A No, not, without.

A, in Hindi language is a prefix for denoting the absence of something, such as A-Baadh - Where there is no obstacle, unobstructed. A-Chal - Immovable A-Char - Non-moving A-Chyut - Who never deviates from virtue, means Krishn. A-Dharm - Where there is no Dharm; or which is not Dharm. A-Dharmee - Who doesn't follow Dharm A-Dwaitvaad - Dwait means two, Brahm and soul (both are different). A-Dwait means that Brahm and soul are the same, not separate and not different. Doctrine of Non-duality. (see also Darshan) A-Gochar - (1) Imperceptible. (2) Invisible. A-Gyaan - Ignorance. A-Gyaanee - Who is ignorant. A-Gyaat - Unknown. A-Halyaa - Means untillable field. Indra has been called in Sanskrit literature as "Ahalyaayai Jaarah" meaning "who can change a barren field into a fertile period; but some interpolators in Mahaabhaarat translated it as "Ahalyaa's lover" and made up a story around it. Read the story here. A-Hinsaa - Non-violence. When one does not give any kind of pain to anybody - physical or mental, is not cruel, does not injure, he follows A-Hinsaa. Among Vaishnav Hindoo, it is best described as Compassion towards all life. One of the reasons to adopt vegetarianism among Hindoo is to practice noncruelty to animals A-Kaal - At an odd time. A-Kaam - One who has no material desires. A-Karm - That action which should not be done. A-Kalank - Kalank means black spot, so A-Kalank means who is pure and clean. A-Krodh - Krodh means anger, so A-Krodh means not being angry, or being polite. A-Kshar - Kshar means unconscious, so A-Kshar means who is not unconscious - means Conscious. A-Kshaya - (1) Immortal. (2) Eternal - which does not get decayed. For example: Daan done on some specific days is A-Kshaya Daan. (Antonym: Kshaya) A-Naath - Naath means Lord or who takes care, so A-Naath means who doesn't have anybody to take care of, or an orphan. A-Nitya - Which is not always. Transient, mortal. A-Paar - Paar means the other line across something. When something is without across, it means that its another boundary is not seen, that is called A-Paar. Boundless. With no boundaries.

A-Paatra - (1) Worthless vessel. (2) Undeserving person A-Par - A-Dharm. Unrivaled. Another. Posterior. Inferior A-Paraa - Lower. A-Paraa Prakriti - see Prakriti A-Paraajit - Undefeated. A-Paraajitaa - (1) Undefeated. (2) A creeper. A-Parigraha - Parigraha means to collect, so A-Parigraha means not to collect even for emergency. A-Parnaa - (1) Parn means leaves, so A-Parnaa means without leaves. (2) Another name of Paarvatee (daughter of Himvaan and Mainaa) She was given this name by Tulasee Daas and Kali Daas because she meditated even without eating leaves for a long time. (3) A woman who is not in debt. A-Sang - Sang means being together, A-Sang means not being together with pleasures of the world. A-Santosh - Santosh means contentment, so A-Santosh means discontentment. A-Satya - Satya means truth, so A-Satya means which is not truth, means a lie. A-Shauch - Shauch means cleanliness, so A-Shauch means Un-cleanliness, see Agni Puraan, 14; Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/18; Sootak and Paatak A-Steya - Steya means to steal or to rob, and A-Steya means not to steal or rob. A-Sthir - Sthir means stable and A-sthir means unstable. A-Sur - Sur means Devtaa, thus A-Sur means who is not Devtaa. See also "Asur". A-Vidyaa - Ignorance. Where Vidyaa (knowledge) is not there. Lack of knowledge. False knowledge. False perception. According to Shankaraachaarya, A-Vidyaa is the illusory perception, that the world is real, it being a mere appearance. It can be removed only by knowledge - knowing the reality. A-Vimukt - see also A-Vimukt Kshetra below. This seat lies between the eyebrows and nose. A-Vyakt - Vyakt means which can be known through senses, so A-Vyakt means which cannot be known by senses, rather through guess only, that also a little only. Un-manifested. Unstated. Bhagavaan. God. A-Vinaashee - Vinaashee means destructible or mortal, so A-Vinashee means which cannot be destructed or is immortal - means Bhagavaan A-Vyaya - (1) Unspent - which is not spent. (2) Imperishable. A-Yaachit - which is not asked A-Yonijaa - used for feminine non-womb birth, such as Draupadee, Seetaa, A-Paraa Prakriti see Prakriti

A-Vimukt Kshetra A means not, and Vimukt means free; means which is not free. Vaaraanasee is one A-Vimukt Kshetra, so says Shiv Jee, because he has never "freed" it, he always lives there. There are 8

such places which are called A-Vimukt places and they are very secret - (1) Harishchandra, (2) Aamraatkeshwar, (3) Japyeshwar, (4) Shree Parvat, (5) Mahaalaya, (6) Bhrigu, (7) Chandeshwar, and (8) Kedaar Teerth. Shiv says that "My A-Vimukt Kshetra, means Kaashee, is the most secret one." A-Yaachit Vrat - in which one eats food whatever he gets, he does not ask for it. Aabharan Ornaments. Aachaar Rule of behavior or conduct. Aachaar Shaastra means Ethics. Aachaarya see also Guru Upaadhyaaya Who teaches Ved along with its secret (Yagya, Vidyaa and Upanishad) and Kalp, he is called Aachaarya. (Bhavishya Puraan, p 15) Aachaman Cleaning mouth by water. One takes a sip of water, revolves it around in the mouth and spits it. It is repeated three times and it is done normally before doing any worship, after finishing food, and before doing any religious activity. Aadhaar (1) Base, (2) Support. Aadi Beginning Aadi Kaavya Raamaayan written by Aadi Kavi Vaalmeeki. Aadi Kavi The first poet - Vaalmeeki. Aadimanu-Shataroopaa This was the first couple of man and woman. This Sanskrit word "Aadimanu" became Aadam by the time it reached the Arab world, and became Adam when it reached Europe. Shataroopaa changed to "Sauvaa" in Praakrit language, and it changed to Hauvaa in Arab world, and changed to Eve in Europe.
[Aangiras, p 61]

Aaditya Son of Kashyap's wife Aditi. (1) There are 12 Aaditya - (1) Dhaataa, (2) Aryamaa, (3) Savitaa, (4) Varun, (5) Ansh, (6) Bhag,

(7) Indra, (8) Vivaswaan, (9) Pooshaa, (10) Twashtaa, (11) Parjanya, and (12) Mitra.
(Padm Puraan, p 49-50)

(2) 8 Divinities - (1) Ansh, (2) Aaryaman, (3) Bhag, (4) Daksh, (5) Indra, (6) Mitra, (7) Soorya, and (8) Varun.
(Aangiras, p 61)

Aagam A sacred work, especially of Shaivism or Jainism. Aagneya see also Dishaa (1) Southeast direction. (2) Consecrated to fire. Aahuti Oblation. Something which is poured in sacrificial fire. It may be anything - some dry material (Saamagree - a mixture of sesame seeds, rice and some sweet smelling material), Ghee, part of the body (Raavan gave Aahuti of his heads) or anything. The last Aahuti is called Poorn Aahuti. Poorn means the complete, it means "now our all Aahuti are completed and this is the last one." Aahvaan (1) Invocation. (2) Invitation. Aajeevak Dandee Swaamee. Aakaashvaanee Divine voice. Voice from the sky or Heavens. Aalasya Laziness. Not to do one's duties, or delaying doing one's duties is called Aalasya. Aanan Mouth Aanand > Preeti > Praharsh Aanand means joy, bliss, (1) Aanand is what arises while enjoying the attained object. (2) Preeti is the satisfaction felt when the desired object is attained. (3) Praharsh is the joy felt at the certainty of attaining the object desired. (2) God is supposed to be "Sat Chit Aanand" - means who is "Absolute Truth", who is "Pure Intellect" and who is "Pure Joy". Aaraadhanaa Worship. Aaranyak see also Ved The set of the books, ancillary to Ved Sanhitaa. These deal with the symbolism of Yagya. Aaranyak have lost their usefulness over time. (Yagya are not possible in Kali Yug).

Aaratee Honoring a person or God by waving a lamp, burning an incense, and offering flowers, fruits, sweets, Tulasee or Bilva leaves, and water in front of that person or God's idol with reciting or not reciting a hymn. Aasan (1) Anything for seating purposes. It may be a kind of mat made from cloth, Kush grass, silk, or Jute etc to sit upon. Normally its size is only this much so that a person can sit comfortably on it - maybe 2.5 feet long and 2.5 feet wide. For rich people or kings etc, it may be a throne and can be made of gold, silver, marble, wood gem studded, etc. It can be low or high, whatever. (2) Certain positions (Mudraa) in prescribed ways, normally used in practicing Yog. (read Aasan in Yog). Aashaadh The 4th month of Hindoo Lunar Calendar Aashram Aashraya Resting place. Aashwin The 7th of the 12 months of Hindoo lunar calendar - (1) Chaitra, (2) Vaishaakh, (3) Jyeshth, (4) Aashaadh, (5) Shraavan, (6) Bhaadrapad, (7) Aashwin, (8) Kaarttik, (9) Maargsheersh or Agahan, (10) Paush, (11) Maagh and (12) Phaalgun. Aastiktaa Belief in Bhagavaan. Aasuree Swabhaav (7/21, 16/4) Raakshasee (devilish) nature. Aatank Terror. Aatankvaadee Terrorist. Aatataayee (1) Tormentor. (2) Killer or murderer. (3) Aatataayee are of six types - (1) he that sets fire to one's house, (2) he that mixes poison in one's food, (3) he that advances with weapon in his hand with hostile intent, (4) he that robs one's wealth, (5) he that invades one's fields, and (6) he that steals one's wife.
(Bhaagvat Puraan, 1/7)

Aatithya Hospitality. Aatm Gun There are 8 Aatm Gun - (1) Dayaa, (2) Kshamaa, (3) Ansooyaa, (4) Anaayaas, (5) Maangalya, (6) Akaarpanya, (7) A-Sprahaa, and (8) Shauch. Aatm Gyaan Knowledge of the soul. Aatmaa Soul. Aatmaa is pure and never dies. In Naarad Puraan, p 433, four types of Aatmaa are mentioned - Aatmaa, Antar-Aatmaa, Param-Aatmaa, and Gyaan-Aatmaa. Aatmghaatee Who commit suicide by putting noose in their neck because of insult, anger, love, or fear, thry are called Aatmghaatee. Such people live in Narak for 100,000 years.
[Agni Puraan, p 330]

Aatyantik (1) Entire. (2) Excessive. Aavaahan Invoking or inviting Devtaa or Bhagavaan to one's place before starting actual their worship or Yagya etc. Aavaaz Sound. There are special words in English for most animals' and birds' sounds, such as "An ass brays." or "A bird chirps." See Aavaaz for sounds of many other animals and birds. Aayaam To control. For example: Praanaayaam is a compound word by joining Praan and Aayaam. Praan means the air inside the body and Aayaam means to control; so Praanaayaam means to control air which is inside our body. Aayur Ved see also Ved The ancient Hindoo medical science. This is called fifth Ved also. Hindoo were first to have developed the art of and science of surgery. The world's oldest treatise on surgery "Sushrut Sanhitaa" was written by a Hindoo surgeon "Sushrut" around 100 AD. Hindoo physicians Often traveled abroad o treat people. Maanikya traveled to Bagadaad to treat the Caliph. Hindoo books of medicine and surgery were translated into Arabic, and from Arabic to Latin. They remained the primary sources of treatment in Europe and the Middle East until the 17th century AD.

Abhaav Lacking. Being short of. Abhijit see also A Nakshatra. Jyotish

Abhinandan (1) Applause. Praise. (2) Felicitation. (3) Greet. Abhishek (1) Anointing. (2) Consecrating. (3) Swearing in. (4) Initiation. Abhivaadan see also Namaskaar Abhivaadan includes Namaskaar and a a sacred Mantra or phrase at the same time, such as, "Jaya Shree Raam", "Jaya Shree Krishn", "Raam, Raam", "Jaya Raam Jee Kee" etc. Adhi A prefix meaning above and over. Adhi-Bhautik - Miseries inflicted by other living beings, or related to this world. Adhi-Bhoot - The perishable body of living beings. Five Bhoot or Mahaa-Bhoot - Earth, Water, Fire, Space and Fire. Adhi-Daivik - Natural disasters created by Devtaa of higher planets. Adhi-Daiv - Presiding Devtaa. Eleven Devtaa of 11 Indriyaan. Adhyaatmik - Miseries created by one's mind and body. Adhi-Yagya Incarnation of God in human form. Adhik Maas Adhikaar (1) Authority. (2) Claim. (3) Control. Adhyaatm (1) Related to God. (2) Concerning the soul of a person which represents the higher nature of God, as contrasted with the body of the person which represents the lower nature of God. (3) 11 Indriyaan, 5 Karm Indriyaan, 5 Gyaan Indriyaan, and one mind). Adhyaatm Gyaan Spiritual knowledge. Knowledge related to God and soul. Knowledge needed to achieve identification with the supreme soul or Brahm. Adhyaatm Raamaayan The story of Raam written in Sanskrit language, much later than Vaalmeeki. It forms a part of

Brahmaand Puraan. Tulasee's Maanas is based on this Raamaayan only. It is believed that it was written around 375 AD. Adhyaatmvaad Adhwaryu There are four people to perform a Yagya - Hotaa, Adhwaryu, Udgaataa, and Brahmaa. Among them Adhwaryu is he who recites Yajur Ved Sanhitaa. And when a Yagya is completed like this, it is called Chaaturhotra. Afeem Opium. Agahanee A type of rice. It is called Shaali rice also. It is considered sacred and is used in most worship. Agar Battee A thick paste of sweet smelling materials formed in soft sticks. These sticks are used to burn while worshipping Bhagavaan. A similar kind of material is smeared on a wooden stick and dried and is burned for its fragrance. It is called Agar Battee (incense stick) also. This can be inserted into a hole to keep it straight, but the Dhoop has to be fixed on a flat place like a plate. Agar Battee takes less time to ignite, in comparison of Dhoop Battee. Agh Sin. Agni Agni Pareekshaa This term is usually used in the reference of Raam and Seetaa. When Seetaa was abducted by Raavan, and Raam had killed Raavan, Raam took Her Agni Pareekshaa (Fire Test). In this test, She had to enter fire to prove Herself pure, clean and clear of anything bad. So she did. Lakshman prepared a pyre, Seetaa entered it, and Agni Dev (Fire god) brought Her out saying "Your Seetaa is clean and pure, please accept it." Sometimes this word is used for very difficult test also. Agni Puraan One of the 18 Puraan. Agnihotra The Yagya which is done daily. Agnishtom Yagya see Yagya

Agnisthalee A pot to burn fire. Aham Ego. The feeling of "I". Ahankaar Ahobhaagya Oh, How lucky. Airaavat Name of the mythical elephant who came out of the Saagar Manthan and is with Indra. Aitareya Derived from Itaraa, the mother of Aitareya (known as Maheedaas also), who was the author of Aitareya Braahman (contains historical material), Aitareya Upanishad, and Aitareya Aaranyak. Aishwarya (1) Greatness. (2) Lordship. (3) Prosperity. Aj (1) Who is without birth, means Bhagavaan. (2) He-goat. Ajagav Shiv's bow, also called Pinaak. Akaal Famine. Akhilesh One of the names of Vishnu. Akshat Unbroken rice, or barley for ritual purposes. Akshauhinee Old measurement of armies. In Mahaabhaarat, Kaurav had 11 Akshauhinee army and Paandav had 7 Akshauhinee army. According to Mahaabhaarat its calculation is given like this - 21,870 Chariots, 21,870 Elephants, 109,350 Foot soldiers, and 65,610 Horses make up 1 Akshauhinee army. Akshaya Vat A banyan tree which is eternal. It is believed that when the Universe submerges under the

water only this tree stands in those waters, and Bahagavaan Vishnu rests on this tree only. This tree is in Prayaag. Amaavasyaa The 15th day of Lunar Calendar. The New Moon day. There are three divisions of Amaavasyaa Sineevaalee, Darsh, Kuhoo. The last Prahar of 14th day and 8 Prahar of Amaavasyaa - these 9 Prahar time period is considered the decreasing period of Chandramaa (Moon). [8 Prahar = 1 day and night]. Among these 9 Prahar, in the first 2 Prahar there exists some Kalaa of Chandramaa, thus it is called Sineevaalee; and in the last 2 Prahar no Kalaa of Chandramaa exists, that is why it is called Kuhoo. The middle period of 5 Prahar is called Darsh. See also Kalaa.
(Naarad Puraan, p 109)

Amar Immortal. Eternal. Which cannot die. Amar Shail Amar means immortal; and Shail means mountain. Amar Shail means "the mountain which is never destroyed" and that is Sumeru mountain. Amaraavatee Amaraavatee is the capital of Swarg Lok. Three Devtaa (Brahmaa, Vishnu and Shiv) and four Lokpaal have their separate living places. Brahmaa lives in .... Vishnu lives in Ksheer Saagar and Shiv Jee lives on Kailaash Parvat. [According to Bhaagvat, 5/8] To the east of Meru Parvat is Indra's Devadhaanee Puree, to the south is Yam Raaj's Sanyamanee Puree, to the west is Varun's Nimlochanee Puree, and to the north is Chandramaa's Vibhaavaree Puree. The four Lokpaal - Indra's capital, his living place, is Amaraavatee in Swarg Lok; Varun's place is Vibhaavaree Nagaree; Yam's city is Sanyamanee Puree on Meru Parvat; Kuber's Nagaree is Alakaa Puree. Ambuj Lotus flower. Synonyms: Aravind, Kamal, Neeraj, Paarijaat, Padm, etc. Amogh (1) Unerring. (2) Infallible. Amrit Nectar. Ambrosia. Amrit Food see also Vighas Food The remaining food after offering to Devtaa and Pitar is called Amrit food. An An is a prefix for "no", thus An-aadi - which has no beginning.

An-aagat - Which has not come yet, means future. An-Sooyaa - An-Sooyaa is the opposite of Asooyaa. Not feeling jealous with anybody's progress. Anaahat Is a sound of Aum heard during the state of meditation. Anaamaya Free of disease, or healthy. Anant (1) A compound word, An+Ant = which has no end or border, borderless, limitless, infinite. (2) Immeasurable. (3) Another name of Shesh Naag. Anant Chaturdashee 14th day of Bhaadrapad Shukla. Vishnu is worshipped on this day. Andaj There are four types of taking birth in this world, which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij - which are born by bursting out the Earth, such as trees and mountains etc, (2) Swedaj - which are born by sweat, such as bedbug etc, (3) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chickens, birds etc, and (4) Jaraayuj - which are born Naal attached to them, such as human being calves etc Andhak see also Andhak (1) A Daitya. (2) A branch of Yaadav family. Ang (1) Part. (2) Portion. (3) A portion of the body. (4) A name of country - see Ang Desh. Angiras Maharshi Bhrigu's Descendents who composed the greatest number of Rig Ved hymns. This word comes from Agni. Bhrigu was called so because he was the originator of the worship of Agni Dev. His descendents are called Bhaargav or Aangiras.
(Aangiras, p 31)

Anhee Who lives naked and eats only fruits. Anagh Nish-Paap - sinless. Angiras The words Atharvan and Angiras are both connected with Fire and are descendants of Bhrigu who was the originator of Agni worship. The Paarasee priests are called Atharvan.

Ann see also Food (1) Cereals, such as wheat, rice, barley, millet, corn, pulses and beans. (2) Cooked food. Annpraashan see also Sanskaar Fist feeding of solid food to a child. This is an important and chief rite in Hindoo families. Annpoornaa Goddess Durgaa who provides food to mankind. Anoochaan Who learns Ved along with their six parts from a Guru, he is called Anoochaan.
[Naarad Puraan, 1/23]

Ansh (1) Part. (2) Portion. Antaraaya see also Klesh Antaraaya are of nine types - (1) Vyaqadhi - Disease, (2) Styaan, (3) Sanshaya - Doubt, (4) Pramaad - speaking illogically, (5) Aalasya - Laziness, (6) A-Virakti - Attachment, (7) Bhraanti Seeing a thing differently, (8) A-Labhi, (9) Not being stable in one's aim. Anulom Vivaah see also Vivaah Man married to a lower Varn woman. This is called Anulom Vivaah. Anuraadhaa 17th of the 28 Nakshatra (constellations). Anushthaan Doing of some Vrat, or Yagya, or some religious work. Anushtup see also Chhand A meter consisting of four, quarter-verses of 8 letters each. Anuyog Knowledge of Desh (country or place), Dishaa (direction) and Kaal (Time). Apaamaarg A plant (achyranthus aspera) Apaan Vaayu see Vaayu Aparaadh (1) Offense. (2) Crime. Crimes towards Vishnu Apsaraa

Apasavya Anti-clockwise ambulation, offering oblation to deceased ancestors. Apoop Pooaa. An Indian sweet normally made at home. A paste of sugar and wheat flour is made in water or milk and fried in Ghee or oil in the shape of a ball. Araajakataa Anarchy. Arani Pieces of special wood which are used to start fire for Yagya. The two pieces are rubbed each each other to start fire. Aranya (1) Forest. (2) Wilderness. Ardh Naareshwar The human concept of Shiv as half male and half female, signifying that Bhagavaan can be regarded as father or as mother. Arghya (1) Water oblation. Offering water to a deity. (2) According to [Bhavishya Puraan, 1/19] Ashtaang Arghya is when there are eight things to offer - water, milk, Kush grass front part, Ghee, yogurt, honey, red Kaner flower and red sandal. This Arghya is very dear to Soorya Bhagavaan. Arisht (1) Unhurt. (2) Perfect. (3) Misfortune. (4) Ill-luck. (5) Any type of mixture made of herbs. Arjun (1) Pure. (2) White. (3) 3rd of the 5 Paandav brothers. He was named so because he was fair complexioned. see Arjun. Arth (1) Meaning. (2) Purpose. (3) Wealth. One's life's has four purposes - Dharm, Arth, Kaam and Moksh. Doing Dharm, earning wealth [to do Dharm], fulfilling desires, and attaining Moksh. Arunaachal The Sun rises from behind this mountain and sets behind Astaachal. Arundhatee (1) Wife of Sage Vashishth. (2) Morning star.

Ashok (1) King. see Ashok. (2) A kind of tree. It is believed that it removes sorrows. It is mentioned in Tulasee's Maanas that Seetaa sat under the tree of Ashok while she lived in Raavan's Lankaa in Ashok Vaatikaa. Ashwamedh Yagya see Yagya

Ashwatth A sacred tree - commonly known as Peepal tree. In Bhagvad Geetaa, Chapter 15 mentions Ashwatth tree, wherein it refers to the banyan tree and not the Peepal tree. Ashwinee see Jyotish see also Ashwinee Kumaar The 1st of the 28 Nakshatra (constellations of the Moon). Ashtaang Yog see Yog

Ashtaadhyaayee Paanini's book of Sanskrit grammar. It is divided into eight chapters that is why this name. Asooyaa see also An-Sooyaa (1) Seeking fault in others. (2) To feel jealousy seeing others' progress. Astaachal The Sun rises from behind Arunaachal mountain and sets behind this ountain. Astra see also Shastra Weapons which are used by throwing, are called Astra, such as mace, arrows, missiles etc. Many Astra have been mentioned in our religious literature. Some of the names those Astra are given here - (1) Brahm Astra - is most powerful Astra, (2) Varun Astra - brings rains, (3) Aagneya Astra - produces fire and heat, (4) Vaayavya Astra - brings strong storms and winds, (5) Sammohan Astra - make people sleep, (6) Mohan Astra, (7) Sanhaar Astra, (8) Paashupat Astra - belongs to Shiv Jee. Asur (Aangiras, p 58) Its variants - Asoorya, Asooryaa, and Aasur, have occurred in Rig Ved 88 times. It has been derived from "Asu" was used as an adjective for "mighty". Although it has been mostly used for gods, but it has been used for non-gods also. After the Rig Ved period, it started being used as noun for demons and hostile beings, so Aarya coined the word "Sur" for gods, while continuing to use Dev also for gods. In retailiation Iraanian began using Dev for Devil. Ateet (1) Past. (2) Beyond (such as Gunaateet=Beyond Gun).

Atharvan The words Atharvan and Angiras are both connected with Fire and are descendants of Bhrigu who was the originator of Agni worship. The Paarasee priests are called Atharvan. Atiraatra Atirath This word has been used in Mahaabhaarat many times. Atirath is a chariot warrior who can fight with 60,000 men at one time. [MBH, 1/135] Atithi In English language guest, but it does not represent the true meaning of Atithi. Atithi is a compound word - A-Tithi. A means "no", and Tithi means "date", thus A-Tithi means whose date of coming is not known before. Since known people come after informing and they are not unknown also, so they are not counted as A-Tithi. Whose name and Gotra are not known before and who comes from some other village, such person is also called A-Tithi by definition. In normal meaning A-Tithi can be regarded as guest. Aum Pranav Mantra. Sacred syllable representing God. Normally used by Hindoo before and after pronouncing a sacred Mantra and before a prayer. Avaantar Kalp see Kalp

Avadhi Time period. Term of time. Avadhoot One who has given up worldly involvement. Avaneesh Avani means earth, and Eesh means Lord, thus Avaneesh means Lord of the earth, means Bhagavaan. Avasthaa (1) Age. (2) State of being. There are three states of being - waking, dreaming, and sound sleep Avataar see also Body Incarnation of God. Raam, Krishn, Mohinee all were Avataar. There are three types of bodies Empirical Body - that is our physical body which we can touch; Another Body which we see in dreams - we can see it, we can feel by that body but we cannot touch it; thus although it is a body but still it is not a body; and the third body is Avataar's body - they come for some purpose and go away after fulfilling that purpose. These bodies have no mind. Because we need mind to get knowledge. Since Avataar don't need any kind of knowledge, because they already have it, that is why they don't need this mind, so they don't have it. Otherwise they are like

human beings but certainly with special powers of God. Avataar possesses all characteristics of God. Avyang This word has been used in Bhavishya Puraan repetitively. According to Bhavishya Puraan, 1/18, it is made by cotton thread and is used by Bhojak Braahman to tie at waist. It is most ly used by Soorya's Bhakt and worshippers. Its 200 finger length is the best, 120 finger length is medium, and 108 finger length is minimum. Ayan see also Jyotish (1) Entrance. (2) Going in. (3) Solstice. (4) Path - The Sun has two paths - each of 6-month period. Thus there are two Ayan in one year - Uttar Ayan (Uttaraayan, or northern path) and Dakshin Ayan (Dakshinaayan, or southern path). This division is based on Sun's transition into another sign (Sankraanti) from northern side to southern side of Prithvi and southern side to northern side of Prithvi. Uttaraayan is when Sun enters Makar (Capricorn) sign and crosses Capricorn line towards north; and Dakshinaayan is when Sun enters Kark (Cancer) sign and crosses Cancer line going towards south. Makar Sankraanti falls on 13th or 14th January and Kark Sankraanti falls on 13th or 14th July. Ayut 10,000.

Baajpeya Yagya

see

Yagya

Baal Gopaal (1) Little children. (2) Child Krishn. Baalkhilya (Rishi) A class of Divine beings. They are 60,000 in number and always recite Ved Mantra sitting on Soorya's chariot. Their size is said to be equal to thumb. Baans see also Trees for the names of other trees Bamboo. Flutes are made of the bamboo; otherwise also it is used to make many things. Baatee Wick. A long thread made of normally raw cotton, to light the lamp. Bad (Tree) see also Trees for the names of other trees Banyan tree. This is also considered a sacred tree and is worshipped in India. It is believed that it is an immortal tree. When everything was destroyed after the Pralaya, Maarkandeya Muni saw Hari as a baby on this tree leaf only. Its branches grow so long that they come down, reach the

ground and grow again as a separate tree from there. There is a very old banyan tree in KalKatta (now Kolkata) in India under which a king's army took rest once. Badavaanal Badav means trees; and Anal means fire. Thus Badavaanal means "the fire which burns the forest". Bal Power. (1) For a king, there are 6 types of Bal - (1) Power of wealth, (2) Power of allies, (3) Power of forests, (4) Power of paid soldiery, and (5) Power of mechanical and trading classes. Among these strengths power of allies and power of wealth are superior to the rest. (2) In astrology also planets have their strength, that is also called Bal, or how powerful that planet is. Bandanvaar An auspicious thing to do while doing religious ceremonies or Poojaa. Two leaves of mango tree, or Ashok tree are tied at a 5-6 inches distance in a string and is hung on the top of doorways using nails on both the sides of the door. Battee see Baatee

Batu Young Braahman boy. Batuk (1) Another name of Shiv.

