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Karlshochschule International University
Karlsruhe, December 9th, 2009 Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih
“What we know is a drop, what we don‟t know is an ocean” (Isaac Newton)
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
The ten rules of good communication
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Be polite! Listen! Know your message! Know your public! Offer your public a clear benefit! Communicate wise and with passion! Be clear and be careful! Get feedback! If you don‟t succeed, try again in a different way! Stop communicating, if any rule is violated!
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .The ten rules of good communication 4 In one sentence: Be respectful! Dr.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Corporate Communication – the ideal 5 Rationality Strategy Consistency Truth Clearness Certainty Simplicity People orientation/Dialogue “Crisis management” Social Media Corporate Social Responsibility/Ethics Dr.
Corporate Communication – the ideal 6 Problem: It just doesn‟t work like this. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . it turns out more and more that it in most cases doesn‟t work at all Dr. In my opinion.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Corporate Communication is a billion dollar business Dr. the company Krupp established its first press department in 1870 The upcoming US railway companies searched for ways to influence the politics and public in the end of the 19th century 1900 Publicity Bureau of Boston established as first public relations firm. because more and more specialized forms of communication and media have to be handled in a more and more professional way Today. Since then PR departments steadily grew.Corporate Communication today 7 PR as a corporate function came up at the end of the 19th century together with the first large industrial organizations In Germany.
Corporate Communication today 8 Especially in the 1990s.000 communication experts in US and 50.000 PR experts in Germany (cautious estimation) PR-Experts see themselves as the winner of the advertisement crisis Dr. Corporations and personally CEOs recognized to be more and more dependent on professional communication PR specialists became an integral part of top management. Many CEOs and politicians today have “spin doctors” A growing bulk of people deal with Corporate Communication: More than 200. often reporting directly to the president or CEO. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Only 38% said they trust business to do what‟s right. Globally. Only 13% trust corporate or product advertising – down from 36%. stock or industry analyst reports – last year‟s leader – decreased from 57% to 44% and from 56% to 47%. 72% criticized a distrusted company to a friend or colleague. only 29% trust information about a company from a CEO – down from 36% last year. Trust in bank dropped by 33% in the US. trust in business declined constantly and is now on an all-time-low. Two-thirds of informed publics trust corporations less than they did a year ago. Dr. 77% say they refuse to buy products or services from a company they distrusted. • • • • Trust in business magazines. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media • • .CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 9 Edelman Trust Barometer 2009: • In the last decades.
employee magazines.CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 10 Managers. most of the employees say that they don‟t find in it the information they want or need (Sottong. newsletters. Employees drown in a flood of internal communication which gets more and more professional: e-mails. Gallup: Only 13% of the employees are highly dedicated to work and to the company. Dr. live streams. more than two thirds only do the necessary. 20% have already left the company psychologically (fall out syndrome). politicians and PR experts have the worst reputation of all professions. videos. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . DVDs. HBM 2008). Nevertheless. podcasts. bankers. Corporate TV etc.
about lay-offs. in the Eastern part of Germany only 44% . Dr. Trust in institutions like Social Market Economy.31% would like to get back the old system of the GDR. Democracy and in politicians is also declining since decades. Only 60% trust in democracy. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 11 Despite all propaganda of “openness” and “honesty” it has become quite normal that employees hear important information e. in the Eastern part only by a third of the population. The Social Market Economy is only perceived as a good system by 48%. Only 22% of the Germans today trust politicians.g. bad financial results or spying scandals in their company in the external media.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 12 People in Germany trust most in the • • • • • • • • Police (85%) Air traffic (75%) TV reporting (64%) Justice (63%) Army (60%) News papers (57%) Government (38%) Political parties (22%) Dr.
and 49% of the Indian opinion leader say they have growing concern about business. and Korea. 56% of Chinese.K. But also. The only EU-countries where business made a notable gain in trust were Netherlands and Sweden High and rising trust in BRIC-Economies: • • In China trust climbed to 69% from 61%. Mexico. trust in Business was already at a low level of 36% among the audience of 35-64-years olds – and stayed there.CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 13 Outside USA: • • In U. and Brazil report now low levels of trust in CEOs Dr.. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . trust in banks rose from 72% to 84%. 79% of Japanese. France and Germany.
CC doesn‟t work (anymore) 14 “If you make people think they‟re thinking . But if you really make them think. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .” (Don Marquis. they‟ll love you. they‟ll hate you. US-American author) Favorite quote of Harold Kroto (Winner of Nobel Price in Physics) What are the reasons for this mess? Dr.
What are the reasons? 15 People? PR experts or CEOs? Complexity? Dynamics? Or both? (“Dynaxity”) Financial crisis? Management mistakes? Unethical behavior? New media? Social-Web 2. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .0? All this is not the whole story: The erosion of the reputation of so many institutions is a constant process. which has already started in the 1960s Dr.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The same is true about Social Media Media do play an central role. Ethics is important and should be a goal in itself – CSR will hopefully make the world a better place. But there are a lot of misconceptions about them… Dr. but it will never ever solve the image problem.Why CC doesn„t work – four theses 16 The game has completely changed Mindsets of management and the education of PR experts have to change radically.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .What you need for success 17 Values Knowledge Techniques Experience Dr.
Useful Theories for Business Communication 18 Biology (not only brain science!) Anthropology/Ethnology Psychology Pedagogic Social Psychology Organization Science Sociology Linguistics. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Discourse analysis Philosophy Communication/Media-theory/PR research Management Science System theory/cybernetics Dr.
Theories which could explain the problem 19 Neo-Institutionalism (John Meyer. Brian Rowan 1978. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . 1927-1998) Theory of Habitus. differentiation and markets of language by the French anthropologist and sociologist (Pierre Bourdieu 1930-2002) Marshall McLuhan‟s thoughts on media Dr. Nils Brunsson 2009) System theory (Niklas Luhmann.
the one-eyed man is not king. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . He is taken to be an hallucinated lunatic” Dr.Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) 20 “In the country of the blind.
