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on Power Apparatus
N. Manohar, Senior
STEEL EARTHING GRIDS
R. I ndi,a P. Nagar
Tata Co ns ul, ti ng E 11191aar e , Bomb ay; n
Abstra,ct Basad UPO," mor,s than ten years expoerienoe of the design, of " steel a,arthing grids in India, the paper gives information required ~for the design of steel earthing systems and technical, economic and practical reasons for the use of steel in pr~ference to copper conductors. The information giuen in the paper includes the generalized formula for calculating the size of earthing conductors of steel, copper and o t ha r- mater-ials basic nc ns Lde e ations for determining corrosion allowance to be provided on the 'co'MuctoI' cross-section for its reliable performance and those details of electrochemical corrosion in soils, the knowledge of which is essential for assessing the cDrrosion of conductors in soil. The ~roblem of using steel and COppSI' grids in the Sarna araa is also briefly discussed.
of gteel earthing conductors and thB specifying maximum allowable t9mpera~r6 for oeterminilng cc r-r-os i o n allowance for steel
tors. Ele ctroclls'mic<;Il co r r o s Lo n thel'fY and various phy si.oo chemt c a l. pr-cpar-t Iss of soils so that earthing design engineers may assess th3 degree of ce rr-cs Ion 'in the adequate prate'ction for e.arthing co ndue new sites and at stations where existing may acce Lar at s the cu r r-na Lo n of nSIll steel grids. Economic and pr ac t.I cal consideratiDns cussed to justify the use of s'tesl in pre copper conductors. CHAR ACTrR I STIeS Of the three material dependent char t hiru; systems namely. conductor fusing and co r r o s i.o n , only the li:lst two c La l CO ns Lde r at Lon in the design of steel grids •. Resistanoe of stCliOl1 conductors. being b Ls as compared t.o ",arth ed r cui t ras Is t ance practical cases" is no t co rss i de r-ed as a factor t.ing the basis or ths procedure, for the steel 'earthing grids.
I NTROOUCTION The sEi,lection 0 f' material for various engineering app l Lcat i.one is governed by' both te chnical and ,economic considerations andl sy'stems are desigliled to provide the desired technical requlrements at optimum co s t , It seems that this consideration has not always_ formed the basis for the choice of material for earthing systems; otharwise.in many e aaa s, there may not be a,ny justi flcation for usi.l'lg coppar due to its scarcity. high cost and increasing incidences of pilferages. One of the reasons for this sitUation is that IEEE-8~ which is extensively used as a guide for the design of earthing sya t ems , doss ne e' provide aneuqh information about the det;ign of earthing aye,tem with materials other than Dopper.
of s ar
fusing characteristics,conductDr resistance and corrosion in soilsjsvailabi1ity and cost of conductor material ar s the main factors which ate co nsidered in India while choosing the material for earthing o o nduc-tal's. Based upon t he sa c onsideratio1ns,stsel has bean used as the material for earthing conductors in many power plants. substations and industr19~. A stage has: now Been r-eached where copper is used only in highly corresive soils. Corrosion of conductor material, which affects the reliability of earthing systems and is the main factor in favour of copper, is given due consideration in the design of steel earthing grids. Based on en analysis of various physicochemical properties of station soil~ a corrosion a l Louia nce iil t.he s,ize ofstesl conductors is provided ,to accDunt for the loss of material due l:G Gorrosion.
This p ape r gives the formula. for calculating
Tempe r a t.u r a vr Lae of e,erthing ecnducters joints is kept within acceptable limits to fusing of co nouc+o r , deter.ioration of joints manan t changes in the pr ope r-H e s of the l1Ia.te self. Formula for ca Ic ul a td nq the 9iz8 of thing conductors is given (1" in IEEE-BO. Sllt, tlhe formula nor the temperature rise limits used in the calculations for determining tM steel earthing conductors. rollowing form the basis for determining the earthing conductors, IEEE formula is based UPOIiI Onderdonk that heat loss is negli.gible during period of current flow in the conductor Maximwm allowable t,ellllpsratlUr9 rise fusion and deterioration of conductor depends upon the, variation in t hs pr the material with t9m~erature. Magni tude of temperature riee of a under given conditions depends upon the conductor and properties of earthing co materiel.
formula" the size
A pape r recommended and approved by the Commit.tee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE PES Winter Heeting, New York, NY. Peb ruary 4-9, 1979. Manuscript suibmitted August 31, 1978; made available
F 79 179-3 IEEE Substations
croSS-3ectiOl"lal fault current
area of conductor amperes
© 1979 I BE
7 (0 . Deterioration of mecha-' cal pr~partiss be9lQS at about 620 deg. Nos.t1"olyt.'. of years of exposures-copper 12 -Msx penetratioli fer total epo:posurll period Ste 81 co nduc t o ra Can be used in e a. The qene r a Li. s Lnee it iJ rr feasible to inspect or test the ex t ens Lve a ar t hd.o contact resistance is as s urned be twice that of the conductor !_tself.s in seconds during which cur r e rrt Plows ra~istivity ~f material in micra ohm-ems temperature co-efficient of materialp11' deq . CD o sion be CQme9 ad.5 (0.calculating the size of earthing conductors all materials is recommended for usa in place of lE[E formula bjhlch i.3 app l Lc ab Le only for copper • Metal Mde! Corrosion l':Iils· Copper \ 0.Rm Ie d 8 t tim. TABLE I Tm To Sizes help d8~sity of material in ~m/cm specific heat of material in cal!gm. to lim. Experimental resy1ts Of studies in h copper.or .study t ne fundamentals of corrosion processei in 90ils and find out the methods' to ensur~ reliable performance of earthing sy s tam:s.empel"ature of the conductor wi t h boll:e'd Lnt s is specified <IS ::110 deg C..!.tor becomes inadequate for the designed CU~ rElnt.it is e s sa nt. Therer s . . steal and aluminium conductors were ad together elt 'eix diff'eI"sllt substations in Inoia.ing path for the flow at' currant fli"om cathode 1:0 anode as shown in figure (1).t the tempara'tLJre at Joints t o 52[) deg C..ha of c ab La e etc by the rmation of bimetallio corrosion calls.La l to .-•. ~ CORROSION Elect:rochemical Corrosion 'N SOILS Th80r~ Bo til gene ra1 cor r09 io nand Luc a Ll aad pi t ti ng cocai o n may affect the per f'orrn anca and reliability of arthing systems \inen the cros8-sect.4 times that of co ppe r (S). ~teel SteEl.ol~OIlJ8d that the rate of corrosion of ungalvanized 1 was about 4. is attribute:! b a s i c a Ll y to thermodynarnLc Ln s tan i Li t.C maximum allowable temperature in deg.9d an elec.. r CorrosIon of metals in soils is primarily electrochemical In nature and ~e8ults from the operation of nUMerous galvanic corrosion cells. of Nos.f mechaniea.:. C CORROSION Of ~OPPER AND STEEL IN SOILS of copper earthing conductors calculated with of IEEE formula end ganeraliz:ed forlllUlJ. the co rr uaLon cell would cease to epa r at e .r.