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ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activities 11.1–11.8 Section 23-2: Problem
1. Suppose the electron and proton charges differed by one part in one billion. Estimate the net charge you would carry.
Nearly all of the mass of an atom is in its nucleus, and about one half of the nuclear mass of the light elements in living matter (H, O, N, and C) is protons. Thus, the number of protons in a 65 kg average-sized person is approximately −27 1 kg) ¼ 2 × 10 28 , which is also the number of electrons, since an average person is electrically 2 ( 65 kg )=(1.67 × 10 neutral. If there were a charge imbalance of qproton − qelectron = 10 −9 e, a person’s net charge would be about ±2 × 10 28 × 10 −9 × 1.6 × 10 −19 C = ±3.2 C, or several coulombs (huge by ordinary standards).
2. A typical lightning flash delivers about 25 C of negative charge from cloud to ground. How many electrons are involved?
The number is Q=e = 25 C=1.6 × 10 −19 C = 1.56 × 10 20 .
3. Protons and neutrons are made from combinations of the two most common quarks, the u quark and the d quark. The u quark’s charge is + 2 e while the d quark carries − 1 e. How could three of these quarks combine to make (a) a 3 3 proton and (b) a neutron?
(a) The proton’s charge is 1e = 2 e + 2 e − 1 e, corresponding to a combination of uud quarks; (b) for neutrons, 0 = 3 3 3 2 − 1 − 1 corresponds to udd. (See Chapter 39, or Chapter 45 in the extended version of the text.) 3 3 3
4. A 2-g ping-pong ball rubbed against a wool jacket acquires a net positive charge of 1 µ C . Estimate the fraction of the ball’s electrons that have been removed.
If half the ball’s mass is protons, their number (equal to the original number of electrons) is 1 g=m p . The number of electrons removed is 1 µ C=e, so the fraction removed is (1 µ C=e) 10 −6 C × 1.67 × 10 −24 g = = 1.04 × 10 −11 (1 g=m p ) 1.6 × 10 −19 C × 1 g (a hundred billionth).
CHAPTER 23 541
Section 23-3: Problem
If the charge imbalance of Problem 1 existed, what would be the approximate force between you and another person 10 m away? Treat the people as point charges, and compare the answer with your weight.
The magnitude of the Coulomb force between two point charges of 3.2 C (see solution to Problem 1), at a distance of 10 m, is kq 2=r 2 = (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(3.2 C=10 m)2 = 9.22 × 10 8 N. This is approximately 1.45 million times the weight of an average-sized 65 kg person.
6. Find the ratio of the electrical force between a proton and an electron to the gravitational force between the two. Why doesn’t it matter that you aren’t told the distance between them?
At all distances (for which the particles can be regarded as classical point charges), the Coulomb force is stronger than the gravitational force by a factor of: Felec ke 2 = Fgrav r2 =
F IF r I G JG m J H K Gm K H
2 p e
(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C)2 39 ¼ 2.3 × 10 . (6.67 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2/ kg 2 )(1.67 × 10 −27 kg)(9.11 × 10 −31 kg)
The spacial dependence of both forces is the same, and cancels out.
7. The electron and proton in a hydrogen atom are 52.9 pm apart. What is the magnitude of the electric force between them?
2 a0 = 52.9 pm is called the Bohr radius. For a proton and electron separated by a Bohr radius, FCoulomb = ke 2=a0 ' (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C=5.29 × 10 −11 m )2 = 8.23 × 10 −8 N.
8. How far apart should an electron and proton be so the force of Earth’s gravity on the electron is equal to the electric force arising from the proton? Your answer shows why gravity is unimportant on the molecular scale!
The electric force between a proton and an electron has magnitude ke 2 r 2 , while the weight of an electron is me g. These are = equal when r= ke 2=me g = (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C) 2 = 5.08 m (9.11 × 10 −31 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
(almost fifty billion atomic diameters).
180 î nN. Two charges.542 CHAPTER 23 Problem 9.He = k (e)(2e)( − î )=(1. are located 15 cm apart and experience a repulsive force of 95 N. q2 for the helium nucleus.38 × 10 −10 C 2 .0-g mass in order for the electrical and gravitational forces on it to balance? Solution The mass could be suspended at the Earth’s surface if the electric force were repulsive (q same sign as qE) and 2 kqq E =RE = mg. . since the magnitude of V is V = V . Solution A unit vector from the proton’s position to the origin is −î. Thus. and the approximate values of k and e given. Why doesn’t this matter? . Find the net force the two exert on a helium nucleus (charge +2e ) at the origin. A charge q is at the point x = 1 m. An electron is on the y-axis at y = 0. so its force on the j $ )=(0. 2 Problem 10.8 m/s 2 )(6. as explained in the solution to Problems 15 and 19. What is the magnitude of the larger charge? Solution The product of the charges is q1q2 = r 2 FCoulomb=k = (0.) Problem 13. (b) the origin. Note that you don’t know the sign of q. He of these. provides a more general approach. Earth carries a net charge of −4.e. (The vector form of Coulomb’s law and superposition. (Use Equation 23-1. Solution The magnitude of V=V is always V V = V =V = 1. y = 1 m. A proton is on the x-axis at x = 1.3 × 10 5 C) Problem 11. one twice as large as the other.) A unit vector from the electron’s position to the origin is − $ .6 nm. The force due to this charge is the same as if it were concentrated at Earth’s center. (The components of V are not = needed here. q= (10 −3 kg)(9.) Problem 12. with V its magnitude. so the Coulomb force of the proton on the helium nucleus is FP. with q1 for the proton.6 nm)2 = −0.38 × 10 −10 C and q1 = ±218 µ C. that its j magnitude is 1. Write expressions for the unit vectors you would use in Coulomb’s law if you were finding the force that q exerts on other charges located at (a) x = 1 m.85 nm. (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(−4. y = 3 m.15 m ) 2 (95 N )=(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 ) = 2. The net Coulomb force on the helium nucleus is the sum helium nucleus is F = k (−e )(2e)( − j j e. q1 = 2q2 .37 × 10 6 m ) 2 = −103 µ C. Let V = Vx î + Vy $ be an arbitrary vector..638$ nN. y = 0. Show that V=V is a unit vector—i.85 nm ) 2 = 0. (c) x = 2 m. then 1 q1 = 2. How much charge would you have to place on a 1. If one charge 2 is twice the other.3 × 10 5 C.
A charge 3q is at the origin.6 × 10 −19 C) 2 (−0.3° to the x-axis.2 µ C) × (4.41î − 0. 1) = j $ ( −1 m )2 + 0 = ( −1. 0) .36$)=(0. r2 (0.36 nm.949 $. and a unit vector in this direction is r = (r2 − r1 )= r2 − r1 . Where would you place a third charge so it would experience no net electric force? . 3 m ).0 N and direction θ = −27. 1 m )= 0 + (1 m ) = (0.3° to the x-axis (negative angle measured CW). the position of charge q. The sign of q doesn’t affect this unit vector. but the signs of both charges do $ $ determine whether the force exerted by q is repulsive or attractive. y) is n = (r − rq )= r − rq = ( x − 1 m.4î + 11$j − 16î − 5$j ) cm 9 G C J H K [(4. (a) When the other 2 $ .6 × 10 −19 C)2 = = 7. A 9. (This gives the Coulomb force between two point charges. n = (0.4 î + 11$) cm for q2 = −3. (c) Finally.36$) nm ).4 cm.41) = 41.e. and r2 = (4. Solution The magnitude of the force is Fp = ke 2 (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 )(1. and a charge −2q is on the positive x-axis at x = a.4 − 16) + (11 − 5) ] cm 9 2 2 2 2 3=2 3 = (14. The vector form of Coulomb’s law. Find the electric force on the proton. 0) = − î. for an attractive force. y = 11 cm. y = 5.412 + 0. 0). 3 m )= (1 m ) 2 + (3 m ) 2 = (1. j (see Problem 15. 0) ÷ $ $ charge is at position r = (1 m. and a −3.37$ ) N. Solution Denote the positions of the charges by r1 = (16 î + 5$ ) cm for q1 = 9.316 î + 0.36 2 ) 3=2 ( 10 −9 m ) 2 j = (5. Problem 16.36=0. y)= ( x − 1 m ) 2 + y 2 . in the direction of +n or −n. The vector form of Coulomb’s law for the electric force of q1 on q2 is F12 = kq1 q2 (r2 − r1 )= r2 − r1 . we find: F12 = 3 F × 10 N ⋅ m I(9. n = (−1 m.CHAPTER 23 543 Solution $ A unit vector from rq = (1 m. y = 0. as a function of their positions. .74 × 10 −10 N. 3)= 10 = 0.412 + 0.0 cm.µ C charge is at x = 16 cm. (b) When r = (0. i. 1 m ).µ C charge is at x = 4. and is a convenient form to memorize because of its direct applicability.41 nm. j Problem 14. Find the force on the negative charge.5 µ C)(−3. j j $ The vector from q1 to q2 is r = r2 − r1 .5.) Substituting the given values for this problem.82 î + 511$) × 10 −10 N.41î + 0. at an j angle θ = tan −1 (0.36 2 ) × 10 −18 m 2 3 and its direction is from the proton (at rp = 0) to the electron (at re = (0.. A proton is at the origin and an electron is at the point x = 0. n = (1 m. when r = (2 m.2 µ C. Fp = − ke 2 (rp − re )= rp − re solution of next problem) gives the same result: Fp = −(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1. j with magnitude 16. to any other point r = ( x.2 î − 7.5 µ C.2 .