“The mechanical Bride. when no one could have predicted today‟s information-dependent planet. He coined the well-known phrases of “global village” and “the medium is the message” in 1964. Folklore of Industrial man (1951)” “The Gutenberg Galaxy” (1962) “Understanding Media.” (1964) Dr.Marshall McLuhan 21 Lived from 1911-80 Canadian communications theorist and “high guru” of media culture The most publicized English teacher in the twentieth century and arguably the most controversial. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
articles appeared in Life Magazine. Fortune.g. Feigen and Gossage. Sleeve note of “Understanding media”: “the most important book ever written on communication. and others. two fans of McLuhan and PR experts.Marshall McLuhan 22 The “Hype”: In 1965.” You can find a lot of material about McLuhan e. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Ignore its message at your own peril. Cartoons about him appeared in The New Yorker. In 1969 Playboy magazine published a lengthy interview with him. Newsweek magazine did a cover story on him. on the website: http://www.com Dr. organized what they called a "McLuhan festival“ McLuhan soon became a fixture of media discourse.mcluhanmedia. Harper's. Esquire.
containers. and pressures. my stuff is very difficult. I make observations by way of discovering contours.Marshall McLuhan 23 “I don’t pretend to understand it.“ “my purpose is to employ facts as tentative probes. I want to map new terrain rather than chart old landmarks.” "I have no theories whatever about anything. But I've never presented such explorations as revealed truth. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .” Dr. lines of force. and my hyperboles are as nothing compared to the events to which they refer. After all. as means of insight. rather than to use them in the traditional and sterile sense of classified data. categories. of pattern recognition. I satirize at all times.
However. brain research proves a lot of his arguments to be true. Dr. he found some evidence in experiments he conducted at General Motors.e. many errors could have been prevented and many of today‟s phenomenon could have been anticipated. his basic theses are relatively simple and very clear. Today. A lot of people seemed to have big problems with his convoluted syntax. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . flushy metaphors and word-playful one-liners. It‟s more art than science. He tried hard to find evidence for his thesis of “the medium is the message”. but nowadays his thoughts don‟t play the role in media science discourse that they should deserve. He was often rejected by “Real” scientists. In the end.Marshall McLuhan 24 If more people had read his books.: “the medium matters not the content”. i.
but seldom acted on it: • • • More than 30 years ago. General Motors paid him a handsome fee for informing them that automobiles were a thing of the past Bell Telephones paid a lot of money for being explained by him that they didn‟t really understand the function of the telephone Another big corporation asked him to predict – via closed-circuit televisions – what their products will be used for in the future (they didn‟t believe) Dr.Marshall McLuhan 25 Many big companies asked him for advice. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Warning! 26 The following slides are more a collage of McLuhan quotes than a presentation or lecture. Small changes in the structure of the sentence were not explicitly marked. Color is added by me to emphasize important phrases Of course I am accountable for all errors I will concentrate mainly on presenting the theory and not on criticizing it Dr. but kept the quotes in italics and my own remarks in standard font. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . I tried to collect them in order to make his basic arguments clear The expressions of his “theory” were not summarized in my own words as I wanted to prevent messing up the real meaning. because he partially wrote in a very poetic style For better reading I don‟t provide the exact source.
Radio. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Telegraph. TV. Computers) Dr.Media 27 McLuhan has a very wide definition of media as “extensions of men” Horses Weapons/Tools Clothing/Housing Drugs Clocks Railways Typography Slaves/Mechanical technologies Media (in the usual sense.Marshall McLuhan .g. e.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . touch.Marshall McLuhan at a glance 28 All Media – in and of themselves regardless of the messages they communicate – exert a compelling influence of man and society (“The media is the message”). or tribal. inexorably reshapes the society that created the technology The influence depends on whether a “cold” or “hot” media meets a hot or cold culture Dr. perceiving the world equally through hearing. sight and taste “Media are extensions of men”. smell. man existed in a balance of sense. in turn. Prehistoric. Every basic innovation of media changes the sensory balance of man – an alteration that. They amplify the body and/or senses/central nervous system.
The effect of the medium is quite independent from the content. this fact is quite baffling as literacy to natives. who say: “Why do you write? Can’t you remember?” Dr.The media is the message 29 The content of a medium is always another medium (the content of writing is speech. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . print is the content of telegraph etc.). the written word is the content of print. To those who have never studied media.
The media is the message 30 McLuhan uses the light bulb to explain the principle: The light bulb is a medium without content – nevertheless it created a new environment by it’s mere presence (create spaces during nighttime) It is not the light but the content that is noticed. Whether light is being used for brain surgery or night baseball is a matter of indifference – it does not matter so much if you want to understand how it controls and scale the form of human association and action. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Dr.
but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human functions. Dr. a print mistake led McLuhan to use the sentence “the medium is the massage”. creating totally new kinds of cities and new kinds of work and leisure Later. He liked the message because it met exactly what he wanted to say: that any medium has a deep effect on the human sensorium. they “massage” the sensorium.The media is the message 31 The railway did not introduce movement or transportation. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . or wheel or road into human society.
but the reader is almost entirely unaware either of print or speech.The media is the message 32 The content of a medium is like the juicy piece of meat carried by the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind The effect of the medium is made strong and intense just because it is given another medium as “content”. The effects of technology do not occur at the level of opinions or concepts. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The content of writing or print is speech. but alter sense ratios or patterns of perception steadily and without any resistance. Dr.
it is the way they are use that determines their value. Or: “The smallpox virus is in itself neither good nor bad. Suppose we were to say “Apple pie is in itself neither good nor bad. it is the way they are used that determines the value. it is the way it is used that determines its value.” Again. The products of modern science are not in themselves good or bad. it is the way it is used that determines its value”. “Firearms are in themselves neither good nor bad. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .” McLuhan‟s comment: That is the voice of the current somnambulism.”… Dr.The „naive look“ on media 33 General Sarnoff: “We are too prone to make technological instruments the scapegoats for the sins of those who wield them.