•18-10) 4.dag.-. In vie~ of technoeconomic: advantages of st aa I and the fact that cnppe r elsa corrodes Ln aod Ls cooteining' sulphur' and aJIlmoniun salts" . the rnperatuT8 r Lae due t. Tinning of PPer co nduc tors and insulation of s acr-LfLc La I ras t a I face with plastic tape have been used to minimize damage due t. ilI:inirnal( 3).o thi-s form of cor r-csIun (1).n . hereforEB.l ropertiss and corrosion of conductors during short etion of current flow at temperatures upto 9000 C be allowed for ~elded steel conductors. loss o. Thsrmodyna.As a large r of complex factors influence the rate of coon in soil. ci siva I' ae t.• The 9ubj~ct of underground corrosion end design of reliable eart hfnq systems in corrosive soils is not c c ns Lda r e d . stael 44 8.nq twod< to locate co r r os i n n damage or pr act. ly used in 1 ndi a ifor determ ini n~ the size of s te e.in lEEIE-80 publication.r ch Lriq systems if their reliable pe r f'orm anca over the years of operation can be ensured by pr-o ps r engineering and design . In the absence of any or thasa components. Each galvanic corTaslan cell co~prises (1) anode and cathode arees on metal sucf'ace(n) eoU electrolyte to e nab Ls occu~ance of cathodic and anodic processes and eurrant flow bettol8e n anode and cathode and 'iii) conduct. ". e more detailed ana ly s Is is necessary assessing the oegre9 of corrosion of co nduc tur a OJ given site as discussed in the next section of' One major limitation of using coaper earthi~g is that it CQrrOdes electronegative metals such steel pipes and lead she at.y armatal in a given e nv Lro nmerrt .C ambient tempersturrs in da q . As a t aa l is cnmp at Ib Ia with other unds r qr-ound metals. ratures is.i c ahz e re i nf'c r ce or replace the corrocB::I aa e t Lnns of ear-· conduetors. .l.ti~et9-r0P3t be recommended •.!. In case of Dolted JOints. mum t."R.C which is Dximataly 40 parcsnt or the malting temperature fsteal. Insung COating on sacrificial anodic metal would 1:'eit in mo:re severs damage to met61 in the evant of I puncture or breakage in the coating and should rig. But in of limited experiencej maximum allowable tempeure for ~elded joints in steel conductors is spei e d as r620 deg C. Ead:hing conductors being lII'ell supported 11th in soil ami above ground.1..z ed rmula end temparet'ura llmits givenabove are exten.e in due 1:0 var i e us factors given (6) in iahle-!!. C ' _ ::l nQt.. Elect Corrosion dat~ about copper end ste81 is ~iven in Table-I.ion gf the cor rdad coniH. thing conductors. Basic o~eration of gaLvanic corrosion cell Occurence of different potsntials on metal surimlT>et'/.S-30) soil exposuras-coppe~ 5 (5-50 ) 61 ( 20-120) 29. its u sa as tila material of earthing c onduc to 1" is p r e r e rab Le . Maximum alloilJable temper-stun! rise for steel earning conductors is apac i fIe d 60 that de t e r Lor a t do n iroachanieaJ properties and corrosion at el~uated """.JI1ic instability of a mats1 depends upon tile face .a given Equal:-ion (1) do not di rrer by mora than one p s r ce nt typical values of copper material properties. this formuls wllich ca n ba used witn eonfi(11:6 for.
Iation 01' metal.o n of metal ions in anodic J:!!giofl and \. In this series metals ~ith higher electropositive potential are considered more stable.C' amount of .)rls with die Differential conce nt r at Lc n of' ma t e l.Lon of Eco Eao R Ohmic upo n initial potential initial potsfitial ohmic r'esistance at at cathode anode depends ratio of specific resistance of the galvanic cell re~istivity of electrolyte.energy :natural is the lexpended in extracting it from its o r-e .hiB eli (anodic polarization) and shift of cathode in negati ve d.Unequal distribution corrosion products Micropores Unequal ions Areas under Metals in protective in pores are anodic internal stresses Fiegi. TABLE - II I ELECTROCHEMICAL POTENTIAL Metal 10 n Aluminium Zinc Iron Al+++ ++ Zn ++ Fe The rate of depends upon. . at anode processes and cathode.io rI( cathodic 'poLarLzatLon}. polarization increases with r e t ar dat a. difference due to the dtsul of i.a ntial difference is inFluenced by electrochemical potential of metal and factors responsible r'or the formation of anodic areas. As it is not fsasible to predict these values.n ON METAL SURFACE HETEROGENEITY Electraposi Uvs metals act as Non-uniformity . Higher the energy expended. electrochemical corrosion of ~etal and Tin Lead ++ Sn Pb++ H+ Cu ++ potential difference ibetwgenanode flyd1rogen iCoPPOIr "'Potential ohmic resistance.8 ca'r:ri80 rut to measure the metal to electrophate half call. Greater higher is the: magnitude of by Equation (2). corrosion eur r errt as gi\ls 1'1 the areas of the anodic and cathodic phases metric [. ce nt r at l."1H al anode potential in po st t.Differential electrolyte phase cdncentratloh of salts Areas in contact with tration of salts with anodic higher active DiffHL'ent. the higher thermodynamic instability and greater is the t.enca.nn in 1!'eactiolns between metal ions and electrolyte.. the s of Ohmic resistance c an be predicteCl on the the resistivity of soil and distance batola anode and the cathode.Discontinuity of films of friable fi~ms Areas not covered rust by film are are anodic .tl'ettl.at.nt r at Lon ara _. ror a given co rr-o i on cell.. 10 Eco R -hydrogen in salt ao Lut Ion of activity relative to electrode lyte pre-potential vaJ.ho da .endenoy of metal to migrate' into electrolyte in ionio fOrm.l of some of the metais commonly present in station soil.. Eso ' . in electrolyte of more metal ions ara Heteroge~eity . initial c.!.. Magnitud'8 of cc r r e s i on cur rent varies and initial current stabilizes to lower to prOcaSS9s at anode and cathode. Table-III gives electrochemical potent!.0 nf iguration and relative position and cathode. The red initial cu r re nt valuil is attdbuted to rad initial po t e nt Lal. field survey 1..: Magnitude of initial po t. Process of comhi nat. The thermodynamic instability of metals is expressed in terms of electrochemical potentials.u'9s using copper-copper sulby the potsntial differ.i I.ial t r at Lo n (pH) hydrogen ioncoflcen- Higher pH areas are cathodic Differential and oxidizing concentration salts of oxygen Areas at dic lower co nc e. to Jlll.212:8 TABLE ELECTROCHEMICAL Factor Metallic impurities of metallic films -.
