HERBAL MANUAL

The Medicinal, Toilet, Culinary and other Uses of 130 of the most Commonly Used Herbs

By HAROLD WARD

L. N. Fowler & Co. Ltd. 15 New Bridge Street London, E.C.4
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FOREWORD PRACTISING medical herbalists have long recognized the need, evidenced in an increasing public demand, for a popular-priced manual containing an exposition of their attitude towards problems of health and disease, together with a comprehensive and descriptive cyclopaedia of the remedies they use, with such other information as is likely to be of use or interest to both general reader and more serious student. This purpose the present author has thought to achieve by a preliminary survey of the historical background of medical herbalism, followed by an explanation and discussion of the philosophy upon which the herbal practitioner of to-day bases his work. The greater part of the book is devoted to the cyclopaedic dictionary of medicinal and other herbs, with their natural order, botanical and common names and synonyms, their habitats, distinctive features, the parts employed and the therapeutic properties, with uses and dosage. The better-known herbs, and those which are more commonly seen in prescriptions, as well as those which, for any other reason, may be of unusual interest, have been dealt with, it will be noticed, in greater detail than the less frequently used and discussed plants. Quotations from the writings of herbalists, from Culpeper to the twentieth century, are freely inserted where these were thought to be especially apposite. It will be observed that to most of the herbs are ascribed double or multiple medicinal actions. Which particular virtue comes to the fore in actual application depends largely on the other agents with which it is combined. Thus, the alterative properties of a herb may be more pronounced in one combination, while in a different prescription its value as a diuretic might become more operative. In the effective allocation of his various medicinal agents to meet precise individual requirements lies an important department of the work of the skilled prescribing herbalist. The index of therapeutic action will be found helpful in locating suitable herbs in specific forms of ill-health, while the volume would not be complete without the information concerning the gathering of herbs, the glossary of botanical terms used and the very full index of the herbs
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themselves, under their common and botanical names and synonyms, with which the book ends. While it is considered that the work will not be without value to both practitioner and student, it is the general public to whom it is primarily addressed. An increasing number of people are turning to herbal healing, many of them for reasons which will be apparent in the following pages. HAROLD WARD. Scotts Hall, Westleton, Saxmundham Suffolk. August, 1936.

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apparently with some success. ." It seems that in the early years of the sixteenth century there was considerable discontent concerning both the methods of practice of the official school of medicine and the fees charged by its practitioners for the conferring of dubious benefits. "it is now well-known that the Surgeons admitted will do no Cure to any Person but where they shall know to be rewarded with a greater Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .com . Since then. Roots and Waters. a different method of healing to their own.Page 4 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and is popularly known as "The Herbalists' Charter. The enactment headed "Annis Tricesimo Quarto et Tricesimo Quinto. have sued." Further. and the using and ministering of them to such as been pained with customable Diseases. VIII" is still part of the Statute Law of England.. the new Act tells us. and nothing the Profit or Ease of the Diseased or Patient. probably the first official reference to herbalism as a definite art and the practice of a distinct group of persons. as it is extremely unlikely that a Tudor monarch and his advisers would have deigned to notice officially a matter that oppressed only the poorer population. approved and admitted" by the Bishop of London and others. whom God hath endued with the knowledge of the Nature. "the Company and Fellowship of Surgeons of London. troubled and vexed divers honest Persons. and have affected even the high and mighty of the land.swsbm. Further. The abuses must have reached rather serious dimensions. The text of the Act first draws attention to the fact that in the third year of the same king's reign it was enacted that no person within the City of London or within a seven-miles radius should practise as a physician and surgeon without first being "examined.PART I I—HISTORY OF HERBALISM ALTHOUGH the use of plants in the alleviation and cure of bodily ills goes as far back as the history of the human race itself. Kind and Operation of certain Herbs.. is contained in no less important a document than an Act of Parliament of the reign of King Henry VIII. Henrici VIII Regis. minding only their own Lucres. Cap. the Act referred to makes it fairly clear that the doctors of the period did not boggle at legal and other persecution of those who disagreed with their theories and who used. as well Men as Women.

Trouble. . or Loss of their Goods. or Statutes to the contrary heretofore made in anywise. M. Ordinance. Although his system is regarded by the health philosopher of our day as "Culpeperism" rather than medical herbalism as we know it... "or drinks for the Stone. having Knowledge and Experience of the Nature of Herbs. "for although the most Part of the Persons of the said Craft of Surgeons have small cunning yet they will take great Sums of Money. or within any other the King's Dominions. Roots and Waters. and do little therefor. the foresaid Statute in the foresaid Third Year of the King's most gracious Reign. Strangury or Agues.com .Sum or Reward than the Cure extendeth unto . was by no means the untutored hind he is alleged to be by uninformed or biased critics.Page 5 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. . the unofficial healer of to-day has not yet obtained his Charter from the Tudor king's successors. although it may be argued that this would be unnecessary if proper recognition of King Henry's Act. any Herb or Herbs. for in case they would minister their cunning unto sore people unrewarded. or of the Operation of the same. to practice. The first name to be associated with herbal practice and to be attached to writings on the subject is that of Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654). notwithstanding.A. by Speculation or Practice. Uncome Wound. use and minister in and to any outward Sore.swsbm. Apostemations ." The happenings and subsequent outcry which must have preceded the introduction of this Bill have tempted modern herbal enthusiasts to apply the tag about history repeating itself to conditions hedging the treatment of disease in our own times! However this may be. Rector of Oakley. could be enforced." etc. That at all Time from henceforth it shall be lawful to every Person being the King's subject." To this accusation of venality is added the charge of professional incompetence. Surrey. Vexation." With a view to remedying this somewhat scandalous state of affairs it is then decreed "by Authority of this present Parliament. the "father" of medical herbalism. Thomas Culpeper. Penalty. still part of the present law of the land. the independently-minded Nicholas Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . there should not so many rot and perish to Death for Lack or Help of Surgery as daily do. or any other Act. and by Reason thereof they do sometimes impair and hurt their Patients rather than do them good. without Suit. This son of the Rev. within any part of the Realm of England.

by his writings and untiring practical work became the prime mover in the formation of botanic societies and ultimately of Staterecognized medical colleges at which Physio-Medicalism (the name by Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . some such. or whether Gordon's strange fervour for Culpeper caused the doctor to foist such a "quack" upon his alma mater has never been satisfactorily settled.Page 6 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com . conferred a posthumous degree upon Culpeper. although the art was widely practised during this period by many humble exponents. a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.swsbm. The story is transferred to what is now the United States of America. A preface addressed by Nicholas Culpeper to students of physic appears in the original edition of the Herbal. Thomson (1769-1843). It is slyly hinted in some quarters that Edinburgh University. for a descendant of these men bore the most honoured name in the practice of herbal healing— that of Samuel Thomson. in which he claimed a medical degree for its distinguished author ! That a fellow of Britain's foremost medical college should bestow such a dignity upon such a staunch medical libertarian is remarkable and even amusing. ready of my poor power to help. and do good yourselves first by increasing your knowledge. Doubtless the good ship Mayflower carried passengers who understood the medicinal virtues of plants. In this year a Dr. The following are the concluding words. a comparatively progressive institution in the eighteenth century." English herbalism produced few prominent personalities during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." was the man who. although almost entirely "self-taught. evidence of broad humanitarian sympathies and zeal in the search for truth: "What remains but that you labour to glorify God in your several places. this nation is worthy of. George Alexander Gordon. A piquant position arose as long after Culpeper's death as the year 1802.was probably the equal of his more orthodox contemporaries whether judged from the general cultural standpoint or by the results of his curative methods. had published an edition of Culpeper's Herbal or English Physician. and to your neighbours afterwards by helping their infirmities. I hope. and to all such I will be a friend during life. Whether this theory is correct. published in 1652.

but the latter's skill in amateur veterinary work led his son's thoughts in the direction of human healing. Devon. Thomson's system was brought to England in 1838 by another herbalist of high repute. He was persecuted for many years. This movement was headed by Samuel Westcott Tilke.which Thomson's system became known) was taught. who was born in 1794 at Sidmouth.com . Tilke's study. Manchester Square. was not achieved by Thomson without great personal sacrifice. approached Tilke and persuaded him to leave his baking and devote his future life entirely to the service of the sick.Page 7 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. A.swsbm. indeed. There would seem to be one main reason for the "uneducated" Thomson's success in breaking through the powerful American medical monopoly—the harmless herbal medicines alone contained in the physio-medical materia medica. and actually imprisoned before his final triumph brought State recognition to his teachings. however. the Lords Howden and Seymour. Coffin (1798-1866). and on which the whole therapy was based. and eventually in London. although large numbers of the poor received his attention free. Tilke's father followed the trade of a baker. While earning his living in London at his father's occupation. Here he was remarkably successful and. he was also consulted by many wealthy people. Some of his cures were so notable that they obtained more than local fame. All this. An outstanding feature of the Thomsonian theory and practice is that poisonous plants are rigorously banned. For some years before Coffin landed in England there had been a considerable revival in herbal teaching and practice in this country. from whom he did not hesitate to exact payment in proportion to the size of their reputed fortunes! Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . I. Two philanthropic noblemen. Thus. have been other than overwhelming in order to have forced such a victory. Manchester. in London's West End. and a medical reform agitation was being energetically conducted. Their superiority could not. must have cured where the methods of allopathy failed. observation and skill were turned to account after working hours in the gratuitous treatment of any sick people with whom he came in contact. in 1832 the former baker was practising non-poisonous herbal medicine at 8 Thayer Street. who built up large practices in Leeds. spreading wider the physiomedical theories by energetic lecturing and the writing of many books.

being itself engaged in a bitter struggle on behalf of the rising class of industrialists against the landed proprietors of an era which was passing. and are. and originality of thought in many different fields was consequently encouraged rather than frowned upon. "by a medical gentleman" (unnamed) concerning the "dangers" of lobelia and cayenne. The steam age had dawned. which could only be thrown off through the pores of the skin." It must be remembered. he kept on quite good terms with both doctors and Press. a lecture was advertised to be given at the Assembly Rooms. important items in the materia medica of the physiomedicals. Indeed. a certain amount of general propaganda was conducted against them. on 15th June. This was a period of great economic change. It need only be noted here that the Bath protest was conducted Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . contending that the acting or direct cause was the existence of an acrid and ill-conditioned humour in the system.Orthodoxy appears to have been fairly tolerant at this time. 1849.Page 8 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. Bath. were included in the English herbal practice through the influence of Coffin. The properties and uses of lobelia and cayenne are discussed under their respective heads in the Cyclopaedia section of this volume. For example. that The Times of 100 years ago was a journal of radical outlook. Tilke has done to alleviate the sufferings of humanity under disease which usually defies all medical skill is entitled to honourable mention." This stressing of the importance of food in the causation of disease is in accord with the views of modern herbalists. Other great inventions were showering wealth upon the propertied classes. not denying at the same time that the primary cause was connected with the alimentary canal. The Times reviewed his "Autobiography" very favourably. however.com . as Tilke avoided the treatment meted out to Thomson in America. and have been used by herbalists in this country to the present day. and almost attained generosity in one of its comments : "Any man who makes such unceasing efforts as Mr. Both of these agents were. Tilke's relations with the profession are referred to in the "Autobiography" itself: "At this time I frequently used to enter into debate with members of the Medical Profession upon the subject of Gout. In spite of the virtual cessation of legal hounding of natural healers at this time. and is by no means confined to gout.

and Epitome of the Botanic Practice of Medicine. and. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward ." resulted in a synthesis between the Thomsonian and English schools of herbalism.swsbm. representing American physio-medicalism.by a school whose practice consisted largely of bleeding. the importance of healthy habits of living. The reason for this becomes apparent when it is remembered that we are now living in an age of huge monopolies and that this phase in the development of the economic system has particularly harmful effects in the sphere of food supply. and are discussed in the next section. and Tilke. The tendency among herbalists of recent years is to stress. entitle Skelton to a place in the line of Thomson. blistering. and the administration of calomel and laudanum. Those books are read throughout the English-speaking world. This has been developed throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century and to our own times by such men as John Skelton. These considerations bring us to the study of herbalism as it is taught and practised at the present time. even more than has been done in the past. The work of Coffin. practising herbalist and lecturer. pupil of Coffin. and especially of proper eating. Plea for the Botanic Practice of Medicine. and author of Family Medical Adviser.com . Coffin and Tilke. whose ideas were founded upon the old English herbal medicines plus the "water cure. together with his work as editor of the Botanic Record.Page 9 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

In practice.swsbm. and frequently poisonous drugs of both mineral and vegetable origin in the treatment of disease. picked up from medical articles in the popular newspapers and magazines. as well as serums and vaccines extracted from the internal organs of diseased animals. suppressive of the attempts of nature to rid the body of that poisonous matter (frequently self-generated) which lies at the root of most forms of ill-health. in the main. at best. People with medical qualifications are." The defenders of allopathy would argue that the quantities in which strychnine. for this same reason that the word "poison" itself implies association with a living organism. the terse judicial dictum. and it is surely the removal of the causes of disease with which the true healer should be concerned.com .—HERBALISM TO-DAY THE vague. It is well known that orthodoxy uses mineral. and is suppressive in its action. and by way of the advertisements issued by the vendors of proprietary foods and medicines. Herbal theory holds that treatment by these means succeeds. a "scientifically" satisfactory explanation of a poison has not yet been formulated. To suppress symptoms is not to touch causes. fragmentary knowledge of the subject of health and disease acquired by the average person is. those of orthodox medical practice. especially if we insert after "administered" the words "in conveniently taken quantities. Indeed. or to health and disease as a philosophy. indeed.2. when administered. that is. "a poison is defined as that which. is injurious to health or life" serves as a useful working statement.Page 10 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. nor is it likely to be. in masking symptoms. Both press articles and publicity matter may be legitimately classed together for our purpose. What is a poison? It must be understood that the rigid definitions of "exact" science cannot be properly applied to healing as an art. It will consequently be convenient to explain the philosophy of modern medical herbalism or natural healing by a series of comparisons with the views of allopathy or orthodox medicine. as the theories upon which each is based are the same. found to be connected with the type of commercial undertakings mentioned through directorships and staff appointments. arsenical and mercurial preparations and so on are prescribed Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .

Herbal therapy holds that the introduction of these substances into the system cannot but injure. write: "There is reason to believe that since the introduction of antitoxin." Poisonous substances. in whatever quantity they are present. to allay symptoms when these extraordinary efforts of the body to expel poisons reach a point which brings too great a strain to bear on the organism. be concluded that various minerals are of no value in the treatment of disease. Nevertheless. and diphtheritic paralysis after antitoxin treatment of diphtheria are examples. should be done through harmless medicines and other means which co-operate with Nature's normal efforts. but parts of the body possibly far removed from the "seat of disease. to some degree. pneumonia. so laying the basis for chronic disease. and harmful consequences can be cumulative over long periods. are themselves causes of disease. the percentage of cases which suffer from paralysis after diphtheria has definitely increased. diphtheria.are not large enough to be "injurious to health or life. not necessarily the organs to which attention is directed in specific cases of ill-health. This. and whether selfgenerated or administered as medicine. and not as a mere conglomeration of parts or organs. not promoters of health. Sleepy sickness following influenza. of course. however. On the contrary.swsbm. which would then find lodgement in various parts of the system.com . and the body must be looked upon as a whole. they are essential. Of the latter instance Bosanquet and Eyre. They cannot assist the whole body to normal functioning. It may be asking too much of the organs of elimination to get rid of this additional harmful matter. herbalism contends. it is often necessary. Serums and Vaccines. all the effects of certain drugs are not by any means immediately observable.Page 11 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Observation and enquiry show that most chronic diseases can be traced back to influenza. and even in the same person from day to day. in what is called acute disease. The whole Herbal Manual by Harold Ward ." It must not. Again." Who. "orthodox" authors of Toxins. is competent to decide what constitutes an injurious dose in any individual case? An amount that could be tolerated in one person may be injurious to another who is in an apparently similar state of health. or some other acute disease which has been "cured" by suppressive methods. and not by the administration of further poisons.

The flour which goes to make our bread rarely contains the whole of the wheat grain.Page 12 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. secondly for the regaining of health where these rules have been disregarded. both of which nature Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and in that case establish themselves and set up irritation resulting in pain. The commission of those acts. As has been said of poisons. including adequate exercise in it. Taken in their crude. Physiologically we are nothing but the foods which we ingest. they are not always. or the formation of those habits which tend to oppose or break this harmony with nature must consequently be avoided. in harmony with these laws. so far as is possible. It is to faulty eating (on both quantitative and qualitative sides). that is. The almost pure starch which remains thus lacks the important B vitamin contained in certain layers of the husk. He then formulates rules based on this view. which would be given a name in accordance with the part of the body affected (sciatica lumbago). unorganised (non-biological) state. plus enervating habits of all kinds. start from a fundamental observation of the laws of the life process itself. he holds. and the air which we breathe.swsbm. or a more general description such as rheumatism. sulphur. can pass them on to us in organised form. and the only form in which the cells are able properly to assimilate anything introduced into our bodies. and the lack of proper air. the outer covering of the grain is removed together with the whole germ of the wheat.case against minerals lies solely in the 'form in which they are administered. sooner or later. firstly for the purpose of maintaining existing health. to which most of the diseases of to-day may be ascribed. the form in which iron. What is the herbalist's theory of health and the causes of disease? We should. calcium. expelled. that impairment of bodily functioning which we call disease. they cannot be assimilated and may consequently be definitely harmful. Herbal remedies.com . Failure to do so will inevitably bring. phosphorus and so on are organically present in our tissues. whether we call it food or medicine. and endeavour to direct and organise our own lives to run. and the bodybuilding albumen of the germ. To facilitate the operations of the milling combines. having themselves assimilated these necessary mineral substances from the earth. or completely. A very high proportion of the total food consumed by the majority of people to-day is the product of factories or the end-result of some form of refining or processing.

under our present system of society. In the same way. (2) assist that lifeurge to wholeness. then. and. smallpox. frequent bathing. and another germ or antitoxin must be discovered which will wage war upon and annihilate the bringers of these diseases. should we eat? Let us remember the basic law of harmony with nature and eat only foods which are as near to nature as we can get them—fruit. years of medicinal drug-taking in a futile attempt at counteraction. whole meal bread. but man disposed. fresh vegetables (conservatively cooked). But what. what we eat under that name does little beyond titillate our spoiled palates and clog our systems. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . one is "attacked" by influenza. and friction rubs. is to be done to protect ourselves against the deadly germs of which we hear so much—surely these must first of all be attacked and destroyed? Here we have another issue on which herbalism and allopathy disagree. it must never be forgotten that nature alone restores health. with fresh fish and meat in moderate quantities if liked. perhaps. Thus. The latter school regards micro-organisms as a potent primary cause of disease. tuberculosis and so on. however. although sugar is one of the most urgent needs of the human organism. the white sugar of commerce is so treated that. Again. but only when hunger is present.Page 13 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. indulgence in enervating habits. raw milk and dairy products. none of which. it will be asked. salads. Finally. those life-long strivings of the body to expel the noxious substances which are disease by the taking of suitable herbal medicines and the adoption of natural methods of elimination such as deep breathing. rice and most of the other cereals in common use are highly milled to make commercial "handling" and profit-making easier. What.proposed for our benefit. diphtheria. results in chronic disease? The herbalist's advice then is: (1) Give up the life of antagonism to nature which has brought about this position and return to one of co-operation with nature. He would further tell us to eat near-nature foods in proper proportions. and never during phases of acute illness.swsbm. The art of the herbalist (who is a "healer" only in the sense that he assists nature to heal) is directed solely to bringing about those bodily conditions in which nature can best do this work. when disregard of these factors. What. reaches the great mass of the people in anything like adequate quantities.com .

but a secondary manifestation of disease. Germs can only nourish and multiply in the body when conditions there are "ripe" for them. and working for the legal prohibition of this wholesale devitalizing of food in the interests of private profit. and probably numerous other ailments which are not yet in the official list. both in health and pocket. holds that germs can only be a danger when suitable conditions obtain inside the body in the form of effete toxic matter on which they can thrive. that they are contained in every breath we take and on each scrap of food we put into our mouths. the common-sense view that it is simpler and less costly to let people have their vitamins in the original state. in this matter. of the unfortunate consumer. is mankind's responsibility and not the act of a God who sends these pests to plague and destroy us. to the greater profit of both and the loss. then out of fifty people in a room containing a high' proportion (uncountable millions) of influenza germs. Germs. skin diseases.swsbm. Independent herbalism takes. on the other hand.Herbalism. If this were not the case. And that mysterious and highly esoteric (in two senses!) department of study known as vitamin research? A continued shortage of those essential constituents of all natural. Even Pasteur unconsciously admitted the soundness of this argument when he said: "In a state of health the body is closed against the action of disease germs. are not a primary cause. while recognising that the air is swarming with millions of these tiny specks of life. various nervous derangements. "live" foods.Page 14 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Passive or active support is thus given to the food-fakers and to the manufacturing chemists who make and sell the vitamin extracts. proposes to get over the difficulty by chemically extracting vitamins from their natural media and adding them to the dietary of all those who can afford to buy these vitamin preparations. affections of the eyes. rickets. known as vitamins. State medicine. and consequently that a vitamin in a bottle is a very different proposition from its fellow in a glass of undoctored milk or Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . each one of those people would be in bed shortly after with a temperature. then. The natural philosophy of health and disease holds that a thing torn from its natural environment is no longer the same thing. It also accuses on health grounds. instead of insisting upon the necessity for the consumption of "whole" foods only." Human disease.com . results in stunted growth. therefore.