(2) Traveler.

Beej (1) Seed. (2) Source. (3) Aum word is known as Pranav, Beej or Mool Mantra. Bel see also Fruits for the names of the other fruits (1) A fruit - wood-apple. It is called Bilva also. It is a kind of fruit which is very hard from out side and fleshy from inside. Sometimes because of this hardness it is called Bel Patthar (stone). Its covering is really hard as stone. Its fruit and leaves are normally offered to Shiv Jee on Pradosh day and Shiv Raatri day. (2) Creeper. Bhaadrapad The 6th month of Hindoo Lunar calendar. Bhaagavat Puraan One of the 18 Puraan.

Bhaageerathee Another name River Gangaa. Bhaagya Fate. Destiny. In common usage Hindoo use Bhaagya to explain the cause of events they cannot control. Yet they believe that what is written in one's fate is the result of one's own past Karm (deeds), good or bad. One has to reap good or bad consequences of his own Karm. The Aajeevik sect of 6th century BC proposed that all happenings are determined by Niyati (Destiny) and Destiny is the circumstance over which man has no control, past, present or future. But Hindoo have rejected this doctrine. Bhaal The center part of the forehead. Maathaa Bhaaratee Another name of Saraswatee. Bhaaskar Another name of Soorya. Bhadrakaalee Another name of Durgaa. Bhagavaan He has many names - the Supreme Being, Parameshwar, Haru, Achyut, Vishnu, Vaasudev, Shiv etc. Bhagvad Geetaa Bhairav Another name of Shiv. Bhairavee (1) A musical Raag in Indian music. (2) Another name of Durgaa. Bhajan (Noun) - (1) Devotional songs. (Verb) - (2) Singing devotional songs. To Worship. Bhakt Devotee. Who does Bhakti. Bhakti

Bhaum (1) Mars. It is known as Mangal, Kuj (Kujaa), Rakt, Veer, and Angaarak also. (2) Bhaumvaar means Mangalvaar - Tuesday. Bhautik Shareer Physical body. Bhavaanee Another name of Durgaa. Bhavishya Puraan One of the 18 Puraan. Bhed (1) Difference. (2) Kinds or types - For example "This donation has 10 Bhed.", means "This donation is of 10 types". (2) One of the four policies - Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed. In this sense it means to create differences between two or more people. Bhikshaa (1) Alms. (2) Begging. Besides normal beggars (poor people), there are some others also who go for Bhikshaa. Children living with Guru for education, as Brahmchaaree, used to go to ask for Bhikshaa - asking for food. Vaanprasthee and Sanyaasee also used to go house to house for Bhikshaa asking for food. Bhikshu (1) Beggar. (2) Yati, who subsists on alms. Bilva see Bel

Bhog (1) Naivedya. The eatables offered to Bhagavaan for His eating. (2) Verb - To eat. (3) Noun Results or fruit of some Karm. (4) Verb - To enjoy or suffer according to one's Karm. Bhog Bhoomi see also Karm Bhoomi Where people enjoy the fruits of their Karm. Swarg and Narak are Bhog Bhoomi, as people enjoy or suffer for their actions there. Bhoo Lok Prithvi, or the Earth. Bhoomi Sookt Sookt 12-1 of Atharv Ved consisting of 63 Mantra. It is an outstanding Sookt (hymn) dedicated to the praise of one's own land of birth from the point of view of the contents and poetic beauty. It is called Prithvi Sookt also.

Bhoor Lok see also Prithvi According to MBH, Bhoor Lok is of 500 million (50 Crore) Yojan extent. In Bhoor Lok, there are seven islands - Jamboo, Pluksh, Shaalmali, Kush, Kraunch, Shaak and Pushkar which are surrounded by seven seas. The outer island from the inner island, and the outer sea from the inner sea are of just double their size. Ksheer (milk), Ikshu (sugarcane juice), Kshaar (salty), Ghrit (ghee or clarified butter), Dadhya (buttermilk), Ksheer-salil, and Jal (sweet water) these are the seven oceans. Vishnu rests in Ksheer Saagar. Bhoot see also Panch Mahaa-bhoot (1) Living being. (2) Past. (3) Five elements of nature - Prithvi (Earth), Vaayu (Air), Aakaash (Space), Agni (Fire), and Jal (Water). Bhootaatmaa Individual soul. Bhootbhaavan Beneficial to beings - Shiv. Bhootnaath Another name of Shiv. Bhramar Black bee, or Bumble bee. Bhaunraa, or Bhanvaraa, or Madhukar. Bhujagendra Another name of Shesh Naag. Bhuvaneshwar The Lord of the three Lok, Vishnu. Bhuvaneshwaree God as Divine mother. Bindee (1) Zero. (2) Dot. (3) Originally a red-colored circular mark put in the middle on the forehead by Indian women. It used to be common to all religions earlier, but as time passed, it has become exclusive to the women of the Hindoo families. Until the early 20th century this was a mark of married woman who stopped using it if they became widow. Unmarried girls could also use this Bindee as until they became widow, they were considered Suhaagin (married and whose husband is alive). But now-a-days it has become a fashion, regardless of marital status, it is neither restricted to red color, nor does it need to be circular. Birds for the names of various birds

Body Body is of several types (1) Physical body or Empirical body - this is the body we have, (2) Avataar's body - this is the body Bhagavaan takes, (3) Causal Body - this is the body which is the cause of our birth, normally it consists of the records of our Karm, (4) Subtle body - the Sookshm body which leaves our physical body when we die. Subtle body and Causal body live together and cause us to take birth again, and (5) Dream body - this is the body we take in our dreams, this body gets physically hurt, but still our own physical body does not get hurt; of course emotions are felt - we laugh, we weep, we cry, we fear in dreams and still feel their effect after we wake up. Braahman Braahman's Karm Brahm God, the Supreme Soul - Paramaatmaa. Brahm, according to Chhaandogya Upanishad is "Tajjalaan" (tat-ja-laan) - that from whom the Universe is born and into whom it will return and by whom it is sustained He is Parameshwar and is sometimes called Param Brahm also. He is considered to live in everybody's heart as His Individual Soul (Aatmaa). According to Ved, there is one God. He expresses Himself as Soorya (Sun), Indra, Varun, Mitra etc. According to Upanishad, Brahm is the Supreme Soul, is indefinable, is Eternal and is the Creator of the Universe. With this theory He performs these function with His three forms - Brahmaa, Vishnu and Shiv. He is neither male nor female, or if you will, both. As both He is Shiv and Shakti or Shiv and Durgaa - Shiv being male and Shakti or Durgaa being female. Thus Shiv and Durgaa together represent God in the form of "Ardh-Naareeshwar" - an image of half male and half female. Brahm Belaa Morning time when only a few stars are visible in the sky. Brahm Gyaan Knowledge about Brahm, or Divine knowledge. Brahm Hatyaa Killing of a Braahman. It is considered great sin. Brahm Koorch see also Panch Gavya Mix 1 Pal cow's urine (saying Gaayatree Mantra), cow dung equal to half thumb (with "Gandh Dwaaraam Duraadharshaa.." Mantra - Shree Sookt), 7 Pal milk (with "Aapyaaya Swa..." Mantra Yajur, 12/112), 2 Pal yogurt (with "Dadhi Kraavno..." Mantra - Yajur 23/32), 1 Pal Ghee (with "Tejo Asi Shukra Masyamrit Masi..." Mantra - Yajur 22/1) , and 1 Pal Kush water (with "Devasya..." Mantra - Yajur 20/3) together. All mixed together is called Brahm Koorch. (for Pal

see Measurement-Weight)
[Agni Puraan, p 361-362]

Brahm Lok Brahm Lok is another term for Vaikunth. It is above Brahmaa's Lok. Brahm Muhoort Duration of an hour before sunrise or pre-dawn, normally between 4 and 5 am in Northern India. It is called Prabodh Kaal also. Brahm Sootra Name of the book written by Baadaraayan claiming to present the entire contents of the genuine Upanishad in the form of aphorisms. This book is also known as "Vedaant Sootra". The term Vedaant became popular meaning "the Final Message of the Ved". Brahm Vidyaa Paraa Vidyaa; or knowledge of Brahm; or knowledge of total existence or spiritual wisdom that leads to seeker to the realization of Brahm. According to Upanishad this Vidyaa, knowledge, is absolute, that is why after knowing this "the unheard becomes heard, and the unknown becomes known". Brahmaa Brahmaakshar Brahm+Akshar=Aum Brahmaavart Literally means "The country where God lives. It was the name of the region which later came to be known as Hariyaanaa. Brahmarshi A sage who has attained Brahm Brahmchaaree Who observes Brahmcharya. Brahmcharya Abstinence. see also Aashram

Brahmvaivart (Puraan) One of the 18 Puraan.

see also

Puraan

Brihad-Devtaa Name of a work describing Vaidik deities.

Brihadaaranyak (Upanishad) Name of one of the genuine Upanishad. Brihadrath (1) Another name of Indra. (2) Father of Jaraasandh. (3) Name of the last king of of the Maurya Dynasty. Brihaspati (1) Dev Guru. (2) Father of Bharadwaaj Rishi in c 2000 BC. (3) The author of the book of Aphorisms preaching atheism on the lines of Charvaak around 400 AD. (4) Planet Jupiter. Buddha (1) Planet Mercury. (2) Son of Chandramaa - his son was Pururavaa who started Chandra Vansh. (3) Buddhavaar - the 4th day of the week - Wednesday. (4) Awakened, or enlightened means Gautam Buddha. Buddhi (1) Wisdom. (2) Mind. (3) Intellect.

Cereals Ann. Grains. Chaandaal (1) A very low caste of Indian society, such as . People do not like even to touch them sometime back they were called "untouchables". (2) Naarad Puraan tells three types of Chaandaal - (1) Who is born from a maiden, (2) Who is born from a Sa-Gotra girl in spite of being married, and (3) Who is born from a Shoodra man and a Braahman woman.
(Naarad Puraan, p 596)

Chaandraayan Vrat

see

Vrat and Fasts

Chaaturhotra Sacrifice. A Yagya has four people to complete it, and when a Yagya is completed by these four people, it is called Chaaturhotra - (1) Hotaa to chant Rig Ved, (2) Adhwaryu to chant Yajur Ved, (3) Udgaataa to chant Saam Ved, and (4) Brahmaa to chant Atharv Ved.
(Bhaagvat Puraan, 1/4)

Chaaturmaasya Chakra

Chakra Vyooh A circular maze of troops to trap the enemy. Chakrapaani Another name of Krishn. Chakravartee Sovereign of a vast empire. Chamar It is used to fly flies from the body. It is made with the hair of the tail of certain cow found in Himaalaya mountains. The hairs are tied to a stick. The person shakes the stick and those hairs help to move flies away from the person. Normally Chamar is used for kings, Bhagavaan's idols and great saints. Chandaal see Chaandaal

Chandan Sandal. Its wood is called sandalwood; and a paste is made by rubbing its wood piece on a stone and is applied to the idols of Bhagavaan and on one's forehead as Teekaa or Tilak. Chandan is of two types - white and red. It is because of the color of the sandalwood. Chandee Durgaa. Chandra Moon. Chandra Grahan Lunar eclipse. Chandrahaas The name of Divine sword given by Shiv to Raavan when Raavan shook Kailaash Parvat. Chandrashekhar Another name of Shiv. Char (1) Moving. (2) Living beings. Its antonym is - A-Char. Charanaamrit see also Panchaamrit A compound word - Charan=feet, and Amrit=nectar. The water after washing feet. Whatever water or Panchaamrit is used to wash feet of God, is called Charanaamrit after the feet are washed. This water can be from washing of anybody's feet. People may drink it or sprinkle it in their houses after washing feet of even great people, then what to say of Bhagavaan. Normally

Bhagavaan's idol is bathed with Panchaamrit; and great people's and saints' feet are washed with water when they come home. Panchaamrit becomes Charanaamrit after washing feet of Bhagavaan and is normally drunk in the right hand and then the hand is touched with the head. This Panchaamrit (water) is sometimes sprinkled all over the house when it is of very great saint. Panchaamrit and Charanaamrit are used alternatively in Bhagavaan's reference. But theoretically Panchaamrit is made of five things - milk, yogurt, honey, a little Ghee (clarified butter), and sugar. Normally Bhagavaan is bathed with Panchaamrit but sometimes water is also used. Charanodak Panchaamrit and Charanaamrit are also called Charanodak. Chatur-bhuj see also Chaturbhuj Roop (1) Rectangle. (2) Four-armed. Chatur-bhuj Roop Bhagavaan Vishnu's well-known and most popular form in which He has four arms carrying Shankh (conch), Chakra (Divine disc), Gadaa (mace) and Padm (lotus flower). That form of His is called His Chaturbhuj Roop. Chatur-Ved The four Ved - Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Atharv Ved, and Saam Ved. Chatur-Yug A 4-Yug period - Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali - these four Yug combined are called a ChaturYug or Mahaa-Yug. Chaturaanan Another name of Brahmaa Jee Chaturang (1) Chaturanginee army (see below) (2) A game of chess invented in Bhaarat (India) where the pieces represented elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry. Persians took it and called it Shataranj. Chaturanginee Army Chatur means "of four types". Chaturanginee army means the army of four types. In olden times there were four types of soldiers in an army - (1) Foot soldiers or infantry who fought on foot; (2) Who fought on horse or cavalry; (3) who fought on elephants; and (4) who fought on chariots. Whichever army had all these four types of soldiers, was called Chaturanginee army. Chaturthee The 4th day of any Paksh (fortnight) of Lunar Calendar.

Chaunkanaa Shocked. Chetanaa Mind. In everyday use it means consciousness. Chhandogya One of the 18 main Upanishad. Chhand Chhatra Umbrella. Used mostly for Bhagavaan's or King's umbrella. Chid (1) Wisdom. (2) Consciousness. Chintan (1) Thinking. (2) Reflecting. Chiranjeevee or Chir-jeevee Chir=for a very long time or for ever, and Jeevee=Live, so Chir-jeevee means "live forever". For some discussion on Chiranjeev see the following sites -http://3ws.veda.harekrsna.cz/encyclopedia/general.htm. The Vishnu Puraan says that the next Ved Vyaas will be Drone's son Ashwatthaamaa. As you may know from the MBH, Ashwatthaamaa is immortal. http://3ws.dharmakshetra.com/literature/puranas/VISHNU.htm Here, much material is there regarding Ashwatthaamaa: http://3ws.factbites.com/topics/Ashwatthama Also see this, a good summarization of war chapters: http://3ws.warriormonks.com/kurukshetra/kurukshetra.html MBH will not tell Whys and Hows about these Chiranjeevee people. We have to search in related Puraan.

Chit Pure knowledge or pure intellect. God is supposed to be "Sat Chit Aanand" - means who is "Absolute Truth", who is "Pure Intellect" and who is "Pure Joy". Chitt (1) Mind. Mind. Chitta is general term used for mind, which includes Maanas (lower mind), Ahankaar (ego) and Buddhi (intellect). It is used for subconscious mind, the storehouse of all the subtle impressions of one's thoughts, speech and actions. (2) Thought. Choodaa (1) Diadem, top of head. (2) Braid. Chotee. In Tulasee's Maanas Seetaa gives Her Choodaa Mani to Hanumaan as the identification of Herself to be given to Raam. It was an ornament used to beautify hair or Teekaa worn by Indian women on their head.

Choodaa Mani Chowk see

see Mandal

Choodaa

Chunnee Ruby. Laal. Chyavan (1) Moving. (2) Name of Rishi who contributed some hymns to Ved Cow Five cows appeared from Saagar Manthan - Nandaa, Subhadraa, Surabhi, Sumanaa and Shobhanaavatee. [Bhavishya Puraan, 1/21] Creation Creation is of two types - Sthaavar (immovable), called Udbhij also which are born bursting out the ground such as trees, mountains etc and Jangam (movable) creation. Jangam creation is of four types - (1) Swedaj - which are born from sweat, such as bedbugs etc, (2) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chicks, birds etc, and (3) Jaraayuj - which are born with Naal attached to them as a child, such as human beings, many animals etc, and (4) Udbhij - which are born by bursting out the earth, such as trees, mountains etc.

Daam (1) Price. (2) Value. Daamodar Another name of Krishn given to Him when He was bound by rope by His mother Yashodaa. Daamodar Maas Adhik Maas. Additional month of Hindoo lunar calendar to adjust with solar calendar. Daan (1) Donation. (2) Giving without taking anything in exchange of it. Daanav Descendents of Kasshyap and Danu. Since these descendents were wicked, the term denotes for demon. Dahan Burning.

Daitya Descendents of Kashyap and Diti. They were wicked and hence the term Daitya means Raakshas (demon). Daiv (1) Creator or Vidhaataa. (2) Divine. Daivee Gaayatree According to Padm Puraan, p 924, "Daivyekam" - according to this Pingal Sootra, 1-letter or a Chhand of 1-Pad of 8-letters is Daivee Gaayatree Mantra. According to 1-letter, Pranav Mantra (Aum) is considered as Daivee Gaayatree Mantra; and according to the second meaning any 8letter Mantra may be called Daivee Gaayatree Mantra. Both Daivee Gaayatree Mantras are called "Ekaaksharaa" and "Ek-Padaa" Gaayatree respectively. The 24-letter famous Gaayatree is called "Tr-Padaa Gaayatree" because of consisting of 3-Pad (3 Charan or 3 lines) of 8 letters each. Dakshin (1) South direction. (2) Right side. Dakshinaa Dam (1) Control on Indriyaan. (2) power or might. Daman Repressing, such as Kaaliya Daman - repressing Kaaliya Naag. Damaroo A tiny drum of the shape of hourglass. Shiv carries Damaroo in one of his hands. Dand (1) Punishment. (2) Scepter or rod. (3) Measurement of time - 24 minutes. Called as Ghatikaa or Ghadee also. Dard (1) Pain. (2) Anguish. Darshan Dashaashwamedh 10-horse sacrifice. In Vaaraanasee, there is a famous Ghaat (place of taking bath) named Dashaashwamedh. Dattak Adopted, such as Dattak Putra means adopted son.

Dayaa Kindness. Mercy. Deekshaa (1) The ceremony of initiation. Certain Mantra are recited to show the intention of performing whatever he is supposed to perform. (2) Consecration for religious ceremony, (3) To become a disciple methodically with rituals. Or to take Mantra methodically from Guru. In fact both are same, the first one is before doing some sacrifice (Yagya) and the second one is to become a disciple. Deemak Termites. Deen (1) Poor. (2) Badly off. (3) Benign. (4) Forlorn. (5) Indigent. (6) Wicked. (7) Needy. (8) Heavy. (9) Piteous. (10) Pitiable. (11) Lowly. (12) Indignant. (13) Humble. (14) Cowardly. (15) Unhappy. Deep or Deepak Lamp Desh (1) Region. (2) Country. Dev Derivatively the term means radiant. It is used for God, a deity, one of god's Divine power. Mahaadev is used for Shiv. Indradev is used for Indra, the god of rain. In the sense of angel or a Divine being there can be 33 Dev. Dev is an Indo-European word with equivalents of Divine in English, deus in Latin, and Devas in Lithuanian. Dev also means Devtaa. The English word deity is derived from Devtaa. Devarshi Another name of Naarad Jee. Devatwa Devtaa like qualities. Devee see also Durgaa

Devee Mahaatmya The greatness of Devee - a poem in Maarkandeya Puraan which describes triumph of Durgaa over Raakshas. It is also called Durgaa Saptshatee and is recited by the worshippers of Durgaa. Devtaa (1) Smaller gods. (2) Deity.

Devtaa Nagaree (1) Chandramaa lives in Vibhaavaree Puree, located to the north of Meru Parvat. (2) Yam Raaj lives in Sanyamanee Puree located to the south of Meru Parvat. (3) Indra lives in Devadhaanee Puree located to the east of Meru Parvat. His Amaraavatee Nagaree in Swarg is also famous. (4) Varun lives in Nimlochanee Puree located to the west of Meru Parvat. (5) Brahmaa lives in Brahm Lok. (6) Shiv lives on Kailaash Parvat. (7) Vishnu Lives in Ksheer Saagar. (8) Kuber lives on Kailaash Parvat. Dhaam (1) Dwelling place. (2) World (Lok). For example Vishnu Lok and Visnu Dhaam are same in meaning - means where Vishnu lives. There are three Dhaam in India. (1) A-Dwait Dhaam (Jagannaath Puree - here all types of differences get disappeared), (2) Moksh Dhaam (Kaashee - whoever dies here attains Moksh) and (3) Aanand Dhaam (Vrindaa Van - this is the place where one feels joy). Dhaaran (Geetaa, 18/33) see also Dhyaan (1) Holding. (2) Retention. (3) Maintaining. (4) It is a process of Yog in which one concentrates or fixes one's mind on something. To involve mind, Praan and Indriyaan in singing Bhagavaan's glory, meditation, and Nish-Kaam Karm to attain Bhagavaan is called Dhaaran. Dhaaranaa see also Ashtaang Yog (1) To bear something. (2) To have a concept of something. Dhaataa Who feeds and nourishes. Dhaatu see also Names of Metals Metal, such as gold, silver etc. Dhan (1) Money. (2) Wealth Dhanu (1) Bow. (2) One of the 12 Signs through which Soorya passes in one year - Saggittarius. Dhanush (1) Bow. (2) Length measurement. Dhanvantari Dhanvantari is one of the 14 Ratn (gems) coming out of the Ksheer Saagar Manthan when Dev and Asur churned the sea to get Ambrosia (Amrit). He was appointed as Devtaa's Vaidya (doctor) since he knew all kinds of medicines. He is the father of Indian Aayurveda.

Dharm Dharm, Arth, Kaam Moksh Dharm Shaastra Dharm Sootra see Sootra see Purushaarth

Dhoomketu Puchchhal Taaraa. Comet. Dhoop A thick paste of sweet smelling materials formed in soft sticks. These sticks are used to burn while worshipping Bhagavaan. A similar kind of material is smeared on a wooden stick and dried and is burned for its fragrance. It is called Agar Battee (incense stick) also. This can be inserted into a hole to keep it straight, but the Dhoop has to be fixed on a flat place like a plate. Agar Battee takes less time to ignite, in comparison to Dhoop Battee. Dhriti (1) Consistency. (2) Steadiness. (3) Firmness. (4) Firmness of mind. (5) Satisfaction. (6) Patience. Dhritraashtra (1) One with firm empire. (2) Name of the blind king of Hastinaapur in the Bharat Vansh, father of Duryodhan and Dushaasan etc 100 sons. Dhruv Taaraa Polar star. This star is always positioned in relation to Sapt Rishi (Great Bear). It never displaces from its place. Dhuree Axle. Dhyaan see also Ashtaang Yog, Dhaaran This is also a stage of Yog, the next to Dhaaran. To meditate. to abstract one's mind from surrounding objects. First is Dhaaran then comes Dhyaan. Dik Direction Dikpaal or Digpaal Lord of direction. There are 10 Dikpaal for 10 directions, from East to North-East - (1) East Brahmaa, (2) South-East - Indra, (3) South - Agni, (4) South-West - Yam, (5) West - Nirriti, (6) North-West - Anant, (7) North - Varun, (8) North-East - Vaayu, (9) Sky - Kuber, and (10) Paataal - Eeshaan.

[Agni Puraan, p 308]

Kumud, Kumudaaksh, Pundareek, Vaaman, Shankukarn, Sarvnidra, Sumukh, Supratishthit - these are the Dikpaal of Ayodhyaa city which is in Param Dhaam.
[Padm Puraan, 5/36]

Dishaa Directions. There are 10 directions - 4 are main - Poorv (east), Dakshin (south) Pashchim (west), and Uttar (north); and 4 are in between them - Agni or Aagneya (south-east), Nairritya (southwest), Vaayavya (north-west), and Eeshaan (north-east); and 2 more - one above in sky and one below on earth. Distance Measurement Divine Weapons Donation see Daan

Doorvaa A kind of grass used in worship ceremonies. Doot (1) Legate. (2) Messenger. (3) Envoy. (4) Angel of God. (5) Emissary. (6) Courier. (7) Ambassador. Dosh (1) Faults. (2) Shortcomings. (3) Impurities. Drone (1) Name of an Aachaarya who taught weaponery to Kaurav and Paandav. (2) In MBH 1/10, this word is used for a vessel in which Bharadwaaj Muni kept his semen which fell after seeing Ghritaachee Apsaraa and Dronaachaarya was born from it. A wooden vessel. (3) Measurement of weight in ancient India. Durgaa see also Durgaa's Names The most popular name of Paarvatee, the consort of Shiv. Durgaa is Shiv's power. Popularly known as Devee. Durgaa Saptshatee A poem in Maarkandeya Puraan which describes triumph of Durgaa over Raakshas. It is also called Durgaa Saptshatee and is recited by the worshippers of Durgaa. Duryodhan (1) Difficult to conquer. (2) The eldest son of Dhritraashtra.

Dwaadashee 12th day of one Paksh of the month. Dwaapar Yug see Yug The third of the four divisions of time - Sat Yug, Tretaa Yug, Dwaapar Yug, and Kali Yug. Dweep Island. Dwi-Janmaa Who has been reborn. In Hindoo Dharm a Sanskaar is performed to make the baby reborn as Hindoo. Until this Sanskaar is performed the child is not Hindoo. And this Sanskaar is performed for Braahman, Kshatriya and Vaishya children. Dwij (1) Who are born twice. There are four Varn - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra. The first three Varn are called Dwij - because their first birth is from their mother and their second birth is by Upanayan Sanskaar - by sacred thread consecration.. Because of these two reasons these three Varn people get the status of Dwij. (2) Whose all Sanskaar, from birth to death are performed according to Ved, are called Dwij. Dyoot or Dyoot Kreedaa

Eclipse Eent Brick. Eeshaan (1) Vishnu. (2) Shiv. (3) North-east direction. Eeshaavaasya Upanishad One of the Upanishad. Eeshopanishad Short form of Eeshaavaasya Upanishad. Eeshwar Bhagavaan, God, Paramaatmaa Ekaadashee 11th day of a fortnight Hindoo Lunar calendar.

Ek-Bhukt Vrat see also Vrat and Fasts In whichever fast, one eats only once, in the evening, just after sunset, and then eats only next morning after sunrise, it is called Ek-Bhukt Vrat.

Fasts

see

Vrat and Fasts

Festivals Celebrations in lieu of something. Fire see also Panchaagni Gaarhapatya Fire - Heart (Hridaya) is the Gaarhapatya Fire. Aavaahneeya Fire - Mind is Aavaahneeya Fire. Food and Food Items Fruits Frumentary A dish made with wheat cooked in milk. It may be sweet Daliyaa (broken wheat cooked in milk with sugar, or semolina pudding (Soojee cooked in milk with sugar).

Gaandeev Gaandeev was Arjun's famous bow. It was given to him by Agni Dev when he gratified him by burning Khaandav Van. Gaargee A learned woman who had the conversation with Yaagyavalkya Rishi. Their conversation is given in Brihadaaranya Upanishad. Gaarhapatya Fire One of the three sacred Fires maintained by a householder. Gaayatree (1) A type of Chhand - meter of poetry. (2) Mantra. Any Mantra may be called Gaayatree Mantra if it satisfies Gaayatree Chhand's requirements. But Gaayatree Mantra is more famous by a certain Mantra which was composed by Vishwaamitra. see Gaayatree Mantra below Gaayatree Mantra Gadaa (1) Club. (2) Mace. Gadaa can be used in four types - (1) hurling it from a distance, (2) striking it at foes who are near, (3) whirling it at the midst of many, and (4) driving the foe before.