IlS toa. As. strong oxidizing salts make the st€sl surface p as s Lva (9). ..d. Weak Dxidizing salts are a x t r amsLy corrosive but. ' eased by Simplified tquat~on 3). Soil and mac r o st r uc t ur e s of varying physical ehar act s r La t Lc a . oxidizing agants.2129 as oxygen and hydrogen with excess 81ecmetal at cathode and removal of reaction therefrom reduce the degree of cathodic laElzetion..ho ds .sment of the corrosion of earthing co".t if the r ac Lo of tlla an:ode and c:st.of th'8: natura 01' co rvtr-o L.to~ of s t a e L eo nduc tc r s . Lr r aspac t Lve .of me asur ed values at plant.c ~ A. Micro structure of soil ingradients t mo Ls t ur s co ntents. Copper is thsrmodynamically very stable and does not corrode in most of the environmerlts.' points are givon.ectrolyte phase' create's a ocd Lc and c at ho d l. 0 r the c a . cor r-os tv Lty of solI increases with moisture content upto a critical point due to red'uction in o nmLc r-a s Ls t anca and' bayond this point the corrosiuity decreases dUB to reduct. This may be dUB to the fact that oxy"l! ~n influences the static potenti21 of metals and ~ :t'!Jn t enos tLl become e .!: c o r r c a Lon Can be assessed. it has greater: tendency to cOllie GlUt.als have been made.aei cn voltage' .hnds areaS is large. Also 'fad.'~ '-~:'i: t I 5j...tl'1a typa of control and hs nca tre dam'lga due t.i t y of' t"ha el./_.ion in oxygen supply required For cathodic dapol ari z abion(6). When r e e 'ctio'ns a. poor shieldIng properties of corrosion pro-.rc uit pn tentia 1. i no i.f met.tyand the potential at a:node and cathode .. In general.t!-e process is slid to be under mixed control.o co'rro.se in the resistivity of soil. l:011(0)ing '-'. In oathodically controlled pc oc as s . affect the transport oxygen to metal surface.Izat ion by o xy qs n supply a. A p hys i c a L e xamd nat Lo n of soil .~ductst ease in Formation of difFerential galvanic couplBs~arB responsible for high rate of corto. IlO~OIVIH.~.or's such as low po Lar i z. Acid sa Lb s gene.rally increase the co r r o s i o n and alkaline s a l t e act as corrosion inhi~ hi ton'.(:<1 be JLineer instead of logarithmic as in most _ aSB. 26 51 50 1.lSS is cc nt r o Ll e d b'.s t. site !Irovide a r a a Li.ha do.-_-:.. Survey measurement o· chemical in ths plant of gf Elsctrcchemi~al Station Soil: A s ur vs y involves resistivity of soil 8~d determination composition of soil at various locatiQng ar a a .he da c r-e a. By as~uming tho relationship between OD . the COli" r-o sLo n prOC!.L arrac t ttle ohmic r s s Ls t ance I~d the cathodic and anodic procegs~s. liarious COln5titU8 nt s of the sc i.and ob s s r-va t Lons about.t. soiL Experimental data ab nu t the co~ro." --! ~:--.:-? form. t. r1281:"s.~ rrosivHy of soils in actual conditions. 1 ~uch TABLE - II I SOIL RESISTiVITY AND [ORROSIO~ RangB of soil raslstivitYloh~-metre Less than 25 S8va~ely !Class R + (K1/Ac) + (K2/Aa) Eco [ca Corrosive Corrosive .a Corrosive mildly 19 shift in potential of catnodJe of area Ac Above 100 Corrosive is eh.c at.~. '. sulphur compounds etc.a. of me.ityof rnydroge nand hs ncs tha co r r o s IvIbv o. ' J R88isti~ity of soil ~ The rssistivity of 8eil is 13 measure of almost all phYSicochemical p r o p ar-« tiss of the.vastjgators consider that corrosivity or~oil is directly r e La t a d to its air pC!.. w8:ll ae r at s d areas 'nill bscomethe Potantial of Metal I Ths 81~ct ro cham l c sL f!)oteni.\n causes of dama. .aits reduce the resistivity of soil and a Lsc may increass its heta'roganaity.In ease the anode po Iar i ze s fas'ter and r e.I.'" and reaches the opan c i r cu i t oo t s nt Lal ot'tl"le anode.ial or iron being elelOtronegativB'-~-: ~. The p r e aance of s.la~ ~. ~-.al in ionic _'. Hu.t the c at.ha damags dua to c'OrtOsiDn lI. the 'Gathada and anode pr e cae d with equal s!pa'sd. generally accepted range of soil co r r c s Iv Lt y as determined by electri cal resistivity of soils is given (3) in Table t r r ..ation (3) e nab Les t ha analysis of the magmitude of COrrosion cu r-r e rit and current density at t1ie aflode which arE< the ms... SOIlllS gsnsralizeciobs8:rvat. p a t no da no. .ab iLi. By a~alysing the various condltion9 which influence the processes lit the arode arrd cathode. Cathodic pr ocs sess lake p Laca due to depo lar.co:" "-::~.ilabil.a tiDn at the eat'hode Lnc r-e e s due to as .Q!'1. chlorides.::--.i o n unde-r '[JlfIs co nd Lt i o ns .F so Us in<ereases \tIi th acidity.llnic cocrns Ion ceil •.. or Moisture Contents I The rate of all' penetratIon and resistivity of soil dBcrease ~lth increase in moisture content.siQn of stselindicatestrattredegI'e'e of corrosion i.n mns t of the s c i La Lncr-a as e s with t. capability of soil to retain moiatur-eand depth of soil above metal.i~r i~ a haterogenou5 Assessment of Corrosion or Earthing Conductors An Bsses. rrant densJ. it can be said th.8y co-ralating the 8xperimantal dala ~ith electrochemical corrosion theory.. ~~ ~ ductors is pussible by thB application of elBctrochemical co rro s Lon theory .1 the rate of air pe ns t r at t on through a J j ac e nt secliOns of ground.: due to its reaction with hydrogen and oxygen depo.av<!. Acidity end Salt Contsni:s I In highly acidic i>o.ge due t.ions about the affece gf various physicochemical properties upon corrosion Q.. _. (1. In general.00 Moderately Mildly Vary D-l.a d Ba?l. for g'eneral guidailce..Lc aasa s sman t of the Droblalllls of corrosion. obled with aa r at..ift in po tent ial of anode of ar e a As Equ. Prop~rtia9 of 5011 mixture :!