The removal of glands such as the tonsils and other organs is frequently entirely unjustifiable. Here again we have drastic dealing with effects instead of natural removal of the causes of diseased conditions. and conformity to. above all. must be the prerequisite of an A-1 community. Such a stage. universal knowledge of which. a teacher of these laws. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Herbalists are often asked their opinion on the desirability of surgical operations involving the use of the knife. Where errors of living and the suppressive treatment of consequent illhealth have been permitted to persist for so long that actual tissue degeneration has followed. and incidentally building up huge "research" interests with public money. The modern medical herbalist is. and normal functioning cannot be restored. as the resultant systemic disorganisation and the non-performance of functions for which these parts are responsible invariably brings more or less serious results in its train. need seldom be reached if the laws of living are observed. It further contends that this tampering with and "chemicalizing" nature's food will result in a further crop of those mysterious (?) "diseases of civilization" for which doctors and scientists are still' trying to find the causative germs. although Herbert Barker and many others have proved in innumerable instances that what is known as manipulative surgery or osteopathy gives better results with less danger attached. They consider that in certain mechanical injury this form of surgical interference may be necessary.swsbm.com . removal of the organ may then have to be considered.Page 15 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.an uncanned pear. however.

Part used: Herb. Diuretic qualities of value in kidney affections. and the seeds form little burs.PART II MEDICINAL AND OTHER HERBS ADONIS. as it gives tone to the whole Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Features: Stem up to one foot high. yellow. Part used : The whole herb. hairy stem reaching a height of two feet. with intermediate smaller ones. Ranunculaceae.swsbm.Page 16 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. heart strain and cardiac dropsy.com . The numerous pinnate leaves. N. 1-2 drops of the fluid extract. having 3-5 pairs of lanceolate. Flowers large. tonic and diuretic. these qualities being useful in loose coughs and relaxed bowels. The many small. solitary at termination of stem. Oval head of achenes succeeds flower. Synonym: False Hellebore. hairy on both sides. Features: One of our prettiest wild plants.O. Action: Acts as a mild astringent. divided pinnately into linear segments.O. Highly esteemed in cases where stimulation of heart's action is necessary. bright yellow flowers are arranged in long. star-like. the taste being astringent and slightly bitter. and 5-6 inches long. toothed leaflets. Agrimony is an old remedy for debility. Action: Cardiac. Habitat: Hedgerows. Rosaceae. field borders and dry waste places. Synonym: Stickwort. N. Pheasant's Eye. Habitat: Cornfields and meadows. diuretic. the erect. Leaves alternate. tapering spikes. and still smaller ones between these. grow alternately. Dose. Agrimonia eupatoria. tonic. The root is woody. Adonis vernalis. AGRIMONY. round.

Features: Stem up to five feet high . urinary disorders. serrate. The yellow. appear between May and September. striated. expectorant. in half teacupful or larger doses. Rosaceae. The sweetmeat known as candied angelica is made by preserving the dried leaf stalks with sugar. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. colds. The root is short. Geum urbanum.Page 17 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. AVENS. a wineglassful frequently. Umbelliferae. erect flowers. The root leaves are on long stalks with two small leaflets at the base. Part used: Herb and root.com . Action: Carminative. herb. simmered down to 1 pint. hard and rough. sparsely branched plant reaches a height of one to two feet. shiny.system. ANGELICA. Root fleshy. Action: Astringent. The herb has been recommended for dyspepsia. Leaves lanceolate. woods and shady banks. diuretic. Angelica archangelica. Infusion of 1 ounce herb to 1 pint boiling water. Habitat: Hedges. antiseptic and stomachic. and may be sweetened with honey or black treacle if desired. with naked styles. with one margin-toothed terminal lobe. It is administered as a decoction of one ounce to 1 1/2 pints water. Habitat: Marshes and watery places generally. aromatic. with light brown rootlets.swsbm. Part used: Root. The stem leaves have two leaflets. much branched below. tonic. Dose. but is probably only useful in this disorder when carefully combined with other more directly operating agents. Umbels globular. Herb Bennet. Used in coughs.O. Synonym : Garden Angelica.O. N. diaphoretic. Synonym: Colewort. Features: This slender. terminal leaflet lobed. seed. erect. stimulant.

Synonym : Bitter Herb. to induce perspiration. The astringent qualities may also be utilized in cases of relaxed throat Although wineglass-ful doses three or four times daily of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion are usually prescribed. white or yellowish flowers.com . Leaves stalked. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. dark-centred seeds. lanceolate. tonic. Roots long. Aids digestion. Scrophulariaceae. Sweet Balm. Part used : Leaves. Melissa officinalis.Page 18 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym : Lemon Balm. Habitat: Borders of woods and in hedges. two-celled. The tonic effect upon the glands of the stomach and alimentary tract point to its helpfulness in dyspepsia. Chelone glabra. diaphoretic. N. Very bitter taste. Numerous small. oblong. detergent. debility. creeping. with roundish. Turtle Bloom.swsbm. dyspepsia. broadly ovate.The properties of Avens make for success in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. in loose bunches from leaf axils. BALM. smoothish. and is. Features : Stem one to two feet high. winged. Used in constipation. Common in gardens. hairy. BALMONY.O. Fruits ovate. Snake Head. Action : Anthelmintic. In general debility continued use has had good results. coarsely serrate. indeed. opposite. bunched on short spike. Action : Carminative. In influenza and feverish colds. Turtle Head Habitat: Common in North America. particularly in south of England. opposite. Labiateae. Part used: Herb. slender. tonic. Avens may be taken freely. used by country people in certain districts as a beverage in place of tea or coffee. taken freely. half-inch long.O. N. freely branched. Taste and odour of lemon. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint water in Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and children's worms. wrinkled. Features : Short-stalked leaves. Sometimes added to alteratives. square.

5-10 grains. pendulous. It figures in many of the compound powders and is the base of the celebrated composition powder. 1/4 teaspoonful of powdered bark.com . N. Flowers bright yellow clusters. BARBERRY. Gouan. Myrica cerifera. antiseptic. Bayberry bark is one of the most widely used agents in the herbal practice. Action: A powerful stimulant. Powdered herb. Berries red. reddish-brown layer beneath. oblong. astringent and bitter. Berberidaceae. General debility. three to eight feet high. Root dark brown. Very bitter taste. Jaundice and other liver derangements. an infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered bark to 1 pint of water is taken warm. Waxberry. This assists circulation and promotes perspiration. Features: The bark has a white. N. yellowish-grey externally. separating in layers.O. chills and influenza. peeling epidermis covering a hard. Action : Tonic. It is slightly fibrous on the inner surface.swsbm. Synonym : Berberidis. Berberis vulgaris. and the fracture is granular. Regulates digestion. a prescription of which will be found in the "Herbal Formulae" section of this volume. short fracture. Features : Shrub or bush. three or four times daily. Myricaceae. Habitat : Woods and hedges. Wax Myrtle. Stem bark thin.O. purgative. also gardens. In cases of coldness of the extremities. raceme.Page 19 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. bristly serratures. the odour faintly aromatic. Synonym : Candleberry. astringent and tonic to the alimentary tract. Leaves obovate. especially when combined with Cayenne as in Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The taste is pungent. inner surface orange yellow. Berbery. Part used : Bark. Habitat: Near the sea in pastures and on stony soils. BAYBERRY. rootbark. Part used : The bark is the only part of the Bayberry shrub now used as a medicine. corrects constipation.wineglassful doses.

The decoction of 1 ounce of the crushed root to 1 pint (reduced) of water is used chiefly in hemorrhages and as a gargle and mouth-wash in cases of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and is also distributed throughout Northern Europe. Action : There is no odour. Patient Dock. Habitat : Found growing in damp meadows in many parts of Britain. Synonym : Adderwort. led them to ascribe properties to the bark which it does not possess. however. As an antiseptic the powder is added to poultices for application to ulcers.com . Many affections of the uterine system. and an ingredient in tooth powders. Even in these cases. It also makes an excellent snuff for nasal catarrh. Polygonum bistorta. Features : The oval leaves.swsbm.O. N. cylindrical spike of pale-hued flowers blossoms from the top of the stem between June and September. as well as Northern and Western Asia. the slender flower stems carrying fewer and smaller leaves. as for certain other remedies also extremely efficacious within proper limits. and spring from the roots. and even cancer were said to yield to its influence. the most powerful astringent in the botanic practice. and is reddish-brown in colour. Indeed. Polygonaceae. and the taste is astringent. reaching to a height of from one to two feet.the formula referred to above. for which a prescription is given in the section previously mentioned. Snakeweed. fistula.Page 20 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. are blue-green above. their enthusiasm for this. sores and wounds. The leaf stalks and blades are six to eight inches long. A dense. perhaps. The virtues of Bayberry bark were recognized and used beneficially by the herbalists of many generations ago. grey and purplish underneath. similar in appearance to those of the Dock. Part used : The root is the part in most demand. Bayberry bark certainly did less harm than many of the methods employed by the more orthodox practitioners of that time ! BISTORT. which is the chief therapeutic action of the root—indeed it is.

" BITTER ROOT.Page 21 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ten to twenty feet high. 5-15 grain doses in cardiac dropsy. N. also bark of stem and branches. dysmenorrhea. Young bark glossy purplish-brown. BLACK HAW. leucorrhaea. milky juice when wounded. Fracture short.swsbm. sweet and edible. bruises. blows and jaundice. Apocynum androsaemifolium. Habitat: Indigenous to North America. anti-spasmodic. Synonym : Dogsbane. Large doses cause vomiting. Whole plant gives a gelatinous. diuretic. groups of stone cells in outer bark. astringent. transverselywrinkled bark. with scattered warts. Asclepiadaceae. Caprifoliaceae. Taste bitter.sore throat or gums. The old-time herbalists enthused over the virtues of Bistort root in "burstings. Action : Uterine tonic. Milkweed. useful in dyspepsia. tonic. woody centre .O. falls. Action: Cathartic. Calamus or other carminative. Features : A tree-like shrub. detergent. Old bark greyishbrown. 2-5 grains thrice daily as a general tonic. emetic. nervine. Combined with Flag-root it has been known to give relief from intermittent fever and ague. throughout Central and Southern States of North America. Features: Root is nearly three-quarters of an inch thick. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Part used: Root bark (preferred). inner surface white. Viburnum prunifolium. Tendency to gripe can be eliminated by adding Peppermint. light brown. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water—table-spoonful doses. Uterine weaknesses. Part used: Root. Has been recommended in the treatment of Bright's disease.O. Prevention of miscarriage—given four or five weeks before. Root bark cinnamon colour. easily parting from white. Synonym : American Sloe. Fruit shiny black. N. Stagbush. Habitat: Dry woods.com .

BLOOD ROOT. Sanguinaria canadensis. N.O. Papaveraceae.
Habitat: Widely distributed throughout North America. Features : Root reddish-brown, wrinkled lengthwise, about half-inch thick. Fracture short. Section whitish, with many small, red resin cells which sometimes suffuse the whole. Heavy odour, bitter and harsh to the taste. Part used : Root. Action: Stimulant, tonic, expectorant.

Pulmonary complaints and bronchitis. Should be administered in whooping-cough and croup until emesis occurs. The powdered root is used as a snuff in nasal catarrh, and externally in ringworm and other skin eruptions. The American Thomsonians use it in the treatment of adenoids. Dose, 10 to 20 grains of the powdered root. BLUE FLAG. Iris versicolor. N.O. Iridaceae.
Synonym : Flag Lily, Liver Lily, Snake Lily, Water Lily. Habitat: Marshy places in Central America. Features : Rhizome cylindrical, compressed towards larger end, where is cup-shaped stem scar. Breaks with sharp fracture, showing dark purple internally. Taste, acrid and pungent. Part used : Root. Action : Alterative, diuretic, cathartic.

Skin affections; stimulates liver and other glands. Dose of the powdered root, 20 grains as a cathartic. BLUE MALLOW. Malva sylvestyis. N.O. Malvaceae.
Synonym : Cheese Flower, Common Mallow, Mauls. Habitat : Around ledges and roadsides. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 22
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Features : Several erect, hairy stems, two to three feet high. Leaf and flower stalks also hairy. Roundish leaf has five to seven lobes, middle one longest. Numerous flowers (June-September), large reddish-purple, clustered four or five together on axillary stalk. Part used: Flowers, herb. Action: Demulcent, mucilaginous, pectoral.

1 ounce to 1 pint infusion makes a popular cough and cold remedy. BONESET. Eupatorium perfoliatum. N.O. Compositae.
Synonym : Indian Sage, Thoroughwort. Habitat : Damp places. Features: One or more erect stems, branched at top. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, four to six inches long, united at base, crenate edges, tiny, yellow resin dots beneath. Flowers August to October. Persistently bitter taste. Part used: Herb. Action : Diaphoretic, febrifuge, tonic, laxative, expectorant.

Influenza and feverish conditions generally, for which purpose it is very successfully used by the American negroes. Also used in catarrhs. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water may be given in wineglassful doses frequently, hot as a diaphoretic and febrifuge, cold as a tonic. F. H. England, of the College of Medicine and Surgery, Chicago (PhysioMedical) says : "It is a pure relaxant to the liver. It acts slowly and persistently. Its greatest power is manifested upon the stomach, liver, bowels and uterus." BROOM. Cytisus scoparius. N.O. Leguminosae.
Synonym : Irish Broom and Besom. Habitat: Dry, hilly wastes. Features: The stem is angular, five-sided, dark green, and branches at an acute angle. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 23
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Yellow pea-like flowers appear in May and June. The lower leaves are on short stalks and consist of three small obovate leaflets, the upper leaves being stalkless and frequently single. Part used : Tops. Action : Powerfully diuretic.

Broom tops are often used with Agrimony and Dandelion root for dropsy and liver disorders. For this purpose a decoction of 1 ounce each of Broom tops and Agrimony and 1/2 ounce Dandelion root to 3 pints of water simmered down to 1 quart is taken in wineglassful doses every four or five hours. Coffin recommends us to: "Take of broom-tops, juniper-berries and dandelion-roots, each half-an-ounce, water, a pint and a half, boil down to a pint, strain, and add half-a-teaspoonsful of cayenne pepper. Dose, halfa-wineglassful four times a day." BRYONY. Bryonia alba. N.O. Cucurbitaceae.
Synonym : Bryonia, English Mandrake, Mandragora, Wild Vine. Habitat : Hedges and thickets. Features : Stem rough, hairy, freely branched, climbs several feet by numerous curling tendrils. Leaves vine-like, five- or seven-lobed, coarse and rough. Flowers (May to September), white, green-veined, in axillar panicles. Berries scarlet when ripe. Branched root one to two feet long, white internally and externally. Not to be confused with American Mandrake (q.v.). Part used : Root. Action : Cathartic, hydragogue.

Cough, influenza, bronchitis. Cardiac disorders resulting from rheumatism and gout. Is also used in malarial and zymotic diseases. Dose of the fluid extract, 1/2 to 1 drachm. Large doses to be avoided. BUCHU. Barosma betulina. N.O. Rutaceae.
Habitat: South Africa, from where the leaves are imported. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 24
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stimulant: Complaints of the urinary system. dark green leaves with long stalks and three obovate leaflets. and are preferred to either (2) Barosma crenulata or oval Buchu.Page 25 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. N. entire lower down. about two inches long by one inch broad. Bitter taste" Part used : Herb. Part used : Leaves.A. diaphoretic. Habitat: Low-lying. in axillary clusters. Lycopus virginicus.com . serrate above. named from its distinctive. Leaves opposite. Infusion of 1 ounce leaves to 1 pint water three or four times daily in wineglass doses. deobstruent. recurved apex. Labiateae.. up to eighteen inches high.S.O.Features : Three varieties of Buchu leaves are used therapeutic-ally : (1) Barosma betulina or Round Buchu are rhomboid-obovate in form with blunt. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Habitat: Shady and damp places in the northern regions of U. Features: Stem smooth. Frequent wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Part used: Herb. the apex of which leaf is not recurved. entire edges. Marsh or Water Trefoil. brittle. in rheumatism and skin diseases. or (3) Barosma serratifolia or long Buchu. Synonym: Sweet Bugle. Thin. Of special use as a bitter tonic. Water Bugle. square.swsbm. etc. Features : Stem and stalk soft and pithy. marshy lands. BUGLEWEED. with suitable alteratives. Coffin recommends for dyspepsia. Very bitter taste. Synonym : Bogbean. Action : Tonic. Small white flowers. serrate-edged leaf and truncate apex.O. Menyanthes trifoliata. especially gravel and inflammation or catarrh of the bladder. shortstalked. BUCKBEAN. elliptic-lanceolate. N. Gentianaceae. Action : Diuretic.

Page 26 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Roots and seeds have a sweetish. Arctium lappa. Dose. Features : Many stems grow from root to a height of two feet. N. prickly and hairy. N. brownish-grey externally. heart-shaped leaves. Viper's Bugloss. expectorant. wherever we see nettles." BUGLOSS. frequent wineglasses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Coughs. Thorny Burr. Echium vulgare. clustered on short curved spikes growing from side of stem. Features : Stout stems with wide spreading branches carrying alternately fleshy. and the bristly burs or bracts adhere lightly to the clothes and coats of animals. funnel-shaped. astringent. England says. slimy taste. Root leaves stalked. both narrow and tapering. Flowers. seeds and the herb itself are used. pulmonary hemorrhage. the leaves and stems being bitter. Synonym : Blueweed. diaphoretic. Boraginaceae. there also will be found Burdock. particularly in chalky districts. The purple flowers bloom luxuriously in July and August. BURDOCK. Compositae.O. Action: Possesses alterative. the root and herb Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Action : Demulcent. diuretic and diaphoretic qualities. "Lycopus and Capsicum is the remedy for hemorrhage from the lungs. Habitat. whitish inside. stem leaves sessile. irregularly tubular. Two to four tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion are given for the reduction of feverish colds and in inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract. Habitat: Rubbish heaps and waste land. Part used : Herb. Part used: Root. is very commonly met along roadsides and in all waste places—indeed. rapidly changing to deep blue. bright red. The root is thick. five-petalled.com .O.Action: Sedative. This large plant. stamens reaching beyond mouth of flower. which grows to a height of five feet.swsbm. Synonym : Hill. Lappa.

or oftener if necessary. 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. carbuncles and similar eruptions.being predominantly alterative. Features: Erect. as well as uterine hemorrhage. many-fibred. Leaves opposite. reflexed prickles. Synonym: Common Butterbur.O. Habitat: Low-lying meadows and damp waysides.Page 27 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. angular. serrate. either alone or combined with other remedies. Tussilago petasites. and in wet places generally. tawny. Bidens tripartite. Action: Astringent. Root tapering. Ginger is usually added to this herb. smooth. given in the above quantity five times daily. is taken four times daily in wineglass doses for many forms of skin trouble. also cultivated in gardens. brown-spotted stem. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. Synonym: Water Agrimony. An excellent lotion may be made by infusing the leaves in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water. BUTTER-BUR. Compositae. three or four times daily. gout and bleeding of the urinary and respiratory organs. diuretic. The liquid from 1 ounce of the root boiled in 1^ pints of water simmered down to 1 pint. Habitat: Ditches. while the seeds affect more specifically the kidneys. Dropsy. Flowers (July to September) in terminal heads. four-cornered. two to three feet high. small.com . Numerous seeds. in wineglass doses. stalked. diaphoretic.O. by waterways. smooth. Obstinate cases of eczema and even psoriasis have been known to yield to these decoctions of Burdock root. Hool recommends 2 ounces Burr Marigold to 1 of crushed Ginger in 3 pints of water simmered down to 1 quart.swsbm. Part used: Whole plant. noticeably boils. Compositae. N. usually in three or five segments. BURR MARIGOLD.

CALUMBA. downy underneath. Dispensatory gives: 1/2 ounce each powdered Calumba and Ginger. Habitat: Ceylon. N. As a bitter tonic without astringency. The infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered root to 1 pint of cold water is taken in two tablespoonful doses three or four times daily. Features: Fruits ovoid or oblong. about half-inch long. Pink flowers on short stalks bloom in early spring in thick spikes. Elettaria cardamomum. greyish-brown outside. 1 drachm Senna. febrifuge. diuretic. transverse section yellowish. wineglassful three times daily.O. nearly one foot high. furrowed longitudinally.Features : Stem thick. Very bitter and mucilaginous in taste. longitudinally furrowed. Jateorhiza calumba. Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon. Menispermaceae. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds.com . in weakness of stomach function and indigestion generally. U. Colombo.S. Part used : Root. CARDAMOMS. very large. Action : Tonic. Was formerly valued in feverish colds and urinary complaints. Features : Root bark thick. Zingiberaceae. Malabar Cardamoms.O. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Rhizome quarter-inch thick. cordate. purplishbrown. Synonym : Mysore Cardamoms. vascular bundles in radiating lines.swsbm. Leaves. Action : Stimulant. Dose. For bowel flatulence. pithy.Page 28 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Fracture short and mealy. appearing after the flowers. Synonym : Cocculus palmatus. N. Now little used except locally. infused in 1 pint boiling water. Part used : Rhizome.

