Environmental Science and Engineering

ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY DEFINITION, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Environmental science is the study of nature and the facts about environment. Basically environment can be defined as “all the social, economical, physical & chemical factors that surrounds man” (or) “all abiotic and biotic components around man-all living and non living things surrounds man”. Environment Components can be divided into biotic and abiotic components. According to ancient man the environment was the Panchaboodhas (i.e) air, water, land, sky and energy. The human were disciples of nature. They were able to protect themselves from harmful one and protect the others. But according to modern man the env. is only air land and water. Exploitation of various earth resources to satisfy the increasing needs of human population has resulted in 1) depletion of various resources of earth 2) pollution. Principles of environmental education:      Examine the major environmental issues discover the root cause develop problem solving skills promote co-operation in solving problems emphasis active participation in prevention and solution to problems.

Scope of environmental science:      Studying the interrelationship between the components of env. Carrying out impact analysis and env. Audit Preventing pollution from existing and new industries Stopping the use of biological and nuclear weapons Managing unpredictable disasters etc.

Public awareness: Environmental Pollution or problems cannot be solved by mere laws. Public participation is an important aspect which serves the environmental Protection.    Public awareness of environmental Is at infant stage 30-40% of public of developing country are aware of environmental. Problems but they do not bother about it. Ignorance and incomplete knowledge has lead to misconceptions Page 1 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering

www.EEENotes.in  

Environmental Science and Engineering

Development and improvement in std. of living has lead to serious environmental disasters Debate on environmental Issues are treated as anti-developmental

Reasons for environmental Ignorance:     science, technology and economics failed to integrate the knowledge on environmental Aspects in curriculum the decision makers do not process environmental Angle of decision making consideration of economic growth, poverty eradication has lead to environmental Degradation only few developmental activities are made considering the environmental Aspects.

Need For Public Awareness: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Reo de Janeiro in 1992 (popularly known as „Earth Summit‟) and world summit on sustainable development at Johannesburg in 2002, have highlighted the key issues of global environmental concern. They have attracted the attention of people. Any government at its own cannot achieve the goals of clear environment until the public participate in action. Public participation is possible only when the public is aware about the ecological and environmental issues. Eg. Ban- the littering of polythene. Methods to propagate environmental Awareness: 1. Among students through education – introducing environmental studies in the curriculum. 2. Among public through mass media- environmental programmmes through TV, radio etc. 3. Among decision makers, planners, leaders etc. Role of NGOs 1. Advise the government in interacting with ground level people 2. Organize public meetings to create environmental awareness Eg. Recent report of „centre for science and environment‟ on permissible limits of pesticides in cola drinks. Public awareness is needed in the area 1. study of natural resources-conservation and management 2. ecology and biodiversity – conservation 3. environmental Pollution and prevention Page 2 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering

www.EEENotes.in 4. social issues related to development and environment 5. human population and environment. Concept Of Ecosystem:

Environmental Science and Engineering

Living organisms cannot be isolated from their non-living environment because the later provides materials and energy for the survival of the farmer. An ecosystem is therefore defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable self supporting system . Eg. Pond, lake, desert, grassland, forest, etc. Ecosystems Ecology – earnest Haeckal- 1869 –derived from „oikos‟ – home , logy – study -deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. Ecosystem – Tansley (1935) – self regulating group of biotic communities of species interacting with one another and with their non-living environment exchanging energy and matter Ecosystem characteristics Structural features – composition and organization of biological communities and abiotic components constitute – Structure of Ecosystem Biotic structure – Plants , animals , microorganisms – form biotic components – nutritional behavior and status in the ecosystem – producers or consumers – how do they get their food. Structure of Ecosystem 1. Abiotic or non-living components or physical components 2. Biotic or Living components 3. Energy components. Abiotic Components: Abiotic components enter the body of living directly or indirectly take part in metabolic activities and return to environment. Abiotic components are as follows 1. Atmosphere –The cover of air that envelopes the earth is known as atmosphere. Compostion – Nitrogen-78%, oxygen- 2%, other gases- 1% 2. Lithosphere or Interior of Earth – Solid Earth –Radius 6371- density -5.5 3. Hydrosphere – 97% earth‟s water is in oceans – Fresh water – 3%.