It is true for many disciplines that we cannot understand what‟s going on if we are “caught by content”: Economists as Robert Theobald. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . the chicken or the egg. It has never occurred to general Sarnoff that any technology could do anything but add itself on to what we already are. Instead of asking which came first. Rostow and John Kenneth Galbraith have been explaining for years how it is that “classical economics” cannot explain change or growth (this is also why most media theory cannot explain media and most communication theory cannot explain communication CH). Dr. but it has also disseminated the Bible and the thoughts of seers and philosophers. it suddenly seemed that a chicken was an egg’s idea for getting more eggs. saying that it was true that print caused much trash to circulate.The „naive look“ on media 34 General Sarnoff went on to explain his attitude to the technology of print.W. W.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .The medium and the myth 35 Every new medium or human extension creates a new myth for itself. usually associated with a major figure: Napoleon and the trauma of industrialism. just because he is an expert aware of the changes in sense perception Dr. Charlie Chaplin as the public conscience of the movie. Florence Nightingale as the first singer of human woe by telegraph The artist is the only person able to encounter technology with impunity.
Media as extensions 36 Electronic media are the ultimate extension of senses because they involve again the whole apparatus of senses and is more and more abolishing time and space (global village) “…the simulation of consciousness when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of human society.” Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Why do we need „extensions“? 37 The three big dreams of mankind are: • • • Security & love Immortality Almightiness Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Extensions in fantasy 38 Spiderman: Organic extension Dr.
“ (1964 UM. abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned. Rapidly. 1) Dr. the Western world is imploding. p. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . by means of fragmentary and mechanical technologies. During the mechanical ages we had extended our bodies in space. we approach the final phase of the extensions of man – the technological simulation of consciousness. Today. after more than a century of electric technology. we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace.Explosion/Implosion 39 After thousand years of explosion.
and every Roman became inwardly. as mentioned by the psychologist C. No one can shield himself from such an influence” (Contributions to Analytical Psychology.G. a slave. Jung: “Every Roman was surrounded by slaves. London 1928) Dr. and of course unwittingly. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Because living constantly in the atmosphere of slaves. he became infected through the unconscious with their psychology.How media affect the mind 40 The mere existence of media configures our awareness and experience on a very unconscious level. The slave and his psychology flooded ancient Italy.
or to the mind in line with the Freudian concept of repression. and whenever it takes place.Narcissus narcosis 41 Every extension is an intensification. Dr. an amplification of an organ. As a result. a syndrome whereby man remains as unaware of the psychic and social effects of his new technology as a fish of the water it swims in. It's a process rather like that which occurs to the body under shock or stress conditions. it also becomes invisible. sense or function. insulating and anesthetizing it from conscious awareness of what's happening to it. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . the central nervous system appears to institute a self-protective numbing of the affected area. I call this peculiar form of self-hypnosis or Narcissus narcosis. precisely at the point where a new media-induced environment becomes all pervasive and transmogrifies our sensory balance.
man is only consciously aware of the environment that has preceded it. but not yet nearly enough of them . an environment becomes fully visible only when it has been superseded by a new environment. Because we are benumbed by any new technology--which in turn creates a totally new environment . in other words.we tend to make the old environment more visible. just as we've done with jazz. thus we are always one step behind in our view of the world. we do so by turning it into an art form and by attaching ourselves to the objects and atmosphere that characterized it. Most people. and as we're now doing with the garbage of the mechanical environment via pop art.and not nearly well enough. still cling to what I call the rearview-mirror view of their world.Narcissus narcosis 42 People are beginning to understand the nature of their new technology. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Dr. By this I mean to say that because of the invisibility of any environment during the period of its innovation. as I indicated.
Rome was oriented toward Greece. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and the Greeks were oriented toward the pre-Homeric primitives.Narcissus Narcosis 43 At the height of the mechanical age. We reverse the old educational dictum of learning by proceeding from the familiar to the unfamiliar by going from the unfamiliar to the familiar. man turned back to earlier centuries in search of "pastoral" values. The Renaissance and the Middle Ages were completely oriented toward Rome. we still believe we're living in the mechanical age of hardware. In the midst of the electronic age of software. of instant information movement. Dr. which is nothing more or less than the numbing mechanism that takes place whenever new media drastically extend our senses.
for all those quotes (also the one from IBM-CEO Thomas Watson that there is no need for more than 5 computers on earth) there are usually no hints for actual existence! Nevertheless. the quote above contains some truth – we can seldom estimate the real extent with which a new medium changes the world For a differentiated view on the quote see: http://snopes.Narcissus narcosis 44 „There is no reason for any individual to have a Computer in his home“ (Ken Olsen.com/quotes/kenolsen Dr. 1977) This is a typical rumor. CEO of Digital Equipment. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
as a lecture makes for less participation than a seminar. create the inscrutable and inaccessible image that invites a great deal of participation and completion. and fill in the feminine image exceedingly.” Glasses intensify the outward-going vision. Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and a book less than a dialogue The principle that distinguishes hot and cold media is perfectly embodied in the folk wisdom:“Men seldom make passes at girls who wear glasses. Dark glasses.„Hot“ and „cool“ media 45 Any hot medium allows of less participation than a cool one. on the other hand.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .„Hot“ and „Cool“ Media 46 Hot Influence on senses •High definition •Low participation •Enhances only one or few senses •Don‟t have so much to be filled in or completed •Analytical precision •Quantitative analysis •Sequential ordering •Movie •Photography •Radio •Lecture •Speech Cool •Low definition •High participation •Stimulates several senses •Requires active participation •Perception of abstract patterning •Simultaneous comprehension of all parts •TV •Comics •Abstract art Traits Examples Dr.