Fracture pale brown. Synonym : Sacred Bark. crimson dots. In habitual constipation due to sluggishness and atony of the lower bowel. Labiateae. up to two feet high. Persistently bitter taste. grey. Features : Square. afterwards 5-10 drops before each meal. Nepeta cataria.O. Synonym: Catmint. two-lipped. and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses. Habitat : Features : Bark in quills about three-quarter inch wide by one-sixteenth inch thick. California and British Columbia. and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. Part used: Herbs. Chittem Bark. Action : Carminative. leaves. Habitat: Hedgerows. hairy stem. As a warm. grateful aromatic in flatulence. leather-like odour. transversely wrinkled. whitish down beneath. Characteristic mint-like scent. For diaphoretic Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .com . Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children. Leaves stalked. Action: Carminative. purplish-brown in colour. CATNEP. N. or dark brown when older. diaphoretic.swsbm. Doses for chronic constipation. anti-spasmodic. The seeds should be crushed. and for digestive disorders generally. N. younger sometimes griping. Part used : Bark. Inner surface longitudinally striated. dense spikes. furrowed-longitudinally. Catnip. Rhamnaceae. firstly 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful at bedtime. Action : Tonic laxative. Flowers white. serrate.O. stomachic. Rhamnus purshiana. tonic. of the fluid extract.Part used : Seeds. cordate-ovate.Page 29 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. CASCARA SAGRADA. in short. Older bark is preferred.

The yellowish-red product of Sierra Leone is the most pungent. Synonym: African Pepper. bowel As a pure stimulant. diaphoretic and rubifacient. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .purposes in adults. Action: Cayenne is acknowledged as the finest stimulant in the herbal materia medica. in addition. with a cupful at bedtime.swsbm. Known as "tasteless Cayenne. and in dyspepsia and flatulence the carminative effect is especially noticeable. Capsicum minimum. CAYENNE. and fed to canaries in order to improve the appearance of the plumage. proportionate doses in children's complaints. colour and strength. Africa and South America. Features : The oblong-conical shaped pods are fiery to the taste. it is not a narcotic. and is. differs widely in size. bright red type from Japan being much milder. carminative. which is indigenous to India.com ." this is quite free from pungency. which has a similar effect on the palate. and the numerous seeds contain a large amount of oil. Solanaceae. Coffin is a champion of the virtues of Capsicum. The dose of the powdered fruit is 5-20 grains. ripe fruit. including the well-known composition powders. tonic. one of his reasons being that. Guinea Pepper and Chillies. Thomson's formula for which will be found in the appropriate section of this book. 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily. however. Habitat: There are many varieties of the shrub. the long. N. The fruit itself.O. Capsicum is a constituent of many of the herbal compounds.Page 30 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence. As a diaphoretic it may be used whenever it is desired to open the pores and bring about increased perspiration. Used for medicinal and culinary purposes. unlike most of the stimulants of allopathy. Bird Pepper.) Part used: Dried. the administration of Cayenne produces a natural warmth and uniform circulation. (Capsicum annum is cultivated in Hungary.

eczema. Habitat: Moist ground near the sea. Culpeper knew of the virtues of Celandine in jaundice. the smell disagreeable." CELERY.com . and are six to twelve inches long by two to three inches wide. Seeds tiny. with five paler ribs. Synonym : Smallage. Features : Stem smooth.Page 31 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ovate. Action : Alterative.O. Papaveraceae. Flavour and smell like garden celery. and refers to it thus : "The herb or roots boiled in white wine and drunk. Chelidonium majus. which belongs to the poppy family.O. a few Aniseeds being boiled therewith. The pinnate leaves are also slightly hairy.CELANDINE. openeth obstructions of the liver and gall. Greater Celandine. brown. N. The root tapers. green above and greyish underneath. This apparent confusion probably arose from some imagined superficial resemblance. and the yellowflowers appear in May and June singly at the end of three or four smaller stalks given off from the end of a main flower stalk. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . well-branched plant.swsbm. which latter is commonly known as the Small or Lesser Celandine. whitish flowers. smaller flower stalks springing therefrom. and exudes a saffron-yellow juice when fresh. Part used : Herb. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses three times daily. diuretic and cathartic. The hairy stem of our present subject reaches a height of two feet. N. one to two feet high. Features: This straggling. Habitat : Uncultivated places. helpeth the yellow jaundice. as part of the treatment for jaundice. and scrofulous diseases. The taste is bitter and caustic. Synonym: Garden Celandine. Main flower stalk very short. is not related either medicinally or botanically to Pilewort. Umbelliferae. The infusion is also helpful when applied directly to abrasions and bruises. Apium graveolens. and the fresh juice makes a useful application for corns and warts. and close to old walls.

R.O. the familiar double flowers are produced under cultivation. He considers that Centaury "acts particularly upon the heart as a general strengthener. and. Also jaundice. Synonym : Double Chamomile. Erythraea centaurium. with a fringe of white petals. The dose is 5-30 drops of the fluid extract. and cultivated in Belgium. Roman Chamomile. CHAMOMILE. L. Three or four wineglass doses daily of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Flowers (July and August) pink. it is interesting to note that the name "Chamomile" is derived from the Greek. in view of the resemblance which the strong. Action : Stomachic.O. Germany and France. carminative.Page 32 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. together with Bayberry bark. hairy leaflets. entire at margins. Feverwort. lanceolate-ovate." Coffin stresses its value in jaundice. Anthemis nobilis. leafy. Also as a tonic with Damiana. smooth. Hool recommends equal parts of Centaury and Raspberry leaves in a similar infusion and dosage to above as a tonic for delicate and elderly people. Synonym : Century. bitter tonic. N. In dyspepsia. Part used : Herb. N. The leaves are pinnately divided into short. Yellow centred. twisted anthers.swsbm. CENTAURY. The taste is very bitter. Habitat: Dry pastures. Widely used as a uric acid solvent and in many forms of rheumatism in combination with suitable alteratives— see formula in this volume. Features: Stem up to one foot high. Whole plant bitter to the taste. Leaves opposite. Gentianaceae. meaning Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Indigenous to Britain. tonic.Part used : Seeds. Action : Diuretic. the flowers grow singly on leafless flower stalks. Features : The creeping stem throws up short. flowering branches. Habitat: Gravelly heaths.com . Compositae. aromatic smell has to that of the apple. three to five longitudinal ribs.

tough. earache and neuralgia. CHICKWEED. Flowers white. flat stalks lower. upstanding. field borders. ovate. small. line of white hairs along one side only. singly on axils of upper leaves. Action : Demulcent. Compositae. The famous "chamomile tea" is taken for nervous and bilious headache. boils. anti-spasmodic and tonic. Inflammation of the respiratory organs and internal membranes generally. petals deeply cleft. Cichorium intybus. Part used : Herb. roadsides. Caryophyllaceae. wineglassful every two or three hours. the flower-heads make a first-rate poultice and fomentation for bruises and deep-seated inflammation. but the flowers are the more commonly used part. Features : Stem weak. emollient. Features: Stem grows to three feet. Externally. many branches at obtuse angles. Dose. burns and skin eruptions. The dose is up to 4 tablespoonfuls of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water."ground apple. margins coarsely notched.O. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .swsbm. In the pulverized form they may be made up with Soap-wort into a shampoo. Used externally as a poultice for inflamed surfaces. and are also used as a lotion for toothache.Page 33 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and for hysterical tendencies in women. Taste slightly salty.O. CHICORY. Action : Stomachic. Stellaria media. as an aid to digestion. rigid. changing direction at each pair of leaves. sessile above. Star duckweed.com . N. straggling. One ounce of herb in 1 1/2 pints of water simmered down to 1 pint." Part used : Flowers and herb. upper. projecting lobes . Lower leaves large. N. Habitat: Waste places. Synonym : Star-weed. Synonym: Succory. Habitat: Waysides. very small. especially for fair hair. freely branched. pectoral. waste land. Leaves small.

Page 34 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Leaves opposite. Flowers (June-September) bright yellow. Features: Stem long and creeping. Habitat: Northern India. diuretic. Action : Bitter tonic. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Extremely bitter taste. Fivefinger.O. five petals. cylindrical below.O. Features : Stem purplish-brown. This root. Synonym: Five-leaf-grass. becoming quadrangular higher up. Potentilla reptans. laxative. Rosaceae. Swertia chirata. Dose. Part used : Whole plant. Jaundice and other liver disorders. when roasted and ground. With suitable hepatics and laxatives. dyspepsia and constipation.sessile. less divided. Synonym : Brown Chirata. N. nearly quarter-inch thick. N. In all cases where a tonic is indicated. as the strawberry. gout and rheumatism. scattered hairs. solitary. CINQUEFOIL. Action: Hepatic. Root brownish . pastures. Fruit (capsule) one-celled. veins prominent below. Gentianaceae. waysides. to the benefit of drinkers of that beverage. serrate. rooting at joints. entire. two valved. Chirayta. delicate greyish-blue. woody column. Part used: Root. on long stalks from stem as the leaves. many strap-like petals. pithy. two or three together between leaves and stem.com . stalkless. Griseb.swsbm. CHIRETTA. is mixed with coffee. two to four tablespoonfuls of 1/2 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Habitat: Meadows. Flowers. three to seven longitudinal ribs. Leaf stalks one to two inches long with five obovate leaflets. reticulated white layers surround radiate. sometimes forms part of prescriptions for liver complaints.

calyx tube encloses ovary containing tiny ovules. Many side branches. Action: Stimulant. N. Externally. aromatic. Rubiaceae. carminative. in rings of six to nine round stem. Habitat: Among hedges and bushes. Galium aparine. Goosebill. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water in wineglass doses for diarrhoea. bristly hairs at margins. Features: Quadrangular stem. weak but very lengthy. Fruit nearly globular. Synonym: Cleavers. nail-shaped. creeping up the hedges by little prickly hooks. petals arranged like Maltese Cross .Page 35 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Catchweed.O. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N.swsbm. Madagascar. cultivated in Zanzibar. the latter a larger proportion of solid matter.com . always in pairs. Hot or cold infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint in wineglass doses frequently. Features: Flower buds brown . alterative. Action : Diuretic. Saline taste. CLOVES. Synonym : Clavos. Hayriffe.Part used : Herb. tonic. also covered with hooked bristles. Goosegrass. Eugenia caryophyllata. four calyx teeth surrounded by unopened corolla consisting of four petals. The two herbs are frequently used together. Java. Obstructions of urinary organs. Part used: Flower buds. Flowers white. Action: Astringent. Clivers is similar in action to Gravelroot. Myrtaceae. very small. as an astringent skin lotion. rough. with backward. Leaves small. Also as a gargle for relaxed throat. the former causing a more copious watery flow. CLIVERS. Part used : Herb. Penang. few together on stalk rising from leaf ring.O. Habitat: Indigenous to the Molucca Island. lanceolate. one-eighth inch diameter.

Combined with more specific remedies in flatulence and other affections of the alimentary tract. Is an excellent carminative to reduce griping action of purgatives. Dose, 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of the infusion. Coffin holds that Cloves are the most powerful of all the carminatives. COHOSH, BLACK. Cimicifuga racemosa. N.O. Ranunculaceae.
Synonym : Known also as Black Snakeroot. Habitat : The dried rhizome and roots are imported from the U.S.A., to which country and Canada the plant is indigenous. Features : Thick, hard and knotty, the root is bitter and acrid in taste, and gives off a rather nauseating smell. Part used : Rhizome and roots. Action: Astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue and alterative.

The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water, is administered in wineglassful doses. Its chief importance lies in the treatment of rheumatism, and the root figures frequently in herbal prescriptions for this complaint. In small doses it is useful in children's diarrhoea, and is reputed to be a remedy for St. Vitus' Dance (chorea), although its efficacy here is dubious. Cimicifuga should be taken with care, as overdoses produce nausea and vomiting. COLTSFOOT. Tussilago farfara. N.O. Compositae.
Synonym : Also recognised as Coughwort and Horsehoof, the name Coltsfoot is from the shape of the leaf, which is supposed to resemble a colt's foot. Habitat : It prefers moist, clayey soil, and is usually found growing near streams and ditches. Features : Springing erect from the stem is entirely covered with small angular, long-stalked, toothed leaves white hairs underneath. Large, daisy Herbal Manual ground to a height of about eight inches, the brown scales and a loose cottony down. The are about four inches, green above with long type, bright yellow flowers appear, one to each by Harold Ward - Page 36

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stalk, from February to April, long before the leaf growth. and rather astringent, the odour scarcely noticeable. Part used : Leaves. Action: Expectorant and demulcent.

The taste is mucilaginous

Coltsfoot leaves are used in a decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water, simmered down to 1 pint, which is taken in teacupful doses. Its expectorant and demulcent action is of great help in cough remedies when in conjunction with pectorals such as Horehound. The leaves also form a useful constituent of asthma and whooping-cough medicines, and are smoked as a relief against asthma, bronchitis and catarrh. These same uses were known centuries ago, as witness Culpeper : "The dry leaves are best for those that have thin rheums, and distillations upon the lungs, causing a cough, for which also the dried leaves taken as tobacco, or the root, is very good." COMFREY. Symphytum officinale. N.O. Boraginaceae.
Synonym : Knitbone, Nipbone. Habitat : Damp fields and waste places ; ditch and river sides. Features : The hairy stem is two to three feet high, freely branched, rough and angular. Egg-shaped to lance-shaped leaves, with wavy edges, hug the stem above, the lower ones having long stalks ; they are all large and hairy. The plant produces yellowish, bluish, or purplish-white flowers in May and June, all on the same side of the stem. The root is brownish-black, deeply wrinkled, greyish and horny internally. The taste is mucilaginous and sweetish, and the dried herb has an odour resembling that of tea. Part used : Root and leaves. Action: The roots, and to some extent the leaves, are demulcent and astringent.

The action of Comfrey is similar to that of Marsh Mallow, and consequently it is a popular cough remedy. It is also used as a fomentation in strained and inflammatory conditions of the muscles, and will promote suppuration of boils and other skin eruptions. A decoction is made by boiling 1/2 to 1 ounce of the crushed root in 1 quart of water,
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reducing to 1 1/2 pints, and is taken in wineglass doses. Coffin tells us the root of the plant is also "a good tonic medicine, and acts friendly on the stomach; very useful in cases where, from maltreatment, the mouth, the throat and stomach have become sore." COWSLIP. Primula veris. N.O. Primulaceae.
Synonym : Herb Peter, Paigles, Palsywort. Habitat: Moist pastures and open places. Features: Round, downy stem rising well above the leaves, which lie, rosette-like, on the ground. Leaves grow from the root, stalkless, undivided, velvety appearance similar to primrose leaves, but shorter and rounder. Yellow, tubular flowers bunch together on one stalk, each flower emerging from the same point, outer blossoms drooping. Part used: Corolla. Action: Antispasmodic, sedative.

In the reduction of involuntary spasmodic movements, restlessness and similar symptoms. Used also in insomnia. The usual herbal infusion is taken in tablespoonfuls as required. Both cowslip and primrose were at one time prescribed for rheumatism, gout and paralysis, but their value in these diseases has long since been disproved. CRAMP BARK. Viburnum opulus. N.O. Caprifoliaceae.
Synonym: Guelder Rose, High Cranberry, Snowball Tree. Habitat: Cultivated in shrubberies, etc., for decorative purposes. Features : Very thin bark, greyish-brown outside with corky growths (lenticels), slight longitudinal crackings, laminate, light brown internally. Fracture forms flat splinters. Part used : Bark. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 38

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sandy places. yellowish-brown scales. Seed-pod is distinctive— long.O. The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water (simmered from 1 1/2 pints) is administered in 1-2 tablespoon doses. Gnaphalium uliginosum. Features: Stem usually under five inches. almost circular in form. Decoction of equal quantities of Cranesbill and Bistort makes a good twice-daily injection against leucorrhea. Geranium pratense. Flowerheads small. Synonym: Meadow Cranesbill.swsbm. As the name indicates. tonic. Marsh Cudweed.Action : Antispasmodic. Compositae. Leaves smooth above. much branched. Dark green leaves. sharp-pointed. in cramp and other involuntary spasmodic muscular contractions.O.com . about an inch long by one-fifth of an inch wide. Habitat: Moist pasture land. possesses similar properties to the above. Proportionate doses give good results in infantile diarrhoea. An infusion of 1 ounce Cranesbill herb to 1 pint of water may be given frequently in wineglass doses. in corymb form. CRANESBILL. freely branched. diuretic. The root of the former is used to some extent medicinally. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . particularly in East England." Part used: Herb. Geranium maculatum. Geraniaceae. Features: Stem up to three feet high. Action: Astringent. Arrests internal and external bleeding. with five to seven much-divided leaflets. and exerts tonic and astringent effect on the kidneys. N. coarsely notched at edges. or American Cranesbill. swollen at the joints. N. CUDWEED. oppressed hairs underneath.Page 39 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym: Cotton Weed. Habitat: Wet. nervine. with cottony down. pendulous—and might be said by the imaginative to resemble a "crane's bill.

The name of this almost ubiquitous plant is a corruption of the French "dents de lion" (lion's teeth). Features: Leaves alternate. although not unpleasantly so. Taraxacum officinale. and bitter to the taste. Part used: Roots and leaves. wedge-shaped.Page 40 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Of great value as a gargle for inflammation of the salivary glands of the mouth and throat generally. Action: Aphrodisiac. Action: Diuretic. in addition to being used for gargling should be taken internally in wineglassful doses. N. Action: Astringent. which are broader towards the top than at the base.swsbm. and contains the familiar milk-like juice. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. The roots are long. and refers to the coarse teeth edging the leaf.Part used: Herb. are tooth-edged in a slightly backward direction. Turnera aphrodisiaca. hairy. and in atonic dyspepsia and rheumatism. tonic. dark brown. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken in wineglass doses thrice daily. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . are strap-like in form. Contrary to widely-held belief.O. hollow. rather fig-like taste. Features: The stem is slender. tonic. Part used: Leaves. shortly stalked. serrate. and slightly aperient. the properties of the herb are better utilised in combination with other agents. Aromatic. DANDELION. Used for its aphrodisiac qualities and general tonic effect on the nervous system. N. DAMIANA. Compositae. Habitat: Central America. daisy-like flower is wholly composed. revolute.com . While a Dandelion decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) may be taken alone and drunk freely with benefit. of which only the central portion of the yellow. The root is a constituent of many prescriptions for dropsical and urinary complaints. Each of the petals. The long thin leaves. Turneraceae.O.

florets bunched together.O. smooth at margins. hairy. channeled. Flowers in June. twice pinnate. covered with exuded glaucous matter.com . The common name is derived from the root. oval-lanceolate. Action: Demulcent. but using only about half the quantity. Synonym: Dill Fruit. Scabiosa succisa. and drunk regularly. also seen growing wild in gardens. N. freshly gathered. Flowers dark purple. diaphoretic. which appears to have been bitten off at the end. terminal umbels. Eneldo. slender. Fruits very small.O.Page 41 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is of help in removing warts. is as a substitute for coffee. Taste is distinctive. Features: Stem erect. Habitat: Heaths and pastures.Dandelion root would seem to have little or no action on the liver. after roasting and grinding. Prepared like coffee. marked on back in three ridges. slightly serrate. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . but recalls caraway. smooth. Compositae. it acts as a mild laxative in habitual constipation. on long stalk. compressed oval. without any of the disadvantages which attend coffee drinking. DEVIL'S BIT. Habitat: Waste places . The most popular use for Dandelion root.swsbm. root leaves stalked. DILL. with three dark lines (oil cells) between. ovoid. Features : Stem up to eighteen inches. well-branched. Synonym : Ofbit. with which vandalism "the devil" is credited. Leaves opposite. A 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken warm in wineglassful doses frequently. Compositae. Peucedanum graveolens. N. nearly sessile . Juice of either flower stalk or leaf. Included in formulae for coughs and feverish conditions generally. Leaves alternate. Part used: Herb. The fresh leaf is best taken in salads. to which beverage it bears a remarkable resemblance. Dill Seed.

