.training” zone. it' much more economical for an athlete to spend the time laying down s a strength foundation before attempting to get overly "cute" in the weight room trying to better express strength that he doesn’t even have. lighter box squats.This is otherwise known as power. and for the most part. I tend to lean more towards the camp that says the weight room should serve as a place to develop strength while the sport and other activities more closely resembling it (sprinting. and doing a ton of other high tech things. what' the point of trying to work on learning s to express strength better in the weight room? Why not just take the straight line approach and build the size and horsepower of the motor in the weight room and let the on-field activities such as sprinting. rate of force development etc. and Olympic lifts. agility. inserting high tech spark plugs. You can make a smaller motor run faster by boring out the cylinders. running special fuel. which is one reason why one who hasn'achieved a minimal level of strength should focus on the heavy basics in the t weight room. Since t sporting movements are already faster than any explosive movements that can be performed in the weight room and these activities by themselves will also develop the speed side of the explosive power equation. and jump squats can offer an athlete any extra ability to express his strength that he wouldn'get from simply participating in sport. or express its horsepower better. stay away from the lighter weight high speed variations. he has to have some strength to express. plyometric work etc. However. still must be performed fast or it simply won’t go up! Another way of looking at it is to think of basic strength as the size of an engine and explosive strength. It' an interesting s argument. take care of the conversion and modifications? Since movements like sprinting. This type of training can help an athlete learn to express his strength more quickly. if I had to choose one or the other. What' also debatable is whether or not performing lighter weight exercises such s as olympic lifts. jumping. if you don'have a big enough motor to start with in the first place. although heavy. Even an 80-90% snatch or clean. 28 . you can do all the t modifications you want but it won'do you any good! A weak athlete choosing lots of t high speed lighter weight training movements over basic strength movements would be like someone trying to race a stock issue Honda Civic against F-1 race cars thinking he could get his Honda as fast as the F-1 cars by simply modifying the engine! There' s simply not enough basic horsepower to compete. regardless of what modifications are made. ** The Olympic lifts such as the power clean and snatch are inherently high-speed power movements so one need not train with lighter percentages on these lifts to be in the “power. is there any need for specific explosive work in the weight room if one is engaging in these activities? Some say yes and some say no. as the modifications you can make to that engine to make it run faster. and plyometrics are inherently performed very fast and already help us express strength quicker. or explosive strength training. power.

etc. after that heavy Monday workout he could probably get back in the gym on Thursday or Friday and do a workout consisting of something like lighter speed squats with 50-60% of his 1 rep max.) should be used as the place where the athlete teaches his system how to demonstrate that strength quicker. there is some value in performing specific explosive variations in the weight room. As mentioned. if you’re strong but have a hard time expressing your strength in the sprint in my opinion the best thing you can do to gain that ability is engage in sprinting type activities. When an athlete really wants to focus on his speed and explosiveness he can replace some of the heavier strength movements with lighter more explosive variations so that he can remove some fatigue. because chances are he’s gonna be snowed in and not able to get out on his feet. If you’re a football player and you wanna be a hitting machine get very strong relative to your bodyweight and master the art of hitting. These movements will allow him to stimulate his nervous system in a high-velocity manner and help him avoid any explosive type detraining that takes place. etc. If you need to learn to express your strength better in the jump the single best thing you can do is jump. from a loading standpoint. he wants to be as fresh as possible. d In addition. a sprinter who lives in the north might use movements like hang cleans and jump squats with a bit more regularity during the dead of the winter. In other words. or demonstrate. perform a heavy squat or deadlift session. Having said that. That would allow him to get some stimulation on his body while still allowing recovery to take place. Heavy strength training induces a lot of neuromuscular fatigue and can take quite a bit of time to recover from. Nothing really complicated about it. However.plyometrics. Additionally. For example. The following Monday he' be ready to tackle his heavy workout again. and might not be able to repeat and improve upon that session again until the following Monday. An athlete that is already strong but who really needs lots of work on speed and movement efficiency work could also benefit from less heavy weight training for the 29 . working with the power movements can allow us to get some speed and acceleration work in during times of the year when we might not be out on our feet much working on those things. sprints. o-lifts etc.. when an athlete is really working to peak. If an athlete had an important upcoming testing or timing date somewhere between 1-4 weeks prior to the test date I' taper the strength d training down to a low maintenance level (a couple of heavy sets of 3 once per week) and replace that volume with either more explosive weight room work (speed squats. A very strong athlete might come in the gym on a Monday. Strength Work and Fatigue…. The stronger an individual is.).) or more specific on-field activity (plyometrics. his explosiveness. the heavier strength movements can cause a lot of neuromuscular fatigue and that fatigue can temporarily mask his fitness state. the more fatigue he tends to induce from a heavy session. That would allow him to really demonstrate his true explosiveness. One of the advantages is that the explosive variations are inherently less draining then heavier movements and offer an athlete a chance to stimulate the body without causing excessive drain. jump squats.

Sometimes you have to temporarily take a step back in order to take a step forward. Research has shown a strong correlation between maximal top sprinting speed and the ratio between vertical jump height and ground contact times during the execution of the vertical jump. yet as soon as re they reduce the volume of strength work they remove a lot of that fatigue and suddenly VOILA. Therefore. Basically what the research demonstrates is this: Athletes who could jump the highest with the shortest ground contact times during their amortization phase (switch from down to up at the plant). also tend to run at peak higher velocities.same reason. You can'fire a cannon out of a canoe and make sure you have a good t foundation in place and a base of horsepower to display before you get too cute and worry about modifying that horsepower. they got faster by removing the fatigue the squats were creating in their legs. always go with the basic heavy strength training movements for reps of 8 or less. when you’re in the weight room.they' running on water and jumping out of the gym! They got a lot stronger re and were getting more explosive from the strength training. Improving Stride Rate I touched on stride rate earlier and noted that there is a strong genetic component regarding how fast your legs move. yet they develop their power from a deeper knee bend and longer amortization phase. You might want to read that line again because I know it sounds confusing. There is also an important quality involved in how much force you can produce per foot-strike when your legs are moving at a very rapid rate. Some athletes might have a great vertical jump. typically had greater top running speeds. By not creating excessive fatigue he' be better able to direct his energy d towards improving those qualities. These athletes may have great acceleration abilities. Fatigue masks fitness. those who spend less time on the ground when they jump. some people are better at creating force at high speeds while others are better at creating force at slower speeds. Why is it that some people can accelerate very quickly and are very fast over short distances but don’t have great top speed? Why is it that some people have great top speed but don’t accelerate real well? Basically. They didn’t get faster by eliminating the squats. Those Squats Make Me Feel Slow…… The issue of fatigue is also one reason why people may not always feel as explosive or springy when they' engaging in a lot of strength training. One of the things we can do to help elucidate this concept is look at research that compares sprinting speeds to the vertical jump. they just weren’t able to properly display that explosiveness until they removed some of the fatigue.. 30 . The take-home point is this: If you have to choose one or the other.. but not a great top speed when they run.

during the acceleration phase of a sprint. The world’s best sprinters don’t use these techniques and I wouldn’t recommend you use them either. the bad thing about improving stride rate is that it does have a significant genetic component. the faster the basketball comes back at you during the rebound phase. let’s take a look at the differences between top speed and acceleration. it can also improve your stride rate. I don’t recommend it. genetics may be a big factor. When the force is primarily generated by the tendons.How does this relate to what I said about some people being better at creating force at high speeds while others are better at applying force at slower speeds? Well. having said all that. Think about it. which can lead to an improvement in stride rate. Probably the best short response plyometric drill is the act of sprinting itself. ** Voluntary explosive force=force generated by the muscles 31 . around 100-150 milliseconds. When force is generated by the muscles. but not the only factor. which calls for using devices such as treadmills. Therefore. A flying 20-yard dash is an example of a good short response reactive drill. or it can be generated primarily by the tendons. To understand why. The harder you bounce a basketball against the court. Here you accelerate to top speed and try to hold top speed for 20 yards.that being stride rate. we call this . the feet stay in contact with the ground longer. Accelerating to top speed and holding that top speed is likely the best plyometric drill there is for training short response time. yet it also may cause a deterioration in running technique. the faster and easier your foot rebounds off the ground. as noted. which allows people more time to utilize their leg strength. as it turns out. force can either be primarily generated by the muscles. like anything else. Top Speed vs Acceleration In a sprint. So not only can improving ground reaction force improve your stride length. You can also engage in specific short response plyometric drills. So how do we improve stride rate? Well. However. having a great stride rate a great top speed are not all that important for improving something like a 40-yard dash anyway. decline running. you must be able to train yourself to apply force quicker to enhance the other half of the speed equation . we call this . The more force you put into the ground during a footstrike and the more proficient you are at absorbing that force. and elastic tubing to move you at speeds exceeding your normal maximum speed is often advertised as an excellent method to increase stride rate. When running at top speed an athlete maintains speed by continually applying great forces with quick limb movements. Over-speed training. For overall top speed. Stride rate can be improved to a good extent by the same process that improves stride length. Having good stride rate is obviously more important as one reaches tops speed. Short response means that the time your feet spend on the ground in these drills is very quick. Now.

Not exactly an observation worthy of a nobel prize but true nonetheless. Your feet are gonna be on the ground longer. decreases. These athletes can develop great power. A good 100-meter sprinter will typically reach top speed at around 50-60 meters.1 seconds (1 tenth of a second). when you’re accelerating. push. you’re not gonna be moving as fast as you are when you reach top speed. plyometric force or reactive strength The difference between the 2 is fairly easy to comprehend. little time on the ground when they hit top speed. One is voluntary. pause for 3 seconds. very. jump like you normally would (stand tall and execute a quick countermovement and jump). Thus. accelerate very quickly. and generate voluntary force. say you take a big running start and jump. For this reason. At the start of a race. An average athlete might reach top speed at 30-40 meters. This can be exemplified by looking at a shot putter or Olympic lifter. Now. and their ability to that top speed. Why can you get higher by using a quick countermovement? Because when you perform your quick countermovement you stretch the tendons and they act like rubber bands giving you extra involuntary reactive force. and they are very fast over short distances. An athlete may have a very good top speed yet not be able to accelerate to 32 . they may not have a high top sprinting speed or ability to hold that speed over distances. you have more time to plant your feet. or time you have to apply force. Therefore. Simple concept. With the shorter ground contact times inherent to top speed sprinting. Any decent athlete will spend very.2 seconds. At the beginning of a race your feet might be on the ground . As you accelerate and go faster the length of time you spend on the ground naturally diminishes so your window. This can also work the other way.Involuntary reactive force=force generated by the tendons **We also call involuntary force. Now pay attention here: Individual ability for an athlete to to their top speed. it came entirely for free. You get even higher don’t you? That’s because by moving into your jump at a good rate of speed you gain even more involuntary reactive force then normal. your pound per pound strength (relative strength) is much more important at the start of the race than it is once top speed is reached. However. Next. typically jump high. can vary quite a bit between athletes. Why is it harder to jump from the pause position? Because all the force you generate is pure voluntary muscular force. Nothing too complicated about that. the start of a sprint is nearly all voluntary explosive strength while sprinting at top speed is nearly all involuntary reactive force. and jump as high as you can. which basically means we have to work for it. which basically means it comes for free. At top speed the foot might be on the ground . Crouch down into a quarter squat. most of the force generated is involuntary reactive force generated by the tendons. Did you have to try any harder to generate that extra force? No. Let’s talk about how this relates to sprinting: The greater the movement speed and the less time your feet spend on the ground the more involuntary reactive force tends to dominate. The other is involuntary. what their is once it is reached.

relative body strength.that top speed very quickly. The human body is much better at pushing than pulling. the suggestion to stay low and pull prevents maximum speed. They lack the quick natural reflexive ability demanded by that short ground contact times that are inherent when speed increases – a lot of that is also dependent upon body structure (limb lengths and tendon lengths). the faster he will be over short distances. In other words. Generally speaking. Once a foundation of strength. As an athlete. voluntary explosive strength. Sprinting Technique No two athletes run exactly the same way however. and acceleration ability** are more important in a 40 yard dash then they might be in a 100 meter dash. the stronger an athlete is relative to his bodyweight. or run like a robot. this is also why many athletes can be competitive in short distances but not long. If you are unaware of this difference your voluntary effort to dramatically change technique can slow you down. The scientific analysis of running suggests just the opposite. therefore. you must always take your training improvements out to the track or field and refine the co-ordination needed to move as efficiently as possible. your performance will probably be less than optimal. The more gifted an athlete is in the ideal sprinting structure department. You can get significantly faster by becoming stronger. where the ability to have a high top speed and generate lots of involuntary reactive force becomes more important! Again. Relative and explosive strength can be developed in the weight room by lifting heavy weights with intense effort. Because of this. the muscle can become more powerful (force x speed) even if the limbs move fairly slowly due to the inertia of a heavy weight. **All of these are highly trainable qualities In conclusion. the more potential he has for a great top speed. explosiveness. sprinting mechanics should remain relatively the same for all athletes. it is definitely an event of short distance and acceleration. so your ability to be extremely efficient applying force with very short ground contact times and having a great top speed is not nearly as important as it is if you were running a distance of 60-100 meters. Running is instinctive so if you try to make big changes to your technique. High-speed strength adaptations can be achieved with the intent to contract explosively. 33 . greater acceleration and speed can be accomplished by improving relative strength and rate of force development. Obviously. In the case of something like a 40-yard dash. you must be aware of what is natural and what is unnatural. stride rate can be improved by decreasing contact time by engaging in specific practice running at top speed. and acceleration is in place. Often athletes feel that they have to bear down and stay low and pull in order to run fast. Reaching maximum speed depends greatly upon how relaxed you can keep your body in a naturally upright position.

If you increase your natural reaction forces against the ground you will inherently drive the body’s center of mass further forward which lengthens the stride naturally. yet if you try to voluntarily do anything during the ground contact phase itself. Sprinting is the same way. you shouldn’t reach or pull excessively. Along these same lines. However. sprinting is a primitive hindbrain reflexive activity. According to world famous sprint coach Charlie Francis. This becomes more important the further into a sprint you go. The faster you try to go. Yet get past 20-30 yards out and you' run into problems. Remember what I was saying about primal movements. Relax and Let It Happen……. your hips will lower and your lead foot will just end up landing too far out in front of your body ahead of your center of gravity. They are smooth. remember that sprinting is primarily a reflexive action against the ground. dig in. You can anticipate the ground contact phase and prepare your body ahead of time. As you accelerate you reach ahead with your foot. and the more you try to reach and push. your trail leg will flail way behind you. You can often get away with bad mechanics during the initial acceleration phase which is one reason why a lot of athletes who don'do any sprinting can still be fast out t of the gate.. bend the knee of your plant leg. trying to force a greater stride frequency by consciously taking quicker steps will only produce a shorter stride length and result in a loss of speed.If you want to run faster. You can’t try to turn the sprint stride into a calculus equation. This is known as over-striding and it will cause a braking effect resulting in a loss of speed. and pull. If you were to think to yourself. 34 . You need to learn to stay relaxed and run and let your body take its natural course. ll Let me give you an example that coach Francis uses to describe what I see happening with a lot of people. up. I now use just a few very simple cues. what happens if you try to do this once you get going at a really good clip? Once you reach a certain speed you just slow yourself down by trying to grab and "dig in". the worse your mechanics get. you will just mess everything up. it will be moving slightly backward yet the feel should be of pushing nearly straight down. and down. over. A Few Simple Cues After giving this much thought and observation. At the same time. Once you’re going at a decent clip on the scooter the only way to go faster is by applying very short and quick strokes down and back into the pavement. When your foot makes contact with the ground. When the foot makes contact with the ground. Have you ever ridden a scooter? Imagine taking off on a scooter. it must be directly under your body’s center of gravity. Therefore. “Ok I’m really gonna try to apply a lot of force and I’m gonna try to cover as much ground as possible”.

pull your knee through and allow the foot of your off leg to come up and over your support leg at a height just below the knee of the support leg. In order to be smooth you can'be t back on your heels. Simply get on the balls of the feet and take natural strides up and down like a piston. However. If the force was only vertical you would only go up. you’ll hear it. but the big toe should be pulled up.A: Smooth stands for smooth on the feet. B: Up and over. simply push down directly under your center of gravity at the same angle as the upper body lean. just focus on standing tall and pushing down into the ground with each stride. Get someone to watch or record you sprinting normally. There is obviously some horizontal backward force that occurs in the sprint. Allowing the off foot to come up towards the support knee will cure an assortment of other common mechanical problems. the foot itself should be point down. If re you’re heel-striking. Pushing down directly under the center of gravity will do the same. C: Is Down. any attempt to emphasize the backward motion will result in a breakdown of form. 35 . Instead of trying to do something overly dramatic like reaching out. Up and Over If a person just does those simple things everything else will pretty much take care of itself and the stride will resemble a nice and tight circle. Make sure you' striking the ground with the front half or the balls of your feet and not the heels. When you go to strike the ground. The proper backward action happens over such a short period of time that it can barely be sensed. This will also help to cure problems with overstriding. pulling back. or bearing down. Staying on the balls of the feet inherently will keep the hips elevated and eliminate over-striding and heel striking. the backward forces will be there naturally without any deliberate attempt to emphasize them. When your foot comes off the ground.When your plant foot comes off the ground (recovers). One drill I like to use to help drive home basic technique is known as the wall slide.

pushing from the toes reduces both power and stability and slows the runner. Some people believe the pushing action should come from the toes. The ball of the foot is the only part of the foot capable of creating an efficient and powerful push. During your running stride. Recall that stride length is the result of ground reaction forces. your leg cycles through three different phases: the drive phase. the recovery phase. Although the movement is more of a push than a pull. If you intentionally try and/or think about pushing.The Stride Cycle Now that I’ve given you the cues. Or in other words. the power comes from a pushing action off the ball of the foot. Getting Full Extension As you drive off the ball of your foot. your plant leg should extend fully with each stride so that you don’t chop your stride short. This is a big mistake and is something that many athletes do. and the support phase. when the leg swings from the hip while the foot clears the ground. The goal of the drive phase is to create the maximum reaction force off the ground. ** Getting full extension is something many young athletes may not be able to do initially because they’re not strong enough in key muscle groups. it means you’re muscling the movement. ** Full extension should happen automatically. However. when your weight is on the entire foot. you’ll just end up lowering your center of gravity and bending your plant leg excessively so that you can create more momentum to push with. let’s talk a minute about the specifics of what those cues are designed to address. when the foot is in contact with the ground. 36 . it’s actually more of a natural plant rather than a push. During the drive phase. It tends to eliminate the posterior chain from the movement and kills involuntary ground “reaction” forces and turns them into voluntary “push” forces. Your focus should only be on absorbing the ground reaction force.

keep your plant leg completely straight. and rise up on the ball of your plant foot. By relaxing and getting full extension. What follows are some illustrations of full and partial extension: minor lack of full extension (weak hamstrings) good extension of the plant leg Hips too low. Watch how people run. Do you feel your quadriceps and glutes? Ideally. ll This is why struggling to go faster doesn'do any good and will in fact slow you down! t Stand straight up with your feet shoulder width apart. Lift one knee up. 1995) If you try to push or pull too much. your hips will lower and this makes it about impossible to naturally react against the ground . plant leg bent excessively. you want to emphasize the first position. During the acceleration phase of a race you don’t want to try to rise up into the tall position too quickly.Instead of reacting you' be pushing. Keep your hips high and get that full extension of the plant leg with each stride.Trying to muscle a sprint will cut down on your stride length and royally screw up your technique. keep your chest high. collapsing heels. (Wiemann. but even at the very start you want to get a full extension. the athlete is either too weak or he’s under utilizing the hamstrings and over utilizing the quadriceps. If there is a lack of full extension.too much “voluntary pushing” 37 . the involuntary muscle activation in the hamstrings is 120-140% of what it is with regular voluntary effort. Watch how straight the plant leg is at ground contact and watch if it extends fully with each stride. Tidow. Do you feel your hamstring contract? Now do the same thing but bend the knee of your plant leg.

and down. Striking the ground first with this part of the foot serves to maximize speed but takes great energy. The arm action in sprinting is never forced or tense. An important point to remember about the recovery phase is that you should not reach for the ground or try to force a stamping action. step over. The shoulders should stay square to the direction of the run. The weight of the body is then supported at a point that varies according to how fast you’re going. As the knee joint opens and the swing leg begins to straighten. You shouldn’t focus on thrusting the knees high or any other exaggerated movement. The hands should also be relaxed. You should pump the arms with the emphasis on the down stroke. with the right arm and left leg coming forward as the left arm and right leg go backward and vice versa. The leg should remain relaxed and you should allow the foot to naturally strike the ground.Good hip height – good “reaction” against the ground – good engagement of the posterior chain Recovery Phase During the recovery phase the knee joint closes and the swing foot cycles through as it comes close to the body. If you smash the chips you know you’re tightening up too much. jogging for example. the support phase begins with a slight load on the support foot that then rides onto the full sole. The swing should be strong but relaxed. The arms work in opposition to the legs. Attempts to keep the elbows away from the body will prevent relaxation of the shoulders and limit efficient running mechanics. Arm Action Arm action in sprinting is important when trying to develop an efficient stride. Just swing the ankle of the swing leg up towards the knee of the support leg. The Feet During the support phase the foot makes the initial contact with the ground on the ball of the foot. the foot comes closer to the ground in preparation for the support phase. the higher the contact point on the ball of the foot. If you have problems relaxing one thing you can do is hold a potato chip in each hand as you run. 38 . The faster the speed. The elbows should stay close to the body. At all running speeds. At a slower speed. The shoulders should be as relaxed as possible with the swing coming from the shoulder joint. the contact point moves toward the rear of the foot between the arch and heel.

This means the prime movers should be the muscles of the glutes and hamstrings. but the heel can and often does make a brief contact with the ground. who 39 . lots of noise. in my opinion one should seek a posterior chain dominant sprint cycle. A lot of people think the feet and calves are really important for all athletes. it' probably safe to assume the average s trainee has a ratio of about 70% quadricep to 30% hamstring strength ratio. slap. A lot of people have strength but they don'have balanced strength. Slap. this is a big part of that. They' strong in the wrong t re muscle groups. and their running technique tends to reflect that. get behind them. People will bend their knees and get back on their heels in an effort to utilize their stronger quadriceps. This means the quadriceps are twice as strong as the hamstrings. but the hips are what produce force.like a rock skipping across water. The main contributors to the sprint stride are the muscles of the quadriceps. I would like to introduce the concept of what I call heel running vs that of toe running. It is difficult if not impossible to reach maximum speed by consciously running way up on your toes. the sprint stride should be posterior chain dominant. In other words. Therefore. having said that. when the quadriceps are excessively dominant or when the posterior chain is weak. In contrast. Contrast this to elite sprinters. the stride tends to be characterized by the sprinter being nice and smooth up on the balls of his feet with little knee bend at impact and without the appearance of lots of bending and pushing. Function Follows Form One of the major things that causes the differences is muscle balance. Take a group of athletes. One thing you' probably notice is that slow people ll have a tendency to run back on their heels and they make a lot of noise when they run. sprinting technique is largely dependent upon what muscles are strong and what muscles are weak. A quadricep dominant sprint stride makes it difficult to sprint effectively particularly at top speeds. His feet will tend to strike the ground right under his center of gravity. When the hips and hamstrings are the prime movers. and lots of pushing. glutes. weak in the wrong muscle groups. function largely tends to follow form. You can immediately tell which ones are which. slap. When I talk about some of the aforementioned problems like lack of extension. They’ll also tend to reach out in front of their body with their plant leg and strike on their heels. Fast people appear as if they’re running more up on the balls of their feet and are typically as smooth and quiet as a butterfly. For technique and function to be optimal. and hamstrings. They naturally get full extension and react off the ground with each footstrike . the stride tends to be characterized by being back on the heels with lots of knee bend. With sprinting. Heel Running Vs Toe Running Now.When running at full speed. Watch fast people run and watch slow people run and note the differences. the feeling should be that of running up on the balls of the feet. and simply watch them take off in a sprint. Although it' difficult to get really accurate measures when assessing the balance s between the quadriceps vs the posterior chain.