Gaj Elephant. Haathee. It is believed that the old incident - Gaj (the king of the forest) and Graah (crocodile - the king of the waters) fight happened in Sonpur, Bihaar. Gajaanan Whose face is of elephant. Another name of Ganesh. Gan (1) Troop. (2) Group. (3) Group of men or angels under the superintendence of Ganesh Jee. That is why he is called Ganapati or Ganaadhipati also. Ganagaur Celebrated on Chaitra Shukla Triteeyaa by women. It is said that on this day Paarvatee blesses women for the long life of their husbands. This festival is popular in Raajsthaan. Ganapati Who is the Lord of Gan (servants). Another name of Ganesh. Ganapati Stotra A special prayer in praise of Ganesh. Gandharv Male fairies living in Heaven. They are the musicians in Indra's court. Their counterparts, female fairies, are called Apsaraa. They are the consorts of Gandharv. Gandharv is also the name of an Indian tribe. Gandharv Vivaah One of the eight types of marriages prescribed by Manu. This is love marriage, without ceremony, with the consent of boy and girl. Ganesh Believed to be the son of Shiv and Paarvatee Jee. Younger brother of Kaartikeya. Elephantheaded god of Hindoo. He is worshipped first among all Devtaa. He has 108 names, some of them are - Gajaanan, Ganapati, Vaachaspati, Vaageesh, Vighnesh, Vinaayak. Ganesh Chaturthee Bhaadrapad Shukla Chaturthee which is considered the birth date of Ganesh. Garud Garuddhwaj Garud Puraan One of the main 18 Puraan. According to Aangiras (p 122), its contents have doubtful value.

Gati (1) Status. (2) Situation. When a soul is born in lower species, it is said to have bad Gati. Born being a human being is considered a good Gati on Prithvi. In after life if somebody goes to Hell, he is said to have bad Gati. Going to Heaven is a good Gati, and attaining Moksh is the best Gati. Gauraang (1) Fair-complexioned. (2) Another name of Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu. Geetaa Book of songs. Short name of Bhagavad Geetaa - the dialog between Krishn and Arjun, found in MBH. Gems Expensive stones, such as (1) Heeraa (diamond), (2) Laal, or Chunnee (ruby), (3) Neelam, or Padm-raag, or Indraneel (sapphire), (4) Motee or Muktaa (pearl), (5) Moongaa (coral), (6) Pannaa or Marakat (emerald). Geroo A type of red clay which is mostly used in drawing Mandals and other Devtaa-related drawings. It comes in hard lumps, so it is ground and mixed with water, which gives a kind of red ink. Then this ink is used to draw figures on floor or walls. For beauty, other colors are also diluted and filled in thos drawings made by Geroo. It is very popular in north India. Ghaat A place on the banks of river, where one can take bath safely. There are several such famous places on various holy rivers, such as Dashaashwamedh Ghaat, Manikarnikaa Ghaat etc Ghadee A time period in Indian religious astrology - 24 minutes. 60 Ghadee makes 1 day. 60 x 24 minutes = 1440 minutes; 1440/60 minutes = 144/6 = 24 hours = 1 day. Ghantaa (1) Bell. (2) Hour - 1/24th part of one day. Ghatee see Ghadee

Ghee Clarified butter. Butter is boiled and its water content is dried. the remains is called Ghee. It is used to light lamp before God, making sweets and food. Normally people do not use oil to light lamps in religious ceremonies. In India people use it in cooking and eat it in their daily food items. Go (Gau) Cow. For several centuries, cow has been a sacred animal in Hindoo society. It is interesting to

know as how it came to be a sacred animal. In the early Vaidik times, the cow did not have any special place. In fact the Hindoo of early Vaidik age ate beef as it is evident from Rig Ved and Uttar-Raamcharit of Bhavabhooti. In due course they found that eating beef was not a good idea since it was harmful to human body. The germ of this experience is also present in Rig Ved itself, where the term "Aghnya" suggests it. As time passed Hindoo stopped eating beef and became vegetarian. History is repeating itself in west. They are rediscovering that beef and other meats are harmful for human body and are becoming vegetarian. The Hindoo society did not have large dairy farms. Each family owned its own cow or cows to provide milk, butter, cheese etc. Thus they became the family member and as such people found them difficult to kill that cow which provided milk etc for so long for the family.
[Aangiras, p 126-127]

Go-Charm (Bhoomi) see also Distance 2,100 arm-length (2 arm-length = 1 yard, thus 2,100 arm-length land is about 1,050 yard land) land is called Go-Charm Bhoomi (land).
(Naarad Puraan, p 721)

Go-Daan see also Daan Gift of cow or cows. Go-Daan has a great importance in Hindoo religion. Go-Maya Cow dung. Gopaal Sahstranaam A book of poems mentioning 1,000 names of Krishn Gope Cowherd Gopee Cowherdess Gopee Chandan Soil of Dwaarakaa. Gopuram Literally means "Cow city". The term first assigned to the Vaidik village, later assigned to the gate of the city and finally the monumental entrance. This type of tower is distinguished from the Vimaan by its oblong plan at the top which is an elongated vaulted roof with gable ends. It has pronouncing sloping sides, usually 65 degrees, so that the section at the top is about half the size of the base. Although the first two storeys are usually built solidly of stone masonry, the rest is of lighter material, usually brick and plaster. One can see the Paandyaa Gopuram at Jambookeshwar near Tiruchiraapallee and in Chidaambaram and Tirumalai Temples.

Gotra Clan. In the beginning of the creation, when families started, individual sons were treated as of individual families and Gotra. Gotra is mainly used in marriages. Children of the same Gotra do not usually marry. They are somewhat considered like brothers and sisters and brothers and sisters do not marry each other. ------------The original classification of Braahman was based on 7 ancient priest families. Gotra were the family names derived from the original Rishi, such as Vashishth, Kashyap etc. As the population increased these 7 Gotra began to be considered as Mool Gotra (original Gotra). Sub-divisions of these Gotra were created in hundreds all traceable to original Gotra. The Gotra of Kshatriya and Vaishya were based on the Gotra of their family-priest from ancient times.
[Aangiras, p 127]

Graam (1) 1/1000th part of Kilogram a measure to weigh dry things. (2) Village Graas Kaur. Morsel. Grah Planets. According to Hindoo astrology, there are nine planets - (1) Soorya (the Sun), (2) Chandra (the Moon), (3) Mangal (Mars), (4) Budh or Kujaa (Mercury), (5) Brihaspati or Guru (Jupiter), (6) Shukra (Venus), (7) Shani (Saturn), (8) Raahu, and (9) Ketu. Our Prithvi (the Earth) is also a planet, but it is not counted as planet while seeing other planets' affect on Prithvi or its people. Grahan (1) Accepting. (2) Grasping. (3) Eclipse. There are two Grahan - Soorya Grahan (Solar eclipse) and Chandra Grahan (Lunar eclipse). Soorya Grahan alwyas falls on Amaavasyaa (New Moon day) and Chandra Grahan always falls on Poornimaa (Full Moon day). Both periods are considered auspicious for charity (Daan). Grains see also Cereals (1) A single unit of a cereal or pulse, or anything. (2) An imperial measurement of weight for dry things Granthi (1) Knot. (2) Problem. There are seven Granthi mentioned in Naarad Puraan, p 405 - Kalaa, Kaal (Time), Niyati (destiny), Vidyaa (knowledge), Raag (intense love), Prakriti (five Bhoot), and Gun (attributes three Gun - Sat, Raj, and Tam). Grih House or home.

Grihya-Sootra A book describing how sacraments should be performed. Several writers have written such books, the more well-known among them being Aashwalaayan, Gobhil, Hiranyakeshee, Paaraskar, Shankhaayan and Aapastamb. All of these books are very similar to each other in contents and were perhaps written during 600 BC - 200 BC period. Much of the materials of these books has been obsolete except some Mantra borrowed from Ved. A new Grihya-Sootra has been written by Aangiras Muni based on Rig Ved, Atharv Ved and other sources to make it meaningful to modern times. Gun see also Gun Vibhaag and Karm Vibhaag Quality, a natural tendency. There are three Gun, called also Tri-Gun 1. Saatwik, or Sato Gun is the tendency to think and perform virtuous deeds 2. Raajas, or Rajo Gun denotes the passion for acquiring worldly pleasures. 3. Taamasik, or Tamo Gun denotes laziness and ignorance Since they are the attributes, these can be attached to many things, for example, Tri-Gunee Prakriti, Tri-Gunee Karm, Tri-Gunee creation, etc. Men are said to have all three natures in different proportions. The ideal is to shed Raajas and Taamas and adopt pure Saatwik nature. Gun Vibhaag and Karm Vibhaag All the ten Indriyaan (5 Gyaanendriya and 5 Karmendriya), their five pleasures (seeing, smelling, hearing, tasting and feeling), three Gun (Sat, Raj, and Tam), Maayaa's five Mahaabhoot (fire, air, earth, water and sky), Man (mind), Buddhi (intelligence), Ahankaar all jointly are called "Gun Vibhaag" and their actions are called "Karm Vibhaag". Vibhaag means division or sections. When somebody knows Aatmaa (soul), which is separate from "Gun Vibhaag" and "Karm Vibhaag", he is said to know about Tattwa (element). Gunaateet [Geetaa, 14/21-27] A compound word. Gun (attributes) and Ateet (beyond), means who is beyond the three Gun, or who is not affected by Gun. There are three Gun - Sat, Raj, and Tam. Sat Gun produces Gyaan, Raj Gun inspires for actions and Tam Gun makes a man ignorant. When these three Gun do not affect a person, he is called Gunaateet. Guru see also Aachaarya, Upaadhyaaya (1) Teacher. (2) Well educated, well skilled in some art or science. (3) [Bhavishya Puraan, p 15] Who performs Garbhaadhann Sanskaar etc and feeds with Ann, that Braahman is called Guru. (4) Elder or older people and more educated and learned people are also called Guru. They are not teachers as such, but Guru word is used for them in the sense of older people and more educated and learned people, such as "Guru Jan are around.", means older people and more learned people are around. Guru Deekshaa Vow of rituals.

Gurukul In ancient India, children used to go to Gurukul, where they lived to get education. Guru's wife used to take care of them. After they finished their education, they went back to home and marry and lead family life. Gyaan (1) Knowledge of Shaastra. (2) Bodh power - power to discriminate between good and bad. (3) [Padm Puraan, 3/4] says by whichever knowledge one knows Bhagavaan, is called Gyaan. (3) Awareness. (4) [Bhavishya Puraan, 1/1], says that there are 14 types of Gyaan - 4 Ved (Rig, Yajur, Saam, and Atharv); 6 Vedaang (Shikshaa, Kalp, Nirukt, Vyaakaran, Chhand, and Jyotish); Meemaansaa; Nyaaya, Puraan; and Dharm Shaastra - including Aayur Ved, Dhanur Ved, Gaandharv Ved and Arth Shaastra (economics) - they constitute the 18 knowledge. Gyaan Indriyaan Gyaan Yog see see Yog Indriyaan

Gyaat (1) Known. (2) Understood. (3) Mentally grasped. Its antonym is A-Gyaat. Gyaataa Knower who wants to know something. Gyeya By which something is known.

Haathee Elephant. Eight elephants are said o be born in Dev Yoni - (1) Kumud, (2) Airaavat, (3) Padm, (4) Pushpdant, (5) Vaaman, (6) Suprateek, (7) Anjan, and (8) Saarvbhaum.
(Bhavishya Puraan, p 596)

Haladhar Who bears Hal (plough), means Balaraam. Haran (1) Carrying away. (2) Abduction or Abducting. (3) Theft. Haripriyaa Who is beloved of Hari, means Lakshmee.

Harivansh Name of a Book very similar to Puraan and written in the same style around 400 AD. It is considered a supplement to the MBH. It contains the story of Krishn's childhood and adolescence. Harivansh Puraan A book composed by a Jain scholar named Swayambhoo Dev. Harsh Joy. Hast One of the 27 Nakshatra. Hath Yog Forcing the mind to withdraw from worldly objects, breathing and exercising system, system recommending irrational body torture. Havan Havan Kund Havan Kund is normally a square place where the sacred fire is set, and Aahuti (oblations) of Saamagree, Ghee and other materials are offered in that fire. Who does this daily and on a big scale, such as Rishi Muni etc, they build it permanently with cement etc materials; but who do not do on such a big scale, they have an iron pot which they keep for daily Havan or whenever they need it. They set the fire in it and do the Havan or Yagya in it and later keep it away for next use. Havi Libation. Whatever is poured in Havan. Havishya Havishyaann see Havishya

Heeraa Diamond. It is one of the nine gems or precious stones. Some of them are (1) Pannaa - Emerald; (2) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (3) Motee - Pearl; (4) Moongaa - Coral; (5) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (6) Vaidoorya Mani; (7) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. It is the most attractive gem to the eyes, because of emitting a very delicate bluish, reddish, or a mixture of blue and red radiance of glittering luster when exposed to light. Diamond is famous for its play of colors. A fine diamond is radiant, and delightful. It is as soothing to the eyes as the Moon; is magnificent and has the self-luminous quality of a clear crystal.

Ancient Hindoo scriptures mention eight types of diamonds:-1. Hanspati: transparent white color like a conch, 2. Kamlaapati: transparent pinkish white, like lotus petal. 3. Vajraneel: transparent blue-white, like the color of the neck of a blue jay, 4. Vanaspati: transparent green-white, like fresh blade of grass, 5. Shyaamvajra: transparent smoky-gray color 6. Telia: oily, and dark color. 7. Sanloyee: yellow-green or pale green color. Hemant One of the six seasons in India - Winter or cold season. Hiranyagarbh The word means "prime cause of the elements". It has been incorrectly translated as golden egg. To this day, one of the Rig Ved Mantra (10-121-1) which starts as "Hiranyagarbh Samavartataagre...." is sung by priests on most ceremonial occasions. It means "the prime cause of elements existed in the beginning. As soon as He manifested Himself, He became the One Lord of every creature. He upholds the Earth and the sky. Who other than this Lord shall we worship with our oblation?" Himvant Personification of Himaalaya Mountain, the father of Durgaa. Being the daughter of Parvat she is called Paarvatee and Girijaa also. Hindoo Dharm See "Religious Books" for its scriptures. See "Darshan" for its philosophy. See "Sanskaar" for its sacraments. See "Hindoo Dharm Requirements" to know who is Hindoo. Hitopadesh A book of helpful exhortations by Naaraayan and is based on the larger book Panchtantra. Hom see Havan

Hotaa There are four people required to perform a Chaaturhotra Yagya - Adhwaryu, Hotaa, Brahmaa and Udgaataa. Among them (1) Hotaa to chant Rig Ved Mantra, (2) Adhwaryu to chant Yajur Ved Mantra, (3) Udgaataa to chant Saam Ved Mantra, and (4) Brahmaa to chant Atharv Ved Mantra. Hotri Sacrificing priests.

Ichchhaa Mrityu To die at one's own will. Bheeshm had this boon from his father Shaantanu that he will die only when he would want to, not that the death would come to him. So he chose the Makar Sankraanti day, an auspicious day to leave this world. Ikshu Sugarcane. Ilaa One of the three Vedic Devee - Ilaa, Bhaaratee, and Saraswatee. Bhaaratee was the prototype of Lakshmee, and Ilaa was the prototype of Durgaa. Indefinite Tap Whose fruit are not certain to get, that Tap is called indefinite Tap. Indiraa Another name of Lakshmee. Indra Indraanee Indra's wife. Known as Shachee also. Indraneel Neelam or Sapphire. Indriya see Indriyaan Singular of Indriyaan. Sense faculty. Indriya Nigraha Control on one's Indriyaan. Restraining the senses of pleasure. Indriyaan Insects Iraa see Ilaa

Ish To wish. Islaam Dharm

Isht see also Poort (1) Desired. (2) Preferred. (3) Agnihotra, Tap, Truth, Yagya, Daan, hospitality, meditation etc religious activities are called Isht. Isht Devtaa A favorite Devtaa of a person. This Devtaa may be different from the family Devtaa (Kul Devtaa). Ishtaa Poort see Poort

Itihaas (1) History. (2) Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat books are called Itihaas.

Jaagaran It is called Jagaraataa also. Waking up the whole night. This is done in many festivals to celebrate them. Devee Jagaraataa is very famous and popular. On Shiv Raatri also people wake up whole night and sing Bhajan of Shiv Jee. In Padm Puraan, 5/3, Shiv Jee said - "There are nine types of crimes in Jaagaran - (1) Telling bad words about others; (2) being sad; (3) not reading Shaastra; (4) without music; (5) not lighting lamp; (6) not using worship materials according to one's capacity; (7) indifference; (8) abusing somebody; and (9) quarreling. And there are 12 types of qualities of a Jaagaran - (1) Saatwik dance; (2) music; (3) musical instruments; (4) drum beat; (5) oil lamp; (6) Keertan; (7) feeling of Bhakti; (8) happiness; (9) contentment; (10) community presence; (11) Saatwik means of entertainment; and (12) Shaastra reading. Jaamun Rose-apple. A kind of small fruit of deep purple color. Its tree is very large but not very strong. Jaap Pronouncing something repeatedly. This pronouncing can be both loud or quiet. Normally Jaap is done for Mantra. Again the Jaap may be with or without counting. If it is done with counting then one has to use rosary (Maalaa) of 108 beads. If any Mantra's Jaap is done for some purpose then counting is necessary, because then one has to complete the prescribed number of Jaap of that Mantra. Jaatak A collection of stories written in Paalee language describing Buddha's life in the previous incarnations. It is a collection of folklore consisting of over 500 stories and legends. Its primary purpose is to shed light on the life and customs of India during the 100 years following the death of Buddha. Jaati (1) Race. (2) Species. (3) Caste - such as Braahman (teachers and preachers), Kshatriya

(soldiers, warriors, and rulers), Vaishya (merchants and farmers) and Shoodra. This division of the society is based on their Karm. Jaatismar Who remembers his past life. Jaatkarm One of the 16 major Sanskaar immediately after the birth of a child, in some cases before the umbilical cord. In this Sanskaar, the Gaayatree Mantra is recited asking God to grant intelligence and wisdom to the newborn, a Mantra is recited praying for the long life of he child, chanting a Mantra praying for the child to grow up physically and morally strong, reciting a verse in praise of the mother of the newborn, and Give the child a taste of honey. It is followed by alms and charity. The ceremony, though desirable has practically gone out of fashion Jad (1) Stiff. (2) Stupid. (3) Senseless. Jagadambaa Goddess Durgaa. Jagaddhaatree Goddess Durgaa, means "who supports the world", or "who bears the world". Jagadeesh Lord of the world, Bhagavaan, or the Supreme God. Jagannaath The Lord of the world. The Supreme God - Vishnu. Jagaraataa see Jaagaran Jal (1) To burn. (2) Water Jalaanjali Offering water oblations to Pitar and Devtaa. Jalaj Which is born from Jal (water), means Lotus Jamboo A black or dark purple fruit - Rose Apple.

Jan People Janaardan Short form of Durjanaardan - the annihilator of wicked people, means Shree Krishn. Janak (1) Father. (2) The family name of Seeradhwaj, the King of Mihilaa, the father of Seetaa. Janeoo see Yagyopaveet

Jangam see also Creation Creation is of two types - Sthaavar (immovable) and Jangam (movable). Trees, mountains etc come under Sthaavar creation. Jangam creation is of three types - (1) Swedaj - which are born from sweat, such as bedbugs etc, (2) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chicks, birds etc, and (3) Jaraayuj - which are born as a child, Naal attached to them, such as human beings, many animals etc. Janmaashtamee Term is normally used to call the day Shree Krishn was born - Bhaadrapad Krishn Ashtamee, c 1150 BC. On this day many Hindoo keep fast, do not eat Ann (grains), celebrate the birth of Krishn at midnight, offer special worship and break the fast. Jap see also Jaap (1) Jap means repetition of holy words or prayer in low voice. It is the activity of doing the Jaap of a Mantra. Jaraayuj There are four types of taking birth in this world, which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij - which come out by bursting the land (trees, plants etc)(2) Swedaj which are born by sweat, such as insects, worms, small flies, bedbug etc, (3) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chicks, birds, crocodiles etc, and (4) Jaraayuj - which are born as a child such as human beings, many animals like cow, buffalo, goat etc. Jataa Matted locks of hair. Normally ascetics keep such hair. Jatharaagni Jathar means stomach; Agni means fire. The Fire which helps digesting food in the stomach of beings. Jaya (1) Victory, such as Jaya Hind means "Victory to India" or Jaya Bhavaanee means "Victory to Bhavaanee Maa". (2) Original name of MBH, which was very small book of 8,800 verses written by Ved Vyaas Jee around 1100 BC. In the next 1,300 years, it expanded to as many as 98,000

verses.

[Aangiras, p 139-140]

Jaya Maalaa Jaya Maalaa is the garland which is put in the neck of the person when he comes back after the victory in a battle against his enemy to show him his people's honor and happiness. From the same concept it was used to put in groom's neck also to show that the groom has won the bride and bride has agreed to marry the groom. Jeev (1) Living being. (2) Soul. The form of Aatmaa when he is attached to body. Thus the same Aatmaa is Aatmaa until he takes up a body in this world. As soon as he takes up the body, he is called Jeev - the part of Paramaatmaa that lives in all living beings. He, in association with AVidyaa (ignorance), conceives itself to be limited.Jeev are born in four ways - (1) Andaj - which are born through breaking eggs (birds, snakes etc), (2) Jaraayuj - which are born connected with Naal (birth cord) (animals, human beings etc), (3) Udbhij - and, (4) Swedaj - which are born from sweat (bugs etc). All have Praan, although they have different types of bodies. Jeev-Aatmaa Same as Aatmaa or soul. Jooaa Yoke Jotanaa (1) To yoke. (2) To till the field Juganoo Glow worm. Shalabh. Jyotirling Jyotish Astrology.

Kaajal A kind of black powder which is prepared by lighting an oil lamp, normally with mustard oil, and then covering it with a plate. Over a couple of hours black soot is collected on that plate. After it is done it is collected in a small box and is applied in eyes. Sometimes one or two drops of mustard oil is added to that powder to make it a bit wet and the wet Kaajal is also applied in the eyes in the same way.

Kaal (1) Time. (2) Death. Kaaldarsh Varsh see Time

Kaaliya Daman Kaaliya was a Naag (serpent) who lived in Yamunaa River and made its water poisonous which killed many people and animals in Mathuraa. Krishn forced him to leave the River and go to the ocean. This activity of Krishn was called "Kaaliya Daman". Kaam (1) Desire. (2) Sexual desire. Kaam Dev Cupid, the God of love. Shiv burnt Kaam Dev when he came to disturb his Tap. He is known as Manmath, Madan etc names also. Kaamaakshee Another name of Devee. Kaamanaa Desire. Kaamdhenu This is combined word by joining Kaam and Dhenu. Kaam means desires, and Dhenu means cow. So Kaamdhenu means the cow which fulfills desires. This cow appeared from Samudra at the time of Saagar Manthan. Kaamee Covetous, Lusty. Kaanch (1) Crystal. (2) Glass. (3) Quartz. Kaand (1) Section. (2) Chapter. (3) Happening Kaantimatee It is the name of Brahmaa's court in his Vairaaj named palace, in Shreenidhaan named city on Meru Parvat.
(Padm Puraan, p 43)

Kaaran Reason.

Kaartik The 8th month of Hindoo Lunar year. It is very dear to Vishnu and good for Snaan, Daan, especially Deep Daan, fasting, Bheeshm Panchak Vrat etc. It is said that one who avoids luxurious foods in the month of Kaartik will daily attain the fruit of great austerities. The vows of the month of Kaartik are - (1) Hari Jaagaran - Keeping an all-night vigil for Hari; (2) Praatah Snaan - Bathing early in the morning; (3) Tulasee Sevan - Serving Tulasee; (4) Udyaapan Concluding the Vrat; and (5) Deep Daan - Offering lamps. Then, options are given for those, who for some unfortunate reason cannot complete certain vows. If one cannot bathe in water, he should bathe with the names of Vishnu. If one cannot follow the directions for completing a vow, one may complete it by feeding Braahmans. If one cannot offer a lamp of his own, he should light the lamps of others or protect their lamps from the wind and so forth. If no Tulasee is available, one should worship a twice-born Vaishnav. In his absence, one should serve Braahmans, cows, bodhi-trees and banyan trees. Kaashth Wood. Kaashyap Descendants of Maharshi Kashyap. Kaavya Poem. Kaaya Body Kalaa Kalaavaa Sacred thred. It is bunch of strands of cotton threads of red and yellow color. Before worship, at the start of major ceremonies, the priest asks God to purify the body and mind. In order to symbolize this purification, this thread is tied on the right wrst of male and left wrist of the female accompanied with chanting the purification Mantra. Either the priest or any other person can help tie this Kalaavaa. On Rakshaabandhan day (Shraavan Poornimaa) also sisters and Braahman tie this Kalaavaa (or Raakhee) on the wrists of their brothers and Yajamaan respectively asking God to shower blessings to them. Kalash Pitcher. It can be made of anything, but normally it is made of clay or brass or copper. Till recently, it was an integral part of a Hindoo family. It was used to store things, especially water to keep it cool. Villagers still use it for these purposes. It is used in worship also. When it is used in worship, it is filled with water and covered with mango leaves or a coconut fruit wrapped in red cloth. At some places it itself is worshipped.

Kali Yug see Yug The fourth of the four divisions of time - Sat Yug, Tretaa Yug, Dwaapar Yug, and Kali Yug. Kalki The 10th Avataar of Vishnu, appearing at the end of the Kali Yug. Kalp (Time period) Kalp Sootra see Sootra Kalp Taru Kalp is a name and Taru means tree.

see

Kalp Vriksh

Kalp Vriksh A special Tree that fulfills all wishes. This tree came out of Ksheer Saagar when it was churned for Amrit. It was planted in Nandan Van of Indra Puree. Once Krishn went to Swarg Lok and brought it to Dwaarakaa to please His wife Satyabhaamaa. It remained there until Krishn was present on Prithvi. It came again to Swarg Lok when Krishn left earth for His Lok. It is called Paarijaat tree also. Kamal Lotus flower. Synonyms - Ambuj, Aravind, Indeevar (blue lotus), Jalaj (born from water), Jalajaat (born from water), Mrinaal, Nalin, Neeraj, Paarijaat, Padm, Pankaj, Pundareek, Raajeev, Saroj, Saroruha. Kamp (1) Tremble. (2) Tremor. (3) Quake. Kampan Vibration Kanakbhadra A kind of tree - Devadaar tree. Kanchan Gold. Kanyaa (1) Girl. Virgin girl - normally under 10 years of age. (2) According to Bhavishya Puraan, p 198, a girl is of four type - Gauree (up to 7-years of age), Nagnikaa (10-year old girl), Dev Kanyaa (a 12-year old girl) and Rohinee (above 12-years of age). (3) Five Kanyaa are famous in Hindoo mythology. They are not below 10 years of age, as the definition says, but they used to become below 10 years of age every morning. They, according to Mahaabhaarat, are Ahalyaa (Maharshi Gautam's wife), Kuntee (Paandu's wife), Draupadee (Paandav's wife), Taaraa (Vaanar Raaj Baali's wife), and Mandodaree (Raavan's wife).

Kapaat Panel of the door. Kapil (1) Avataar of Vishnu. (2) Red color. Kapilaa (1) Red color. (2) Wish cow - a cow that fulfills the wishes and desires. Kapitth Wood-apple. Kapoor Camphor. Karm Karm Bhoomi Where people perform actions. Prithvi or Earth is said to be the Karm Bhoomi for people, as people do Karm here. Karm Kaand Pure ritualistic activities. Rituals. Whoever does these, is called Karm-kaandee. Karm Kshetra Karm Indriyaan Karm Yog see see see Yog Karm Bhoomi Indriyaan

Kartaa and Karan Kartaa means doer of the Karm, and Karan means means to do the Karm. Kastooree Musk. Animal perfume - there is a kind of deer in whose navel this Kastooree is found. It is said that the deer smells the fragrance of the Kastooree but doesn't know that the fragrance is coming from him only, and he runs here and there in search of the source of that smell. Kath Upanishad One of the 14 main Upanishad. Kathaa Saritsaagar Literally means the "ocean of stories". It is a collection of popular stories written by Somdev Bhatt of Kaashmeer about 12th century AD.