Action : Carminative. stomachic.The Indian Dill differs from our European variety in the essential oil contained in the seeds. Features : This familiar small tree.Page 42 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. These properties of the flowers are obtained from infusions of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water in wineglass doses. N. diaphoretic. Dose. Country folk aptly limit our English summer when they say that it does not arrive until the Elder is in full blossom. ELECAMPANE. diuretic. N. spongy pith. chiefly for the reduction of feverish colds.O. Inula helenium. Part used : Dried ripe fruits. to be followed by the decorative. deep green and smooth. drooping bunches of purplish-black. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . emollient. flat-topped masses of flowers bloom in July. The leaves are opposite. 1 to 8 drachms. but inflamed conditions of the eyes are also found to yield to bathing with the warm Elder flower infusion.com . Compositae. with a bark that is light grey and corky externally. It is used.O. The well-known and widely used Dillwater is a sound remedy for children's digestive disorders. ELDER. Although the medicinal qualities are weaker in the berries than in the flowers. the popular Elder berry wine is widely used as part of the treatment for colds and influenza. Synonym: Black Elder. An ointment made from the leaves has been of help to sufferers from chilblains.swsbm. has young branches containing light. alterative. Caprifoliaceae. Sambucus nigra. and ends when the berries are ripe! Part used: Flowers. twelve to twenty feet high. particularly wind in stomach or bowels. Habitat: Woods and hedges throughout Europe. Creamy-white. often in conjunction with Peppermint and Yarrow. juicy berries. Action: Diaphoretic. European Elder. The oil is also given in 1 to 5 drop doses.

the root "warms a cold and windy stomach or the pricking therein. slight alterative and tonic qualities are noticed. we realize in what esteem Elecampane was held in the seventeenth century! But here again germs of truth are hidden among manifold exaggerations. roundish leaves are roughly divided into three short." When we are also told by the same author that it kills and expels worms. which grows to nearly one foot.O. wavy. Stiff. Root leaves have stalks.com . and stitches in the side caused by the spleen. . with beautiful veins and sharp teeth at the margins. In his view. smooth stem. Habitat: The plant is seen only on the sand dunes of the sea shore. pale blue flowers form a dense. horny and cylindrical. and wheezing of the lungs. Resisteth poison. . Features: The stem. solitary and terminal. growing up to three feet. The whole plant is similar in appearance to the horseradish. helps the cough. furrowed. arrests dental decay. The calyx is also egg-shaped and leafy. and the flowers. Eryngium maritimum. and can be of service in pulmonary disorders generally. blooming in July and August. Umbelliferae. Action: Diaphoretic. as also of putrid and pestilential fevers. Habitat: Moist meadows and pasture land. Blooming from July to September. Synonym: Commonly known as Sea Holly and Sea Eryngo. Features: A pale greenish-blue bloom is characteristic of the erect. cleanses the skin from morphew. broad lobes. ERYNGO.Page 43 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. N.Synonym: Aunee. the bright. its taste is bitter and acrid. Scabwort. are large. The root is light grey. and the odour reminiscent of camphor. and stayeth the venom of serpents. Skillfully compounded. serrate leaves embrace the stem. but those from the stem are sessile. is branched. Profitable for those that have their urine stopped. . expectorant and diuretic. Part used: Root. Wineglass doses are taken of a 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) decoction. and the plague itself. . hard.swsbm. . round head at the end of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . In combination with other remedies it is made up into cough medicines. shortness of the breath. These modest present-day claims for Elecampane are far exceeded by Culpeper's exuberance. . fastens loose teeth. egg-shaped. spots and blemishes. and downy above. brilliantly yellow in colour.

Action : Astringent and tonic. branched below. Richard Lawrence Hool. "Boil in 1 1/2 pints of water down to 1 pint. are topped with the bristly remnants of the leaf stalks. such as difficult and painful micturation. Action: Eryngo root is a diaphoretic. diuretic and expectorant. small. and under suitable soil conditions. It is mostly prescribed for bladder disorders.swsbm. and take a wineglassful four times a day. proceeding directly from the stem.O. The flowers are small. In cases of jaundice take : "Sea Holly 1 ounce Barberry bark 1/2 ounce "Boil in 1 quart of new milk for 10 minutes. Scrophulariaceae. axillary. Part used: The root is the only part of the plant recognised in herbalism. officinalis. but varies considerably in growth and development with the richness of the soil.branches. dark green. Features: The stems are four to six inches long. salty and slightly astringent. Brighteye. lanceolate or nearly rhomboid above. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . mucilaginous taste. and have a sweetish. N. as well as on sea cliffs. and alternate higher up the stem. thin arid cylindrical. strain. heaths. The blackish-brown roots. and take two wineglassfuls every three hours. Strain. The lower leaves are opposite each other." EYEBRIGHT. The taste is bitter. advises it in "sluggishness of the liver with uric acid accumulations." prepared as follows: "Sea Holly 1 ounce Wild Carrot 1 ounce. of the British and American Physio-Medical Association.Page 44 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and range in hue between white and purple. Habitat: Plentiful on commons. long. while some are delicately variegated with yellow. and in meadows. deeply cut. Euphrasia." He adds: "Most obstinate cases have been known to yield to this remedy in from 7-to 14 days.com . and also forms part of the treatment for uterine irritation. Synonym : Birdeye.

Habitat: Chalk cliffs and downs. awl-shaped leaflets. care being taken to strain thoroughly before using the tepid lotion. Umbelliferae. The eyebath should be freshly filled for each eye. diaphoretic. FEVERFEW. Taste and smell. N. Euphrasia is also employed externally to arrest hemorrhages. in broad. terminal umbels. hairy. In prescriptions where the above-mentioned properties are needed in mild form. Numerous flowers (June and July). very short hairs. Leaves thrice pinnate. serrate edges. Taste. yellow disc. Compositae. Synonym: Featherfew. and is frequently combined with Golden Seal to make an excellent lotion for this purpose. white petals. as its name indicates. May be taken in the usual infusion. slightly curved. Featherfoil. freely branched. Part used: Herb. Fruit oblong. branches towards top. striated. smooth. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Pyrethrum parthenium. bipinnatifid.O. Synonym: Hinojo. about four and a half by two and a half inches.com . convex below.swsbm. half-inch long by one-tenth inch broad. Chrysanthemum parthenium. N. These seeds appear in the formula for the well-known Compound Liquorice Powder. finely furrowed. Leaves alternate. three to four feet. cylindrical. Features: Stem erect. is valued mainly as an application in inflammation and weakness of the eyes. Action: Carminative. sweetish and aromatic.Page 45 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. A large pinch of the herb should be infused with sufficient boiling water for each application. Part used: Seeds. each on stalk. leaf stalk flat above. erect. stimulant.This herb. FENNEL. Flowers (July and August) golden yellow. hedges. Foeniculum dulce. stomachic.O. Features: Stem one and a half feet high. very unpleasant. Habitat: Waste places.

diuretic.A. bluish-green. and is applied as lotion and injection. Assists in promotion of the menses and in the expulsion of worms. Part used: Root bark. Fumaria officinalis. Part used: Herb.com . several on stalk. Snowdrop Tree. Fumariaceae. For stomach and liver disorders and minor skin blemishes. Fracture short. Infusion of 1 Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . diuretic. inside smooth.O. In stomach and liver disorders. Features: Stem weak. Also finds a place in gall-stone prescriptions and those for certain female disorders. yellowish-brown. in which latter Pulsatilla is another frequent constituent. FUMITORY. aperient. twice pinnate. N. carminative. Habitat: U. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken internally in 1-4 tablespoonful doses. Synonym: Earth Smoke. Habitat: Roadsides. sometimes erect. wineglassful doses. Chionanthus virginica. six to twelve inches long. Flowers (May to November) reddish-rose. sometimes trailing. Leaves alternate.S. Root about one-eighth inch thick. Very bitter taste. Features: A small tree with snow-white flowers which hang down like fringe—hence the common name and synonyms. Action: Slightly tonic. inner layer shows projecting bundles of stone cells. Oleaceae.swsbm. hepatic. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. brittle.Action: Aperient. fields.O. tonic. and poor digestive functioning generally. gardens.Page 46 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. dull brown with irregular concave scars on outer surface. Synonym: Old Man's Beard. Also given in hysterical conditions. FRINGE-TREE. N. Action: Alterative.

The taste is extremely bitter. Habitat: Grows abundantly throughout France. however. Part used: Rhizome. half to one inch thick. internally spongy and nearly white when fresh. quadrangular. wrinkled . N. Spain. slender. Gentianaceae. is the most popular of all herbal tonics and stomachics—and deservedly so. thus increasing the flow of gastric juice. GINGER. Aristolochiaceae. although here also the root contains the more active principles. rootlets whitish. Gentiana lutea. bitter taste.ounce to 1 pint may be taken freely.Page 47 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. One of the effects of the medicine is to stimulate the nerve-endings of taste. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. ovatelanceolate above and ovate-spatulate below. and ringed in the upper portion. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water. fracture short. and large areas of Central Europe. Part used: Large quantities of Gentiana lutea root are imported into this country as it is preferred to the English variety (Gentiana campestris—see below) for no very apparent therapeutic reason. It is flexible and tough. greyish to purplish brown. given in wineglass doses. Asarum canadense. about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick. WILD. an orange-brown tint and strong distinctive odour developing during drying. that Gentian root. will be found very helpful in dyspepsia and loss of tone. Features: Gentiana lutea root is cylindrical in form.O. or general debility of the digestive organs. The English Gentian (also known locally as Baldmoney and Felwort) grows to six inches high and is branched above.O. Features: Imported rhizome. Pungent. As a simple bitter it may be given in all cases when a tonic is needed.com . It is certain. entire margins. Flowers are bluish-purple. Synonym: Canadian Snake Root. Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America. The whole herb may be used for the same purposes as the foreign root. Leaves opposite.swsbm. GENTIAN. of whichever kind. the lower being longitudinally wrinkled.

diaphoretic. Habitat: This valuable plant appears. expectorant.Page 48 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and blood warm as a carminative.swsbm. It is indigenous to that part of the world. moist and shady soils. who first used the root about 1845. and have from three to seven acute lobes. since when it has figured prominently in herbal practice.O. As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains. 20 to 30 grains.Action: Stimulant. and it may be taken with advantage by most dyspeptics in doses of 10 grains of the powdered root. Golden Seal has proved itself to be a very valuable remedy in digestive disorders and in debilitated conditions of mucous membranes. Yellow Root. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes. Ranunculaceae. Action: Tonic. N. Part used: Golden Seal was so named by the followers of Thomson. the lower one stalked. The root is short. and the scent strong and unpleasant. according to Coffin. Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus. Dose of the dry powder. Hydrastis is also given in conjunction with Lime flowers and Valerian to reduce blood pressure. the upper one sessile. and covered with many rootlets. The leaves are alternate. Both are unequally toothed. Its use is indicated in various gastric complaints. carminative. The taste is very bitter. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Synonym : Orange Root. to have been first discovered and used by the aborigines of North America. and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed. and laxative. knotty with the bases of stems. alterative. Features: Golden Seal is found growing to a height of one to two feet in rich. Hydrastis canadensis. White and red single terminal flowers bloom in April. GOLDEN SEAL.com .

It is peculiar for a purple band about an inch broad round the leaf joint. florets yellow.O. Pale purple to white flowers bloom in August and September. with a nearly white wood and thin grey-brown bark. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water is made. The rhizome. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Compositae. and imported from California.com . Habitat: Indigenous to western regions of North America.O. H. Gravel root is also met with in nervine formulae. Compositae. Features: Our present subject is a member of the Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) family. bladder and uterus." GRINDELIA. Eupatorium purpureum. tough root several inches long. Its use promotes the flow of urine as scarcely anything else will. Habitat: Gravel Root is a native of the United States. Short. G. smooth. squarrosa. Grindelia camporum.Page 49 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Bitterish taste. from which the medicinal "Gravel Root" is obtained. N. Flower heads globular. has said that Gravel Root "induces very little stimulation. in which its tonic properties are recognised. Gravel root is much prescribed for cases of stone in the bladder and certain other troubles of the kidneys and urinary apparatus. approximately three inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Gum. as the medicinal "root" should more properly be termed.. serrate.D. and must not be confused with the English Queen of the Meadow or Meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria). lateral branches give off thin. Synonym : G. narrowing at base.swsbm. N.GRAVEL ROOT. Part used : Root. robusta. up to an inch thick. It expends nearly all its influence on the kidneys. England. Synonym: Eupatorium purpureum is also called Gravel Weed and Queen of the Meadow. brittle. and taken in wineglass doses. Hardy or Scaly Grindelia. scales of involucre reflexed. F. Action: Diuretic and stimulant. The American physio-medical or "Thomsonite" M. Features: Leaves broad. is hard and tough. It probably influences the whole sympathetic nervous system. Plant. and sometimes reaches six feet in height at full growth.

Compositae. Features : Erect. with slender. Glechoma hederacea. N. diuretic. but with advances in food distribution. this property is now rarely considered. In conjunction with Yarrow or Chamomile flowers an excellent poultice may be made for application to abscesses and gatherings.O. black-tipped Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . tonic. Two kidneyshaped leaves appear opposite each other at every joint. unbranched stem is six inches or so long. near old walls and under hedges. Synonym: Alehoof. angular. It is applicable to kidney disorders and dyspepsia. N. branched stem as high as nine inches.Page 50 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. toothed lobes. The paroxysms are quickly reduced both in sharpness and frequency.swsbm. purplish flowers bloom three or four together in the axils of the upper leaves. Labiateae.O. The taste is bitter and acrid." a reference to the speed at which the plant spreads.Part used: Herb. diuretic. short. oblong . Senecio vulgaris. meaning "ground glutton. GROUND IVY. The roots issue at the corners of the jointed stalks. It was formerly valued as an antiscorbutic. The infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. and often combined with Euphorbia and Yerba Santa for the former complaint. Action: Anti-asthmatic. Habitat: Woods and shady places. Common name originates from the Anglo-Saxon. Habitat: A garden weed. They are deeply crenate. Widely prescribed for asthma and bronchitis. as its common name and second synonym convey. Leaves sessile. Gill-go-over-the-Ground. Runaway Jack. Flowers small. creeps along the ground. Action: Astringent. the upper leaves purplish in colour and paler underneath. The quadrangular.com . the odour strong and aromatic. tonic. Features: This ivy. GROUNDSEL. yellow. Part used: The whole herb. and the two-lipped. Figures prominently in the American herbal materia medica. Haymaids.

smooth.O. single. florets tubular. N. do lie flat on the ground .Page 51 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. hepatic. Flowers in June. Violaceae. but there would appear to be no reliable confirmation of this. Features: Thomas Johnson. violet-like flower to each flower stalk.com . diuretic. rough and pliable. Carbenia benedicta. Action: Diuretic. and a gallant remedy for the inflammations of the lungs and breast. Compositae. It has been said that the medicine will ward off asthmatic and epileptic convulsions. The mildness of action makes it applicable in infantile skin eruptions. Features : Stem short. Salty taste.involucral scales. Relief of biliary pains in 2 ounce doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion.swsbm. A stronger infusion acts as a purgative and emetic. as also for falling sickness. branched.O. itch. usually wholly yellow but occasionally purple upper petals with dark stripes on lower. HEARTSEASE. concerning Heartsease : "The spirit of it is excellently good for the convulsions in children. the leaves are jagged round about and full of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . gives us the following description of this member of the familiar thistle family : "The stalks of Carduus benedictus are round." HOLY THISTLE. and being parted into diverse branches. Three carpel fruit. Viola tricolor. scabs. Synonym: Carduus benedictus. N. Blessed Thistle. petals of differing sizes. etc. in his edition of Gerard's Herbal. crenate. Synonym : Wild Pansy. pleurisy. Action : Diaphoretic. Part used : Herb. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Habitat: Cultivated fields. published in 1636. Part used: Herb. who writes. square. for which the ounce to pint infusion is given in doses according to age. The claim may have originated with Culpeper.

Page 52 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. nervous dyspepsia." Action: Although more popular among the old herbalists than among those of to-day. in his Herbal published 1568.com . As it is held to stimulate the mammary glands." HOPS.harmless prickles in the edges. agrees with Tilke that the herb is "very good for the headache and the megram. the whole herb. rough. cordate. it would be a perfect cure for the headache. Features: Stem rough. out of which standeth a yellow flower. Domestic Physician to the Lord Protector Somerset in the reign of King Edward VI. given warm in wineglass doses several times daily. As a tonic in prescriptions for debility. that by drinking an infusion once or twice a day. the seed is long and set with hairs at the top like a beard. the infusion has been given with the object of promoting the secretion of milk. Habitat: Extensively farmed for the brewing industry. N.O. are covered with a thin down. and is found growing wild in hedges and open woods." The same writer recommends it as a salad "instead of watercresses. Leaves in pairs. roundish. three. is also found capable of breaking up obstinate colds.swsbm. or what is commonly called the meagrims. and also the heads. Although usually given in combination with other herbs. serrate. curving over each other. Mainly used in digestive troubles. the root is white and parted into strings. the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. stimulant and diaphoretic properties. yellowish-green. Urticaceae. the heads on the top of the stalks are set with and environed with sharp prickling leaves. and general atony. sweeted with honey. very long. Holy Thistle is still valued for its tonic. leaves and stalks. will twist round any adjacent support." The medicinal use of Holy Thistle goes back far beyond the days of Tilke.or five-lobed. diuretic. stalked. Tilke is enthusiastic in his praise of the herb: "I have found it such a clarifier of the blood. or even Johnson. Action: Tonic. reticulate-veined. Flowers or catkins (more correctly called strobiles) consist of membranous scales. Humulus lupulus. instead of tea. nearly half-inch long. William Turner. the ounce Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . These are the fertile flowers which are used medicinally and industrially.

to pint infusion of hops taken thrice daily makes quite a good tonic medicine for those feeling "run-down. The whole herb is infused in 1 ounce quantities to 1 pint of water." HOREHOUND. and a Horehound candy is made which. freely branched. N. having expectorant and slight diuretic action. HOREHOUND. and is undoubtedly effective in coughs. Features: Stem stiff. Features: It grows to a height of one and a half to two feet.O. also spread with the soft hair. and its latter virtue has certainly been known for nearly three hundred years. BLACK. Marrubium vulgare. woolly hair. Synonym: Hoarhound. as Culpeper tells us that "it helpeth to expectorate tough phlegm from the chest." Coffin speaks highly of the tonic and expectorant qualities of Horehound. Labiateae. Horehound is probably the best known of all herbal pectoral remedies. The leaves. and taken frequently in wineglass doses. The bluntly four-cornered stem sends out spreading branches covered with white. Part used: The whole plant. erect. and particularly chalky waste ground. Marrubium nigrum. Action: Aromatic and bitter. The refreshing and healthy Horehound Beer or Ale is brewed from this herb. up to four feet high. the lower ones stalked.com . Synonym: Crantz. Leaves greyishHerbal Manual by Harold Ward . The small. Habitat: Horehound flourishes in dry.Page 53 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. those above sessile.swsbm. colds and pulmonary complaints. are egg-shaped and deeply toothed.O. Labiateae. Ballota nigra. Habitat: Hedgerows. waste ground. white flowers appear during July in thick rings just above the upper leaves. when properly prepared. N. is one of the best of "cough sweets." Lying on a pillow stuffed with hops is an old-fashioned way of dealing with insomnia.

diaphoretic. sliced Mustard seeds. labiate. Action : Stimulant." he tells us. Features : Root whitish.green. Flowers (July and August) purplish." HORSERADISH.swsbm. bruised Boiling water 1 oz. lower cordate. cylindrical.Page 54 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and makes wide claims on its behalf. Part used: Root. Cruciferae. crenate. etc. antispasmodic. Its stimulant and diuretic properties are said to be of value in the treatment of dropsy. Cochlearia armoracia. Coffin recommends : "Fresh Horseradish root. Diuretic and stimulant. Hyssop. N. Disagreeable odour. irritant. Marshmallow. diuretic. then strain. three tablespoonfuls three times a day. Used as a digestive. colds and bronchial complaints generally. either of itself or combined with other reliable remedies such as Lobelia. stalked. each pair pointing in opposite direction to next pair. upper ovate. Hool prefers this herb to the white Horehound (Marrubium vulgare). in rings just above leaves. He recommends it in the treatment of consumption. diaphoretic. Part used : Herb. Action: Stimulant. "it will be found most excellent. emetic. 1 pint "Let it stand in a covered vessel for four hours. especially those occurring after scarlet fevers and Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Taste and odour pungent. various menstrual troubles. hairy. in pairs. Coughs.com . about one foot long by three-quarters of an inch through. Dose. Useful in dropsies. expectorant. and parturition—in the last-named instance combined with Motherwort. mustard-like. Habitat: Indigenous to England and Eastern Europe. but it is rarely prescribed by modern herbalists.O. "In chronic coughs. accompanied by spitting of blood. 1/2 oz.

In cough and cold prescriptions. particularly for whooping cough. JUNIPER. Juniperus communis. N.com . leafy. Part used : Herb. in small axillary clusters on one side. Synonym: Cetraria. Habitat: Among other moss and grass in Sweden. When wet. tiny white spots on under surface. pulmonary complaints. Action: Stimulant. evergreen shrub may be seen growing on dry heaths and mountain slopes to a height of from two to five feet. channeled. Action: Demulcent. diaphoretic. Coniferae. terminates in flattened lobes.Page 55 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. wineglassful. Habitat: This freely-branched. small. smell resembles seaweed. Relieves obstinate coughs. ICELAND MOSS. The moss should be carefully washed before preparing the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water simmered to 1 pint. Part used: Lichen.intermittents.O. fringed with small papillae. Leaves opposite. carminative. Features: Stem woody. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is given in wineglass doses.O. to a height of about two feet. Hyssopus officinalis. Features: Thallus about three inches high. Chronic bronchial catarrh. grey or light brown. Nutrient properties of considerable value. pectoral. branched. febrifuge. and in other troubles of infancy. nutritive. Labiateae. hairy at margins.swsbm. nearly sessile. tonic. Cetraria islandica. Camphor-like odour. N.O. Dose. Lichenes. N. Iceland Lichen. lanceolate." HYSSOP. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. Flowers bluish-purple. or according to age.