One simple way you can help assess your balance in this department is to compare your standing broad jump to a single leg triple jump.may lean towards a 60:40 hamstring to quadricep ratio. grab your heel and pull it up to the butt. pulling the heel up to the glute will often be difficult.** The rectus femoris is the muscle that attaches to your hip and runs straight down the middle of your thigh. The total distance of the 3 jumps should be approaching 2. Next. Another assessment you can do is check the mobility of the quadriceps and rectus femoris. I have noticed one with excessively dominant quadriceps will tend to be very tight in these areas. If the quads or rectus femoris are overly tight. Good quadriceps/rectus femoris flexibility Tight Quadriceps/rectus femoris (over-dominant quads) 40 . Rectus femoris One simple way you can check mobility in this area is just reach back.5 to 3 times the distance of your standing broad jump. stand on one leg and execute 3 consecutive single leg jumps. First measure your normal standing broad jump.

yet it' also the best exercise for the quadriceps. *** **A recent study also indicated that having excessively tight quadriceps and rectus femoris was the best predictor of knee pain. along with weak hamstrings. utilize plenty of dynamic stretches. However. leg 41 . if a person is either born with dominant quadriceps or does lots of squatting to the exclusion of all else they will often tend to develop some of these problems. and get away from any quadricep dominant activity. One with excessively strong and tight quadriceps. The quadriceps are important. you just gotta make sure the hamstrings stay in balance and mobility is maintained in the quads and rectus femoris. they can only be too strong for the other muscle groups. What about everyone else? Just make sure you ALWAYS prioritize hamstrings and glutes in your training. avoid most squat variations and use either deadlift variations or wide stance box squats as foundational strength training movements. There' nothing s s wrong with developing strong quadriceps. The best exercise for the glutes is the basic barbell squat. *** Dynamic stretching will be covered further along in this manual. *** Box Squat *** The box squat is much more of a glute and hamstring dominant movement.Someone with this problem will really need to stretch the quads and rectus femoris at least twice a day for 20 seconds. in my opinion. the quadriceps can NEVER be too strong. Fortunately. should. particularly for the start of a sprint. What about people who don’t have tight quadriceps but do appear to have a weak posterior chain? That’s a group that will actually include the large majority of young athletes. Quad/RF stretch How do we get a dominant posterior chain and how does a person become excessively quad dominant in the first place? Well. that problem will remedy itself with time and proper training as I lay out in this manual. Glute ham raises.

and too supportive for them ever to learn to move efficiently on their feet. The quietest and smoothest athlete I ever saw on his feet was a guy who grew up one of 15 children in a poor rural area in Louisiana. One thing that can cause this problem is today’s popular footwear. Although shoe companies probably mean well. In fact I still don’t like wearing them. Many athletes wear shoes that are too heavy. reverse hyper-extensions. the most obvious thing that can cause heavy feet is lack of simple movement efficiency and coordination. If your heels come up off the ground your calves are tight. A sample Calf Stretch Of course. In today’s day and age kids and athletes tend to spend too much time sitting around on the computer and playing Madden instead of being outside moving around playing games. The Nike “Free” is an example of such a shoe. there is actually more stress absorbed into the foot with shoes then without. ** Some shoe companies have now caught on to this problem and are now offering “functional” footwear that come fairly close to mimicking bare feet. too big. There are no longer any physical education 42 . at the very least. Put your hands straight out in front of you with your feet shoulder width apart and squat. I asked him how he got so light on his feet and he replied. are all effective hamstring exercises and should be utilized. One other thing that can contribute to heavy feet is lack of mobility in the calf region. and sled drags. He was so smooth and quiet on his feet he could run full speed across nails and you wouldn’t hear a thing. Additionally. when I was growing up I never had shoes so I just learned to live without them. good mornings. pull throughs. You can be a PERFECT athlete from the ankles up but your feet are what get power into the ground. If that’s the case I recommend.” Point taken. science has determined that highly supportive footwear actually hinders performance. “Oh. you stretch your calves morning and night for 20 seconds.curls. yet if it’s got flat tires it’s not going anywhere! The same thing goes with an athlete and his feet. “Heavy” Feet If a person has good muscle balance and flexibility and they’re still heavy on their feet they might just have problems with their footwork and may need to spend some time performing drills specifically designed to get them more coordinated and fluid on their feet. You can have a car with the most powerful motor in the world.

From there you could move towards lower altitude drop and depth jump variations. Some people run through their hips and some people run through their knees. lots of quadriceps activation. which develops the ability to coordinate your feet with your hips. you could move into hops done up on the balls of your feet while maintaining a squat position. Repeat with the other leg. and lots of noise. The thighs. (AKA – heavy footed) 43 . Activities like hopscotch and jump rope that were commonplace in every elementary school 15 years ago are now almost instinct. and feet simply serve to transfer force from the hips down into the ground. calves.classes in most elementary schools. Knee runners tend to run on their heels with a lot of knee bend. The glutes are the strongest muscles in the body and an efficient athlete will always primarily move through the hips. Do that drill every day and you’ll be well on your way towards getting more efficient on your feet. Stand on one foot and bounce back and forth over the line for 10 seconds while trying to keep your plant leg straight and your hips high. are much smoother and quieter. The result is a world chock full of heavy-footed athletes who have never learned how to carry out basic movement patterns on their feet. An example of an altitude drop is dropping off a box while landing nice and quiet up on the balls of your feet. Problems that can prevent a person from utilizing the hips effectively can occur for the following reasons: A: One is weak in the posterior chain and simply does not utilize the glutes effectively as prime movers. ** Cueing an athlete to get in the habit of moving up on the balls of the feet can also be useful Hip Running vs Knee Running Yet another concept that ties in nicely with the above differentiation between “toe runners” versus “heel runners” is that of running through the hips vs running through the knees. From basic drills like those that establish proper coordination of the feet while in a basic posture. and appear as if they’re more up on the balls of their feet. The observations and differences between hip runners and knee runners are exactly the same as toe runners and heel runners. D: One lacks proper coordination with their feet. Work on getting more proficient up on the balls of your feet!! Here’s a sample drill: Simply draw a line on the ground or take a piece of rope about 12 inches long. B: One is overly tight in the quadriceps and hip flexors. Then go front to back. C: One is weak in the hamstrings and thus the leg buckles behind the knee at impact and does not transfer force into the ground effectively. Hip runners run through their glutes and hamstrings. If you think you need specific work on getting lighter on your feet it’s really simple to fix. which help develop the ability to deal with high forces.

simply take strides trying not to bend your knees much at impact. If the knee of the down leg rotates out or if the foot of that leg comes off the ground. or inability to properly activate and utilize the glutes. your hip flexors are tight. Hip Flexor Stretch Next.** When the hip flexors are tight the glutes will be inhibited and won’t activate optimally. Get someone to keep an eye on your glutes. which means you won’t be able to get as much power out of them as you could. Lean up against a wall. Here is how you can check for tight hip flexors: Lie on your back with both legs extended. 44 . you’ll want to assess your ability to activate your glutes. Faulty glute activation can be identified by either delayed or absent activation of the glute. As soon as the leg starts to move up the person watching should be able to observe the glute tightening up. and elevate your hips as high as you can. From this position. your lower back. Since the glutes are the strongest muscle group in the lower body we definitely want to optimize their function. Other Assessments A couple of other assessments you’ll want to check that can influence the above mentioned problems are the mobility of the major hip flexors as well as the ability to activate the glutes. Many people have what some have termed glute amnesia. Lie on your stomach with your legs extended. and your leg as you do this drill. is the above mentioned wall slide drill. Mobile Hip Flexors **The aforementioned rectus femoris also functions as a hip flexor. and look to feel the movement coming from your glutes and hamstrings. Lift one leg up off the ground. rise up on the balls of your feet.One drill I like to use to teach people the concept of running through the hips. or excessive arching of the lower back. Keep a neutral spine and bring one knee all the way up to your chest while you keep the other leg straight and the foot of the off leg planted on the floor.

Glute Activation Drill One simple thing everyone can do to help improve their ability to get the most out of their glutes is to get in the habit of contracting the glutes at heel strike when walking around periodically throughout the day. What About The Balance Between The Hamstrings and Glutes? I talked about the balance between the posterior chain and the quadriceps. It’s a very simple habit that can go a long way. The way you can identify this characteristic is to watch the feet. hip flexors. Feet turned out Athletes who fit this description will also almost ALWAYS have overly dominant quadriceps as well. but what about the balance between the muscles of the hamstrings and glutes? It is fairly common to see athletes with glutes that are too strong for their hamstrings. and glutes. mobilize those muscles. An athlete whose glutes are dominating the hamstrings will also run back on the heels. but the key characteristic is their feet will often turn out when they run (and often when they walk). 45 . and strengthen the hamstrings. Also pay attention to the flexibility of the quadriceps. Supplemental drills like straight leg sprints and bounds could also be utilized. That means exercises like glute ham raises with the feet in a neutral position would form the bulk of strength work for this type of athlete. The solution for this problem would typically be to get away from glute and quadriceps activity.

Fortunately. Lift one knee up towards your chest and release. and large shifts of the hip to one side or the other also indicate a failed test. forward or backward leaning. one can strengthen the psoas by engaging in the actual testing protocol itself for a couple of sets a few days per week. the glute-ham raise is primarily a hamstring movement. You will also be more succeptible to strains of the rectus femoris muscle when sprinting. deadlifts. one thing many people could use more of is a baseline level of core stability. you' tend to round ll your back a lot when you move or when you run. which is one ll of the major hip flexors. Anyone who has suffered one of these knows how annoying they can be. Inability to keep the knee above 90 degrees for at least 10 seconds indicates a weak psoas. or bringing the knee up to the chest.Glute Stretch Glute-Ham Raise** **Although touted as a glute-ham-gastrocnemius movement. A strained quad once cost yours truly a starting spot in jr. Here is how you test the psoas: Stand with your back flat against a wall. Psoas Strength Test Evaluating Core Stability In my opinion. The psoas is the hip flexor muscle responsible for moving the hip past 90 degrees. split squats and the like. which is fairly common and is also known as a quad pull. in order to engage in those exercises safely as well as help ensure proper movement. If the psoas is weak you will tend to substitute hip flexion with lumbar flexion. In other words. Testing The Psoas The next thing you' want to test is the strength of the psoas muscle. Cramps. high football. Having said that. the majority of isolated core training for various parts of the “abs” is over-rated and often unnecessary due to the fact that the abdominals will tend to get as strong as they need to simply by virtue of one training with basic whole body movements such as squats. Be careful not to let your back round. The body’s ‘core’ includes the 46 .

you must look to master your start. The Execution Of The 40-yard Dash As you well know. a side bridge. Core stability is the interaction of strength and coordination of these muscles during activity. The front of your left foot will be about 16 inches behind the start line. 3. However. Kneel down. your left leg will be your stronger leg. many sporting coaches and professionals use the 40-yard dash to evaluate an athlete’s speed. A fast time in the 40 can easily be made or lost with a good or poor start. for an improved 40. if you are right-handed. abdominal muscles and small muscles along the spinal column. Have your stronger leg. You should be able to hold a side bridge for 65% of the time you can hold a back extension. To begin the setup. The 40 is an extremely short test that doesn’t allow much margin for error. If there is lack of stability not only is movement faulty but injury can result. Bridge Side Bridge Back Extension You should be able to hold a normal bridge with a neutral spine for about 2 minutes. placing your right knee directly next to the ball of your left foot. 2. A simple mistake can cost you dearly in terms of speed. 1. Step up to the start line. 4. most athletes do not understand how to start or race the 40-yard dash. To evaluate core stability use a bridge. Core stability adapts posture and muscle activity to ensure the spine is stabilized and provides a firm base to support both powerful and very basic movement of the extremities. simply engage in the actual tests a couple of days per week for a couple of sets until you can complete as required. and a back extension.trunk. Thus. 47 . If you fail the tests. in front. For most athletes. I’ll describe the start assuming you’re right handed. usually the leg you jump off of. place your left foot a few inches directly behind your right foot. aligning the toes of both feet on the edge of the line. Keep your right knee and your left foot roughly 6 to 8 inches apart. pelvis. Team sport athletes rarely take the time to work on an effective start and the proper way to run it. The first phase to examine is the start stance. hips.

9. Keep your head in line with your torso. however. A couple of good drills that will help develop good starting mechanics are sprints starting from a pushup position and forward dives onto a mat out of a sprinting stance. Your steps should fall where they may based on your explosiveness and your structural characteristics. This is a good general recommendation for a typical high level athlete like a D1 football player. Place your right hand on the start line. such as three steps for the first 5 yards and 5 steps over 10 yards. Spreading your fingers will give you more stability. The most important thing you can do for your start is practice it. Don’t lean too far forward so that too much weight is on your arm. Explode forward off your lead leg and don’t raise your head too quickly. 7. Your weight should be balanced with the majority being supported by your legs but some being supported by your left foot. Ideally. Assume a relaxed position with most of your bodyweight on the legs and a small amount of your weight on the extended front arm. Your right hand should be on the ground and extended up on the fingertips with the fingers far apart. Your right leg should be bent at a 135-degree angle. Some people say the first 5-10 yards should be covered in a given number of steps. The left arm should rest on the thigh of the right leg or in a position behind the body as if in a running position. Your left leg should be bent at a 90-degree angle. 48 . 6. Keep your left arm back. 10. Relax your body and visualize a successful start. leg length and structural characteristics between different people. 8.5. this recommendation obviously can’t serve everyone and can actually lead to bad habits for those who try to follow it and don’t have the structure or the power to do it. The most important thing you want to do is get in the habit of really extending and exploding out of the gate so that it becomes 2nd nature. you wanna be covering a lot of ground over your first 5-7 steps. The power at the start comes from your legs. Over-striding is a common problem during the start and occurs when people try to cover too much ground. If you over-stride your heels will be contacting the ground first and your torso will rise too soon. when considering the differences in power. It’s best not to try and force anything unnaturally. not your arm. spreading your fingers wide and arching your palm so as to keep it off the ground. It takes time to develop an effective start and it’s probably not something you’re gonna learn overnight.

It is important to accelerate smoothly from start to finish. Not so. the leading hand should be the same as the forward leg. Starting From Blocks The start I described above assumes you are starting without the aid of blocks. Technique: The eyes should look down so that the spine. If you pump the arms correctly. The more efficient approach is to accelerate smoothly over the entire distance in order to reach the top speed towards the end of the race. Drive out from the start position. You must learn to stay relaxed. fluid sprinting mechanics. Here are some general recommendations for a block start: Foot placement and block settings: The standard placement is to have the front block two foot lengths back from the line and the back foot three foot lengths back. the legs will follow. They hit top speed 20 yards out. To clear the lead hand. The shoulders should be slightly forward of hands on the “take your mark” command. A good place to start is to place the hands under the shoulders and work from there. Don'think power. On the “set” command simply lift your butt straight up. and gradually and smoothly relax and come up into full running position. and start to slow down 25 yards in. **Another good way to grasp correct mechanics for the start is to simply sprint up short hills from a standing position. Analysis of sprinting has shown that you can’t run at your very top speed for much more than one second. the only cue you really need is to think of clearing the lead hand out. Your fastest times will tend be recorded when you feel yourself accelerating through the finish line. 49 . The upper body: When you drive out. On the “go” command. What they are actually doing is maintaining their top speed longer. tighten up. A wider spread requires more strength. They come out of the gate and immediately raise their head and look straight up. The Race When you run the 40 you should accelerate steadily from the initial drive off the line all the way through to the finish. and back of head all form a straight line. just make t like a cat trying to catch a fly. Aim to relax as much as possible throughout the entire race. Hand width is determined by strength. If you compete in track and have the benefit of using blocks. neck. the technique is a bit different. When you watch the world' great 100-meter sprinters it always appears that they s hit another gear in the last 20 meters and blow everyone else away. just flick the hand up at eye level. keep your head in line with your body.These drills inherently help develop proper starting mechanics and don’t require any conscious input. The front block should always be 1 notch lower than the back. When running a 40 many athletes think they have to run at maximum speed over the entire distance. Maintaining top speed is strictly a function of relaxing and using smooth.

Swing from the shoulder and keep the arms relaxed. 50 . and split squats. Trying to lean too far forward by bending at the waist interferes with the correct mechanics of sprinting. Collapsing Heels: Running back on the heels often indicates lack of basic movement efficiency and/or quadriceps dominance. the most common problem that occurs in the start is lack of hip extension (a.Posterior chain activation). reverse hypers. Keep your hips high and keep your strides under you. . The lean is a result of displacing the center of gravity in the direction you are running. If you run with tense arms practice loose.Troubleshooting Running Mechanics The Start: Other than over-striding and raising the head up too soon. When an athlete shows good hip extension they cover a lot of ground and their push off leg will form a straight line from the ground to the head.a. and hill starts are also of value. Your body should have a slight lean in the direction that you are running but this lean comes from the ground and not from the waist. When you lack hip extension power. Over-Striding. Any excessive placement of your foot in front of your center of gravity will cause you to slow down. Lack of hip extension is typically caused by lack of power in the posterior chain (glutes and hams).k. swinging movements from a standing position. Plant against the ground naturally and let the foot land under your center of gravity. Running With The Feet Turned Out: Running with the feet turned out indicates overly dominant glutes and quadriceps and/or weak hamstrings. you will cover little ground per stride and it will look like your feet are on the ground at almost the same time. falling starts. Supplementary plyometric exercises like single leg bounding and dives onto a mat out of a sprint stance can be utilized. as well as explosive strength movements like sled pulling. Don’t reach and over-stride to try to increase stride-length. Specific movements like starts from a pushup position. This includes strength movements like deadlifts. To cure a hip extension problem. Body Lean. Arm Action. This can often be cured by emphasizing basic movements like single leg line hops as well as power movements such as depth drops off a box. anything that increases power in these muscle groups can be utilized.

I haven’t been on a bike in over 3 years but I’m sure I could get on one tomorrow and be just fine. punching and the like. With gains in inter-muscular coordination. jumping. To run fast. let' talk about volume. one will initially get faster just from the improvements in coordination that occur as they practice running fast. Once a t person develops a certain level of coordination in a movement they don'need to focus t near as much on it. which really don'require a whole lot of technique in the first place. Muscle memory is very real. To s understand my volume recommendations it helps to understand how improvements in speed occur. These are: 1. This is what I often refer to as 51 . Gains in running speed can occur in 2 ways. As an example of how this relates to running fast I’ve known several people who have gotten totally away from any sprinting activity for periods as long as 6 months or more at a time. I get a lot of questions like "Ok. the various muscle groups involved in the sprint cycle become more proficient at carrying out the movement. Once you learn how to do it you don’t forget. I’ve seen sprint routines calling for enough sprint volume to kill an elephant and I’ve also seen routines calling for 5 minutes of sprints per week. now I am going to talk a little bit about setting up a routine.Under-Striding. 2. Initially. It should be noted that one can only gain so much from increased coordination. Relaxation. s Volume How much speed training is enough per session or per week? How much is too much? There is quite a bit of variance in the recommendations you’ll find in this area. Trying to move you feet too fast will cause you to practically run fast in place and you won’t cover much ground. how many sprints do I need to run for session and how often?" It' really very simple. More on that in a minute. This is particularly true of gross primal movement patterns like sprinting. Think of a youngster first learning to walk or run. Setting up a routine Alright. you must stay relaxed. When they do get back on the track they' initially feel a little discombobulated. their arms and legs are flailing all over the place and they have a hard time coordinating their movements. With practice they become more proficient until one day they just get it. First of all. yet within a couple of weeks their ll technique and coordination will be right back where it was before.build hip extension power.This is otherwise known as simple coordination and is highly relevant to improvements in movement efficiency. Gains in inter-muscular coordination. Don’t try to power your way through a race. If the coordination is lacking. Someone who naturally under-strides will often lack relative lower body power .particularly in the posterior chain. Gains in intramuscular coordination – The 2nd way gains in running speed can improve is through gains in intra-muscular coordination. It’s kind’ve like riding a bike. The solution to this problem is the same solution that cures a faulty start .

Activities like weight training work by boosting this aspect.horsepower. gains in respond better to increased frequency. Rather. Frequency As far as frequency goes. like I mentioned earlier. After a hardcore workout it' often take his muscles and nervous system a week or more ll to recover. or you can get faster by putting more force behind that movement pattern. In contrast. providing they’ve reached a baseline level of proficiency in their ability to move efficiently when they run. they did gain a lot of strength. he need not worry s about losing any technical prowess not hitting his lifts every other day. Because he' already spent years perfecting his technique. The same sort' thing can also be observed in sprinting. This is why you can ve take an active group of young athletes off the track and throw them in the weight room for 3 months and get them really strong. A sprinting frequency of 3-7 times per week is optimal for gains in coordination . No . It should be noted that gains in coordination generally always occur prior to gains in horsepower. His technique for the lift is well developed and he doesn'need endless repetition practicing the various lifts. A very strong powerlifter will often only train a lift once every 7 to 10 days. you can get faster by improving your ability to carry out and coordinate a movement pattern. ** they can often get away from it and focus on the strength qualities that will make them run fast and then transfer that increased strength to the track. gains in horsepower respond well to lower frequency with much more intensity per session. 52 . In this respect. t his time is spent stimulating and strengthening the muscles involved in the powerlift. So. Running is the same way and so is any other type of movement or skill. Providing they maintain their mobility and leanness you can take them back out on the track and within 3 sessions most of them will be setting PRs in the sprints. Sprinting is a simple gross movement pattern and. which they were then able to transfer to the sprints. He can simply focus on getting stronger in the various muscle groups overall and then apply that increased strength to his powerlifts. However.he practices constantly. So. The more quality exposures you get when learning a movement pattern. One first learns to carry out the movement pattern effectively and then learns to put more force behind the same movement pattern. Think about that. the faster you pick up the technique required to efficiently carry out the movement pattern. providing one has at some point learned how to perform it with some proficiency. They didn'lose much technique from not sprinting because t it’s something they’ve probably been doing since they were kids. You use intensity to enhance what’s learned. This is why when a baby is first learning to walk he or she doesn’t get up and try to do it just once every few days. you use frequency to learn. each muscle group involved in the movement becomes more proficient at generating force in the movement. With gains in intra-muscular coordination. This is one good reason why one need not spend endless hours all year around out on the track sprinting. gains in intramuscular coordination for a sprinter are much like gains in strength for an advanced lifter.