_ " of ~3ny micro and chemical in Table II ha te r cqe ne. transfer of oxygen is faster in loose and 911:'al1'1Y soils ae compared to dense and wetted soils. the magnitude of corrosion currant can be ex'''CB~. Air Penetration ProDerti~s of Soil: Some ir. These cbse r-v a t Lc na to~ gather with analysis.t y of coppe r is reduced in mediA containing ammonium salts.Lar L res fastel.JaWl~ id be small( i). But the s t. Moi s tu Ira at the ano ds B nhaness the process t ria r a.tion property and that poor aeration results in severe ~ ~SU9 Postulated i COrrosion (8). \-101119 lie 1:" r if there ar a diffarsnces 1.-p'.f reactions at the anode and La -termed as anodically con~rol18d. ~rrDsiv8 cathode and !Dody <e rated ar~as D<icome the anede of the galv.c regiolls on the metal surface. .ilst<je~lariz.acns e the 0 pe n c i.
r_thing of resistam:a may ba as tl9sist.o r s ars as fo Potential dHfer.4 and l[l. This care is t akan to avo Ld ths b. around. Often the entire station area surface is dressed IJ'P and compacted up t o the d'9pth of cc nduc tur e. Serious damage dUB to cOrrOsion is expected if t here is a small area 0 f vsry low r e sis ti IIi ty Sllrr o unda d by high .n.Iions. in v.AnernativeTy'.n1' Froln0. is.. Extensille co r ros Ion may taki place if anode ares is small and ea~hode is large. 'cutin' duc t o r s of the gI"id sLlFfer !3eIJere corrosion.1Ilpr coppaI' conductors in the new syste. pi'pes. the.e of vSlCiatiDn of soill'llsistivlty is withi~ the carrosivity class of soil as givan in Table III.213.i~·Cl. zinc sa.iu na of the grid. Sa c t Lf Lc. Thus.i tions it.s Lon pl'olducts.he ~IoIQ of Cur ria nt DensHy : I n caw thl entire eart. t the.ntially higher copper aarthing system.i das the ga sion cells w'itnin the gdd Lt se.nln"t'liIiij !have indicated that most of t ha currant.lit is direct metallic conr.ln porous soils with negligible moisture.to r a increasing from centre unpublished e xps r Lment s carried [Jut in an lyte tank in India to determine tAe di.Lo n p ro ca s s becomes gradual due to shielding of the anod~surfac@ by insoluble co rz-o.lew of the faot t~.. is extremely difficult 'to assess OJhatFer the process at anode or Cathode would 901181rn the rabe of corrosion in a given soli. Pra. steel earthing grid also be provided to reduQe the co r-rna..ctical Consicleration.~esistanc8 offersd from by r-n a Le n current earth ::Iteal to copper grid. Analysis of the surveyed results givBs in~ formation about ths formation of galvanic corrosion o811:~. di by outer r e q. upon po Lar-Lz.In highly acielic soils a parallel cathoda depolarization process takes place in which hydrogen ions are formed and gaseous hydrogen produced.er and system as a whole'. . ha tuee n coppar metsl is approximately 0.!d in the same area" ba s. ~ Micro e oe r o ed cn rmlls w'hich causs: uniform ccr r o s Lu n of oonductor are formed dUB to heterogeneities in the metal surface and its composition. Exper'ill!Elntal and tical work in this area is presently ~eing 1 ndd a . In a p Lant hSI11rng IJnirorm~ very mildly corrosive soil.lbab. Difference in soil resistivity and differential aeration ara major fa~tors responsible for the formation of auo h cells. Various factors IiIh corrosion of steel cn nduc t. Corrosion current flaws rl"OIt) stasi earthing grid in soil and c. the degree of cor r-ns Lon r:1LJa to micr-o celIe is generally the same as predicted on tha basis of physicochemical properties of sails. because orehe sl. Ohmic resistance of such cells operating in high reSistivity soil becomes large enough to limit the msgnityde of corros1on CUrrent.o last for !leveral years is calc!J1 assuming its corrosion rat-. anodic pro ce s s on st~el structures buried in moist nautral soils proceeds ~ithQut marked hindrance and 10089 insoluble corrosion products with poor protectivep r cpe rti e s 'are: farmed. to nearby. is done and its Fg~mation of Galvanic Corrosion Cells. two grids.I'~ account for the loss of material due ~1l blat corrosion cell sctivi ties. resistance of direct/indirept tion behleen two grid.re is considerable arro d Lc polarization due either to insufficient moisture for hydlration or to onset of the anodic passiliity. t"'" When copper and steel eart~lng taUl.e. In gener.n ths basis of disQusl.