Synonym: Hard-head. Compositae. The berries are sometimes included with suitable alteratives in formula for rheumatic complaints. knob. The berries are blue-black. Part used: Every part of the shrub is medicinal. Dr. are glaucous and concave above. Part used: Herb. Black Ray Thistle. It is on account of the Juniper Berries used in its manufacture that gin is so frequently recommended when a diuretic is needed. "a medicine will be obtained that has cured the dropsy in an advanced stage. N. and a quarter to half-inch in diameter. but the dried.O. . Features: Stem grows from one to two feet. hard appearance. Hard-hack. the medicine is much appreciated in kidney and bladder disorders. Leaves dull green.Page 56 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. upper sessile. are noticeable. As a reliable tonic diuretic. very much branched on downy underneath. However. Although frequently successful when taken alone. An acrid taste. whether acute or chronic. reddish-purple. Action: Diuretic.swsbm. slightly salty. it is more usually prescribed with other agents such as Parsley Piert. keeled underneath. is to eschew the gin. one authority at least. irregularly thistle-shaped . Fruit without pappus. globular. ripe fruit or berries only are used in modern practice. stimulant and carminative. Ironweed (these due to its resistance to the mower's scythe). lower stalked. considers that "the better plan .. angular." KNAPWEED. and a characteristic odour resembling that of turpentine. An infusion of 1 ounce of the berries to 1 pint of water may be taken freely in wineglassful doses. Uva Ursi. Star Thistle. and Buchu.. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . scaly surrounded by bristles.Features : The leaves open in whorls of three. alternate sides.com tough. Centaurea nigra. Coffin. Habitat: Pastures and meadows. notched edges. and make a tea of the berries"! The same writer tells us that if Juniper boughs are burnt to ashes and the ashes put into water. Flowers hair-like petals grow from nearly black. Taste.

Alchemilla vulgaris. nine blunt. as well as spasmodic nervous complaints.O. wavy.swsbm.O. Synonym : Lion's Foot. Fracture short and white. Knapweed is held in some quarters to equal Gentian in all-round efficacy. diuretic. Action: Astringent. Synonym: American Valerian. saliva-drying taste. N. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required. Part used: Herb.Action: Tonic. and to allay pain Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Features: Flower supposed to resemble a lady's shoe in form. Rhizome about quarterinch diameter. thickly-matted roots underneath. Action: Antispasmodic. N. Mocassin flower. Greenish flowers. As a general tonic for most of the purposes for which Gentian is used. nervine. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. many cupshaped scars on top surface. bloom in small clusters from forked stem. Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides. on long stalks. Habitat: United States of America. LADIES' SLIPPER.Page 57 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. without petals.com . Rosaceae. Noah's Ark. Cypripedium pubescens. antispasmodic. about two inches across. Nerveroot. Astringent. nervine. Features: Whole plant covered with silky hairs. tonic. The ounce to pint infusion is taken in wineglass doses. Leaves rounded. diaphoretic. serrate lobes. Combined with other tonics in the relief of neuralgia. In excessive menstruation and flooding. but the latter is much more frequently prescribed. Part used: Rhizome. Orchidaceae. LADIES' MANTLE.

internodes about two inches long. 1 drachm of the powdered rhizome. Synonym: Convallaria. Tully. on distinct (eight to twelve-stalked) flower stem. entire at edges. pale brown. Enhances muscular functioning of heart and arteries. . of Troy. and is consequently Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Their properties.com ." LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY. Features: Leaves approximately five inches by two inches.O. all the species are equally remedial. however." Professor Rafinesque. it is of little use unless the cause of the nervous excitement is traced and removed. for the first time.generally. broadly lanceolate. Action: Cardiac tonic. May Lily. Commonly cultivated in gardens. have been tested and confirmed by Dr. diuretic. etc. They have long been known to the Indians. branched rootlets at each joint. then Professor of Medical Botany in the University of Transylvania. Flowers small. bellshaped. The remarks of Rafinesque. N. with parallel veins. white. with eight to ten long.Page 58 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. . this beautiful genus into our materia medica .swsbm. They are preferable to opium in many cases. cylindrical. They produce beneficial effects in all nervous diseases and hysterical affections by allaying pain. Of use in hysteria and other nervous disorders. and were used by the empyrics of New England. who called them moccasin flower. of Albany. are interesting in view of the "orthodox" attitude towards remedies of the herbalists : "I am enabled to introduce. . Liliaceae. sweet-scented. Convallaria majalis. Like other medicines of a similar nature. pendulous. having no baneful or narcotic effect. Rhizome slender. dark green. Part used: Whole plant. Habitat: Grows wild in shady places in some of the English counties. particularly Samuel Thomson. quieting the nerves and promoting sleep. scarcely ever seen wild in Scotland and Ireland. Dose. however. but is rarely found in many others. Hales. goes even further than would Thomson and his successors when he announces that "all the species are equally remedial. Dr.

LIME FLOWERS. Action: Demulcent. LIQUORICE. emollient. Tilia europaea. Leaves alternate. Part used: Flowers. The infusion is 1 drachm in 1 pint of boiling water. Dose. This herb is one of the substitutes for the digitalis of the allopaths. N.used in cardiac debility. veined. with few branches. yellowish and fibrous inside .O. but it must be taken only in the prescribed doses. Root greyish-brown externally. and is also given for nervous headaches and hysterical tendencies. Features: Stem erect. Glycyrrhiza glabra. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . 1 tablespoonful of the 1/2 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion. Three to six yellowishwhite flowers on each flower stalk . pectoral. and bed-time baths in equivalent strength will sometimes help those suffering from insomnia. Features: Leaves cordate.com . Liliaceae. Taste sweetish. striated. Synonym: Licorice. stimulant.O. Has been recommended in dropsy. Russian and Persian varieties have a red-brown scaly exterior. Flowers (August) purple. Action: Nervine. the two anther cells are separated on short divergent stalks at the tip of the many stamens. expectorant. Synonym : Linden Flowers. which is decidedly less sweet than the root proper and can be recognised by a central pith. Leguminosae. ovate. as larger quantities may result in purging and emesis. A popular remedy for chronic catarrhal conditions following colds. doubly serrate. Spanish and Russian roots contain large amounts of rhizome. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens and fields. transverse section shows radiate structure.Page 59 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. pea-like. N. Habitat: The large tree is seen frequently as a decorative bordering to avenues and drives in town and country. hairy underneath.swsbm. and are slightly bitter and acrid Part used: Root.

with a tea-spoonful of linseed and lemon juice as desired. Herbalists who use Lobelia insist that it is most certainly not a poison. Unlike most emetics from the mineral kingdom. cultivated in Salt Lake City. the history of Lobelia is interesting. which are so common in the use of antimony.Page 60 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the action in bronchial complaints is speedy and beneficial. sessile. and diaphoretic. as its administration brings about the prompt removal of accumulations of mucus. Part used : Herb and seeds are used. in height from twelve to eighteen inches. and is at the same time safe in its operations. The fruit is in the form of a flat. Action: Emetic. brown in colour.Well-known remedy for coughs and chest complaints. pitted surface. Lobelia may emphatically be said to 'operate in unison with the laws of life'. Emetic Weed. official medicine in England classifies it as a poison. zinc. Campanulaceae. Habitat: North America . the odour slight.swsbm. and the plant bears a small blue. Lobelia inflata has for many years been one of the most widely discussed and hotly debated articles used in medicine. LOBELIA. oval capsule. whitish glands on the edge. and that it can be administered by them in large doses with perfect safety. N. The root is fibrous. and the sulphate of copper. Pukeweed. it produces its specific effect without corroding the stomach or producing morbid irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane of this organ. Features: A biennial herb. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1^ pints of water reduced to 1 pint. which contains ovate-oblong seeds about one eighth of an inch long. frequently with linseed. While many herbalists contend that it is the most valuable of all botanic remedies. and ovate-lanceolate. stimulant. North American Indians had apparently long been acquainted Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . the leaves are alternate. and. One to three inches long. antispasmodic. They use it chiefly as an emetic. Lobelia inflata. the stem is angular and slightly hairy. with small.com .O. may be drunk freely. Coffin's comments in this connection are enthusiastic: "Lobelia is decidedly the most certain and efficient emetic known. The taste is burning and acrid like tobacco. expectorant." In view of the controversy surrounding its use. Synonym: Indian Tobacco. with a reticulated. pointed flower.

Podophyllum is a very valuable hepatic. Although apparently unrecognised in Coffin's day. This is one of the many confirmations of one of the basic postulates of herbal medicine—the nearer we can get to natural conditions the better the results.swsbm. Berberidaceae. the root is imported into this country in large quantities for medicinal purposes. and has knotty joints at distances of about two inches. Racoonberry. and a thorough but slow-acting purgative. Therapeutic principles are never the same when taken from their proper environment. but in no instance has a verdict been obtained against them. Correctly compounded with other herbs it is wonderfully effective in congested conditions of the liver.com . dealt with elsewhere. and needs such skillful combination with other herbs. the modern natural healer highly appreciates the virtues of this medicine and has many uses for it. but its first introduction to general use was due to the efforts of the famous American. brought the herb to this country and used it extensively in his practice for over forty years. In both America and Britain herbalists have been tried on charges of causing death by administering Lobelia.Page 61 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. fairly smooth. and from the tender infant to the aged.with its properties. and has a salutary influence on other parts of the system. Podophyllum peltatum. the glands in particular being helped to normal functioning. Habitat: A common plant in the United States and Canada. N. Features: The rhizome (as the part used should more strictly be termed) is reddishbrown in colour. Synonym : May Apple. Dr. MANDRAKE. His disciple.O. Preparations of the rhizome of the American Mandrake are found in practice to be much more effective than those of the resin. AMERICAN. Samuel Thomson. American Mandrake is an entirely different plant from White Bryony or English Mandrake. The fracture shows whitish and mealy." to quote Coffin himself. it should not be used by the public without the advice of one experienced in prescribing it to Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Coffin. apparently with great success "in almost every form of disease. Wild Lemon. As American Mandrake is so powerful in certain of its actions.

as the demulcent. flowers. Marigold is frequently combined with Witch Hazel when a lotion is required. Malvaceae. Synonym: Calendula. hairy up to one foot high. white and fibrous internally. no pappus. Action: The root is preferred. MARSHMALLOW. Schloss Tea. N. Marygold. resembling those of the parsnip. the soft leaves being five-lobed below and three-lobed above. Synonym: Guimauve. Sprained muscles gain relief from the hot fomentation.O. and externally as a lotion for chronic ulcers and varicose veins.com .Page 62 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. emollient. Fruit semicircular. stimulant. The roots should be stored in a very dry place. MARIGOLD. Habitat: Marshes near the sea. The taste is mucilaginous and unpleasant. Calendula officinalis. N. Caltha officinalis. Taste bitter. rough. native of South America. all hairy. Flower-heads yellow. The infusion of 1 ounce of the flowers or herb to 1 pint boiling water is prescribed both for internal use in 1-2 tablespoonful doses.individual needs. the tubular florets sterile. Part used: Herb. The infusion is also given to children (in doses according to age) suffering from measles and other feverish and eruptive complaints. and is distinguishable from the Common Mallow by the velvety down covering the stem and leaves. Features : Stem angular. and greyish-white outside. Features : This erect plant grows to a height of three feet. smell unpleasantly strong. with only a very slight odour. diuretic and expectorant properties are present here in greater strength. Lower leaves stalked. angular. upper sessile. The pinkishblue flowers appear in luxuriant axillar panicles between July and September. or a yellowish matter of disagreeable smell will form.swsbm. Part used : Root and leaves. Mallards. Althea officinalis. Habitat: Common in English gardens. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. Stems are round. Roots are thick and fleshy. Action: Diaphoretic. spatulate. Compositae. antispasmodic.

and the two remedies are frequently made up into an ointment for skin diseases. end leaf has three leaflets with longer one in middle . creamy white. Action : Astringent. Spiraea ulmaria. woody. white and downy underneath. was sent for . sides of ditches. N. dense cymes. Its diuretic and emollient qualities adapt it to urinary complaints and. Habitat : Low-lying meadows. the College of Physicians not knowing what to make of it. diuretic. boils and ulcers. in wineglass doses." MEADOWSWEET. Rosaceae. myself being in the country. alternate. the only thing I gave him was Mallow bruised and boiled both in milk and drink . tonic. usually in combination with other remedies.swsbm. there appears to be some relaxing effect) it is particularly suitable in the treatment of nephritis. Dolloft. and I have here to shew my thankfulness to God in communicating it to his creatures.Marshmallow. Part used : Herb. dark green on top surface. Synonym : Bridewort. in two days it cured him. serrate . three or four feet high. Culpeper relates a personal story about this herb : "You may remember that not long since there was a raging disease called the bloody flux . The leaves are taken as an infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water frequently.Page 63 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and the leaves also are used as a fomentation in inflammation. Flowers small. clustered in large. The addition of Slippery Elm powder improves the poultice. called it The Plague in the Guts. Features : Stem strong.com . Queen-of-the-Meadow. reddish hue. is taken internally for coughs. as there is no astringent action (indeed. cystitis and gravel. colds and bronchitis. aromatic. The powdered or crushed fresh roots make a first-rate poultice. Leaves in large and small pairs. for their wits were at ne plus ultra about it.O. My son was taken with the same disease . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . leaving it to posterity.

Hawthorn. Leaves in threes. yellow. ovate-truncate. its pleasantly aromatic. Synonym: European Mistletoe. two horns at base of leaf stalk. Sometimes used in fomentations and poultices. Habitat: Parasitic on the Oak. Melilotus officinalis.Page 64 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in one-sided clusters. It is especially useful in infantile diarrhea. broader towards the end.O. Action: Carminative.com . Part used: Leaves. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria. Apple and many other trees. MELILOT. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in wineglass doses as needed. emollient. Flowers small. two or three feet high. serrate. N. Synonym: King's Clover. Action: Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. MISTLETOE. Hay-like taste and scent. nor even from the decaying bark. The leaves are obtuse lance-shaped. The flower-heads are yellowish and the berries white. epilepsy. The plant is tasteless and without odour. receiving no nourishment from the soil. to relieve flatulence. Features: Stem erect. Birdlime Mistletoe. and grow from a smooth-jointed stem about a foot high. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. Features: This familiar evergreen is a true parasite. tonic and diuretic qualities making it particularly suitable for this purpose. Habitat: Waste places. Leguminosae. sessile.O. Loranthaceae.swsbm.The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in wineglassful doses for strangury and dropsy. Viscum album. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Meadowsweet is included in recipes for many herb beers. N. Part used: Herb.

small. and healeth old ulcers and sores.Culpeper is at his most "Culpeperish" in discussing this plant. Occasionally prescribed with diuretics. Habitat: Heaths. Linum cartharticum. Action: Laxative. five-parted with serrate sepals. In constipation.swsbm. MOUNTAIN FLAX. and are of subtle parts. Flowers small. doth mollify the hardness of the spleen. Dose. Both the leaves and berries of Mistletoe do heat and dry. and draweth thick as well as thin humours from remote parts of the body. white (June to September). and sometimes preferred to the latter. from the Latin viscum. makes a first-rate family medicine. higher lanceolate. ripeneth and discuteth them. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . that he does so! The birdlime mentioned in the quotation and also in the synonyms is the resin viscin. rarely gripes. lower obovate. action similar to Senna. birdlime. bitter and acrid. moorlands. Part used: Herb. it helpeth to draw off foul nails. it is feared that the modern herbal consultant would encounter serious difficulties if he attempted to follow the Culpeperian procedure too literally—although certain people still believe. wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion. Features: Stem simple. as witness: "The birdlime doth mollify hard knots. and if quicklime and wine lees be added thereunto it worketh the stronger. entire. etc. up to eight inches high.com . occasionally meadows and pastures. for gravel and dropsy. Being mixed with Sandarack and Orpiment. Combined with tonics and stomachics such as Gentian and Calumba root.Page 65 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.. And being mixed with equal parts of resin and wax. N. Leaves opposite." While some truth may be hidden behind all this quaint terminology. tumours and imposthumes. Linaceae Synonym: Purging Flax. digesting and separating them. pointed petals. cathartic.O. Taste. or affect to believe.

Habitat: Flourishes in sandy and gravelly waste ground.O. hairy. diaphoretic. MULLEIN.O. Features : Reaching a height of four feet. wineglass doses. Habitat: Banks and dry pastures. Blanket Herb. angular. Verbascum thapsus. Odour aromatic. silvery-white down beneath. Synonym: Great Mullein. longitudinal channels. elongate-lanceolate. Compositae.O. the thick. In menstrual obstruction. nearly smooth above. or Candle Flower. Features : Stem up to four feet. given common name owing to imagined resemblance to a mouse's ear in form. diuretic. Flowers (July and August) ovoid. Features: Stem 6-8 inches. slightly hairy. N. Part used: Leaves. MUGWORT. Habitat : Hedgerows and about walls. Synonym: Hawkweed. in clusters. Leaves form small rosettes around stem. N. expectorant. usually with Pennyroyal and Southernwood.swsbm. Action: Emmenagogue. The ounce to pint infusion. un-branched stem is Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. Compositae.com . Flowers lemon-coloured. leaves slightly bitter. Part used: Herb. five to seven lobes. erect. purplish. taken in wineglass doses. Artemisia vulgaris. Leaves alternate. creeping. Action: Astringent.Page 66 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Pilosella. Hieracium pilosella. outer petals tinted red underneath.MOUSEEAR. N. Synonym : Felon Herb. and is sometimes noticed under garden cultivation. Scrophulariaceae. makes quite a useful medicine for whooping and other coughs.

and advised it to be taken in wine. Habitat: Under field cultivation. leaves narrow at the base into two wings which pass down the stem. N. and of particular value in correcting spasmodic conditions of bladder and ureter. as oatmeal. and more ovate in shape. this feature enabling the medicinal Mullein to be distinguished from Verbascum nigrum and various other Mulleins. Part used: Leaves and flowers. A medicine is made by infusing 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water. This is recommended mainly for chest coughs and certain other pulmonary complaints. are built of five golden-yellow. Mullein has been considered a pile cure for several hundred years. Part used: Seeds. the upper ones becoming decurrent.Page 67 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Dose. and are densely packed on a woolly spike some foot or more in length. stimulant. either fine or coarse. flannel-like leaves are lanceolate-oblong below. which bloom in July and August. The flowers. Graminaceae. As a restorative in nervous exhaustion. Iris florentina. He tells us that this "is commended by Dioscorides against lasks and fluxes of the belly. Iridaceae. the usual dose being a wineglassful. The crushed or coarsely powdered oats is known as groats. rounded petals. Characteristic of the plant.heavily coated with hairs. Synonym: Groats. N.O. Curative properties of oats may be utilized through the medium of the fluid extract. taken frequently. The large. pectoral and astringent. antispasmodic. Avena sativa. Culpeper preferred the root to the leaves and flowers. Features: Oats of commerce and general use are the seeds of Avena sativa with the husk removed. smaller. ORRIS.com . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward ." OATS. Action: Nervine. 10-30 drops. tonic. Action: Demulcent.O.swsbm. and the powder. and is still used for this purpose both internally and as a fomentation.

Flowers large. especially near the sea. hard. Part used : Root. serrate . and may also be used externally for wounds and ulcers. The Moroccan root is noticeable for the dirty white cortex which remains on the root. Large quantities of the finely pulverised root are used in the preparation of toilet and dusting powders. dentifrices and cachous. Synonym: Field Daisy.com . Great Ox-Eye. Habitat: Cultivated in Northern Italy and Morocco. for which purposes the acceptable fragrancy and other appropriate qualities make Orris root eminently suitable. Large internal doses induce vomiting. is irregular in shape and shows marks where the rootlets branched before preparation for export. spatulate. angular. slightly branched. and as an injection in leucorrhea.swsbm. and appears more compressed. Verona Orris root tapers more gradually than that from Florence. Marguerite. Orris gives off a violet-like scent. Toilet recipes are given in another section of this book. remainder sessile.O. Habitat: Fields. To some extent in whooping cough and asthma. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. tonic. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) is taken in wineglass doses. white. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Compositae. Leaves from lower part stalked.Synonym: Florentine Orris. OX-EYE DAISY. oblong. which is preferred to other varieties. each on its own long flower stalk. Features: The white Florentine root. Orris is not used for purely medicinal purposes. daisy-like. Horsegowan. serrate. Part used: Herb. The tonic effect is similar to that of Chamomile. N.Page 68 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. smooth. but the greater popularity of the latter is probably justified. Moon Daisy. Action: Antispasmodic. Features: Stem from one to two feet.

Axillary tufts of small. N. Habitat: Old walls. angular. Action: Diuretic. Habitat: Not common as a wild plant. except on damp heaths and commons. the whole plant rather hairy. Action: Diuretic. one to two inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. rather hairy. axillar. Leaves alternate.PARSLEY PIERT. edges smooth. stem reddish. Leaves small. laxative. Gravel. PELLITORY-OF-THE-WALL. Mentha pulegium. Features: Up to two feet high.swsbm. Synonym : European Pennyroyal. Parietaria officinalis. and other bladder and kidney disorders. stalked. N. Part used: Herb. Frequently prescribed in combination with Wild Carrot and Parsley Piert. Features: This member of the mint family grows up to twelve inches high. Frequently seen in cottage gardens. Indigenous to Britain and Europe. Habitat: Hedgerows.O. greenish flowers. palmate lower down. Part used : Herb. suppression of urine.O. trifid higher up the stem. small. PENNYROYAL.com . The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be given in teacupful doses thrice daily in all kidney and bladder irregularities. Alchemilla arvensis. Features : Up to six inches in height. in better soils. Labiateae. Synonym : Parsley Breakstone.O.Page 69 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rosaceae. lanceolate. brittle. Wineglass doses of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. the stem Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. Numerous pink flowers (June and July). demulcent. A widely-used diuretic acting directly on the parts. Urticaceae.