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3. Oxygen – support life on living organism. 4. Functions of Atmosphere: It maintains heat balance on the earth by absorbing IR radiation.in Structure of Atmosphere: Five Layers 1. Core – (outer core – solid .3 – Thickness – 2860 – density increases with depth. 2.Temperature drops to (-95ºC) Ionosphere or Thermosphere –extends up to 500 kms.essential nutrient for plant growth. Metamorphic. photo.EEENotes.solid thickness 30 – 40 Km in continents and 5 – 6 km in oceans. Functions of Lithosphere: 1. Co2 .Ozone layer Mesosphere.www. It is store house of minerals and organic matter. Sedimentary. 3. depth – 2900 km from the surface of the earth – density -12 – not exact composition. microorganisms – form biotic components – nutritional behavior and status in the ecosystem – producers or consumers – how do they get their food. Interior of Earth or Lithosphere: Three major Zones 1. 2. Crust – top most layer. Functions of Ecosystems Ecosystem characteristics Structural features – composition and organization components constitute – Structure of Ecosystem of biological communities and abiotic Biotic structure – Plants .extends from 50-85 kms.Temperature (-2ºC to -56ºC ). animals . 5. Mantle – average density 3. Temperature – raises up to 1200ºC Exosphere – extends up to 1600 km. Environmental Science and Engineering Troposphere –lower portion – extends from 0-18 kms. Rocks of the earth crust – 3 types – Igneous .light) Chemotrops or Chemosynthetic organisms – Chemicals Consumers – feeding upon other organisms Page 4 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . N2 . temperatureStratosphere -18.50 kms.essential for photosynthetic activity of plants. Producers – Photosynthesis – photoautotroph (auto – self. It is home for human beings and wild life. inner core – liquid). 2.temperature very high due to solar radiation.

N. earthworms. beetles.www. 5. water availability. Detritivores . P. major essential nutrients – C.feed on other carnivores – Tertiary / Consumers. Humans. matter cyling. soil type. Biotic Components – Abiotic components and viceversa – linked through – energy flow. rat. 1. water currents etc. – physical and chemical components of an ecosystem. –strong influence on the ecosystem. temperature . Chemical factors. rabbit Carnivores – Feed on consumers – Secondary Consumers . Food chain.annual rainfall. Food web and trophic structure. Energy flow Cycling of Nutrients (Biogeochemical cycles) Primary and secondary production Ecosystem development programme Food Chains Grass Sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem. Grasshopper Frog snake Hawk (Grassland Ecosystem) Grazing food chains – Starts with green plants. 4. Grass Rabbit Fox Zooplanktons Small fish Carnivores (fish) Phytoplanktons Page 5 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Functional Attributes. Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals – eg. Physical factors – sunlight . 2.ants . 3. crabs.(Detritus feeder or Saprotrophs ) – feed on dead on organisms or decomposed matter eg.EEENotes. Abiotic Structure. S. H. termites. fox. Decomposers – nutrition breaking down in to complex organic molecules to simpler organic organic compounds – bacteria and fungi.in Environmental Science and Engineering Types – Herbivores – Plant eating animals – primary consumers Eg . O.

www. The flow of energy from producer level to top consumer level is called energy flow. produces transfer of food energy known as food chain. In an ecosystem linking of feeding habit relations will provide a food web. For living organisms. About 80% of energy is lost during flow of energy from one trophic level to the next one. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is unidirectional. Sun Producer Herbivores Carnivores Top carnivores Decomposers ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOOD CHAIN Plants by photosynthesis convert solar energy into protoplasm. Small herbivores consume the vegetable matter and convert into animal matter which in turn eaten by large carnivores. The main source of energy in the ecosystem is sunlight. Producers (Plants) FOOD WEB: The food relationship between various organisms is being depicted by linking all the possible prey and predators of different food level. It flows from producer level to consumer level and never in the reverse direction.EEENotes. it is the basic force responsible for running all the metabolic activities. This sequence of eaten and being eaten . The process of energy flow involves transfer of energy from autotrophs to various components of heterotrophs and help in maintaining bio diversity.in Food Web Network of food Chains Environmental Science and Engineering ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM: Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Lion) Decomposers (Bacteria. fungi) Mouse Grass Rabbit Grasshopper snake Hawk Lizard Page 6 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Consumer I order (Deer) Consumer II order (Tiger.

Types of ecological pyramids: a) pyramid of numbers b) pyramid of biomass c) pyramid of energy Eg.www.in ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS: Environmental Science and Engineering The energy biomass and number of organisms gradually decreases from the producer level to the consumer level.EEENotes. biomass and energy of various energy levels is called ecological pyramid. In any ecological pyramid the producer forms the base and the successive levels form the tires which can make the apex. The graphical representation of the number. fungi Parasites Birds Tree Page 7 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Similarly the total mass of carnivores will be less than the total mass of herbivores. The total mass of herbivores in an ecosystem will generally be less than the total mass of plants. Grassland ecosystem – pyramid of number – upright pyramid birds insects Worms grass Parasite ecosystem – pyramid of number – inverted pyramid Bacteria.

deer etc.EEENotes. Secondary – snakes. lizards etc Tertiary – lions. tigers etc Decomposers : Functional components: Ecological pyramids (upright) fungi. wet green Littoral and swamps Sub tropical Characteristics: Abiotic: soil.in MAJOR TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS a. birds. bacteria lions lizards deers trees Page 8 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . sun light. evergreen. shrubs and animals Structure: Producer Consumer : : trees and shrubs Primary – elephants.www. temperature etc Biotic : forest trees. FOREST ECOSYSTEM Environmental Science and Engineering Definition: It is a natural ecosystem consisting of dense growth of trees and wild animals Types: tropical – deciduous.