--. the r-a. or Macro co~rosion cells are mainly formed by the variation in soil co nd i tLo na along the sur-faclliI of metal. dama~8 dlle to oor r o s Lo n may not be considerable.E.g-t tAe rated fault current never flows in e ac h element or' the conductor.ia I ms:tal between ecpaae and grids and possibly.esistiIJ!ty ar-a aa .sncB : Open circuit mical potential difFerence.irnet a Ll Lc corrosion cells bet!!iei.al. As mo i st ure cont e nt is reduced.ection tetiJIeen the tlllO dire c t oonneotion via _cables.str currel'lts\!:Inan the tW9 grids are connected t. But current distribution t hi ng gri d eo nd~.l cu Lat e o a asLl y. it :ie norm. Also.s I Ex t r arna variations physicochemical properties of sails in plant area are generally rare. copper material.n existing the relatively' more eleotrorsgativEl metal or iClg· grid resulting in the corl"osia. This results in homogeneity around the earthing conductors and reduces ths probability of corrosion due to macro-aDrrosiDn cells which are considered the prime cause of corrosion. the magnitud~ of corrosion current may not be large in the absenca of other o~~rridin9 f~ctors. .Orid. Thasa des should be connected tOI bot'h copper and earthing gridis.r-ode .6116t'. soms damage to conductore at some places would not affect the performance in . .0 for ~ssessing the air penstration prop2rty oapability of retsining moisture for long periods. Approximats value the sum of ea. Sacrificial metal Illay be scr ap deel ted to copper earthing cunduct o e . of the aarthing C£E.6 Circuit resistance: The ohmic corrosion call circuit includes . there h .marksd in Imlia for tns us s of a stBelearthing therefore become quite important to cess of corrosion when copper and grids are installed in the remedial measures necessary. bima s i. CsthodiQ and anodic controls I Due to 8xt~em81y large variation in soil t.1-11'11008.at i o n at s t aa I anode and! coppeft the effective potential may lI. Qual1U'ty ot steel t.All'aili:lbility of oxygen and moisture at cathode results i~ reduction of oxygen and formation of hydroxyl ionsat the cathode. In case the rang.o n ce 11s are formed between copper snd Steel grid acts as an anodle and coppel' grid c at hcde.orificial can be installed in place of scrap steel. is assumed to participate in the corrasion average current density at anodic conduc~r8 c. Physicochemical propeitles of soils are iUnifQ~m at anode and cathode and ohmic resistance in such calls is gen~rally negligible .2 volts with an average between 0. cathodic and anodic p r ocaaae s and tlo!'rolsillity of soil.act.Lf .iun uf grid. etc. HOWElvar.s. Grids in the same Steel Area systetll In case of alii 8xlstln!j tlsrthin9 using grid may be iI'1CltIUlg.anci1l::lt. o ut e r Prsventive Measurss : -co nduc to r-a n f the .Earthing conduotor trenches ~re backfilled with finely graded soil of uniform resistivity.77 hydrogen referenc'e e l ec t.
:':nOUliil. s t e a l c'llumns a tc which are generally ccnne c Le o with ea r t h i.'Bqllir8ment. rsinfore:8i11SnC steel.g the co r ru s i o n a..any 1118111 me t.ca Ls If'st . and inferences drawn about the formation of micro and macro corrosion cells and anodic and cathodic processes by analysing various physicochemical cha~5cLeristics of soil. No c a sa of dama!JIl' 'of earthing conductors has come to' the C)Ut. How9 VI3 l' .nd co J.cnductOrs. The present '.hlng Reduction unifor~ dared • In and trl9 pitting c r o s s-ceec e Lc n due to both type corrosIon is consi- Met~lllC • Cathodic _ CorrDsion ArBa in Conductor Cross-section Based upon the data about soil cDrfosivity for different values of electrical resistivity given in Tabla-I. for the r e duc t io n in conductor diameter dua to corrosion. impressad current and s ac r Lf'Lc.H'9 as f'o Ll nus i i 1 · Scarce availability and high COBt of copper in India has resulted in a hign rata or pilferage of stiolvIO-gro.u:'~~·.b19 .n Conductor Cross-'Sectiorl Area i_Reliable p e r f'o r manca of steel earthing systems ~. To ac co u nt. EfFects u f cathodic protectLon .a r-Lou s c.~ .k• roes: a.r. r s .sB in conductor cr-o s s-cs e c ti o n on the basis of 1 ucifoli'n> cc r r o s i o n rate. ".. India.H" from fusion consideration ~lus t~icB the of th8 .Jly~s is 13().ian !UloUlanc9 i. a Ll ouance for cn r r ns Lo.rl:. has published qu Lds Li ns s fQ:[' caltlJ1~ti. This situation is viewed quita seriously by power autharities in India but efforts for redu· c 1ng the pil Fe rage 0 f conpat 9 ac thi ng c o ndu eta rs havs besn generally f'r u Lt Ia s s .tems.