Maintaining Movement Proficiency vs Improving Movement Proficiency It takes a lot less volume to maintain a skill. Kids often do so much sitting around they never learn how to run. you' rest 1 minute. or the number of sprints you can run in a fatigued state. you might become more coordinated by sprinting 3 times per week. yet it won’t do a thing for the speed of your fresh sprints. if you sprint 10 yards. Rest Intervals Regardless of whether you' training for increased coordination or increased re horsepower. Think about it. heels stomping. To avoid fatigue interfering with quality work. you can maintain the majority of them sprinting one time per week. Personally. it only takes 1/3 the volume to maintain a given movement pattern as it does to improve that quality. If a powerlifter wants to increase his maximum bench press how does he do it? Does he train with light weights and very short rest intervals to the point where his muscles are burning and cramping? Or does he lift really heavy weights for low reps with long rest intervals so that he can be as fresh as possible for each lift? The way to increase your speed is to train exactly like you would if you were training for maximum strength. or as soon as. Trying to train for maximum speed by running in a state of fatigue is like trying to increase your bench press by training with foo-foo weights and short rest intervals. If d you sprint 40 yards you' rest 4 minutes. you should rest 1 minute for every 10 yards you sprint. or anything else involving sprinting at a high intensity. movement pattern. and may improve conditioning. d this also means that a speed session should be stopped prior to. ** Activities like football and soccer practice or games. or strength quality then it does to improve a quality.** In this day and age. This type of athlete would need to spend some time focusing more on movement skills. can count as training. Watch a group of teenagers engaged in a sports practice and it’s not uncommon to see arms and legs flailing all over the place. That generally means a speed workout will not exceed 500 yards per session and will often be as short as 100 yards. It simply doesn’t work! As a general recommendation. In other words. This means you should take a full recovery between sprints so that fatigue does not interfere with muscular recruitment. Sprint over fairly short distances (10 to 60 yards) and use long rest intervals. 53 . Many people think the way to get faster and more explosive is to perform multiple sprints with short rests to the point where they’re huffing and puffing and the muscles are really burning. but once you' ve made those improvements. and an assortment of other indicators that tell that a person has never learned how to move with a whole lot of proficiency. it isn’t a given that young athletes have ever learned how to move and run correctly. In general. gains will occur much more readily if each and every sprint or movement you do is performed in a fresh state. requires a lot of mental toughness. This type of training definitely hurts. you start to slow down on your sprint times in the workout. So.

your t body is not recovered. each workout consisted of 3 to 5 all out sprints and that' it. I' probably d have to wait 4-5 days before I could repeat that same squat session. your performance starts do decline during a workout. they improve the amount of force you put behind each stride.when I made my best gains in the 40 yard dash. Prescribing frequency when training for horsepower is a little more difficult. the more proficient you' gonna get at carrying out that movement. you can train as often as possible. as mentioned above. I went in the gym yesterday and did a fairly heavy squat session. you can and should train more often. That' the simplest way to monitor volume you' ever hear and it' also highly s ll s effective. The more fresh exposures you give yourself to a given skill or movement. Frequency When Training For Horsepower When I refer to horsepower I' referring to things like weight training and any m plyometric training other than very basic low intensity movement efficiency drills like jump rope. The same goes for any other movement skill or explosive movement you' trying to improve. you should terminate a sprint session prior to. or as soon as. Wanna improve your agility? re Your jumping? Your footwork? Your martial arts kicks? Your gymnastics ability? Then treat all those just like you would sprints. In other words. In these higher intensity tasks. A frequency of 3-5 days per week or even every day works very well for coordination and movement acquisition for something like a sprint. In fact. I could not come back and repeat that same session tomorrow with the same weights. you' trying to improve the amount of re “oomph” that you put behind your movements. the main reason is because most of the things associated with boosting horsepower tend to be highly intense activities that tend to causes a significant amount of whole body central nervous system fatigue or muscular micro-trauma. As long re as fatigue is not accumulating on a day-to-day basis and as long as your performance is not deteriorating on a day-to-day basis. The reason it’s so effective is because these gains are mostly all neurological in nature and making neural improvements requires fresh exposures. Now. How do you tell if something is causing whole body fatigue and/or micro-trauma? Very simple: If you perform a task today and can' come back the very next day and repeat the task at the same level. Either of these will require recovery time. Why is this? Well. Perform a lot of quality reps with good recovery and stop a session as soon as fatigue begins to interfere with performance. when training to improve running speed and not just training to improve conditioning. movement proficiency. It will work for the acquistion and improvement of any movement or skill you’re trying to improve. when training for increased coordination. Nothing complicated about it! s More On Volume and Training Frequency So. I wouldn' have to t t 54 . and skill. If I were to do some depth jumps tomorrow those depth jumps would induce enough fatigue that I probably wouldn'be able to come back the next day and jump as well either. squats and depth jumps don’t improve the coordination of your sprint stride.

A very strong powerlifter with an 800-pound deadlift might only be ABLE to deadlift once every 7 to 10 days without any performance deterioration yet when he was a beginning lifter only deadlifting 200 he could probably lift maximal weights every other day. The bigger weights he' lifting s simply require more recovery time because over time he’s turned himself into more of a thoroughbred. can also require significant recovery time. puts a lot more stress on his body and nervous system. If he tried to sprint at full speed every day he’d most likely find his times from one day to the next would get slower and slower as he builds up fatigue. The more micro-trauma (muscular damage) that you induce in any given workout the longer it' going to take to recover. high intensity plyometrics the next day. or quadruple the capacity to generate stress (increase performance). So what' t s going on? Well. Activities such as heavy weight training may require 2-7 days recovery while activities such as intense plyometric and speed will typically require 48 hours recovery. the body can double. you need some recovery time. when performed at a high level. you’d do them all on 55 . I’d wanna give my legs and my nervous system at least 48 hours rest. One other very important point: Things like basic sprinting and jumping. Have you ever wondered why pro athletes or sprinters tear and strain hamstrings left and right yet you never see a single person in a class full of kindergardners have any such problems? They' simply not able to create enough stress re to challenge their bodies. The thoroughbred and funny car are so strong and powerful they’ll blow out if you try to run them full bore all the time. However. it’s often best to put any activities that require significant recovery time all on the same training day. This is why weight training tends to require the most s recovery time. An explosive athlete is the same way. It’s generally best to allow 48-hours rest between any highly intense activities for a given muscle group. a grade schooler can sprint every day with no day to day deterioration in performance. instead of performing weight training one day. yet the capacity to recover from that stress does not improve nearly as much from baseline. for those athletes who have advanced past the coordination stage. The elite level sprinter is putting out a TON of force when he sprints and.rest 4-5 days like I would with the squats. You see the same thing in lifting. and sprinting the next day. in comparison to the lower level athlete. if I did a heavy squat session today I wouldn’t wanna come back tomorrow and perform depth jumps or sprints. Why is this? Since the elite sprinter is much more advanced shouldn'he be able to sprint more often? You would think so. nervous system fatigue can be induced even without microtrauma. For that reason. So. but I probably would have to rest 48 hours or so. So. But allow him a day of rest between maximum sprints and he’s fine. The depth jumps don'induce much micro-trauma yet still drain the system t enough that they require some recovery time. The point to take home is this: If you perform a task today and can'come back t the very next day and repeat the exact same task. It’s like the difference between a thoroughbred and a camel or a funny car and a Honda civic. However. triple. An elite level sprinter may only be able to sprint maximally 2-3 days per week. The camel and Honda Civic don’t operate such a high intensity and thus can be ridden further and more often.

Jump rope 9. A sample weekly split encompassing these principles might look something like this: Mon: Lower body weight training. Martial arts kata. Any activity performed with heightened and competitive emotional intensity (competitions) 10. Maximum effort agility and deceleration work will full recovery between reps 6. Aerobic work 2. or shadowboxing These activities that don'induce much if any fatigue and can be repeated on a daily basis t if desired. Activities that could generally be considered “High-Intensity” activities would be the following: 1. sprints. For advanced athletes only . Dynamic warm-ups and form running drills 4. sprints. Strength work (anything above 80% of 1rm for lower body and "whole body"movements such as deadlifts. Maximum effort plyometric work (depth jumps) 5.the same day with 48 hours rest in between workouts. Sub-maximal speed work (runs less than 80% top speed) 6. Maximum effort lower body bodybuilding work (8-12 reps to failure) 3. Sub-maximal conditioning work 3.) 7. Timed max effort intervals) 7.) 2.any activity involving PR type performances Activities that could generally be considered “Low-Intensity” activities would be the following: 1. agility ladders. Easy plyometric work (basic uni-lateral and bi-lateral hops etc. Maximum effort speed work with full recovery between reps 4. Martial arts or boxing sparring and heavy bag 9. mitt work. Sub-maximal bodybuilding or upper body isolation bodybuilding work 5. Footwork drills (agility ladders and dot drills) 8. cleans etc. various energizing supplements) 11. basic movement efficiency drills) Wed: off Thurs: Lower body weight training. low intensity movement work (jump rope. high-intensity plyometrics 56 . On the days in between your higher intensity workouts you could either rest or engage in lower intensity activities. Any activity performed under the influence of artificial stimulants (ephedrine. Maximum effort conditioning work (ie. high intensity plyometrics Tues: Upper body weight training.

Rest fully between each repetition. For most athletes I consider distances of 0 to 30 yards acceleration. 57 . Workout A: Dynamic mobility: (see mobility section) Speed drills: high knees. for optimum gains. Simpler is often better. time each repetition. A sample template that has been used with good success for off-season youth speed and athletic development programs might look something like this: Frequency: Alternate Between Workout A & Workout B on an every other day basis 3 times per week. develop your speed and acceleration first over shorter distances and then extend that speed out over longer distances. Distances? What about distances? This can vary depending upon your unique needs but generally speaking an athlete should spend the majority of their time sprinting distances that will actually enhance their speed and acceleration abilities. but a speed workout need not require a masters degree in advanced calculus to be effective. straight leg sprints etc.Fri: Low intensity movement work Sat: Upper Body weight training. In other words. I always recommend a short to long approach to speed development. 30 to 50 yards max speed. and distances over 50 yards speed endurance. Making Things Easy I will give some highly detailed examples of sprint workouts later. sprints. running repeat 30 yard sprints one day and repeat flying 20 yard sprints a few days later. That means the large majority of individual reps should be made up of distances from 10 to 50 yards. and stop the workout as soon as the times start to decline. after an easy warm-up. A sprint workout can be something as simple as going out to the track or field twice per week and. It' as s simple as that. high intensity plyometrics With that set-up you’re allowing your lower body 48-hours rest between high-intensity bouts of activity. If you’re a team sport athlete there’s little reason to sprint further than 40 yards unless you’re sprinting as a form of conditioning work. Additionally. If you were interested in improving your 40-yard dash you’d ideally start off with the majority of your focus spent improving your 10 and 20 yard sprints and work your way out towards 40 yards. skips.

s. push press. All in all you' looking at re about 2 hours of total work including warm-ups. row Core movement: plank. Deadlift. side bend. pecs Simply pick one exercise from each category and have at it. In an 58 . box jumps. shuttle runs Workout B: Dynamic mobility: See mobility section Speed drills: High knees. stretching. split squat. lats. Speed lift: Jump squat variation. deadlift. swiss ball crunch. incline press Upper body pull: Pullup. glutes. knees to chest tuck jumps. Lateral movement work: Shuffle. push press. etc. side bend. Conditioning: intervals. s Plyometric work: hops.Short linear sprints or sled sprints: 10' 20' and 30' s. lunge Upper Body push: Bench press. Front squat. front squat. etc. various agility drills Lateral plyometric work: Various hops and jumps moving side to side Speed Lift: Jump squat variation. straight leg sprints. woodchop. or clean Lower body lift: Squat. split squat. etc. jumps. crossover. hamstrings. hip flexors. Conditioning: intervals or shuttle runs Static Stretching: Stretches for quadriceps. and conditioning. snatch. or clean Lower body lift: Squat. incline press Upper body pull: pullup. medicine ball circuit. snatch. lunge Upper body push: Bench press. calves. medicine ball circuit. woodchop. swiss ball crunch. row Core: Plank. skips. etc.

sessions should be performed only once or twice per week.3 x 5 8. Hi to low cable woodchop .3-4 x 25 yards 4. straight leg sprints .2 x max reps per set 10.25 yards x 3 3. Upper body lifting Wed: Speed training. In the preseason and during the season itself.optimal environment. the volume and frequency of specific sprint work will vary depending upon the time of year. during the off-season. Single leg linear hops onto a low box. As a general recommendation.2-3 x 25 yards 5.(using light load) .2 x 12-15 11. therefore the total volume of speed. January – Mid-May (focus: Strength and muscle mass accumulation) Mon: Lower body lifting Tues: Upper body lifting Thurs: Low volume speed and movement work (speed. Sled marching. A sample daily workout might look like this: 1. skips. lateral movement. lower body lifting Fri: Upper body lifting 59 . Hang Snatch. lower body lifting Fri: Upper body lifting Late May – Late June (focus: Continue strength and power development – begin conditioning) Mon: Speed training. Squat. Dynamic mobility (see mobility section) 2. Here is an example of what a yearly plan might look like for a football player. yet with large groups d this can work very effectively.2-3 x 10-15 seconds per set 6. High knees. Incline press. Keep in mind this type of template would be ideal for youth who could benefit more from boosting the inter-muscular coordination aspects of their performance. and plyometric work would be rather high. Pullup. unless an athlete is significantly deficient in them. both speed work and lateral movement work (agility).(using bodyweight). assuming you’re a team sport athlete.4 x 3 7. there is often no need or time for specific sprint work as simply participating in practices and the sport itself will give plenty of exposure to speed and acceleration work. They might need quite a bit of basic coordination and movement efficiency work. Sled sprints. Year Around Training? When discussing training. 100-yard shuttle runs at 70% max effort. you' be able to split things up a bit more. agility).8 sets with 45 seconds rest between each.4 x 5 9.

calves. Lack of mobility causes movement to be restricted and you get all sorts of squeaks. You' integrating mobility into the actual movements re that occur when you move. There are 2 types of stretching that I recommend. There are countless dynamic mobility exercises but what follows are some that I prefer: 60 . Go through each movement for 1-2 sets of 8-10 reps per move. it’s caused by lack of mobility. clanks and other assorted problems. I like to think of mobility training as lubrication for the moving parts of an athlete . Dynamic and static. Sporting s movements are obviously dynamic. glutes. In a dynamic stretch. It' the same way for an athlete s without mobility. If you don’t have the mobility necessary to carry out some of these movements you risk faulty movement efficiency and perhaps even strained and/or torn muscles. The purpose of the warm-up is to make gains in active range of motion. or performed with movement. hams. To maintain and/or gain the mobility necessary to move and run correctly. you' simply carrying out some of the movements that occur in sport re over a greater range of motion. squeaking. I recommend each workout can be preceeded by a dynamic warm-up that includes exercises for the hip flexors. Ever seen what happens when you take a strong so called muscle-bound bodybuilder type and throw him out in a flag football game? Strained hip flexors and a host of other injuries are the norm. and explosiveness) Mon: Upper body lifting. Mobility training is like grease or oil that helps parts run smoother. provide a proper neural stimulus. speed.similar to the oil in the motor of a car or the grease that lubricates various working parts. anaerobic conditioning using sprint intervals Tues: Lower body lifting Wed: Anaerobic conditioning using football agility drills Thurs: Upper Body lifting Friday: Anaerobic conditioning Mid-August – November (focus: maintain strength) Wed: Full body lifting Sun: Full body lifting Mobility Training… Now it' time to talk a little more about specific mobility training. quadriceps. If you run a car without oil or run a wheel without grease you get all sorts of clanking.Sat: Conditioning (using football agility drills with short rest intervals) July – Mid-August (focus: Improve conditioning – Maintain strength. and lower back. and obviously get your muscles warmed up and ready to go for the more intense work to come. often involving injury. and other annoying problems. What most people call a muscle-bound state isn’t caused from excessive muscle.

Deep twisting lunge Calf stretch Cross under lunge 61 .

Pullback butt-kick walking forward Straight leg kick moving forward (keep leg straight) Sumo squat 62 .

63 . tight glutes. I generally recommend you perform static stretching if you need to further address certain mobility problems you' identified. you can also perform static stretching periodically throughout the day. and right after you get out of a warm shower. yet does little to integrate the acquired range of motion into the desired movements. Simply stretch the muscle to a point where you feel a stretch and hold the stretch for 2 sets of 20 seconds. tight quadriceps/rectus femoris. or tight calves. One thing you generally don’t want to do is static stretch prior to your workout or it might interfere with your strength by relaxing muscles that you don’t want relaxed.Walk forward elbow to foot Hurdle duck under (use real or imaginary hurdle) What About Static Stretching? Static stretching is the traditional type of stretching where you take a muscle into a stretched position and hold the stretch without movement. first thing in the morning. Static stretching is useful to help relax tight muscles and may help to reform tight tissue. In my opinion. It need not be overly complicated. If you have the time or inclination. the best time to engage in static stretching is right after your workout. Those are gonna be the common problems that might need some extra mobility work. These include ve the aforementioned tight hip flexors. which is why I recommend both static and dynamic stretching.

Once full speed is achieved. High knees. Run while lifting your knees up to your hip joints and then drive them down in a fast and constant pace. Butt-kicks. Do not accelerate too fast or too slow. Most are self-explanatory. concentrating on good running form. The idea is to develop explosive running starts and work on your initial acceleration coming out of the hole from a variety of positions.Sprinting Form Drills Form running drills help to establish correct movement patterns and also serve as good general warm-ups. Start off slow and gradually pick up speed over 30 yards. In turn. Strides. stance with you falling forward. A falling start is done out of a 2-pt. and starts from a 3-point start. By the time you reach the 30-yard mark you should be running at nearly full speed (flying). As you lose your balance you accelerate out. gradually slow down over the final 20 yards. Skips. falling starts. Set up a course with the 30-yard point marked. In the following programs I give. A start from a pushup position is done with you starting from a push-up position. Your upper leg should not move much. it’s like a buildup except you should be running full speed at 30 yards. While moving forward in a slow jog. starts from a 2-point start. or 30 more yards. A stride is just an easy run at a speed in between a jog and a sprint. Skip with your lead knee coming up and down with a rhythmic cadence. Buildups. Flying 10’s 20’s and 30’s. One needn’t participate in endless amounts of drills. yet establishing mistake free movement patterns may help to eliminate wasted energy that does not contribute to forward movement. you’ll see a variety of starts: Starts from a push-up position. Continue this full speed sprinting for 10. Start from a standing start into a slow run.20. They are used as a warm-up drill and the idea is to focus on running form while preparing the body for the more intense work to come in the workout. 64 . Speed and Acceleration Drills Starts. kick your heels up to your buttocks. Gradually build up speed until you at nearly full speed at 40 yards. Try to place emphasis on allowing your heel to come up to your butt. the effort on the ground should bounce your leg up into the high knee position. Simply let yourself fall forward. A 2-point start is done from a standard wide receiver stance (2 limbs on the ground). A 3-point start is done with one hand on the ground. The emphasis is on decreasing your ground contact time by hitting the ground with the ball of the foot and getting off as quickly as possible.

Accelerations. From a jog gradually stride in smoothly and approach a predetermined acceleration point 10-20 yards away. Once you hit the predetermined spot, accelerate as fast as possible over the required distance.

Plyometric Training
The main purpose of plyometric drills is to enhance the ability to better express strength, develop reactive rebound type strength**, and improve your capacity to use your tendons as movement generators. As described earlier, the foundation for great plyometric efficiency is a base of strength, so that the muscles can lock up and absorb force. Plyometric drills enhance the absorption, stabilization, and release of force that occurs with movement. They enable you to express your strength in a high-velocity specific manner. Sprinting itself is very plyometric in nature. For this reason, anyone doing more than a modicum of sprinting doesn’t typically need to utilize a ton of plyometric drills.
**Plyometric strength is also termed elastic strength, reactive strength, reversal strength, and rebound strength. Don’t let the terminology confuse you! They all mean the same thing.

When engaging in a bout of plyometric training, it’s not necessary to use a ton of various plyo drills in order to have an effective workout. People tend to overcomplicate plyometric work to the point where many think they need to have a master’s degree in Russian training secrets to undestand it! I' probably been guilty of overcomplicating ve the subject myself, but the reality is plyometric work is really quite simple. All lower body plyometric drills do basically the same thing. They all involve some type of hopping, bouncing, jumping, or running variation. There is no real magic in any exercise. The only magic is in the intensity of exercise. There are low intensity movements like the single legged line hops I mentioned earlier, which work best to train movement efficiency and basic coordination on the feet. There are very high intensity movements like depth jumps, which build max power. If possible you should try to choose exercises that most closely hone in on your specific needs and you should always choose exercises that correspond to your level of development. For example, someone with good strength yet poor power in his posterior chain, might utilize an exercise of 3 consecutive single leg hops for max distance. Someone with bad feet and collapsing heels might utilize depth drops off a box equivalent to the height of his best vertical jump, landing up on the balls of his feet. Someone with lack of power in his hips might utilize low squat hops or alternating lunge jumps.

Alternating Lunge Jumps Remember to choose exercises based on your developmental level. A depth jump would be too intense for a beginner or someone who lacks strength. Youngsters should 65

spend the majority of time working with basic low intensity hops, skips, and jumps until they have a modicum of strength in place.
plyometrics. ** The general recommendation is that an athlete should be capable of a 1.5 x BW squat before participating in high intensity

If in doubt, realize that specific sporting movements can also serve as excellent plyometric exercises. In other words, if you wanted to jump higher and determined you needed to focus on expressing your strength better, a simple running jump for maximum height is an excellent plyometric movement itself and it’s also 100% specific to the goal of jumping higher. Sprinting itself is also a specific plyometric exercise. You’re not gonna lose out on anything by not performing a ton of plyometric drills yet they can provide some variety and sometimes they can help you hone in on a specific weakness. A sample workout might have 1 to 3 exercises. The movements and the workouts themselves don'need to be complicated. Keep each set less than 10 seconds in duration t and always stop any plyometric workout following the same guidelines as you would for volume of sprint work. Stop the workout before or as soon as your performance in the movements begins to decline. Get creative with the exercises. Here are some ideas. Low Intensity Plyo Exercises Draw a line on the ground and jump side to side over it with 2 legs - 1 leg Do the above front to back Draw 4 imaginary stars on the ground forming a box with each star separated by 12-18 inches. Hop around the box on one leg Get in a squat position up on the balls of your feet and bounce in place Put a low box in front of you - jump up on it and step off. Do the same with one leg. From the side…..from the other side. Medium Intensity Plyo Exercises Get underneath a basketball goal and rhythmically jump up and try to touch as high as you can Get in a lunge position and jump up as high as possible landing in the same position as you started. Switch legs in midair Jump side to side over a cone, bench, or other knee-high object Jump high and bring your knees to your chest Put a medium to high box (18 to 40 inches) in front of you and jump up on it

66

Put a low box (6-12 inches high) and bounce rhythmically up and down off and on it with one leg...repeat from the side, repeat from the other side Skip for max distance Skip for max height Stand on a box about 18 to 24 inches high, step off the box, and land softly up on the balls of your feet in a motionless position (depth drops) Perform a standing broad jump High Intensity Plyo Exercises Hop forward on one leg Hop sideways on one leg Sprint with exaggerated strides trying to get up as high as possible and cover as much ground as possible with each stride (bounding) Stand on a box, step off, hit the ground, and jump as high as possible...repeat to the left, to the right (depth jump) Plyometrics really don’t need to be complicated. That' all there is to it!! s