They are. The hot radio medium e. as radically upsetting for them as cool TV medium has proved to be for our literacy world Dr.The impact of hot and cold media 47 It makes all the difference whether a hot medium is used in a hot or a cool culture. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . where radio is felt as entertainment.g. A cool or low literacy culture cannot accept hot media like movies or radio as entertainment. at least. used in cool or nonliterate cultures has a violent effect. quite unlike its effect in England or America.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . hot culture are used to broken election campaign promises on TV.The impact of hot media 48 Our brand is crisis (US movie. 2005) This film is a documentation about a US PR-consulting company. in our literate. We accept them as our world is fragmented Dr. which advised one of the eleven Bolivian presidential candidates in 2002 during the election. The reason: We. The consultants from Washington used all the art and tricks of modern American campaigning-methods The candidate won the election but shortly after the election bloody riots occurred in the streets of La Paz.
Dr.The impact of hot media 49 AP August 9.” The effect of hot media treatment cannot include much empathy or participation at any time. 1962: “Nearly 100 traffic violators watched a police traffic accident film today to atone for their violations. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . It showed twisted wreckage and mangled bodies and recorded the screams of accident victims. Two had to be treated for nausea and shock…Viewers were offered a $5 reduction of fines if they agreed to see the movie.
The impact of hot and cold media 50 Saturation: When all the available resources and energies have been played up in and organism or in any structure there is some kind of reversal pattern. The spectacle of brutality used as deterrent can brutalize. Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . But with regard to the bomb and retaliation as deterrent. The price of eternal vigilance is indifference. it is obvious that numbness is the result of any prolonged terror…. Brutality used in sports may humanize under some conditions.
1963: Washington-Moscow Hot line installed “The agreement to establish a direct communication line between Washington and Moscow for emergencies was signed here yesterday by Charles Stelle of the United States and Semyon Tsarapkin of the Soviet Union… The link. according to U. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . one cable and the other wireless. teleprinter equipment. It will make use of leased commercials circuits. officials.The impact of hot and cold media 51 Headline for June 21.S.” Dr. known a the hot line. will be opened within six days.
however. finding this quite unnatural Dr. telephone medium is unfortunate by extreme. finding this quite natural.” Russians love the telephone which fits to their oral traditions Invitation to monstrous misunderstandings The Russian bugs rooms and spies by ear. the decision was prompted by the literary bias of the Western for the printed form. to use the hot printed medium in place of the cool. He is outraged by our visual spying. participational. on the ground that it is more impersonal than the telephone. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .The impact of hot and cold media 52 McLuhan comments: “The decision. No doubt.
collapsed. The men had even to borrow these from the women. Their culture. The missionaries provided quantities of sharp steel axes and gave them to women and children. Dr. causing a collapse of male dignity. based on the stone axe.The impact of hot and cold media 53 Disruptive impact on societies of a hot technology: Australian natives were given steel axes by the missionaries. It has not only been scarce but also a status symbol of male importance. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . as it does our physical nervous system by simply cooling off the onset experience a great deal (McLuhan was once asked how to stop a war in a certain backward country and said it would be the best to provide everybody with a TV) Dr. we would soon be nervous wrecks doing double-takes and pressing panic buttons every minute The “censor” protects our central system of values.Narcissus Narcosis has positive functions 54 Were we to accept fully and directly every shock to our various structure of awareness.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .The Tetrad 55 Dr.
The Tetrad 56 Laws of Media (1988). not successively or chronologically. phrasing his laws as questions with which to consider any medium The laws of the tetrad exist simultaneously. Dr. McLuhan designed the tetrad as a pedagogical tool. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and allow the questioner to explore the "grammar and syntax" of the "language" of media.e. any medium) by dividing its effects into four categories and displaying them simultaneously. published posthumously by his son Eric McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects for examining the effects on society of any technology (i.
with the name of a medium in the center. both Figure qualities. The two diamonds on the left of a tetrad are the Enhancement and Retrieval qualities of the medium. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . both Ground qualities Dr.The Tetrad 57 McLuhan departs from his mentor Harold Innis in suggesting that a medium "overheats". The two diamonds on the right of a tetrad are the Obsolescence and Reversal qualities. a tetrad can be depicted as four diamonds forming an X. when taken to its extreme Visually. or reverses into an opposing form.
The Tetrad 58 What does the medium enhance? What does the medium make obsolete? What does the medium retrieve that had been obsolesced earlier? What does the medium flip into when pushed to extremes? Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Radio amplifies news and music via sound. Dr. Radio returns the spoken word to the forefront. Radio reduces the importance of print and the visual. Retrieval (figure): What the medium recovers which was previously lost. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Obsolescence (ground): What the medium drives out of prominence. Acoustic radio flips into audio-visual TV. Reversal (ground): What the medium does when pushed to its limits.Example: the Radio 59 Enhancement (figure): What the medium amplifies or intensifies.
first of all. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . as extensions of skin and heatcontrol mechanisms. Cloths enables human beings to spread themselves in unfriendly areas and to protect themselves in fights Dr.Clothing 62 Clothing and housing. are media of communication. in the sense that they shape and rearrange the patterns of human association and community Unclothed people use 40% more energy.
The pyramids or castles also had the function to show the power of his owner. They enable us to lead a comfortable life.Housing 63 It’s obvious that houses are an extension of mankind. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Dr.