Kathputalee Puppet. Kaumodakee It is the name of Krishn's Gadaa (mace). Kaustubh A Mani (Ratn or gem) obtained from Saagar Manthan and taken by Vishnu. He wears it on His chest. Kavach Armor. Coat of mail. (1) A couple of centuries before, Armors were used in battles to protect their bodies to get harmed from sword, spears etc weapons. Normally they were made of iron etc metals. But since those kinds of battles are not fought now a days, so those armors are out of date. (2) In Indian mythology, when these battles were fought, perhaps these metal armors might also have been used, but there was another kind of armor which only Rishi, Muni, Guru etc used for their disciples and kings etc to protect them for various kinds of troubles. They were not made of any materials but were of Mantra. Those Mantra used to protect their body from weapons, enemies, wild or poisonous animals etc. Kavi Poet. Kedaarnaath (1) Another name of Shiv. (2) The place in Himaalaya where one of the 12 Shiv Jyotirling is there. Keertan Singing praise of Bhagavaan (God). Repeating the name of God aloud, with or without music. Ken Upanishad One of the main 18 Upanishad. It is a genuine Upanishad which starts with a question. Kesar Saffron. Kesar is stamen of a flower and is very strong sweet smelling. In India it is used in sweets, sweet rice etc dishes. Since it is sweet smelling, it is used in Ubatan also to keep the body sweet smelled. It is very expensive and has a very strong smell, that it is used very little and only by rich people. Ketu (1) Bright appearance. (2) Name of an imaginary planet. Khand (1) Division. (2) Portion. (3) Chapter. (4) A term in mathematics.

Khand Kaavya A minor poem dealing only with one topic. Kheer A kind of rice pudding. An Indian sweet dish made of rice and milk. Rice is cooked in milk and later sugar is added to it. Khichadee A kind of semi-liquid salty dish. Moong Daal (split Moong beans) and rice, taken equal portion of each, cooked in water with salt until it is cooked so soft that one should not chew it. This dish is made with Urad Daal also. Both are eaten in winter season by healthy people with enough Ghee. But the Moong Khichadee is good for a dysentery patient also in UP and Panjaab regions. The patient eats it without Ghee. Kimpurush Half lion and half man. Kingdom Kingdom has eight limbs - (1) law, (2) judge, (3) the assessors, (4) the scribe, (5) the astrologer, (6) gold, (7) fire and (8) water. Kinnar (1) The word is a joint word of "Kim" and "Nar", which means "Is this human?"; and the answer "No" is inherent in the question. Kinnars are mythical beings with human body and the head of a horse or vice versa. (2) Celestial musician. Kiraat It is tribe of India which lives in forest and subsists on hunting. Kivaad Panel of the door. Klesh Sorrows. According to Yog Darshan, 1-30, there are five types of Klesh - (1) A-Vidyaa Ignorance, (2) Asmitaa - Ahankaar or pride, (3) Raag - Too much attachment, (4) Dwesh Jealousy, and (5) Abhinivesh - Death pain. Knowledge see Gyaan

Kohinoor (Diamond) Koorm Puraan One of the 18 Puraan. Gives the description of Koorm (Kashchap or tortoise) Avataar taken by Vishnu at the time of Saagar Manthan.

Koop Well. Koorm (1) Tortoise. Kashchp, or Kachchhap. (2) Vishnu incarnated as a tortoise when Saagar Manthan took place. He supported Mandaraachal Parvat on His back so that it should not shake while Devtaa and Daitya were churning it. That Avataar is famous as Kashchap or Koorm Avataar. Kop Bhavan Kop means anger, Krodh and Bhavan means room. In olden times when queens used to be angry with their king, they used to wear torn and dirty clothes, take off their jewelry and lie down on the floor in this special room - Kop Bhavan. When Raajaa used to come to his queen's palace and did not see her there, he used to ask her maids and they would point him out to that Bhavan. When he saw his queen lying in such condition, naturally he could not tolerate it and asked her what she wished. Normally, in such condition, those queens could fulfill their wishes. Kos Ancient measurement of distance. 1 Kos = 3 Kms = 2.25 miles 1 Yojan = 4 Kos = 12 Kms = approx 9 miles Kratu Kripaa (1) Grace. (2) Kindness. Krish Noun - (1) Very thin. [use - His body is very Krish]. Verb - (1) To do fasting opposite to Shaastra, drying one's body by doing severe activities, afflicting Bhagavaan's part Jeev, is to Krish Bhoot (five Bhoot) and Paramaatmaa. Krishn Krishn Paksh see also Shukla Paksh Dark fortnight of the Lunar Calendar in which Moon wanes. According to Indian calendar, a month is divided into two parts - the first 15 days, from the 1st day to 15th day, when Moon wanes, up to Amaavasyaa (New Moon), is called Krishn Paksh; while the other half, from 16th day to 30th day, when Moon waxes, up to Poornimaa (Full Moon), is called Shukla Paksh. Krishn Yajur Ved see Ved

Krit Yug see Yug Another name of Sat Yug, or Satya Yug - the first of the four divisions of time - Sat Yug, Tretaa Yug, Dwaapar Yug, and Kali Yug.

Krityaa Krityaa is a man or woman produced through fire or anything else to kill somebody. If he or she fails to kill that person for whom he or she is produced to kill, then, he or she may kill the person who has produced him or her. There are some Krityaa in HIndoo religious literature - (1) Twashtaa produced a Krityaa (Vritraasur) to kill Indra when he killed his son Vishwaroop. (2) There was a king of Kaashee named Paundrak who said himself as Krishn, but Krishn killed him. Paundrak's son produced a Krityaa to kill Krishn after Krishn had killed Paundrak; but unfortunately that Krityaa couldn't harm Krishn. Kriyaa Doing something is called Kriyaa. Kriyaa Yog Krodh Anger. Kshamaa Forgiveness. Glory of Kshamaa has been written great, not only in Hindoo scriptures, but also in other religions. There is nothing greater than Kshamaa. Following Kshamaa is even difficult for Devtaa. Kshamaa is grace, Kshmaa is Dharm, Kshamaa is Yagya, Kshamaa is charity, Kshamaa is truth, Kshamaa is virtue, Kshamaa is glory, and on Kshamaa alone this whole universe is abiding. Kshar (1) Destructible. (2) The material case, that is this body. That, which is seen, is said to be destructible and is called Kshar. (Antonym: A-Kshar) Kshatriya The second Varn among four Varn. This is warrior race. According to Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/14 a Kshatriya's 10 characteristics are - (1) Tej, (2) Bal (strength), (3) patience, (4) bravery, (5) tolerance, (6) giving any thing, (7) hardworking, (8) stabilization, (9) Braahman Bhakti, and (10) wealth. Kshaya (1) Mortal. (2) Which is decayed over the period. (Antonym: A-Kshaya) Ksheer Saagar see Vishnu's Lok see Yog

Kshem see also Yog (1) To protect the means to attain Bhagavaan is called Kshem. (2) Welfare. Kshetra see also Kshetragya (1) An area of land. (2) Human being. (3) This physical body. (4) Aatmaa (soul).

Kshetragya (1) Who understands the Truth. (2) Bhagavaan. Brahm. Kshobh Kuber The treasurer of Devtaa. It is believed that his treasury is never empty. At the same time it is also said that "if you don't put anything in the treasury, then even Kuber's treasury is also empty." He lives in Alakaa Puree. Kudavaa see Weight Measurement

Kujaa (1) Mars. (2) It is known as Bhaum, Mangal, Rakt, Veer, and Angaarak also. Kul Family Kul Devata Family-deity. Kumbh Kumbhak see also Praanaayaam One of Praanaayaam's four processes - others are Rechak, Poorak, and Shoonyak. In this situation the breath air is locked inside, like a filled pitcher, and is not released. Kumkum A red colored powder used by women to put it on their forehead as a dot and draw a line parting their hair. Normally this is used by married women whose husbands are alive. Kumud Water lily. Kumudinee A kind of water lily which blooms in night along with the rising of Moon. On the contrary Kamal (Lotus) blooms in day time along with the rising of Sun and closes its petals as the Sun sets. Kund (1) Basin. (2) Bowl of water. (3) Pond or Tank. A water filled place surrounded by a low wall. This may be of any size, say from 6'-7' square to 50-70 or 100' square, or even larger than that. (4) Vedee. A lower level place surrounded by a low wall, for example Havan Kund, Agni Kund. Kund can be of any size. These types of Kund are normally of smaller sizes, maybe from 8" square place to 4-5', or even 8" square place as they are meant to do Hom or Yagya, so fire can be lit in these Kund.

Kundal Earring Kundalinee Kush (1) A kind of grass which is used in religious activities. (2) Name of one of the two sons of Raam and Seetaa, the other was Lav. Kusumit Blooming Kutee or Kutiyaa Small hut made of grass, leaves and branches of a tree etc material.

Laal Ruby. Chunnee. It is one of the nine gems or precious stones. Some of the others are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald; (3) Moongaa - Coral; (4) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (5) Vaidoorya Mani; (6) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. The ruby is found in a variety of crimson and scarlet red colors ranging from pink to a deep ruddy violet color. The gemstone is solid and possesses high specific gravity. The red tint in ruby comes from a light combination of iron and chromium. The finest quality ruby has a delicate red color. Some qualities of a Good Ruby are - 1. smoothness, 2. Uniform Color, 3. brilliance, 4. hardness. Laddoo Modak. A kind of Indian sweets, sweet ball. There may be many sweets of round shape but all kinds of Laddoo are made by pressing various kinds of material in fist. Lagna (1) Auspicious moment, may be related to birth or marriage. (2) Attached to Lahasuniyaa Vaidoorya Mani - a kind of Ratn (gem). Some other Ratn are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa Emerald; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Coral; (6) Neelam - Sapphire or Indraneel or Neelmani; (7) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa); (8) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire or Pushp-raag; - all are called Mani or Ratn. Lakshmee Lalitaa (1) Beautiful woman. (2) Another name of Durgaa.

Lapasee It is drinkable semi-liquid material made of wheat flour or barley lour or sometimes semolina. Fry some 3 tablespoons flour in 2 tablespoon Ghee, when it is golden brown, add about 1/2 quart milk and cook it for 7-10 minutes. If it is not drinkable, mix some more milk and cook for a minute or two. Mix some sugar and drink it in a soup bowl. It is mostly prepared in Shraadh times for Braahmans. Lataa (1) Creeper. (2) Vallaree Leelaa (1) Drama. Leelaa are playful activities or a drama which is not true. Normally this word is used in Bhagavaan's Avataar's activities, that this world is His Leelaa because it is His play and it is not true. (2) Acting. Ling or Lingam Living Beings There are two kinds of living beings - immovable (Sthaavar) and movable Jangam) - movable again are divided in three kinds of creations - Swedaj, Andaj and Jaraayuj (1) Udbhij - Born by breaking earth. Udbhij are Sthaavar, means immovable, such as straws, trees, bush, creepers, herbs etc; (2) Swedaj - Born from the heat of the sweat such as worms, insects, small flies, pests, mosquitoes, lice, etc; (3) Andaj - Born from eggs, such as birds, crocodile, fishes, tortoise snakes, etc (4) Jaraayuj - Born from womb. are human beings and four lagged animals such as cows, buffaloes, goat, elephants, jackal, Pishaach etc Lobh Greed. Lok Lokpaal Lord of the Lok (world). There are four Lokpaal, one for each direction - [According to Bhaagvat, 5/8] To the east of Meru Parvat is Indra's Devadhaanee Puree, to the south is Yam Raaj's Sanyamanee Puree, to the west is Varun's Nimlochanee Puree, and to the north is Chandramaa's Vibhaavaree Puree.

Maa Mother. There are five mothers - Gaayatree, Tulasee, Gangaa, Kaamdhenu and Arundhatee (Vashishth's wife).

Maadhav (1) Another name of Krishn, because He killed Madhu named Daitya. (2) Related to Spring season. Maadhyandin One of the two rescensions of the Sanhitaa of Shukla Yajur Ved.- Maadhyandin and Kaanv. The former one is the popular version. Maagh Maagh Snaan Maaghavan Related to Indra. Maalatee Jasmine flower. Chamelee flower. Maalatee Maadhav Name of a drama written by Bhavabhooti based on passion and love. Maalinee Female florist. Maalvikaagnimitra Name of a drama written by Kaalidaas based on the love story of Shung King Agnimitra and princess Maalvikaa. Maanas (1) Lake. (2) Mental. Maanas Putra In the earliest times children were born by just touching, imagining, sneezing etc. The children who were born by just thinking or intending were called Maanas (mentally produced) Putra (sons). Brahmaa Jee thus produced 10 sons - (1) Atri, (2) Mareechi, (3) Angiraa, (4) Pulastya, (5) Pulah, (6) Kratu, (7) Bhrigu, (8) Vashishth, (9) Daksh, and (10) Naarad. They were all Brahmaa's Maanas Putra. Maandookya Upanishad One of the genuine Upanishads. Maansaahaaree see also Shaakaahaaree Non-vegetarian food or person. It includes food made from all kinds of living beings, normally except human being.

Maarkandeya Puraan One of the 18 genuine Puraan. It was written about 9th century AD. It contains the prayer for Durgaa which has become known as "Devee Mahaatmya", or "Chandeepaath", or "Durgaa Saptshatee" and is recited throughout India by the worshippers of Devee. Other than this Maarkandeya Puraan does not have seem to have much value as a piece of religious literature. Maartand Another name of the Soorya (the Sun). Maas Month. Maataa Mother. There are five mothers - Gaayatree, Tulasee, Gangaa, Kaamdhenu and Arundhatee (Vashishth's wife). Maatrikaa There are 16 Maatrikaa, their names are - Gauree, Padmaa, Shachee, Medhaa, Saavitree, Vijayaa, Jayaa, Devasenaa, Swadhaa, Swaahaa, Maatrikaayen, Vaidhriti, Dhriti, Pushti, Hrishti, and Tushti. They should be worshipped before worshipping planets. One must worship them at the time of increase in one's family, for example at the time of birth, marriage, opening a new business etc. Maayaa Maayaavee Who knows and uses Maayaa. Mad Ahankaar. Pride. Madan Another name of Kaam Dev. Madan-Gopaal Another name of Krishn - means "loving cowherd". Madan-Mohan Who deluges Madan (Kaam Dev), means Krishn. Madhu (1) Honey. (2) Spring season. (3) An ancestor of Krishn because of whom he acquired the name Maadhav. (4) Name of a Daitya, killed by Vishnu, because of which Vishnu and Krishn are called Madhusoodan - the slayer of Madhu.

Madhukar Black bee, or Bumble bee. Bhanvaraa. Bhramar. Madhupark Mixture of milk, yogurt, and honey, Madhuraa see Mathuraa

Maadhyandin see also Yajur Ved One of the two, and the more popular, rescensions of Shukla Yajur Ved Madhyasth Who has equal feelings and sentiments for both parties. Maghavan Another name of Indra. Mahaa Pralaya The great dissolution of the Universe at the end of a Kalp. Mahaa-Yug A 4-Yug period - Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali - these four Yug combined are called a ChaturYug or Mahaa-Yug. Mahaabhaarat It is the largest book of the world. It is classified as Smriti, secondary text based on the Ved. It is a history of five generations. Consists of approximately 95,000 verses describing the history of Kaurav and Paandav. It began as a book of 8,000 verses in the times of Shree Krishn (1100 BC) and was called "Jaya". It was written by Krishn Dwaipaayan, popularly known as Vyaas or Ved Vyaas (means the editor and organizer of Ved). Over the period, perhaps other innumerable people added their own material increasing to its size 1200%, and the name was changed to Mahaabhaarat. Bhagvad-Geetaa was also made a part of it. It is good source for the information on Krishn's life events. Mahaabhaashya Commentary by Patanjali on Ashtaadhyaayee - the book of Sanskrit grammar written by Paanini. Mahaabhaya Terror. Mahaabhishek Mahaa+Abhishek = Solemn anointing of the Lord's image. Mahaabhoot The basic elements - Space, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth.

Mahaadev The great God. Another name of Shiv. Mahaakaal Another name of Shiv. He has a temple with this name in Ujjain, MP - Mahaakaaleshwar Temple. Mahaakaalee see also Another name of Durgaa. Durgaa's Names

Mahaamaayaa Another name of Prakriti. The Great illusion. Mahaamantra Mahaa+Mantra = the Great Divine hymn. Mahaarathee Mahaa+Rathee = Great warrior, or great charioteer. Mahaatmaa (1) Great soul. (2) Noble person. Maharshi Great sage. Maharshi Great sage. Mahat Tattwa (1) The total material energy. (2) Soul. The form of Aatmaa when it is attached to body. Thus the Aatmaa remains Aatmaa until he takes up a body in this world. As soon as he takes up the body, he is called Jeev. The part of Paramaatmaa that lives in all living beings. He is called Jeev or Sootraatmaa also. Mahesh Another name of Shiv. Mahilaa Rishi Among the women to whom the hymns of Rig Ved are attributed. The most outstanding ones are Lopaamudraa, Vishwaaraa, Apaalaa and Ghoshaa. It is not clear that whether Lopaamudraa, the wife of Maharshi Agastya, actually composed the hymns or was merely a heroine, but there is no doubt about the contributions of the other three. Mahimaa Glory.

Mahish (1) Buffalo. (2) Name of a great Asur - Mahishaasur, slain by Durgaa, that is why she is called mahishaasur Mardinee. Maidens Kumaaree, unmarried. There are five maidens - Ahalyaa (Gautam's wife), Draupadee (Paandav's wife), Seetaa (Raam's wife), Taaraa (Baali's wife), and Mandodaree (Raavan's wife). They became maidens every morning. Makar Capricorn - the name of the 11th Zodiac Sign of 12 Signs through which Soorya passes to make a round of Earth. Makar Sankraanti Mal Maas see Adhik Maas Mal means unclean and Maas means month, so Mal Maas means the unclean month. It is another name of the extra month which is added to Hindoo calendar after about every 31.4 Lunar months. IT is called Purushottam Maas also. Mallikaarjun Another name of Shiv. One of the 12 great Shiv Ling. A temple housing Mallikaarjun Ling is situated near Kurnool, AP, India. Manas (1) Mind - separate from soul but necessary for soul to exist in a body. This is the inner thing which receives information from the outer world with the aid of senses and presents it to the higher faculty of intellect - Buddhi. It is characterized by doubt. (2) Intellect. (3) Understanding. Mandal (1) Circle. (2) orbit of a heavenly body. (3) A geographical division. (4) Division or a chapter of a book. (5) Time limit to complete the Jaap is called one Mandal (40 days). This period (Mandal) can be extended to eight days more if any emergency or illness arises. So the maximum period is 48 days. (6) Chowk. Mandal is a drawing drawn on worshipping place to establish Bhagvaan's idol, to do Yagya, or in front of Bhagavaan. It is drawn on floor and may be drawn with flour, clay or Geroo (red clay). After drawing Mandal, they can be decorated by other colors also. Mandal looks beautiful as well as considered auspicious. Sometimes a Mandal is a mystic or symbolic diagram made on religious ceremonies, may be circular, triangular, or rectangular, related to a specific deity. These types of diagrams are also called "Chakra", or "Yantra" in connection with Taantrik practices. They are called "Rangolee" when they are drawn to beautify the place.

Mandaar Coral tree. Mandap A type of canopy put on four pillars. Of course decorated with leaves and flowers, and maybe with lights also. It is usually prepared for performing a ceremony. Mandir Hindoo temples. Mandodaree see also Mandodaree Woman of a small waistline. Mangal (1) Mars. It is known as Bhaum, Kuj (Kujaa), Rakt, Veer, and Angaarak also. (2) Good, or to bless somebody. Mani Ratn. Gems. Jewels. Precious stones. Some of them are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa (Emerald); (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Coral; (6) Neelam Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (7) Vaidoorya Mani; (8) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. Manikaa Jewel. Manmath Another name of Kaam Dev. Manorath Heart's desire. Mantra Manu Manu Smriti Manushya Human being. Man. Manvantar Marakat see Pannaa see also Jaap

Maryaadaa Purushottam Raam is called by this name as He always lived by rules in his limits. He defined the norms of decorum. Masaalaa see Spices

Math A large place where many Sanyaasee live. Matsar (1) Intoxicating. (2) Jealous. Matsya (Puraan) (1) One of the 18 genuine Puraan. This is one of the oldest Puraan. In its present form it is a compilation drawing from Vishnu Puraan, Padm Puraan and the MBH. Except for a few lines it has a very little religious value. (2) There was Matsya Desh also in ancient India. Mauli Chief or head. Maun Keeping quiet. Not speaking. Maya (1) Full of, such as "Mamtaa-maya" means full of affection. (2) Maya Daanav, father of Mandodaree. Measurements see Distance Measurement, Measurement, Time Measurement in China Medhaavee Brilliant. Meditation Meemaansaa Investigation or analysis. Meen (1) The last Sign of Zodiac - Pisces. (2) Fish. Mental Worship Worshipping in mind only is called mental worship. One can pronounce loudly or in his heart, doesn't matter. Time Measurement, Weight

Mesh (1) Sheep. (2) The first Sign of the Zodiac. Milind Black bee or Bumble bee. Bhaunraa, or Bhanvaraa, or Bhramar. Mishra School of Tantra see Tantra

Mitra Name of a Vaidik deity who is a friend and benefactor of men as the name suggests. Mochak One who releases. Such as Sankat Mochak means who releases from Sankat (peril) - Hanumaan (Sankat Mochan Naam Tihaaro) Modak Laddoo. A kind of Indian sweets, sweet ball. There may be many sweets of round shape but all kinds of Laddoo are made by pressing various kinds of material in fist. Moh (1) Intense love. (2) Attachment. (3) Delusion. Mohit Deluded. When one doesn't remember what to do in a situation, that situation is called being Mohit. Moksh Money Month A period in which a body revolves another, for example a lunar month is the period (29.5 days) in which it revolves the earth; while a solar month is the period in which the Sun crosses one sign - there are 12 signs (12 months) the Sun has to cross. The word month has been derived from the Moon's 29.5 day period. Mool see Beej Moolaadhaar Chakra see Chakra

Moongaa Coral - one of the nine gems or precious stone. (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald, Marakat; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee or Muktaa - Pearl; (5) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (6) Vaidoorya Mani; (7) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. Coral of the finest quality is obtained in bulk from the coasts of Algeria

and Tunisia. Other profitable sites for coral deposits are the coasts of Spain, France, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. Corals are also processed in India. It is believed that wearing coral is good for health. Moorti Idol. Statue. Moosal Pestle. Motee Pearl. Muktaa. It is one of the nine gems. Some of them are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa Emerald, Marakat; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Moongaa - Coral; (5) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (6) Vaidoorya Mani; (7) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. There is a common belief among Taantrik that when rain comes in Swaati Nakshatra to earth it produces pearl in pearl oysters. The mollusk is then said to open its mouth to receive the first raindrops. When the same raindrops fall into the mouth of a cobra, they produce venom. The same raindrops also produce camphor when fallen in the banana plant; produce go-lochan (go-rochan or calcium) when they fall in the horn of a cow, and Bans-lochan or Bans-muktaa (or bamboo pearl) when they fall inside a bamboo shoot. Bans-lochan is known as Calcium bamboana and is mostly used in Aayur Vedic medicines. Mrid Name of Shiv. Mrityu Death. Mrityunjaya Another name of Shiv. Mudraa (1) Currency. (2) Poses. Postures. Certain postures (Mudraa) in prescribed ways, normally used in practicing Yog (read Aasan in Yog), and in dance. Special Mudraa of hands are shown in God's statues to denote different meanings. Mudraa Raakshas Name of a drama written by Vishaakhdatt around 800 AD. Mudrikaa (1) Ring. (2) Seal. Muhoort (1) A lucky moment. (2) Horaa. (3) A short auspicious period of time. (4) According to Indian astrological time, one Muhoort is of 2 Ghadee or 48 minutes.

60 Ghadee = 1 Day 30 Muhoort = 1 Day; [30x48 minutes = 1440 minutes; 1440/60 minutes = 24 hours = 1 day] Mukt Liberated soul. Mukti see Moksh

Mumukshu A very knowledgeable person who has got deep insight into the subject. When the mind joins Brahm through Yam, Niyam etc, the means to obtain Adhyaatm Gyaan, it is called Yog. Whose Yog is with this kind of specific Dharm, he is called Mumukshu. Mundak Means "shaven head". Normally monks keep their head shaven. Mundak Upanishad One of the 18 genuine Upanishads, which belongs to Atharv Ved and is traditionally studied by monks. Mundan Sanskaar see also Sanskaar Shaving of the head - a Hindoo Sanskaar. Muni (1) Great thinkers and learned scholars. (2) A person moved by inward impulses. (3) A saint. Muraaree Another name of Krishn. Muraleedhar Another name of Krishn. Muslims Muslim Festivals

Nadee River.

see also

Teerth

Naadee (1) Nerves. It is said that there are 72,000 nerves in our body. (2) Pulse. The movement of blood in our body which may be checked at several places in our

body. The most common one is on our wrist towards inside the arm, near hand joint, others are at the back of the ear and neck etc. Naag Naag Paash (1) Naag means snake, and Paash means noose. Naag Paash means a serpent which is used as a noose. (2) A noosed to capture the enemy or the lover. Naamkaran One of the 16 main Sanskaar, through which a name is given to a newborn child. This is normally done 11th or 12th day of the birth. Naaraayan Bhagavaan. Parameshwar. God. (1) This word is composed of two words - Nar and Ayan. Nar means man and Ayan means the dwelling place; so Naaraayan means the dwelling place for man. Since all human being have appeared from Him and get absorbed in Him; so He is Naaraayan - normally denotes Vishnu. (2) Since water has appeared form Nar, that is why it is called Naar; and Ayan means dwelling place. So Naaraayan means whose dwelling place is in water. Bhagavaan Vishnu lives in water that is why He is called Naaraayan. (3) Since the Truth is the most important aspect of God, the Supreme Being Visnu is called Satyanaaraayan also. Naaraayanee (1) Another name of Durgaa. (2) Name of a river. Naariyal or Narikel Coconut with its shell. It is a prominent article among others in many worship rituals. If a guest does not come on a certain occasion, the hostess puts Teekaa on the coconut. In southern India a coconut is broken after the Poojaa is over. Its kernel is used for Prasaad (grace). In many ceremonies, coconut is kept on water-filled Kalash as a wish for the well-being of the guests. Naasdeeya Sookt This Rig Ved Sookt reflects on the creation of the Universe. According to it God created the Universe by manifesting Himself through the power of His own fervor. Later on, in the Upanishads, God is considered both the efficient and the material cause of the Universe. Naastik Atheist. Naatak Naath (1) Protector, such as Jagan+Naath means who protects the world. (2) Lord. (3) Husband, such as Jaanakee+Naath means who is the husband of Jaanakee, means Raam.

Nagar or Nagaree Town. Nairritya see also Dishaa Southwest direction. Naivedya It may be any kind of food offered to God while worshipping Him, but mostly it is fruits, or sweets, or dry fruits. According to Agni Puraan, p 381, Naivedya is all what is offered to Bhagavaan before His Visarjan. But as soon as the Visarjan is done, it immediately becomes Nirmaalya. Nakshatra see also Astrology Nakt Vrat In this type of fast one eats only once a day - only in the night. After that nothing is eaten until next sunrise. Nalin Lotus flower. Nalinee (1) Kamalinee. (2) Lotus stalk. Nam or Namah (in Sanskrit) (1) To bow. (2) To pay homage. (3) To greet. Namaskaar see also Abhivaadan Namaskaar word comes from Sanskrit word "Namah" which means "to bow". While doing Namaskaar, the palms of the hands are pressed together and the head is bowed. This is Sanaatan Dharm's ritual greeting. The bowing makes one naturally humble and it affects the other person immensely. It instantly makes him comfortable and he feels like talking to the person greeting to him. Even he is angry or in a bad mood, he will be calm at least for a few moments. Thus by doing Namaskaar, instead of a handshake, one respects the other with humility which makes the other person also soft. While doing Namaskaar, one may or one may not pronounce "Namaskaar" or "Namastey". This is normally done to elder people, in age, in education, in status, or in other matters. Namastey see also Namaskaar This is a joint word, Namo + Astu; meaning "I bow to you". It is the same as Namaskaar given above - greeting the other person by pressing one's palms together and bowing head; and by pronouncing or not pronouncing "Namaskaar" or "Namastey". Nandan (1) Delighter. (2) Son, such as Devakee-Nandan means Devakee's son (Krishn).