butterfly. Savannas in Africa. birds. Biotic: grass. Polar grasslands – found in arctic polar region – organism – arctic wolf. 3. insects. soil moisture.in GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM: Environmental Science and Engineering dominated by grass – few shrubs and trees are also found – rainfall average but erratic – overgrazing leads to desertification. etc. etc. – fires are common in dry seasons – termite mounds produce methane – leads to fire – high in photosynthesis – deliberate burning leads to release of high CO2 – global warming. fox.EEENotes. etc. giraffes etc. Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds insects Worms grass Page 9 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . temp. Three types – depending on the climate 1.dry summer fires do not allow shrubs and trees to grow – soil is quite fertile – cleaned for agriculture. – A thick layer of ice remains frozen under the soil surface throughout the year – known as permafrost – summer insects and birds appear. Eg. Components: Structural Components: Abiotic: soil pH. nutrients. Animals – Zebra. 2.www. caterpillar. Tropical grass lands – found near the boarders of tropical rain forests. Very cold winter and very hot summer . worms. climatic conditions. Temperate grasslands – flat and gentle slopes of hills.

Page 10 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . especially during summer is a common one.www. Air is dry 2. 2. bathing. tropical desert-found in Africa-Sahara and Rajasthan –Thar 2. Pond ecosystem: Small fresh water ecosystem – seasonal in nature – organisms: algae. Types: 1. aquatic plants. Annual rainfall is less than 25 cm 4. cold desert-China-Gobi desert Characteristics: 1. Climate is hot 3. cattle bathing. fishes etc. Ponds are very often exposed to anthropogenic pressure like cloth washing. Lake ecosystem: Big fresh water ecosystem – Zonation or stratification. Vegetation is poor d. swimming etc.in Energy flow: Environmental Science and Engineering Grass worms Insects small birds  huge birds Decomposition sediments c.AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Definition: Deals with water bodies and biotic communities present in them-Classified as fresh water and marine ecosystems. temperate desert-south California-Majave 3. Fresh water systems are classified as lentic and lotic ecosystems. DESERT ECOSYSTEM Types: 1.EEENotes. insects.

natural gas. Oxygen and nutrient content are uniform. This is because large surface area of running water provides more oxygen supply. Second phase – gentle slopes of hills – warmer – supports the growth of plants and fishes that require less oxygen are seen. warm. abyssal zone – dark zone – world‟s largest ecological unit. prone to anthropogenic activities – Littoral zone Second layer – enough sunlight. 2. Estuary: coastal area where river meet ocean – strongly affected by tidal actions – very rich in nutrients – very rich in biodiversity also – organisms are highly tolerant – many species are endemic – high food productivity – however to be protected from pollution. – provide Fe.in Environmental Science and Engineering Top layer – shallow. Stream organisms have to face extreme difference in climatic conditions but they do not suffer from oxygen deficiency as pond and lake organisms. Streams: fresh water ecosystem where water current plays a major role. euphotic zone – abundant sunlight 2. The animals have very narrow range of tolerance towards oxygen deficiency. Open sea – away from continental shelf – vertically divided in to 3 zones.50. Mg. Fishes Neustons – that float on the surface of water Benthos – that attached to sediments eg.oligotrophic lakes – with less nutrient content – eutrophic lakes – with very high nutrient content due to fertilizer contamination – desert salt lakes – that contains high saline water due to over evaporation – volcanic lakes – formed by water emitted from magma due to volcanic eruptions – dystrophic lakes – that contains highly acidic water (low pH) – endemic lakes – lakes that contain many endemic species – etc. high primary productivity – Limnetic zone Third layer – very poor or no sunlight – Profundal zone Eg. 3. – major sinks of carbon di oxide – regulate biochemical cycles. Third phase: river shapes the land – lots of silts. 4. Rotifers Nektons – that swims in water eg. 1. Naini lake in Nainital Organisms: planktons – phytoplankton eg. oils. Three phases: 1. Dal lake in Srinagar. mountain highlands – rushing down water fall of water – large quantity of dissolved oxygen – plants attached to rocks and fishes that require more oxygen are found. bathyal zone – dim sunlight 3. Page 11 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EEENotes. sand etc. Algae – zooplankton eg. Snails Types of lakes : Many types. drugs etc. 3. River ecosystem: large streams flowing from mountain highlands are rivers. shallow – high sunlight – high primary productivity. Oceans: Gigantic reservoirs of water covering >70% of earth surface – 2. nutrient rich. Two zones: coastal zone – warm.000 species – huge variety of sea products. Thus stream are worst victims of industrial pollution. nutrients are brought – deposited in plains and delta – very rich in biodiversity.www.