Mirror 64 The story of the mirror is a main chapter in the history of dress and manners and the sense of the self. Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
He is in his own world from day to day. is increasingly extended to the entire population Dr. He does not envisage distant goals and objectives. The classroom of the school were abundantly supplied with large mirrors. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The plight of the slum kid. via TV image. The result was an astounding increase of learning. He does not see himself as becoming something. and can establish no beachhead in the highly specialized sense life of visual man.Mirror 65 Recently and imaginative school principal in a slum area provided each student in the school with a photograph of himself. The slum child has ordinarily very little visual orientation.
Transportation by pack animal (mostly women) Horseshoes and horse collars Wheel as the architect of new human relations Horse-drawn carts, busses and streetcars, first cities
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
But the wheel was of little use without streets (the Roman Empire was built on streets and papyrus) After the fall of the Roman Empire, it took centuries until the streets were in a suitable condition again. In the 15th century they were used for the first time for private postal services (Thurn & Taxis) and commercial business (Fugger Family)
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
Railway created new cities and suburbs and the first stock corporations (and the first PR departments!). PR should convince people to “Go West” an buy stocks. An important means of PR has always been entertainment business (Buffalo Bill, Circus Barnum) Still today, our language is full of words which have to do with infrastructure of the age of Explosion: information highway, communication channels, roadmap, building bridges… The automobile ended the pedestrian or human scale of the suburb (housewife as full-time chauffeur)
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
old technologies have a comeback as entertainment or arts: The car as vehicle will go the way of the horse. they don’t “feel good” But sometimes. the wheel itself is obsolete Each method of transporting commodity or information should have come into existence in a bitter competitive battle against previously existing devices. Each innovation is not only commercially disrupting. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . just outdated. Dr. former media often look archaic. but socially and psychologically corroding In the electric age. The horse has lost its role in transportation but has made a strong comeback in entertainment.Movement 69 Later the wheel was used for mechanical devices in many forms In the electric age.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . What arrangements have they made to ease the automobile industry off the center of the stage? The mere obsolescence of the wheel does not mean its disappearance. It means only that. the wheel will move into a subsidiary role in the culture.Movement 70 McLuhan wrote the following in 1964!! “At the heart of the car industry there are men who know that the car is passing. like penmanship or typography.” Dr. as certainly as the cuspidor was doomed when the lady typist arrived on the business scene.
The entire message is then traced and retraced. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . many cultures that are more oral than visual oriented. One can stop anywhere after the first few sentences and have the full message.g. again and again. at the outset of a discussion. mythical thinking Involves all senses! Acoustic more than visual (as in literal cultures) Still today. e. on the rounds of a concentric spiral with seeming redundancy. if on is prepared to dig it.From Oral Culture to Typography 71 Body language. Gestures Narratives Informal/”natural” hierarchy Magic. concentric Dr. Spiral. the Russian Typical for today‟s oral cultures: The Hebrew and Eastern mode of thought tackles problems and resolution.
Iconic writing. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Early writing 72 Stone (heavy and unwieldy media) are time binders. hieroglyphs Dr.
Early writing 73 The alphabet was a drastic visual abstraction from the rich hieroglyphic culture of the Egyptians. The resulting leap in speed and space created the Roman Empire The alphabet is a one-way-process of reduction of nonliterate cultures into the specialist visual fragments of our Western world (in religion setting: monistic religions) Dr. The alphabet was one thing when applied to clay or stone. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and quite another when set down on light papyrus. so it also reduced and translated that culture into the great visual vortex of the Graeco-Roman world.
has the power of separating and fragmenting the sense and of sloughing off the semantic complexities. Phonetic writing alone. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Phonetic writing 74 All non-phonetic forms of writing are artistic modes that retain much variety of sensuous orchestration. Dr.
Typography 75 Extension of the eye (“An eye for an ear”) The manuscript was cool. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . print is a hot medium Dr.
Dr.Typography 76 The alphabet. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . letters of indulgence. creating extreme individualistic patterns of enterprise and monopoly Hotting-up of the medium of writing to repeatable print intensity led to nationalism and the religious wars of the 16th century (e. when pushed to a high degree of abstract visual intensity burst the bonds of medieval corporate guilds and monasteries. it also became fashionable by protestants to print flyers to transport religious messages).g.
and aggression Dr.consequences 77 Individualism and nationalism in the 16th century Fragmentation Specialization/Segmentation Linear thinking Idea of time and space as continuous measurable quantities De-Sacralization of nature and power Homogeneity Repeatability Industrialism Mass markets Amplification of power.Typography . energy. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The natives had seen books. which they had assumed to be unique.Typography 78 Repeatability: Margaret Mead has reported that when she brought several copies of the same book to a Pacific island there was great excitement. Their astonishment at the identical character of several books was a natural response to what is after all the most magical and potent aspect of print and mass production. Dr. but only one copy of each.
De Tocqueville (1805-1859) explained in his work on the French revolution how it was the printed word that, achieving cultural saturation in the 18th century, had homogenized the French nation. Frenchman were the same kind of people from north to south. The typographic principles of uniformity, continuity, and linearity had overlaid the complexities of ancient feudal and oral society. The revolution was carried out by the new literati and lawyers
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
De Tocqueville (1805-1859) remarked that the American Society was more homogenized by print than England and much more than Europe in general:
“In America all laws derive in a sense from the same line of thought. The whole society, so to speak, is founded upon a single fact; everything springs from a simple principle. One could compare America to a forest pierced by a multitude of straight roads all converging on the same point. One has only to find the center and everything is revealed at a glance. But in England, the paths run criss-cross, and it is only by travelling down each one of them that one can build up a picture of the whole.”
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
Homogeneity of regions and nations (“nationalism was unknown to the Western world until the Renaissance when Gutenberg made it possible to see the mother tongue in uniform dress”, e.g. Martin Luther translated the bible from Latin to German)
Homogeneity imposed pressure toward “correct” spelling, syntax and pronunciation, right interpretation of standard works and uniformity in speech and writing in general
Homogeneity in clothing and all aspects of life William Whyte: Organization man (1951)
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
Typography 82 Homogeneity: When European used to visit America before the Second War they would say “But you have communism here!” What they meant was that we not only had standardized good. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . On the other hand. it is the special illusion of literate societies that they are highly aware and individualistic” Dr. The tribal man can spot the gaps in the literate mentality very easily. but everybody had them.” “It was easy for the retribalized Nazis to feel superior to the American consumer.