Nandinee (1) Durgaa. (2) Daughter, such as Janak-Nandinee means Janak's daughter (Seetaa) Nandan Van This garden is in Indra Puree or Swarg (Heaven) and belongs to Indra. Nandee Name of the bull of Shiv. The stone sculpture of Nandee in sitting posture is found in almost all Shiv temples in India. Some of these statues are gigantic in size, such as one in Chaamundee Hill on the road, leading to the temple of Mahishaasur-Mardinee. Nar (1) Man. (2) Human being. Narak Hell. According to Padm Puraan, 5/32, 28 Koti (levels) of Narak are told - There are 28 grades of Narak below this Earth, they all are situated in a dense dark below the 7th Tal - (1) Ghoraa, (2) Sughoraa, (3) Atighoraa, (4) Mahaaghoraa, (5) Ghor-roopaa, (6) Taraltaaraa, (7) Bhayaanakaa, (8) Kaal Raatri, (9) Bhayotkataa, (10) Chandaa, (11) Mahaachandaa, (12) Chandkolaahalaa, (13) Prachandaa, (14) Narnaayikaa, (15) Karaalaa, (16) Vikaraalaa, (17) Vajraa there are three more, (21) Trikonaa, (22) Panchkonaa, (23) Sudeerghaa, (24) Parivartulaa, (25) Saptbhaumaa, (26) Ashtbhaumaa, (27) Deeptaa, and Maayaa. Thus these 28 Koti of Narak are told. Even these Narak have 5 Naayak each (their names are also given there). Nataraaj (1) Another name of Shiv who is considered the cosmic dancer. (2) The temple of Shiv, built around 850 AD, located in Chidaambaram (Tamilnaadu). This pose of Shiv is so popular that it has been copied a million times in bronze in all sizes and it adorns the living room of many Hindoo families. Natavar (1) Another name if Shiv. (2) Another name of Krishn. Nav (1) New. (2) Nine Nav Grah Nine planets - (1) Prithvi (Earth), (2) Soorya (Sun), (3) Chandra (Moon), (4) Budh (Mercury), (5) Brihaspati (Jupiter), (6) Shukra (Venus), (7) Shani (Saturn), (8) Raahu, and (9) Ketu. Athough there is no Vaidik support for worshipping them but many people worship them Nav Ratn Nine gems - (1) Heeraa (Diamond), (2) Laal or Chunnee (Ruby), (3) Topaz, (4) Pannaa (Emerald), (5) Neelam (Sapphire), (6) Lapis-lazuli, (7) Motee (Pearl), (8) Moongaa (Coral), and (9) Turquoise.

Nav Ratn Nine members in the court of the King Vikramaaditya (c 80 BC) and the Emperor Akbar (15561605 AD). Nav Raatri First nine days of the month of Chaitra Shukla Paksh, and Aashwin Shukla Paksh. During these nine day nine Devee are worshipped. Many people keep fast on those days. Neel Mani Gem. A precious stone. Sapphire. Neelam. Neelam Blue Sapphire. Indraneel, Neel Mani. One of the nine gems or precious stones - (1) Heeraa Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee or Muktaa - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Red Coral; (6) Vaidoorya Mani; (7) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire, Pushp-raag - all are called Mani or Ratn. Sometimes white sapphires, rubies and blue sapphires are found in the same mine and that is why there is a mixture of colors in the crystals of these gems. Ruby is harder than white sapphire and blue sapphire is harder than ruby. What distinguishes them from each other is their hardness. Blue sapphire is the hardest. Blue sapphire crystals are found as twelve-sided prisms. Neeraj see Kamal A compound word - Neer + aj - which is born from water (masculine). Neerajaa A compound word - Neer + ajaa - which is born from water (feminine). Neeti (1) Policy. (2) Guidelines. Neeti Shaastra Ethics. Neetishatakam Name of a book of 100 verses on moral law written by Bhartrahari. Nemi (1) Rim. (2) Felly of a wheel. Neti-Neti Literally "not this, not that". God is not this, God is not that. According to Upanishad, those who try to define God or claim that they know Him, do not know Him. Those who say that they are ignorant about Him, are somewhat better. This expression suggests that nothing in our experience cn enable us to define or describe God.

Nidhaan In whichever form all Bhoot get absorbed in Pralay Kaal, that form is called Nidhaan. Nigam (1) Ved. (2) Scriptures. Nigraha Control, for example Indriya Nigraha means to control Indriyaan. Nimesh see also Unmesh (1) Closing of the eyes, while winking. (2) It represents Pralaya - the destruction of the Creation. In this state the whole Universe subsides in Brahm power. Nindaa Censure. Nir see also Sa, Nir is a prefix which means "without" (as A). Nir-Aakaar - which has no form. Formless. Nir-Aamaya - Without sickness, healthy. Nir-Dosh - Faultless. Nir-Gun - Without attributes - Bhagavaan (see also Sa-Gun) - see below "Nir-Gun and Sa-Gun". Nir-Jal - Without water. Nir-Jeev - Lifeless. Nir-Lipt - Which is not Lipt (attached), means detached. Nir-Vikaar - (1) Unimpaired. (2) Unchanged. (3) Uniform Nir-Gun and Sa-Gun They literally mean "without attributes" and "with attributes". HIndu elieve that God is formless and without attributes. He is best defined as the Supreme Soul or the Supreme Being. He is also Parameshwar, He is Creator, He is destroyer. But at the same time Hindoo believe that God in His mercy takes on human incarnation and when He does so, He is with attributes He does so to let people know Him better and love Him more. Nir-Jalaa Ekaadashee or Nir-Jalaa Vrat Nir-Jalaa means without water. Anything Nir-Jal is without water. Nir-Jalaa Ekaadashee is the day that falls on Jyeshth Shukla Ekaadashee. On this day a fast is undertaken without taking any water. In the same way any Vrat (fast) may be called Nir-Jalaa when no water is sipped on that day till one breaks the fast. Niranjan Another name of Shiv. Nirukt The etymological explanation of words. It is especially related to Ved study. Name of one and

the most famous books on etymology by Yaask (700-620 BC), which deals with the origin and meaning of the Vaidik words Nirvaan Emancipation. The end of this materialistic life. Moksh. Nirved Vairaagya. Detachment. There are three kinds of Nirved (1) Jaati-Nirved (produced by the feeling of being born) - When one feels Vairaagya from his body thinking about the pains and sorrows because of being born, it is called "Jaati-Nirved". (2) Karm-Nirved (produced by Karm) - When one feels Vairaagya thinking about the pains and sorrows of Narak and being born in various species because of Karm, it is called "Karm-Nirved". (3) Sarv-Nirved - When one feels Vairaagya from all around thinking about the immortality of everything in this world, it is called "Sarv-Nirved". Nish Nish means "without" as "Nir", thus Nish-Kaam - (1) Desireless. (2) Unselfish. Nish-Paap - Sinless. Nishaad Name of a tribe living in Vindhya mountains. Nishk see also Money Gold coin in very ancient days in Bhaarat Varsh. It was used in MBH times also. Nishthaa (1) Loyalty. (2) Trust. (3) Faith. Nispraha Without any desire. Nitya Eternal. Nitya Karm Daily rites as written in scriptures. Niveet A Yagyopaveet worn like garland is called "Niveet". Niyam see also Yog (1) Control. (2) Restraint. (3) Regulation. (4) A part of Ashtaang Yog.

Niyati The predetermined course of events, Destiny, fate. The Manu Smriti (7-205) describes Niyati like thus - In this world happenings are either in the hands of Destiny or in the power of man. Destiny seems to decide those things which are the results of our previous deeds. Over these we have no control. Yet, man can influence those happenings which are related to the present and the future. Men should, therefore, act righteously in regard to happenings over which they still have power. Thus according to Manu Smriti man himself is the architect of his Niyati. Niyog It may be called as legal adultery in which an infertile husband allows his wife to beget progeny from another man. Such as in MBH, Ved Vyaas Je had Niyog with Ambikaa and Ambaalikaa, inseminating deceased brother's widows; and thus Dhritraashtra and Paandu were born from them. Nivritti see also Pravritti Nivritti means non-indulging in something, or washing away one's hands from something. When one has nothing to do with any of his actions. Abstention from actions is called superior state to Pravritti. Niyati (1) Which keeps something in order or discipline. (2) Control. (3) Fate. (4) Destiny. Niyam see Yog

Nrasinh The 4th Avataar of Vishnu in man-lion form taken to kill Hiranyakashyap. Numbers see also Numbers According toBhaagvat Puraan, 9/12, A Baddh = 13,084. [If you want to know which number denotes what, go to Numbers.] Nyaas Pledge Nyaaya (1) Justice. (2) comparing with something. Such as. With the simile of. [by Bimb-Pratibimb Nyaayaa there were father and son] Nyagrodh see also Names of Trees Banyan tree. This tree shoots new trunks downwards and in so doing becomes extremely large. In Chhaandogya Upanishad, Shwetketu's father gives the example of the seed of Nyagrodh

tree which is so small as to be almost invisible and yet contains in it a giant tree. He compares God to this seed saying that God is subtle and yet all things exist in Him.

Oordhwaretaa Observers of Brahmcharya - abstinence. Paadukaa Footwear of a holy person. Raam gave His Paadukaa to Bharat when Bharat came to request Him to come back to Ayodhyaa and take care the kingdom. Paak Cooked food. When this word comes in reference with Bhagavaan and Braahman, it refers not only to cooked food, but to rich fried food and sweets items, for example - Pooree, Pooaa, Halavaa, various kinds of sweets etc. Paakhand Showing people what is not there. It is mostly used for the people who are not Saadhu or Sanyaasee but show that they are Saadhu or Sanyaasee, such as Raavan was not a Saadhu but came to Seetaa Jee in disguise of a Saadhu and behaved like a Saadhu. Who behaves like this, he is called Paakhandee. Paakhandee Paalakee Palanquin. Paan Betel leaf. It is called Taambool also. It has many uses. (1) It is used in worship. (2) It is used to eat after food and at other times also. It is layered with Katechu paste and lime paste, and a few pieces of betel nut (Supaaree) and peppermint, sweet rose leaves, small cardamom etc are kept over it and is chewed. Some Indians take it as mouth freshener after food, while others become addict and eat it as many times as they wish - sometimes they can eat more than 10-15 Paan everyday. Paan is a favorite in China too, Paanchaal Paanchaalee (1) Princess of Paanchaal Desh. (2) Another name of Draupadee. Paanchjanya Shankh (conch shell) Panchjan was a Daitya who lived in the sea in the form of a conch shell near Prabhaas Kshetra. When Krishn killed the Daitya, He brought his body, Paanchjanya conch shell, with Him. He see Paakhand

offered it to His Guru Saandeepan Muni but he refused to take it saying, "It is yours, you keep it." And since then it was His. Paap see also (1) Sin. (2) Vice Punya

Paaran The thing, by eating which is broken the fast, whether it is at the end of one day or more days. Paaras Mani It is a type of stone which if touches the iron, turns it into gold. Paarijaat A Divine tree - Coral tree with crimson flowers. It came out from Saagar Manthan. It is planted in Swarg Lok. Its flowers never wilt. After killing Narakaasur, Krishn brought this tree on Prithvi and planted in Satyabhaamaa's palace for her pleasure. It was there till Dwaarakaa remeined. Paar-Laukik Antonym of "Laukik" which is related to this world, or materialistic. Paar-Laukik means "Relating to next world". Paarshad Attendant. Paarth Son of Prithaa, means son of Kuntee. Although all sons of Kuntee are called Paarth, but mostly it is used for Arjun. Paarthasaarathee Chariot driver of Paarth, means Krishn. Paarvatee Daughter of Himvant and Mainaa and consort of Shiv. She is called Paarvatee and Girijaa because she is the daughter of a Parvat. She has many names - Aparnaa, Girijaa, Himnandinee, Kaameshwaree (the 8th Nityaa of Chandramaa's Kalaa Devee) , Shail Baalaa, Shail Kumaaree, Shivaa, Shivaanee, Umaa etc. Paash (1) The means to tie something - it may be a rope or Mantra or Astra or anything. (2) Some Devtaa also have their own Paash by which they can tie their enemies, such as Varun's Varun Paash. Yam's Paarshad (messengers) take living beings tied with Yam Paash at the time of their death. Naag Paash by which a person is tied with Naag (serpents) and dies with their bites. (3) Trap.

Paashupat (Astra) Lord Shiv is called Pashupati or Pashupatinaath. They literary mean "The Lord of the Creatures", or "The Lord of all Living Beings". It is the name of the Shv Astra. Arjun did Tap to get this Astra and Had to fight Shiv himself before getting it. Paatak Sin. see also Sootak

Paataal The nether world inhabited by sinners. Paath Paatra (1) Pot. Bowl. (2) Candidate - such as "Who is good Paatra for Daan?" means "Who is the good candidate for Daan?" or "To whom one can donate something?" Paavak Fire. Agni. Padavaa The first day of the fortnight of lunar calendar - also called Pratipadaa. Padm Lotus. Padm Puraan One of the main 18 Puraan. Padmaa Another name of Lakshmee. Padmaasan A compound word, Padm + Aasan, means a posture which is like Padm (Kamal, lotus). Padmaasanaa Who sits on lotus flower - another name of Lakshmee. Padmaavatee Another name of Lakshmee. Padminee (1) A bunch of lotuses. (2) Lotus plant. (3) Name of the queen of a Raajpoot king, named Raaval Ratan Singh of Chittaud Garh, during the times of Alaauddeen Khilajee, in 12th and 13th centuries AD.

Padmnaabh From whose navel a lotus has emerged - Vishnu. Padm-Raag Paishaach see also Vivaah One of the 8 kinds of marriages, where the lover gets the woman's consent and her body when she is either sleep or intoxicated. Pakavaan or Pakvaann see Paak

Pakshee Bird. The living being which have wings or feathers and can fly, such as birds, ostrich etc. Some insects can also fly but they do not fall in this category. To see a list of some Pakshee see Birds and Insects Pakshiraaj The King of the birds, means Garud Jee. Pal see also Measurement of Weight (1) Unit of time measuring 24 seconds. (2) An old unit of measuring weight - according to Padm Puraan, approximately 46.4 grams. Palaash (1) Leaf. (2) Foliage. Pallav (1) Blossom. (2) Buds. (3) Shoots. (4) Foliage. Panch Five. Panch Bhoot see Panch Tatwa

Panch Dhaanya Panch means five, Dhaanya means cereal. Wheat, sesame seed, Urad. Moong, and Rice - they are called five cereals. Their flour is considered very good. Panch Gavya see also Brahm Koorch A drink made up of five products of cow products plus Kush water - its urine, dung, milk, yogurt, Ghee and Kush water, mixed together is called Panch Gavya. Its vegetarian version is milk, yogurt, Ghee, Panch Kedaar

Panch Kritya Five types of Upaasanaa (worship) - Ijyaa, Abhigaman, Upaadaan, self study, and Yog. They include worshipping idols, Sandhyaa-Tarpan, Havan-Poojan, Dhyaan, Jap and reading Soorya's life. Panch Mahaa-Bhoot see Panch Tatwa

Panch Mahaa-Yagya There are five types of Yagya which should be performed daily, who doesn't do them, he is called Braahman killer. These Panch Yagya are Dev Yagya, Bhoot (Braahman) Yagya, Pitra Yagya, Manushya (A-Tithi) Yagya, and Brahm Yagya. All Dwij should do these Panch Mahaa-Yagya methodically. Doing Bali-vaishwadev is called Bhoot Yagya, doing Tarpan is called Pitra Yagya, studying and teaching Ved is called Brahm Yagya, doing Havan is called Dev Yagya and felicitating an incoming A-Tithi is called Manushya Yagya or A-Tithi Yagya. Panch Pallav Panch means five and Pallav means leaves. When Kalash are established for Yagya or for any other sacred purpose, some leaves have to be put on them. Five kinds of leaves are in fashion now-a-days - mango, Peepal, Banyan, Pluksh (Paakad) and Goolar (Udumbar). Panch Ratn Panch means five, and Ratn means gems. According to Kaatyaayan - (1) Heeraa (diamond), (2) Motee (pearl), (3) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa), (4) Pushp-raag (Pukharaaj or yellow sapphire) and (5) Neelam (Indraneel, sapphire) - these are considered the best five gems.
(Padm Puraan, p 632)

Panch Tanmaatraa Panch means five and Tanmaatraa means the subjects of the five Gyaan Indriyaan - Shabd (sound), Sparsh (touch), Roop (seeing), Ras (taste), and Gandh (smell) - these five subjects of five Gyaan Indriyaan are called five Tanmaatraa. Panch Tatwa Five elements - (1) Earth (solids), (2) Water (fluids), (3) Air (gases), (4) Fire (energy), and (5) Space (void); which appear from Panch Tanmaatraa - sound, touch, seeing, taste, and smell. Panch-Neeraajan Panch means five and Neeraajan means doing Aaratee. So Panch-Neeraajan means doing aaratee with five things - lamp, cloth, leaf, flower and fruit. Panchaagni see also Fire A compound word, Panch+Agni = Five types of Agni (fire or heat). Panchaamrit see also Charanaamrit Panch means five, and Amrit means nectar. Panchaamrit means five nectars. The following five materials are supposed to be nectars of this world - milk, yogurt, honey, Gangaa Water, and

Ghee. So by mixing these in a specific proportions this Panchaamrit is made. It is used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol. Later this is distributed to the people. It is regarded as an auspicious and compulsory thing to take. Whoever people go to temple, they do not come back without taking Panchaamrit. This type of Panchaamrit is available only when some special worship is performed, for example Satya Naaraayan Poojaa etc, but at other times it is available only in the form of water mixed with Tulasee leaf and sometimes some sugar or honey to sweeten it. When it has been used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol, it becomes Charanaamrit, because it has touched Bhagavaan's feet. Panchaanan Who has five faces - means Shiv. Panchaang see also Panchaang Panch=Five, and Ang=parts. A Panchaang book tells five parts of the day - (1) Tithi (1-14 + Amaavasyaa or Poornimaa); (2) Vaar (day - Sunday, Monday etc); (3) Nakshatra (Constellation); (4) Yog (combination), and (5) Karan or Muhoort That is why it is called Panchaang. All Pandit (Braahman who worship themselves and for others) keep this book with them for knowing these details about days. Panchamee The 5th day of the fortnight of the Lunar calendar. Panchgavya see Brahm Koorch Mixture of 5 things from cow. Panchnad The name of a place where Panch (five) Nad (rivers) flow, means Panjaab - these five rivers are Shutudree (Satalaj), Vipaashaa (Vyaas), Iraavatee (Raavee), Chandrabhaagaa (Chinaab), and Vitastaa (Jhelam or Behut). Panchraatra (1) Five nights and five days. (2) A Hindoo sect, perhaps as ancient as 100AD, which believed in one God and emphasized the path of devotion. Their deity was Vishnu who was also called as Naaraayan, Hari, Vaasudev, and Krishn. This sect did not believe in sacrifice and torture of the body to please God. In all these things it represented the best of Hinduism as it evolved after the age of Upanishad. Later it got corrupted by Taantrik doctrines and lost its flavor.
[Aangiras, p 209]

Panchsoonaa Sin The place to cook food (oven or cooking range etc), the place to grind flour, the place to crush or grind spices, the place to keep water, and the action of sweeping - these places are the possible places for Hinsaa (killing small Jeev) for a Grihasth (householder), therefore these come under Panchsoonaa Dosh (sin) for him.

Panchtantra Name of a book of moral stories compiled by Vishnu Sharmaa (c 370-450 AD). It has been translated into Persian, Arabic, Greek and Hebrew during 600-900 AD. And from these languages to most European languages. Hitopadesh, a smaller book by Naaraayan is based on Panchtantra. Panchvatee Where five types of Vat (ficus) trees are there - Bilva, Peepal, Banyan, Ashok, and Dhaatri. Pandit (1) Learned person. (2) Indian priest. Panjikaa see Panchaang

Pankaj A compound word - Pank + Aj, means which is born from mud, means lotus. Pannaa Par see also A-Par (1) Aatmaa (soul) is of two types Par Aatmaa and A-Par Aatmaa. Par Aatmaa is Param Brahm and is Nir-Gun; and A-Par Aatmaa or A-Par Brahm is said to be "with Ahankaar", that is Jeev Aatmaa. (2) Higher, or better. (3) Brahmaa's Age. His half age, 50 Brahmaa years, is called Paraardh (a compound word Par+Ardh) Paraa Prakriti and A-Paraa Prakriti Superior energy. see Prakriti

Paraa Vidyaa Knowledge about soul, or Aatmaa, or Brahm. Paraag Stamen. Param (1) Ultimate. (2) Highest. Paramaarth A combined word - Param+Arth. Paramaarth is selfless Karm. Mostly people do every Karm with some kind of objective, that is why it is very difficult to do Paramaarth in which there is no objective. (1) The highest profit. (2) To do good to others. (3) Not to wish for worldly things, but to aspire for Brahm.

Paramaatmaa Param means the ultimate, and Aatmaa means soul; so Paramaatmaa means the Ultimate soul, means Bhagavaan, God, Hari. Parameshwar see Paramaatmaa

Parampad Another name of Brahm Lok, Vishnu Lok, and Jan Lok, where Brahmaa, Vishnu and Sanakaadi Muni live. Paramparaa Traditions - the chain of some specific processes and behaviors beginning from very early period. Parantap see Arjun Another name of Arjun. Parabrahm Supreme Soul Paralok It is a compound word - Par means beyond and Lok means world, so Paralok means the other world. Param - (1) Highest. (2) Absolute. (3) Most excellent. Param Dhaam The dwelling place of Bhagavaan, this place is called Moksh also. There is a Divine city in the middle of this Param Dhaam which is called Ayodhyaa which is surrounded by boundary wall and high gates. There are pictures made from gems and gold. Chand etc guards and Kumud etc Dikpaal guard it constantly. On its eastern gate are Chand and Prachand; on its southern gate are Bhadra and Subhadra; on its western gate are Jaya and Vijaya; and on its northern gate are Dhaataa and Vidhaataa. Kumud, Kumudaaksh, Pundareek, Vaaman, Shankukarn, Sarvnidra, Sumukh, Supratishthit - these are the Dikpaal of that city.
[Padm Puraan, 5/36]

Param Gati Final Moksh (beatitude). Param Pad Param means highest, and Pad means state or position; so Param Pad means highest state or position. Param Tattwa Absolute reality.

Paramaarth (1) The ultimate Truth. (2) The highest Truth. (3) The noblest act of helping others. Paramaatmaa This is a compound word - Param means Highest and Aatmaa means Soul, so Paramaatmaa means the Highest or Supreme Soul. Parameshwar Supreme God Parigraha To collect. see also A-Parigraha

Parikarm Parikarm is related to mathematics and is used in Jyotish (astrology). It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square and square root, cube and cube root. Parivaar (1) Dependents. (2) Family. Parjanya Another name of Indra. Parn Kutee Cottage made out of leaves. Parv (1) Knot, as in bamboo. (2) Joint. (3) Auspicious occasion or festival. (2) Parts of a book, such as some Puraan are divided in Parv or MBH is divided in Parv. Parvat Mountain Pashchim (1) West direction. (2) Behind. Pashu Animals see also List of Animals Sounds of Animals

Pataakaa (1) Flag. (2) Banner. Pati (1) Husband, for example Ramaapati, means Husband of Ramaa, menas Vishnu. (2) Lord. (3) Owner.

Pativrataa Devoted wife, or loyal wife. Patthar Stone. Patra (1) Letter. (2) Very thin plate of any size and shape - such as "Taamra Patra" means "Copper plate", or "some markings are found on a Taamra Patra" means "some markings are found on a thin plate or sheet of copper." Now this sheet may be round, square, rectangular, or even an uneven shape. (3) Leaf - for example, "Bhagavan is pleased by offering even Patra." Patraa see Panchaang

Paundra Name of Bheem's conch. Pavan Wind. Ped see Trees.

Peedhee Generations. Peepal A sacred tree in India. In many places it is worshipped. Peetaambar A garment of yellow color, which normally is worn by Vishnu or Krishn. Peeth (1) Back. (2) Stool. (3) Chair. (4) Seat or place. The circular base on which Shiv Ling is established is also called "Peeth". The main office of religious organization is also called "Peeth, for example Shankaraachaarya established four "Peeth" in four places in India Phal (1) Fruits, such as mango, banana etc. (2) Result - as "Karm Phal" means "the result of your action". Phalaahaar Phal means fruits, and Aahaar means food. Phalaahaar means eating fruits. But Shaastra permit a kind of special grain to eat under Phalaahaar, that is buckwheat. It is not counted under grains. People make several dishes out of its flour. Some people eat dried Singhaadaa (a fruit found in ponds - it is very common in UP, India) flour, preparing its flat bread and Halavaa

(sweet dish). So it is not necessary to eat only fruits in Phalaahaar, since that special grain is also permitted, but of course its literal meaning is to eat only fruits, yogurt, milk, sugar, salt, and normally roots - potato and yucca, including pumpkin (not green and other kinds of vegetables) Phalit Jyotish Pinaak Bow of Shiv, also called Ajagav. Pind (1) Lump. (2) Globe. (3) Ball of cooked rice, (or uncooked barley flour), honey, and butter offered to Pitar or the spirit of ancestors. Pind Daan Offering ball of cooked rice, (or uncooked barley flour), honey, and butter to Pitar or the spirit of ancestors. Pishaach A class of Raakshas (demons) fond of eating flesh. Pitaa Father. Pitaamaha Grandfather (father's father). Pitar The departed forefathers. Polar Star Poojaa Poorak see also Praanaayaam One of Praanaayaam's four processes - inhaling the breath; others are Rechak, Kumbhak and Shoonyak. Poorn Aahuti Poornimaa see see Aahuti Poornmaasee see Dhruv Taaraa

Poornmaasee The full-Moon day and night

Poort see also Isht Digging ponds and wells, building temples, and inns, planting gardens and trees etc are called Poort or Ishtaa Poort Karm. Poorv (1) One of the four directions - East. (2) Prior, earlier. (3) In front. Poorv-Meemaansaa see also Darshan A system of philosophy founded by Jaimini. Poorv-Meemaansaa school is based entirely on the study of Rig Vaidik ritual and sacred texts. For its followers, salvation was equated with the precise performance of the Som sacrifice, since everything prescribed in the Ved must be taken literally as eternal truth. But this system attracted fewer and fewer people over time. Poorv-Viddhaa This is in context with Tithi (days). When one Tithi is united with its previous Tithi at sunrise it is called Poorv-Viddhaa Tithi. Some Tithi are good when they are Poorv-Viddhaa; while others are not good. The 7th, Poornimaa, Amaavasyaa, the day of annual Shraaddh of father days must be adopted when they are Poorv Viddhaa. Who desire for Dharm, Arth, Kaam they should not keep fast on 2nd, 6th, 8th and 11th Tithi when they Poorv-Viddhaa. Poorvaj Ancestors, or Pitar. Pooshaa A Vaidik Divinity who nourishes the people, saves them from harm and keeps their paths accessible to them. Pramaan Proof. Praamaanik (1) Genuine. Praan see also Vaayu The air we breath is called Praan - breath of life. When this air is gone, the man dies. The life force. In Yogic tradition, Praan is said to be tenfold depending on its nature and function. Of the ten Praan (inhalation) and Apaan (exhalation) are the most important. According to Bhagavad Geetaa, a Yogee should balance and control the movement of Praan and Apaan in order to have control over the modifications of the mind and thus attain Samaadhi. According to Bhaagvat 3/6 ten Praan are - Praan, Apaan, Udaan, Samaan, Vyaan, Naag, Koorm, Krikal, Devatatt, and Dhananjaya. Praan Pratishthaa It is the process, completed with the help of Mantra, to invoke life in a statue or idol before

worshipping it. This process fills life in the statue or idol. Without invoking life, statue is only a statue, not god. Praanaagnihotra As there are five Praan, there are five Mantra for them, they are - "Praanaaya Swaahaa, Apaanaaya Swaahaa, Samaanaaya Swaahaa, Vyaanaaya Swaahaa, Udaanaaya Swaahaa". When one eats five morsels pronouncing these five Mantra, it is called Praanaagnihotra. It is a compound word - Praan+Agni-Hotra. Praanaayaam see also Ashtaang Yog; Vaayu

Praarabdh see also Karm Fruits of previous lives' Karm. There are three types of Karm - Sanchit (collected ones) Praashan (1) The first thing to eat after a fast. (2) Eating or tasting. Ann Praashan is a major Sanskaar of a child when he tastes the Ann (cereal) for the first time. Praati Shaakhya Praayashchit Repentance. In Hindoo religion, most kinds of sins can be cleared by doing Praayashchit. This Praayashchit is mostly in the form of fast, donation, Yagya etc. Prabodh Kaal see Brahm Muhoort

Prabhu (1) God. (2) Master Pradhaan (1) The elements of the material manifestation. (2) Mool Prakriti, means original nature. It is the first thing which appeared directly from Brahm. All other things have appeared from it. Pradosh Pragyaa (1) Wisdom. (2) Another name of Saraswatee. Prahar Prahar is a part of the day. Eight Prahar make one day and night - four Prahar in the day and four Prahar in the night. So one Prahar may be taken as equal to three hours. It is also called Yaam. Prajaapati (1) Lord of all creatures. (2) Name of the 11 atmospheric deities in Rig Ved. The entire hymn

(10-121) of Rig Ved is devoted to Prajaapati where this term is used synonymously with God and wherein this is acknowledged in question from stating - "Whom (save Him) shall we worship?" The word Prajaapati is also used in the sense of progenitor. It is therefore applied to Brahmaa, the Creator, and Swaayambhuv Manu, supposedly the first human. (3) Name of a person who was the descendent of Praanshu (2900 BC). (4) Name of Rishi who was the son of Vishwaamitra.
[We have never heard that Vishwaamitra had a son named Prajaapati. His son's name was Raivya.]