Solution Denote the positions of the charges by r1 = $.µ C charge is at the origin.326$) N. F3 x = kq3 [q1 ( x 3 − x1 ) −2 − q2 ( x 2 − x 3 ) −2 ] = kq3 [60 µ C(50 cm ) −2 − q2 (25 cm ) −2 ] = 0 implies q2 = 60 µ C(25=50)2 = 15 µ C. (Then the separate forces of the first two charges on the third are in opposite directions. = which holds for any a. and r3 = 2 î + 2 $ (distances in meters). since if −q is displaced slightly toward one charge. and a second charge is on the positive x-axis at x = 75 cm. or x 2 − 6 xa + 3a 2 = 0. In Fig. Thus. A 60. x = 3a ± 9a 2 − 3a 2 = (3 ± 6 )a. Problem 17. j .e. and q3 = 15 µ C. Find the electric force on q3. Thus. Only the solution (3 + 6 )a = 5. Problem 18. at x > a..64 î − 0. r2 = 2 î. the net force on it will be in the direction of that charge.. q1 = 60 µ C at x1 = 0 and q2 > 0 at x 2 = 75 cm. 23-39 take q1 = 68 µ C. it must be placed on the x-axis to the right of the (smaller) negative charge.) Therefore. k (4 q)2 (2 a)2 = k (4q) − q =a 2 .45a is to the right of x = a.544 CHAPTER 23 Solution The reasoning of Example 23-3 implies that for the force on a third charge Q to be zero. so Fx = 0 implies that 3( x − a ) 2 = 2 x 2 . If a third charge placed at x = 50 cm experiences no net force. The equilibrium is unstable. Problem 19. q2 = −34 µ C. i. (a) How would you place them along a line so there’s no net force on any of the three? (b) Is this equilibrium stable or unstable? Solution By symmetry. for the third charge q3 at x 3 = 50 cm. what is the second charge? Solution In order for the net force to be zero at a position between the first two charges. Problem 18 Solution. The net Coulomb force on a third charge so placed is Fx = kQ[3qx −2 − 2q( x − a) −2 ].e. i. The vector form of j j Coulomb’s law (in the solution to Problem 15) and the superposition principle give the net electric force on q3 as: F3 = F13 + F23 = kq1q3 (r3 − r1 ) r3 − r1 3 + kq2 q3 (r3 − r2 ) r3 − r2 3 = (9 × 10 9 N )(15 × 10 −6 )[(68 × 10 −6 )(2 î + $)=5 5 + ( −34 × 10 −6 )2 $=8] j j = (1. You have two charges +4q and one charge −q . the negative charge must be at the midpoint between the two positive charges (the force on it is zero there) such that its attractive force on one positive charge cancels the repulsive force of the other. they must both have the same sign.
If the force on q1 points in the −x direction. the magnitude of the force on any charge is the same.91kq =a . In Fig. Then r1 = 0. J 2K 2. or q3 = 20 µ C. Problem 21.) Since î + $ = j F1 = (kq =a ) 2 (1 + 1=2 2 ) = ( kq =a )( 2 + 1 ) = 1. (b) Then F1 = (9 × 10 9 N )( 25 × 20 µ C 2 )( −4 î )5−3=2 = −1. (a) what is q3 and (b) what is the magnitude of the force on q1? Solution The positions of the charges are the same as in the previous problem. and the superposition principle. Find the magnitude of the electric force on any of the charges. r4 = aî. . as shown. then q2 − q3 = 0. which we take as the origin. and j j F1 = kq 2 Lr − r M M− r r N 1 1 2 3 + r1 − r3 r1 − r3 2 2 3 + r1 − r4 r1 − r4 3 2 O L a$j a(î + $j ) aî O kq − P kq M − 2 2a − a P − a = = P N Q Q a 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 (î + $) 1 + j F G H 1 2 I. M −r P M5 m + 5 m P r −r P Q Nr Q N 2 1 2 1 3 (a) If F1y = 0.2° to the x-axis.67 N at an angle of θ = tan −1 ( F3 y=F3 x ) = −11. Four identical charges q form a square of side a. (Use the vector form of Coulomb’s law in the solution to Problem 15.61î N. r2 = a$. FIGURE 23-39 Problem 19 Solution. Solution By symmetry. r3 = a( î + $). Problem 20. 2 2 2 Problem 21 Solution. 23-39 take q1 = 25 µ C and q2 = 20 µ C .CHAPTER 23 545 or F3 = 2 2 F3 x + F3y = 1. Let’s find this for the charge at the lower left corner. so the net force on q1 is F1 = kq1 2 1 2 3 3 1 3 3 1 2 3 3=2 2 3=2 L (r − r ) q (r − r ) O L (−2î + $j ) q (−2î − $j ) O q q M P kq M + = .
Three identical charges +q and a fourth charge −q form a square of side a. find q2 and q3. An electron placed in an electric field experiences a 6.0 î + 15$ N . but since 3 + 8 = (3 − 8 ) −1 . y = 2. Two identical small metal spheres initially carry charges q1 and q2. When the spheres are brought together. Section 23-4: Problem The Electric Field 25.0 m. When they’re 1. we can write the force on −3 −3 q3 as F3 = kq3 [q1 (r3 − r1 ) r3 − r1 + q2 (r3 − r2 ) r3 − r2 ].5 N = k 1 4 (q1 + q2 )2=1 m 2 .1 × 10 −10 N electric force. with solutions q1 = ( −3 ± 8 ) q2 . Equating these two forces. the net force on Q has magnitude 2(2kqQ=a 2 ) and is directed toward (or away from) the negative charge for Q > 0 (or Q < 0). Problem 23. Problem 24.0 m apart. y = 0. Thus. = Dividing these equations and solving for q2 in terms of q1 = 55 µ C.7 µ C) 2 . r1 = 2$ m. What were the original values of q1 and q2? Solution The charges initially attract. y = 3. the solutions are q1 = ± 3 + 8 (16.2 µ C and q 2 = m40. respectively. The magnitude of their repulsion is 2 2. What is the field strength? . (a) Find the magnitude of the electric force on a charge Q placed at the center of the square. j j $) m. or the same values with q1 and q2 interchanged. (b) Describe the direction of this force. or 2 2 q1 + 6q1q2 + q2 = 0. we get 8 N ⋅ m 2 =kq3 = 4q117 −3=2 + q2 10 −3=2 and 15 N ⋅ m 2 kq3 = q117 −3=2 + 3q2 10 −3=2 .0 m.90 µ C.2 µC=(3 + 8 ) = m6. If the force on q3 is 8. and r = ( 4 î + 3 j j j j 2 3 3 1 2 Equating x and y components. they share the total charge equally. Substituting this into either component equation. Both solutions are possible.546 CHAPTER 23 Problem 22. we get q3 = (8 N ⋅ m 2 /k )[4q117 −3=2 + q2 10 −3=2 ]−1 = (15 N ⋅ m 2 /k ) [q117 −3=2 + 3q2 10 −3=2 ]−1 = 116 µ C.0 m. But the forces from the two positive charges on the same diagonal are in opposite directions. we find q2 = (10=17) 3=2 (52=9)q1 = 143 µ C.5 N = −kq1q2 =1 m 2 .5-N force. Since − q1q2 = 2.5-N attractive force. Three charges lie in the x-y plane: q1 = 55 µ C at x = 0. we find (8î + 15$ ) N ⋅ m 2 = kq [q (4 î + $ )(4 2 + 12 ) −3=2 + q ( î + 3$)(12 + 32 ) −3=2 ] . j Solution Using the vector form of Coulomb’s law explained in the solution to Problem 15. q2 at x = 3. while the forces from the positive and negative charges on the other diagonal are in the same direction (depending on the sign of Q) and add. we find a quadratic equation 1 4 (q1 + q2 )2 = −q1q2 . They’re again placed 1.0 m.5 N ⋅ m 2=(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 ) = (16.7 µ C) = ±40.0 m apart they experience a 2. each acquiring 1 ( q1 + q2 ). and superposition. F3 = (8î + 15$ ) N. they merely represent a relabeling of the charges. Solution The magnitudes of the forces on Q from each of the four charges are equal to kqQ=( 2 a=2) 2 = 2 kqQ=a 2 . and 2. r = 3î m. Substituting the given values. Then they’re brought together so charge moves from one to the other until they have the same net charge. and now they repel with a 2. and cancel. and q3 at x = 4. so q1 and q2 have opposite signs.