Typography 83 Fragmentation/Efficiency: In the World War I an II. “efficiency craze” Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . accumulated enormous amounts of wealth which was the basis for big business (Fordism and Taylorism arose from the big North American plants) => first assembly lines. the U.S.
therefore that highly literate societies take steps to reduce or eliminate odors from the environment. It is far too involving for our habits of detachment and specialist attention. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .The Gutenberg-Galaxy 84 The sense of smell is not only the most subtle in that it involves the culture human sensorium more fully than any other sense. It is not surprising. Dr.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The clown is the integral man who mimes the acrobat in an elaborate drama of incompetence Example: Charlie Chaplin: Modern times (1936) Dr.The Gutenberg-Galaxy 85 Reflections of the industrial age in arts: Acrobat: the acrobat acts as a specialist. using only a limited segment of his faculties.
das soll ein warhaytt sein” (the frequent traveler Dynoysius Dreytwein.Typography 86 The “power” of words disseminated by print does not lie in the words “itself” but in the medium (the medium is the message) “Das hab ich gettruckt gesechenn. source: Borst 1983. although it is possible to tell in a few words how to make a bucket Dr. ca. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . 558) Inadequacy of words is never recognized by the literate man: All the words in the world cannot describe an object like a bucket.1500. p.
painter. agricultural communities. Where the whole man is involved there is no work. In the electric age the “job of work” yields to dedication. or thinker of today.Typography 87 The invention of “work”: Work does not exist in a nonliterate world. enormous effort was needed Impersonality The brain was left behind at the factory door Leisure alone meant a life of human dignity and involvement of the whole man. Dr. any more does the poet. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The primitive hunter or fisherman did not work. Work begins with the division of labor and the specialization of functions and tasks in sedentary. To discipline workers.
Typography 88 In a highly literate society man sees others who cannot perform somewhat pathetic. the skew. and the colored person appear in a world of visual and typographic technology as victims of injustices. the woman. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . In a culture that assigns roles instead of jobs to people – the dwarf. Dr. Especially the child. people are not expect to fit in some uniform and repeatable niche that is not their size anyway. the child create their own spaces. the cripple.
any intense experience must be “forgotten”. Example: The hot literary medium excludes the practical and participant aspect of the joke completely. Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . A lot of dances were “cooled down” so that they could be danced in the Western world. and reduced to a very cool state before it can be “learned” or “assimilated”. To literary people. when we meet person for the first time his visual appearance dims out the sound of the name. the practical joke with its total physical involvement is distasteful . “censored”. so that in self-defense we add: “How do you spell your name?” In an ear culture. In a visual and highly literate culture.Typography 89 Oppression of Emotions: Example: the Victorian age (1837-1901) was a period of flourishing economy but also heavy repressing of individual feelings. the sound of a man’s name is the overwhelming fact In the mechanical age with industrial specialism and fragmentation.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . prostitution. DSDS.Typography 90 It is typical for periods of intense mechanization. Play cools off the hot situation of actual life by miming competitive sports. Colonialism. gaming. are flourishing Games are a medium and a mirror of society Play for example has the function of “cooling down” hot cultures (panem et circensis). alcohol and paranormal events. wars) that arts (theater drama etc.). fragmentation and aggressive expansion (e. hobbies. more or less brutal (Big Brother.g. leisure activities. CH) Dr.
this kind of dream suggested similar dress and education for both men and women. for whom differences always seem to need eradication. is an extension of the same cultural strategy of literate man. both in sex and in space and in time. undertaken on the basis of visual uniformity. At the end of the 19th century. Race integration. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Typography 91 Literate man naturally dreams of visual solutions to the problems of human differences. Dr. The failure of the sex-integration programs have provided the theme of much of the literature and psychoanalysis of the 20th century.
What European eyes see! .
Contrast - .Confusion - .Chaos .What European eyes see! .
What Indian eyes see! .
Challenge .Change .Confidence - .What Indian eyes see! .
Without this dissociation of action from feeling and emotion people are hampered and hesitant.Typography – the advantages of literacy 96 These typographical matters for many people are charged with controversial values. Print taught men to say: “Damp the torpedos. It is this kind of specialization by dissociation that has created Western power and efficiency. vaster in scope than that of Gutenberg. Those who panic now about the threat of newer media and about the revolution we are forging. Yet in any approach to understanding print it is necessary to stand aside from the form in question if its typical pressure and life to be observed. Full steam ahead!” Dr. are obviously lacking in cool visual detachment and gratitude for that most potent gift bestowed on Western man by literacy and typography: his power to react without reaction or involvement. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . especially when compared to his tools Dr. 1719) frequently observes that the money he rescued from the ship is worthless on his islands.Money 97 Robinson Crusoe (story by Daniel Defoe.
were valued as luxury. as happens even in fashions. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . It creates social and spiritual values. Money began in nonliterate cultures as a commodity. The existence of money is often seen as a sign of maturity (in a society): Speech comes at the end of the first year with the development of the power to let go of objects.Money 98 Money is an institution based on beliefs Money has reorganized the sense life of peoples just because it is an extension of our sense lives. such as whales’ teeth on Fiji. Currency is a way of letting go of the immediate staples and commodities (Freud’s Concept of Anal Erotism) Dr. and thus became a means of mediation or barter.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . money is a storehouse of communally achieved work. a transfer. skill. Like word and language. and experience Dr. and a bridge.Money 99 Nonliterate societies are quite lacking in the psychic resources to create and sustain the enormous structures of statistical information that we call markets and prices “Money talks” because money is a metaphor.