Prakriti Pralaya Deluge or the Great deluge. The dissolution of the Universe. At this time it is believed that everything gets destroyed and is absorbed by the Param Paramaatmaa (God). Then after some time creation is started again afresh. According to Hindoo and Jain, Pralaya is the recurring event in the never-ending cycle of creation and dissolution of the Universe. It is claimed that every cycle takes the same time to complete. Pramaad Useless efforts of Indriyaan and heart are called Pramaad. Pramath Another name of Shiv - meaning destroyer. Pranaam see also Saashtaang Pranaam Greeting. In Indian culture Pranaam is done normally by joining hands, bending a little in respect of the person and saying a word for greeting, such as "Namaskaar", "Namstey", "Pranaam", "Jaya Shree Raam", "Jaya Shree Krishn" etc. If the person is a close relative, or a saint, the younger people touch his or her feet instead of joining hands. Pranav Mantra Aum word is known as Pranav, Beej or Mool Mantra. Pranav consists of three letters - Akaar, Ukaar and Makaar and thus it is said to be the form of three Ved. This is the dwelling place of Brahm. Akaar represents Vishnu, Ukaar represents Lakshmee Jee and Makaar is their servant "Jeev" which is the 25th element also.

[10 Indriyaan, 5 Bhoot, 5 Tanmaatraa, mind, Ahankaar, Mahat Tattwa, and Prakriti - these are the 24 Tattwa; and their witness Consciousness is the 25th Tattwa.]

Prasaad (1) Gift. (2) Blessings. (3) Food graced by God. Food offered to Bhagavaan or the deity. After the offering of sweets or fruits or dry fruits or food is made for Bhagavaan, it is distributed to Bhakt community, that is called Prasaad. It is customary to have Prasaad after a worship (Poojaa) with great respect, Bhakti (devotion) and Shraddhaa. It doesn't need to be in a great amount, even sesame seed like quantity is enough. That is why people normally take it in their right hand putting their left hand beneath it. Although it may be in large amount also like full food.

Prasooti (1) Giving birth to a child. (2) Prasooti Kaal - Delivery time of a woman. Prasth see also Weight Measurement It is a weight measurement, for example, 1 Prasth gold. One Prasth is equal to 4 Kudava; and 1 Kudava is equal to about 12 double handfuls. Prasthaan-Trayee see also Ved A collective name of Upanishad, Bhagvad Geetaa and Vedaant Sootra. Pratham (1) First. (2) Foremost. (3) Primeval. Pratilom see also Vivaah (1) Reverse, such as Pratilom Vivaah. Pratilom Vivaah means when a lower Varn boy marries a higher Varn girl, it is called Pratilom Vivaah. (2) Contrary. Pratipadaa The first day of the fortnight of the Lunar calendar - also called Padavaa. Pratisarg see Sarg

Pratishthaa (1) Idol worship is very common in Hindoo religion. But every idol is not to be worshipped. When it is established in temples, it needs Pratishthaa. Pratishthaa means "to request god to come and live in that idol so that we can worship him". It is because we do not worship just idol, we worship it as the image of God. And to make it an image of God we will have to perform some ceremonies. When it is kept in houses, it takes time, for example we daily worship it, we treat it as our God, then only it turns into an image of God. So Pratishthaa is a process in which an idol is turned into an image of God. (2) Any good work is started by worshipping God, so the the worship done to start that work is also called Pratishthaa. By doing this worship we wish that "our work finishes without obstacles, and it should be for the welfare". (3) Respect. Pratyaahaar see also Ashtaang Yog To control one's Indriyaan (senses). Pratyaksh Visible. Pravachan Religious discourse or exposition.

Pravritti see also Nivritti Efforts made to enjoy worldly comforts and pleasures, or to make living. Acts done in pursuance of the religion Praya Sitting down at a particular spot abstaining from food and drink to die. Restraining from food and drink. Prayaag see also Sangam Prayaag is called the place where two rives meet. Thus there may be many Prayaag. But if somebody says "Prayaag", normally it is understood as Allaahaabaad (UP) where Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers meet. There are other Prayaag also famous as Prayaag but they are less known than Allaahaabaad. These Prayaag come on the way to - (1) Dev Prayaag (Sangam of Bhaageerathee and Alaknandaa, on the way to Badree Naath) (2) then comes Rudra Prayaag, (3) Son Prayaag (Sangam of Mandaakinee and Son Gangaa Rivers on the way to Kedaar Naath), (4) Karn Prayaag, (5) Nand Prayaag, and (6) Vishnu Prayaag. Pret (1) Dead person. (2) Those who die, first become Pret. They remain so for one year till the Sapindeekaran Shraddhaa is performed for them. Then they unite with Pitar (ancestors). The gifts made in this Shraddhaa, as well as in the monthly ones, have the virtue of rescuing the Pret, or bringing him an accession of merit. The gifts made in annual Shraddhaa also have the same effects. Preya see also Shreya According to Kath Upanishad Preya is "what is pleasant" for a man, it may or may not be useful or good for him Prithvi see also Bhoor Lok The Earth. This world in which we live. It is called Bhoomi also. She is one of the 14 Lok. In Ved, she is considered a Devee and is a part of Vyaahriti - Bhoor, Bhuvah, Swaha, in which Bhoor refers to Prithvi. Also spelled as "Prithivee". Once in the times of the King Prithu, Prithvi refused to give anything to its people, so he ran to kill her. Then she surrendered to him and the King regarded her as his daughter. From that day she was called Prithvi. Its synonyms are Vasudhaa, Vasumatee, Vasundharaa. Prithvi Sookt The first hymn of the 12th Kaand of Atharv Ved (12-1) consisting of 63 Mantra. It is an outstanding Sookt (hymn) dedicated to the praise of one's own land of birth from the point of view of the contents and poetic beauty. It is also called Bhoomi Sookt also. Puchchhal Taaraa (1) Dhoomketu. (2) Comet.

Pujaaree Priest or official worshipper. Pukharaaj Yellow Sapphire. Pushp-raag. One of the nine gems or precious stones. Some of the others are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Coral; (6) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (7) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa); (8) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire - all are called Mani or Ratn. Yellow sapphire is found in yellow, golden, and orange colors, as well as in a colorless variety known as white sapphire. The best gem is said to be of lemon-yellow color. The color in yellow sapphire is due to the presence of iron and titanium. The best yellow sapphires, famous for their luster, smoothness, brilliance, and transparence, come from Mogok, situated in the upper region of Burma. Sri Lanka produces sapphires in yellow, light green, and color-less varieties in sufficient quantities. These sapphires are of some-what inferior quality to the Burmese Pukharaaj. Good quality sapphires in shades of yellow, green, pink, red, blue, violet, and white (colorless) are found in abundance in Brazil. Punarjanm Punar=again, and Janm=birth, so Punarjanm means - one who has already taken birth before, if he takes birth again after his death, it is called his Punarjanm. If god himself comes on Prithvi,, it is called His Avataar, but when a man or animal who has already taken birth, he comes again on Prithvi, it is called his Punarjanm, or Janmaantar Janm... so goes the Kaarmik cycle. Pundareek Lotus flower of white color. Punsavan Sanskaar see also Sanskaar 1 of the 16 Sanskaar for Hindoo to influence the sex of the fetus so that a male child is born. It was performed in the 3rd or 4th month of pregnancy wherein some mantra are chanted and a medicine is administered to the pregnant woman. The ritual has practically died. Punya see also Paap (1) Good actions. All those actions which are done to do good to others are called Punya. (2) Dhaarmik Actions - Actions according to Shaastra. They also come in this category as they are done to please Bhagavaan or Devtaa or Pitar etc. (3) Virtue. Pur City or town. Puraan Puraaree Another name of Shiv. Purandar Another name of Indra. it means the destroyer of strongholds.

Purashcharan see also Mantra Jaap 125,000 repetitions of a Mantra - this practice is called a Purashcharan. This is equivalent to 1250 rounds of a Maalaa in 40 days - 31 Maalaa per day. If somebody takes some 20 minutes to recite the Mantra 108 times, 20 Maalaa will take approximately 7 hours, and 10 Maalaa 3 hours and 30 minutes. Purohit In charge of religious activities of a house. Family priest. Purush God. Bhagavaan. Brahm. Purush Sookt Purushaarth Aims or objectives (of life) or human values to achieve in life. A Hindoo has four Purushaarth or four goals of his life (1) Dharm - the first and the foremost goal of life. Actions according to Ved and Shaastra, Varn and Aashram, leading a moral and spiritual life with faith and trust in God. (2) Arth - earning money with honesty and diligently to become prosperous to achieve a decent worldly life and to d Dharm actions. (3) Kaam - desire, so fulfill one's desires to enjoy life. and (4) Moksh - emancipation, or perfection or beatitude or to be free from the cycle of birth and death. Among these four, only the first three are normally referred to, and they are called Tri-Varg (three things). Dharm is the driving force, that is why it is the prescribed conduct, by scriptures or by society, and it does not entail any merit or demerit, just obligatory duty. While the other two are the means to achieve Dharm; and all lead to Moksh. Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat are structured on these four Purushaarth alone. Raamaayan's main import is virtuosity of human living. Purushottam The noblest man - God. Normally it is used for Vishnu and His incarnations - Krishn and Raam (Maryaadaa Purushottam). Purushottam Maas see Adhik Maas

Pushkar (1) Means lotus in Vaidik Sanskrit. (2) and Pond in modern Sanskrit. (3) A sacred lake in Ajmer, Raajsthaan, India. Pushpak Vimaan This was a airplane given by Brahmaa Jee to Kuber. But when Raavan had got the Var to be like immortal, he defeated Kuber and took his Pushpak Vimaan. Raam used the same Pushpak Vimaan

to come back to Ayodhyaa. It's specialties were that it could be smaller or larger according to one's needs. It used to fly with the speed of mind, and it moved by thoughts only. It had all the amenities in it. Pushp-raag see Pukharaaj

Putra Son. Shrutis say the son as Putra, because one is rescued by him. (MBH, Ashwamedh, 90). Putra are of 5 types (1) Kshetraj Putra - Son from a legal married wife and husband; (2) Auras Putra - If a legal wife has a son from her husband, and if another man has also relationship with that wife, then the first will be Auras son of the second man. As Brihaspati and Utathya were two brothers. Utathya's son Bharadwaaj was Brihaspati's Auras son, because Brihaspati also had illicit relations with his brother Utathya's wife Mamataa. His name was Bharadwaaj and Devtaa gave him to Bharat as his queens killed all his sons. (3) Dattak Putra - When one adopts somebody else' son he becomes the Dattak Putra of his new parents. Putree Daughter Putrikaa Dharm see also Vivaah In Putrikaa Dharm, the first son born to the daughter belongs to the father of the daughter. It normally happens when the girl has no brother, but can happen otherwise also.

Raadhaa According to Aangiras (p 312) Raadhaa is a short name of Rukminee used by her father, Vrishbhaanu Bheeshmak who left Vrindaa van to become the King of Vidarbh. Raadhaa again met Krishn in Saandeepani school where the two fell in love and later got married. She is considered the incarnation of Lakshmee. Raadhaaraman Beloved husband of Raadhaa, means Krishn. Raahu Raahu, along with Ketu, is a demon who is said to have gained immortality by deceit when he drank Amrit at the time of Saagar Manthan. Initially there was one demon Raahu. When Soorya and Chandramaa complained about Raahu that he had drank Amrit, he had already taken a gulp of Amrit. That is why as soon as Vishnu cut his neck by His Chakra, he did not die, rather his both parts lived. His head part remained as Raahu and his trunk became Ketu (tail). Since Soorya and Chandramaa complained about him, he always seeks the opportunity to eat them. He gets these chances on a Full Moon day to eat Chandramaa and New Moon Day to eat Soorya Dev.

That is why the two eclipses, Lunar and Solar, happen on these days. In the Nav Graha worship they are worshipped as two Graha (planets). Raajaa King. Its synonyms are - Narendra, Naresh Raajas One of the three Gun - Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. It is called Taijas also. Raajgopaal King of cowherd. Another name of Shree Krishn. Raajan King. Raajarshi A Kshatriya who has achieved the status of a Rishi. Vishwaamitra is most suitable example of Raajarshi. Raajneeti (1) Politics. (2) Diplomacy. Raajsooya Yagya see Yagya Raaj Yog The main ingredient of Raaj Yog is Hath Yog which controls the mind through Aasan (postures) and Praanaayaam. Aasan are physical postures for improving body and mind functions and Praanaayaam is for systematic regulation of breathing for a given period. Kundalinee Yog is a system considred a part of Raaj Yog by the followers of Tantra. Raajeev Blue lotus. Raakshas Name of a non-Aaryan tribe of India and Shree Lankaa. The non-Aaryan tribes were called Daas (slaves) by the Aarya. Raakshas tribe is mentioned in Rig Ved (1-35-10). Later on they came to be called Raakshas. The word Raakshas meant an evil person due to the practices pf sorcery prevalent among this tribe, for the same reason they were called Yaatudhaan also. At one time they ruled Kaashee and had several kingdoms in South India. They ruled Shree Lankaa also. It is recorded that Aarya sometimes married Raakshas tribe. Vishravaa Rishi married four women three of them were from Raakshas tribe. One of them, Kaikasee bore four children to him Raavan, Kumbhkarn, Vibheeshan and Shoorpanakhaa. Raakshas looked like normal human beings, while Pauraanik stories depict them otherwise.

Raakshas Vivaah One of the eight types of Vivaah (marriage). Consummating a marriage by forcibly obtaining a girl without her consent and after fighting successfully with her parents and other relatives (Manu Smriti, 3-33). Raam Raam Navamee Chaitra Shukla Navamee is Raam Navamee day - birthday of Shree Raam. His story is enacted and sung in Brahmaa (Mynmaar, or Burmaa), Jaavaa and Sumaatraa islands (Indonesia), Malaya Dweep Samooh (Malayasia), Shyaam (Thailand), and Kambuj (Cambodia). For centuries, the kings of Thailand have been named Raam. There is a city in Thailand named Ayodhyaa and some of the prominent institutions there have Ayodhyaa as part of their name. Raam Raajya The government of Raam. The rule of Raam was perfect, a situation in which people lived in complete bliss - perfect governance.. Raamaayan Raamchandra see Raam (1758-1660 BC) The eldest son of King Dasharath, the king of Koshal, and Kaushalyaa. He is popularly known as Shree Raam. He was an ideal son, ideal brother, ideal husband, ideal friend and an ideal foe. He lived His life as an ideal life that is why He is popularly known as Maryaadaa Purushottam Raam. The words "Raam Raajya", literally mean the reign of Shree Raam, mean a government which is ideal and just and where people are happy and satisfied.
[I do not challenge Aangiras giving these dates for Raam's existence, but I do not agree with them. First of all every Yug's period is defined in Hindoo religion - Sat Yug (1,728,000), Tretaa Yug (1,296,000), Dwaapar Yug (864,000), Kali Yug (432,000). If he dates Krishn's birth and death 1150-1064 BC, the with these years of Yug, how this is possible that Raam's birth and death dates are 1758-1660 BC? Raam did not die just only 500 years ago? And he also did not live only for 102 years? According to Vaalmeeki Raamaayan His ruling period was 11,000 years. Thus these dates raise a considerable doubt.]

Raamcharitmaanas Raas A type of Dance form favorite of Krishn with Gopee. This folk dance is very popular in Vrindaa Van and Gjaraat and is gradually gaining popularity throughout the Hindoo world. Gujaraatee Daandiyaa with wooden sticks is the variation of Krishn's Raas. Raashi (1) Pile, (2) Sum, (3) Quantity, (4) Zodiac Signs Raatri Jaagaran see Jaagaran

Raaz Secret. Raghu (1) Name of the grandfather of Shree Raam. Ramaa Another name of Lakshmee. Rangbhoomi (1) Amusement theater. (2) Arena. Rangshaalaa The whole area of amusement, including the amusement theater and seating arrangement for audience etc. Ras (1) Taste. Indian food has been divided in six types of taste of food - Sweet (sugar), Salty (salt), Bitter (Karela or bitter gourd), Acidic (sour like lemon), Pungent (pepper), and Astringent. (2) Emotions. Indian literature (prose, poetry etc) may be divided into nine emotions - (1) Shringaar Ras -romance. Shringaar Ras is of two types - (1) Sambhog, or Sanyog - being with one's partner (2) Vipralambh or Viyog - separation; (2) Haasya Ras - humor, (3) Shok - grief, (4) Krodh - fury or anger, (5) Veer, or Utsaah - enthusiasm, or bravery, (6) Bhaya - fear, (7) Jugupsaa - disgusting, (8) Vismaya - amazement or wonder. Sometimes Vaatsalya Ras - motherly love for a child is counted as separate Ras. Tulasee's Maanas contains all these Ras in his epic Romance (Sanyog) - Raam's meeting with Seetaa in Pushpvatikaa Romance (Viyog) - Raam weeps in separation of Seetaa Humorous - Episodes of Naarad, Shoorpanakhaa and Trijataa Grief - Dasharath, Jataayu and Baali's death Bravery - Lakshman and Indrajit Krodh - Parashuraam's anger on Lakshman Veer - In Raam-Raavan war Bhaya Disgusting - Viraadh, and Kabandh Amazing - Hanumaan's leap over sea, burning Lankaa, Vaatsalya - Kaushalyaa plays with Raam

Ratjagaa

see

Jaagaran

Ratn Gems, Jewels, Precious Stones. Ravi Sun. Synonym of Soorya.

Rechan One of Praanaayaam's four processes - others are Poorak, Kumbhak and Shoonyak. Exhaling the breath. Reptiles The animals which walk on their belly. Revatee (1) Name of the 5th Nakshatra (constellation) from among 27 Nakshatra. (2) Name of the wife of Balaraam. Ribhu Three brothers mentioned in Rig Ved, who through their continuous performance of virtuous works reached perfection and hence were elevated to Divine status in the eyes of men. Richaa Sacred verses in praise of the Lord. Rig One of the four Ved - Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Atharv Ved, and Saam Ved. Some take Aayur Ved as fifth Ved. Rig Ved Sookt Rin (1) Debt of money or anything to this mortal world. (2) Credit. (3) Obligation. (4) Due. (5) Negative amount. (6) When a soul takes birth, he comes with three Rin - Dev Rin (paid by doing Yagya), Pitra Rin (paid by producing children, especially son), and Brahm Rin (paid by acquiring Brahm Gyaan). And one is supposed to pay all these Rin before he dies. Rishabh (1) Bull. (2) The best, the excellent. Rishi Seer. Strictly the term is used for inspired seers to whom Vaidik Mantra are revealed; but loosely it is used for any inspired religious person. They came from many sections of the society - priests, kings, commoners etc. There are seven very distinguished families of Rishi - (1) Bhaargav from Rishi Bhrigu Angiras; (2) Aangiras also from Bhrigu, who include Kanva and Bhaaradwaaj; (3) Aatreya from Rishi Atri; (4) Kaashyap from Rishi Kashyap; (5) Vaashishth from Rishi Vashishth; (6) Aagastya from Rishi Agastya; and (7) Kaushik from Rishi Vishwaamitra who was himself descended from King Kushik.
(Aangiras, p 89)

There are three types of Rishi - Brahmarshi (who has attained knowledge of Brahm - such Brahmarshi are Vashishth, Vishwaamitra etc Rishi); Devarshi (who is a Devtaa but lives like a Rishi - Naarad Jee), and Raajarshi (who is Raajaa, king, but lives like a Rishi - Janak etc). Rit Whatever seems to be Dharm (duty), for example speaking truth and sweet. Ritaavaree Dawn. Ritu Season. In India there are six seasons - (1) Vasant (Spring), (2) Greeshm (Summer), (3) Varshaa (Rainy), (4) Sharad (Autumn or Fall), (5) Hemant (Winter), and (6) Shishir (mild Winter). Ritual Ritual is to do a certain action in a prescribed way. Ritwij Ritwik see Ritwij

Rohinee (1) Red. (2) Cow. (3) Name of the mother of Balaraam, wife of Vasudev, Krishn's step mother. (4) Name of the 4th Nakshatra. Rom (1) Fur. Rom Koop Spores. Rom Rom Pulakit Honaa Horripilation (cause by excessive joy or fear). Roop (1) Form. (2) Beauty. Rudra Rudra Prashn A long prayer to Rudra consisting of two parts - Namak and Chamak. The text as appearing in the Taittireeya Sanhitaa of Krishn Yajur Ved is followed throughout India. Rudra Sookt

Rudraaksh Name of a berry dried and used for making rosaries. Indian Jyotish System (astrology) has its medicinal value also.

Sa see also Nir Sa in Hindi language is a prefix to denote "with". Sa-Aakaar - Aakaar means form, so Sa-Aakaar means "with form". When Bhagavaan takes Avataa and appears assuming some kind of form, it is called His Sa-Aakaar Roop. Sa-Ashtaang see Saashtaang Sa-Gun - Gun means attributes, so Sa-Gun means "with attributes". When Bhagavaan takes Avataa and appears assuming some kind of form, it is called His Sa-Gun Roop. Saadhak (1) Who does Saadhanaa, he is called Saadhak. (2) The person working to achieve some goal. Saadhanaa Continuous strict discipline. Saadhu (1) Virtuous. (2) Who doesn't care of worldly things, treats all alike with noble feelings. Saagar Sea, or Ocean. Saagar Manthan Saakaar see also Nir-Aakaar Sa-Aakaar - means with a definite form. Saalokya see also Saameepya, Saaroopya, Saayujya One of four types of Moksh. This is the combination of two words - Sa and Lok. It means "in the same world"; or living in the same world. People attain Saalokya of Soorya or Vishnu after certain Vrat or fasts - this means that they will live in the same Lok as of Soorya's or Vishnu's. Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed Policies These policies are advised for a king to use for persuasion, but other people also can use them as needed. (1) Saam means by negotiation or good counseling. (2) Daam means by giving money or tempting somebody (incentives of various sorts). (3) Dand means by punishing or threatening somebody. (4) Bhed means divide and rule or by diplomacy or sowing dissention in his ranks. Saam Ved see Ved, Saam

Saameepya see also Saalokya, Saaroopya, Saayujya (1) Closeness. (2) Being near to somebody. (3) Proximity. (4) One of four types of Moksh in which a person lives with God after his death. Saankhya Shaastra Saankhya means Adhyaatm Gyaan (spiritual knowledge); and Shasstra means organized body of knowledge. Saaraswat (1) Name of people living on the banks of Saraswatee River. (2) One of the five classes of North Indian Braahman. Saarathee Charioteer. Saaroopya see also Saalokya, Saameepya, Saayujya (1) One of four types of Moksh. (2) Conformity with God. This is the combination of two words - Sa and Roop. It means "being as the same form". People attain Saaroopya of Soorya or Vishnu after certain Vrat or fasts - this means that they will become like Soorya or Vishnu. Saashtaang Pranaam see also Pranaam Sa+asht+ang. Sa means "with", Asht means "eight", and Ang means "parts". Pranaam means "greeting with respect". So Saashtaang Pranaam means "Greeting with respect with eight body limbs". The eight body limbs are - 2 hands, 2 knees, chest, head, and 2 feet. This is done normally lying on stomach position, and by joining both palms together saying "I greet thee" with pure heart. Saatwik One of the three Gun - Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. Pure. This word may be used in several contexts - Saatwik food, Saatwik ideas, Saatwik feelings, Saatwik living, Saatwik nature etc. Saavitra Related to Sun. Saavitree see also Gaayatree (1) Verse 3-62-10 of Rig Ved, more popularly known as Gaayatree Mantra because of its meter. Saayujya One of four types of Moksh - complete identification with God Sabhaa (1) Assembly. (2) Meeting. (3) Society. Sabzee see Vegetables

Sachchidaanand Sat+Chit+Aanand = Sachchidaanand. One who is the embodiment of Sat (truth), Chit (consciousness) and Aanand (joy or bliss), means God. Sacred Thread see Yagyopaveet

Sacrifice (1) Leaving or abandoning something. It may be anything from comfort to any tangible thing. (2) Yagya. Sahastraar Chakra see Chakra

Sahastrabaahu (1) Another name of Shiv. (2) King of Haihaya Vansh, killed by Parashuraam. Samaadhi Reaching at such a stage or state where one becomes unaware of everything around. Spiritual absorption; the eighth rung of Raaj Yog. It is the state in which the Yogee is aware of the process of the meditation, the object of the meditation and the meditator, that is called Samaadhi with seed. When the Yogee merges into Brahm (unitary consciousness), that is called Samaadhi without seed. Samaya (1) Time. (2) see Tantra Samidhaa Small size sticks (twigs type - 10"-12" long) for doing Havan, normally of mango tree. Samakaaleen During the same period. Sampann Completed. Samput (1) Lips. Adhar. (2) This is an auspicious Dohaa which is read after every Chaupaaee (normally four) plus Dohaa while reading Tulasee's Raam Charit Maanas. There are several Dohaa for this purpose, but mostly 2-3 Dohaa are very common for this purpose. 1 - Mangal Bhavan Amangal Haaree, Dravahu So Daharath Ajir Bihaaree. 2. Samudra (1) Sea or Ocean. (2) Samudra Devtaa (sea god) Samvatsar see also Time Measurement Year. There are many kinds of year are in use on this earth, such as Gregorian calendar, Julian

calendar. In India there are Vikram Samvat and Shak Samvat for Hindoo, Hijri year for Muslim. The most commonly used and known throughout the world is the Gregorian year measured according to the Sun. Sanaatan Ever living. Eternal. Which has no beginning and no end. Sanaatan Kaal - means from the very beginning (when the beginning point is not known). Sanaatan Purush - The earliest man - God, Hari, Bhagavaan Sanaatan Dharm - The earliest Dharm (when the earliest time point is not known) - Hindoo Dharm. Sandhyaa see also Sandhyaa and Sandhyaansh Sandhyaa word has its origin from the word "Sandhi" which means "joining". (1) Sandhyaa time - When day and night meet, i.e. in the morning at dawn and in the evening at dusk, is called Sandhyaa. Some people consider three Sandhyaas - they consider the noon time also as Sandhyaa. (2) Sandhyaa Worship - In Hindoo religion Sandhyaa worship is considered a very necessary worship. This short worship is done at the time of dawn and dusk, when day meets the night, everyday. This worship is done at those times that is why it is called Sandhyaa worship. (3) There is another Sandhyaa, which comes before a Yug starts, and at the end of the Yug. This is normally of the same number of years (in hundreds) which are in Yug, for example, Sat Yug is of 4,000 Divine years, so its Sandhyaa is 400 Divine years. Sandhyaa and Sandhyaansh see also Sandhyaa These are the periods of beginning and end of a Yug respectively. Since these periods also fall at the joining of two Yug, that is why it is also called Sandhyaa and Sandhyaansh. Normally they are of the same number of years in hundreds as the number of years of that Yug in thousands. For example, Sat Yug consists of 4,000 Divine years, so it will have 400 years of its Sandhyaa and 400 years of Sandhyaansh. In the same way Tretaa Yug consists of 3,000 Divine years, so it will have 300 years of Sandhyaa and 300 years of Sandhyaansh. One should take it like that for the rest of the two Yug also. Sandhyaa is before starting the Yug, and Sandhyaansh is after the Yug ends, thus Yug is the middle period of Sandhyaa and Sandhyaansh. Sangam see also Prayaag Sangam means "meeting". Sangam is also called the place where two rives meet (as Prayaag). Thus there may be many Sangam places. But if somebody says "Sangam", normally it is understood as Ilaahaabaad (UP) where Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers meet. Sanhitaa Most commonly, Sanhitaa means Ved, such as Rig Ved Sanhitaa means Rig Ved - in fact any methodical treatise on a subject, such as "Charak Sanhitaa" on medicine, Sushrut Sanhitaa" on surgery.