Ranunculaceae. Convulsive and spasmodic nervous troubles as chorea and epilepsy. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. Transverse section of root is starchy. Paeonia officinalis.Page 70 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. American or Mock Pennyroyal are the names given to the dried leaves and flowering tops of Hedeoma pulegioides. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. they are slightly serrate and nearly smooth. Synonym: Common Peony. flatulence and sickness. the mint-like flavour and carminative virtues of Pennyroyal should recommend it to cooks as adding to both palatability and digestibility of various dishes. medullary rays tinged purple. emmenagogue. terminal. Pennyroyal infusion may be given in appropriate doses with confidence. Purple flowers appear in August. Infusion of 1 ounce powdered root to 1 pint boiling water in wineglass Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Taste sweet. Features : Stem two feet high. N. red. although quite different in appearance from the European Pennyroyal. Although not so popular as other herbs for this purpose. egg-shaped leaves are opposite. Action: Tonic. antispasmodic. is helpful in hysteria. Action: Carminative. on short stalks . gnats. smooth. diaphoretic and stimulant. Part used : The whole herb. Flowers (May) large. Its diaphoretic and stimulant action recommends it for chills and incipient fevers. single. The one to one and a half inch long. Piney. thick. This plant.swsbm. has similar medicinal values. and the infusion works as an emmenagogue when such ailments retard and obstruct menstruation.being bluntly quadrangular. PEONY.O. For children's ailments such as feverish colds. Part used: Root. mint-like but characteristic.com . The oil of Pennyroyal is a first-rate protection against the bites of mosquitoes. The odour is rather pungent. and similar winged pests. taken warm in teacupful doses frequently repeated. The herb is used to some extent as a flavouring. disordered stomach and measles. becoming bitter. branched leaves. pinnate or lobed.

Dose. about two and a half inches by one inch. Vinca major. PERIWINKLE. which is probably the most used of all the volatile oils. reaching three or four feet high. Habitat: Damp places by water courses. for its oil. N. colic and nausea. Largely cultivated.Page 71 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. especially in the U. and there is no smell. Part used: The herb. Leaves stalked. serrate. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is useful in internal hemorrhages and diarrhea. Apocynaceae. Features : Stem quadrangular. Part used: Herb. Usually combined with other remedies when a complete stomachic is needed. Characteristic taste and smell.S. Particularly suitable for children. The bright. stomachic. the stem is smooth and cylindrical.O.A. purplish. rotate flowers bloom as large as a florin.doses three or four times daily. blue-purple.com . Action: Astringent and tonic.. as a gargle for inflammatory conditions of the throat. PEPPERMINT. Periwinkle has been employed for many years in the treatment of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The taste is slightly bitter and acrid. and as an injection for menorrhagia and leucorrhea. In flatulence. all being entire at the edges. Mentha piperita. Synonym: Greater Periwinkle. wineglassful of ounce to pint infusion. Labiateae. Brandy Mint. with the shiny eggto-lance-shaped leaves growing opposite at intervals of two to three inches . Action: Carminative. Synonym: Balm Mint. very slightly hairy. the larger lower leave's are one and a half to three inches long by one to two inches broad.O. Features: About a foot high.swsbm. N. Habitat: Woods and shady banks. stimulant.

Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . SCARLET. Anagallis arvensis. opposite. Flowers scarlet. Habitat: Cornfields. Features: Stem square.O. Part used: Herb. Habitat: Moist places. of usually eight petals and three sepals. and an ointment is made by macerating the herb in boiling lard for twenty-four hours. black dots underneath. PIMPERNEL. of course. much branched. aroused much attention and considerable notice in the South African and British Press. slender.diabetes. fleshy. Ranunculus ficaria. corolla rotate. Leaves small. axillary stalk. whitish-green blotches. PILEWORT. Primulaceae.O. both open and shady. Features : Flower stem grows up to six inches (slightly longer than leaf stalk) with two or three leaves. entire at edges. Synonym: Poor Man's Weatherglass. trailing with tendency to ascend.v. heart-shaped. and ending in a single bright yellow.). Numerous leaves from the root on long stalks. ovoid.Page 72 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. buttercup-like flower. Little Celandine (not to be confused with Chelidonium majus. Synonym: Lesser Celandine. between six inches and one foot long. Probably the best of all known remedies for this complaint. glossy. Used almost entirely (as the common name denotes) in the treatment of piles. stating that a registration officer in Durban was declared cured of this disease after two months treatment with the herb. waste places and in gardens. Red Pimpernel. A report from South Africa. The ounce to pint boiling water infusion is taken consistently in wineglass doses. There appears to be some ground for belief that the administration of Vinca major. weak. N.com . sessile. Action: Astringent. N. on long. can be of benefit to diabetics. Root characteristically bunched into white. Ranunculaceae. q. club-shaped or oblong-rounded knots. with proper dietetic and other treatment. Shepherd's Barometer (these names because the flowers close some hours before rain).swsbm. notched margins. the combination with Witch Hazel is found to be particularly effective. combined.

forms of rheumatism and dropsy.com .O. Worm-grass.S. in doses varying with the patient's age up to one teacupful for adults. Action: Diuretic. A purgative such as Senna is usually added. Action: Anthelmintic.swsbm. Synonym : Also called Ripple Grass and Way bread.Part used: Leaves. Part used: Root. and in the hedgerows.A. It has been successful in the treatment of liver irregularities. PINKROOT. along the borders of fields. The pulverised leaves are administered in doses of from 15 to 60 grains.Page 73 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym: Carolina Pink. Habitat: Southern states of U." and in America and New Zealand as "Englishman's Foot"—Plantain being supposed always to follow in his footsteps. Widely used throughout the United States. PLANTAIN. many rootlets underneath. Maryland Pink. the herb is known in Scotland as "Soldiers. The properties of this herb.O. N. Habitat: Spreads in meadows. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . cup-shaped scars on upper surface. In this country such remedies as Tansy and Wormwood are more commonly prescribed in the treatment of worms. Indian Pink. although very active. hepatic. as it is said to cause the Spigelia to act more quickly and effectively. N. Plantaginaceae. Plantago major. Features: Imported root is rather less than a quarter of an inch thick. where it is considered the best of the vermifuges. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is given night and morning. Loganiaceae. and is given to both children and adults suffering from the pests. are not yet fully known. Spigelia marilandica. and care should be exercised in using it. diaphoretic.

to which a teaspoonful of composition powder (Myrica compound) may be added with advantage. Infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered root with 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. blunt. irregular. Indigenous to U. When. N." PLEURISY ROOT. Habitat: Moist. however. loamy soil. The fresh juice will give relief from insect and nettle stings. The very small. they are of some value in piles and diarrhea. Phytolacca decandra. Rootstock knotty. and stimulates sweat glands.Features: Springing from the root. Part used: Root. contains milky juice.O. whitish internally . Phytolaccaceae.O. John Skelton writes that Plantain "makes one of the best ointments for piles I know of. Acrid taste. Action: Diaphoretic.Page 74 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Features: Stem two to three feet high. acts directly on the lungs.A. Tuber Root. Synonym: Butterfly Weed. expectorant. N. and contract abruptly at the base.S. Part used: The leaves are used medicinally. Combined with other agents.swsbm. and odourless. relieving strain on heart and lungs. light brown outer surface. Reduces pain and assists breathing in pleurisy. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Pigeon Berry. the large leaves are ovate. wrinkled longitudinally. POKE ROOT. the plant is found in open fields the leaves tend to grow upwards on channelled stalks. Chest complaints. Synonym: Garget. Relaxes capillaries. Asclepias tuberosa. brownish-purple flowers grow close together on a spike about five inches long. Action: Alterative and diuretic. faintly ringed.com . antispasmodic. Asclepiadaceae. fracture tough. The plant is astringent to the taste. Wind Root. Root.

Synonym: Toothache Bush or Suterberry. Part used: Berries and bark. Of some use in dyspepsia. Features: The root is obtainable in longitudinally split pieces or in transverse slices. berries. sharp prickles. N. PRICKLY ASH. Berries purplish-black. the dose being one tablespoonful four times daily. These herbalists use the fresh root largely in hardening of the liver and reduced biliary flow.swsbm. hard and whitish inside. Part used: Root.A. Habitat: Flourishes in moist places throughout the United States. nervine and diaphoretic.com . cathartic. Ringed. with lanceolate leaflets. the flowers green and white. Action: Alterative. nearly globular. Chronic rheumatism and skin diseases. Action: Stimulant. Thurston. Small. fibrous fracture. Hammer and other physio-medical practitioners recommend that only the green root should be used. each containing one lens-shaped seed. owing to. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . For rheumatism the root is often compounded with Black Cohosh and Wintergreen.ill scale in England for medicinal purposes. Fractures show green in the outer part and yellow in the inner. The taste is very pungent. the berries being considered the more effective. and has corky.Habitat: U. or the crushed or powdered bark. the leaves are pinnate. Preparation and dosage vary considerably with the condition of the root. Action of root stronger than berries.S. brownish-grey externally. rapid deterioration. alterative. The infusion should be allowed to stand in a covered vessel for two hours before use. Rutaceae. blue-black berries enclosed in a grey shell grow in clusters on the top of the branches. is made in the proportion of 1/2 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. Cultivated on a sm.Page 75 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. from which country the medicinal berries and bark are imported. and there is little odour.O. causing salivation. ten carpels. Xanthoxylum americanum. conical spines nearly one inch in height. Features: A shrub varying between ten and fifteen feet in height with alternate branches covered with strong. An infusion of the berries. The bark is about onetwelfth of an inch thick.

with one end sharper than the other. and they are eminently suited to children. Coffin recommends 1 ounce of the pulverised bark to 4 ounces of Olive oil. Psyllium seeds are tasteless and odourless. and their action is certain. although they do not contain so much mucilage as the Ispaghula. PSYLLIUM. Plantago ovata or P. Swelling into a demulcent. In tropical countries the seeds are helpful in the treatment of dysentery. The "English Golden" variety is even less mucilaginous. heated. Ranunculaceae. psyllium. Pasque Flower. is indigenous to many parts of Southern Europe and Northern Africa. Plantago psyllium. These seeds are the most highly esteemed for therapeutic purposes. the part to be well rubbed with this liniment night and morning. Passe Flower. The powdered bark is applied directly to indolent ulcers. or Light Indian Psyllium. and grey-brown in colour. Plantago ispaghula. herbaceous plants are known to botanists. P.com . N. Transparent mucilage surrounds the seeds when kept in water. N. The seeds of two of these are used in herbal medicine.O. which gently lubricates and stimulates the bowels. which yields the so-called Dark Brilliant Indian Psyllium seeds. A small brown spot is a feature of the convex side.In the treatment of chronic rheumatic trouble this medicine is given a prominent place. Synonym: Easter Flower. Meadow Anemone. Fleawort. ispaghula. children proportionately with their age. As an external application for rheumatism.Page 76 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The adult dose varies between two and four teaspoonfuls after meals. Anemone pulsatilla. and is used mainly for feeding birds. jelly-like mass. and it is also widely used wherever a general stimulant is needed. and their peculiar action on the intestines renders them of particular value in sluggishness and atony of this organ. Synonym: Flea Seed. and is largely cultivated in France and Spain.O. Wind Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Seeds are boatshaped.swsbm. Features: Over one hundred species of this genus of stemless. PULSATILLA. is cultivated in India. Probably nothing better than Psyllium seeds can be given to most people for constipation. the seeds do not gripe. Plantagineae.

six dull violet petals. N. six to eight in rings round the stalk. QUASSIA. Action: Febrifuge. antispasmodic. Habitat: High pastures. threes or fours. Taste pungent when fresh. Leaves in pairs. single. 1-2 tablespoonfuls of the 1/2 ounce to 1 pint infusion. is imported from Jamaica.O. lanceolate.(sometimes six-) sided. Chiefly in feverish conditions with other herbs. alterative. Simarubaceae. Habitat: By waterways. Nervous exhaustion in women.Flower. Has a stimulating action on all mucous surfaces. leaflets opposite. Picraena excelsa. Synonym: Purple Grass. Lythraceae. Action: Nervine. bi-pinnate. Part used: Herb. Synonym : Bitter Wood or Bitter Ash.swsbm.Page 77 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Used alone. N. astringent. up to four feet high. two to five inches long. simmer 1 ounce in 1 1/2 pints water for ten minutes. yellow chips. Flowers (April and May) large. Root woody. and the wood is obtainable in small. Part used: Herb. Quassia wood is very commonly used as a bitter tonic and anthelmintic. Habitat: A West Indian and South American tree. nearly sessile. Willow Strife. Lythrum salicaria. wineglassful as required. alterative. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Sometimes as an astringent in diarrhea.O. particularly when resulting from menstrual causes. three to five inches long by two to three inches broad. luxuriantly on river islands and banks. margins entire. Flowers (July to September) large. reddish-purple. Leaves hairy. PURPLE LOOSE-STRIFE. Features: Stem four. Features: Stalk up to six inches high. stalked below. Dose. Dose.com .

a Swede. Midges. Features: Stem erect. Action: Diaphoretic. striate. two to three feet high. RAGWORT. Compositae. The history of Quassia wood as an agent in non-poisonous herbal medicine is interesting.O.O. and water standing in them soon acquires the medicinal properties of the wood. In coughs. stalked. Quassy communicated his knowledge of the tree's virtues to Daniel Rolander. RASPBERRY. thick fibres. Part used: Herb. Quassia infusion is also given to children suffering from worms. Habitat: Pastures and waysides. Ragweed. Ragwort ointment is prepared from the fresh herb and used for inflammation of the eyes. N. Makes a good gargle. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . who brought specimens to Europe in 1755. colds.swsbm. James's Wort. Leaves alternate.com . Staggerwort. Rosaceae. Yellow flowers (July and August) florets of the ray smooth. Rubus idaeus. Fireweed. used it as a remedy for the various fevers to which they were subject. and is applied externally to ulcers and wounds. wineglass doses of the ounce to pint decoction are taken as needed. in appropriate doses according to age. Root consists of many long. influenza. Synonym: Dog Standard. catarrhs. upper bi-pinnatifid. antiseptic. and for the relief of sciatica and rheumatic pains. sessile. detergent. or an infusion of 1 ounce of the chips in 1 pint of cold water is taken in wineglass doses as a remedy for indigestion and general debility of the digestive system. Senecio jacobaea. whose people in his native country of Surinam. especially near the sea-coast. St. and other insect pests may be kept away by damping the hands and face with the liquid. tough. N. Stinking Nanny. lower lyrate-pinnatifid.Page 78 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. gnats. The curative properties of the wood were first brought to general notice through a negro slave named Quassy.Small cups known as "Bitter Cups" are sometimes made of the wood. of the disc hairy. This water.

Also cultivated in gardens. freely branched. Action: Astringent. pale green above. Features: This is the common clover of the field.swsbm. covered with small. Features: Stem erect. slender prickles. RED CLOVER. Synonym: Purple Clover.com . stimulant. The infusion (1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. doubly serrate. Habitat: Fields and roadsides. rounded base. The leaflets themselves are broad. Leguminosae. Small white. pendulous flowers (May or June) in simple clusters.Page 79 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The leaves. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and the red (or. The stem is hairy and erect. long cultivated by the farmer. Frequently combined with Slippery Elm as a poultice. Both taste and odour are agreeable. Trefoil. perhaps.O. three or four feet high. Part used: Leaves. which may be drunk freely) makes a reliable medicine for bronchial and spasmodic coughs. grow on alternate sides of the stem. and it is still much in demand for this purpose. and for the cleansing of wounds and ulcers. composed of three leaflets. with two pairs of ovate leaflets and larger terminal leaflet.Synonym: Rubus strigosus. grey-white down beneath. oval. N. pointed. and frequently show a white spot. purplish-pink) flower-heads (the part of the plant employed in herbal practice) are formed by a large number of separate blossoms at the end of a flower stalk. Astringent to the taste. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is widely used as a mouth-wash and gargle. Thomson and his immediate successors strongly advised the free drinking of the Raspberry leaves infusion for several months before confinement as an aid to parturition. and is found growing to a height of one foot or more. straight. The alterative character is best brought out in combination with such agents as Burdock and Blue Flag. pinnate. Action: Alterative and sedative. Trifolium pratense. Leaves stalked. Habitat: Woods and heaths . With a little Ginger and Pennyroyal it is recommended for the stomach and bowel disorders of children. gravelly or stony ground. dry. about three inches long by two inches broad. American Raspberry.

and other earthy salts. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in frequent wineglass doses is given as an internal medicine. reddish-purple. and as antidotal to cancer.com . adding 1/2 pint of cold water. crenulate at margins. silica. Synonym: Garden Sage. Taste. N. Both Red Sage and the green-leaved variety are extensively used in the kitchen as a flavouring and digestive.O. Part used: Leaves." This Chinese root is the popular medicinal Turkey Rhubarb of to-day. stomachic. inflammation of throat and tonsils. and ulceration of mouth and throat. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . the best kind being that from the Shansi province of China. grows up to about twelve inches.swsbm. Action: Aromatic. reticulated both sides. tonic. Salvia officinalis.O. Flowers labiate. Stem quadrangular. Rheum palmatum. N. In the treatment of laryngitis. rounded at ends. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens.Page 80 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Labiateae. TURKEY." RED SAGE. Habitat: China. Features: Stem and leaves reddish.Fernic writes of Red Clover: "The likelihood is that whatever virtue the Red Clover can boast for counteracting a scrofulous disposition. Red Sage will also tend to darken grey hair—see "Toilet Recipes. resides in its highly-elaborated lime. when conveyed via India it was called "East Indian Rhubarb. slightly hairy. powerfully aromatic. Rheum palmatum was once transported from China through Persia to Turkey and was consequently known as "Turkey Rhubarb" . oblong-lanceolate. the gargle and mouth wash being made as follows: Pour 1 pint of hot malt vinegar on to 1 ounce of the Red Sage leaves. Leaves stalked." RHUBARB. Polygonaceae. astringent.

and the white network is less prominent than that from Shansi. at the ends of side branches and stem. an infusion of the fresh flowers in Olive oil. by Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . John's Wort grows freely in the cornfields. Action : Aperient. the infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. Hypericum perforatum. larger quantities acting as a thorough yet gentle purgative. stomachic. tonic. colds.com . The leaves are stalkless and elliptical in shape. Hypericaceae." is still used as an application to wounds. Small doses of the powdered root are used in diarrhea. and disorders of the urinary system.Page 81 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. that this flour improves the quality of the bread. diuretic and astringent. It was prescribed more often by the English herbal school of a hundred years ago than it is to-day. to make the "Oil of St. The quality of these roots is judged by the fracture. and may be distinguished from the others by the small hole-like dots on the leaf. swellings. but Hypericum perforatum is the only one included in the herbal materia medica. in June and July. Indicated in coughs. hurts and bruises. Habitat: Hedges and woods. the inferior kinds being a dull brown. John's Wort. and was noticed as far back as Culpeper for "wounds. Action : Expectorant. astringent. which should show bright. astringent taste is remarked. ST. Numerous bright yellow flowers. and ulcers. Dose of powdered root. Features: The upright. 3 to 30 grains." Indeed. about half an inch long. John's Wort flourish in England.Features: The root is smooth and heavy. woody but slender stem. Discussing American wheat which has grown among quantities of St. unspotted. dotted and streaked with dark purple. grow in pairs on opposite sides of the stem and branches and. In America St.swsbm.O. John's Wort he tells us: "It is well known. Internally. It is identifiable by the dark brown spots and a reticulation of white lines. and arrives in this country peeled. JOHN'S WORT. A bitter. The Canton rhubarb is more fibrous. are sometimes marked with black spots on the under side. in addition to the transparent dots noticed above. Some thirteen different varieties of St. N. by almost every baker who works in his business. which proximity was held by Tilke to operate beneficially upon both herb and grain. cluster. branching from the upper part only. attains a height of between one and two feet.

and Skelton has given publicity to alleged cures. Taste astringent. up to two feet high. Leaves radical. Claims have been made for this herb in the treatment of consumption. is deeply furrowed longitudinally. nearly three inches across. The taste is rather acrid. White. As an astringent in diarrhea and leucorrhea. glossy green above. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . JAMAICA. A clever author informs us that it contains one-fourth more gluten than our famous wheats grown in Gloucestershire. long-stalked.Page 82 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. known by the name of 'rivets. N. Wood Sanicle. These cases are not now considered to have been proved. alterative. Synonym : Pool Root. and there is no smell. Features: Stem nearly simple. palmate. SANICLE. Smilax ornata. sessile flowers. Action: Astringent. Liliaceae. paler underneath. furrowed. SARSAPARILLA. Habitat: Sarsaparilla is imported from the West Indies and Mexico. Sanicula europea. blooming in June and July.' " Tilke was himself a baker in his early days. becoming acrid. Synonym : Smilax medica. is of a rustybrown colour and cylindrical in shape. hard bark with a porous central portion. Features: The root. With more powerful alteratives in blood impurities. has many slender rootlets. particularly in seasons when the English flour is of inferior quality. which is the only part used medicinally. Part used: Herb.com .swsbm. Umbelliferae. N. Smilax officinalis. Habitat: Woods and shady places. It is a quarter of an inch to half an inch in diameter.O. Wineglass doses of the ounce to pint (boiling water) infusion are taken. reddish.O. serrate.having a small quantity of it in every batch. and the transverse section shows a brown.