The Entire Athletic Development Process
Now, what I' like to do is go through a simple man' approach to the entire process d s of building an efficient and speedy athlete. It should be obvious by now that a cookie cutter approach isn’t optimal, yet you’re probably wondering how to determine where to focus your efforts and what type of training will be best for you. Now I’m gonna try to answer those questions. Hopefully, this will give you an idea on my thought process when it comes to evaluating an athlete. This should read sort of like a checklist: 1. Are you trying to run on flat tires? The first thing you’ll want to do is make sure you' established proper movement efficiency, coordination, and movement ve patterns. Take a look at your ability to move efficiently at a low intensity. Before you can move well at a high intensity (jumping, cutting, sprinting, changing direction, etc.), you have to be able to move properly at a low intensity (bouncing and moving around with quick and light feet). Think of a game like hopscotch or jump rope or the myriad of mostly useless type drills that a football player would go through in training camp such as agility ladders, cone drills, dot drills and other related drills. How efficiently can you move? Are you somewhat light on your feet or are you heavy footed and find drills like these a real challenge for 67

or you can make an effort to spend at least 20-minutes 3 days per week working on various drills designed to get you more coordinated on your feet . If you pass. go on to number two. agility ladder. t One easy little test you can use to test basic movement efficiency is draw a line or place a piece of tape on the ground. You can either PLAY and get involved in as many activities as you can. you just need to make sure you have a little air in your tires. You oughta be able to get around 60 total hops with both legs and 30-40 on one leg within those 10 seconds. agility and quickness) type drills. If you score less than satisfactory here. 1a.or you can do both. You shouldn'really have to think too hard about this. 1c. SAQ (speed. Aim for 30 on both legs and 15-20 on one. Repeat with one leg. You lack mobility? Go through the mobility tests I described earlier. If you’re overweight. You have a couple of options. if you have to haul re s around a 50 pound tub of lard it’s gonna slow you down! If you’re overweight look at your diet and activity levels. Stand on both legs and hop forward and back over the line for 10 seconds. and other basic lower intensity plyometric and agility type drills. Cut down on sugars and increase the consumption of things you can actually shoot or grow.you? Answer honestly. This means you should probably spend quite a bit of time developing the capacity to move lighter on your feet. If you find it difficult to count fast enough just count the forward hops. The solution is to get up off your butt and get involved in more activity. You lack coordination or you' just heavy footed? This probably means re you just never learned to move efficiently as a youngster and you need to spend time doing that. you also probably lack basic fitness. 1b. Can you perform a squat without your heels rising up? Can you bring your heel up to 68 . Break out the jump rope. or GPP. Have fun and PLAY your way into shape. A race car with flat tires ain'going t nowhere in a hurry and neither are you! If you aren'satisfied with your score t here the next step is to figure out what the problem is.You' too fat!? What' your body-fat like? Remember. You don'need to be like Allen Iverson or Ladanian Tomlinson but ask yourself t these questions: A: Do people call you quick and agile or slow and heavy-footed? B: Can you carry out the movements in your sport properly or are coaches constantly telling you that you need to work on your footwork? C: Do you sound like an elephant when you run or are you as smooth and quiet as a butterfly? Remember. take a look at 1a through 1d to determine what problems you might need to correct. you don’t have to be superb in this department.

putting a bigger engine in your car (getting stronger). Are you strong enough to be an explosive athlete? A modicum of strength is necessary. It’s the same with athletes. Assuming you' met all the basic requirements for #1 and #2. or jump as high a guy? Because they' not as big and strong!! I’ve actually worked with a lot of athletes re in this category who enhanced their speed and vertical jumps by a significant amount with doing any specific speed. nutrition. Assuming you' met all the basic requirements for #1. If your calves are tight simply stretch your calves. improving your performance is a matter of either A. You do that by getting bigger and stronger overall. run as fast as a guy. 2. the only way you’re gonna make the car any faster is to put a bigger engine in the SOB. or movement training WHATSOEVER. Once you' ve reached this level.your butt without much effort? Can you lie on your back and bring one knee to your chest without tearing a hip flexor? Are you supple and mobile or are you tighter than a drum? If you have mobility problems the best way to fix them is to spend 20 seconds twice a day with specific static stretches and perform plenty of dynamic stretches prior to your workout. That shouldn'be too difficult. If not you need to get stronger overall. run sprints every day. hit as hard as a guy. What are your lifting numbers like? Do you squat and deadlift at least 1.5 to 2 x your bodyweight? If yes you can go on to number 3. now it' time to ve s dig a little deeper to see how to continue building your athleticism. and a host of other things. To drive this point home think of this: Why can'a 14 year elite athlete t run as fast as a 25 year old elite athlete no matter how well they move or how much power training they do? Why can’t an average girl throw as far as an average guy. t Take a look at the first workout in the next session and take a look at some of the templates in appendix B. You can work on various explosive drills. but eventually you reach a point where you’re not gonna get any faster or more explosive until you put a bigger engine underneath your hood. they just got stronger overall! or B: Modifying the engine in your car so that you get more horsepower out of your existing motor 69 . You can only modify the engine in a race-car so much. If your quads are tight stretch your quads. If your hip flexors are tight stretch your hip flexors. jump. or B. Eventually. now it' time to assess ve s your relative strength. 3. work on mobility. modifying your engine to better express it’s horsepower (working on explosiveness to better express your strength): A: Putting a bigger engine in your car Putting a bigger engine in your car just means that you' continue to build your d strength and size so that you have more oomph behind your movements.

If your jump from the ground is higher than your bounce jump. First. and agility drills. When making these observations and determinations there really aren’t any hard and fast guidelines here and there' not really a chart you can look at to see where s you stack up.Modifying the motor in your car just means that you' train yourself to get more d oomph out of the muscle and strength you already have. you could benefit from driving up your strength. If you' the guy who is stronger then you are fast. We have to determine whether you’re stronger then you are fast. Look at the following evaluations: A: First off. Next. d plyometric. Record the results of those 2 tests. the way we determine whether you need a bigger engine or a modified engine is to take a close look at your performance in various tasks. hit the ground. you' stronger then you are fast. Ok. you 70 . If you' the type of guy who is faster then you re are strong.a guy who squats and bench presses a ton yet whose speed and vertical jumping ability pales in comparison? Or are you one of those guys who is weaker than a kitten yet fairly explosive and fast? Are you one of those people who gets off the line like a raging bull the first 10 yards of a sprint but is slower than molasses after 20 yards yards? If so. take a look at your lifting numbers in relationship to athletic measures such as vertical jump. so that you apply more force in less time. and speed oriented work. Now. Or are you one of those guys whose initial re acceleration is slow but your top speed is impressive? If so. 40-yard dash. which you' do by following a routine such as the d 2nd workout in the next section. stand on a box 12-18 inches high and execute a depth jump for maximum height. you probably should focus on re improving your explosiveness. One of the things I do is take a close look at several various jumping related tests. Are you one of those guys who is stronger than an ox in the weight room . You do this by working on better expressing your strength. Here are the tests: 1. You have to use some common sense. record your normal standing vertical jump. If you perform the Olympic lifts and if you have really good technique with them. and rebound up as high as possible. An athlete that is faster than strong will tend to have a clean that is more than 70% of his back squat and a snatch that is more than 65% of his front squat. or whether you’re faster then you are strong. Simply step off the box. What about everyone else? What if you' not sure where you fit in? Then you’ll re have to take a closer look. which you' do by engaging in more explosive. or building up your explosiveness. you' faster then you re are strong. you can look at the ratio between the various lifts to get an idea where you stand in this department.

If your bounce jump is higher than your jump from the ground. Next. The 20-yard shuttle should be at least . If your uni-lateral jump is higher then your bilateral jump. is it really because of your motor abilities or is their some other problem? In other words. but you can even take things a step further: ***This will be covered in detail in a later chapter 4. Next. 2. you could probably benefit from more strength and raw horsepower. Next. It' probably not something you' ever feel that you' completely s ll ve mastered. Those observations will tell you a lot. you basically take all that material and mull it over and determine the best course of action for yourself as an athlete. you could probably benefit from more basic strength and hypertrophy work. could it be that you carry too much excess weight? Do you play a sport like 71 . you probably could benefit from focusing more on explosiveness. compare your best bilateral (2-legged) running vertical jump and compare it to your best unilateral (single leg) running jump. It' an ongoing process and the things you learn as an athlete or as a s coach are always improving as you learn more and find better ways of assessing things.4 seconds faster than the 40. 5. If you don'know how to do a 20-yard shuttle here' t s how.most likely need more work on explosiveness. Simply take a running start and jump as high as you can. but this will get the job done. Stop the clock as soon as you run through B the 2nd time. you could probably stand to work a bit more on your lateral movement and agility. then run back the other direction through B. compare the results of that 20-yard shuttle to your best 40-yard dash. If it’s not. then run to C and touch the line. Record the results of those 2 tests. If your bilateral jump is significantly (20% +) higher then your unilateral jump. (You could also probably benefit from focusing more on hamstring and glute strength). Record your best 40-yard dash and compare it to your best 20-yard shuttle. or for your athletes if you’re a coach. Additionally. Whenever you’re ready. make sure you use some common sense when reading in to the testing. How does your game speed rank in relationship to your linear speed?*** Are you as agile as you are fast? One thing you can do to help make this evaluation is compare your straight ahead linear speed to a test of speed that requires change of direction. Take 3 cones and place them 5 yards apart so that they look like this A-------B--------C ----10 yards Start at B and face the direction of B with one hand on the ground. start by running to A and touching the line. If you lack explosiveness in relationship to your strength.

you' not fat. you' mobile.basketball or track and have to work under a coach that believes that waking up at 5 am and hitting the pavement for 5 miles every day (and burning up your fast twitch muscle).repeat until times begin to decline Wednesday Dynamic warm-up 40-yard sprints . In fact. and you still can'determine exactly what type of training you t should do. Examples: A sample of an off-season explosive oriented workout might look something like this. #2. In general it only takes about 60% of the volume to generate explosive gains as it does to generate gains in strength. when training to better display your strength (display explosiveness).repeat until time declines 72 .6 x 3 (stand on a box equivalent to your best vertical jump. This workout would be for someone who is stronger than they are fast. By simply optimizing their recovery. Monday Dynamic warm-up **Depth Drops. If someone is not making gains I’ve often found it' because they’re training with too much junk s volume and throwing too many conflicting signals at the body. Assuming you' met the requirements for #1. Keep in mind. 6. a lot of times just reducing volume overall will generate gains in speed and explosiveness as many people are over-reached or slightly over-trained and don’t even know it. and #3. The goal here is to maintain strength while focusing on better displaying that strength. drop off the box. a general reduction in volume is necessary as these gains occur most readily when the body is in a fairly well rested state. and freeze up on the balls of your feet at impact) 20-yard sprint. I' recommend you start off focusing on more of an explosive oriented d routine to start. you' re re re strong enough. meaning that you' ve ve established proper movement efficiency. There' not always a clear-cut ve s answer but most of the time there is. is the way to get you in shape? Are you over-trained in general? Or do you have a build that is good for strength but not really conducive to displaying great speed (very thick joints with ultra short legs) Any of those things can kind' masks the results of those evaluations. they allow a lot of fatigue to dissipate and start to progress.

work up to a heavy set of 3 using several warm-up sets and then maintain the same weight for all the remaining sets. You might only get 1 or 2 reps on your last 2 sets.5 x 5 @85% (try to increase the weight or reps each week. increase the load the next workout . Stop prior to any noticeable drop-off in performance. and exploding up into a jump) Deadlift.make sure you' doing a true deep back squat) re Leg curl. ** Strength can be maintained with 1/3 the volume it took to build that strength.3 x 3 @ 80-85% *** Friday or Saturday Dynamic warmup Depth jumps.4 x 3 @85-90% (try to increase the weight or reps each week.6-8 x 3 Glute Ham raise. providing the intensity (load) is maintained.4 x 6-8 Follow that format for 4 weeks and eliminate the Wednesday workout the last week. 20’s or 40’s) . I would typically prescribe 2-3 sets of 2-3 reps with an 85 to 90% load once per week. and perhaps even hypertrophy. (perform these by lowering into a full squat position. moving sideways off the box. A sample of an off-season strength oriented workout might look like this. landing in a lunge off the box.4 x 6-8 Thursday or Friday Jump Squat with pause 4 x 3 @ 30% of max squat. pausing for 3-5 seconds. glute ham. Note: An explosive oriented phase is also a great time to implement horizontal loading (towing). When you get all 5 sets of 5. single-legged etc. as I will talk about later. while maintaining the ability to display that strength: Monday Short Sprints (10’s.6 x 5 at 20-30% of max squat Deadlift . For someone looking to maintain strength.Jump squat.work up to a set of 5 using several warm-up sets and then maintain the same weight for all 5 sets. You might only get 2 or 3 reps on your last 2 sets.~4-6 reps each. or romanian deadlift . Moving forward off the box. The goal here is to push up strength. ** Depth drops can be performed a variety of ways. Squat. When you get all 4 sets of 3 reps increase the load the following workout) 73 .

your sprints should be getting faster as well. if nothing more then the vanity effect! Exercises include both those designed to develop your maximum strength and those designed to improve your ability to develop force quickly. I have 2 different programs. speed. I realize most of you will want to train upper body as well. Sample Programs Keep in mind these programs are just examples that are designed for intermediate level athletes. which allows one to work high quality speed with short sprints and then work on extending that speed over longer distances. but these examples should serve well for the majority of athletes. If your heavy lifts such as deadlifts and squats are getting heavier. and your jumps are getting higher.Bulgarian split squat or lunge. Program Flow You will notice the actual sprinting portion of the programs flows from short to long over the 8 weeks.2 x 6-8 per leg Detailed Programs For 40-yard Dash In this segment I’m going to write out a couple of more detailed sprint programs designed to improve the 40-yard dash. That is. The programs are 8 weeks long and the goal is to maximize running speed. Some people will have solid coordination and movement efficiency already in place and will benefit more from strength training. A cookie-cutter set-up is never optimal and in a perfect world any training you do would be completely individualized just for you. Although you could consider the upper body workouts optional. A surefire method to raising your performance is by paying attention to your progress in the various exercises. This method has proven more fruitful then programs that build speed over longer distances that then try to apply that speed endurance to short distances. your higher speed lifts such as speed squats are getting faster and more explosive. because the longer distances don’t recruit the same quality of muscle fibers or reflect the training specificity of the shorter distances. This is the same method used by most top sprint coaches today. Exercises such as heavy squats and deadlifts are used for maximum strength while exercises such as jump squats and other high-speed movements are used for rate of force development. speed is first developed over shorter distances through shorter sprints and that speed is then carried out over further distances. Since athletes in team sports rarely sprint more than 40 yards. there is no need to train for speed endurance. You will find the listed programs have 2 lower body workouts per week and 2 upper body workouts per week. then speed endurance. The general order of progression is to emphasize acceleration. These 74 . To avoid placing everybody on the same cookie cutter set-up. That system is inferior.

hurdle duck under. elbow to foot walking 75 Warm-up stays constant for all speed workouts .g. and long torso. Program I – For the Strength Deficient Athlete Day and Exercise Sun: Off Monday: Lower Body Warm-up: Dynamic warmup as written Week #1 Week #2 Week #3 Week #4 Comments Twisting lunge. D: Your strength will be ahead of your speed and movement efficiency (you have good weight room numbers but not so impressive speed and vertical jump numbers). sumo squat. –You don’t squat 2 x or more your bodyweight and only run a 5. pullback buttkick walking forward.5 x your bodyweight or less C: Your start (first 20 yards) is not dramatically faster then your top speed.people will be faster than they are strong.0 fourty yard dash) B: You squat 1. which can be identified by a majority of the following characteristics: A: You will tend to be much faster at the start than the finish of a race B: You will tend to have a thicker build with large ankles. D: Your best bilateral (2-legs) vertical jump from either a run-up or a depth jump is about 20% or more higher then your best jump from a standstill.g. straight leg kick. C: Your running vertical jump will be nearly the same as your standing vertical jump. They should perform program I. Perform program I if you fit most of the following characteristics: A: Your strength is not dramatically ahead of your speed (e. short legs. They will be stronger than they are fast. E: You are fairly well coordinated and move fluidly (e. Perform program II if you fit any of the following characteristics: Perform this program if you’re obviously much stronger then you are fast. people don’t tell you that you’re “heavy” on your feet). calf stretch. These people should perform program II. Others will need to work more on movement efficiency and plyometric training.

m and lift in the p.High knees.m. skips 50 yard buildups Acceleration work foward 3 x 25 yards 3 4x10 yard starts from pushup position stance 4x 20yard falling starts Same 3 4 x 10 yd starts from pushup position 4 x 20 yd falling starts 2x30 yards from 2 pt stance Same 3 3 x 10 yd starts from 3 pt stance 3 x 20 yd falling starts 2x 30 yd starts from 2 pt stance 2 x 40 yd sprints from 3 pt stance Same Same 3 3 x 10 yd starts from 3 pt stance 2x20 yd falling starts 2x40 yd sprints from 3 pt stance Same Walk back to the start Separate the speed work from the rest of the workout if desired. and let the “rebound” action take care of itself Plyometrics Single leg hops forward 2 x 20 yards per leg Same Snatch Grip Deadlift DB Split squat Leg curl or Glute Ham raise Tues: Off Wed: Plyometric/Upper Body Lateral cone jump- 3x5 2 x 6-8/leg 4x5 4x3 Same Same 4x2 Same Same 2x2 (fairly light) Same Same 3 x 10 3 x 10 3 x 10 Eliminate Use a medium sized object about knee level in height. with the hips held high. Do these on grass. Focus on “absorbing” with the plant leg. butt kicks. Hop 76 . Ex: perform sprints and plyos in the a.

Each ground contact = 1 rep Box Squat jump4x6 Same Same eliminate Sit back on a chair or boxes –pause and jump up as high as possible for 2 sets and out as far as possible for 2 sets.3.) Thursday: Off Friday: Speed Work and Lower Body work Speed and Acceleration 3x8 2x8 Same Same Same same 20-yard accelerations x 3 (use 10 yard stride in 20-yard accelerations x3 Flying 20’s 30-yard accelerations x3 Flying 20’s Timed 40’s x 35 (or stop when Separate the speed work from the rest of the 77 . You can also use objects to jump on or over to make the exercise more challenging Bench press- 4x5 5x4 5x3.2.back and forth over it.2.1 (3 minute rest intervals) minute rest intervals) Same Same 3 x3 (easy) One arm dumbell row Front raise Optional Beach work (10 min biceps/triceps etc.

raise the weight with 2 legs – relax and let the weight fall and catch it with one leg midway down attempting to “hold” the weight in place) Drop and catch leg curls or Reactive Glute Ham Raise- 4x5 4x5 4x5 eliminate Saturday – Upper Body Dumbell Bench Press- 2 x 10-15 Same Same Same 78 . Use box about 12-18 inches high. Ex: perform sprints and plyos in the a.m.m and lift in the p. Stand on one leg and jump up on the box. (Drop down into a squat and explode up – drop down into the hole at good speed) (If using the leg curl.and accelerate for 20 yards) Flying 20’s x 2 Single leg on box jump 2 x 5/leg x3 x3 time starts to drop-off) 2 x 5/leg 2 x 5/leg eliminate Speed Squats 4 x 3 at 3040% Same Same eliminate workout if desired.

Chinup- Max reps 2 sets with bodyweight Weighted swiss ball crunch Decline leg raise 2 x 15-20 2 x as many reps as possible

2 sets 2 x 15-20 2 x as many reps as possible

2 sets 2 x 15-20 2 x as many reps as possible

2sets 2 x 1520 2 x as many reps as possible

Beach Work – 10 minutes (optional) work on pecs, biceps, triceps, etc. Phase II Day and Exercise Sun: Off Mon: Speed Work/ Lower Body Dynamic Warmup as per above – Normal warm-up Acceleration and speed work Week #1 Week #2 Week #3

Week #4

Comments

High knee, Same butt kick, skip 25 yds x 3 3x30 yd from 2 pt. Stance 2x40 yd from 3 pt. Stance 1 x60 yards from 3 pt stance 3x30 yds from 3 pt stance 2x40 yds from 3 pt stance 1 x60 yards from 3 pt stance 5 x 3, 3, 2, 2, 1

Same

Same

3x30 yds from 2 pt stance 3x40 yds from 2 pt stance 1 x 60 yards from 3 pt stance Eliminate

Test 40

Separate the speed work from the rest of the workout if desired. Ex: perform sprints in the a.m and lift in the p.m.

Barbell Back 4 x 5 Squat

Eliminate

79

Step-up Romanian DeadliftGlute ham raise, leg curl, or reverse hyper V-sit Tues: Off Wed: Plyo Work/ Upper Body Work Side to Side box depth jump

n/a 2 x 6-8 3 x 6-8

n/a 2 x 6-8 3 x 6-8

2 x 6-8 reps eliminate 3 x 6-8

2 x 6-8 eliminate Eliminate

2 x max reps

2 x max reps

2 x max reps

2 x max reps

4x8

4x8

4x8

2x8

On-box jump

2x4

2x4

2x4

2x4

Incline Bench Press Seated Row-

4x5 4x6

5x5 4x6

5x5,4,3,2,1 4x6

3x3 (easy) 3x6 (easy)

(Stand on box and step off to one side, rebound back up, step off to the other side, rebound back up. Use a box approximately 12-18 inches high – each ground contact equals 1 Simply stand in place and jump up onto a box and step off. Use a box high enough to be somewhat challenging

80

Weighted Dip- 4x6-8 Optional Beach work10-15 min arms Thurs: Off Fri: Speed Work / Lower body Warm-up: As per usual Speed Work

2 x6-8

2 x 6-8

2 x 6-8

2 x 6-8

30 yd accelerations x3 50 yd x 2 (2 pt start)

30 yd accelerations x3 50 yd x 2 (2 pt start

40 yd 40 yd test accelerations x4 50 yd x 2 (3pt start)

Depth jump Jump Squat with pause

4x4 4 x 3 at 30% of max squat

4x4 4 x 3 at 30%

4x 4 4 x 3 at 30%

Drop and 3 x 5, 3 x 10 3 x 10 3 x 5, 3 x 10 catch leg seconds, or 3 seconds, or 3 seconds, or 3 x5 x5 curl, reactive x 5 glute ham, or reverse hyper Saturday: Upper Body Push press Pull-upsmax reps in 10 seconds Side dumbell lateral

Separate the speed work from the rest of the workout if desired. Ex: perform sprints and plyos in the a.m and lift in the p.m. Use about an 18 inch box Use 3 second pause at parallel and explode up

4x4 2 sets

4x3 3 sets

5x2 3 sets

3x3 2 sets

2 x 12

2 x 12

2 x 12

2 x 12

81

m. Perform rhythmically and continuously – The percentage given is the % of max squat The percentages listed are guidelines Single leg hops left. Ex: perform sprints in the a.m and lift in the p. as well as the lower body plyometric work that you use in workout B the same. Replace workouts A & C with the following: Phase I (Weeks 1-4) Exercise Week#1 Workout A: 30 yard 4 sprints Week#2 5 Week#3 Week#4 Comments 5 3 Separate the speed work from the rest of the workout if desired. Stand on one leg and take 5 big hops to your left then 5 big hops back to your right. Take a brief rest in between each set of 5. then 5 hops forward. right and forward Jump squat with barbell Romanian Deadlift Full Squat Workout B: Flying 20 yard sprints 2 x 5 per leg to each side Same same same 2x12 (10% of max squat) 2x6 (70%) 2x6 (75%) 4 3x10 (15%) 3x5 (75%) 3x5 (80%) 5 3x8 (20%) 3x4 (80%) 4x4 (80%) 5 2x6 (25%) 2x3 (85%) 3x3 (85%) 3 Accelerate smoothly over 30 yards then hold top speed for 20 yards. the upper body workouts. Separate the speed work from the rest of the 82 .Arm curl(any variation) 3x12 Tricep pushdownKneeling cable crunch 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 10 2 x 12-15 2 x 10 Same 2 x 10 Same 2 x 10 Same Program II – For The Speed Deficient Athlete Keep the warm-ups.

3x10 3x8 83 2x5 . face the box. medial. and then step off the box. Ex: perform sprints in the a.Single leg triple jump Depth Jumps Jump Squat with Barbell Glute ham or leg curl 3 sets/side 2x5 2x12 (10%) 3x5 Same 2x5 3x10 (15%) 3x5 Same 2x5 3x8 (20%) 4x4 Same 2x5 2x6 (25%) 3x5 workout if desired.m and lift in the p. left. Do 5 reps facing the box. pause. Focus more on the “absorbing” then the pushoff. right Week#2 Week#3 Week#4 2x 3 front. front. Leg curl or glute ham Full squat 3x12 (15%) 3x6 4x5 3x10 (20%) 3x6 4x5 4x8 (25%) 3x6 2x5 2x5 (30%) 3x6 2x6 (75%) Workout B: 40 yard dash Perform reps until time declines Jump squat 3x12 3x5 (80%) Same Eliminate Same eliminate Same Separate the speed work from the rest of the workout if desired. Stand on one leg. 5 reps with the box directly to your right. left right Remarks Use a low box. Ex: perform sprints in the a. step.m. or stair about 6-12 inches high. and 5 reps with the box directly to your left Use moderately high box around 18 inches 3x5 3x5 front. left. left. jump on the box. and lateral Week#1 3 x 5 front.m and lift in the p.m. right right Depth jumps 3x5 Jump squat with barbell Reverse hyper. 2 minutes rest – use box about 18 inches high Perform continuously – 2 minutes rest Phase II (weeks 5-8) Exercise Workout A: Single leg box jumps front.