6 × 10 −19 C)( −10 î MN/C) = −1. Problem 27.25î + 0. y = 0. Solution Equations 23-3a and b give (a) E = 150 mN=68 nC = 2.75$ ) m=[( −0. E = F=e = 6. (c) x = −25 cm.21 MN/C) = 77. . (b) At r = 0. j 3 2 $ )=(0. The electron in a hydrogen atom is 0.5 m )( î + j j . What is the proton’s electric field strength at this distance? Solution The proton in a hydrogen atom behaves like a point charge. (The field strength is the magnitude of the 1 field. E = (5. A 65. θ = 108°).75) 2 ]3=2 m 3 = to the x axis. Find (a) the field strength and (b) the force that a 35. ( −296 î + 888 j x .6 î pN.34 î MN/C.µC charge would experience in the same field.0 . and (b) F = (35 µ C)(2.µ C point charge is at the origin. so Equation 23-4 gives E = ke=a0 = (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 )(1. What is the magnitude of the force on a 2.µ C charge in a 100 N/C electric field? Solution From Equation 23-3b. What force would a proton experience in the same field? Solution The electric field is E = 10 î N=(−1 µ C) = −10 î MN/C.5 m ( î + $ ). A −1. Problem 28. Problem 30.75 j j $) kN/C ( E = 936 kN/C. (b) x = 50 cm.1 × 10 −10 N= . The force on a proton is eE = (1.0529 nm from the proton.2 N.5î m 9 2 2 2 and q = 65 µ C. y = 50 cm.81 × 10 9 N/C.) Problem 26.25)2 + (0. y = 75 cm. Find the electric field at the points (a) x = 50 cm. (The field strength is 117 MN/C at 45° E = (9 × 65 × 10 N ⋅ m /C)( 0.0.6 × 10 −19 C)=(5. F = qE = (2 µ C)(100 N/C) = 2 × 10 −4 N.µC charge experiences a 10î-N electric force in a certain electric field.CHAPTER 23 547 Solution From Equation 23-3a.21 MN/C. Solution $ $ The electric field from a point charge at the origin is E(r) = kqr=r 2 = kqr=r 3 .29 × 10 −11 m ) 2 = 515 × 1011 N/C.6 × 10 −19 C = 3.85 × 10 5 N ⋅ m 2/C)( −0. E = (9 × 10 N ⋅ m /C )( 65 µ C)î=(0. (a) For r = 0. $) m. since r = r=r. for an electron one Bohr radius away (see solution to 2 Problem 7).) (c) When r = (−0.5 m ) = 2.5 2 m )3 = (827 kN/C)( î + $ ).25î + 0. Problem 29. A 68-nC charge experiences a 150-mN force in a certain electric field.
0 cm directly above P. Find a point where the electric field is zero.6 MN/C)$j.0 cm ) $ − ( 2.5 cm) 2 I J K L M N O (25. a distance x > 0 from the 1 µ C charge. (a) For r = (5. A unit vector from one charge to the field point is (r − r± )= r − r± .µ C charge and a 2. Problem 32. Find the electric field in the plane of the page (a) 5. and use Equation 23-5.0 cm directly to the right of P. 3 $ so the spacial factors in Coulomb’s law are r =r 2 = r =r3 = (r − r )= r − r . and r2 = r2 = r − r− = (7.5 cm ) $ = (2. Solution The field can be zero only along the line joining the charges (the x-axis).5 ) 2 2 3=2 O −(515 MN/C)$j.5) ) H N K M 2 2 3=2 − (5. and r that of the field point.5$j ) 2 J cm K(5. r = r − r = j i i i i ± ± 1 + j j j j ( 5. = P .0 cm )î.548 CHAPTER 23 Section 23-5: Problem Electric Fields of Charge Distributions 31. the fields due to each are in the same direction. as indicated. To the left or right of both charges.5) K cm M N 2 2 − $ j (2. = P Q FIGURE 23-40 Problem 31 Solution.5 cm)$ .µ C charge are 10 cm apart.5$) j (5. A 1. (b) 5. Let r± = ±(2.5 cm )$ denote the j positions of the charges.5 cm) ( 7. 23-41. In Fig. Fr q G r H 1 1 3 1 + q2 r2 3 r2 I = F × 10 9 J G KH 2 9 $ $ N ⋅ m2 j j (2 µ C) − 2 2 C (2.5) 2 O −(57.5 cm ) $. the . and cannot add to zero. Solution Take the origin of x-y coordinates at the midpoint. F G H N ⋅ m2 C2 IF µ C IL (5.0î − 2.0 î + 2.0 . Q E = 9 × 10 9 F G H N ⋅ m2 C2 IF µ C IL −$j 2 JH K(2.6 MN/C)$j .0.0 cm )$. and (c) at P. point P is midway between the two charges. Between the two.0 + 2.0 + (−2. = P Q E = 9 × 10 9 (c) For r = 0. 23-40. as shown in Fig. Then E=k (b) For r = (5. FIGURE 23-41 Problem 32 Solution.
is at rI = 5î nm. (b) At what point is the field on the y-axis a maximum? . the electric field from the charge +2q is in the x direction ($ = î ) . with spacial factors written as in the solutions to Problems 15 or 31: E(r) = ∑ kq i i (r − ri ) r − ri 3 = ke (−5î nm ) ( −5î nm − 5î nm) + kq . is at rp = 0. A graph of E for 5 ≤ x ≤ 25 is shown. E( x > 1) = (9î kN/C)[2( x + 1) −2 − ( x − 1) −2 ].0 m. (b) Taking q = 1.CHAPTER 23 549 electric field is E = k[q1 î=x 2 + q2 (− î )=(10 cm − x ) 2 ]. (a) write an expression for the electric field as a function of x for points to the right of the charge −q shown in Fig.14 cm. If the electric field is zero at x = −5 nm. Problem 35.0 µ C and a = 1. or q = −4e . charge e. E( x > a) = kqî [2( x + a) −2 − ( x − a) −2 ] (which is F=Q in r Example 23-3). 23-11. 23-13. (b) For q = 1 µ C and a = 1 m. For the situation of Example 23-3. A proton is at the origin and an ion is at x = 5. Problem 34 Solution. Thus. with x in meters. which vanishes when 1 µ C=x 2 = 2 µ C=(10 cm − x ) 2 . Problem 33.0 nm. E = 0 implies 2q=(10)3 = −e=(5)3 . what is the charge on the ion? Solution The proton. (5 nm )3 (10 nm) 3 Therefore. (a) Find an expression for the electric field on the y-axis due to the two charges q in Fig.) Problem 34. Solution (a) For points on the x-axis with x > a. (Note how we used the general expression for the electric field. or x = 10 cm=( 2 + 1) = 4. plot the field as a function of position for x = 5 m to x = 25 m. The field at point r = −5î nm is given by Equation 23-5. charge q. and that of r the charge −q is in the negative x direction ($ = − î ) . due to a distribution of static point charges at positions ri . and the ion. at position r.