EEENotes. The sum of total of various types of microbes. birds. diversity-variety). snails insects. varieties and species. plants and animals (producers. temp.www. fishes. D. Biotic: Phytoplankton. nutrients. insects phytoplankton Energy flow: Phytoplankton Insects small fishes huge fishes Decomposition sediments INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY  Biodiversity is the abbreviated word for “biological diversity” (bio-life or living organisms.in Characteristics: Structural Components: Environmental Science and Engineering Abiotic: pH.O. Thus biodiversity is the total variety of life on our planet. etc. Page 12 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds fishes Worms. etc. climatic conditions. consumers and decomposers) in a system. the total number of races.

the biodiversity. by research expeditions.in Environmental Science and Engineering Biomes can be considered life zones. New Zealand. environment with similar climatic. mainly in tropics. while Britain. Page 13 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . with an area twice as large. makes the world beautiful. shape. The Malaysian Peninsula. including tropic levels. Biodiversity Hotspots: Most of the world‟s biodiversity are near the equator especially tropical rain forest and coral reefs. Genetic diversity is a measure of the variety of versions of same gene within individual species.4 million species known presently. has only 1400 species. There are 1. of unique species and biodiversity.  The concept of biodiversity may be analyzed in 3 different levels. for instance. It is the combination of different organisms that enables the biosphere to sustain human race. But based on new discoveries. life occurs in a marvelous spectrum of size. Areas isolated by water. ecological processes (which capture energy). topographic and soil conditions and roughly comparable biological communities (Eg. South Africa and California are all mid-latitude area isolated by barriers that prevent mixing up of biological communities from other region and produce rich.EEENotes. colour and inter relationship). from highest mountain to deepest ocean trenches. only 10-15% live in North America and Europe. forest). The variety of living organisms. Of all the world‟s species.www. Grassland. taxonomists estimate there are between 3-50 million different species may be alive today. unusual collection of species. has at least 8000 species of flowing plants. Insects make up more than one half of all known species and may comprise more than 90% of all species on earth. desert or mountain can also have high conc. food webs and material recycling. Biodiversity is vital for a healthy biosphere. Significance of Biodiversity: Biosphere is a life supporting system to the human race. Species diversity describes the number of kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems. The biomes shelter an astounding variety of living organisms (from driest desert to dripping rain forest. Each species in the biosphere has its own significance. They are 1 ecosystem diversity 2 species diversity 3 genetic diversity Ecosystem or ecological diversity means the richness and complexity of a biological community. South America has 200 000 species of plants. Biodiversity is must for the stability and proper functioning of the biosphere.

childhood leukemia was fatal. Removal of forest-cover for road laying and also due to soil erosion Illegal trade of wild life Population explosion. Benefits of biodiversity: We benefit from other organism in many ways. Page 14 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . many plant species become extinct Increase in the production of pharmaceutical companies made several number of medicinal plants and species on the verge of extinction. productive use values. Ecological benefits: Human life is inextricably linked to ecological services provided by other organisms. social values. ethical values and aesthetic values. Food: Many wild plant species could make important contributions to human food suppliers either as they are or as a source of material to improve domestic crops.Malaria treatment Morphine – poppy bark – Analgesic Twenty years before. Now the remission rate for childhood leukemia is 99%.in Environmental Science and Engineering Besides these biodiversity is so important due to having consumptive use values.EEENotes. high diversity may help biological communities to withstand environmental stress better and to recover more quickly than those with fewer species. waste disposal.www. once the drugs were not introduced. removal of medicinal plants) Production of hybrid seeds requires wild plants as raw material. Soil formation. Drugs and medicine: Living organisms provides many useful drugs and medicines. Threats to biodiversity: Due to  Habitat loss Deforestation activities (cutting trees for timber. animals and microbes to be more than $30 billion per year. About 80. air and water purification. construction of dam. discharge of industrial effluents use of pesticides.000 edible plants could be used by human. Even insignificant organisms can play irreplaceable roles in ecological systems or the source of genes or drugs that someday become indispensable. The United Nations Development Programme derived from developing world plants. For natural medicinal products Penicillin – fungus is the source – Antibiotic Quinine – chincona bark . Eg. solar energy absorption. nutrient cycling and food production all depend on biodiversity. In many environments. farmers prefer hybrid reeds.