Having said that. I would consider horizontal loading for the sprints as a special type of reverse leg press or a reverse hyperextension with your 84 . and olympic lifts. Special strength training exercises attempt to convert general strength to explosiveness. Almost all the popular primary strength-training movements available to us in the weight room offer resistance in a vertical plane. Examples of such exercises would include bounding. “catch” past the mid-point. horizontal loading may offer some advantages as a form of special and specific strength training. and various sprint variations. Movements such as squats. Examples are deadlifts. I’d like to briefly discuss general to specific training methods. When I refer to horizontal loading I' referring to m exercises like sled pulls and similar movements where the resistance comes in a horizontal plane rather than a vertical plane. The ability to get force into the ground and create forward movement occurs when the foot is placed under the center of gravity and pushed back. sprinting occurs in a horizontal plane. General strength training exercises strengthen and stimulate the muscles involved in a movement pattern and do not attempt to duplicate the sports movement. These exercises are necessary to develop the force component of power. and hamstrings effectively. let it fall. In other words. squats. Towing exercises can really fit in all 3 categories. and split squats are staples for speed development because they recruit and strengthen the glutes. Vertical loading is still effective because the objective of general strength training is to stimulate and strengthen the muscles involved in the movement and stimulate the magnitude of muscular recruitment . However. lunges. and explode out as fast as possible From the top of a leg curl. and explode back up A Simple Yet “Cutting Edge” Variant – Horizontal Loading Yet another variation to use in a training split would be to use a form of horizontal loading as a form of strength training. quadriceps. pause. jumping. Specific strength exercises are utilized to develop the velocity component of power and attempt to provide power improvement in a way that is specific to the required technique of an athlete. Before explaining why. Examples are jump squats.** Think about this for a second. hopping.not necessarily mimick the exact movement pattern involved. speed lifts.with barbell Speed box Squat Drop and catch leg curl. the resistance is coming "down". depending upon how much resistance is used. etc. Even a loaded shopping cart can offer an effective means of horizontal loading. reverse hyper or explosive glute-ham raise (15%) 4x3 (60%) 3 x 5 (leg curl) or 3 x 10 seconds (reverse hyper or glute ham) (20%) 4x3 (55%) 3 x 5 or 3 x 10 seconds (25%) 4x 3 (50%) 3 x 5 or 3 x 10 seconds (30%) 3x3 (60%) 3 x 5 or 3 x 10 seconds Sit back on the box. A weighted sled offers resistance that must be propelled horizontally. drop the weight.

feet on the ground. Pulling a heavy sled or using some other form of horizontal resistance can also offer some advantages for strengthening the specific muscles involved in the sprint, primarily the hamstrings and glutes.
** A device called a power-runner can also be used for this purpose

The current most popular line of thinking when using sleds and other forms of towing is that the resistance should not be so great so as to interfere with sprinting mechanics. Therefore, various coaches have often recommended sprinters and other speed seeking athletes sprint 10-40 yards towing a very lightly loaded sled using a resistance that causes no more than a 10% reduction in sprint times. Their reasoning is that if the sled is too heavy the runners technique is excessively compromised. So, if you were going to use loaded sprints as a form of specific resistance training over 40 yards, and your best 40 was 5.0, you wouldn’t want to use so much resistance that you couldn’t at least run a 5.5 second 40. (5.0 + 10%). However, rather than use towing as a form of specific sprint loading to provide a bit of resistance to a normal sprint, I also recommend using heavier sled pulls more as a form of special or general strength training. In other words, sack up to a heavy sled strong man style and pull or march with all your might for 5-15 seconds per set and really try to pound the lower body. One need not use a ton of resistance but enough resistance to make pulling the sled a bit of a challenge. Try pulling your bodyweight. Keep in mind your technique really doesn’t have to resemble a perfect sprint. You’re using this more as a form of strength training then you are sprint training. You can perform them both linearly (straight ahead), and laterally (sideways). Based on results I' seen, athletes can ve benefit from using heavier sled pulls as a form of strength training and greatly enhance the acceleration phase of a sprint without interfering with sprint mechanics. For optimal results, you can even use both heavier and lighter towing in a given training cycle. Use heavier towing for strength in one workout and lighter more specific sprint-oriented towing in another workout. A sample split I' used with some athletes ve that I' seen great results out of looks like this: ve Day 1A1.dynamic warmup B1.short sprints- 10' and 20' 4-6 reps each s sC1.Heavier sled pulls (linearly and lateral)- 6-8 total sets x 10-20 seconds each Day 2off- dynamic warmup Day 3dynamic warmup lightly loaded sprints- x 30-40 yards (use enough resistance to cause a ~10% reduction in normal sprint times) bodyweight sprints- x 30-40 yards Alternate 1 set of lightly loaded sprints with 1 set of bodyweight sprints. Repeat until the

85

times of the unloaded sprints begin to decline. Day 4- off dynamic warmup Day 5- repeat workout #1

Conditioning
I’m going to spend quite a bit of time talking about conditioning because it’s a topic that many people seem to screw up in one form or another. Obviously, a certain amount of conditioning is necessary. You can’t train unless you’re in shape and if doing something as simple as getting your butt of the couch causes you to huff and puff, you’re obviously not in shape to train. However, when training to develop speed and power we must be careful that we send our body the right messages. Think of the difference between a marathon and a 50-yard sprint. They both involve running but that’s where the similarities end. As far as energy systems go, they’re at 2 entirely ends of the spectrum. One requires your body to make use of the aerobic (oxygen) system to supply 90% of the energy. One is pure anaerobic (without oxygen). The adaptations that make you extremely aerobically efficient are in nearly complete opposition to those required that make you extremely anaerobically efficient and vice versa. Which means the adaptations that allow you to run marathons as efficiently as possible inhibit the adaptations that allow you to sprint 50 yards as fast as possible. The adaptations that allow you to sprint 50 yards as fast as possible inhibit the adaptations that allow you to run marathons. Which is primarily why sprinters and marathon runners look and perform nothing alike whatsoever. Not exactly scientific but true nonetheless. One is muscular, strong, powerful, and fast over very short distances. The other is weak, lacks power, and is usually quite slow, but can run slow for a very long time. *** Along those same lines, we could also compare sprinters to milers, powerlifters to rowers, throwers to 800-meter sprinters, Olympic lifters to cross country skiers, or football players to soccer players.
*** A typical marathon runner often has a vertical jump no higher than 12 inches.

The Spectrum
Think of 2 ends of a spectrum. One represents speed, strength, and power. The other represents endurance: speed, strength,power-------------------------------------------------------------- endurance A sprinter, powerlifter, Olympic lifter, thrower, gymnast, and football player operate at one end of the spectrum, that being the strength/speed/power end. The 86

distance runner, cross-country skier, rower, or swimmer reside at the other end of the spectrum, that being the endurance end. The 800 meter runner, basketball player, boxer, soccer player, etc. reside somewhere in the middle. Those on the speed, strength, and power end are characterized by being very fast, very strong, and very powerful. Those on the endurance end are characterized by being like an energizer bunny. They ain’t gonna turn any heads with their speed, but they’ll keep going and going and going. Those in the middle are a mix of both. They don’t have the power, speed, or strength of the sprinters, throwers, gymnasts, or football players; and they don’t have the endurance of the marathon runner, cyclist, or cross country skiers, but they have a good mix of both.

Conditioning and No Man’s Land
The point of all this is the effect conditioning has on your speed, strength, and power gains. You can do EVERYTHING 100% correct when training for increased speed, explosiveness, and strength, yet if you expose your body to too much endurance oriented training you end up in what I call No Man’s Land, which means you end up in the land of the boxer, 800 meter runner, or soccer player whose speed, strength, and power are limited by the amount of conditioning work they must endure. There’s a mentality in this world that more is always better and you’re a lazy bum unless you have the endurance of a NAVY SEAL. But if you try to train for an iron man triathlon and a sprint race at the same time, you’re sending a message that says, “Ok muscles – you need LOADS of endurance”. That’s all well and good if that’s your goal, but as noted, the same adaptations that lead to great endurance (increased mitochondrial density) also severely adaptations towards speed and power. Try to train for both simultaneously and your body will develop the endurance you need but you’ll severely limit your gains in speed and explosiveness. This is particularly true when you’re trying to make strength and power gains. strength and power while building endurance is one thing. Improving strength and power while dramatically improving endurance is another thing altogether. When most people think of high flying athletes with great vertical jumps they probably think of basketball players. Yet realize this: The average professional basketball player is doing good to vertical jump 30 inches while many NFL football players (excluding offensive lineman), regularly approach 40 inch verticals. Why is this? Well, for one thing basketball play itself is fairly aerobic. Basketball players have to engage in a lot of running and conditioning just playing their sport. The average football play lasts 4-6 seconds and is followed by a 30 second pause. Basketball guys are essentially running intervals for 30-48 minutes. This has a negative affect on maximal strength and power production. We also have to consider how a typical basketball player would train. The popular approach is for basketball players to spend their entire off-season playing 2 hours 87

of street-ball 3-5 days per week and 1 or 2 AAU games for almost the entire summer. It’s basketball and more basketball – playing and conditioning but no real training. Basketball players and coaches also don’t tend to appreciate strength training as much as football players. The average football player has no problem getting in the weight room and getting after it but the average basketball player in the weight room is a lot like many girls when it comes to the iron. Many girls are afraid they’re gonna “get too big”, or “bulk up”** Many basketball players are afraid those weights are gonna make them slow or muscle-bound. As a result, if the basketball player does any extraneous training at all, it’s more likely to be a ton of plyometric work, which is the last thing he needs. The result is the average basketball player spins his wheels in the off-season while football players tend to come back faster and stronger year-after-year simply because, if nothing else, they’re continually boosting up their core motor abilities like strength. Football players don’t play in the off-season; they hit the weights.
**I realize this doesn’t describe all basketball players but I’m really not joking when I say this. I actually know several coaches who won’t train basketball players for this exact reason.

Now, what happens when we do run across the rare basketball player who actually does value the weight room and decides to take a no-holds barred attitude towards getting his strength up in the off-season? Well, chances are pretty good he’s also gonna wanna play about 12 hours of basketball per week. What do you think is gonna happen? Not a whole lot! He’ll probably end up running himself right into the ground due to all that volume and conditioning. His conditioning is always there yet little ever happens to his maximal strength. In reality, a much better way to approach the off-season for the basketball player would be to reduce on-court time by a significant margin, maintain his skill work, and focus more on foundational qualities such as maximal strength.

My Own Experience With “No Man’s Land”
A couple of years ago at the age of 30 I decided I wanted to box competitively. At the time my training more closely resembled that of a sprinter. For the most part I trained according to the principles outlined in this manual. Even though I had some minor injuries I had a vertical jump of 35 inches or better and could knock off a 4.4 second 40 yard dash. My endurance left a lot to be desired though. If you' asked me to run repeat d 40-yard dashes with 1 minutes rest I' probably only be able to run 5 or 6 below 5 d seconds before I' just gas out. My best mile run was probably above 7 minutes. I' get d d in the boxing ring and was quicker and stronger then most of my opponents but I’d be on the floor sucking wind inside of 2 rounds. My fitness state was pretty good compared to the average person but left a lot to be desired when it came to the conditioning needed to box at a high level. Obviously, my training had to change. That meant instead of lots of speed and explosive training I had to start engaging in lots of endurance oriented training. That meant tons of long intervals consisting of workouts like 3-minute agility drills out in the hot sun with only 1 minute breaks, 3 mile runs, and plenty of general boxing training including: Jump rope, heavy bag work, and lots of sparring. After 2 months of that 88

Here’s an example to illustrate my point: Let' say you have 2 basketball players and both of them play guard. Oh.torture I' definitely built up a significant amount of endurance. you have to develop the level of your freshest peak effort before you develop the ability to extend that effort. However. also devotes himself to getting up at 5am and running 5 miles per day. you can build all the endurance you need without having to trade off anything if you approach things correctly. He reduces his on-court time and really devotes himself to strength and power training. In other words. running up long hills in the mountains. not for marathons! You don’t wanna put yourself in NO MAN’S LAND where you sacrifice power for power endurance at an inappropriate time. otherwise. let’s assume player B’s efforts paid off so his endurance is twice as good. and all kinds of other hardcore metabolic conditioning stuff so that he can be the “go-to” guy and be just as fresh in the 4th quarter as he was in the first quarter. my power endurance was very good . as I will describe in just a minute.65.). throughout a game his initial starting performance only declines 89 . in order to build that endurance I had to trade some of my explosiveness.0 second 20-yard dash and he has a 30-inch vertical jump. Now. You' not gonna need that type of conditioning.4 second 40. The point of all this is that you gotta remember. The result is he comes out of the off-season running a 2. If you’re an athlete in re one of those sports. in addition to playing several full-court games per week. However. jumping.9 second 40' with 45 seconds rest s all day long and I could probably hit a 30 inch vertical jump for 100 consecutive jumps without declining. or even a soccer player. that' re s kind' an extreme example because boxing requires an EXTREME amount of ve conditioning.I could run repeat 4. Even though I lost weight.5 second 20-yard dash with a 40-inch vertical jump. I could go 6 threeminute rounds in the ring with 30 seconds rest with no problem. basketball player. player B really takes a hardcore no-holds barred approach to conditioning for his entire off-season and. providing you approach it properly. He (Player B) ends up running a 3. But in order to build that kind' power endurance I had to trade off a ve bit of my top end. throwing a fastball etc. if you' a football player. Power vs Power Endurance Regardless of what measure of performance you’re talking about (running. Player A s takes his off-season and really works on becoming faster and more explosive overall. I could go out and easily d run ten 100 yard sprints under 15 seconds with about 45 seconds rest. Just based on this information we know that Player A will be able to get up and down the court faster than player B and jump quite a bit better too. you’re training for speed over very short distances. you’ll just be conditioning yourself for prolonged sub-maximal performance. However. My best vertical jump declined to around 32 inches and my best 40 was around 4. you won’t be preparing for maximal performance. no longer could I vertical jump 35 inches and no longer could I hit a 4.

all this doesn'mean you should sit on your butt and turn into a fat out of shape slob during the off-season because you' totally paranoid about any conditioning re work interfering with your gains. power. I can go to any major American city and probably find at least 1000 people on any given day that are capable of running a marathon.88seconds 34. As I mentioned earlier..5% per quarter.14 seconds 27. you just have to approach it the right way. and speed first. In the first case your gains will be good.if that many. versus trying to vastly improve conditioning while also trying to simultaneously improve power and strength. You have to build the power first and add the intensive conditioning at the right time.2 inches 3. The correct approach to improving your game conditioning is to lay down your strength. So.75 seconds 36..00 seconds 32. Now. Conversely.4 seconds m over 40 yards or vertical jump 40 inches.62 seconds 38 inches 2.5 inches 3. there' a big difference between maintaining a decent level of conditioning while s improving power and strength. if we measured the performance of these 2 athletes in the 20-yard sprint and vertical jump from quarter to quarter it might look something like this: Quarter Player A 1 2 3 4 OT 20 yard dash .. Put it this way. then work on maintaining those qualities while you take 90 .half as much as player A. Player A drops off at 5% per quarter while player B only drops off at 2. if I' lucky I might be able to find 50 people that can run 4.4 inches Player B 20 yard dash-Vertical Jump 3. Don’t Go Overboard…… t Now.1 inches 2.5 seconds 40 inches 2.0 seconds 30 inches 3.1 inches Even though player A’s starting sprint times and vertical jump declined more than 25% over the course of the game his sprint time after 4 full quarters and an overtime was still just as fast as Player B' freshest sprint and his vertical jump was still better than s player B’s was at the very beginning! Anybody can build endurance and it responds quickly.22 seconds 26.07 seconds 29 inches 3. in those same cities. In the second case they’ll likely be non-existent. A modicum of conditioning should be maintained year around and you can develop a level of conditioning that’ll make you like an energizer bunny in your sport.30 seconds 26.Vertical Jump 2. just imagine what would happen if you took Player A and "appropriately" conditioned him with the right stuff at the right time of the year so that he could sustain his performance at a level close to player B? He' be running circles around everyone d and jumping over everyone throughout all 4 quarters. But building the foundational qualities necessary for great speed and explosiveness takes time and is more difficult.8 inches 3.

power. it is very demanding on the central nervous system. In order to avoid burnout while still being in a position to incorporate extra training on your off days. speed. B: The primary stress that causes fast explosive oriented muscle fibers to transfer into slower endurance oriented muscle fibers is bathing the fast twitch muscles in lactic acid. Our fast twitch muscle fibers get recruited plenty from our speed. we want to avoid this type of intensive conditioning work and make sure we engage in extensive conditioning work. This type of work not only recruits a lot of fast twitch muscle fiber but also stimulates a lot of lactic acid accumulation.a short time to bring up your conditioning. Therefore. 91 . Additionally. I' mainly gonna talk about the type of conditioning you can do that won' m t interfere with that. moderate to highintensity plyometric work. Putting out this level of effort is not only demanding on muscular system. Since this manual is about IMPROVING your speed. Strength and Power? During the off-season when your focus is on strength. and speed it’s ok to add in some extra conditioning work. keep you lean. we do the following things: A: We have to make sure we give our fast twitch muscles and our nervous system time to recover between bouts of intense exercise. and strength training work. Recruiting them even more through conditioning work just tells them. yet so is the fatigue level and burn. the addition of lower intensity work can serve to maintain your conditioning. power. which doesn’t recruit the fast twitch fibers and doesn’t bathe them in lactic acid. The central nervous system requires about 48 hours for recovery after high intensity activity! Therefore. “Ok boys you need to trade some of your explosiveness for some endurance. but more importantly. This occurs with intensive intervals like traditional gassers and other intense aerobic work. and explosiveness. If implemented correctly and at optimal volumes.” That’s not what you want. High intensity speed training can be considered any speed training activity where you run at 80% or more of maximum effort or speed. you just have to make sure you don’t go overboard to the point where it interferes with your gains. where the level of effort is high and the level of muscular recruitment is fairly high. Lactic acid is what gives you the “burn” whenever you run intense intervals. Intensive means the workout gets progressively harder because of pace and/or volume and you leave the workout feeling dead tired. if you try to train at high intensity for 2 days in a row you’ll be apt to run into problems with recovery. So how do we get the benefits of extra conditioning work without stimulating negative endurance adaptations? Well. power. you must make sure the extra conditioning work you do is performed at a lower level of effort otherwise it will interfere with your recovery. I' also give a few examples of how to go about really ll boosting your conditioning when it' time to get in game shape for your sport. and intense agility training. when our focus is on increasing neuromuscular qualities like strength. Other intense forms of training include weight training. s How To Implement Conditioning Without Interfering With Speed. and even improve recovery.

You can run over fairly short distances (100400 yards/meters) at a lower level of effort (60-70% of max speed) with fairly short rest intervals between runs (30-45 seconds). The rest of the time you’ll want to emphasize extensive conditioning work. During the off-season if you choose to engage in extensive conditioning work it should be performed at an intensity and volume low enough that you feel better afterwards and don’t wear yourself out to the point that you leave the workout not being able to perform as good as you did at the beginning of the workout. It serves as a form of active recovery. One of them is to simply engage in your sport at a lower level of effort. work capacity development. is any fairly low to moderate effort work that stimulates recovery.but we want to do so in a manner that is speed specific without being too demanding on either the muscular or the central nervous system. This type of work also has other benefits as well. A basketball player might go out and work on his ball handling or engage in some shooting skill work. It stimulates the metabolism. Not exactly hardcore. improve blood flow to the muscles.C: To avoid unnecessary negative adaptations. but better than nothing. – puke inducing) type conditioning only at certain times of the year such as the late offseason and preseason. Extensive conditioning work.a. The two ways I view it: 1) A way to increase fitness and work capacity 2) A regeneration tool from harder work Extensive means the workout can be finished and you can leave feeling refreshed. and stay active . A football player might go out a couple of days per week and run some pass routes. Extensive tempo can be viewed in many different ways and achieved in many different ways.k. Guidelines For Speed of Extensive Conditioning Session 92 . Another obvious option is running. enhancing blood flow and increasing capillary density in the musculature. and promotes a lean body composition. Extensive Conditioning Options You have several options at your disposal. we want to stimulate the cardiovascular system. An extensive tempo day should not have you throwing up or feeling dead.also called tempo work. Ideally. and elevates or maintains your fitness state without detracting from your specific training goals. you’ll want to emphasize intensive (a.

Because we want to emphasize recovery and not speed it’s also a good idea to do this training on a soft surface such as grass or sand.The speed at which you perform these runs is important. you need to rest longer between runs. The rest intervals should be set up so that they are short enough that you place some strain on your cardiovascular system. You should be breathing fairly hard yet your muscles should not be trashed. If you perform them too fast (over 80% of max effort). Regular interval training methods do exactly this. For a 100-meter sprinter. the speed is fast enough to stay sprint specific. but too slow to improve speed. and slow enough as to not be too draining on the muscular or nervous system. Guidelines For Rest Intervals With extensive tempo work. you’re probably creating excessive fatigue and need to cut down on speed. Guidelines For Volume The volume should be set so that you stay sprint specific and get a workout in without generating a lot of excessive fatigue. If you’re generating a lot of lactic acid in your legs. I recommend most people stick to volumes around 1000-2000 yards total. If not. you can stimulate the cardiovascular system by using fairly short rest intervals. so that you can avoid excessive wear and tear on the feet.going faster then a jog but not an all out sprint. total volumes generally run 1000-3000 meters total over a session. The speed is too fast and too demanding to fully allow recovery to take place. but long enough so that your muscular system stays relatively fresh. The last run should be just as easy as the first. If you run at 65-75% of maximum speed. Examples of workouts Here are some sample extensive running workouts you can use: Option 1: 3 sets of 5x110 yard runs at 60-70% max speed rest :30 seconds between each sprint After each set of 5 sprints walk 110 yards Option 2: 8 sets of 220-yard runs at 60-70% :45 seconds rest between runs Option 3: + denotes 50 yard walk set #1 100+100+100 set #2 100+200+100 93 . or getting a burn. you recruit the fast twitch muscle fibers and that will hamper your ability to recover from your main training session. The pace should be done so that you’re running smoothly and effortlessly .