Sanjeevanee Which can put life in a dead body. It may be a Vidyaa (knowledge - Brihaspati's son Kach went to learn this Vidyaa from Shukraachaarya Jee), or it may be a herb (Vaidya Sushen asked somebody to bring Sanjeevanee herb from Himaalaya to revive Lakshman Jee in Raam-Raavan war). Its use - "This has worked like a Sanjeevanee for him / or for his business." means that "that particular thing has revived his business." Sankalp Intention. Taking vow to do something. It is common to take Sankalp (vow) while donating something to a Braahman. Sankarshan Pulling. Since Balaraam, Krishn's elder brother, was pulled from Devakee's womb to Rohinee's womb, he is called Sankarshan also. Sankhyaa Pranaalee Sankraanti Sansaar "That which continues without beginning or end". The cycle of ignorance, desire, action and longing to reap the fruits of one's actions by taking birth. Sansaptak Sworn to do some work. In Mahaabhaarat, Sansaptak brothers, they were five like Paandav, sworn either to kill Arjun or to die in the battlefield. At that time Susharmaa was the eldest and was the king. When Yudhishthir performed Ashwamedh Yagya their children came to fight with Arjun - Sooryavarmaa, Ketuvarmaa, Dhritvarmaa. Sanskaar Subtle impressions of one's own past Karm or actions. The innermost wall of the city of life is constructed by Sanskaar that holds the seeker's attachments and pleasure-seeking desires. Sanskrit Language Santosh see also Niyam Contentment. Sanyaas see also Vairaagya It is the Fourth Aashram in a human being's life when he detaches himself from everything belonging to this world and prepares for meeting Brahm. During this period, he may worship God, serve the community Sanyaasee

Sanyamanee Puree It is the city of Yam Raaj where he lives. It is on Meru parvat. Sapt Padee see also Vivaah (Marriage) Seven steps. According to Hindoo religion a girl takes up seven strides along with the groom taking seven vow, that is called Sapt Padee. After this Sapt Padee the bride becomes the wife of the groom. This is the main ceremony of Hindoo marriage. Saptarshi According to Bhaagvat Puraan, there are seven Rishi in every Manvantar (there are 14 Manvantar in one Kalp). In every Manvantar they are different. These Rishi can be seen as stars in sky also. Their group of seven stars is called Great Bear and is near Polar star. They always revolve around the Polar star. This Manvantar's Saptarshi are - Atri, Vashishth, Kashyap, Gautam, Jamadagni, Vishwaamitra, and Bharadwaaj. Saptshatee A poem of 700 verses. There are several such poems - (1) "Devee Mahaatmya" or "Durgaa Saptshatee" in Sanskrit language, as part of Maarkandeya Puraan in praise of Durgaa. The three others are - (2) "Aarya Saptshatee" by Govardhanaachaarya, (3) "Gaathaa Saptshatee" by Haal, and (4) Satsaee by poet Bihaaree. Saralataa Simplicity. Saraswatee Saraswatee is a Devee and is said to be the Devee of Vidyaa and knowledge. Her day is Vasant Panchamee (Maagh Shukla Panchamee). People worship Saraswatee this day. Children start their education this day after Saraswatee Poojaa. She is depicted sitting on a swan and carrying Veenaa (an Indian string musical instrument) in her two hands. She is called by Shaaradaa, Bhaaratee, Bhagmaalinee (Chandramaa's 8th Kalaa Devee), Venaavaadinee etc names Sarg (1) Creation. The creation is of three types - Saatwik, Raajasik and Taamasik. (2) Part. It is normally used in reference to the parts of book. When a book is divided in 6 parts, each part may be called as one Sarg. Then Sarg may be divided in several chapters. Sarg, Pratisarg and Manvantar Sarovar see also Kund A pond filled with water. This can be used for taking bath, or to beautify a garden by planting flowers in it, especially the lotus flowers. Sarshap Mustard seeds.

Sat see also Yug (1) Real or true - God is supposed to be "Sat Chit Aanand" - means who is "Absolute Truth", who is "Pure Intellect" and who is "Pure Joy". (2) Existing. (3) Right. (4) One of the three attributes - Sat, Raj, Tam. (5) One of the four Yug - Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali. Satee Sattoo It is a north Indian poor man's food. Roasted barley flour and roasted red chickpeas flour are turned into a paste like material by mixing it with water and sugar. It's effect is cool so people normally eat it in summer afternoons. But its several other dishes are also popular. It is abundantly eaten in Bihar state and eastern UP. Satsang Satsang means the company of and conversation with devotees of Bhagavaan, saints, sages, Rishi, Muni etc good people. Normally in this type of Satsang people listen to or talk about God and related matters. Satya Truth. In religious sense, truth is the fact which is spoken considering one's Dharm, not just any truth. If it harms somebody, it should not be spoken. Satya Naaraayan Truth-loving God, means Vishnu. Saubhaagya (1) Good luck. (2) When some woman's husband is alive she is called Saubhaagyavatee. So being with husband alive is Saubhaagya for a woman. Savitra Savitaa. Name of an independent deity in Rig Ved. He is also called Bhag. Savitra later became the synonym of Soorya (the Sun). He is considered one of the sons of Aditi, hence an Aaditya. 11 full hymns have been devoted to Savitra in Rig Ved. The most important Mantra devoted to him is Gaayatree Mantra. He was also considered Prajaapati, the creator of men Sea There are 7 seas in Bhoor Lok - Ksheer (milk), Ikshu (sugarcane juice), Kshaar (salty water), Ghrit (ghee or clarified butter), Dadhya (buttermilk), and Jal (sweet water) - these are the seven oceans. Season There are six seasons in India, of two months each. Shishir, Vasant, Greeshm, Varshaa, Sharad, and Hemant.

Seemantonnayan The ritual of combing the hair of a pregnant woman in her 6th or 8th month. The hair is parted in the middle. The significance of this ceremony is unclear. Although it is counted among 13 Sanskar of life, but it has almost vanished. Seepee (1) Shells. (2) Mother of Pearl. Senses see Indriyaan

Shaakaahaaree see also Maansaahaaree Vegetarian food or person. It includes food made of all kinds of pulses, beans, vegetables, and fruits. No meat, no chicken, no fish, most times onion and garlic are also not included. Although people of Vaidik age used to eat meat, but later on, Vaishnav people (Who worship Vishnu or His Avataar) traditionally required to be vegetarian, and that is how this vegetarian food began to be called Vaishnav food. Shaakhaa (1) Branch. (2) They are different rescensions (versions) of the Sanhitaa texts showing slight variations among different families - the effect of long oral tradition. Shaakt see Shakti

Shaakya (1) A Bauddh who wears red clothes. Who follows Buddha's teachings, or Bauddh religion he is called Shaakya. Buddha himself was called Shaakya Muni. (2) A division of Kshatriya, not related to Shak people. Shaal Graam (1) Vishnu's another form in black stone. This stone comes from Shaalgraamee River. (2) Shaal is a name and Graam means village. It is a Teerth place and is often mentioned in context of doing Tap at that place. Shaali Rice A kind of rice. It is called Agahanee rice also. It is considered sacred and is used in most worship. Shaalivaahan Samvat Shaalmali Silk cotton tree. Shaanti (1) Peace. (2) This word is often used three times after Aum, "Aum Shaanti, Shaanti, Shaanti" see Shak Samvat

seeking peace at three levels - Aadhibhautik (in this world), Aadhidaivik (at Devtaa level), and Aadhyaatmik (at spiritual level). By pronouncing thus a Hindoo asks God to establish peace. Shaanti Paath The famous Shaanti Paath has two versions - one of Yajur Ved (36-17), and the other one of Atharv Ved (19-9-14). This prayer is to establish peace in different parts of the Universe and to human beings and nature; for example when it prays peace in the forest, it hopes that mankind will preserve the forest and its habitat because this in turn will preserve the human species. Thus it is an appeal to the human beings to keep the Universe free of pollution, and disturbance and their minds calm; and to God to help them do it. Shaap Curse. Shaaradaa Another name of Saraswatee Shaastra Organized knowledge of some subject. Shabd-Vedhee Shabd means word or sound, and Vedhee means piercing - which pierces the sound. Normally this word is used in the reference of arrows. In olden times the skilled archers could hit their target just by hearing their sound. There were some mistakes in recognizing the sounds but not in hitting. Raajaa Dasharath killed Shravan Kumaar like this; Paandu killed Rishi Kindam like this; and in modern history Prithveeraaj Chauhaan killed Jayachand by releasing his Shabd-Vedhee arrow. Shabar A mountain tribe in South India. Shachee Indra's wife. Known as Inndraanee also. Shadaanan Six-faced, means Kaartikeya. Shailesh Lord of Himaalaya Montain, means Shiv. Shaiv There are three sects in Hinduism - Vaishnav, Shaiv and Shaakt. Vaishnav people worship Bhagavaan Vishnu and His Avataar (Raam, Krishn etc); Shaiv people worship Bhagavaan Shiv and his sons - Ganesh and Kaartikeya and his Gan etc; and Shaakt people worship Shakti (power or Devee - Kaalee, Bhavaanee, Saraswatee etc). Although all kinds of people are found everywhere

in India, still one may find UP state people mostly Vaishnav; Southern states people mostly Shaiv; and Bengal and Panjaab people mostly Shaakt. Shaiv Darshan Shak (1) Name of an Indo-Eeraanian tribe. They attacked India and established their empire what later came to be known as Afgaanistaan, Paakistaan, and parts of Gujaraat and Madhya Pradesh of India. King Shaalivaahan and King Vikramaaditya defeated them. Shak Samvat Shak era - which commenced in 78 AD celebrating the defeat of Shak by Shaalivaahan, that is why it is called Shaalivaahan Samvat (era) also, but it is more commonly know as Shak Samvat. Shakti Shalabh (1) Juganoo. (2) Glow worm. (3) Winged insects. Sham (1) To be engaged in Bhagavaan's worship. (2) Control on mind. (3) Calmness. (4) Tranquility. (5) Equanimity. Hindoo scriptures lay great emphasis on Sham which brings internal peace (Shaanti). Sham brings the happiness to a person and gives him the ability to face difficulties and unpleasant events in life. It helps people to conquer anger and to think of the meaning of the life. It makes a person charitable towards other human beings. Shaman Subduing. Shamashaan Bhoomi (Ghaat) Cremation ground where dead bodies are burned. Shambhu Bestower of well-being, means Shiv. Shani (1) Saturn planet. His influence is considered evil. (2) Shanivaar - Saturday, the 7th day of the week. Shankaa (1) Suspicion. (2) Doubt. Shankar Who confers bliss - means Shiv.

Shankh Conch shell. Shanmukh Six-faced, means Kaartikeya. Shanno Devee Name of a Mantra of Rig Ved (10-9-4). This Mantra starts as "Om Shanoo Devee Rabhishtraye ..... Sharad (1) Autumn or Fall season Sharanaagat Who has come in one's refuge - means refugee. Shareer see Body

Shashaank Moon. Chandramaa. Shastra see also Astra Weapons which are used taking in hands, are called Shastra, such as sword. Shatpath Braahman see also Braahman This is a part of Shukla Yajur Ved and is perhaps the most important Braahman, but most of it, like other Braahman, has lost its importance in the present-day world. Shauch see also Niyam (1) Cleanliness. Cleanliness is of two types - internal and external. In internal cleanliness a persons cleans his ideas and mind and in external cleanliness he cleans his physical body by soap etc. (2) Not being involved in Karm is also called Shauch. Sheeshaa (1) Glass (not tumbler). Kaanch. (2) Mirror. Shesh (1) Remainder. (2) Short form of Shesh Naag. Shesh Naag A thousand-headed serpent whose coil forms Vishnu's bed. It is also said that he has balanced this Prithvi on his head.

Sheetaanshu Another name of Chandramaa. Shikhaa A small flock of hair on the crown of head is left untouched when the hair-cut is done in DwiJaati people. When it becomes long, it is tied in half knot. Now-a-days it is not in fashion, but many Braahman still keep it and maintain it. Shikhandee Peacock. Mayoor, Mor. Shishir One of the six seasons in India - very cold chilly winter. Shiv Shivaa Power of Shiv personified as Durgaa, his consort. Shivaanee Another name of Paarvatee. Shodash Upachaar see also Poojaa Worshipping with 16 types of materials. Shoodra The fourth and the lowest Varn. This is the serving race, it serves all other three Varn. According to Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/14, its two main characteristics are -- Serving Braahman, cow and Devtaa with plain heart; and whatever is earned through that only being satisfied with that. Shoonyak see also Praanaayaam One of the Praanaayaam's four processes - others are Rechak, Poorak, and Kumbhak. Neither inhaling breath, nor exhaling it is called Shoonyak position. Shraaddh Shraddhaa There is no single English word for Shraddhaa. Shraddhaa is a mixed feeling of devotion, faith, satisfaction, and faith with reverence. It is a Divine quality and is an essential aspect of one's spiritual practice. Such faith does not rely on the knowledge of scriptures, but it comes from within. Nobody else can create faith in anything, it has to be from within. Faith is said to put life in a stone.

Shree (1) Prosperity. (2) Honorific added before the male names, such as Shree Raam, Shree Krishn. (3) Another name of Lakshmee. Shree Sookt A hymn praising goddess Lakshmee. Shreedhar Who bears Shree (Lakshmee), means Vishnu.. Shreephal Bilva fruit. Shreya see also Preya According to Kath Upanishad, Shreya is "what is useful" for a man. Shruti Another name of Ved. Shuddhi Shuddhi means cleaning. Shuddhi can be of anything. There are many types of Shuddhi: taking bath is one type of Shuddhi in which one cleans his body; people become Shuddh after "Sootak and Paatak" (see below). Not only bodies are cleaned but materials are also cleaned. For cleaning the materials see Cleaning Shukla Paksh see also Krishn Paksh Bright fortnight. According to Indian calendar, A month is divided into two parts - The first 15 days from the 1st day to 15th day, when Moon decreases, up to Amaavasyaa (New Moon), is called Krishn Paksh; while the other half, from 16th day to 30th day, when Moon increases, up to Poornimaa (Full Moon), is called Shukla Paksh. Shwet Dweep see Vishnu's Lok

Shyaam (1) Dark complexion. (2) Dark complexioned, means Krishn. Siddh (1) Siddh men are higher than ordinary people and can do some extraordinary things which an ordinary man cannot do because of the powers earned through their worship or Tap etc. (2) To make something Siddh, means to attain the power of that thing. It may be any Mantra, or any Devtaa. When that Mantra or Devtaa is Siddh to somebody, he can do something extraordinary by using that Mantra or Devtaa. This is also done by special worship, or Jaap of any Mantra etc.

Siddhaant Kaumudee A book written by Bhattojee Deekshit, containing the simplified form of Paanini's Sanskrit grammar. This book is very popular and is most used by students of Sanskrit language. It has been abridged as "Laghu Siddhaant Kaumudee" by Varadraaj. Siddhaant Shiromani A book of theorems of mathematics and astronomy by Bhaaskaraachaarya (1100-1170 AD). In this book, one chapter is on Algebra. The Arabs came to India to learn mathematics and the Europeans learnt mathematics from Arabs. For a long time Westerners considered the Arabs to be the originators of Algebra. It also contains the seeds of the theory of Calculus Siddhi Signs Sin see see Paap Zodiac Signs

Sindoor Red vermillion. Indian married women use it in worship, to apply Teekaa on their forehead and to apply in the parting line of their hair as marks of being married. Skand Puraan One of the 18 Puraan. Smriti Another name of Dharm Shaastra. The part of scripture which is "remembered" as against "Shruti" which is heard or revealed. The term is applied to the works that deal with law and code of ethics. There are about 20 Smritis in existence written between 300 BC and 1200 AD. The most famous of them are "Manu Smriti" and "Yaagyavalkya Smriti". They contain instructions on character, conduct, charity, inheritance, business, Government, religion. Snaan Snake see Naag

Soil Soil is of four colors - white, yellow, red and black. Among them Gopee Chandan, Haritaal, Geroo etc are used in worship. Som (1) Divinity in Rig Ved. The entire 9th Mandal is devoted to the prayers offered to Som. (2) The Moon. (3) A plant whose juice is intoxicated. Devtaa drink it - "Som Ras". (4) Somvaar 2nd day of the week - Monday. Som Ras see Som

Somvaar

see

Som

Sonnet A sonnet is a 14-line poem in iambic pentameter with a carefully rhyme scheme. Other strict, short poetic forms occur in English poetry, such as Sestina, the Villanelle, the Haiku, but none has been used so successfully as the Sonnet. The Italian Sonnet was introduced in the early 16th century. Its 14 lines break in Octave which usually rhymes as abbaabba, sometimes abbacddc, but rarely abababab; and a Sestet which may rhyme as xyzxyz or xyxyxy, or any of the multiple variations possible using only two or three rhyme sounds. The English or Shakespearean Sonnet, developed during the same period, consists of three quatrains, and a couplet with the pattern - abab cdcd efef gg. Sookhaa Drought. Sookshm Shareer see also Subtle or Astral body. Sookt Sookt, see also Body

Ved, Rig,

Bhoomi Sookt or Prithvi Sookt, Purush Sookt,

Rudra

Shree Sookt A Sookt is a hymn addressed to a Vaidik Deity. A Vaidik hymn consisting of many verses which are called Mantras on various occasions like sacrifice, worship and so on. Rig Ved is constituted of 10 Mandals, and the Mandals are constituted of several Sookts. In the Ved, elements of nature, like stone, tree, morning etc were also called Deities. Rig Ved Sookt [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/22] - Braahman pleased Soorya with Rig Ved Sookt). Soorya Soot In its English translation a Soot may be called a "bard" or "chronicler". Soots have infinite capacity to remember and recite long poems or stories. They could hand down the literature from generation to generation, and for the same reason they had a special position in the society. They were employed by the kings to preserve culture. It is though them that the great epic stories were preserved for hundreds of years. With the creation of writing facility, their importance has declined. They took the positions of chariot drivers and so the word became synonym to chariot driver. Who is Soot? Agni Puraan, 13 says, When a child is born to a Kshatrya Varn boy and a Braahman Varn girl, he is called a Soot. In olden days Soot had only one job, and that was to serve kings by working in their stables. There are four Soot well known in Hindoo religious scriptures - (1) King Shaantanu's Saarathee Adhirath who brought up Karn as his own son was a Soot; (2) King Dhritraashtra's Saarathee Sanjaya who told the account of Mahaabhaarat war to blind Dhritraashtra was a Soot; (3) Vyaas Jee's disciple Romharshan - he is not known by his name

but only by "Soot Jee", he was killed by Balaraam while he was on his pilgrimage; and (4) Ugrashravaa - Romharshan's son who is also known as Soot Jee - he is also not known by his personal name. He has told many stories to many Saadhu and kings. Sootak and Paatak Sootra see also Darshan (1) Thread. (2) Mathematical or chemical formula. (3) Aphorism or a book of instructions in the style of aphorism. A condensed work which carries meaning of immeasurable strength without mistake or fault. Numerous Hindoo religious and secular books subsidiary to main Ved Sanhitaa were written in Sootra style. One set of such books is called Kalp Sootra. Kalp Sootra can be divided in four types - Shraut Sootra, Shulva Sootra, Grihya Sootra, and Dharm Sootra. The first two have ceased to be of any significant value. Grihya Sootra describes procedure for Sanskaar (sacraments) throughout the life of a person - see Sanskaar. The other one, Dharm Sootra, prescribes the law and rules of social and moral behavior and include some 20+ works. Besides Kalp Sootra, the other famous Sootra style compositions are Baadaraayan's "Vedaant Sootra" (also called "Brahm Sootra") and Paanini's "Ashtaadhyaayee". Sootra were composed in prose. The reason for this style of composition was that in the absence of printing facilities, everything was to be memorized and therefore was needed to be condensed in as few words as possible. Sometimes this condensation made it difficult for a reader to understand what the author really meant. Baadaraayan's Vedaant Sootra is a typical example of this difficulty.
[Aangiras, p 396-397]

Sootraatmaa Sootra+Aatmaa. Soul. The form of Aatmaa when it is attached to body. Thus the Aatmaa remains as Aatmaa until he takes up a body in this world. As soon as he takes up the body in the world, he is called Jeev. Jeev is the part of Paramaatmaa that lives in all living beings. He is called Jeev or Mahat Tattwa also. Sorrows see also Taap There are three types of sorrows - Adhibhautik (related to body, like diseases), Adhidaivik (given by Devtaa like famine, flood etc), Adhyaatmik (natural, such as at he time of birth or death). Soul [Bhaagvat Puraan, 7/3], tells 12 characteristics of soul - immortal, clean, One, Kshetragya, Aashraya (resting place), Nir-Vikaar (without any impurities - pure), self-illuminated, cause of everything, vast, alone, and uncovered. Sphatik Quartz

Spices Masaalaa. See the list of most used spices. Sprihaa Desire. Srishti Creation. Steya (1) To steal. (2) To rob. Sthaavar see also Creation Who cannot move. Immovable. Trees, mountains, etc are Sthaavar. Sthitpragya This is Geetaa term. It means to treat life and death, fame and defame, profit and loss, all alike. Who is Sthitpragya who treats all situations of life without any happiness and sorrow. Sthool Shareer see also Body Physical body. Five Gyaan Indriyaan, five Karm Indriyaan, five Bhoot, five subjects of Indriyaan, Buddhi, Ahankaar and mind - these 23 Tattwa (elements) jointly are called the body. This body, because of being born from Prakriti, is the function of the Prakriti, that is why the three Gun are called the cause of its origin. Stotra Stotra is a word or a group of words which is written and read in the honor and praise of some Devtaa, such as Aaditya Stotra [mentioned in Bhavishya Puraan, 3/22] is written in praise of Soorya Dev. Most Stotra are written like this. See the list of some Stotras at Stotra. Stree Woman. Female. Subramanya Very kind. Another name of Kaartikeya. Sudarshan Chakra The Divine disc in Vishnu's hand. Sudharmaa Sudharmaa was the Divine court which Krishn specially got from Brahmaa Jee for Raajaa Ugrasen - Kans' father. It had some specialties. Whoever sat in that court, he did not feel any hunger, thirst, sorrow, Moh, old age and death there.

Suhaagin A woman who is married and whose husband is alive is called Suhaagin. These women are normally invited on most auspicious occasions. Sukhsaagar Name of a book. Sumeru (1) Sumeru Mountain made of gold. (2) There are 108 beads in Hindoo rosaries. But there is an extra bead which is up above all of them, that is called Meru or Sumeru bead. When one has finished counting 108 beads, he should not cross that Sumeru bead, rather turn the rosary again to count the beads. It is an essential part of the rosary. It shows the end of the 108 bead counting. Sun see Soorya

Surabhi Divine cow who came out from the sea at the time of Saagar Manthan. Swaahaa (1) Agnihotra. Yagya. (2) Wife of Agni. Swadhaa (1) Food offered to Pitar (ancestors). Shraaddh. (2) Wife of Pitar. Swar Notes. In Indian music there are seven Swar (notes) - Shadaj, Rishabh, Gaandhaar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, and Nishaad - all these Swar are said to be Brahm Roop because of being Brahm Vyanjak. Bhaagvat Puraan 3/12 says that these Swar appeared from his play. Swarg Heaven. Swaroop Form. Swasth (1) Healthy. (2) Swa means self, Sth means to establish. Thus Swasth means to establish in self. In the same way "Yogasth" (established in Yog), Dhyaanasth" (established in Dhyaan or meditation) words are. Swayambhoo Self-existing, means God.

Swayamvar Swedaj There are four types of Creation taking birth in this world, which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij - which are born by bursting out the Earth, such as trees and mountains, (2) Swedaj - which are born by sweat, such as bedbug etc, (3) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chickens, crocodiles, birds etc, and (4) Jaraayuj - which are born with Naal attached to them, such as human beings, calves, goats etc. Syamantak Mani Name of a Mani (gem) which Satraajit got from Soorya Dev. He later gave it to Krishn. The legend has it that it is the same Mani which was later known as Kohinoor Heeraa.

Taamas (1) Darkness. (2) Ignorance. (3) Name of one of the 14 Manvantars. (3) One of the three Gun Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. Taambool Betel leaf. It is called Paan also. Taamasik (1) Based on ignorance and sloth. (2) Related to Taamas Gun. Taandav (Nritya) Violent dance of Shiv. Taantrik Who practices Tantra, or which is related to Tantra. Taap See also Sorrows (1) Heat. (2) Sorrows. There are three kinds of sorrows - (1) Adhi-Bhautik - Related to world. These sorrows are due to physical reasons, such as diseases; (2) Adhi-Daivik - Related to Devtaa. These sorrows are given by Devtaa and Bhagavaan, like famine, no rains, flood, earthquake etc. (3) Adhyaatmic Taap - Related to soul. This type of sorrow is related to spiritual knowledge. When there are lots of things to know and only very few are known, that is called Adhyaatmic Taap. Taaraa (1) Star. (2) Name of wife of King Baali. (3) Name of Dev Guru Brihaspati. Taat (1) Father. (2) A term of endearment for younger person also.

Taijas One of the three Gun - Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. Raajas is called Taijas also. Taittireeya Upanishad One of the 18 main Upanishad. Tamo Gun Tendency for ignorance and sloth. One of the three Gun - Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas. Tanaya Son. Tanayaa Daughter, for example, Maya Tanayaa means daughter of Maya. Tanmaatraa (1) Subtle element. (2) There are five Tanmaatraa - pleasures of Gyaan Indriyaan - touch, taste, seeing, sound, smell. Tantra Tap, Tapas, Tapasyaa see also Vairaagya (1) Heat. (2) Translated as penance, otherwise it literally means to glow, or to shine. In spiritual tradition it helps one to attain control over one's senses and mind, he becomes vibrant and overcomes his weaknesses. It is certainly different from penance or even austerity which usually implies self-mortification. The basic purpose of Tap is to win the feelings of opposites, such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain at physical level, and reveal the hidden powers of the body, mind and senses to become more creative in life. To tolerate difficulties and pain for Dharm. Leaving all wishes is also called Tap. Total dedication to desirable objective even if it entails physical and/or mental discomfort. Torturing one's body to please God is not Tap and is condemned by Geetaa - 17/5-6. (3) Prolonged meditation. (4) Austerity, practical (i.e., resultproducing) spiritual discipline; spiritual force. Literally it means the generation of heat or energy, but is always used in a symbolic manner, referring to spiritual practice and its effect, especially the roasting of Kaarmik seeds, the burning up of Karm. Tapovan Forest inhabitation of meditators. Where people do Tap. Tarakas Quiver. In which arrows are kept. Arjun had two such quivers which were inexhaustible, given by Agni Dev when Arjun gratified him by burning Khaandav Van. He gave him Gaandeev bow and two inexhaustible quivers.