88 GN/C) j j j j $ (0.1 m )3 = 34. $ by î . Thus.2 × 10 −30 C ⋅ m=1. Solution We can use the result of Example 23-6. gives a field strength twice as large.2 MN/C.60 nm and a proton at y = −0.8 pm. Setting the 3 derivative equal to zero. Then j j $(a 2 + x 2 ) −3=2 . Find the electric field (a) midway between the two charges.6) 2 = (8.6)(0. are opposite. E = (2. The dipole moment of the water molecule is 6.6 2 + 2 2 ) −3=2 = (190 MN/C)$. (c) At x = 20 nm. so Example 23-2 shows that E( y ) = 2 kqy$(a 2 + y 2 ) −3=2 . (b) The j magnitude of the field.4 MN/C. or a 2 + y 2 − 3y 2 = 0. and î by − $) .2 × 10 −30 C ⋅ m. (a) At x = 0. we find 0 = ( a 2 + y 2 ) −3=2 − 2 y( a 2 + y 2 ) −5=2 (2 y ). What is the electric field strength 10 cm from a point dipole with dipole moment 3. a positive function.550 CHAPTER 23 Solution (a) The electric field is the force per unit charge. and consists of an electron at y = 0. E = 2kp=x 3 = 68.8 µC ⋅ m )=(0. Problem 39.60 nm. (b) Equation 23-7b.0 nm. (b) For x = 2 nm. Problem 37. . y = 0. with y replaced by x. Problem 40. by symmetry).6 × 10 −19 C) = (2.) The E( x ) = 2kqa j constant 2kq = 2(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1. Problem 36. E = (2. You measure an electric field strength of 282 N/C. What would be the separation distance if the molecule consisted of charges ±e? (The effective charge is actually less because electrons are shared by the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.6 nm. 23-18 rotated 90° CW. A dipole lies on the y axis.00 GN/C)$.) Solution The distance separating the charges of a dipole is d = p=q = 6. and (c) at the point x = −20 nm.6 2 + 20 2 ) −3=2 = (216 kN/C)$ . is zero for y = 0 and y = ∞. and x by −y (or equivalently. y = 0. What is the net charge of the distribution? Hint: Don’t try to calculate the charge. (b) at the point x = 2.0 m and the field strength becomes 119 N/C. hence it has a maximum in between.6)(0. You’re 1. for the same distance. where q = e = 1.8 µC ⋅ m (a) on the dipole’s perpendicular bisector and (b) on its axis? Solution (a) Equation 23-7a gives E = kp=y 3 = (9 × 10 9 Nm 2/C 2 )(3. (2.5 m from a charge distribution whose size is much less than 1 m.88 GN/C)(nm ) 2 . (Look at Fig. and the dipole moment vector is q times this.6 × 10 −19 C = 38. Solution The vector separation of the positive charge from the negative charge is r+ − r− = aî − ( − aî ) = 2aî.88 GN/C)$(0. 23-18. and from that infer the charge. E(0) = 2 kq$=a 2 = j $=(0. Write an expression for the dipole moment vector of the dipole shown in Fig. the field strength maxima are at y = ± a= 2 (the directions at these points. You move to a distance of 2. p = 2qaî.88 GN/C) j j Problem 38.6 × 10 −19 C and a = 0. of course. Determine instead how the field decreases with distance.
. y with x. ) and x ( x 2 + a 2 4) −3=2 = x −2 (1 + . . Three identical charges q form an equilateral triangle of side a. Also note that the field in part (a) can also be found from Equation 23-5. The total field is the sum of these. (b) Compare with Equation 23-7b to show that your result in (a) is a dipole field. Then 282= 119 = (1. at the other two vertices are charges −q. E ' r n .5=2)n . At one vertex is a charge +2q. (a) Find an expression for the electric field at points on the y-axis above the uppermost charge. ). with ri=ri2 = (r − ri )= r − ri as in the solution to Problem 15. . For x À a. Problem 42. ± a=2) . Therefore. due to the two negative charges at (0. a with a=2. Solution (a) With the charges positioned as shown.CHAPTER 23 551 Solution Taking the hint. )] ' 2 3kqax −3 î. − (1 + . the electric field on the x-axis to the right = ( x > 3a=2 ) is just k (2q)( x − 3a=2) −2 î (the unit vector in Equation 23-5 is î and the distance is x − 3 a=2 ). . . E( x ) = 2kqî[( x − 3a=2) −2 − x ( x 2 + a 2=4) −3=2 ]. (In general. A dipole field falls off like r . one can use the binomial approximation (see Appendix A): ( x − 3a=2) −2 = x −2 (1 + 3a=x + . . with p = 3qa. (a) Find an expression for the electric field on the x-axis. and $ with î): j F=Q = 2k (− q) × ( x 2 + a 2 4) −3=2 î. . indicates terms of order a 2=x 2 or higher. −3 or n = ln(282=119)=ln( 0. . The triangle is oriented with the charge 2q on the positive x axis and both charges −q on the y-axis. . . in the approximation x À a. matches the field found in Example 23-2 (replace q with −q. E( x ) = 2kqîx −2 [1 + 3a=x + . . (b) This field is the same as Equation 23-7b.) Problem 41 Solution. (b) Show that your result reduces to the field of a point charge 3q for y À a. we suppose that the field strength varies with a power of the distance.75) = −3. 0 ). the electric field on the positive x-axis. Three charges form an equilateral triangle of side a. Problem 41. where = . and give an expression for the magnitude of the triangle’s dipole moment. the dipole moment for a distribution of point 3 $ charges is ∑ ri qi . with two charges on the x-axis and one on the positive y-axis. hence the net charge is zero.00. For the positive charge at ( 3a=2.
30 m ) = 2.45 m )(0. Problem 45. Solution Applying the result of Example 23-7. follows from Example 23-2: F=Q = 2kqy$( y 2 + 1 a 2 ) −3=2 . The total field is j j 4 $[4 y( a 2 + 4 y 2 ) −3=2 + (2 y − 3a) −2 ].45 m + 0. Problem 43. at a distance a = 0. or x = b 2=(l + 2b). like the field from a point charge of magnitude 3q. the electric field is zero when kQ=x ( x + l) = kQ=(b − x ) 2 . FIGURE 23-42 Problem 44. Solution At a point between the right end of the rod and the point charge. Problem 44. the fields from each oppose one another. we get E = kQ=a( a + l) = (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 )(80 µ C)=(0. for y > 3 a=2. (b) For y À a. A thin rod of length l has its left end at the origin and its right end at the x = l . as shown in Fig.552 CHAPTER 23 Solution (a) The electric field on the y-axis ( y > 3 a=2 ) due to the two charges on the x-axis. It carries a line charge density given by λ = λ 0 ( x 2=l 2 ) sin(π x=l) . Find the electric field strength at the origin. That from the charge on the y axis is just kq$( y − 3a=2) −2 (see Equation 23-4).45 m from the near end of the rod. and can cancel. . [4 y(a 2 + 4 y 2 ) −3=2 + (2 y − 3a) −2 ] → E( y ) = 4kq j 4 y(2 y ) −3 + (2 y ) −2 = 3(2 y ) −2 . so E( y ) → 4kq$ 3(2 y) −2 = k (3q )$=y 2 . j j Problem 42 Solution. 23-42. Find the electric field strength on the rod axis. At such a point. A 30-cm-long rod carries a charge of 80 µC spread uniformly over its length. A thin rod of length l carries charge Q distributed evenly over its length. A point charge with the same charge Q lies a distance b from the end of the rod. Find a point where the electric field is zero. where λ 0 is a constant. a distance x from the right end of the rod. or x 2 + xl = b 2 − 2bx + x 2 . 45 cm from the end of the rod.13 MN/C.
2 MN/C and points toward the ring center. can be obtained from Example 23-7: E+ = kQ=x ( x − l). we find E= z l 0 −î k π Fλ I sinF x I dx = î kλ G J Hl K H K l l 0 2 0 2 l πx cos π l F I HK l 0 = î (kλ 0=lπ )( −1 − 1) = −2 îkλ 0 =π l. x x−l x+l x( x 2 − l 2 ) F H I K (b) For x À l.59 cm 2 )=(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C) = −0. The resultant field (positive right) is E = E+ − E− = kQ 1 1 2kQl − = . The electric field on the axis 2.0 cm in radius. where x is positive away from the center of the ring.2 MN/C)( 5. Find the charge on the ring. 23-43. due to a small element of charge. as shown in Fig. Solution From Example 23-8.2 MN/C = kQ(2 cm)( 4 cm 2 + 1 cm 2 ) −3=2 . A uniformly charged ring is 1. (c) Comparison with Equation 23-7b shows that the rods appear like a dipole with moment p = Ql. to the right. dq = λ dx . to the left. For the given ring in this problem. (b) Show that your result has the 1=x 3 dependence of a dipole field for x À l .CHAPTER 23 553 Solution The electric field at the origin. for a point on their common axis. (c) What is the dipole moment of this configuration? Hint: See Equation 23-7b. (a) Find an expression for the electric field strength as a function of position x for points to the right of the right-hand rod.137 µ C. located at position x. Problem 45 Solution. E ¼ 2 kQl=x 3 . Two identical rods of length l lie on the x-axis and carry uniform charges ±Q. or Q = ( −2. Problem 46. Using λ=x 2 = (λ 0=l 2 )sin(π x=l) and integrating from x = 0 to x = l . is d E = − îkλ dx=x 2 . Problem 47. FIGURE 23-43 Problem 46 Solution. −2. Solution (a) The field due to each rod. the electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring is kQx ( x 2 + a 2 ) −3=2 . . and E− = kq=x ( x + l).0 cm from the center of the ring has magnitude 2.