When you become proficient at these start adding in other combinations. Treadmill Intervals – You can also do interval sprints on the treadmill. Here are some ideas: Treadmill walking . The form is natural for most people and is basically like swinging an axe. and hooks. I like to use rounds of 1-3 minutes just like with the heavy bag work. Sprint 20-30 seconds at 10 mph followed by a 1-minute walk.set #3 200+100+200 set#4 100+200+100 set#5 100+100+100 rest 1:30 between each set. 94 . I recommend beginners tart off with intervals. Rest for 1 minute in between sets and repeat for 3-6 total sets. are all fine to use as "tempo" variations for 20-30 minutes.Hey try the rowing machine at your gym every once in a while. You might enjoy it. You can either go for time or number of strikes. If you' quite proficient you can also vary your strokes every couple of re laps.Use the stroke of your choice and either go for time or for intervals. (change directions every 25 yards) 4-8 total sets with 1:00 rests between each one. Swim a couple of laps. The main focus during tempo runs is on running but we can also get creative and throw in various other activities such as calisthenics or any type of activity that is stimulating yet not too demanding. Go for about 20-30 minutes total Sledgehammer Work . I recommend either an 8-12 lb sledgehammer to start off with. Focus on 2 different strikes . A good pace is about 30-40 strikes per minute. Go for 20-30 minutes total Rowing . Gradually build up your capacity.Any cardiovascular activity that you do at 75% or less of your maximum heart rate and DOESN' put a lot of pounding on your feet or create a lot of T lactic acid (burn) is OK. right crosses. Go anywhere from 1-3 minutes with about 1 minute rest intervals each round. What you want to avoid is this type of long duration cardio performed at a rapid pace. stairclimbing etc. rest a minute. Option 4: 150-yard shuttle runs at 70% max effort. Walking on the treadmill.a diagonal strike and vertical strike.Not only is this fun but it will also give you a great workout and is a heckuva lot funner than moving along aimlessly on a treadmill. Work on your jabs. Heavy Bag Work . Swimming . the longer you can go. and repeat. Swing left handed and right handed. The more proficient at your stroke you are.Get a sledgehammer and beat the heck out of an old tire with it.

bodyweight squats. twisting lunge. run in place. mountain climbers. So don'try to use a bag so heavy that t it' gonna fry your lower back.Sandbag Lifting . pick it up and set it on a table.(throw straight up in the air and catch) Twisting toss left Twisting toss right Slam toss (slam into the ground) You can also mix medicine ball complexes with light running.This is a great activity but due to the impact forces this is an activity that big guys might want to reconsider. rest 1 minute and repeat for 3-5 circuits. Medicine Ball Complexes . shuffle splits. Start off with about 30-50 repetitions per set and increase as your capacity grows. situps. ball exercise. slalom jump. Perform the entire circuit non-stop or with very shorts rest intervals (10-30 seconds) between exercises. alternate lunges. For example. Remember we' not trying to set any records here and we don'want to get re t injured. You' need a bag and a table. straight leg front kicks. I recommend you build towards doing 3-minute rounds with 1-minute breaks in between rounds. Jump rope. perform another med. and continue in that fashion for 10 or so circuits. run in place with high knees. Some possible exercises you can throw together include: Jumping jacks. take a 1-minute break and repeat. I recommend you go for 3-4 minutes total per set with 30 seconds to 1 minute per movement. 95 . Simply take a s sandbag off the ground.This is definitely an old school way of getting a conditioning workout in. roundhouse kick. slalom jumps. After each round. v-up. After completion of the circuit. burpees. we just want to get a decent workout in. duck back and forth under imaginary hurdle. The tailgate of a truck works fine as a table. good morning. then pick it back up and set it down.If you have a wall or a partner and a 5 to 15 pound medicine ball you can put together a great workout. a great tempo workout for a football team is to perform a med ball exercise. Med ball chest pass feet stationary Chest pass stepping left leg forward Chest pass stepping right leg forward Overhead pass stationary Overhead pass stepping left leg forward Overhead pass stepping right leg forward Scoop toss . jog 55 yards across the field. skip in place. pushup. Here’s an example: Perform 10 reps of each exercise. Calisthenic or mobility circuits Put together a series of calisthenic or mobility movements in combination and perform them one right after another. Repeat for 6 rounds total. A Fifty to 70 pound sandbag oughta be about right for ll most people.

jump rope for 3 minutes. put them together in stations. The combinations are endless but the guidelines should stay the same. med-ball tosses for 3-minutes. if you’re on an off day and feel like doing something a low intensity session is a good way to get some training in without running yourself into the ground and interfering with your next major speed or strength workout. Wednesday.With all these variations you should have plenty of options to choose from and shouldn’t ever get bored. If you are tired and don’t feel like training then don’t!! However. Remember the goal is to get some blood flowing without getting overly intensive. Don’t be afraid to get creative. and Saturday. The maximum volume I recommend for these extra workouts is 3 times per week. You don’t have to necessarily stick with the tempo workouts I’ve laid out. Guidelines for Frequency of Extensive “Tempo” Workouts These workouts are optional and when your is on building your speed they should be done depending upon how motivated you are to train. kettlebell swings. conditioning can be implemented on Tuesday. and repeat the entire circuit for 20-30 minutes total with 1 minutes rest between each station. calisthenics for 3 minutes. agility ladder for 3 minutes. In addition to the options already mentioned you also have plenty of other options available such as: Slideboards. We might start off with heavy bag boxing for 3 minutes. and go from station to station with 1-minute rest intervals. Often what I like to have people do is take a few of the above variations. and tennis. Thursday. I generally feel more comfortable prescribing them once or twice per week. Don' t be afraid to get creative and throw things together. these are just examples. sledgehammer strike for 3 minutes. 96 . On the programs laid out earlier in this manual.

the basketball player in all likelihood could simply play more basketball and play himself into shape. The focus on intensive conditioning is getting you ready to play.Part II. and explosiveness. This is the intensive type of conditioning I was referring to earlier specifically designed to get you in game shape. speed. performed with short rest intervals. such as sprints or agility drills. During this time. for a football player. however. Improving Game Speed. The more aerobic the sport and the more out of shape you are.Getting in Game Shape. we' increase the volume of weekly conditioning to 2-3 sessions and we' then d d look to maintain our strength. This is where you’d introduce more traditional high effort. In July. d Depending on the sport. :) So. how do we go about introducing intensive conditioning? Does that mean we’d break out the boot camp mentality and engage in lots of intense 3-mile runs and the like? Absolutely not! In fact. A few months prior to your season you’d begin introducing some specific conditioning work. What follows is an example of a weekly set-up for a football player during the last month of off-season: 97 . speed. you can improve both the aerobic and anaerobic system through anaerobic work. Agility. puke inducing. power. Thus. for sports like football. Thus. we' still be training to improve our general speed. the focus of our workout would stay the same. For a football player who needed to d report to preseason in awesome game shape I' introduce them 6-8 weeks prior to camp. conditioning methods such as gassers and such. d explosiveness and strength. the sooner you' need to start specific conditioning. and power via reductions in volume. and strength during the off-season while you maintain some basic fitness with extensive conditioning or "tempo" work. that would generally mean sometime between mid-May and June we' add in one day per week of intensive d anaerobic conditioning. Therefore. volleyball. soccer. What about basketball players? Well. There is NO need for concentrated low intensity work such as the age old popular long duration jogging. you know you should focus on ve building your speed. while our focus shifts towards improving game type conditioning. and even basketball. and Quickness Intensive Conditioning – Getting in Game Shape If you' followed my guidelines thus far. In an ideal situation you' have spent the bulk of your off-season dramatically d improving your strength. power. I' begin introducing intensive conditioning 2-3 months prior to d preseason workouts. d For another football player who could use the preseason as a means to get in game shape we might just introduce them a few weeks ahead of time. entering your preseason you' have those qualities in place and would only need to maintain them.

shuffle 10 yards. Perform 6-10 sets per workout. Rest 3 minutes and repeat. Stop when you drop more than . speed. Option A: Run 40-yard repeats at max (or near max) speed with short rest intervals of Option B: Use the same examples I gave for extensive intervals but increase the speed and reduce the rest interval: set #1 100+100+100 set #2 100+200+100 set #3 200+100+200 set #4 100+200+100 set #5 100+100+100 Example: + denotes 25 yard walk 98 . Agility drills: Sprints: 30 seconds. I recommend Eric Cressey’s Ultimate Offseason Training Manual. Any type of agility drill can easily be used as a conditioning method. An example might be a simple 40-yard shuttle drill where you sprint 10 yards. anaerobic conditioning using sprint intervals Tues: Lower body lifting Wed: Anaerobic conditioning using football agility drills Thurs: Upper Body lifting Friday: Off Sat: Anaerobic conditioning ** For more information on the entire process of addressing off-season training needs with appropriate conditioning. Subtract 5 seconds rest per week. and Mon: Upper body lifting. backpedal 10 yards.July – Mid-August (focus: explosiveness) Improve conditioning – Maintain strength. Examples of anaerobic conditioning methods include: Perform maximum effort agility drills with short rest intervals. Start off with 40-second rest intervals and progress down to 15-20 second rest intervals. and sprint forward 10. Others include a 10 yard backpedal into a 5-10-5 sprint.5 seconds off your best time.

that' up to you. If you were to do that I guarantee Nash would finish last in just about every category. reaction time and overall athleticism. quickness. In my opinion. What I can do is give you the knowledge you need to improve your various physical qualities and hopefully you can put that together with your ability to play your chosen sport and really become a game breaker. These physical attributes will then be magnified by mental qualities like knowledge and attitude. attitude is best developed with confidence s and the way you become a confident athlete is by paying your dues and becoming a student of your sport. The greater the degree of mastery you have in your sport.Run each sprint at a fairly high effort. When you' in a high-pressure situation and the adrenaline is flowing you' re ll instinctively tend to revert to the things that come to you instinctually. Unfortunately. agility drill. Game speed consists of physical qualities like linear speed. Becoming a student of your sport is up to you. Throw them into a high-pressure situation and they' revert to the few things that come to them instinctively. If s ll he' lucky. Rest 1:30 between each set subtracting 15 seconds per workout until you' down to 45 seconds. confidence. I can'do a whole lot for your knowledge or attitude in your t chosen sport . lateral speed. but now I wanna talk about using what you' learned to improve your ve game speed. I’m sure you could take Steve Nash and line him up against every other point guard in the NBA and put them all through a battery of tests designed to evaluate their athleticism . or what have you. Yet Nash can PLAY the game of basketball extremely fast because he is so in tune with what he' doing on the s court. agility. He' probably one of the s slowest safeties in the league but he plays extremely fast because he' such a student of s the game and knows exactly what he’s doing on each and every play. You’ll play faster because you will be able to react instinctually instead of having to think about everything. If you' a football player that means knowing what the heck re you' doing on the football field and mastering the technique required of your position. re Improving Game Speed I know I' spent this entire manual telling you how to get faster and boost your ve sprinting speed. Part of becoming a great ll athlete is expanding your instincts so that the things you do become 2nd nature. 99 . the more confidence you will have. he' revert to 1 or 2 moves he feels most comfortable with that have become part of his instinct. Ever heard of accomplished martial artists getting whipped in bar fights against ordinary Joes? Unless the black belt is the type who has a lot of actual street fighting experience most of the time when he gets in a street fight the majority of his training will go out the window. vertical jump. The same goes for a guy like John Lynch in football. ll The same thing happens with athletes. re If you' a basketball player that means hours and hours of practice.a sprint. It’s possible he' forget EVERYTHING he ever learned in the dojo. and plenty of exposure to game type conditions. The way you do that is through repetition. The same goes for re any other sport.

Technically. A form of over-speed training can also be of use for those that have access to it. Think of a sprinter reacting to the gun going off.2 second 40yard dash guy or the 4. For example. The younger and less coordinated the athlete. In other words. Their greater speed would improve his ability to react to the slower defensive end.2 guy? Case closed. From a technical standpoint. 100 .2 to 0. A NASCAR driver might use a special driver simulation device that mimicks driving a race car at 200 plus miles per hour. who would you rather have catch the ball in front of you: The 5. A baseball player might take batting practice while using a special pitching machine that throws pitches at 130 to 150 miles per hour. and vice versa. the greater the potential for improvements.at least not if you' s re referring to the technical definition of "quick".3 seconds and is improvable around 10 to 20%. Probably the best real world way you improve your reaction time is by mastering your sport – Know what’s going on and be in the right position to make a play. In turn. Measurements like those are good measurements of pure quickness. Reaction time refers to how long it takes you to react to a stimulus. The reaction range is typically 0. This makes driving at 130 miles per hour seem slow and easy by comparison. take a group of athletes and see how many times they can stand and tap their feet in place over a given interval. a fast athlete will always have an advantage over a slower athlete in first step explosiveness. s Next. let' talk about agility and overall athleticism. there' a very strong s genetic component when it comes to being quick. in the real world. How fast are your hands and feet in simple unloaded movements? A person can be very quick but not really fast in a sprinting sense. quickness is the ability to move in s the absence of much external force and without any wind-up. With all things being equal. With this type of training you learn to react to things that move much faster than those that occur in your sport. quickness is really just another name for reaction time and first step explosiveness. an offensive tackle who has bad reaction time and continuously gets beat off the ball against defensive ends might practice pass protection drills against speedier linebacker types. However. if you were a defensive back and you were playing in a deep zone. Or see how many punches you can throw in a given time interval. If you aren’t naturally all that quick there' not a whole lot you can do about it . The way you improve first step explosiveness is by boosting the same qualities that make you fast and apply them to the movements in your sport. As I mentioned earlier. His brain would adapt to seeing the faster pitches. You don’t necessarily need a special machine. this would improve his ability to react to a 90 to 100 mile an hour pitch.Improving Quickness First let' talk about quickness.

Fortunately.0 second 40-yard dash. explosiveness the same qualities that make you run faster). The best way to improve agility as it relates to your sport is to focus on optimizing your motor abilities. the benefit of using agility drills is they allow you to duplicate some of the movements that occur in your sport if you don'have the option of working t 101 . improvements in agility come about through the same core qualities that bring about improvements in linear speed . but providing you take the time t and recovery necessary to boost your general motor qualities (strength. while perfecting the required in your sport. If you were a running back you’d practice running around tacklers. the same training principles and core motor abilities that improve linear speed will also improve agility. You must be able to apply your speed and power towards properly carrying out the actual movements that you want to be agile on. Which group do you think will have the fastest 20yard shuttle times? Definitely the 4. You re obviously can'always do this year around in all sports. actually in your sport will be the best way to improve your agility in a given sport. Even though he' obviously fast and athletic enough is he gonna be very good s at it? Probably not! He' probably be stumbling all over the place and will likely find it ll extremely difficult to carry out the moves of a cornerback. accelerate. The only other thing that needs to be incorporated when seeking agility is the skill needed to properly carry out the agility movements themselves. such as explosive strength and reactivity. Let' use another example: Take 2 groups of 5 people and time them on a 20-yard s shuttle drill. What About Agility “Drills”? Having said that. If you were a defensive back you' practice d covering receivers. stop on a dime. throw him on an NFL football field as a cornerback. Let' say neither one of these groups has ever done the shuttle before.5 second 40-yard dash and the other group averages a 5. and ask him to cover receivers and move like a cornerback is supposed to move. simply because he already has the core speed and quickness necessary to do so.those being improvements in explosive power. The only factor that really separates the 2 is the application of your speed and power. If you' a basketball player practice driving to the hole or defending an opponent. Yet give him a year or 2 to practice and master the specific movements a defensive back needs and he' probably be ll pretty good at it.5 group. In other words.Improving Agility Agility and overall athleticism influence your ability to cut. and do all those other things most people refer to when they refer to game speed. change direction. All s you know is that one group averages a 4. Let' use a real world s example: Take an olympic 100-meter sprint champion. No amount of specific agility DRILLS can match the real thing.

Drills like these are called closed-loop drills. 2. 3. during the off-season. he improved by getting a bigger and more powerful motor. and. These are called open-loop drills. quicker. When most of us think of agility drills we probably think of a course full of cones or bags that we go out and run through in a pre-determined pattern. Not only do they practice against live opponents. The time for agility drills is during the late off-season and pre-season. This is obvious if you take a weak and scrawny athlete and focus on strengthening his lower body for an entire off-season. He didn’t improve from performing drills. Traditional speed and agility drills can be more valuable for those athletes with favorable strength qualities. muscular balance. Throw him back out on the track and he’s floating like never before and his mechanics are better then ever before. both speed work and lateral movement work (agility) sessions should be performed only once or twice per week. unless an athlete is significantly deficient in them. Generally speaking. and dynamic flexibility. s 102 . once a given level of proficiency has been reached. but they also break down the specific moves and movement patterns required of them and seek to improve those movements or isolated parts of those movements. A football player would run an assortment of drills 5-10 seconds long since that' the average length of a play. Just like the act of sprinting itself. many athletes can see dramatic improvements in both linear and lateral speed and agility without training these qualities directly with traditional drills. but the BEST way to run agility DRILLS is to utilize drills where you have to react to a signal or command in a reactionary fashion. In other words. and is 10 times more agile then before. if you' a football player. you DON' need to spend all year out on your feet doing various drills. Often the best way to get faster and more agile is to simply get stronger overall. For example. These can be helpful to make sure your body can carry out a movement and they can also be effective as conditioning tools. and IS NOT the time you need to be out in the heat running hours of conditioning and agility drills every day. a defensive back might pack-pedal at the snap and break right or left depending upon a coaches signal. Don'let them T t interfere with your improvement in more general motor qualities. If you feel you need specific agility and quickness drills keep the following points in mind: 1. He’s more explosive. they allow you to zero in on a particular movement pattern. but poor sprinting speed and agility. Keep the distances and length per set specific to your sport. That' why football players go s through such a wide variety of drills during pre-season practices. even if you do have live opponents to work with. Use the off-season to improve your strength and speed. the first few months of your off-season is a time to improve your re general motor qualities such as strength and power.with a real live opponent. As a general rule of thumb. These athletes would want to engage in some type of movement work a minimum of 3 days per week and often as frequently as 6 days per week.

These include things like agility ladders. **By”intense”. and more explosive. *** When a person has accumulated some training experience and has reached a point where training all the major qualities with equal volumes throughout a training week no longer works quite so well. they can be utilized by athletes in any sport requiring speed. start the workout off performing high quality repetitions with full recovery where the focus in on improvement. I want you at (fill in the blank bodyweight) next year. knee bending. disregard #4. . As I mentioned earlier. Get creative with the drills. I’m referring to drills that incorporate a lot of explosiveness. Although I had a football player in mind when I wrote them. that is the time when more focus addressing the deficiencies of a given athlete will be the best course of action to take for increased performance. A 20-yard shuttle run would be an example of an intense agility drill. Yes I did say bodybuilding there. Sample Off-season workouts for football What follows are examples of fairly detailed off-season workouts that I have used with football players. 10. If you' going to mix linear speed with agility training. Always take a day off in between bouts of intense agility work. When IMPROVEMENT in agility is a goal. Youngsters and those who struggle with heavy feet can benefit the most from traditional closed loop agility type drills. and size. cone drills etc. 6. Finish up with the conditioning. (every day or every other day) 11. There are no shortage of agility drills out there. 7. where they have to react to a signal or command. Football is a special sport because realistically.** 8. dot drills. Grab some cones and make up obstacle courses or whatever you wanna do. hurdle drills. They can also do them more frequently. Football players not only have to be faster and stronger every year. Agility ladders and dot drills would not considered intense since there isn’t much intense stopping and changing direction.4. if you’re stronger then you are fast you’ll tend to improve athleticism 103 . If you’re using agility drills as a form of conditioning work.” With that in mind. “Son. and stopping on a dime (deceleration). re 9. It is important to allow complete or near-complete recovery between sets in all movement training. what I’m going to lay out next is a sample 12 week off-season program for football where the focus is not only on getting stronger. More advanced athletes should use reactionary drills. How many times have you heard a football coach say. If the goal is to improve agility AND conditioning. faster. do the agility first. take full recoveries between sets and stop the workout prior to or as soon as your performance starts to decline. it can be just as much about bodybuilding as it is performing. strength.but also a tad bigger too. but they often gotta get significantly bigger too. 5.

during phase I of the following workouts the most important thing an athlete can do is make sure he takes in enough nutrition. In my opinion a football player should have his speed and explosiveness in place just prior to the time when he starts implementing his conditioning work. 104 . the final 4-week phase appears quite similar. The following 12-week workouts include sample workouts for strength-dominant athletes and workouts for speed-dominant athletes. 2. Assuming one could start base off-season training in January and assuming they’d start conditioning in June. stronger. that would allow approximately 20 weeks of off-season workouts. The former (speed dominant) can focus more on pure strength and hypertrophy work. Remember. which might be early June or might be July.by focusing a bit more on your speed and explosiveness. even though there is quite a bit of individuality written into the programs these are just examples and can’t be perfect for everyone. If you are faster then you are strong you’ll tend to improve by increasing your strength. At the conclusion of the programs not only should athletes following these workouts be bigger and stronger. Someone with a slightly longer off-season might have time to go through each phase twice. The main difference in the training of the speed dominant athlete and that of the strength dominant athlete is the latter (strength dominant) needs to spend a bit more time on his feet working on things related to his movement proficiency and general explosiveness. Despite considerable differences in the structure of the following programs between the 2 groups throughout the first 8 weeks. as both groups will be working towards some personal records in various field tests. vertical jump. but they’ll hopefully finish up having set some PR’s in the 40. and agility drills. and 3 over twelve weeks then repeat phase 1 and phase 3 once more over the final 8 weeks. and faster? Then you have to approach things a tad differently. For a 20-week offseason a person might perform phase 1. I’ve given examples for 12 weeks here. The focus should really be on taking a no-holds barred attitude when it comes to tieing on the feed bag and getting that scale weight up. But what if you need to get bigger. Each 12-week workout is broken down into three 4-week phases. *** With the increased size aspect in mind.

Skill work or tempo Wednesday: Upper Body Power Skipping into sprint Single leg on box Jump (jumps onto a box) A1) Incline Press 3x25 yards 4x25/25 yards skip/25 yards sprint 4x5/leg 3x 8 4x5 4x6 4 x 25/25 yards 4x5 4x3 2 x 25/25 2x5 3x 3 (light weight) should be easy) 105 . Reverse Hyper. or leg curl C2) Decline leg raise 3x10 seconds/leg 3x6/leg 3x 10 seconds 4x6 3 x 10 seconds 4x6 2 x 10 seconds eliminate 3x5 2x6/leg 3x8 2x max reps 4x3 2x6 3x8 4x2 2x6 3x8 3x3 (should be easy) 1x6 2x8 (easy) 3x max reps 3 x max reps 3 x max reps Tuesday: Rest day.Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase I Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body Single leg lateral line jump (hop back and forth quickly over a line) Altitude drop jump into lunge landing on balls of feet (use box up to the height of your best vertical jump) A) Snatch Grip Deadlift B) DB Bulgarian Split Squat C1) Weighted Glute-Ham Raise.

or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Single-leg Lateral/medial Box Jump (onto a box from the left and from the right) Lateral depth drop on toes (step off box to the side and land up on the balls of the feet) A) Box Squat B) Single Leg RDL C) DB Step-up D) Side bridge hold 3x5/side 3x8/side 6 x 2 at 60% 2x5/side 2 x 6/side 2 x 30s/side 4x5/side 3x6/side (higher box) 6x2 at 55% 3x5 2x6/side 3 x 30s/side 4x5/side 4x8/side 2 x 5/side 2x8 6 x 2 at 50% 4 x 2 at 60% 3x5 2x6/side 3 x 30s/side 2x5 Eliminate 2 x 30s/side Saturday: A1) Speed Bench Press – Max 3 sets at 65% 4 sets at 65% 4 sets at 65% 2 sets at 65% Reps in 10 seconds 1RM A2) Close Grip Chin-up B1) Incline Barbell front raise 3x5 3 x 6-10 4x5 3 x 6-10 4x5 3 x 6-10 2x5 2 x 6-10 106 . Skill work. triceps.A2) Chest-Supported Row Pronated Grip B1) Incline trap raise B2) Full Contact Twist Optional beach work: 10 minutes biceps. “beach” muscles 3x8 3x15/side 3x8/side 4x8 3x15/side 2x8/side 4x8 3x15/side 4x8/side 2x8 (easy) 3x15/side 2x8/side Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase I Week 1 Thursday: Rest day.

C1) side cable external Rotation Optional Beach work: 10 minutes arms. 3x12/side 3x12/side 3x12/side 2 x12/side Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase II Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body Lateral Barrier Jump (knee high barrier) Single leg triple jump (take 3 hops forward on one leg) A) Low Bar Power Squat B) Glute Ham. or cable pull through C) Hanging knee raise 3x10 4 sets/leg 4x3 2x6 3x10 4 sets/leg 5x2 3x6 3x10 4 sets/leg 3 x 10 eliminate 5x1 3x3 (should (working up be easy) to max single) 3x6 2x6 (easy) 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps Tuesday: off day. skill work. or tempo. chair or other obstacle and immediately sprint forward) A1) Barbell Floor Press B1) Flat DB Press 3x5 3 sets 4x3 2x6 4x5 4 sets 5x2 2x6 4x5 4 sets 5x1 2x6 2x5 2x5 3 x 3 (easy) 2 x 6 (easy light weight) 107 . delts etc. Wednesday: Upper Body Standing Knees to Chest Tuck Jumps Lateral barrier jump + 10-yard Sprint (jump over cone. Reverse Hyper.