Rhinoceros – for horns. can support more individuals of given species and therefore less likely to suffer extinction due to genetic problems and natural catastrophes. In spite of this vast population. the elimination of species.) Hunting: Over harvesting is responsible for depletion or extinction of many species. To solve the problems. Elephant – for ivory tusk. Sea Horse. is a normal process of the natural world. hides. Star turtle – sold to foreign market. (Extinction.in  Environmental Science and Engineering Poaching of wild life Due to poaching. Eg.www. Human caused reduction: The climate change caused by our release of green house gases in the atm. The American passenger pigeon was the world‟s most abundant bird. Ex-situ conservation In-situ conservation:  Conservation of species in its natural habitat. 1. there are 9800 protected areas and 1500 national parks  Page 15 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Conservation of biodiversity: In general biodiversity is generally disturbed by human activities. Tiger. it is essential to protect our bio diversity by two ways. Human disturbance of natural habitat is the largest single cause pf loss of biological diversity. could have catastrophic effects. In-situ or on-site conversion 2. in place where the species normally occurs  The strategy involves establishing small or large protected areas.EEENotes. called protected areas  Today in world. Habitat fragmentation reduces the biodiversity because many animals like bears and large cats require large territories to subsist. A large island for example. Woodlands and grasslands are converted now use about 10% of the world‟s land surface for crop production and about twice the amount for pasture and grasslands. Species die put and are replaced by others as part of evolutionary change. illegal trade and smuggling activities most of our valuable fauna are under threat organised crime has moved into illegal wild life smuggling because of huge profit Eg. Commercial products: Smuggling of fuels.  Fragmentation. horns and folk medicines also affect the biodiversity in an abrupt manner. market hunting and habitat destruction caused the entire population to crash with in 20 years. Some forest birds reproduce only in deep forest or habitat far from human settlement. Deer – for hides.

e. carbon cycle 5. The continuous circulation of all the essential elements and compounds required for life. transpiration. 2. What are the processes involved in hydrological cycle? Continuous evaporation. Ex. precipitation of surface run off and ground water 4. Give example. 2. on farm and home garden conservation for plants.situ conservation:  It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plant and animal species under partially or wholly controlled conditions in zoos.in Methods: Environmental Science and Engineering 1.. national parks and sanctuaries (Eg) Mudumalai. its biotic and abiotic components and their interrelationships. Define biogeochemical cycle. gardens and laboratories  The crucial issue for conservation is to identify those species which are more at risk of extinction. Methods: 1. 5. It is a store house minerals and organic matters Page 16 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . long term captive breeding shortage term propagation and release animal translocation and re introductions seed bank reproductive technology (i) embryo transfer technology (ii) cloning Review questions: 1.www. 3. vegetables and fruits to maintain traditional crop varieties. Define Environmental science Environmental science is the study of the environment. What are the functions of lithosphere? It is a home for human beings and wild lives. Nature or biosphere reserves (Eg) Nilgiri Bio reserve 2. vedanthangal 3.EEENotes.g. from the environment to the organism and back to the environment. What are the important components of environment? Abiotic or non-living components Biotic or living component Energy component 3. 4.

Mention the various types of public participation. hydrosphere and atmosphere in which living organisms live and interact with one another is called biosphere Page 17 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .  Pressure group  Watch dog  Advisory council  Enforcing the environmental laws 7.www. Explain biosphere? Environmental Science and Engineering The part of lithosphere.EEENotes.in 6.

www. carbon oxides. nitrogen oxides. water.EEENotes. liquid droplets. pollen grains Radio active pollutants – Radon 222. volatile organic compounds Particulate pollutants – smoke. particulate matter. dust. Ex. soil) which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property. Types of environmental pollution:a) Air pollution b) Water pollution c) Soil pollution d) Marine pollution e) Noise pollution f) Thermal pollution g) Nuclear hazards a)AIR POLLUTION: It is an atmospheric. which can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment.in Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 2: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION-DEFINITION:Any undesirable change in the physical. soot. radioactive substances etc. Iodine 131. chemical or biological characteristics of any component of the environment (air. condition where certain substances are present in conc. Gases. fumes. Gaseous pollutants – sulphur oxides. Sr 90 Page 18 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . aerosol.

CO2) Fertilizer plants Textile mills Refineries Paper and pulp mills Classification of air pollutants: Air pollutants According to origin According to state of matter Primary pollutants secondary pollutants (SO2. Volcanic eruption 2. NOX) particulate air pollutants (dust. aldehydes) Gaseous air pollutants (CO2. smoke) (PAN. NOX-8%)(Heavy duty diesel vehicles. mist) Page 19 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Pollen grains of flowers fossil fuel burning Agricultural activities Metallurgical plants (SO2. SO2) industrial units vehicle emission(CO-77%. Biological decay man made sources(anthropogenic) thermal power plants (fly ash.in Sources of air pollution Environmental Science and Engineering Natural sources 1. NOX.EEENotes. HC-14%. Sea salt spray 5.www. SO3. Forest fires 3.more NOX and SPM Petrol vehicles – CO & HC) 4.