(c) From Example 23-8. (a) Show that the area of such a ring is very nearly 2π r dr. the shape is irrelevant). uniformly charged flat sheet is 2π kσ . (This is equal to the circumference of the ring times its thickness. Thus. the limit of the second term is zero. (b) If the surface charge density on the disk is σ C/m 2 . which holds for x positive away from the ring’s R center. (The direction is perpendicularly away from (towards) the sheet for positive (negative) σ .554 CHAPTER 23 Problem 48. or z E x = 2π k σ x z R 0 r dr 2 2 3=2 (x + r ) = 2π k σ x −1 x +r 2 2 R = 2π kσ 0 Lx − M (x x N x 2 +R ) 2 1=2 O . from r = 0 to r = R ). Imagine the disk divided into rings of varying radii r. for x < 0. R1 = r and R2 = r + dr. Use the result of the preceding problem to show that the field of an infinite. so the area is 2 2 2 π [( r + dr ) − r ] = π (2 r dr + dr ). one finds E x = 0 dE x .) (b) For surface charge density σ . as suggested in the figure. E = 2π kσ. dq = σ dA = 2πσ r dr. Solution An infinite flat sheet is the same as an infinite flat disk (as long as the dimensions are infinite in all directions. (d) Integrate over all such rings (that is. where σ is the surface charge density. taken to be the positive x axis.) . ) Problem 49. Solution 2 2 (a) The area of an anulus of radii R1 < R2 is just π( R2 − R1 ). since E x ( x ) = − E x (− x ). x = − x and E x = 2π kσ[ −1 + x ( x 2 + R 2 ) −1=2 ] . uniformly charged disk of radius R. (c) Use the result of (b) along with the result of Example 23-8 to write the infinitesimal electric field dE of this ring at a point on the disk axis. the square term is negligible. (d) Integrating from r = 0 to R. However. This is consistent with symmetry on the axis. Figure 23-44 shows a thin. use the result of (a) to write an expression for the charge dq on an infinitesimal ring. When dr is very small. Then. and the magnitude is constant. x = x and the field is E x = 2π kσ[1 − x ( x 2 + R 2 ) −1=2 ]. J K FIGURE 23-44 Problem 48. P Q (Note: For x > 0. to show that the net electric field on the disk axis is E = 2π kσ 1 − F G H x x +R 2 2 I. we can find the magnitude of the electric field from a uniformly changed infinite flat sheet by letting R → ∞ in the result of the previous problem. and dA = 2π r dr. Note that this result is independent of distance from the sheet. For a thin ring. dE x = k ( dq) x ( x 2 + r 2 ) −3=2 = 2π kσ xr ( x 2 + r 2 ) −3=2 dr.
CHAPTER 23 555 Problem 50. Example 23-9 shows that the magnitude of the radial electric field falls off like 1=r. or E(38 cm) = (22=38)1. Then Example 23-9 gives Er = 2kλ=r = . . (b) Since r = 15 cm ¿ 10 m = l and the field point is far from either end. 23-45). Thus. The electric field 22 cm from a long wire carrying a uniform line charge density is 1. the charge on the wire must be negative. A semicircular loop of radius a carries positive charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. with θ 0 = 0. (a) What is the line charge density on the wire? Find the electric field strength (b) 15 cm from the wire axis. not near either end and (c) 350 m from the wire. 23-45. Solution This problem is the same as Problem 73.5 µC/m. Then integrate over θ to get the net field at P. E( P) = 2kQî=π a 2 . E(38 cm)=E (22 cm ) = 22 cm=38 cm. Problem 53. Therefore. Er = 2 kλ=r . so λ = (−260 kN/C)( 0.9 kN/C = 110 kN/C. we may regard the wire as approximately infinite. Find the electric field at the center of the loop (point P in Fig. Problem 52. A straight wire 10 m long carries 25 µ C distributed uniformly over its length. The magnitude of the field is given by the result of Example 23-9. What will be the field strength 38 cm from the wire? Solution For a very long wire (l À 38 cm ) . FIGURE 23-45 Problem 50 Solution. Solution (a) For a uniformly charged wire. Hint: Divide the loop into charge elements dq as shown in Fig.50 µ C/m. and write dq in terms of the angle dθ . Problem 51. What is the line charge density on a long wire if the electric field 45 cm from the wire has magnitude 260 kN/C and points toward the wire? Solution If the electric field points radially toward the long wire (l À 45 cm ) .9 kN/C. λ = Q=l = 2. Make suitable approximations in both cases.45 m ) ÷ (2 × 9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C) = −6.
With a field strength of 20 MN/C.46 µ m for this drop.) Problem 56. .8 m/s 2 ) = 3. so we obtain E y = kλ l=y 2 = k Q=y 2 as for a point charge. Millikan used oil of density 0. cancel. E y = kλy z + l=2 2 dx (x + y ) 2 3=2 − l=2 = kλy x y 2 l=2 2 − l=2 x +y 2 = kλ l y y + l 2=4 2 . the result of Example 23-9 is recaptured. so R = 9.15 m ) = 300 kN/C. so the field strength is kQ=r 2 = (9 × 10 9 × 25 × 10 −6 N ⋅ m 2/C)=(350 m )2 = 184 N/C. or m = (10 × 1. Problem 54. Thus. so the net field is along the y axis (see Fig. Millikan suspended small oil drops in an electric field. the wire behaves approximately like a point charge.0 cm? . mg = qE. In this famous 1909 experiment that demonstrated quantization of electric charge. (d) For y À l. R.) Section 23-6: Problem Matter in Electric Fields 55. except that the limits of integration are from −l=2 to + l=2 . FIGURE 23-46 Problem 54 Solution. Figure 23-46 shows a thin rod of length l carrying charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. (a) What is the line charge density on the rod? (b) What must be the electric field direction on the rod’s perpendicular bisector (taken to be the y axis)? (c) Modify the calculation of Example 23-9 to find an expression for the electric field at a point P a distance y along the perpendicular bisector. for l → ∞. (d) Show that your result for (c) reduces to the field of a point charge Q for y À l. Solution (a) λ = Q=l. How strong an electric field is needed to accelerate electrons in a TV tube from rest to one-tenth the speed of light in a distance of 5. dq = λ dx at ± x. we can neglect l in the square root.27 × 10 −12 kg.556 CHAPTER 23 (2 × 9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2 )(2. 23-23). R = (3m=4πρ oil )1=3 .9199 g/cm 3 . A.5 µ C/m )=(0. the size of such a drop may be better appreciated in terms of its radius. (b) The x components of the fields from symmetrically placed elements of charge. (c) At r = 350 m À 10 m = l.6 × 10 −19 C ) × (2 × 10 7 N/C)=(9. what mass drop can be suspended when the drop carries a net charge of 10 elementary charges? Solution In equilibrium under the gravitational and electrostatic forces. (Because this is so small. (Of course. (c) Proceed exactly as in Example 23-9.