B2) One-Arm DB Row C1) High to low cable woodchop Optional Beach Work: 10 minutes biceps. triceps. skill work. or glute-ham 2x10 3 x 10 raise D) V-sit Saturday: Upper Body A1) Seated semi-supinated DB Press A2) (Weighted) Mid-Grip Pull-up B1) Prone Trap Raise C1) Side raise lying in back extension device Optional 10 minutes beach work 3x4 3x4 3x12 4x4 4x4 3x12 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 5x4 5x2 3x12 2x5 2 x 5 (easy) 2x12 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps per side per side per side per side 108 . reverse hyperextension. delts etc. 3x6/side 2x10/side 3x5/side 3x10/side 3x6/side 3x10/side 2x6/side (easy) 2x10/side Strength DominantAthlete: Phase II Week 1 Thursday: Off day. or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Lower Body Single leg 4 star hop (hop around in a square) 4 x 20 seconds/leg 4 x 20 seconds 4 x 20 seconds 3-4 4x5@ 25% 3 x 5/side 3x10 2 x 20 seconds 3-4 3 x 5@15% Eliminate 2x10 50 yard sprints at 80% max speed 3-4 sprint reps 3-4 4 x 5 @ 30% A) Barbell Jump Squat 4x5 @ 25% of 1RM squat B) Dumbell reverse lunge (step2 x 5/side 3 x 5/side back lunge) C) Cable Pull through.

skill work. or tempo Wednesday: Upper Body Pro-Agility (5-10-5 Drill) A1) Decline Bench Press B1) Chest supported row B2) Decline Tricep extension C1) Face Pull C2) Medium Cable Woodchop Stop at first sign of dropoff 3x5 3x8 2x10 3x10 2x10 Same 4x5 4x6 2x10 3x10 2x10 same 5x3 4x8 2x10 3x10 3x10 same 2x 5 2x8 eliminate 3x10 2x10 2x3 Same Same Same 4x3 3x2 4x3 2 x 2 at 80% 4x3 eliminate 2 x 12-15/leg 3x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg eliminate 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 4 x max reps 2 x max reps in 10 seconds in 10 seconds in 10 seconds in 10 seconds 2 x 15-20 3x 15-20 3x 15-20 2 x 15-20 109 .Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase III Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body 20 yard dash Stop at first sign of performance Depth jump for maximum height drop-off . 4x3 A) Deadlift B) Peterson step-up (low box step-up) use box approximately mid-shin level in height – use a controlled 3-5 second eccentric tempo C1) Reactive Glute-Ham Raise C2) Cable pull-ins Tuesday: off.Find box height that maximizes jump height.

or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Lower Body Stop at first sign of performance dropoff 2 x 3 at 8590% 2x10 To first sign of dropoff 3 x 2 at 8590% 2x10 To first sign of drop-off eliminate eliminate To first sign of dropoff eliminate eliminate 40 yard dash A1) Squat A2) Single leg back extension Saturday: Upper Body Stop at first Depth jump for maximum height sign of . drop-off A1) Push Press A2) Wide Grip Sternum Pullup B1) Incline DB Lateral B2) Cable external rotation 3x5 To first sign of drop-off 4x4 To first sign of drop-off 5x3 To first sign of drop-off 2 x 4 (easy) 2 x max reps (easy) 2 x 12 2x10 3 x max reps 4x max reps 4 x max reps 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 110 . Skill work.Find box height that maximizes performance jump height.Strength Dominant Athlete: Phase III Week 1 Thursday: Rest.

Skill work or tempo (your choice) Wednesday: Upper Body A1) Neutral Grip DB Bench Press A2) Chest-Supported Row Pronated Grip B1) Single arm cable lateral B2) Prone Trap Raise C) Decline Russian twist with med/ball Optional 10 minutes beach work (biceps.) 3x8 3x8 3x12/side 3x12-15 2x 15-20 4x8 4x8 3x12/side 3x12-15 3 x 15-20 4x8 4x8 3x12/side 3x12-15 3 x 15-20 2x8 (easy) 2x8 (easy) 2x12/side 2x12-15 2 x 15-20 111 . or Leg curl C2) Decline Leg raise 4x4 4x4 4x4 3x1 2x3 3x8/side 4x8 3x12 2x4 4x5 2x8/side 4x8 3x12 4x4 3x8/side 3x8 3x12 3x 3 (easy) 2x8/side (easy) 2x8 (easy) 3x12 Tuesday: Off day. triceps. etc. Reverse hyper.Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase I Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body Depth drop landing on balls of feet – (use box equaling best vertical jump height) A) Snatch Grip Deadlift B) DB Bulgarian Split Squat C1) Glute-Ham Raise.

max reps at bodyweight (as many reps as possible with bodyweight) A2) Bodyweight pull-ups – max reps with bodyweight B1) Bicep exercise of choice B2) Tricep exercise of choice C1) Side lying DB external rotation 2 sets 2 sets 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 2 x 12-15 3 sets 3 sets 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 2 x 12-15 4 sets 4 sets 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 2 x 12-15 2 sets 2 sets 3 x 8-10 3 x 8-10 2 x 12-15 112 .Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase I Week 1 Thursday: Off day. or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Lower Body Depth Drop into Lunge Stance (landing on balls of feet) 4 x 4/side 4 x 4/side 5x2 3x5 2 x max reps/side 4 x 4/side 4x1 3x6 2 x max reps/side 2 x 4/side 3 x 2 (easy) 2x5 2 x max reps/side A) Front Squat 4x3 B) Russian Good morning (close stance arched back good 2x6 morning) C) Side raise lying in back 2 x max reps/ extension device side Saturday: Upper Body A1) Bench Press . skill work.

etc.3 x 5/1 x 1520 20 2x6 2x12 3x6 2x12 Tuesday: off day.4) B1) Incline barbell front raise B2) One-Arm DB Row C1) Pulldown cable crunch Optional 10 minutes beach work (biceps.) 4x3 3x8 2x6/side 3x15 5-6 x 1-2 4x8 3x6/side 3x15 3 x 2/ 3 x 3 4x8 3x6/side 3 x 15 3x3 (easy) 2x8 (easy) 2x6/side (easy) 2 x 15 113 . or tempo Wednesday: Upper Body A) Bench Press (Wks. triceps.Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase II Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body Single leg backwards low depth drop landing on ball of foot A) Power Squat B) Stiff-Legged Deadlift C) Full Contact twist 4 x 4/side 4 x 4/side 4 x 4/side 3x5 3x6 3x12 2 x 4/side 3 x 3 (easy) 2x6 (easy) 2x12 3 x 5/ 1 x 15. 1. skill work.2) Barbell Floor Press (Wks. 3.

2 x 4 3x12 2 x 5 (easy weight) 2 x 5 (easy weight) 2x12 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 114 . or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Lower Body Single Leg low backwards depth drop landing on ball of foot A) Speed Deadlift B) Reverse Lunge (step back lunge) C1) Cable Pull-Through C2) Weighted Swiss ball crunch 4 x 4/side 4 x 4/side 4 x 4/side 2 x 4/side Eliminate 2x5/leg 2x12 2x10 4 x 3 at 70% 4 x 3 at 70% 4 x 3 at 70% 2 x5 /leg 2x12 2x10 2 x 5/leg 3x12 3x10 2 x 5/leg 3x12 3x10 Saturday: Upper Body A1) Semi-Supinated DB Overhead press A2) (Weighted) Mid-Grip Pull-up C1) Prone Trap Raise C2) Hanging leg raise Optional 10 minutes beach work 3x5 3x4 3x12 4x5 4x4 3x12 4x4 1 x 3.Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase II Week 1 Thursday: Off day. skill work.

skill work.Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase III Week 1 Sunday: Off Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Monday: Lower Body 20-yard dash Stop at first sign of performance drop-off – use full recoveries 4x3 2x3 Same Same Same Depth Jump for maximum height (use box that maximizes jump height) A) Deadlift B) Peterson step-up (low box step-up) C1) Reactive Glute-Ham Raise C2) Cable leg raises Tuesday: off day. or tempo Wednesday: Upper Body Pro-Agility (5-10-5 Drill) A1) Decline Bench Press A2) Chest Supported row B1) Decline Tricep extension B2) Medium Cable Woodchop 4x3 3x2 4x3 2 x 2 at 8085% 4x3 eliminate 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x 12-15/leg 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps 2 x max reps in 10 seconds in 10 seconds in 10 seconds in 10 seconds 2 x 15-20 3x 15-20 3x 15-20 2 x 15-20 Stop at first sign of performance drop-off 3x5 3x8 2x10 2x10 Same 4x4 4x6 2x10 2x10 same 4x3 4x8 2x10 3x10 same 2x 5 2x8 eliminate 2x10 115 .

or tempo Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Friday: Lower Body Stop at first To first sign To first sign To first sign sign of of of of performance performance performance performance dropoff dropoff drop-off dropoff 2x3 at 853 x 3 at 85eliminate eliminate 90% 90% 2x10 2x10 eliminate eliminate 40 yard dash A1) Squat A2) Single leg back extension Saturday: Upper Body Depth Jump for maximum height To first sign . A1) Push Press A2) Wide Grip Seated Row B1) Incline DB Lateral B2) Cable external rotation 3x5 3x8 3x12 3x12 To first sign of drop-off 4x5 4x 6 3x12 3x12 To first sign of drop-off 5x3 4x6 3x12 3x12 To first sign of drop-off 3 x 8 (easy) 3x6 (easy) 3 x 12 3x10 Training For Track What about training for competitive sprinting? How would you go about implementing a plan for a sprinter? Well. In my observation. I’ve yet to see a sprinter who 116 .Speed Dominant Athlete: Phase III Week 1 Thursday: Off day. just follow the same basic principles and address your deficiencies as an athlete. I find a lot of sprinters get carried away thinking they have to follow very elaborate models. Build your speed and acceleration over short distances then carry that out over longer distances. skill work.Find box height that maximizes of drop-off jump height. most sprinters spend too much time on the track and perform an excessive amount of running in general. The result is many that I’ve worked with tend to be chronically over-reached.

Off day. 117 . extensive running – Add up to intervals 250 meters per week not surpassing 3000 Wednesday: Short Sprints 20’s and 40’s – up Walk back recovery to 10 reps each Deadlift 4 sets of 5 Pullup 4 sets of 8 Dip 4 sets of 8 Thursday. That usually means a reduction in conditioning and tempo work is a good thing. Up to 1500 meters tempo.Off day. Walk back recovery Weights Squat 4 sets of 8 Row 4 sets of 8 Bench 4 sets of 8 Leg curl or Glute 4 sets of 8 Ham Tuesday. Up to 1500 meters tempo. Sample Programs For Track Here is how you might set up a sprinters workout for a strength deficient athlete: Phase I GPP – 4-8 weeks – Get In Shape/Hypertrophy Exercise and Day Volume Comments Monday Short Sprints 10’s and 20’s – up Add 5 meters per to 10 reps each week to each sprint. 20’s and Stop Prior to Same Same 30’s any noticeable drop-off in Week 4 Same Comments Do these with full recoveries – Perform from various starts – blocks etc.didn’t make good results scaling back on overall volume and putting in more quality work. extensive running – Add up to intervals 250 meters per week not surpassing 3000 Same As Monday Same As Monday Friday: Same as Tuesday Same as Tuesday Saturday: and Thursday and Thursday Phase II – Max Strength – 4-8 weeks Exercise and Week 1 Week Week 3 Day 2 Monday: Starts.

Weights Squat Glute Ham Pullup Bench Tuesday: Off day. extensive intervals time 4x3 3x5 4x5 4x5 5x2 3x5 5x5 5x5 5x1 (not to failure) 3x5 5x4 5x4 3 x 3 at 80% 1rm 3x5 3x3 (easy) 3x3 (easy) Wednesday: 60’s or flying 20’s Weights Optional 15-20 minutes easy upper body work Thursday: Friday: 30’s Weights Snatch Grip Deadlift DB Bulgarian split squat Row DB Bench Press Saturday 1500-2000 meters total tempo – These are also a training option on Thursday and Saturday. but not 3. do them 1 or 2 days per week. If you perform them. Do these with full recoveries Stop when Same time declines Same Eliminate Same as Tuesday Stop when Same time declines 3x3 2 x 5/leg 3x5 3x5 Same as Tuesday and Thursday 4x2 Same 3x5 3x5 Same 5x1 Same 3x5 3x5 Same 3x2 (easy) Eliminate 3x5 3x5 118 . tempo.

Up to 1500 meters tempo. extensive running – Add up to 119 .Off day. Walk back recovery Weights Squat 4 sets of 5 Row 4 sets of 8 Bench 4 sets of 8 Leg curl or Glute 4 sets of 5 Ham Tuesday. Up to 1500 meters tempo. or extensive running – Add up to intervals 250 meters per week not surpassing 3000 Wednesday: Short Sprints 20’s and 40’s – up Walk back recovery to 10 reps each Deadlift 4 sets of 3 Pullup 4 sets of 8 Dip 4 sets of 8 Thursday.Off day.Phase III – Competition Phase Day and Exercise Monday: Flying 20’s Weights Squat Bench Row Tuesday: Off day Wednesday: 30’s Thursday: Extensive interval circuits Friday: Off day Saturday: Competition Volume Stop when time declines 3 x 3 at 80-90% 3 x 3 at 85-90% 3 x 3 at 85-90% Stop prior to time declining Comments Keep volume and intensity low Here’s what a plan might look like for a speed deficient athlete Phase I GPP – 4-8 weeks – Get In Shape/Strength Exercise and Day Volume Comments Monday Short Sprints 10’s and 20’s – up Add 5 meters per to 10 reps each week to each sprint.

– Use medium height box on depth jumps about 18 inches Phase II – Max Strength and Power – 4-8 weeks Exercise and Week Week Week Week Day 1 2 3 4 Monday: Starts. 20’s or Stop prior to Same Same Same 30’s time declining Depth Jump 3 reps per set Do one set of depth jumps in between each set of sprints 5 x 2 at 60% 3x5 4x5 4x5 Same 3x5 5 x5 5x5 Same 3x5 5x4 5x4 Same 3x5 3x3 (easy) 3x3 (easy) Weights Box Squat Glute Ham Pullup Bench Tuesday: Off day. extensive intervals Wednesday: 60’s 1500-2000 meters total tempo – These are also a training option on Thursday and Saturday.intervals Friday: Saturday: Same As Monday Same as Tuesday and Thursday 250 meters per week not surpassing 3000 Same As Monday Same as Tuesday and Thursday Comments Do these with full recoveries – Perform from various starts – blocks etc. If you perform them. but not 3. or optional tempo. pick 1 or 2 days per week. Weights Optional 15-20 minutes easy upper body work Same as Thursday: Tuesday Friday: 30’s Stop when time declines Depth Jump 4x3 Stop when time declines Same Same Eliminate Do these with full recoveries Same Same Same Use box about 18 inches high 120 .

Weights Jump Shrug or Snatch Pull Row DB Bench Press Saturday 3x3 3x5 3x5 Same as Tuesday and Thursday 4x2 3x5 3x5 5x1 3x5 3x5 3x2 (easy) 3x5 3x5 Phase III – Competition Phase Day and Exercise Monday: Flying 20’s Weights Speed Squat Bench Row Tuesday: Off day Wednesday: 30’s Thursday: Optional Extensive interval circuits Friday: Off day Saturday: Competition Volume Stop when time declines 3 x 3 at 70% 3 x 3 at 85-90% 3 x 3 at 85-90% Stop prior to time declining Go down under control – explode on the way up Comments Keep volume and intensity low 121 .

Making sure we have a big enough motor to get us down the road. or faster then you are strong. Identify whether you are stronger then you are fast. and control your body efficiently) 2. Establish or maintaining baseline levels of general fitness 3. and agile athlete is a relatively simple process. what we' really doing is this: re 1. (since I know you aren'tired of hearing this yet). creating a speedy. if we were to look at this from t the same perspective as if we were building a racecar. and other movement work to either maintain or improve the efficiency and proficiency of your movements. B: Do enough running. Making sure we take care of our motor and keep all moving parts well lubricated. Establish efficient movement patterns and coordination (learn to move fluidly on your feet. 8. take our car out to the track. mobility work. Making sure we invest in a good frame 3. Get out and let the horses run! Or. I’ve been able to give you a solid road map to work from. (establishing and maintaining proper mobility) 5. with this information. consistent success is there for the taking. (getting good feet) 2. and turn it loose! When you really boil it down to the sheer nuts and bolts. Focus on your weak points. Making sure we invest in good tires to get our car down the road. 7. 6. (getting strong and powerful in the hips) 4. Taking the time to make the necessary modifications. Get and/or keep yourself lean 4. In conclusion. If you take nothing else from this manual I hope you remember those 2 very simple points. fluid.Conclusion To review. -Kelly 122 . 7. Building athleticism is not easy and does require a lot of hard work. building great speed and athleticism is just a matter of implementing the following basic principles: 1. Determining whether we should invest in a bigger motor. Establish good mobility 5. drive from the hips. getting faster or more explosive really just involves 2 very simple points: A: Get strong and increase your ability to exert force. but providing you’re willing to work hard. Hopefully. Establish baseline levels of strength 6. Have fun. or whether we would be best served to modify our motor to get the car faster.

123 .5-8 reps Squat. Can you give me an example of workout you would set him up on? A: You might want to go check out my training templates article included here under Appendix B. bench presses.3-4 sets x 8-15 reps 20-yard sprints .5-8 reps Squat . Q: You' talked about the importance of running through the hips and the toes ve but what about the various muscles involved like the calves? I' heard some people ve say they' totally unimportant and others say that they are the secret key to re unlocking athletic potential.4 sets x 6-8 reps Wednesday Dynamic warmup Low squat hops in place. Is calf strength a limiting factor towards being fast.2-3 x 15-20 reps (or 5-10 seconds) Single leg on-box jumps.3-5 sets x 5-8 reps Glute ham raise or leg curl.2-3 sets x 20 seconds Knees to chest jumps.2-3 x 15-20 reps Deadlift.2-3 x 3 reps Dumbell Split Squat.2-3 x 15-20 reps Single leg hop in place .3 sets of 3 reps forward and to each side 20-yard accelerations . Here is an example of a weekly phase I’ve used for an athlete of that age.2-3 x 6-8 Friday Dynamic warmup 4 square hops . You could that down by 50% and he’d do fine. You could actually cut the workout down to 2 days per week and be just fine.4 sets x 6-8 reps Add in some upper body movements such as dips. he really wouldn’t even need to do as much sprinting as I gave in this example. and that’s really all he’d need. and rows.Q&A Q: I have a 14-year old son who seems to lack strength and movement efficiency.3-5 sets x 5-8 reps Glute-ham raise or leg curl. Monday Dynamic warmup Lateral single leg hops in place . pull-ups. Realistically.

A receiver in football might practice running some routes and catching passes a few days per week. tag. if you have 2 broken ankles or 2 flat tires on your car you ain'going t anywhere in a hurry! Therefore it' really just a movement efficiency issue. get up off your butt and stop playing so much x-box and get away from the computer for one thing! Get outside and move! All the assorted plyo. A soccer player would get out and mess around with soccer related ball drills. you could probably stand to incorporate some calf raise variations. and quadriceps into the ground. is dropping off a box and landing up on the balls of your feet. and calves better. No need to get totally away from everything. simply work on getting light on your feet and get to the re point where you can move efficiently. but establishing proper movement efficiency is. and moving efficiently? Should a person do specific drills for the calves or are they over-rated? A: The importance of the calves is more along the lines of their function and not necessarily their strength. hamstring. but you wanna cut down on the hardcore conditioning. 124 . s Strength can be a factor for some people. if you' not already. probably the best drill for developing specific calf (plantar flexor) power. agility. one-on-one play etc. You used the example of basketball players that play too much. but that probably won’t be an issue for most people. they re CONTROL their feet. If you don'become well coordinated on your feet at an early t age you may have a propensity to become heavy-footed unless you correct that. t re they move better because they' more fluid on their feet. performing a multitude of specific drills and engaging in lots of strength work just for the calves is usually not needed. So. So. A game or 2 each week ain’t gonna kill a basketball player but 2 hour games every day will. In other words. dodgeball. Obviously. Pay attention and you’ll see plenty of 6 and 8 year olds move smoother on their feet then a lot of adults. If you’re not strong enough to stride forward at an easy pace on the balls of your feet. Their main purpose is to control the feet and transfer forces from the larger and stronger hip. Karl Malone didn’t play basketball AT ALL during the off-season and it never affected him in a negative way. Does that mean you’re saying an athlete should not participate in their sport? A: I’m not saying to ignore everything related to the sport but a lot of people go way overboard. That includes shooting. or bounce up and down on one foot without your heel striking. hopscotch. How do you do that? Well. Q: You talked about the importance of using the off-season to focus on core neuromuscular qualities like strength and minimizing sport and conditioning while minimizing anything that interferes with that. I would normally recommend basketball players focus more on their skill work. you name it.agile. ankles. Jump rope. and even sprint drills are good for that purpose. If needed. Drive by a playground and watch little kids move. They don'move better because they' stronger in the calves. The calves will usually get as strong as they need to get just by virtue of being involved in all the activities that an athlete participates in. You build function in the calves by learning proper movement patterns and developing the ability to become light on your feet.

Sound familiar? Although research has corroborated the effectiveness of this system. the subjects used in these studies were generally conducted on athletes of lower qualification. speed. t explosive weight training etc? All I would really need to do is sprint? A: Yes that' pretty much spot on. Therefore. For example. Another beneficial thing to do would be to incorporate at least enough heavy weight training to maintain your strength. you' train maximum strength. A lot of people think true conjugate periodization is where you train all the necessary strength qualities at the same time without getting away from any of them. and sprints. Those exercises are squats. Or deadlifts. While the negatives of the concurrent system are not apparent with less advanced athletes. But that’s not really true. over the same period of time. If you were to do nothing except get out and run s sprints at a high intensity 2-3 days per week you could get good results without adding anything else. I’ve said before that a person can get just about as fast as they’ll ever need to be using a total of only 3 exercises. Q: Why do you recommend approaching things in phases instead of using the conjugate periodization and hitting everything at once? You recommend a strength-dominant phase. jumps like these and other similar drills can be an excellent form of power training for a sprinter. reactive strength. Having said that. But if in doubt keep things simple. The concurrent system involves the simultaneous training of several motor abilities. split squats. such as strength.Q: You' saying that if my goal was to run faster and the testing indicates that I re need to learn to better express my strength that all I really would need to do is get out and focus more on sprinting? I wouldn' need to necessarily do any plyometrics. Isn’t this just basic linear periodization? Isn’t it better to focus on all qualities so you don’t lose any of them? A: There is often quite a bit of confusion as to what conjugate periodization is so let me clarify that. There are essentially two main systems of organizing long-term training: A: The concurrent system B: The conjugate sequence system. For example. with the intention of developing all of them simultaneously. when simply jumping from one leg to the other the dynamic characteristics of the push-off are greater than the dynamic characteristics involved with running. they become very noticeable with elite athletes. glute ham raises. and endurance. movements. and sprints. explosive strength. It produces only average results in higher level athletes 125 . and d endurance with equal volumes during the same training week so as to address every quality. you might get slightly better results engaging in a bit more specific explosive work like jump squats and various plyometric type drills which increase the magnitude of tension of specific weak areas. or muscles. explosive-dominant phase etc.