Upper respiratory passage dye making. S. A person using wood as fuel for cooking inhales BAP equivalent to 20 packets of cigarette a day. explosives and fertilizers Coal and oil furnaces Damages kidney. cause jaundice. Bigger particles (> 10 micro m) can be trapped by the hairs and sticky muscus lining in the nose. No. benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) are toxic and harmful for health. which are derived from soil containing radium. Effects of air pollution: Effects on human: Human respiratory system has a number of mechanisms for protection from air pollution. BAP is also found in cigarette smoke and is considered to cause cancer.www.EEENotes. It can be emitted from building materials like bricks. Burning of fuel produce pollutants like CO. soot and many other like formaldehyde. causes nausea. tiles etc. oil damages lungs and heart and coal furnaces Cadmium Chlorine Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Sulfide Nitrogen oxides oil and coal furnaces Chemical industries Unburnt vapours Sewage refineries Motor exhaust Damages kidney Attacks respiratory tracks. bad odour vehicle Bronchitis Page 20 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Irritates eyes. mucous membranes gasoline Fog formed with combination of NOx affects respiratory system treatment. concrete. SO2. lung and skin cancer 2 Ammonia 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Arsenic Carbon Monoxide Motor exhausts.in Indoor air pollution: Environmental Science and Engineering Radon is an important air pollutant. Pollutant 1 Aldehydes Sources Effects on human Thermal Irritates nasal and respiratory tracts decomposition of fats and oils Chemical processes.

asthma. 5. 6. 4. 3. biological) in such quantities so as to constitute a health hazard by lowering the water quality and making it unfit for use. Using non conventional energy Using bio filters Planting more trees Reducing vehicle exhausts Using less polluting fuels Using mass transport Removal of particulate matter using electrostatic precipitator. cyclone filter etc. industrial effluent etc. fungi. aggressive asthma oil Obstructs breathing.www. protozoa fungi) natural organic pollutants synthetic organic pollutants inorganic chemicals radioactive waste. fertilizers. 2. construction sites) Classification of water pollutants: 1. sediments Page 21 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Causes: Point source Ex: flow of water pollutants from sewerage system. suspended matter thermal discharge pathogens (bacteria.EEENotes. 8. 2. 7.in 10 11 12 Ozone Sulphur dioxide Suspended solids Photochemical reactions Coal and combustion Industrial manufactures Environmental Science and Engineering Eye irritation. 5. 7. oil. Non-point source Ex: agricultural land (pesticides. 6. suffocation. 4. lung cancer air Control of air pollution: 1. 3. 9. Setting of industries of EIA Removal of NOX from vehicle exhaust b)WATER POLLUTION: Presence of foreign impurities (organic. irritates eyes Eye irritation. inorganic. mining.

www. cholera. affect the flora cause creates anaerobic conditions 7. lay down standard for a. are the predominant health hazard arising from drinking contaminated water 5. mercury. drinking water b. waste water treatment  preliminary treatment  primary treatment  secondary treatment  advanced treatment Page 22 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Industrial effluents result in addition of poisonous chemicals such as arsenic. Control measures of water pollution 1. biodegradable waster deplete D O in the receiving stream. water borne infectious enteric disease like typhoid. domestic treatment  screening  sedimentation  filtration. Objectionable colour and odour is unacceptable and unsuitable for drinking and other purposes. treatment a. radioactive pollution enter human body through food and get accumulated in thyroid gland. promote the growth of algae and encourage eutrophication 10. lead may reach human body through contaminated food. thermal discharge in stream depletes D O 9. highly turbid and very hard water is unpleasant to drink. nitrate. 2. disposal of waste water into water course/sewer/land 2.in Effects of water pollution Environmental Science and Engineering 1. acid and alkaline water cause serious health problem 4. monitoring 3. food processing 3. non biodegradable waste and pesticides travel the food chain and ultimately reach human where they accumulate in fatty tissues 8. liver. bones and muscles 6. dysentery. phosphate.EEENotes. pH adjustment  disinfection b.

use biodegradable organic waste Industrial waste Urban waste Agricultural practices Radioactive pollutants Biological agent d) MARINE POLLUTION:The discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting in harm to living resources. Causes:     Effects: Affect human health  Affect soil fertility  Reduce soil productivity  Cause abnormalities Control measures:     Properly collect solid waste Microbial degradation Recovery of products from waste For methane generation. use cattle dung For biogas generation. hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water.in C) SOIL POLLUTION:- Environmental Science and Engineering The contamination of soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings. Causes:   Sources:       Effects:   Rivers Catchment area Oil drilling and shipment. hazards to human health. waste disposal oil spill thermal pollution (plants located nearby coastal areas) ship breaking activities aquaculture practices nuclear test conducted in seas and oceans disturb entire aquatic or marine ecosystem oil has suffocation effect on most aquatic animals Page 23 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EEENotes.www.

Page 24 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . algal species. The number of c and r per unit time is called frequency. Sound pressure creates alternate compression and rarefaction. Control measures: Ban to dump the toxic.EEENotes. of water and DO may be depleted which causes danger. acute and genetic damage  Affects the recreational activity along the beaches  Affect sensitive flora and fauna  Loss of buoyancy  Affect phytoplankton. fish.  Prevent sewer overflows  Minimize coastal developmental activities  Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea. coral reefs. The CPCB has recommended the permissible noise levels for various places.www. It has a dimensionless unit decibel (dB). Sound pressure does not produce linear impact on human. A logarithmic scale has been devised. Noise is measure in terms of SPL which is a log ratio of sound P to a std. The international reference P is 2X10 power -5 Pa.  There may be chances for bioaccumulation and bio magnification in the food chain due to the disposal of non-degradable wastes  Oil promotes anaerobic conditions by preventing diffusion of oxygen from air  Disposal of radio active wastes cause chronic. hazards waste and sewage sludge. liquid or solid Sound is pressure perturbation in the medium through which it travels. birds and mammals. zooplankton. Sound can affect ears either by loudness or by pitch (frequency). e) NOISE POLLUTION:Sound is mechanical energy from a vibrating source Unpleasant and unwanted sound is called noise Sound can propagate through air. P.in    Environmental Science and Engineering smaller animals can be caught in oil envelope and die thermal Pollution may increase the temp.