was based on trade with indulgences in the name of the Pope. The Fugger family also financed the German emperor Maximilian. Dr. the Fugger empire. The first banks were founded in Italy to finance war and trade in the Mediterranean area. as most religions did at first not accept “earning money with money”.Money 100 It is difficult to describe the development of money as the most powerful institution of our days McLuhan provides an interesting historical overview of the development of money as a medium from mercantilism to modern markets An important media for expansion and finally industrialization were interests. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . The first international corporation.
and the clock visually separates time from space Like writing.Money 101 I want to concentrate on some psychological and social consequences of money described by McLuhan Money is a specialist technology like writing. it translates and reduces one kind of work to another. In a highly literate. as writing intensifies the visual aspect of speech and order. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . money has an enormous power to separate functions. “Time is money”. Even in the Electronic age it has lost none of its power Dr. and money is the store of other people’s time and effort. fragmented society.
” (G. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . culminating in the breakdown of feudal government and the resumption of intercourse with foreign countries after more than two hundred years of seclusion. Sansom.Money 102 “The penetration of the money economy (in Japan) caused a slow.B. but irresistible revolution. In Japan 1931) Which senses get numbed by money? Dr.
as the case may be.” Dr. In the past. when wealth was not so obviously related information. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and entire class could monopolize the wealth resulting from a casual shift in technology.Money 103 One of the inevitable results of acceleration of information movement and of the translating power of money is the opportunity of enrichment for those who can anticipate this transformation by a few hours or years. We are particularly familiar today with examples of enrichment by means of advance information in stocks and bonds and real estate.
The dynamics which is basic to crowds is the urge to rapid an unlimited growth. The same power dynamic is characteristic of large concentration of wealth or treasure. With the increase of money in a few hands also the breed uneasiness is growing that goes with wealth about disintegration and deflation.
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
Writing on Communication in Africa, Leonard Doob observes. „The turban, the sword and nowadays the alarm clock are worn or carried to signify high rank.“ Presumably it will be rather long before the African will watch the clock in order to be punctual. Just as a great revolution in mathematics came when positional, tandem numbers were discovered (302 instead of 32), so great cultural changes occurred in the West when it was found possible to fix time as something that happens between two points. From this application of visual, abstract, and uniform units came our Western feeling for time as duration
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
A sense of impatience when we cannot endure the delay between events, is unknown among nonliterate cultures. The clock preceded the printing press in the influence on the mechanization of society: In the medieval ages, the communal clock extended to the bell permitted high coordination of energies in small communities
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media
that the clock got started on its modern developments. came to accommodate themselves to the clock rather than to organic needs. Dr. Time measured not by the uniqueness of private experience but by abstract uniform units gradually pervades all sense life. Not only work.Clocks 108 It was the world of the medieval monasteries. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . much as does the technology of writing and printing. with their need for a rule and for synchronized order to guide communal life. but also eating and sleeping.
and hours on an assemblyline pattern.Clocks 109 As a piece of technology. the clock is a machine that produces seconds. The mechanical clock. minutes. in short. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Processed in this uniform way. Clock in/out Dr. helps to create the image of a numerically quantified and mechanically powered universe. time is separated from the rhythms of human experience.
Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .C.D.Clocks 110 Travelers today have the daily experience of being at one hour in a culture that is still 3000 B. and the next hour in a culture that is 1900 A.
the older mechanical time begins to feel unacceptable. Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . if only because it is uniform.Clocks 111 In the Electronic age: Time and space interpenetrate each other totally in a space-time-world (ugly word:“real-time”) In the space-time world of electronic technology.
Space 112 Our literate. for this involves casting into three-dimensional perspective. In fact. objects. Dr. and observer are experienced separately and regarded as independent of one another. Confronted with objects in sunshine. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Thus sun. Western Concept of space is very different than that of the natives. ours is a “rational” space: Nigerians studying in American universities are sometimes asked to identify spatial relations. they are often unable to indicate in which direction shadows will fall.
then gave up in frustration. They couldn’t crate what they had created Dr. a ballet. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Space 113 An anthropological film showed a Melanesian carver cutting out a drum which such skill. they struggled unsuccessfully for three days to make two planks intersect a 90-degree angle. and ease that the audience several times broke into applause – it became a song. coordination. But when the anthropologist asked the tribe to build crates to ship these carvings in.
Dr. and there was no rational connected space into which it must fit. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Space 114 In the low definition world of the medieval woodcut. each object created its own space.
the Marx Brothers and MAD Dr. Einstein pronounced the doom of continuous or “rational” space.Space 115 A the retinal impression is intensified. continuous. and the way was made clear for Picasso. Relativity theory in 1905 announced the dissolution of uniform Newtonian space as an illusion or fiction. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and instead. and “rational” space. however useful. become “contained” in a uniform. objects cease to cohere in a space of their own making.
high-fidelity photography of the visual) and a hot medium Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Radio 116 “The Tribal drum” Radio is an extension not only of the ear but of the central nervous system (of the aural.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Radio 117 The Eye is cool and detached. The Ear is hypersensible. The ear turns man over to universal panic while the eye. leaves some gaps and some islands free from the unremitting pressure and reverberation Dr. extended by literacy and mechanical time.
and as a result. Richard J. others thinking they could smell poison gas or could see flashes of lightning in the distance. while Adolf Hitler cited the panic.2 million were 'genuinely frightened'".“ Later studies suggested this "panic" was less widespread than newspapers suggested. the uproar was anything but minute: within a month. people fleeing the area. a new medium. as Hand writes.500 newspaper articles about the broadcast or its impact. In addition. Dr. this was a time of yellow journalism. While Welles and company were heard by a comparatively small audience (in the same period. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and the panic that ensued. as "evidence of the decadence and corrupt condition of democracy. During this period. there were 12. Hand cites studies by unnamed historians who "calculate[d] that some six million heard the CBS broadcast.7 million believed it to be true. and in the atmosphere of tension and anxiety leading to World War II. took it to be a news broadcast. 1. journalists took this opportunity to demonstrate the dangers of broadcast by embellishing the story.10. greatly. and 1. Newspapers reported that panic ensued. would make them defunct. NBC's audience was an estimated 30 million). many newspapers were concerned that radio.1938) Some listeners heard only a portion of the broadcast.Radio 118 The case of Orson Wells famous “The War of the Worlds” (broadcasted on 30.