~a. It Ls c o na.rend is thereforB. Above ground co nductors ate a very vital link between equipment a ar t h Lnq terminal and main earthing grid buried in SQil.a Lki c sar u i.ng s1l. grids at SO. coatings p~otection ~llowancB of the data about alecphysicochemical prop~rto ~design steel e.a a Ll aua nca in conductor cross-section to account for the 109s in crass-section due to cor r o s Lo n .n11ij power plants and swi t cfry ar d s in India.00 . it is very d i. conduits.l ac ce Le r at. crO~3-5leCt'iDn <~Ba3o that Lt s fwnng c har ac t e r Ls. Thsl'efc. cost/kg af capper and steel conductors: Ls assumed as Rs.35.Lpe Lt ns s . formation 0 f c r c he ct Lve coati ngsj e bc .a cOating thic.a s as the affEH:till'eness of coating l'sducEI:e. Rate o f corrosion for "I 12 yea.all protection PfsOJenting p r o t e c.f'f Lcu Lt to detect such losses in ex t e ns Lve eart!. not o~ly to prafer steel conductors in ne~ systems but a.te eor r o s Lcn of st se I 1s classified as (i) high (ii) moderate (iii) low a~d ( Lv ) very low. Also. It is observed decreases with Cathodic Protaction I I Experience of planning and design of impressed current cathodic protection system fEll' steel earthing. impressed current ~ystem may Laad to s. The protectiof'l provided by thl! zi nc coating dapends upon .. HOW8Vel:". .' 'CUJ sivity of the so il but: enough data is ~ nat available tal cu=r a Lat. in ~"duc~or ~r05S-$ectlon due to locallZ8d p~tt~ng ~rrosion and hence haus recommended a percentage f increa.Lve effect of PVC etc.a ms in Sty low resistivity soils. in order to provide additional ~Illiability the rate of co r r ce ion and depth olf pit in this.i der a d reasonable to assume that during next 12 years average r a t s of corrosion ~uld be 50% of this r at e and negligible thereafter (3).1 proin preference to cathodic lead arro COppSI' co a~ng which tend to accelerate the corrosion of steel . Cs n t r a L Board of Irrigation and ?OIlJ8r. Since the sa CDfl-' duetors are gsnBrally pilferred feom le83 frequant8d Locat Lo ra. In very law corrosion I'ate situation...<l. ~ ~liC aQils~ it i9 p~ssibla ralL~ble perrormance.i al. Relative co at s of cooper and st. Ih Is is riLE! to tJ-a pr9se:nra of a numbs r of cables.~ :::'399 of short e'lect'tod~l$. case are I'I.samed at:n% of low rate of corrosion • that rate of corrosion in soils time due to anodic and cathodic pol ariz at-io n. nd Rs.oith period of protection under different soil co ndf t Lo rsa.-I.-.F f Lcu Lt.e c t i nn of gtee 1 a ar t h i nq grids are. Conduct!lr' di ama t a r ned PQr tha <In:.tlle' over: years of o~6'rQt. has indicated that it is quits d i.eel c:o rrd'lctors suitabls for carrying various fault currant magnitudes ror o na se co nd duea t Ie n without exc:eeding maximum allowable temperature OVBr the period of operation a r a giv. In !n"de'r to Ilatisf'y t n. a s not Fo:thl:Hl8 reasons.t. 11l~se ui da l t ns s do not account for the ~E3d'Uct~on .aeI conduc t o r s.io!l. But. £3iros. 18 ach case of undet. 111 line with! prevailing market prices in India..r p er-Lo d of s xou aur e is given in T. or Coati ng tI Ano. cathodic system is ge na r'ally not c9commendEld for co r r os i o n of axt.i t s t h Lc. obtairequired depth of . This may bEl' j. basic c o ns i der ac i srrs . a~d8 protection may sometimes be provided for proteding r-a I at LveIv small and isolated sy s t. sverage and minimum rates of carrosion and depth of pit given In Table-I arB assumed to corr~spond with high.e na i vs steEll Elarthl.n is Pr(Jvided !<IMile selectir'h] the ar a a of the' unds r qr o und ~'t'thing conductors.n be insured b~ selec~ing a conduc:or.ablt. ~ethodB auaifor t~e pr-o t.the n.:. allowance is generally not required.1 to the oi<lrrtst. Maximum depth pit is taka n as 1 SO mils.ected loss of t ha sa conductors cannot b6 considered less serious than a cass of puncture In underground canductor ~ue to corrosion. p.ing I1etwork. Most of the Electricity Boatd9 and power utilities in India provide ada q uat.t Lc IS accap+ f.• ee rs whare copper e conductors have been pilfered. PRACTICAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS vary tiled cables. to provide an economic and reliable system for efl'ectillEl p rc> tac t. Maximum._ ~ 2i31 OE5r.j !.und COPP'S" co nduc to rs .Ll owance far steal earthing ~~stsms \Ohere ear-thing lI1at is not required (3).. ~g soan as thE! co at i nq is nunc t ur e c .Io n of s t. He nee gal>lanizill!l La riot recmllrl\e~d8d as a basic means of protection of steel Barth.OO 1'8'5P8'0::: tively.. ~ ~~ElS 0: ical resistivity and other LO prov~de I.Ll a d . maximum corrO'sion rate of 30 mg/ dm2/day for first 12 years and 15 mg/dm2/day during next 12 years is con3ide~9d.or co s i o n of other rlIOltals ilnhss p r ope r cats is taken at the time of inst311at io n of system end s:Jossquently wher: .t:07'3t nu t Lea in the st~el earthing systems plan~ed and designed by the organizatlD~ to which they belong. Ii Ls also obs6rved that the r e t e of cMroSion of stlle.nq grid.en in Table-III.ji Ba58d tOR on RELIABLE ths an~lysis STEEL EART""!'lG SYSTEr~ I I ~ldS liable.l s J.Lsn to use steel condt .knass u. ~ ..Jic zinc coating an steel conductors 1..ing ~idBd c.. mOd9rat~ and low r~tes respectively. fOJ: extensive 9<1rll~ing s y st e rn.