N.A. and locally known as Madweed. with many oil cells. and further supplies are imported from Mexico. Lauraceae. Scutellaria lateriflora.O. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) is taken in frequent wineglass doses. and is usually administered with other alteratives. Short. Combined with alteratives for the treatment of skin eruptions and uric and other acid complaints. soft and brittle. The Honduras variety reaches us in long. although the root undoubtedly possesses active alterative principles. Action: Stimulant.S. Features: Rootbark is a bright. notably Burdock. bark of root. Synonym: Kuntze. this claim has long been disproved. Synonym: Sometimes named Skullcap. Powdered Sassafras root was formerly (and in some places still is) sold as a substitute for tea or coffee.swsbm. SASSAFRAS. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . SCULLCAP. Labiateae. Habitat: West Indies—imported from U. Chips of the woody root are commonly used—they are brownish-white in colour.com . thin bundles with a few rootlets attached. N. layered fracture. rusty brown. and Coffin's prescription will be found in the Herbal Formulas section of this volume. It is consequently now held in high regard as a blood purifier. corky. Sassafras officinale. under the name of salap or saloop.O. The decoction is sometimes used externally for ophthalmia.The "Brown" Jamaica Sarsaparilla comes from Costa Rica. Compound decoctions of Sarsaparilla are very popular as a springtime medicine.Page 83 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Part used: Root. First introduced by the Spaniards in 1563 as a specific for syphilis. diaphoretic (according to Coffin mildly antiseptic and detergent also). showing concentric rings and slender medullary rays.

Powdered Sassafras root was formerly (and in some places still is) sold as a substitute for tea or coffee. showing concentric rings and slender medullary rays.Page 84 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .swsbm. Lauraceae. under the name of salap or saloop. and Coffin's prescription will be found in the Herbal Formulae section of this volume. notably Burdock. diaphoretic (according to Coffin mildly antiseptic and detergent also). Action: Stimulant. First introduced by the Spaniards in 1563 as a specific for syphilis. corky.O. Habitat : West Indies—imported from U. the plant is also found in England on the banks of streams and in wet ditches. Compound decoctions of Sarsaparilla are very popular as a springtime medicine. Part used: Root. Short. Combined with alteratives for the treatment of skin eruptions and uric and other acid complaints. It is consequently now held in high regard as a blood purifier. N. Features: Rootbark is a bright. soft and brittle. bark of root. SCULLCAP. layered fracture.A.com . Sassafras officinale. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) is taken in frequent wineglass doses. this claim has long been disproved. Labiateae.Habitat: Indigenous to the United States.S. SASSAFRAS. with many oil cells. although the root undoubtedly possesses active alterative principles. Chips of the woody root are commonly used—they are brownish-white in colour. and locally known as Madweed. and is usually administered with other alteratives. The decoction is sometimes used externally for ophthalmia.O. Synonym: Sometimes named Skullcap. Scutellaria lateriflora. Synonym : Kuntze. rusty brown. N.

N. Scurvygrass is a powerful antiscorbutic.swsbm.or lance-shaped. is now prevented and cured by purely dietetic methods. kidney-shaped. Both taste and odour are feeble. and heart. as scurvy. the herb is but rarely used. Half a teacupful of the boiling water infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint may be taken three or four times daily. The properties of Scullcap are said to have been first appreciated by Vandesveer in 1772 for use against hydrophobia. and is reputed to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. like other "deficiency" diseases. Synonym: Known in some parts as Spoonwort. given a place here both for its historic interest and for the striking way in which it exemplifies the curative potency of non-poisonous herbs. the whole herb is also antispasmodic and tonic in action. tooth-edged leaves grow opposite each other on a short stalk. Action : One of the finest nervines known to herbalism. The taste is pungent and cress-like. stalked leaves grow from the roots.O. further roundish. however. Scullcap is now employed. SCURVYGRASS. and infusion. and it should be kept in airtight containers. This herb deteriorates rapidly from age and heat. Clusters of white. in its publication Vitamins: A Survey of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . bloom in pairs just above the leaves. with a helmet-shaped upper lip. Features: A strong. square stem reaches eighteen inches in height. often with Valerian.Page 85 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the plant is also found in England on the banks of streams and in wet ditches. with ovate leaves which become sessile upwards. decoction.Habitat: Indigenous to the United States.com . Cruciferae. but. shiny stem is angular and much branched. cruciform flowers bloom in May. The pale blue flowers. Coffin prescribed Scullcap in powder. Cochlearia officinalis. Features: The smooth. his dose of the powder being from one-half to a teaspoonful. The Medical Research Council. It is. Habitat: Grows freely along the sea shore. straight. in hysteria and insomnia. Part used : The whole herb.

" When a well-authenticated case such as this is quoted by such a body as the Medical Research Council it should not be difficult to believe that other agents used in the herbal practice may be equally effective in illnesses not at present included in the official list of "deficiency diseases. grow from the root round the flower stalk.swsbm. Synonym: Marsh Rosemary. says: "Scurvygrass (Cochlearia officinalis) . Decoction of the powdered root (1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water simmered to 1 pint) administered in wineglass doses wherever an astringent tonic is indicated. No scent.Page 86 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. figures largely in old records of scurvy cures among mariners. plucked up with his teeth. and is used in certain urinary. 395]. Root purplish-brown. leaving him there to perish without the least expectation of recovery. Statice limonium. Thus Bachstron in 1734 tells the following story : 'A sailor in the Greenland ships was so over-run and disabled with scurvy that his companions put him into a boat and sent him on shore.' (Rendering given by Lind [1757. Part used : Root.O.com . Flowers blue. Action : Astringent. uterine and vaginal discharges.). . he could only crawl about the ground.Present Knowledge. This he found covered with a plant which he. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . continually grazing like a beast of the field. The poor wretch had quite lost the use of his limbs . five delicate petals. rough. Leaves broadly oblong. spindle-shaped. In a short time he was by this means perfectly recovered. Makes an excellent gargle and mouth-wash for inflammatory conditions. Features: Angular stem. and upon his returning home it was found to be the herb scurvy grass. . tapering to a peculiar tip. N. Plumbaginaceae." SEA LAVENDER. Habitat: Marshes near the sea. nine or ten inches in height. p. in spite of name. clustering on branched stalks.

grey-green. broad based tapering to point. Habitat: Pastures and wastes. Cassia. Prunella vulgaris. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . dyspepsia. up to a foot high. and about a third of an inch across. Synonym : Heal All. East Indian narrower and darker coloured. one pair one side of stem. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in wineglass doses for internal bleeding. N. Flowers small. Labiateae. Taste. The commercial "Mecca Senna" is usually badly picked. Tinnevelly Senna. lanceolate. slightly hairy on top side. about two inches by a quarter-inch . and of poor quality generally. next pair opposite side . entire at edges. Synonym: Alexandrian Senna. Part used: Leaves. Action: Astringent. and the Near East. Cassia acutifolia. cathartic. and may be used to gargle sore and relaxed throats. Action: Laxative. sickly sweet. Any possibility of griping will be avoided if 1 drachm of Ginger is added to the Senna leaves before infusing. used blood-warm as an injection in leucorrhea. short-stalked. Features : Leaves. pods.swsbm. between half an inch and one and a half inches long. Leguminosae. bloom in dense terminal bunch at end of stem. Features: Stem square. smooth. about one inch long by half-inch across. Pods (Alexandrian) green. N. purplish-blue.SELF-HEAL. Part used : Herb. Habitat: Imported from Alexandria.com . SENNA. Two ounces of the leaves may be infused in 1 pint of boiling water and allowed to stand for an hour before use in wineglass doses. lower lip jagged. Leaves in pairs. and disordered stomach.O.Page 87 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.O. For occasional and chronic constipation. East Indian Senna. upper lip upright. East Indies. Tinnevelly Senna leaves are broader near the middle and proportionately longer than the Alexandrian leaves. unequal and varying at the base.

stimulant. N.Page 88 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. prepared as an ordinary gruel. It is this mucilaginous quality which originated the popular name of Slippery Elm. white. Odour unpleasant. Often combined with Pellitory-of-the-Wall and Juniper berries. waysides. Capsella bursa-pastoris. varies from a few inches to over a foot in height with the richness of the soil. and in all diseases involving inflammation of the mucous membranes. North America. Synonym: Mother's Heart.The Alexandrian leaves and pods are considered superior to the East Indian kind as. but with equal certainty. Urticaceae. demulcent. Ulmus fulva. Cruciferae. Red Elm. becoming soft and mucilaginous when moistened. Blossoms during most of the year .com . Shepherd's Sprout. SLIPPERY ELM.swsbm. Habitat: Hedgerows. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. The inner bark has a slight pinkish or rusty tint. Both bronchitis and gastritis yield to its soothing Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Identifiable by the triangular seed vessels. waste places. particularly Canada.O. pectoral. meadows. thought to resemble in shape the purses of olden days.O. Habitat. Leaves irregular-lanceolate. It is tough and fibrous. is faintly striated longitudinally. N. also differing largely in size and shape with the plant's environment. flowers very small. Features : The dried inner bark of Ulmus fulva is one of the most valued articles in herbal medicine. Action: Diuretic. and the distinctive "slimy" taste. The finely powdered bark. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is administered in wineglass doses for kidney complaints and dropsy. Part used: Herb. they act more mildly. short-stalked. with most people. has a strong characteristic odour. Features: Stem erect. Synonym : Moose Elm. Pickpocket. has shown remarkable results as a demulcent in catarrhal affections of the whole digestive and urinary tracts. Action: Emollient. slightly branched.

Rhizome cylindrical. White flowers in May and June. Slippery Elm bark coarsely powdered makes one of the best possible poultices for boils. yellowish. SOLOMON'S SEAL. detergent.Page 89 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Leaves stalked. five cordate petals. draws out impurities. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is taken in wineglass doses three or four times daily. Features: Stem two feet high. Fuller's Herb. thick.swsbm. SOAPWORT. round. A teaspoonful of the powder to 1 pint of boiling water makes the food or gruel. chilblains. with alternate sessile leaves. Action: Alterative. and skin eruptions generally. disperses inflammation. Features: Stem from twelve to eighteen inches high. Habitat: Rocky woods in high situations. The powder should be first thoroughly mixed with an equal quantity of brown sugar and the boiling water added in small quantities. two to three inches long. and heals rapidly. Saponaria officinalis. transverse ridges. mixing each time until a smooth result is obtained. Part used: Leaves. It soothes the part. carbuncles. Polygonatum officinalis. clustered towards end of stem. waxy. Synonym: Bouncing Bet. usually solitary. black berries. circular stem scars at intervals. ovoid. slightly flattened above. root. Skin diseases generally. Flowers (August) flesh-coloured to white. say four to the pint.O. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . stalks axillary . N. Habitat: Roadsides and waste places near habitations. Liliaceae.and healing properties. about half an inch diameter. Fracture short. Bruisewort. Pronounced "soapy" properties will remove grease. Taste mucilaginous.O. Caryophyllaceae. N. sweet then acrid.com . Soaproot. smooth. and as a nutrient in general debility it is probably unrivalled.

Also in leucorrhea. are divided into many linear segments. Action: Astringent. in axillary spikes. The greyish-green. stimulant. Wineglass doses are taken of the infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water. Powdered root used as poultice for inflammations. serrate. Synonym: Bird's Eye. Compositae. Leaves opposite. hairy. Features : Two feet stems are at first prostrate. Scrophulariaceae. short-stalked.swsbm.Page 90 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. covered with short hairs. Fluellin (in Wales). creeping. SPEEDWELL.O. Common Speedwell. very slender leaves. The powdered herb is sometimes given in teaspoonful or smaller doses to children suffering from worms. odour when dry rather tea-like. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Veronica officinalis. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water—wineglass doses. oval. Action : Emmenagogue. in August. pink turning blue. Part used: Herb. Lad's Love. where it is cultivated for its delicate. antiseptic and detergent. Features: Stem slender. frequently in combination with Mugwort and Pennyroyal. characteristic scent. graceful appearance and pleasant. Lung complaints. but such agents as Tansy and Wormwood are perhaps more effective as anthelmintics. Flowers small. Cat's Eye. Astringent to the taste.com .O. Artemisia abrotanum. SOUTHERNWOOD. Habitat: The plant is frequently seen in gardens. about half an inch long by a quarter of an inch broad. N. when combined with other remedies. but become erect after producing. N. Habitat: Dry banks and sandy commons. It also grows wild on sandy heaths.Part used: Rhizome. demulcent. Southernwood is mainly employed in menstrual obstruction. Synonym: Old Man. small yellow flowers in terminal leafy clusters.

light brown. Aralia racemosa.S. N. Scilla is imported in the form of dried. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Synonym: Scilla. dirty white in colour.O. Urginea scilla. Pettymorrel. Decoction of 1/2 ounce to 1 1/2 pints (reduced to 1 pint) is taken in tablespoonful doses four times daily.com . Araliaceae. Part used: Root. and approximate two inches long by a quarter-inch wide. which are tough. Habitat: Grown near the sea coast in Sicily and Malta. they produce none of the bad effects of the last-named beverage. The powdered bulb is very hydroscopic. Spignet. rhizome. curved segments of the white.O. Synonym: Indian Spikenard. Features : Rhizome is about one inch in diameter. both in taste and aroma. Action: Alterative. SPIKENARD. as well as various skin diseases.Action: Mildly alterative.swsbm. Taste and odour aromatic. diuretic. taste acrid. diaphoretic. bulbous root. with concave stem scars. and has similar properties to the above. wrinkled. Helpful in minor skin blemishes.A. Fracture short and whitish. in addition to their positive virtues. Root is a similar thickness at the base. Liliaceae. it resembles certain varieties of China tea. oblique. Features: A large bulbous plant. The strong alterative properties are made considerable use of in rheumatic and general uric acid disorders. coughs and catarrhs. Made as tea. SQUILL. Part used: Bulb. N. Tilke recommends the substitution of Speedwell and Wood Betony for tea as. The fracture is short. expectorant.Page 91 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Habitat: U. An Indian variety is used throughout the East. and should consequently be kept airtight.

deeply cut pinnately. The 1/2 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion is given in tablespoonful doses as required. N. As an expectorant for coughs and all bronchial affections. Droseraceae. Dose. button-like flowers by which the plant may be easily recognised in July and August. Features : The tough. Features: Stem is the slender. Leaves radical. terminating in the peculiar bunch of yellow. Part used: Herb. Drosera rotundifolia. TANSY.O.Page 92 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Habitat: Bogs and marshy ground. pectoral. slightly ribbed stems reach a height of two or three feet. Tanacetum vulgare. Flowers small. and a dose according to age should be given night and morning fasting. Synonym: Dewplant. on one side of the flower-stalk. tickling coughs. leafless flower-stalk. demulcent. leaving only the central florets. Is used generally to allay irritation of mucous surfaces. but is now rarely seen away from the borders of fields and waysides. with glands exuding a sticky juice which is not dried by the sun's heat—hence the plant's common name. SUNDEW. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. indeed. Round-leaved Sundew. spherical. flat. as if all the petals had been pulled off.swsbm. the leaves themselves being six to eight inches long by about four inches broad. wiry. Tansy herb is probably the best of all the media for getting rid of worms in children. Action: Expectorant.Action: Expectorant. Habitat: This common English wild plant was formerly cultivated in gardens. reddish. Large doses produce emesis. and have a bitter taste. Particularly in dry. white. emetic.com . on which the herb seems to have almost a specific action. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is used. The crushed leaves and flowers give a pronounced aromatic smell. the flowers look. Compositae. about four inches high. Flytrap. 2 to 10 grains of the powdered bulb.O. Of definite value in whooping-cough. antispasmodic. Leaf stalks grow on alternate sides of the stem.

The root is brown.O. Flowers shaped like the snapdragon (antirrhinum). Features: Stem one to two feet higli. Synonym: Butter and Eggs. Scrophulariaceae. The fracture shows light brownish-red. ounces. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Features: The height of this freely-forked plant varies between six and twelve inches. Stem and leaves are smooth.O. For this purpose a wineglassful of the infusion should be taken frequently. The ternate. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in doses of 2 fl.swsbm. grass-like. jagged-toothed leaves are rather long and narrow. mouth closed by projecting orange-coloured lower lip . hard and cylindrical. The name "Toad Flax" because of a supposed similarity between the mouth of the flower and that of the toad.The medicine is also esteemed in some quarters for the treatment of hysteria and certain other of the nervous disorders of women. astringent. hepatic torpor and skin diseases. clustered together at top of stem. with roundish swellings and tiny. Synonym: Septfoil (seven leaf). Potentilla tormentilla. TOAD FLAX. only slightly branched. TORMENTIL. Flaxweed. To some extent in prescriptions for jaundice. Habitat: Hedgerows and cornfields. tapering to a point. Rosaceae. Tormentilla. and. but to-day herbal compounds of greater efficacy are prescribed for dyspepsia. Upper leaves derive directly from the stem and seem to circle round it. alterative. the bright yellow petals are distinctly separate. Action: Hepatic. The old-time herbalists used Tansy as a stimulating tonic for a poor digestive apparatus. Linaria vulgaris. Leaves numerous. Is also sometimes included in pile ointments. Flowering in June and July. Pennywort. the lower ones being frequently stalked. Part used: Root and herb. N. Habitat: Dry pasture and moorland. detergent. thread-like rootlets. upright.Page 93 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. form an almost perfect Maltese cross. Part used : Herb.com . pale yellow. with a large pith. the leaflets oblong in form. N. seen from above. with a pale bluish hue.

VERVAIN. Valeriana officinalis. neuralgia and nervous debility. Habitat: Found in many damp places such as low-lying meadows and woods. who made his usual picturesquely extravagant claims for the herb.swsbm. A sweetish. Synonym: Verbena hastata. furrowed. Habitat: Waste places and on roadsides. The leaves are pinnate with lance-shaped leaflets. growing from two to four feet and more high. Tormentil was appreciated as a medicine far back in the days of Culpeper. Great Wild Valerian. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses three or four times daily. thick. swampy ground generally. Action: Nervine and antispasmodic.com . Valerianaceae. N. about the banks of rivers and lakes. which is the part used medicinally.O. whose stalks are round. VALERIAN. many-branched stem averages eighteen Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. It may also be used with benefit as a lotion for application to ulcers.Page 94 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. wiry. N. quadrangular. Features : A handsome plant.Action: Tonic and astringent. Features: The tough. growing opposite each other from the stem. disagreeable taste and unpleasant characteristic odour are given from the short. Verbenaceae. particularly near buildings. Synonym: Capon's Tail. Verbena officinalis. The pink-white flowers (June to August) blossom in large tufts at the stalk head. The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) of water in wineglass doses is consequently used in diarrhea and as a gargle for relaxed throats. especially when combined with Scullcap. The root is regarded as one of the best and most powerful of all the herbal astringents. greyish. and of a pale greenish colour. Mistletoe and Vervain. many-fibred rootstock. Valerian promotes sleep and is much valued in hysteria. thick. Larger doses should not be taken. and in marshy.

Violaceae. it is also one of the strongest sweating medicines in nature. characteristically-scented and coloured flowers. pinnately-lobed. It is good for colds. and even death have been known to follow their use. was reported in the Daily Mail for November 14th. it likewise destroys worms. and taken in wineglass doses. the upper ones clasp the stem. coughs and pain in the head. with its long-stalked. of a handful of fresh violet leaves to a pint of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The case of Lady Margaret Marsham. The herb was held in high repute by those who brought the Thomsonian system to this country. As a nervine. perhaps. Action: Antiseptic and expectorant. best known of all wild plants. Administered as a tea. which was left to stand for twelve hours. but it operates without any of the dangerous consequences that ever attend the use of antimonial preparations. VIOLET. Scullcap and Valerian are usually added. As an emetic it supersedes the use of antimony and ipecacuanha. Viola odorata. heartshaped leaves. . Coffin. and delicate. to both of which it is superior. serrate leaves grow distantly and opposite in pairs . it powerfully assists the pains of labour . light lilac-coloured flowers bloom in May. suffering from cancer of the throat. Habitat: Damp woods and other shady places. tonic." The ounce to pint infusion is now used. This lady. used an infusion. a slightly aromatic odour is given off when rubbed. Features: This is. .inches high. N.Page 95 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Remarkable claims have been made for violet leaves in the treatment of malignant tumours. Roughish. along thin. says : "As an emetic it ranks next to lobelia . Small. Part used: Leaves and flowers. wiry spikes. and cramps. writing ninety years ago. Action: Nervine. while the lower ones are stalked. since it not only produces all the good effects ascribed to the others. 1901. and some years ago was highly esteemed as a remedy for consumption. emetic and sudorific. as a diuretic it increases the urinary discharge. Vervain will relieve and cure those complaints in children which generally accompany teething.O.com .swsbm. Very bitter in taste. . of Maidstone.

and in marshes and swampy places. This may be used as a mouthwash for ulcers. in which latter case it should be given in combination with a mild laxative. Of value in skin diseases and sluggish liver.O. Polygonaceae. reaching up to six or seven feet. hollow. N. detergent. pale green turning to reddish-brown. Habitat: In. Such accounts as these. After a fortnight of warm fomentations with this liquid the growth was said to have disappeared.O.com . Umbelliferae. WILD CARROT. Synonym: Bloodwort.D. waterways. 1905.swsbm. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Action : Alterative. and says: "It operates kindly and without excitement. with white threads which become brown. Part used: Root. branched. etc. The dose is 3-4 tablespoonfuls of the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint after simmering from 1 1/2 pints. being slow but sure in promoting a healthy action of the depurative functions of the system. lakes." He also claims diuretic and tonic qualities for the root.boiling water. WATER DOCK. some two feet in length. Root large. porous bark. thick. Leaves very large. Daucus carota. M. Flowers (July and August) small. The same newspaper. Features: The largest of all the Docks. under date March 18th. ditches. Stem erect. large pith with honeycomb-like cells. where a remarkable case was reported by Dr. N. broad and sharp-pointed. greenish-yellow. Rumex aquaticus. William Gordon. or very near. told its readers that violet leaves as a cure for cancer were advocated in the current issue of the Lancet. reddish brown. point turning over towards the water. Hool highly esteems Water Dock. Red Dock. and the powder makes a first-rate medicinal cleanser for the teeth. ponds..Page 96 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. should be read with considerable reserve. although interesting. striated.