Tarpan Tarpan means to offer water to one's ancestors, libations to the deceased. It may be daily, on Shraaddh day (annually) or on the death day etc. Tattwa see also Panch Mahaa-Bhoot Tattwa Gyaan Elemental knowledge. Knowledge about Tattwa, means knowledge about Brahm. Teekaa (1) A mark, round dot, or a long mark, or a horizontal mark on forehead. These marks are different for different worshippers. The most common marks are one large dot, a small (about 1 and 1/2" long) vertical line, or three thin long lines, or three horizontal lines, or U shape lines. These marks are drawn by Rolee (red vermilion), or sandalwood paste, or Haldee (turmeric powder), or ashes (Vibhooti dedicated to Shiv). This is done to purify the worshipper's body and they are the representations of God's grace and power. (2) When somebody is given an honor, he is applied this Teekaa. Rolee is used to put 1 and 1/2" long vertical line on the forehead and a couple of rice grains are also put on that line and is given some sweets and money. (3) When a marriage is settled, Teekaa (clothes, sweets, money, some ornament) is given to groom from girl's side to confirm the relation. Teerth, Teerth Sthaan, Teerth Snaan, Teerth Yaatraa, Teerth Yaatree Tej (Geetaa, 16/3) The power of good people. By the effect of that power even attached and low natured people do not behave in their way, rather they behave properly. Thaakur (1) Deity. (2) Idol of deity. (3) Ruler. Tiddee Locust. Tikka see Teekaa

Til Sesame seeds. (Bhavishya Puraan, p 83) says that sesame seeds have appeared from Kashyap's body part, and are very dear to Devtaa and Pitar. They are considered very sacred in Snaan, Daan, Havan, Tarpan, and food. Tilak see Teekaa Time (includes Ways to Divide Time; Brahmaa's Age, Division of time in one day etc information)

Time Measurement in China It is interesting to read this as how they divide their time. Tiryak Yoni All Tiryak Yoni are very low species, such as, worms, birds, creepers, animals, insects etc. Tithi see also Poorv Viddhaa

Titikshaa Tolerating pain, trouble and sorrow, got through justice, is called Titikshaa.
(Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/16)

Tongues of Fire see also Agni There are seven tongues of fire - Kaali, Karaalee, Manojavaa, Sulohitaa, Sudhumra-varn, Sphulinginee, and Vishwaruchi. Vedic Rishi could see these seven colors of fire very clearly. They arise during the fire ceremony from the fire that is well-lit. Trayodashee The 13th day of the fortnight of Lunar calendar. Tretaa Yug see Yug The second of the four divisions of time - Sat Yug, Tretaa Yug, Dwaapar Yug, and Kali Yug. Tri-Gun Three Gun - Sat, Raj and Tam. Tri-Bhuvan Three worlds - Swarg, Paataal and Prithvi. Tri-Bhuvanpati The Lord of the three worlds - Swarg, Paataal and Prithvi; means Vishnu. Tri-Lochan Who has three eyes - Shiv. Tri-Lok see Tri-Bhuvan

Tri-Pathagaa Tri means three; Path means way; and Gaa means which goes. Which goes on three paths. Another name of Gangaa. Since Gangaa flows in three Lok, that is why she is called Tripathagaa. From 1st Shukla to 10th Shukla (10 days) she lives in Paataal Lok; from 11th Shukla to 5th Krishn (10 days) she lives in Swarg Lok; from 6th Krishn to Amaavasyaa (10 days) she lives on Prithvi.
(Naarad puraan, p 640)

Tri-phalaa Mixture of three fruits - Harad, Bahedaa, and Aamalaa, all dried and ground. IT has a great medicinal value in Aayur Ved. Trishanku Trident of Shiv. Trishnaa The desire for having more women, sons, wealth etc materials in spite of having sufficient of them, is called Trishnaa. This is a very tangible form of Kaamanaa (desire). Trishool Trident. Trishtup see also Chhand A kind of meter for poetry. Triteeyaa The 3rd. The 3rd day of the 15-day Paksh. Trivikram Bhagavaan's Vaaman Avataar. He was born in Aditi's house as dwarf boy to take Swarg from king Bali who had become the king of the Tr-Lok. Then He went o bali and asked for three feet land and measured three Lok in His two feet. Tryambak Shiv - the three-eyed Tulaa Daan see also Daan Tulaa means balance (to weigh) and Daan means donation - giving something equal to one's weight. Tulasee Holy Basil - Botanical name is Ocimum sanctum. Hindoo believe that Tulasee is a sacred and Divine plant. Its leaves have medicinal value. Most Hindoo families try to maintain at least one Tulasee plant in their homes. Tulasee leaves are put in Panchaamrit and eaten while drinking it; offered to worship Vishnu (Vishnu especially loves Tulasee and does not accept offerings or worship without Tulasee, considered the wife of Vishnu); put in the mouth of a dying person and after he is dead, several leaves are put on various parts of his body. Tureeya Brahm. Twa One (in Vaidik Sanskrit only).

Tyaag and Tyaagee (Geetaa, 18/12) (1) Divorce. (2) Resignation. (3) Surrender. (4) Abandoning or leaving something, for example "He has abandoned rice.", or "He has abandoned his children." Who does this Tyaag, he is called Tyaagee. Besides, according to Geetaa, whoever expects no fruits of his Karm, has no attachment with his actions, and has no ego in doing them, only he is Tyaagee. Ubatan Now a days people use soaps and other sweet smelling material while talking bath. In India in olden days it was very common, but even now many people use Ubatan while taking bath. Ubatan is a paste of flour, water, oil mixed with some herbs to clean the body and to make it beautiful. Udaan see also Vaayu One of the five Vaayu (air) living in the body. Breathing upward. Udaar Generous. Udaas Dejected. Udaaseen Indifferent. Neutral. Udbhij There are four types of taking birth in this world, which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij (which are born by bursting out the Earth such as trees, and mountains etc), (2) Swedaj (which are born by sweat, such as bedbug etc), (3) Andaj (which are born from eggs, such as chicken, and many birds, fish etc; and (4) Jaraayuj (which are born with Naal attached to them such as human beings and many animals). Uddand Undisciplined. Troublemaker. Udgaataa see also Yagya There are four people to perform a Yagya - Hotaa, Adhwaryu, Udgaataa and Brahmaa. And when a Yagya is completed like this, it is called Chaaturhotra. (1) Hotaa to chant Rig Ved, (2) Adhwaryu to chant Yajur Ved, (3) Udgaataa to chant Saam Ved, and (4) Brahmaa to chant Atharv Ved. According to Bhaagvat 3/12 his Karm is Stutistom. Udgeeth (1) Chanting of Aum. (2) Chanting of Saam Ved. Who chants saam Ved Mantra in a Yagya, he is called Udgaataa.

Udyaapan see also Paaran Concluding part of a Vrat or Yagya etc. This concluding part may be at the end of the one Vrat or fast or day, or at the end of a series of Vrat or Yagya. Ujjwal Luminous. Glorious. Ulkaa Meteor. Ulook see also Birds Ulloo. Owl. Umaa Paavatee. Her other names are Durgaa, Satee, Gauree, Kaalee, Bhavaanee, Annpoornaa, Aparnaa. This name is mentioned in Ken Upanishad. Unchchh Vritti There are several ways to subsist upon - by earning; by begging; by taking the scattered grains from where it is sold; by taking scattered grains from the farm. Unmaad Insane. Unmatt (1) Intoxicated. (2) Insane. (3) Out of control. Unmesh see also Nimesh (1) Opening the eyes - it represents the beginning of the day of Brahmaa and the Creation. It is the creative aspect of God. Upaadhyaaya see also Aachaarya, Guru, (1) Spiritual teacher. (2) Who teaches only one part of Ved or Vedaang (from among six parts of Ved) for his living he is called Upaadhyaaya. (Bhavishya Puraan, p 15) Upaakarm and Utsarjan Beginning of Ved study. Utsarjan means - ending of Ved study. Upaakhyaan This is a joint word - Up+Aakhyaan. Up means smaller and Aakhyaan means story. Thus Upaakhyaan means a side story.

Upaasanaa Upaasanaa is a combined word - Up means near, and Aasan means sit; thus Upaasanaa means to sit near Bhagavaan with Bhakti to offer his devotion. Worship. Upabhog (1) Enjoyment. (2) Consumption. Upachaar (1) Remedy. (2) Service. (3) Courtesy. Upadesh (1) Instruction. (2) Advice. (3) Preaching. Upahaas To make a mockery. Upamaa (1) comparison. (2) Simile. (3) A south Indian savory dish made out of semolina. Upanayan see also Sanskaar One of the 16 ceremonial rites of a Hindoo, after which the boy is called "Dwij" (born again). After this ceremony he is sent to teacher for education. This ceremony is normally performed at he age of 5-7 years od, when the child is ready to go school. It is surprising to know that Paarasee also follow this sacrament and call it "Naujaat" (corrupt word for Sanskrit word "Navajaat" meaning the same as new birth). In ancient times a sacred cloth was put on by the student at this time. The sacred thread is a variant of this cloth. This is the reason that Grihya Sootra do not mention about sacred thread.
(Aangiras, p 84)

Upanishad Upasanhaar (1) Epilog. (2) Conclusion. Upavaas Fasting. see also Vrat and Fasts

Upaveet When Yagyopaveet is worn over left shoulder and under right arm, it is called Upaveet. A Brahmchaaree should wear his Yagyopaveet like this only. Whatever Dharm is don without tying Shikhaa and wearing Yagyopaveet, it is not methodical. Ushaa Dawn.

Utsarjan see also Ending of Ved study.

Upaakarm

Uttar (1) North. (2) Reply. (3) Latter. (4) Future. Uttar Meemaansaa see Vedaant, see also Poorv-Meemaansaa

Uttar Raamcharit A drama written by Bhavabhooti depicting the latter period of Raam's life. Uttarottar Further and further. Utsav Festival. Festivity celebrations with pomp and show.

Vaachaspati (1) Ved. (2) A Gotra of Braahman. (3) The Lord of speech - another name of Ganesh. Vaajpeya see also A name of Yagya. Yagya

Vaajsaneyee Sanhitaa The Sanhitaa of Shukla Yajur Ved. It has two rescensions - Maadhyandin and Kaanv. The former one is popular. Vaalkhilya 11 Sookt (49-59) of the 8th Mandal of Rig Ved, sometimes separated as appendix, because of being considered an addition after Ved Vyaas had organized the Rig Ved. Vaaman (1) Dwarf. (2) Bhagavaan's Avataar in which He appeared as a dwarf boy to take Swarg from Daitya king Bali. Vaanar (1) Monkey. Bandar, Kapi, Marakat in Hindi. (2) According to Aangiras (p 331) Vaanar was a south Indian human tribe belonging to South Kannad region. This tribe perhaps had a totem of monkey and called itself Vaanar for that reason. Baali Sugreev, Hanumaan belonged to this tribe. Vaanprasth The third stage of life, after Brahcharya and Grihasth Aashram, in which people try to prepare

themselves to meet God. They try to detach from this materialistic world by leaving its things. It is not necessary to leave the house in this part of life. Vaarshneya Means the descendent of Vrishni. Another name of Krishn. Vaasav Relared to Vasu - means Indra. Vaastu Vaastu Devtaa Deity presiding over the house Vaatsyaayan Name of the author of Kaam Sootra book. Vaayu Air. There are five kinds of Vaayu - Praan Vaayu, Apaan Vaayu, Samaan Vaayu, Vyaan Vaayu, and Udaan Vaayu living in our body. Among these, Praan and Apaan Vaayu are inhaling and exhaling airs. The Praan and Apaan move between Samaan and Vyaan airs. When the soul sleeps, both Samaan and Vyaan are absorbed. Between Praan Vayu and Apaan Vaayu dwells Udaan Vaayu pervading all airs. Udaan Vaayu controls all breaths, and Udaan is controlled by penance, and consequently that penance breaks the cycle of birth and death and leads to absorption into Brahm. In the midst of all those life breaths that swallow up one another and move within the body, blazes forth the fire of seven flames. The nose, the tongue, the eye, the skin, the ear, the mind, and the understanding - these are the seven tongues of that Vaishwaanar flame. Thus which is smelt, tasted, seen, touched, heard, thought and understood are the seven types of fuels for these flames. Vaayu Puraan Name of one of the 18 Puraan. Vadavaa Mare. Vaibhav Glory. Vaibhav-Vilaas 24 principal 4-armed forms of Krishn.

Vaidik Related to Ved, or derived from Ved. Vaidik Devtaa Devtaa who have been described in Ved. All of these have been divided in three groups (1) Celestial DEvtaa are - Dyau, the two Ashwinee Kumaar, Pooshaa, Vishnu, and six Aaditya Soorya, Savitra/Bhag, Mitra, Aaryaman, Daksh and Ans. (2) Atmospheric Devtaa are - Indra, Varun, Rudra, Marut, Ushaa, Vaayu, Parajanya, Vivaswat, Yam, Prajaapati and Aditi. (3) Terrestrial Devtaa are - Agni, Som, Brihaspati, Apaam-napaat, Maatarishwan, Twastra, and the goddesses Prithvi, Aapah, Saraswatee, Ilaa, and Bhaaratee. Vaidoorya Mani Lahasuniyaa - a type of Ratn (gem). Some are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Coral; (6) Neelam - Sapphire or Indraneel or Neelmani; (7) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa); (8) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire or Pushp-raag; all are called Mani or Ratn. Vaijayant Palace of Indra. Vaijayantee (1) Flag. (2) Vaijayantee Maalaa is the garland of Vishnu. Vaikaarik Saatwik. Vaikunth Lok see Vishnu's Lok

Vairaagya Dispassion; state of being free from attractions of worldly objects; renunciation; disinterest in the worldly matters. Viaraagya and Abhyaas (practice) are the essential parts of achievement on the Yogic path. Vairaaj Vairaaj is the name of Brahmaa's palace in the city named Shreenidhaan on Meru Parvat. His court's name Kaantimatee.
(Padm Puraan, p 43)

Vaishaakh The 2nd month of Lunar year. It is also called Maadhav Maas. Whatever Punya is done in this month, it is eternal. Read Padm Puraan 4/19-21 pages for its detailed importance. Vaisheshik see also Darshan Name of the doctrine propounding seven fundamental substances - air, water, earth, ether, space, time and soul.

Vaishnav Vaishnav Aparaadh see also Offenses to Bhagavaan. Vaishwaadev A group of Devtaa. Vaishwaanar (1) Omnipresent. (2) Another name of Agni. Vaishya The third Varn among four Varn. This is the trading and animal rearing race. According to Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/14 its five characteristics are -- belief in Bhagavaan, giving alms, no pride, serving Braahman, and not being satisfied with collection of wealth. Vaitaal (1) Demon. (2) Goblin. (3) Raajaa Vikramaadity and Vaitaal stories are very famous among children. They are a part of Bhavishya Puraan. Vajra Indra's famous weapon. This weapon he got made from the bones of Maharshi Dadheechi at the time of killing Vritraasur. Vishwakarmaa made it. Vallaree (1) Creeper. (2) Lataa. Valmeeki Anthill. When Naarad Jee preached Vaalmeeki Jee Raam Mantra, and he did Tapasyaa according to his instructions, ants had built their home around him; that is why he was called Vaalmeeki. Vansh "Vansh" literally means bamboo... but is used to mean "patrilineal ancestry". Not really a "family tree" because there's not much in the way of branches; it's all about the trunk. "Harivansh" = "The Vansh of Hari". (1) Descendents. Includes all sons and grandsons etc born from a man is called that man's Vansh (family). (2) Lineage. Vanshee (1) From so and so Vansh, for example "He is Bhrigu Vanshee." It means "He is the descendent of Bhrigu". (2) Flute, or Bansee. Var (1) Boon. (2) Groom. Crimes

Var Maalaa The garland which is put in groom's neck to show that the groom has won the bride and bride has agreed to marry the groom. This is called Jaya Maalaa which literally means the garland which is put in the neck of the person when he comes back after the victory in a battle against his enemy to show him honor and happiness. Varaah Boar Varadaan (1) Boon. (2) Granting a wish. (3) Giving a bridegroom to bride. Vardhmaan (1) Another name of Vishnu. (2) Name of the 24th Jain Teerthankar - Mahaaveer. Varg (1) Class. (2) Division. (3) Group. Varn (1) Color. (2) Race. (3) Caste. (4) Alphabet. In some cases it means only consonants. (3) May be translated as Caste, class. There are four Varn in Hindoo society - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra - each having its own function in the society. Varn Dharm To follow duties according to his Varn (Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya or Shoodra) Varn-Aashram Dharm Duties according to one's Varn (Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya or Shoodra), and Aashram (Brahmcharya, Grihasth, Vaanprasth and Sanyaas). Varnsankar Varsh (1) Year. see also Time (2) Piece of land. (3) Country, such as Bhaarat Varsh. Varun Vaidik Divinity. He is responsible to maintain the laws of the Universe and upholding the cosmic order. He is angry by sinful actions and yet, forgives those who repent. Vasant Panchamee Maagh Shukla Panchamee is the day of Vasant Panchamee, but ironically it does not fall in Vasant (Spring season). It falls in the season of Shishir (Winter). Some people call it Shree Panchamee, that is also wrong, because Shree is the name of Lakshmee while this festival is associated with Saraswatee. So it should be called Saraswatee Panchamee. She is worshipped on this day to continuously sharpen his intellect and increase his wisdom. Sweet yellow rice is

cooked on this day, yellow clothes are worn on this day and mustard flowers are given as a "wish well" to people. In the morning people wear yellow colored clothes after taking bath, take their breakfast and go to the temple or school to worship Saraswatee. In the lunch they cook as many as yellow colored dishes. In the evening they donate a book and some money to school. Vasumatee (1) The Earth. Prithvi. Vasudhaa. Vasundharaa Vat Banyan tree. Baragad, or Bat, or Nyagrodh, or Ashwatth. Ved (1) Knowledge. (2) There are four Ved - Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Atharv Ved and Saam Ved. Some take Aayur Ved as fifth Ved. Ved Vyaas Organizer of scriptures. Vedaang (1) Works auxiliary to the Ved other than the Braahman, Aaranyak and Upanishad. There are six parts of Ved which are collectively called Vedaang - (1) Shikshaa - concerned with phonetics (2) Kalp - the procedures for the performance of religious ceremonies, (3) Vyaakaran - grammar, (4) Nirukt - the etymological explanation of words, (5) Jyotish - the science of astronomy, and (6) Chhand Shaastra - concerning the meters or science of poetry. Vedaant Vedee see also Kund A square place surrounded by a low wall, in which the sacred fire is established and Aahuti are dropped while doing Yagya, or Hom. Veenaa An Indian musical string instrument. Venkatesh or Venkateshwar Lord of the Venkat Hill, means Vishnu. Venu Vanshee, or Bansee. Flute. Vetaal see Vaitaal

Vi Used with another word to denote "opposite" or "not", such as Vi-Karm, Vi-Dharm etc.

Vi-Deh - Vi means "no" and Deh means "body", so Vi-Deh means who has no body - or who is liberated of one's soul from bondage to the body by the means of enlightenment. In Sanskrit language it is called Jeevan Mukti. King Seeradhwaj (Seetaa's father Janak Jee) is said to have attained this state. This meaning is perhaps as recent as to belong to 16th century AD. Vi-Dharm - Vi-Dharm means who does not observe the same religion for example, a Muslim is ViDharmee for a Hindoo. Vi-Karm - Vi-Karm means non-prescribed Karm Vi-Paksh - Who is in opposite party or camp. Vibhaavaree Nagaree Where Chandramaa lives. Vibhaavasu (1) Sun. (2) Fire. Vibhooti Extension of Bhagavaan's form. Vibhu The Supreme Lord. Vidhaataa Creator. Vidhi-Nishedh Method and prohibited. Method of worth doing Karm and list of prohibited Karm. Vidyaa Ved's six parts, four Ved, Meemaansaa, Nyaaya Shaastra, Puraan and Dharm Shaastra - these are 14 Vidyaa (branches of knowledge). To obtain them is called Vigyaan.
[Padm Puraan, 3/5]

Vidyaadhar A kind of higher species like Devtaa (gods), Gandharv etc. Vighas Food see also Amrit Food The remaining food after all have eaten is called Vighas food. Vighnesh Means remover of obstacles, ie Ganesh.

Vigraha (1) Statue. Idol. (2) Form. Vigyaan Experience of the ultimate Tattwa (Brahm). Ved's six parts, four Ved, Meemaansaa, Nyaaya Shaastra, Puraan and Dharm Shaastra - these are 14 Vidyaa (branches of knowledge). To obtain them is called Vigyaan. Vijayaa Another name of Durgaa. Vijayaa Dashamee 10th day of the bright half of Aashwin month, associated with 10 days of worshipping Goddess Durgaa. It is also called Durgaa Poojaa or Dashaharaa. Vikaar (1) Attribute. (2) Form. (3) A foreign material. Impurity in a material. (4) Defect. (5) Sickness. (6) Change. (7) Prakriti is said to have 16 Vikaar - 10 Indriyaan, one mind, and 5 Mahaa-Bhoot. All joined together make a body. This body is of two types - Sthaavar (movable) and Jangam (immovable).
(Bhaagvat Puraan, 7/3)

Vikartan (1) Sun. (2) Another name of Adhirath Vikram Samvat Hindoo calendar beginning in the year 57 BC. Vikrit Vikrit means changed or altered. It does not necessarily mean degraded. Jeev who is pure and immaculate, takes birth in this world, falling away from his true status of Brahm because of his actions (Karm). Karm, again, are eternal, no beginning is conceivable. Vilom, Vilomaj see also Soot Vilom means "the other way", or the "opposite". According to rules a Braahman can marry his own Varn and the two lower Varn girls; a Kshatriya boy can marry his own and the lower Varn girl; a Vaishya boy can marry only a Vaishya girl. But when a lower Varn boy, such as Kshatriya boy marrying a Braahman girl, marries a higher Varn girn, this marriage is called Vilom marriage and the children born to such a parents are called Vialomaj or Soot. Such children belong to Vilom or Soot caste. Vimaan Airplane. Anything which can fly through sky as a carrier carrying people. Bangladesh's Airline's name is "Bimanair". Biman is a corrupted form of Vimaan.

Vinaayak Another name of Ganesh. Vipaasanaa Seeing things as they are. Vipra Braahman. Viraat Huge. Visarjan Sending off or flowing Devtaa's idol in a river or a stream or a pond as the final send off to him after worshipping him is called Visarjan of that idol. Vishaakh Another name of Kaartikeya. Vishaakhaa see also Nakshatra Name of the 16th Nakshatra. Vishaya Subjects (pleasures) of Indriyaan, such as beautiful scenery is the subject of eyes, sweet voices and music is the subject of ears. All these Vishaya attract the Jeev to do some Karm to enjoy them. Vishisht A-Dwait see also Darshan Doctrine which regards human soul as separate from Supreme Soul though dependent on it. Vishkambh see also Vishkambh Parvat Maryaadaa. (1) Boundaries. (2) Borders. Vishnu Vishnu Puraan One of the 18 Puraan. Vishuv Yog see also Sankraanti, Zodiac Signs, Vishuv Yog is the day when day and night becomes equal, or Soorya enters Mesh Raashi (Aries Sign) or Tulaa Raashi ( Libra Sign). Vishwa (1) Entire. (2) Universe.

Vishwa Maataa Mother of the Universe. Brahmaanee, Rudraanee (Mahaashwetaa), Kaumaaree, Vaishnavee, Indraanee, Vaaraahee, and Chaamundaa - these seven are called Vishwa Maataa.
(Bhavishya, p 189)

Vishwaanar Another name of Savitra or Bhag Vishwambhar Another name of Shiv. Vishwanaath Another name of Shiv. Vishwedev They are 10 - Kratu, Daksh, Vasu, Satya, Kaal, Kaam, Muni, Guru, Vipra and Raam. Vital Seed Semen. Vitap Tree. Ped. Vriksh Vittesh Lord of wealth - Kuber. Vitthal Modified form of the name Vishnu. Vithobaa Vivaah Vivaswat (1) Sun. (2) Name of the father of Vaivaswat Manu. Vivek Gyaan, Knowledge of discriminating good and bad. Vow see Vrat and Fasts see Vitthal

Vow, Unchchha In this vow, a person subsists upon grains of corn picked up after the manner of the pigeon from the field, after the crops have been cut and removed by the owner.

Vrat and Fasts (1) Fast. (2) Resolution. (3) Vow or oath - to undertake to render some service or gift, or devotes something valuable now and here to his use in the future. This kind of vow is a kind of oath with the deity being both the witness and recipient of the promise. (4) Religious vow. (5) Religious observance. Vratee Who observes a Vrat. Vreehi Dhaanya, Grains. Vriddh Old. Vriddh people or old people are of three kinds - (1) Gyaan Vriddh- who are more educated or Gyaanee they are called Gyaan Vriddh; (2) Tapo Vriddh - who have performed more Tap, or Tapasyaa, are called Tapo Vriddh; and (3) Vayo Vriddh - who are older in age are called Vayo Vriddh. They should be greeted in this order. Vrik Wolf. Bhediyaa Vrikodar Who has the appetite like a wolf - another name of Bheem (the 2nd Paandav). Vriksh Tree. Ped. Vrish (1) Husband. (2) Bull. (3) The 2nd Sign of Zodiac. Vrishabh (1) Bull. (2) Strong. Vrishni Name of an ancestor of Krishn from Krishn got the name of Vaarshneya. Vritti Vyaahriti There are three Sanaatan Vyaahriti - Bhoo, Bhuvah and Swaha. These have been added to Gaayatree Mantra. They destroy all kinds of ill omens. These three have been regarded as the symbol of Pradhaan, Purush and Kaal; Vishnu, Brahmaa and Mahaadev; and Sat, Raj and Tam Gun respectively.

Vyaakaran (1) Graammar. (2) [Bhavishya Puraan, 1/1], says that Vyaakaran is of eight types - Braahm, Aindra, Yaamya, Raudra, Vaayavya, Vaarun, Saavitrya, and Vaishnav. Vyabhichaar (1) Adultery. (2) Sin. Vyakt see also A-Vyakt Whatever can be known through one's senses is called Vyakt. Vyooh see War

War There are several systems to arrange one's army in war. In English language that may be called as array, in Hindi language it is called Vyooh. This was in fashion during Mahaabhaarat times. (1) Sakat Array - In this fashion army is organized in the form of a chariot. Its method is described in Shukra Neeti fully and it occurs in Drone Parv of MBH. (2) Padm Array - In this fashion army is arranged in lotus flower design - circular array with angular projections. It is the same as star with angular projections. Many modern forts are also constructed on this plan. (3) Vajra Array or Suchee Vyooh - In this fashion the army is arranged in wedge-like array. It penetrates into the enemy's division's like a wedge and goes out, routing the foe. It is also called Suchee Vyooh. [MBH, Aashramvaas 8] Warriors It is said that the warriors get salvation when the die in the battlefield. But this salvation or getting to heavens is of a variety. In war those that sacrifice themselves in the fire of arrows will get Indra Lok and those that conduct warfare unhappily thinking that death is the only result of war they get Gandharv Lok and those that retreat or go begging for their lives but yet are killed get Guhya Lok and those that are fully aware of Kshatriya Dharm and conduct righteous warfare they go to Brahm Lok. So says Mahaabhaarat. The same is said in Bhagavad Geetaa [8:6] too.
[Valmiki Ramayan, 3/ 29]

Weight Measurement Worship see Poojaa