Figure 23-47 shows an ink drop approaching the field region. electrons. What should be the field strength? Solution Referring to Example 23-10. Therefore. in the direction of the proton. Solution (a) Choose the x axis to the right. y = 1 at 2 = 1 (qE=m)( l=v ) 2 < 1 d.6 × 10 −19 C)( 0. Problem 59. (a) How far will the proton get before its speed reaches zero? (b) Describe its subsequent motion. one sees that v y=v x = tan θ = qE y ∆ x=mv 2 . Thus. can be d=2. gives a maximum penetration into the field region of x − x 0 = −v ox =2 a x = mv ox =2eE = (1. the maximum vertical deflection. in this case.8 × 10 5 m/s and v x = 0.CHAPTER 23 557 Solution For uniform acceleration. Solution If they enter the field region midway.6 × 10 −19 C)( 0. If the Coulomb force on the proton is the only important one. with the same constant acceleration in the field region.05 m ) Problem 57. . Equation 2-11. which has length l and width d between the charged plates that establish the field. Therefore. traversing a region of length x. starting from rest. 2 2 2 . 2(1. the acceleration is ax = e( − E )=m.05 m ) = 3. moving horizontally. An ink-jet printer works by “steering” charged ink drops to the right place on the page by passing moving drops through a uniform electric field that deflects them by the appropriate amount. (c= ) 2 = 2(eE=m ) x.11 × 10 −31 kg) (3 × 10 8 m/s)2 = = 512 × 10 4 N/C. 200ex 200(1. or 10 E= mc 2 (9. Find an expression for the minimum speed a drop with mass m and charge q must have if it is to get through the region without hitting either plate. so that the electric field is negative to the left. or v > l qE=md .35 cm. with v ox = 2 2 3. for the ink drops to pass through. a = eE=m.2 Mm/s be deflected through an angle of 22° by a uniform electric field that occupies a region 5.8 × 10 5 m/s) 2 = 1.09 kN/C. E y = (9.2 × 10 6 m/s)2 tan 22°=(1. reach speed v 2 = 2 ax.0 cm long.6 × 10 −19 C)(56 × 10 3 N/C) (b) The proton then moves to the left. FIGURE 23-47 Problem 59.8 × 10 5 m/s enters a region where a 56 kN/C electric field points to the left. until it exits with the initial velocity reversed. An oscilloscope display requires that a beam of electrons moving at 8. during the transit time t = l=v .67 × 10 −27 kg)(3.11 × 10 −31 kg) × x (8. Problem 58. A proton moving to the right at 3.
is accelerated from rest to a speed v. What is the electron’s speed? Solution The electric field of the wire is radial and falls off like 1=r (see Example 23-9). the device compares two accelerations.558 CHAPTER 23 Problem 60. in a distance d. (Essentially.075 m ) = 982 N/C. Figure 23-48 shows a device its inventor claims will separate isotopes of a particular element. the Coulomb force provides the electron’s centripetal acceleration. This will be the proper speed to pass through the analyzer if a2 = qE2 =m = v 2=r = 2(qE1=m) d=r. What is the line charge density on a long wire if a 6. An electron is moving in a circular path around a long. where v 2 = 2a1 d = 2(qE1=m)d . Problem 62.6 × 10 C)(2. E0 = mv 2 eb = (1. Thus. an isotope. (Isotopes of the same element have nuclei with the same charge but different masses. this is the same dependance as the centripetal acceleration.5 × 10 −9 C/m )=(9.) Atoms of the element are first stripped completely of their electrons. then accelerated from rest through an electric field chosen to give the desired isotope exactly the right speed to pass through the electrostatic analyzer (see Example 23-11).8. This condition depends on the fields and the geometry.µ g particle carrying 2. or E2 = 2 E1 d=r. For an attractive force (negative electron encircling a positively charged wire). Solution When the device is in operation. Prove that the device won’t work—that is. = Problem 61. What should be the value of E0 if the device is to select protons moving at 84 km/s? Solution From the analysis in Example 23-11. uniformly charged wire carrying 2.5 cm.6 × 10 −19 C)(0. both of which are proportional to q=m. FIGURE 23-48 Problem 62.1 nC describes a circular orbit about the wire with speed 280 m/s? . of nuclear charge q and mass m. so different isotopes cannot be separated. that it won’t separate different isotopes. 9 2 2 −19 v = 2 keλ=m = [2(9 × 10 N ⋅ m /C )(1.11 × 10 −31 kg)]1=2 = 2. by the field E1.5 nC/m. ) Problem 63. but not on q=m.67 × 10 −27 kg)(84 × 10 3 m/s)2=(1. or −eE=m = −2 ke λ=mr = −v 2=r.81 Mm/s. For circular motion around the wire. An electrostatic analyzer like that of Example 23-11 has b = 7.
0 MN/C) sin 30° = 3.18 × 10 −18 J. in the limit a ¿ x .2 × 10 3 N/C) = 1. (Although this problem gives a reasonable answer. Problem 66. the energy required to reverse the orientation of such a dipole is ∆U = 2 pE.0-MN/C electric field. 23-49. Assuming the electron is in a circular orbit around the central proton. Problem 65.28 × 10 −11 m (essentially a = 2 2 Bohr radius.CHAPTER 23 559 Solution The solution to Problem 61 reveals that λ = − mv 2=2kq = −(6. . Problem 67.5 nC ⋅ m )( 4. what is its dipole moment? Solution From Equation 23-12. the force has magnitude 6kp 2=x 4 . (In this case. each of charge q and separation a. (b) Is the force attractive or repulsive? FIGURE 23-49 Problem 67 Solution. (a) Show that.0 MN/C)(1866) = 11.5 nC ⋅ m is oriented at 30° to a 4.29 × 10 −30 C ⋅ m. (b) The work done against just the electric force is equal to the change in the dipole’s potential energy (Equation 23-12).18 × 10 −18 J ) = 5. r = ke 2 mv 2 = 1 ke 2=Ek = 1 (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(1. .1 × 10 −9 C) = = −14. A dipole with dipole moment 1.6 × 10 −19 C)2=(2. W = ∆U = ( −p ⋅ E) f − (− p ⋅ E)i = pE(cos 30° − cos 180° ) = (1. the simple model of an electron orbiting a proton is not consonant with the quantum mechanical description of the atom. By considering forces between pairs of charges in the different dipoles. therefore p = 1 2 ∆U=E = 1 2 (31 × 10 −27 J )=(1. . Two identical dipoles. calculate the net force between the dipoles. the electron’s acceleration ( −v 2=r ) is provided by the Coulomb force of the proton ( F=m = − ke 2=mr 2 ). τ = p × E = pE sin θ = (1.5 nC ⋅ m) × ( 4.0 mN ⋅ m. where p = qa is the dipole moment.2 mJ. If it takes 31 × 10 −27 J to reverse the . molecule’s orientation. (a) What is the magnitude of the torque on the dipole? (b) How much work is required to rotate the dipole until it’s antiparallel to the field? Solution (a) The torque on an electric dipole in an external electric field is given by Equation 23-11. the force on a positively charged orbiting particle is attractive for a wire with negative linear charge density.8 × 10 −9 kg)(280 m/s) 2 2(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(2.) Solution In a circular orbit.) Problem 64. are a distance x apart as shown in Fig. A molecule has its dipole moment aligned with a 1. The electron in a hydrogen atom has kinetic energy 2.2-kN/C electric field. see Problem 7). Thus. estimate the size of the atom.1 µ C/m.
Paired Problems Problem 69. both in the limit x À a. the fields can cancel only at points on the negative x axis ( x < 0). (b) and (c) The Coulomb force j obeys Newton’s third law. Therefore. 23-50. Solution (a) In the limit x À a. so take the origin at the center of the left-hand dipole and the positive x axis in the direction of the right-hand dipole in Fig. Find a point where the electric field is zero. (c) What is the direction of the net force? FIGURE 23-50 Problem 68 Solution.. which are +q at a=2 and −q at −a=2. j $ Then τ = 2 qa$ × kQî=x 2 = −(2kQqa=x 2 )k (i. as shown in Fig. at the position of the dipole. A dipole with charges ±q and separation 2a is located a distance x from a point charge +Q. where E is the field from the point charge Q. each of which experiences a force from both charges of the left-hand dipole. (a) In the limit a ¿ x . An electron is at the origin and an ion with charge +5e is at x = 10 nm. the torque on the dipole is p × E. indicating an attractive force. where 3 . (b) The force on the right-hand dipole is in the negative x direction. is 3 kqr ql ( x r − x l )î= x r − x l (see solution to Problem 15). due to one in the left-hand one. +(2 kQqa=x ) j (magnitude 2kQqa=x . where p = qa is the dipole moment of both dipoles. since the directions are opposite there and the smaller charge is closer. parallel to the dipole moment). with its dipole moment vector perpendicular to the x axis.) The Coulomb force on a charge in the right-hand dipole. p = 2qa$ and E = kQî=x 2 .560 CHAPTER 23 Solution All the forces are along the same line. Find expressions for the magnitude of (a) the net torque and (b) the net force on the dipole. −q at x − a=2 . Fx → −2kq 2 a 2 (3x 2 )î=x 6 = −6kq 2 a 2 î=x 4 = −6kp 2 î=x 4 . to align p with E). 23-49. so the total force on the right-hand dipole is Fx = kq 2 î L1 − 1 M ( x + a) x N 2 2 − 1 1 + 2 2 ( x − a) x O − 2kq a (3x − a P= x ( x − a ) Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ) î. The field from one point charge is E q ( x ) = kqî ( x − x q )= x − x q . With x axis in the direction from Q to p and y axis parallel to the dipole in Figure 23-50. Problem 68. so the force on Q due to the dipole is QE dip = −(2kQqa=x 3 )$. (There are forces between four pairs of changes. Solution The electron’s field is directed toward the electron (a negative charge) and the ion’s field is directed away from the ion (a positive charge). The force on the dipole due to Q is the j j 3 $ 3 opposite of this. The field of the dipole at the position of Q is (Example 23-6 adapted to new axes) E dip = −(2kqa=x 3 )$. or CW. into the page. The right-hand dipole has charges +q at x + a=2.e.