The whole plant is hairy. not large. provoketh urine and women's courses." Ferrier. Habitat: Wastes. Wild Carrot naturally. ounces taken three or four times daily." WITCH HAZEL. Part used : The whole plant. and faintly aromatic. but the root is small and white. "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot.com . Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action. and therefore breaketh wind. takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy. obovate. irregularly notched at the edges. and smell slight and agreeable. as well as de-obstruent and stimulant. Action : Astringent and tonic. Taste is astringent. sweetish. Part used : Bark and leaves. and bladder trouble generally. and is found on high lands and the stony banks of streams. and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate. Hamamelis virginiana. Habitat: This shrub. and doses of 2 fl. Yellow flowers appear in autumn. Features: The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. feather-veined. however. the bark smooth and grey with brown spots. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot. Synonym : Spotted Alder and Snapping Hazel." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is. when the leaves are falling. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . smooth above and downy underneath.O. Blossoming in June and July. Hamamelidaceae. Culpeper comments: "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury. The root tapers. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions. grows in bunches as high as eight or ten feet. gravel. says of this root. N. therefore. with acute segments. pastures and field borders. and removeth stitches in the sides. is yellowish-white. retention of urine. and helpeth to break and expel the stone.Page 97 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre.Synonym: Bird's Nest. Features: The branches are flexuous and knotty. The leaves are four to five inches long and about two inches broad. like the Alders and the Hazel.

It is highly recommended for biliousness. WOOD BETONY. which is more astringent than the leaves.O. The compound can be obtained in the form of both ointment and suppositories for external application. stomach cramp and colic. Part used: The whole herb. "is good for those who cannot digest their meals. the odour is slight and pleasant. Both decoctions of the bark and infusions of the leaves are made in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water (after simmering for ten minutes in the case of the bark decoction) and taken in wineglassful doses. Stachys betonica. The roots are white and thready. it gives off a few distant pairs of rough. Features: The stem of this well-known wild plant is slender. checks external and internal hemorrhages. N. makes one of the most effective pile medicines known. square and hairy. Bitter to the taste. Action: Aromatic. or have belchings and a continual rising in their stomach. Habitat: Thickets. and as a tonic in digestive disorders generally.swsbm.com . Purplish flowers. Labiateae. For varicose veins an extract of the fresh leaves and young twigs of Witch Hazel is applied on a lint bandage kept constantly moist. astringent and alterative.Page 98 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym: Bishopswort. and this astringency. oblong leaves with rounded teeth. as his remarks show that the herb was as popular a carminative a hundred years ago as it is to-day : "This herb boiled with wine or water. woods and shady waysides.A decoction of the bark. oval spike. when in combination with the more specific principles of Pilewort. arranged in a terminal. bloom in July and August. It is a helpful component of prescriptions in the treatment of rheumatism and blood impurities. A wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion may be taken frequently. Tilke is interesting on Wood Betony." he tells us." Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .

freely influences the bladder. smooth.O. one to each slender flower stalk.Page 99 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rubiaceae. or culinary sage.WOOD SAGE. with a pinkish hue lower down. woods." and that it is "an appetiser of the first order. Teucrium scorodonia. they are round. Flowers five-petalled. Synonym: Waldmeister Tea. Labiateae. Hool tells us that Wood Sage "combined with Comfrey and Ragwort. purple veins. Habitat: Woods and other shady situations. Part used: Herb.O. Wood Germander.com .swsbm. It is also said to work well with other diuretics in certain urinary conditions. Oxalis acetosella. slightly hairy. Action: Diaphoretic." WOOD SORREL. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . emmenagogue.O. yellow-green above. N. rather lemon-like. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusions are taken warm. Cuckoo Sorrel. Habitat: Heaths. In feverish colds and faulty menstruation due to chills. darkish purple underneath. commons. tonic. Taste acid. and as a tonic will be found equal to Gentian. Features: Separate stem for each flower and leaf grows from root. Leaves trifoliate. WOODRUFF. Synonym: Allelujah. N. slender. Action: Diuretic. astringent. white. Asperula odorata. Features : Very similar in appearance to the ordinary garden. Synonym: Garlic Sage. Geraniaceae. N. Part used: Herb. refrigerant. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion may be given to feverish patients whenever a cooling medicine is desirable.

Artemisia absinthium. clustered in erect. Synonym: Ajenjo. pinnatifid. white (occasionally pink or purplish). whitish. daisy-like. and bloom in dense. terminal Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . three inches long by one and a half inches broad. Achillea millefolium. angular stem. Old Woman. Habitat: Waste ground. eight round the stem. in rings of. small. flattened. YARROW. stomachic. Features: Stem eight inches to one foot in height. smooth. Tonic properties particularly applicable to the digestive apparatus. usually. The alternate leaves are pinnatifid.O. rather rough at the edges. Flowers (August) pale yellow with greenish tint.Habitat: Woods and other shady places. Flowers tubular. In faulty biliary functioning and general liver sluggishness.Page 100 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The flowers are small. Compositae. slender. are slightly woolly. divided into four white. taken in wineglass doses for poor digestion and debility. N. Action: Tonic.swsbm. globular. Habitat: A wayside herb. and are cut into very fine segments. brittle.com . Action: Hepatic. Features: Stem two feet high. leafy panicle. axillary stalk. Leaves downy. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. Dose. Features: Yarrow has a rough. four-sided. A reliable remedy for worms. tonic. two tablespoonfuls of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion. also often seen in the pasture and meadow lands of Europe and the United States. anthelmintic. Part used: Herb. Part used: Herb. Compositae. Synonym: Milfoil. obtuse. clasp the stem at the base. N. on long. Leaves lanceolate. stalked. and grows from twelve to eighteen inches in height. with flattened mouth. The dried herb smells like new-mown hay. cross-shaped petals. WORMWOOD. silky hairs. Nosebleed.O. Thousand-leaf. lobes linear.

Yarrow is taken at the commencement of influenza and in other feverish conditions. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of foiling water is drunk warm in wineglass doses. Habitat: Grown in. (Eriodictyon californicum). As a very popular remedy for influenza colds it is usually combined with Elder flowers and Peppermint in equal quantities. In catarrhal affections of the respiratory organs.swsbm. Action: Expectorant. white down underneath. Synonym: Bearsweed. and imported from.corymbs. shiny above. serrate. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . appearing at their best in July. California. about three inches by one inch. The herb is extremely useful in colds and acute catarrhs of the respiratory tract generally. Eriodictyon glutinosum. Often a constituent of asthma prescriptions.Page 101 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. aromatic. but there are many better herbal medicines for this condition. Part used: Leaves. Part used : Herb. Features: Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. thus permitting free perspiration. As it has the effect of opening the pores. stimulant and tonic. Action: Diaphoretic. YERBA SANTA. Mountain Balm. It was sometimes prescribed by the old herbalists as a tonic in nervous debility. tonic.com . Taste and odour.

com . Spikenard. Balm.Page 102 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. ANTISEPTICS: Resist or counteract putrefaction: Barberry. Golden Seal. Scullcap.—Blue Flag. Burdock. Black Haw. APHRODISIACS: Tonics organs. Witch Hazel. and those which expel them from the bowels. Southernwood. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .—Agrimony. Sarsaparilla. ASTRINGENTS: Promote greater density and firmness of tissue. OxEye Daisy. Fringe-tree. Poke Root. Pink Root.—Balmony. Bistort. The term taenicide also denotes a worm destroyer. Ladies' Slipper. Water Dock. ANTHELMINTICS: Remedies for worms. ANTISPASMODICS: Reduce or prevent excessive involuntary muscular contractions. Bayberry. Cramp Bark. Wood Betony. Red Sage. Grindelia. Cranes-bill. Cudweed. Cowslip. Mistletoe.—Black Cohosh. and counteract griping tendencies of certain laxatives. Sanicle.—Damiana . Plantain. Avens. Ground Ivy.—Angelica. Valerian . Periwinkle.swsbm. including those agents which kill worms (vermicides) without necessarily causing their evacuation. Chamomile. Lobelia. Soapwort. Sundew. Cinquefoil. Burr Marigold. Pilewort. as opposed to laxatives. known as vermifuges. Tansy. Red Clover. Celandine. relating particularly to the sexual AROMATICS (see Carminatives). CARMINATIVES: Are for the dispersal of wind in stomach and bowels. Violet. Pulsatilla.PART III I—INDEX TO THERAPEUTIC ACTION of herbs comprised in the Cyclopaedia ALTERATIVES: Medicines which gradually alter and correct a poisoned condition of the blood stream and restore healthier functioning. Wormwood .

Mugwort. Devil's Bit. Pleurisy Root. Elecampane. Comfrey. they are closely Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Slippery Elm. Ragwort. Pennyroyal. Clivers. Parsley Piert. and counteract dryness and harshness of internal and external surfaces. Prickly Ash. Dill. Melilot. and may be divided into: (a) Laxatives. stomach contents by EMMENAGOGUES: Provoke and . Bugloss. Sundew. EMOLLIENTS: Soften. DEMULCENTS: Soothe. Yarrow. Shepherd's Purse.com . Horehound. Heartsease. producing copious.—Black Cohosh.—Bitter Root. soften and allay irritation of mucous membranes. Catnep. Wild Carrot. Squill. Celery. FEBRIFUGES: Reduce excessive temperature in fevers by enhancing evaporation of perspiration. Lobelia. Chick-weed. EXPECTORANTS: Assist. Wood Sage. Liquorice.enhance the menstrual flow.Page 103 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—Angelica. Pennyroyal. and (6) Purgatives. repeated. Marshmallow. Cloves.—Coltsfoot. Marshmallow. and more watery evacuations (both of which see). by their influence on the respiratory passages. Juniper. the increased secretion and ejection of mucus. —Liquorice. Iceland Moss. Mouse-ear. which induce gentle bowel movement. Mullein. CATHARTICS : Promote bowel evacuation.Cardamoms. Lobelia. Southernwood. DIAPHORETICS: Induce increased perspiration. Fennel. Vervain . Solomon's Seal . DIURETICS: Enhance the secretion of urine. Yerba Santa. EMETICS: Bring about the evacuation of vomiting. Marigold. Mullein. Wood Sage. Slippery Elm. Peppermint. Also known as refrigerants. Pellitory-ofthe-Wall. make supple. Eryngo.—Broom. Melilot. Black Horehound. Wild Ginger. Balm.—Blue Mallow. Boneset.swsbm. Buchu. Gravel Root.

Pennyroyal. Senna.—Bitter Root. Mandrake (American). Bryony.). Boneset. Wild Ginger. Purple Loose-strife. Bugleweed. TAENIFUGES (see Anthelmintics). Cayenne. PURGATIVES: Powerful Mandrake (American).com . Toad Flax. Mistletoe. Woodruff. Scullcap. STOMACHICS: Stimulant medicines which act specifically upon the stomach. Valerian.swsbm. HEPATICS: Influence the liver. REFRIGERANTS (see Febrifuges). Slippery Elm.Page 104 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. NERVINES: Relieve nervous irritation and pain. Dandelion. SUDORIFICS (see Diaphoretics).—Balm. Buckbean.—Avens. flow of LAXATIVES: Gently loosen the bowels. Bay-berry. Catnep.—Black Haw. Chamomile.akin to diaphoretics and sudorifics (q. Devil's Bit. Mountain Flax. Turkey Rhubarb. TONICS: Medicines which assist towards a higher bodily tone and increased vigour. STIMULANTS: Produce increased nervous sensibility. with consequent improved functional action. Centaury. Sassafras. Blood Root.. Centaury.—Adonis. Feverfew.—Iceland Moss. SEDATIVES (see Nervines). Horseradish. Golden Seal. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .—Barberry. Psyllium. bowel evacuatives. causing an increased bile.v. Golden Seal.—Cascara Sagrada. Butterbur. Turkey Rhubarb. Cloves. nourish and build tissue. Elder. Calumba. Prickly Ash.—Chicory. NUTRITIVES: Assist assimilation. Peppermint.

Peony. Vervain. Tormentil.swsbm. Wormwood.Page 105 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.Chamomile. VERMIFUGES (see Anthelmintics). Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . VERMICIDES (see Anthelmintics). Hops. Quassia. Gentian.com . Damiana. Chiretta.

swsbm.Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .com .Page 106 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

Dose. Flatulence Balm Angelica Pennyroyal Cloves 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1 drachm An infusion in 11 pints boiling water to be taken in wineglass doses (warm) as required. boil.com . Blood Blue Flag Root Burdock Red Clover Yellow Dock Sarsaparilla Wild Ginger 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 3/4 ounce 1 drachm Boil in 3 pints of water. in all cases of ill-health.—These medicines ought to be made as freshly as possible—the infusions and decoctions never in quantities to last longer than four days. and simmer to 1 pint. simmering down to 2 pints. Wineglass doses thrice daily.Page 107 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. An appropriate diet should be planned.B.3—MEDICINAL FORMULAE N. and strictly adhered to. 3 tablespoons. Stomach and Liver Equal parts of Golden Seal American Mandrake Gentian Angelica To 1 ounce of the mixture add 1 1/2 pints of water. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .

boiled. at bedtime. A wineglass to teacup dose. and simmered for 10 minutes. Kidney and Bladder Buchu Parsley Piert 1 ounce 1 ounce by Harold Ward . 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil gently in 3 pints of water for 10 minutes. Bronchial Horehound Coltsfoot Marshmallow Valerian Pleurisy Root .Page 108 Herbal Manual The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Laxative [mild) Dandelion Root Mountain Flax Golden Seal Cloves 1 ounce 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil in two pints of water and simmer for 10 minutes.thrice daily. wineglassful three times daily. Rheumatism Equal parts of Black Cohosh Poke Root Prickly Ash Agrimony Yarrow One ounce of the mixture to 1 pint of water.swsbm. Dose. wineglassful three or four times daily. Dose. warm.com .

swsbm. then strain. Nervine Valerian Scullcap Mistletoe Wood Betony Vervain 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil slowly in three pints of water for 10 minutes." Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . liquorice-root.Wild Carrot Pellitory Juniper 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Decoction of 3 pints simmered to 2 pints in wineglass doses 3 or 4: times daily. snake-root. sliced. return it to the liquor. bruised. then take out the sarsaparilla and bruise it. wineglassful thrice daily. of each one ounce.Page 109 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. of each half-an-ounce. let it stand till cool. Dose. macerate them in one quart of water for ten minutes. and boil for ten minutes. sliced. and as a general stimulant. Composition Powder Bayberry Bark (powdered) 1 ounce Wild Ginger 1/2 ounce Cayenne 1 drachm A teaspoonful of the mixture to a teacupful of boiling water is taken warm at bed-time to ward off the effects of chill. a wineglassful three or four times a day. Coffin's Sarsaparilla Compound "Take of sarsaparilla-root and sassafras-chips. Dose.com .

cooling. When cool enough apply all over the scalp with a cup for several minutes. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . -CULINARY HERBS In addition to Celery Seed. The slightly medicinal action which entitles these culinary herbs to consideration as aids to digestion is shown : Basil: Aromatic. massaging well with the finger-tips. Both growth and texture also benefit.Page 110 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. their qualities as digestives make it desirable that they should be added to dishes wherever possible.swsbm. Pennyroyal and Red Sage. In addition to being valuable as seasonings.4. Shampoo (General) Balm Rosemary Melilot Soapwort 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 ounce ounce ounce ounce Tie up the herbs in a linen bag and pour on them 1 gallon of boiling water. the following list includes the remainder of the herbs used in the kitchen. 5.—TOILET RECIPES Tooth Powder Equal parts of Orris Root (powdered) Bayberry Bark Bistort Root Prepared chalk To Darken Grey Hair Grey hair may be gradually and harmlessly darkened by brushing regularly and thoroughly with the ounce to pint infusion of Red Sage. carminative.com . which have also definite medicinal purposes and are dealt with in the dictionary.

shows remnants of style or stigma at the apex. Savory : Aromatic. or by branch Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Marjoram : Tonic.swsbm. ANTHER. but only in the spring time. keeping the medicinal properties intact.Page 111 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—GATHERING & DRYING OF HERBS Herbs should be gathered just after they are fully developed and are beginning to go back for the season. Applied to hairs. etc. biennial or perennial. carminative. Parsley : Aperient. diuretic. To dry. Mint: Aromatic.—Bag containing pollen. they should be tied in small bunches and hung head downwards from a wire line stretched across a dry. antiseptic. Roots should be collected only after the herb itself has fallen back for the season.—Rising. the therapeutic virtues will remain for long periods. Does not open when ripe. 6. to which. They should never be spread on the floor. Tarragon : Aromatic. AXIL. as a leaf.com . stimulant. and.which lie close against stem. The above are general hints only. there will be many exceptions.—A one-seeded fruit. or part of a compound fruit.—Angle formed by leaf or bract with stem or branch. seen in the Buttercup and Clematis. shady and airy room.Bay Leaves : Carminative. for the expert gatherer. 7. from a tree that has been cut down the previous autumn. parallel and close to the stem. Barks should never be taken from the living tree.—GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS ACHENE. If naturally and carefully dried. Thyme : Tonic. APPRESSED (or Adpressed). no matter whether the plant is annual. unlike a seed.

—Modified leaves bearing seeds and forming the seed vessel. GLAUCOUS.Page 112 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . CARPELS.com . CORYMB. but each rises to the same level. INVOLUCRE. e.—Extending in a direction downward from the point of insertion.—Covered with a sea-green coloured bloom.—A little flower forming part of an aggregate one.with stem. Elder. CRENULATE. outer flowers being the first to open. FLORETS (or Flowerlets).—An inflorescence in which the central flower opens first. CYME.—Doubly divided in a feather-like manner. CRENATE. BRACT.—A collective flower formation.—Applied to leaves which have notched or scalloped edges.—A group or ring of bracts.—Curving. either separate or joined together.—An irregularly developed leaf growing from the flower stalk beneath the flower.swsbm.—Row of floral leaves cupping the remainder of the flower. FLEXUOUS.—Heart-shaped. COROLLA.—The inner row of floral leaves. in which the flower stalks are of differing lengths. CORDATE. Applied particularly to the central flowers in the flowerheads of the Composites.g. CALYX. BIPINNATIFID. DECURRENT.—Having very small notches or scallops at the margins. winding.

—Nearly egg-shaped.LABIATE.com .—The fruit containing seeds.—An embryo seed. and larger than the others.—Egg-shaped.—Slender.—Inversely ovate.—Composed of thin layers. monopetalous corolla. LANCEOLATE. OBOVATE. PETIOLE.Page 113 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.—Divided about half-way to the midrib or rachis in a featherHerbal Manual by Harold Ward .—Cleft in a feather-like way to the midrib. PAPILLAE. OVOID. etc. hairy calyx. bark.—Flower stalk. OVARY. OVULE.—Leaf stalk.—An inflorescence of which the first branches themselves branch. said of pinnatifid leaves where the terminal lobe is rounded.—Oval. PEDUNCLE.—A feathery. LINEAR. with tapering ends. LAMINATE.—Lyre-shaped . PAPPUS.—Applied to an irregular.—Corky developments of the breathing pores of leaf.swsbm. PINNATIFID. PINNATE. PANICLE. OVATE. sometimes threadlike. LENTICELS. the outside flowers of each branch being the first to open. LYRATE.—Small protuberances.

SEPAL. which sends out shoots above and roots below. in which the flowers grow from a central stem. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . REVOLUTE.—A division of the calyx. on branch-lets of equal length. STROBILE. creeping stem.—Streaked with fine parallel or wavy lines.—Proceeding immediately from root or root-stock.—The middle. THALLUS. thread-like portion of the female organ of a flower.—Applied to a leaf divided into three segments. STYLE.—Shaped as a rhomb.—Shaped as a spatula. as in the Currant.—Obliquely toothed as a saw. the carpels of which are scale-like as in the pines.swsbm. RHIZOME.—Curved or bowed downward.like manner." SERRATE. branching growth of mosses and lichens. RHOMBOID.—A catkin. SESSILE.com .—The flat.—A more or less underground.—The male organ of a flower. ROTATE . RECURVED (or Recurvate). STAMEN. or flattened spoon.—Wheel-shaped. SPATULATE. RADICAL. STRIATE (or Striated).Page 114 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. TERNATE.—Stalkless. the lowest flower opening first. corresponding with "petal.—Rolled back at the edges.—A form of inflorescence. RACEME.

the stalks of which all proceed from a single point and are of equal length.com . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . the outer flowers opening first.—Appearing as though cut off at the tip.—Nearly cleft into three segments.—An arrangement of a number of leaves or flowers around a stem.—An aggregate of flowers.swsbm.—With three distinct leaflets as Clover. UMBEL. TRUNCATE.TRIFID. on the same level with each other. WHORL. TRIFOLIATE.Page 115 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.

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