Power 1955. Ii N Manahol' (51'1 CONCLU5ION5 Characteristics and performance of properly des i qna d ste'al earthing systems are equivalent to COPPSI. H. N" 0 . 1'965 I Mr ManohaI' is currently chairman IEEE India Ccu nc Ll . Therefore. selection of material and planning of protective measures to en-!!I\I'l<":a~ a reliable pa r f o r manoa of e a r t h Lnq system.255 (4) 7.40 approximately. B.safnn and s up'e r thermal power stations. However. ' No. I. The reliability of underground steel earthing conductors can be a nsur-ad by pr e v i d i nq a de quat.496 tection Company. a anc With max. [.94 0. "Conductor 96 Stations". 'ITheory Book 1967 It may be no tOld frOOl the data g!\.'Il from 80mbay in 15152. G9ner~lizsd formula given in the paper can be used 1"01' calculating the size Df earthing conductors of steel. ritio between the cost of galvanized steel and COppSI' conductors is D. HU50ck... ore rial CollegB. M. The cost Df ~rotBctive metallic and b Lt uma t Lc COatings is assume d approximately 50 percent of steel conductor cost. Uhlig.. and Grol.!strial pro jects including p design of India's first 400 KV t r-anae.36 4.13 . designed for giving fusing characteristics and reliability of performance e qu Lva. It. "The Effect Systems on Corrosion and AlEE Transactions. tel' of . He feCie degree in.lBoard of Irrigation July 1976 1-1.54. India. anticorrosive paints are applied.e corrosion allowance ir1 cro'ss-s8ctional ar ea of the conductors. COST OF COPPER FOR VARIOUS R(F'ERENlC[S (1) (2) Gui..Ien in Tab La Iii that cost of underground steel earthing conductOrs. is pre farable to usa steel eart h i ng g rids due to scarce availability" incI'easing pllferagB and higher cost n f ccpperco nduc to r e arid t. S. President of the of Power (ngi neers. (9) R.s . 1A-.' and othsr materials.10 5. (7) of Metals~ New York. around the conductor TABLE RELATIVE . March H.537 ~Aeview om Corrosion in RSllie1<l No."The Pr eve nt inn Book PUblished by Business Books 1971 .i) 0. H. oorrosion allowance and fault currant 10 20 30 40 kA kA I<A kA '2. Vol. corrosion allowancB is not providad for these conductors. "Corrosion By John Wlley and Sons Hand (8) 8ook".l e nt to copper co n= ductol'S is far lower t han that.IV AND STEEL CONDITIONS CONDUCTORS corrosion of other underground steel lead sheaths of' cables in the PI'S d~~thing oonductors. New Inc.o prevent the galvanic born in Poona. lE£E No. Technical R:s'p0t't by G9'ntra.C (n99 London Unillerai 0' tric Co. January ( 6) 0. 1nd ia and Fe 110.. I 1932. Diamant.' earthing systems.i. Venugopalan. he is with Ta t a Consulting Enginurs whers ha is at present Chief Electril!el E has be~r1 directly associated with a power and indl. Ulhig.ghly co r r oa i va areas. In hi.. Knowledge the processes of corrOsion in soil is essential for assessing the degree of co r r e e t cn.797 ( . (10) Sunder Rajan and 5. Published Irrigation a nc PO~8r...4 1977. Thap ar .!nding Systemsil.SO in Alternating Description Steel/copper Area Ratio COst B.2132 pit (assuming uniForm pitting to simulate the worst case).. 1963 "Car-region and by John Wiley Without corrosion allo . Book Published York. He has published a of papers in Indial'1 and foreign Journals. pp 1B5-190 "Steel Grounding Systems where mot Nesded"'. el me c hani':. Str sight jo inis in copper ear t hi I'1g grids ar e also 1'B98 due to longer 'l'ength of the callduotor rolls~ But these factars do not make any appreciable difference bet~8an co~per and steel earthing system cost and performance. It is comparatively easy to install copper earthing gri~s due to small crces-sectional area of copper GO nducbor a . (11. Abolle -groulld earthing co nductors aI'S galvanized for protection against atmosp~eric Dorrosian. of the tion of Errqi ne e r. IEEE TI' Industry Application.1.de for Safety station Grounding. of r:o!pper conductors.9 (3) 0. COppSI. pp 306.• Tanaencv .612 0. Il'1dia.94 6.
gI0 2H T • (4) Anmf I x 34_823743 x 10 _ x if (I) is used... Rm = 1. P468. or withthe present IEEE-SO formula do not differ by more than I percent. ohms material temperature in tOmp.00104 Rm x T'c dxs VS. 3. in amperes. Chandigarh (rOill October 1971 to January 1973. these values are also used in the foJ~\\.258) x 33 = 31. + +1)1 = Ami! indicating approximately a 4 percent difference between the two terms.11 additional assumption is made for 'm: It is anticipated that Rm = Rm (O"C). The IEEE Standard '0_ 80· \ 916 calculates the short-rime arnpacity of a ground conductor with its joints by means of Onderdonk's equation which aS~1. .258. 4t - . .ari$OIl with Onderdonk's Formula where.T . to match Equation (i). C.613/847.. of 100 per- Industrial India to Recarry 0. P.0 IO.3. He received I:hs 8Sc [n99 end MSc Engg degrees in electrical engineering in 1967 arid 69 respectively from Pu njab Univer'sity..'::-:__T-'-_.. I :: A em defined for (4).Vi ~(~- C'15 -. N~oar WB9 born at Kanpur . c x Tm \ l+T 1 c x T0 ~ ma 234 +T a· 1 1 og /234 ·1 m I 10 \_'""17"+-.l-=-~g-=-:J. Next.I~be rearranged into p(T:1) Expres. 589 0. Inc. the temperature coefficient cent lACS conductivity.:. Cathodic ProIKWon and Lightning Protection System9.-. He waS Research and search.-I""2'""3-. (11. awarded 5enior Fellowship by of Scienti- and at COC. is material resistivity Acm is cross-sectional area of conductor.847. resistivity I. Mr l a q a r has lind associated published 1 oglO 1 1 r L. New York. I I. other typical Discussion J. in addi lion to the symbols. if (4a) is applied . a comparison is made beBreen (I) and a similar-general formula for determining the short-time rurrent carrying capacity grounding conductors. yields 810. have i>lenwritten for a fixed value of Ta = 40"C and the formula has further b<!ertinked co the assumption l of a copper wire with the resistivity of 1. Alternatively. Ta.4-J ~ I l+T a (5) T T_ Inir1g several s ub je c t s . Furthermore.1/234. loglO ~l+T advanced research work on e ar thLnq s y at ems From 1965 to 71 and idOlS ~Gt~r9r at Punjab Engineering College. is. which has been proposed in the presently balloted IEEE Document No.:. for the left x 1. usually at ::!O°C. papers. G. JJ S is current. from 33 (810. Sverak (Gibbs & Hill. under the square of 847... in degree.89 x Using. proposed In (l). time. is for a copper material .