l4 Solution With λ=x 2 = λ 0 x 2=l 4 in the previous solution.) Since x < 0. (See the previous solution. x2 . Problem 71.83 nm. the ion must have a negative charge of greater magnitude than the proton’s. .83 nm + 5 nm) −2 . (See note to solution of Problem 33. or 4 x 2 + 2(10 nm ) x − (10 nm ) 2 = 0.83) 2 e = −3. . x q = 0 for the electron. If the electric field is zero at x = −6. 23-51a. The total field is the integral of this over the rod.CHAPTER 23 561 q = − e.) Thus.0 nm. flexible rod carrying charge Q spread uniformly over its length is bent into a quarter circle of radius a. The negative solution to this quadratic is x = Problem 70. Find the electric field strength at the point P. as shown in Fig.83 nm) −2 = − q I (6. x q = 10 nm for the ion. A thin rod of length l has its left end at x = −l and its right end at the origin. where −l ≤ x ≤ 0. A proton is at the origin and an ion is at x = 5. E(0) = z 0 −l (k λ 0 =l 2 )î dx = (kλ 0 =l 2 )î[0 − ( − l)] = ( kλ 0 =l)î. E(0) = 0 −l G zF H kλ 0 î 2 kλ 0 î 1 kλ 0 x dx = [0 − (− l) 3 ] = î. It carries a line charge density given by λ = λ0 where λ 0 is a constant. what is the charge on the ion? Solution If the field is zero on the negative x axis (the other side of the proton from the ion). Problem 72. Repeat the preceding problem for the case when λ = λ 0 x4 . e(6. l2 Solution The electric field at the origin. Hint: Consult Problem 50.09 nm. x = − x and x − 10 nm = 10 nm − x. [−10 nm − (10 nm )2 + 4(10 nm)2 ] = −2. A thin. Find the electric field at the origin. 3l l4 l4 3 I J K F I G J H K Problem 73. which is the center of the circle. due to an element of charge dq = λ dx . q I = −(1183=6. located at x. and q = 5e. The total field is zero when 0 = k[( −e) x x 5e( x − 10 nm) x − 10 nm so this implies x −2 −3 −3 + ].00e = −3e (since ionic charges are multiples of e). is d E = kλ î dx=x 2 = k (λ 0 =l 2 ) î dx .5 nm(1 + 5 ) = −8. 4 − 5(10 nm − x ) −2 = 0.
[Note: in general. 23-50b. and θ 0 = 45°. so ∆ x = mv 2 tan θ=qE y = (0. Problem 76. If the drop speed in the printer of Problem 75 is doubled. π −θ 0 θ0 = (kλ=a)2 î cos θ 0 = Here. λ = Q=l j $ is constant. with P at the origin. dE = k dq=a 2 = kλ dθ=a. charge 2.] 2 FIGURE 23-51 Problems 73 and 74 Solution. and pass through a uniform . has the same magnitude. Ink-jet printers work by deflecting moving ink droplets with an electric field so they hit the right place on the paper. as sketched. which is the center of the circular arc. dq = λ dl = $ λa dθ . we used sin θ 0 = sin(π − θ 0 ). The electric field at P. what should be done to the electric field to have the drops hit the same point on the paper? . Then the 2 analysis of that example shows that v y=v x = tan θ = qE y ∆x=mv x .1 pC)( 97 kN/C) = 1. Droplets in a particular printer have mass 11 × 10 −10 kg. Solution This problem is the same as the previous one. What is the length of the field region? Solution Suppose the ink droplets enter the field region perpendicular to the field. so the total field at P is the integral of dEr from θ 0 to π − θ 0: E(0) = (kλ=a) z θ0 π −θ 0 ( î sin θ − $ cos θ ) dθ = (kλ=a) − î cos θ − $ sin θ j j 2 kλ î=a. speed 12 m/s.562 CHAPTER 23 Solution It should be clear from the symmetry that the electric field is along the radius bisecting the arc. and θ as defined in Fig. flexible rod carrying charge Q spread uniformly over its length is bent into a circular arc of radius a. so take this as the x-axis. except θ 0 = 60°. but direction r = î sinθ − $ cos θ . A thin. Problem 74. 3 Problem 75. l = (π − 2θ 0 )a. Find the electric field strength at the point P. 97-kN/C electric field in order to be deflected through a 10° angle. E(0) = (k=a)(Q=1 πa)2 î cos 60° = 3kQî=πa 2. and the arc extends from θ 0 = 45° to π − θ 0 = 135° . from each charge element. Thus. In terms of the total charge.1 pC. as in the geometry of Example 23-10. 23-45.37 cm. as shown in Fig. cos θ 0 = − cos(π − θ 0 ). λ = Q=l = Q=( 1 π a). at θ . so E(0) = 2 2 kQî=πa 2 .11 µ g)(12 m/s) 2 × x tan 10°=(2.
Eliminating T. If you want to keep it stretched by attaching equal electric charges to the opposite ends. or 0 = Felec − T sin θ and 0 = T cos θ − mg. or q = ±2l sin θ mg tan θ=k . Felec = kq 2=(2l sin θ ) 2 . 23-52) are Fgrav = mg. ks x ( x = 10 cm is the stretch and ks is the spring constant). what magnitude of charge should you use? Solution The repulsive force between like charges. Two small spheres with the same mass m and charge q are suspended from massless strings of length l. q = ± r 2 k s x=k = ±[(100 N/m)(1 m )2 (0. Each string makes an angle θ with the vertical. kq 2=r 2 (r = 90 cm + 10 cm = 1 m). and T (the unknown string tension). Problem 79. Problem 78. as shown in Fig. Thus.CHAPTER 23 563 Solution Since tan θ » E y=v 2 (for droplets of given q=m and fixed printer field region). FIGURE 23-52 Problem 78 Solution. Where would you place a third 9 charge so that all three are in static equilibrium? What should be the sign and magnitude of the third charge? . Show that the charge on each sphere is q = ±2l sin θ mg tan θ=k . A spring of spring constant 100 N/m is stretched 10 cm beyond its 90-cm equilibrium length. x Supplementary Problems Problem 77. In equilibrium. Solution The magnitudes of the forces on either sphere (drawn acting on the righthand one in Fig. droplets will hit the same point if E y = 4 E y ′ x when v ′ = 2v x . must balance the spring force. A charge −q and a charge 4 q are located a distance a apart.1 m )=(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 )]1=2 = ±33. ∑ Fx = ∑ Fy = 0. we obtain tan θ = Felec=mg = kq 2=mg(2l sin θ )2 . 23-53.3 µ C. as shown in Fig. 23-52.