Radio 119 In a radio speech in Munich. March 14. Hitler said. 1936. His thoughts were of little consequence. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Radio provided the first massive experience of electronic implosion. This is not to say that this media relayed his thoughts effectively to the German people. “I go my way with the assurance of a somnambulist.” His victims and critics have been equally somnambulistic That Hitler came into political existence at all is directly owing to radio. that reversal of the entire direction and meaning of literate Western Civilization. Public address system (Volksempfänger) Dr.
radio will continue to be a violent experience. For them. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . that have long subordinated family life to individualistic stress in business and politics. radio is utterly explosive.Radio 120 For tribal peoples. have managed to absorb and to neutralize the radio implosion without revolution. those communities that have only brief or superficial experience of literacy. Dr. Highly literate societies. Not so. for those whose entire social existence is an extension of family life.
Dr. The subliminal depths of radio are charged with the resonating echoes of tribal horns and antique drums. That is the immediate aspect of radio. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Radio 121 Radio has an enormous power to retribalize man. This is inherent in the very nature of this medium with its power to turn the psyche and society into a single echo. offering a world of unspoken between writer-speaker and the listener. person-to-person. A private experience. It affects most people intimately.
The tribal past has never ceased to be a reality for the German psyche. Encirclement is a highly visual image that had great novelty for this newly industrialized nation. at all. by contrast. In the 1930s. the German obsession was with Lebensraum. This is not a visual concern. It is a claustrophobia. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Radio 122 Just prior 1914. The German defeat had thrust them back from visual obsession into brooding upon the resonating within. engendered by the radio implosion and compression of space. Dr. Their neighbors had all developed elaborate railway systems that facilitated mobilization of manpower resource. the Germans had become obsessed with the menace of “encirclement”.
Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .Radio 123 It was the ready access of the German and middle-European world to the rich nonvisual resources of auditory and tactile form that enabled them to enrich the world of music and dance and sculpture. in which longliterate and long-industrialized societies are decidedly handicapped. Above all their tribal mode gave them easy access to the new nonvisual world of subatomic physics. Dr.
but the ignoring of this power is not at all easy to explain. has gone unnoticed. some essential numbing of consciousness such as occurs under stress and shock conditions. its almost instant reversal of individualism into collectivism. or Marxist. It goes without saying that the universal ignoring of the psychic action of technology bespeaks some inherent function.Radio 124 The power to retribalize mankind. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Dr. So extraordinary is this unawareness that it is what needs to be explained. Fascist. The transforming power of media is easy to explain.
Radio 125 The Teenagers in the 1950s began to manifest many of the tribal stigmata Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media .
(as a cool medium. a time bond with the most ancient past and long-forgotten experience If we sit and talk in a dark room. words suddenly acquire new meanings and different textures. even. China. India. They become richer. not just the sight of the action. than architecture which Le Corbusier rightly said can be best felt at night All those gestural qualities that the printed page strips from language come back in the dark. Given only the sound of a play. and on the radio. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and even Russia.Radio 126 For Africa. radio is a profound archaic force. we have to fill in all of the sense. radio has mystic qualities) Dr.
Radio 127 The impact of Radio/TV on political careers: It was no accident that Senator McCarthy lasted such a very short time when he switched to TV. It rejects hot figures and hot issues and people. Soon the press decided. he would have vanished quickly. “He isn’t news any more”. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . Dr. Had TV occurred on a large scale during Hitler’s reign. Neither McCarthy nor the press ever knew what had happened. as a clown and a lovable sort of old boy. TV is a cool medium. When Khrushchev appeared on American TV he was more acceptable than Nixon.
I suppose “phony” is something that resonates wrong. those who heard them on radio received an overwhelming idea of Nixon’s superiority.Radio 128 The impact of Radio/TV on political careers: In the Kennedy-Nixon debates (1960). that doesn’t ring true Dr. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . It was Nixon’s fate to provide a sharp. high-definition image and action for the cool TV that translated that sharp image into the impression of a phony.
to drama and poetry. The restrictive pressure by the press on radio and TV is still a hot issue in Britain and Canada With radio came great changes to press. the radio had to settle more and more for “entertainment” as a strategy of neutrality Dr.Radio 129 The Radio was invented by amateurs and just like the telegraph. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . created the disc jockey. There was reluctance and opposition from the world of press. Radio offered a new scope to practical jokers. For commercial interests. which was used for lotteries and games in general without any commercial interests existed in isolation from any commercial commitment. which. in England led to the formation of BBC and the firm shackling of radio by newspaper and advertising interests. to advertising.
and personal malice. Quite the contrary. where radio is the supreme form of communication. Dr. there are more than a dozen official languages and the same number of radio networks. Cornelia Hegele-Raih: Understanding Media . and creates insatiable village tastes for gossip.Radio 130 While radio contracts the world to village size. Scotland and Wales have undergone resurgence of their ancient tongues since the coming of radio. In India. The effect of radio as a reviver of archaism and ancient memories is not limited to Hitler’s Germany. it hasn’t the effect of homogenizing the village quarters. They now speak a language which has been dead in books for centuries. rumor. and the Israeli present an even more extreme instance of linguistic revival. Ireland.
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