~ :~' G~~:_:. 16 Formula The generalized formula for sizing grounding in IEEE Document P468.ing calculations. used fo:r ~culating [he size of grounding conductors made of steel. Ix 35. The paper.ing in mm::. 1. or a particular interest is Equation (1). or of any ether material of known physical properties. is.098 x234 810. Bombay as a spe:l~list e n9ine~r for Safety EarthinlCj..589 rnicro-ohrmcmat O°C. is: conductors. he '5 with Tata Consulting Engineers. Substitution of Ta = 40°C and Tm = 1G83°C.is thermal capacirivity factor joule/cm3/l C. L. r . with /EEE-P468.. already the above formula e:l.. d = 8. and _1J. the following symbols of (1) and (4<1)lire identical.:'' ' '. Chadi q a rh . India i. out the fic Council With respect to the notation used in this papa.89 g/cm3 arid s side term one gets 0. I Ws) Q at the ambient temperature cm2 of the conductor at reference . ?o. I is applied.258 x 10-8..16..2307J4 x 10-4 x ~r7 t . this difference can be viewed as necessitating a reduction of the numerical constant in the denominator of (4). or-can be interchanged..copper cross-section. 'Values for copper.00104 8. India.1meS all heat is stored in copper. lei it be stated that formally. NY).61} YS.2133 R. 11'0 is arnbien t temperature.57. this verifies Authors' statement with respect Onderdonk's formula.00423 Conseq uently . Since the resulting right side expressions differ more than by 1.589 micro-ohm-em and substituting = 0. Since the Authors have llso indicated that for copper the results obtained either with (I). on ear- and only the terms below need to be compared.613 constants x 10-8• Thus. in degrees allowable A~ C... as applied Comparison. produces .098 ~al/g!I °C. This paper includes a lot of valuable information on the numerous aspects of using steel in uounding applications.l6. 0. unfortunately. in circular mils. At p r s s e nt.' 234 I D-"1 x 33 x S (4u') m +T a il +1 J . to Since all earlier versions of Onderdonk's formula I [.:s not indicate what is the reference temperature for Rm.21 %. : s t.. ~~ discussion first concerns this point.n 1944. in seconds is maximum during which current temperature. . the comparison of corresponding root of (l) and (4a). TCAP CI =0: (Tief) is thermal coe Ificientof Tref. (r_-T.
the difference is about 1. P. IEEE-P'468.1.00104 yielding Por copper Rm=1. R. this value was taken as 0. x lOglt Ko + 'Fa + 1) x Ko x In(10) terms shown below xt .1 mlllI1ct~d'lt:'. G.16 formula. 1979.Tc d.Hm. servations are as follows: i) We agree that values of the term (FM)2 calculated (1) and Onderdonk's equation differ by about 4 percent micro ohm-ern. (O.ft . 6. 1 Tm. the that the direct formula given by Equation (l) in the preferred to the two step IEEE-P468. Practices in Grounding". pp. Tc. !REF'RENCES I AIEE Committee Report.0010373 will produce practically identical results. For s=0. N .09'8 cal/gm/loC analysis. 27[- 277. General Electric Review No. "Short-time Current Carrying Capacity of Copper Wire".092 cal/gm/l"C and used by Mr. PUblication D-9. this difference wiU be about 0.00104. New York. the . 1979. prepared by W.. vs. comparable (8) (9) with FM = (847.: P (Tref) to obtain for Tref'= O°C p x (1+ 'fref)) 6.. 326-327. [12~ E. AlEE Trans" VoL 73. d=8.~010373 d •s Rm.Amm ~= l/(Ko + Tref) (7) a(Ta - The factor 'FM' is a function of the physical d and s of the material and the factor 'FT' depends on perature and the maximum permissible temperature as P CTa) . difference between values of the term FM.16. factor 'FT' is the same in both equations.092 This is the generally accepted value. Sverak shows that Simplified IEEE-P468. Sverak. J. Since the relative difference is about \4%. In our calculations. pp. Edison Electric Institute. With reference to the analysis presented by Mr. April 1954..258X10-8)~ CTa) ::: Rm «(Ka + 'Fa)/Ko) x 10- l ( O.s ~ I ~ ) ~~ in all cases (6) can be transformed (1 ): Amm => into the following equation.2134 Recognizing that TCAP' = 4. Manuscript received Match 20. d and s are applied Equation (I) for calculating the size of earthing "0. Sverak has used r-O.. Part III·A. 31.K. Tc=0. only tile constant need to be considered: -2 0.Te) 100 ACIIi ::: (6a) :) I 10 4 x Rm x 10 -6 is and FT 4.16 formula from the of practical application.16 formula is identical to E'quation these formulae will produce practically identical results.. V. "OdS Insulated Substations Grounding (Guide)".1868 d x s Log (X) = In (X)/ ill (10) Amm = IOOAcm and using All formulae generalized as: fOF calculating the size of earthing = Hl. FT. .FT calculated by and Onderdonk's equation will not vary with ambient permissible temperatures . N.  IEEEjPES Document If'468.1868 x d x ~-Th. the formuli (I}I and (Sa). October 1936. Tc=0. iii) The analysis presented by Mr. Transmission Substation Subcommittee.16 formula is used in the present form. Mr.00427 pc&: d=8. the authors concluded that sizes ing conductors calculated with the help of Onderdonk's the generalized formula given by Equation (l) do not than one percent. Stauffacher. Manohar and R . 4. Sverak for showing interest in the paper by giving a useful analysis comparing Equation (l) with Onderdonk's equation given in IEEE-80 and the IEEE~P468. Manuscript received March 20.Ta (1 +r8+234) ill order to relate (1) and (6a).91 upon this observation. 3-rd Draft of 1978. Vol.89 gm/cm2. I.G.  "Principles and. 70. However.00427 per deg C.Y.Rm. ii) Since. and is given by the COppel: ment Association of U. Nagar: The authors express their thanks to Mr. June 1928.092 cal/gm/! 0e.83 value of specific heat is taken as 0.00104 0.589 micro ohm-em.89 cal/gm/l 0 C. "Applications' Guide on Methods of Substation Grounding". the will have to calculate the values of TeAP and p(Ta) for the then use these calculated values of TeAP and p(fa) in the With both formulae giving practically identical results. physical constants of material ..1~~8 x In (ioj 0. vs.