9 9 for Q: 0 = kQ = c qhx 4 9 2 + kQ( −q )=( x + a) 2 . assuming that the gravitational force is not negligible. cm. . where $ is upward. (The equation for the force on the third charge follows from the equations for the other two plus Newton’s third law.24 N )$=q = [(3. as shown (x-axis to the right with origin at 4 q ). where λ 0 is a constant. Q cannot go to the left of −q . A slight displacement of the positive charge to the right. (The equilibrium is unstable. (d) By comparing with Equation 23-7b. since the magnitude of the force on it due to −q would always be greater than that due to 4 q . Find the electric field. A rod of length 2l lies on the x-axis. must be placed along the line joining the other two. ln( x − l)=( x + l) becomes approximately −2l=x − 2l 3 3x 3 .94 × 10 −2 m 3 . Problem 80.5 m + x ) 2 = (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 2 )(34 µC)2=(150 N/m) = 6. Thus. j j j Problem 82. since the forces on it would always be in the same direction. .8 × 10 −3 kg)( 9.95 . When balanced with the spring force.) The solution of these two equations (for x > 0) is x = 2 a and Q = −4 q. or 4 9 ( x + a) 2 = x 2 . for example.24 N in a uniform electric field. Hint: For l ¿ x.0 µC) = −50. centered on the origin.8 m/s 2 ) − 0. so.0-µC charge experiences a downward force of 0. A 3. By how much does the spring stretch? Solution Suppose that the Coulomb repulsion is the only force stretching the spring.564 CHAPTER 23 Solution Because of the vector nature of the forces.) FIGURE 23-53 Problem 79 Solution. determine the = dipole moment of the rod. Thus. would cause it to be attracted more strongly to the right. as in Example 23-3. . This cubic equation can be solved by iteration or by Newton’s method to yield x = 15. or x (0. Solution If gravity and Coulomb forces both act.24 N]$=(4. the third charge.7$ kN/C. Problem 81. For 4 9 q: 0 = k ( c qh−q)=a 4 9 2 −k Q c qh=x 4 9 2 . It cannot go between −q and 4 q . The net force on each charge must be zero. It carries a line charge density given by λ = λ 0 ( x=l ). E = j j j ( mg − 0. then Fnet = − mg$ + qE = −(0.8-g particle with a 4. (c) Show that your result has the 1=x 3 dependence of dipole field when x À l. kq 2=(l 0 + x ) 2 = k s x.24 N )$. Two 34-µC charges are attached to the opposite ends of a spring of spring constant 150 N/m and equilibrium length 50 cm. or −qx 2 = Qa 2 . Q 9 9 must go to the right of 4 q . Q. (a) What is the net charge on the rod? (b) Find an expression for electric field strength at all points x > l.
I J K F G H IO P J K P Q 1 x−l 1 l l ln = ln 1 − − ln 1 + l x+l l x x F I L F I F IO 1 L l − 1 l − P N H K MH K H K = l Mx 2 x N Q M =− − 1 l3 l 1 l 2 1 l3 +. . (Note: = Explicit use of the formula p = z l −l x dq = z l −l λ 0 x 2 dx=l gives the same result. .00 cm. in both cases the field points away from the ring. (b) An element of charge. x x x x Q Q l −l G zF H k 0 λ0 kλ 0 x ′ dx ′ î = î 2 l l ( x − x ′) z l −l 2 0 2 2 (c) For l=x ¿ 1. .70 = (15 cm) 2 + a 2 . gives a = [(15 cm) 2 − (3. . The magnitude 15 cm from the center is 160 kN/C. so the data given in the question imply 380 kN/C = kQ(5 cm )[(5 cm )2 + a 2 ]−3=2 . . Thus. 2=3 = 3.70 = 7. . . 3 3 x x 2 x2 3 x3 2 2l2 − +. .− O 4kλ l î P 3x Q 0 3 2 (d) On the axis of a point dipole. . produces an electric field dE = k dqî=( x − x ′) 2 at position x > l on the x-axis. . Dividing these two equations and taking the 2 root we get 3 380 F × 15I H ×5K 160 which when solved for the radius. Find the radius and charge of the ring. The electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring has magnitude 380 kN/C at a point 5. ' x 3x 3 Thus.CHAPTER 23 565 Solution (a) Q = z l −l λ dx = z (λ =l)x dx = (λ =l) l −l 0 0 1 2 x2 l −l = 0. . (5 cm )2 + a 2 . . Solution The electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring is calculated in Example 23-8. Equation 23-7b gives E( x ) = 2kpî=x 3. dq = λ dx ′. so comparison reveals that p = 2λ 0 l 2 3. . where we are using x ′ for the variable of integration. and 160 kN/C = kQ(15 cm )[(15 cm )2 + a 2 ]−3=2 . x 3x 3 2 2l 2 − +.− − + +.) Problem 83. E( x ) = kλ 0 î L + 2l 2 M x x N 2 3 +.0 cm from the ring center.70)(5 cm )2 ]=2. 2x 2 l2 = 1− 2 x x 2 − l2 x while F I = 2 F+ l 1 G J xG x H K H −1 2 2 2 2 +. E( x ) = I F I dx ′ L x − 1 O J G J K H K M − x ′) ( x − x ′) P (x N Q k x x x Fλ I î L x F − l I O L 2 x 1 F − l IO = G JM − P N P Hl KN− l x + l + lnH + l K = kλ î M − l + l lnH + l K.
566 CHAPTER 23 Substituting for a in either of the field equations allows us to find Q= (380 kN/C)[(5 cm )2 + (7 cm) 2 ]3=2 = 538 nC. Problem 85. An electric quadrupole consists of two oppositely directed dipoles in close proximity. (a) Calculate the field of the quadrupole shown in Fig. gives = E x = 2π kσ 1 − 1 − L F MG M NH 1 R2 +. A molecule with dipole moment p is located a distance r from a proton. at a distance x > 0 along the axis (away from the disk’s center) was E x = 2πkσ (1 − x= x 2 + R 2 ) = 2π kσ [1 − (1 + R 2=x 2 ) −1=2 ]. as required by Newton’s third law. In the limit = d ¿ r. then the force on it is Fdip = qE p (d=2) − qE p ( − d=2) = − keq î[(r − d=2) −2 − (r + d=2) −2 ] = −2kepr (r 2 − d 2 4) −2 î. The binomial expansion in Appendix A. . (a) Use Equation 23-7b to find the force the molecule exerts on the proton. Take the limit as d becomes very small compared with r. x2 which is the field from a point charge Q = π R 2σ at a distance x. 23-54. and (b) show that for x À a the quadrupole field falls off as 1=x 4. in agreement with the result of part (a) and Newton’s third law. (a) Equation 23-7b gives the dipole’s electric field at the position of the proton. of radius R. Problem 86. so the force on the latter is Fp = eE dip = e(2 kpr −3 î ) = 2kepr −3 î. with the x-axis parallel to its dipole moment. Use the binomial theorem to show that. (b) Now find the net force on the molecule in the proton’s nonuniform electric field by considering that the molecule consists of two opposite charges ±q. (b) The electric field of the proton. for R 2 x 2 ¿ 1. for points on the x-axis to its left ( x < r ) is E p ( x ) = − ke(r − x ) −2 î (see Equation 23-4). If the molecular dipole is considered to consist of charges ±q located at x = ± d=2. Solution The result of Problem 48 for the field on the axis of a uniformly charged disk. separated by a distance d such that qd = p. FIGURE 23-54 Problem 85. as shown on Fig. the result of Problem 48 reduces to the field of a point charge whose total charge is the charge density σ times the disk area. and show that the resulting force has the same magnitude as that of part (a). . 2 x2 IO 2π kσ R P J ' 2x K P Q 2 2 = kQ . 23-54. for x À R. where p = qd. (9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2/C 3 )(5 cm ) Problem 84. Solution Take the origin at the molecule. this becomes Fdip = −2 kepr −3 î = − Fp . . oriented with its dipole moment vector p as shown in Fig. 23-55 for points to the right of x = a.
thus the integral in Example 23-9 leading to ∞ 0 − y csc 2θ dθ dx kλ π Equation 23-9 becomes E = kλy = kλy = sin θ dθ = 3 2 2 3=2 −∞ ( x + y ) π y 0 ( y=sin θ ) (kλ=y )[−cos π + cos 0] = 2kλ=y as before. which relates dx to dθ. from the three point charges shown. and recall that cosecant = sine −1.) The limits x = −∞ to ∞ correspond to θ = π to 0 (since when x is negative so is cot θ ). (The quadrupole moment of this “linear quadrupole” is Qxx = 4qa 2 . (Extend the results in Appendix B. at points on the x-axis with x > a is: E( x ) = kî L q M − a) (x N 2 − 2q q + x 2 ( x + a) 2 O 2kqa î (3x = P x (x Q 2 2 2 − a2 ) 2 − a) 2 (b) For x À a. then evaluating the resulting integral. Solution (a) The electric field. Differentiating the latter with respect to x. 23-23. Derive Equation 23-9 in Example 23-9 by making θ the integration variable. Solution In Fig.) Problem 87. E( x ) → 6kqa 2 î=x 4 . r = ( x 2 + y 2 )1=2 = y=sin θ . z z z . we get −csc 2θ dθ = dx=y . and cot θ = x=y.CHAPTER 23 567 FIGURE 23-55 Problem 86.
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