All 4 groups hit each type of training but in varying sequences. This is precisely the purpose of the conjugate system. What they did was take 4 groups of athletes and had each group perform one of 4 different types of training for 4 weeks each over a total of 16 weeks. To create a more powerful training effect in advanced athletes it is better to use intense phases with a singular focus and to arrange these phases in an order that produces a sum greater then it' parts. So. when you try to train everything at the same time. During this phase. and more re explosive at the same time. It should be noted that reversing the order of the training sequence will not always produce the same summation of training effects. The various phases looked like this: A: Basic low intensity jumps 126 . This leads into a strength phase.). which uses a high volume of strength loading. Advanced athletes tend to need more focus on a given quality in order to improve that quality. faster. strength endurance etc. So each phase builds off the next and because of the concentration used. therefore you' getting stronger. the total amount of work is lower but the intensity is higher. as you’re entering an explosive oriented phase you get the delayed transformation effect of the previous strength work. To give you an example. each of which is confined largely to a given period. speed. you limit the amount that you can focus on any given quality. s The conjugate sequence system involves successively introducing into the training program specific phases. The conjugate sequence is characterized by a concentrated focus on developing individual specific motor abilities (strength. which carry over into the next phase. as fatigue is allowed do dissipate. but it will also be super-compensating positively from the previous phase of high volume strength work. each phase has delayed effects. for someone in a speed dominant sport the sequence of phases would look something like this: Gpp (4-6 weeks---->Strength-(4-12 weeks)---->explosive strength (4-12 weeks) (shock/plyometric/speed)---->competitive Gpp builds a base of basic fitness by using a higher volume of low intensity work.simply because. and sequencing them in a way that creates favorable conditions to grasp a greater net effect of all the training loads. This leads into a shock phase where the focus is on displaying strength. each of which has a progressively stronger training effect. Simple enough! s There was an old Soviet study done pertaining to the vertical jump that really helps elucidate this topic. that' just a general outline. Not only will the body be adapting positively to the shock loading itself. It' also worth noting that some phases s can be lengthened.

It was found that whenever any group happened to be performing D they got a quick boost in vertical jumping ability. which allowed the athletes to establish basic movement efficiency and ingrain basic motor patterns. It makes sense if you think about it. So: movement efficiency. They followed that up with heavy weight training. for 4 weeks each. strength expression. Another group performed B. B. followed by A. followed by A for 4 weeks. and D all at the same time got inferior results compared to the other groups. followed by D got the best results overall. followed by D. strength.B: Heavy weight training (squats and assorted lifts) C: Lighter explosive weight training and jumps with weights D: Intense plyometric training (depth jumps). One group performed D for 4 weeks followed by B for 4 weeks. They followed that up with explosive weight training and jumps with weights. followed by B. and the results improved linearly nice and smooth through the entire study. If you were a speed athlete and you were in more of a strength 127 . and D all at the same time. C. which allowed them to build up their relative strength levels. At the conclusion of the study. followed by C. it was found that the group that performed A. followed by B. followed by C. In other words. Another group performed A. followed by D. which allowed them to better display the strength they had built. followed by C. but stagnated just as quickly. the group that performed depth jumps in the second 4-week period did improve their vertical jump during that period. for 4 weeks each Another group performed A. but failed to improve through the final two 4 week phases. They started off with basic low intensity jumps. The group that performed A. Now does that mean when you' focusing on one quality that you should totally avoid re the other qualities?? No! It just means that those other qualities would be maintained with less volume and intensity. which provided a means to further intensify the display of strength in a high intensity manner. followed by C for 4 weeks. C. They followed that up with depth jumps. B.

the only way you' gonna clean 315 is if you get your overall body strength up to the point where you re are capable of at least a ~400 pound squat and 400 pound deadlift. If you were in a speed phase your strength work might consist of lifting done as infrequently as once per week consisting of 3 x 3 at 8085% for a few movements. but more advanced athletes will need more focus. At some point. what is the best way to get your clean up to 315 pounds? Can the guy with a 200-pound squat build his clean up to 315 pounds by just performing cleans and associated lifts? No. Let' just say for the sake of argument s that the clean correlates perfectly with your on-field explosiveness (running and jumping etc. You' obviously want to get your clean poundages as high as possible right? With d that being said. Once you' ve mastered the technique in the lift and learned to express your strength in the lift. You' d probably be able to take your clean all the way up to 315 by doing nothing but cleans. but a good clean is really a demonstration or indicator of explosiveness. I love performing hang cleans myself.focused phase. or become more explosive in the exercise. you' probably never get re d any better at cleans by just practicing cleans. clean poundages will increase as you master the correct technique. Can the guy with a 300-pound squat clean 315? No. by itself it isn’t a miracle exercise. the only way to continue driving your clean poundages up is to get stronger overall. If you' the guy who squats 500 re pounds and only cleans 175. just like a fast sprint and a good vertical jump are good demonstrations of explosiveness. your speed workouts might consist of performing low intensity technical drills and running one day per week. you' continue to make some gains as you better learn to express ll your strength. Are you saying that improving the clean doesn’t also improve explosivness in other activities? Just like any other explosive movement. any improvements you make to your clean will be transferred into your running speed. yet only squats 300 pounds. the clean can help bridge the gap between total strength and total useable strength. However. if that is an area lacking. The clean is really about 1/3 technique. Once you' mastered ve the proper technique.) So. and 1/3 strength. beginner and low-level intermediate athletes do fine working on all qualities simultaneously. Can the guy who practices cleans every day of his life. But if you' the guy who squats 300 pounds and cleans 225. you obviously have a lot of room for improvement. My point is this: How much you can clean is highly dependent on how strong you are overall and cleans don’t really make you stronger overall. you' have to pay your dues d in the power rack getting your strength up on basic movements like squats and deadlifts so that you’d have more raw strength to express. I love the hang power clean. Q: I have a question about what you said regarding there not being much of a need to engage in explosive weight room work like cleans etc. Regardless of how good your technique is on cleans and how much you practice them. In summary. clean as much as the 700 pound squatting powerlifter who comes into the gym and does cleans for the first time in his life? No. 128 . Initially. 1/3 explosiveness.

but would at least allow him to train his nervous system to produce faster contractions with some type of accelerative emphasis. Where cleans and related exercises would REALLY be more beneficial is for this same “strong but slow” type of guy who also. It’s not re that cleans will hurt you by any means. let' look at a sprint the same way we would the clean. and plyo work.55 forty yard dash. wouldn'it make sense that practicing variations of the sprint (and t things closely related to that like plyometrics). let' assume that you already spend a significant amount of time in the weight room s getting stronger overall. You' continue to improve as you are ll better able to express your strength in the sprint. you' gonna have to pay your dues with the heavy iron re and get your strength up so that you have more raw horsepower to tap into. instead of just getting him stronger in the weight room. just like the clean. and very similar re activities. but it’s not like you need them. would be the best way to learn to express your strength in the sprint? There is a lot of specifity involved with improvements in speed-strength movements and the carryover from one activity to the next is fairly small. so. They wouldn’t be as effective as the specific sprint. He could use lots of speedier type exercises like cleans. Now. and plyo work. It' a demonstration of s s explosiveness. like jumping. movement. Since actually practicing the clean is the best way to learn to express your strength in the clean. movement. what are re cleans gonna give you that you' not already getting? I hope that makes sense. One other good utility for the clean and associated movements is this: Assuming that one has pretty good technique in the clean. His maximum strength is already there and it need not be a big focal point. At re some point. and plyo work. But if you' the 175 pound guy who only squats 250 and already runs a re 4. and slow running times. Having said all that. the best utility for the cleans and other explosive weight room movements would be for someone like I mentioned above who had a 500 pound squat (or whatever). Since you' already addressing your baseline strength. movement. it can also be used as a pretty good gauge to ensure that you' building useable strength. Initially you' ll improve as you master the correct technique.Now. isn’t able to get out and engage in much specific sprint. in the weight room you' driving your strength and baseline levels of horsepower up. including the weight room. and jump squats while also working on getting more explosive in field activities. what makes you think you' t d best improve upon that by engaging in cleans? Improvements in the sprint are just like improvements in the clean. you' probably not gonna get much faster by just sprinting. you will probably have a lot of room for improvement. If you' the 175 pound guy who squats re 500 and only runs a 5. or strength that you can use in a fairly highre 129 . and re you' already directly addressing your ability to express strength in the sprints. On the field. If you couldn'express your strength very good in the sprint.by re engaging in the very things that you' trying to improve (sprinting). speed box squats.2 40 yard dash. So. for whatever reason. I like them too and think they’re fun. Let' also assume that you spend a fair amount of time s performing a nice assortment of sprint. re you' better learning to express that strength in the most direct way possible . we could focus on getting him to express his strength better in all his activities.

so he would best work on bridging the gap between his strength and useable strength. The templates might look something like this: Speed Deficient Athlete MONDAY – dynamic warmup. For the strength deficient athlete. So. From that information. while a person squatting 400 pounds should be able to clean 300. he' d be best to focus on more explosive oriented work in his training. and 40 yard dash (Initially focus on technique for the start and work your way out each week) TUESDAY – Heavy upper body lifting WEDNESDAY – Dynamic warm-up.Off When regulating volume of the various movement work. assuming that technique is good. the guy squatting 400 and cleaning 300 is already doing a pretty good job using the strength he has. In other words. instead of continually trying to push up his squat weight. Q: Can you give some examples of what sort' templates you would use for ve combine preparation for a strength dominant and speed dominant athlete respectively? A: You have to keep in mind that most people don'typically have a ton of time to t prepare for a combine and there is a lot of technique involved in the various tests that must be addressed. Let' say s you have an athlete that squats 400 pounds but only cleans 200. a person squatting 200 pounds should be able to clean 150. let' assume that I determine that a person that can clean s 75% of his best back squat is doing a pretty good job utilizing the raw strength that he has. assuming his field related tests didn’t show any explosive deficiencies. 3-cone. we know that he' not able to utilize his strength in a high velocity specific manner very s effectively. 20-yard shuttle. you might use the sled as the major strength movement. use the drop-off method.velocity manner. I' have just one heavy lower body d session per week. For the speed deficient athlete. and. vertical jump. In other words. heavy sled marching (use heavy sled) THURSDAY – Off FRIDAY – Lighter upper body strength training (225 test for reps) SATURDAY – Dynamic warm-up. In contrast. Broad jump. Resisted sled sprints (use light sled). alternated with normal sprints (focus on distances between 20 and 40 yards) SUNDAY . he’d know that in order to improve he could just get stronger overall. or stop the workouts with any performance drop-off 130 .

alternating bounds duplicate the extension witnessed in the sprint stride over the same range of motion.Dynamic warm-up 40-yard dash technique work. The difference is.These exercises are necessary to develop general muscle strength (force component of power) and do not need to duplicate sporting tasks.Dynamic warm-up. General strength exercises . vertical jump & broad jump WEDNESDAY . which can provide a positive training effect to the extension and plant that occurs during the acceleration phase of a sprint. pro-agility & 3-cone THURSDAY .Dynamic warm-up. As an example. unstable object training etc? Let' start off with a definition of sport-specific. deadlifts etc. Heavy Upper body strength training (For the 40 yard dash.) These exercises are heavy and slow in nature thus do not 131 . Classifying Exercises There are basically 3 classifications of exercise along the general to specific continuum. (Squats. C: Develop strength and flexibility in the same range of motion (ROM) as the actual skill. front squats. A truly sport specific exercise must: s A: Duplicate the exact movement witnessed in certain actions of the sports skill B: The exercise must involve the same type of muscular contraction used in the skill execution.Strength Deficient Athlete MONDAY .Lighter upper body strength training FRIDAY . 40-yard dash SATURDAY – Heavy lower body strength training SUNDAY – OFF Q: How do you feel about popular sport specific training methods and specialized implements like bosu balls. the magnitude of force and tension in the bound upon both landing and toe-off is greater. They also duplicate the type of contraction found in the sprint. Initially focus on the starts and work your way out each week) TUESDAY – Mobility drills.

The goal of these movements is to stimulate and strengthen the same muscles involved in the sports skill. In this way. In contrast. Where a particular exercise falls on this continuum depends upon how well it meets the criteria for a specific movement for a particular sport. jump squats. The most specific strength exercise for any given movement is the actual movement skill itself. Once a strength base is in place. Exercises typically are described as either general or sport-specific. general strength exercises should be used in the initial stages to build a base. however. maximal strength is developed initially and then used to enhance explosive strength that can be incorporated into the sport action. A loaded specific strength exercise should not be loaded to the extent that an athlete' s technique is compromised much at all. re or trapeze artist. Most explosive oriented loaded lifts and movements fit in this category. It' probably more accurate to describe exercises as s either more or less specific in relation to one another. Examples of such exercises would include: Unloaded and lightly loaded plyometric exercises. and various kettlebell swings. the most specific exercise for a sprinter is a sprint. Specific strength exercises.replicate the exact demands of sport and power events. 132 . someone using loaded sprints as a specific strength exercise would not use a load that causes his sprint times to drop off by more than ~10%. specific to the sport of powerlifting. Exercises that best impact general strength are the best general strength exercises. it should be obvious that unless you' a skateboarder. Special strength exercises . However. So What is Sport Specific Again? Based on that information. Thus.These exercises attempt to provide power improvement in a way which is very specific to the required technique of an athlete. The Recipe To improve athletic performance.These exercises attempt to convert general strength to power but are still "strength" oriented. exercises that are truly specialized (sport-specific) can be incorporated to zero in on targeted weaknesses involved in the sports skill or to help enhance the transformation of general strength into specific strength. bosu balls and the like would be general training movements .just not very potent general training movements. So. They are. Some examples include: Olympic lifts. Anything that increases general strength could be considered a general strength exercise. medicine ball tosses. heavier sled towing. The most specific exercise for a boxer is a punch. This is due to the lighter loads they inherently entail. there is a range along which all exercises fall. most unstable implements and exercises are not really sport-specific at all! Wobble boards. someone using loaded sprints as a special strength exercise could use more weight as he' seeking more of a general effect on explosiveness. He would not s need to worry so much about the load interfering with his technique in the sprint. sprint drills. surfer. and towing a very lightly loaded sled.

a late bloomer and was very weak so I probably did have quite a bit of latent ability. don' t tend to demonstrate many advantages for the multi-faceted approach. Ideally.). Group B: Just squats heavy and runs sprints. this can work well because a lot of people already do plenty of sport-specific exercise just by virtue of playing their sport. With this approach you s have both ends covered. jumping or whatever. Q: I heard you ran a sub 4.6 within a month. The first time I followed it was when I was 21. That was without any specific sprint training. Despite the more holistic and multifaceted approach implemented with the group A. Although simple. and engage in and hone the technique of the most specific strength exercise. between the ages of 18-21 I actually improved my times despite not running any sprints during that time span AT ALL. At about that time I decided to make a deliberate attempt to try and improve my 40 and in my ignorance I came up with the workout I’m getting ready to show you. I started training and lifting fairly seriously around age 18-19 to prepare for martial arts. t The ability to properly administer the more multifaceted approach takes more knowledge and skill.9. and sprints.8. You’d practice the specific movement you' trying to improve in order improve the capacity to express strength in re that movement. you' individually evaluate and assign target exercises based upon d individual needs. This time I got my 133 . however. I used this workout on 3 different occassions. pulls loaded sleds. The next time I followed it was at age 24. however. I rarely ran sprints but one day at the age of 21 I decided to run a timed 40 and clocked a 4. many people are apt to regress by partaking in an excessive volume of sport specific work while neglecting general supportive work. research comparing groups of people who use a very multifaceted approach to development to those who use the simple straight-line approach to development. engages in explosive lifts (cleans or jump squats etc. there' also not exactly anything wrong with taking s the straight line approach.whether it' sprinting.I think there is a time and place for exercises in every category depending on the situation of a given athlete or coach. My 40 went from 4. engages in plyometrics. Additionally. So.8 to 4. let' s say we take 2 groups of sprinters: Group A: Squats heavy. In other words. What routine did you use to get that fast? A: In high school the fastest 40-yard dash I timed was 4. you don'tend to see a consistent variance in improvements between the 2 groups. In fact. I was. .3 second 40-yard dash. The Straight Line Approach The straight-line approach would entail taking the most direct approach to boosting up the general strength (lift heavy and get stronger in basic movements).

40 down to 4.3 improvement in 40-yard dash in less than a week.27. The only other activities incorporated were a couple of upper body workouts. s Q: How long should it take to see results in speed and explosiveness? A: It really depends on the level of athlete. However.) I’d perform workout two 2 days after workout 1. A year later I used it again and on 2 different occassions ran a 4. an athlete might spend 6 to 12 weeks bringing up his strength levels and not see any speed improvement in speed until he applies those gains with a block of speed and explosive oriented training.4 seconds. stance. Also. workout 1 again on Saturday. That is a handheld time taken off video from the first movement so not quite as fast as a legit electronic time. Q: How much does the upper body contribute to running speed? 134 . Here it is: Workout 1: Squats: work up to 3rm with as heavy a weight as possible Reverse hypers: 2 sets x 12-15 reps with as heavy a weight as possible (the first time I went through the workout at age 21 the workout reverse hypers were not a common exercise so I did leg curls instead). So I might perform workout 1 on a Monday. That was my "tempo" work. If you’re really slow and lack coordination anything you do will improve your speed and it will improve very quickly. I’d typically hit my best efforts on the 3rd attempt. it might take 6 to 8 weeks training 5 days per week to see any significant speed gain. The routine is not perfect but got the job done. (this would generally mean I’d run 5 to 7 total sprints. It would’ve been nice to see how fast I would’ve run if I knew what I do now but oh well. keep in mind sometimes you have to take the time to bring up indirect qualities and then apply those gains to speed. workout 2 on a Wednesday. Repeat workout every 4th to 5th day Workout 2: 40 yard sprints: Warm-up and go for PRs – Stop the workout as soon as it was obvious I wasn’t gonna improve on my times for the day. which is what counts. at the time I didn’t know how to start from a 3pt stance so just ran like a wide receiver out of a 2 pt. Unfortunately. For example. if you’re advanced. I’d just alternate those 2 workouts back and forth. I also played some half court 3-on-3 basketball a couple of days per week. workout 2 the next Monday and so forth. That’s why it’s not uncommon for high school athletes to go to these combine camps and get a .2 to . That' about it. I' do a dynamic warm-up before each workout and quite a d bit of mobility work each and every day (which I still do).

I don’t think it’s nearly as important to support the volume some speed-seeking athletes and sprinters train their upper body with. you’re probably strong enough. however. if you’re a football player or even a basketball player. That’s the truth. Now. sure you want to be strong in your upper body. Many sprinters like to do a lot of upper body work because they want to look good and brag about their strength. Assuming you can knock out a set of 10 or more pull-ups and bench press your bodyweight. A fast athlete will tend to be strong in his entire body and will have a strong upper body just on account of being strong all over. 135 .A: The arms are what drive the legs so it does serve some importance. Core lower body movements like squats and deadlifts will also give you some degree of strength in the upper body because they have global effects on your nervous system. But that doesn’t mean you need to have a 500-pound bench press in order to run fast.

* 136 . . * 1 / 4 5 * * * * . * . / ' * .Appendix A: ! By: Kelly Baggett " ! $ ! # $ % ( ) * ( & ' $ $ $ $ $ % ' $ ! % &'' '' ( " $ # ) * + * . / * 0 * 2 3 * ' ** . * " 1 ( * )6 / 7 6 56 4 668 * ' 1* .

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% . . D ) * $ > ! & 4 ' J 3 ' 0 " H E 0 . < * % / $ ' ' * 09 143 . 4 ) E + 2 = E ' ' ' / " # ? ( 2 0 (85 : % + ! ? ? / ' $ . . ' So you’re saying that once a baseline level of technique is learned that there’s nothing that can be done to really change a person’s sprinting technique? 0 * .% ! ) = ' ( * ) =.

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0 " / " ! (666 ) / : = E January – Mid-May Monday: Lower Body lifting Tuesday: Upper Body lifting Thursday Lower body lifting low volume movement work (sprints. 0 d. anaerobic conditioning * * )6 * ? . agility) Friday: Upper Body lifting End of May – End of June Monday: Upper Body lifting Tuesday: Dynamic Warm-up. anaerobic conditioning (using football drills / agility drills) July – Mid-August Monday: Upper Body lifting. dynamic warm-up. I 8I 151 . Sprint and agility technique Wednesday: Lower Body lifting Thursday: Upper body lifting Friday: Dynamic Warm-up. 2 8! 0 / . anaerobic conditioning (linear) Tuesday: Lower Body lifting Wednesday: anaerobic conditioning (using football drills / agility drills) Thursday: Upper body lifting Friday: Dynamic warm-up.c.

Appendix B: 4 EI 2 8 ! ! 4/ =/ * B 5 & # 8 * 8 4 . 4 B * 4 * $' % 4 * $ N " B < B % ( 9 152 . . . $' . ? * ' 8 $ % / 4 / . % E"? ? . ' ? . ? * ' F 0 ' 4 B * . . .

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. * ( ( A 6D 9 < )89 (87 % 7 6856D ? )89 . . / . 4 6856D N ( K % 4 6856D N .( " 4 87 4 )89 7 ) 84 ) 4 68)6 ( / ' . $ 7 4 )' ( B 4 ( ) ' 2 ( " ' 9G = 3 $ 5 S4 ' % $' E % ? $ % 9 ( 5 / . . $ ' % $ 7 5 * ' 9 8A N N N 154 .

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3 6 156 .% B 6 8 % )! % ) G $ G # 7'7 < 7'7 2 > 8A ) 'A F 7'7 2 % 7'7 G % ( '5 H 2 2 7'7 = 9'5 $ 7 " 4 8 8H 7'( : 7'7 < '7 ( '7 N 9'5 $ 7 " 9 85 .H 2 " # * < ! " T " < * )87 )87 ( "U 2 8 . ' E 44 ') '( $ 66 ( 44 ') '( 67 44 6 ') '( 4 ) % ) 4 ') '( 67 ( 4 7') ') 4 ( 4 ') ') )6 E ( 4 6 ') ') 4 ) 4 6 ') '( 4 ) 4 7') '( 4 " .

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$ 6 8 % % ! 8+ $ " 8 ! 8 $ $ ! 8 8 $ 8 7 )% 84 % 9 / " 6 2 8 4 . N N 2$ ' K E 9'( % 8 )6 9'( ' $ % " " . % % N N (85 : $' 2 E ' ? 8$ 8 9 '( 85 8 9'7 8A 4 8 N N 2$ ' K E 8 (89'A ) 84 ) '4 7 )84 N % : $' 2 E ' ? B 9 6 % 8 ? 8 9 '(87 85 9'( $ (89'A ) 84 ' %H 2 ! 8 $ 9'7 8A % ! 8 9 " " " ' $ " '" % 159 .

9 2 : 8/ / ? B $ 2 $ $ EK ' 8 N " V69 )8 869 2 $ % E % % % / E 6 E: ! EK ! E: 4 " 9 (8 6 B = E ' " 8 87 6 84 8$ 9 % %A 6 8 84 %O 9 85 $ 5 = ! ! 2 " B K I M E < $ E O7 6 84 2 H < 8A 6F 84 B < $ 2 $ %O 9 85 %A 6 8 84 160 .

uop.html Dynamic Warm-up video EN N ? N 4! > Sample Agility Drills http://www.co.edu/AthleticPerformance/exercise%20videos/ladder%20drill%20videos/l adder_drillsweb2.com/Tips/Agility.! 2 4 B .eliteathletetraining.htm Plyometric and Power Training Videos http://exrx.uk/hexagonal.brianmac. E E ! 87 6 84 H $ %O ( ? % ' $ ? M / ! < 3 ' OA 6 84 = ! E + O4 )F 684 B Appendix C: Various resources Agility Ladder Drill Videos http://www.demon.htm 161 .net/Lists/PowerExercises.aspx Testing Drills Hexagonal movement efficiency test http://www.

162 .

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