EEENotes. Rocket engine – 180 dB 2.in Area Environmental Science and Engineering Permissible noise level(dB) Day Industrial Commercial Residential Silent Zone 75 65 55 50 Night 70 55 45 40 Sounds and their decibel scale: 1. Construction works.www. Recorded music (max) – 130 dB 5. Industrial units 2. news paper press – 100 dB 6. Library or soft whisper – 30 B 11. Normal living room – 50 dB 10. Ordinary conservation – 70/80 dB 8. Threshold of pain – 140 dB 4. Air conditioning unit/ Light traffic – 60 dB 9. Motor cycle – 90 dB 7. Electric home appliances Nanjing – 105 dB Rome Calcutta Mumbai Delhi – 90 dB – 85 dB – 82 dB – 80 dB Effects of noise pollution:  Interferes communication  Hearing damage (90 dB)  Physiological and Psychological disorders Page 25 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Threshold of hearing – 0 dB Sources of noise pollution: 1. Celebrations 5. Construction activities 4. Jet plane take off – 150 dB 3. Transportation modes 3.


Environmental Science and Engineering

Noise pollution during Diwali: The environmental (protection) (2nd amendment) Rule 1999 has given the permissible limit of noise level produced from fire crackers to be 125 dB. According to recent test reports on fire crackers by National Physical Laboratory, the fire crackers available in the market produce noise beyond the permissible limit. Atom bomb – 135-138 dB Hydrogen bomb – ”

The Union Government and all the state governments shall follow the guidelines of amendment 89 of env. (Protection) Rule 1986 framed under Env. (Protection) Act 1986 which says 1. The manufacture, sale or use of fire crackers generating noise level exceeding125dB shall be prohibited. 2. For joined fire crackers the limit is taken as 5log 10 (N) dB; where N= no. of crackers joined together 3. The use of fire crackers shall not be permitted except between 6.00a.m and 10p.m. 4. No crackers burning is permitted in/near silent zone – areas near hospitals, educational institutions, courts, religious places, etc. 5. The State Education Resource Centre shall take appropriate steps to educate students about the ill effects of air and noise pollution. Control of noise pollution:       Reduction in source of noise] Noise making machines should be kept in containers with sound absorbing media Proper oiling will reduce noise from machinery Using silencers – fibrous material Planting trees Legislation can prevent excess sound production, unnecessary horn blowing etc.

f) THERMAL POLLUTION:Addition of excess undesirable heat to water Causes: Nuclear power plant  Domestic sewage  Hydro electric power Effects:  Reduction inn dissolved oxygen Increase in toxicity Page 26 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering

www.EEENotes.in  Direct mortality Control measures:-

Environmental Science and Engineering

The following methods should be adopted to control thermal pollution    Cooling towers Cooling ponds Spray ponds

g) NUCLEAR HAZARDS:- OR RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION The physical pollution of air, water and soil by radio materials. Causes:I) Natural causes:  Solar rays  Radio nuclides in earth‟s crust  Environmental radiation II)Anthrogeneic causes:     Effects: Causes skin burns, loss of teeth, vomiting anemia  Blood cancer  Brain damage Control measures:    Radiation exposure protection Radiation contamination protection Controlled area Disposal of radioactive waste Medical X-rays Radio isotopes Nuclear test Nuclear installations Nuclear reactor

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:Any material that is thrown away or discarded as unwanted is considered as solid waste. Types: Garbage or food waste  Rubbish  Agricultural waste Page 27 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering

www.EEENotes.in  Industrial waste  Hazardous waste Cause: Over population  Affluence  Technology Effects: Health hazard  Environmental impact Control measures:-

Environmental Science and Engineering

Solid waste management include the waste generation Solid waste generation

Collection of waste


Storage Segregation of waste

Disposal methods

Land fills



 Collection of solid waste  Disposal of solid waste Land fill- Disposal of municipal waste in the upper layers of the earth‟s mantle. Incineration- Burn highly combustible wastes at very high temperature, Composting or Bio degradation- Decompose the organic components of the municipal solid wastes. Page 28 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering

Take some bag from home to market to purchase. Compost garden waste Segregate waste and recycle Buy locally made long losing material Buy environmentally degradable products.000 people died – 1000 people turned blind-lakhs of people still continue to suffer various diseases 2. POLLUTION CASDE STUDIES:1. Gulf War: (Marine Pollution) Gulf war was fought between Iraq and US-Period of 6 weeks in 1991-American fighters dropped a lakh of bombs-force the Iraq army to withdraw from Kuwaitretreat of Iraq-burning of 700 oil wells-near sea shore –oil from well spills out into the sea-the floating oil oversea water nearly 80 km long-burning of oil wells nearly 10 months-released huge amounts of pollutants likeCO2 and SO2 into the atmosphere-1 million birds killed.www.1984-city.Small hostel village in Japan –Chicago-chemical company produces Venyl polymer plastics-industry release its effluent into Minamata sea-Effluents Page 29 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .EEENotes. television sets and computer when not in use.- Environmental Science and Engineering             Use stairs instead of elevators Use public transportation walk or ride a bicycle Plant trees around building Turn off lights.1986-the reactor exploded.India-midnight on December 3. Recycle glass metal and paper.in  Waste utilization o Reuse o Recycling o Reclamation Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.000 people-damage to soil. Minamata Disease :( Marine Pollution) Minamata.(Air Pollution) Pesticide factory-Union Carbide. 3. 4.result of uncontrolled nuclear reactions-radioactive fuel spread out in to the surrounding areas –killed at least 20. water and vegetation around 60 km.corporation leak large volume of methyl iso cyanate –atmosphere Bhopal.changegas chamber-within a week 10. Bhopal gas tragedy:. Chernobyl Disaster : ( Nuclear pollution) Occur at Chernobyl in USSR 28 th April. Install waste saving equipments. Pay immediate attention to leaks in pipes.

FLOOD: Submergence of waste areas of land under water for many days in continuation Causes: 1. Damage to building and property 2.EEENotes. Clearing of forest for agriculture 4.www. Soil erosion is the major loss of agriculture 3. Volcanic eruption 3. Industries increase the value and rate of water discharge after a storm Effects: 1.flood in Bangladesh 1974 EARTHQUAKE: Earthquake is the motion of the ground surface caused by wave motion starting from a focal point Causes: 1. Underground nuclear testing 2. reduction of run off by increasing infiltration through appropriate forestation eg.Heavy rainfall 2. reservoir and lakes 4. Pressure of manmade dams. Any product submerged by flood water cannot be rescued Control measures: 1. advance meteorological information will prevent flood damage 3.in Environmental Science and Engineering containing mercury ions-converted into methyl mercury. Sudden Snow melt 3. Cause Tsunami 2. Earthquake in Bhuj town Page 30 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Deformation of ground surface 3. In hilly and mountain areas may cause land slides which damage the settlement and transport system 4.nervous disorders DISASTER MANAGEMENT. Building wall prevent spilling out the flood water over flood pains 2. movements of plates of earth Effects: 1.highly toxic consumed by fishes –affect human being through food chain-damage central nervous system-loss of vision and hearing-loss of muscular coordination and severe headache. Depending on the severity of the quake collapses house and people died in 1000 eg.

The movement of eart materials like coherent rock. Create national parks. Earthquake. planting more trees on hostel areas 2.in Control measures: Environmental Science and Engineering 1.EEENotes. construction of dams 3. crop yield. sanctuaries biosphere. Radar system is used to detect cyclone eg. mud. shock.www. transport.land slides in U. movement of heavy vehicles on the unstable sleepy region Effects: 1. Planting of deep rooted vegetation 2. Government can inform the earthquake prone zone and caution residence 2.g. damage the houses. communication could be very heavy Control measures: 1. Depends on the intensity of the cyclone 2. building should be designed to withstand tremors CYCLONE: Cyclone is meteorological phenomena intense depressions forming over the open oceans and moving towards the land Effects: 1. life stock Control measures: 1.Cyclone in AP LANDSLIDES. Encouragement for construction of bridges water ways 3. Damage to human life crops roads. vibration 2.e.P Page 31 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . soil and debris from higher region to lower due to gravitational pull is called landslide Causes: 1. Deep water ground mining 3. block the roads 3. Increase erosion of soil 2.

6.in Review questions Environmental Science and Engineering 1. What is smog? It is a mixture of smoke and fog which forms droplets that remain suspended in the air. This activity displaces the overlying water in the ocean Page 32 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Define the term Tsunami.EEENotes. 7. 3. What is point source of water pollution? Point source is discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipes. ditches into bodies of surface waters. What are the types of solid waste?  Municipal waste  Industrial waste  Hazardous waste What is waste minimization? Industrial manufacturing system the primary concern should be reducing the quantities of waste materials produced.www. Name the chemical constituent of gas that caused death in Bhopal gas tragedy in India. This avoids the necessity to threat and disposal off such materials. It is a large wave that are generated in a water body where the sea floor deformed by seismic activity. 4. Give any three methods of air pollution control equipment  Catalytic converters  Cyclone collectors  Electrostatic precipitators 2. Methyl iso cynaide. When a sound causes noise pollution? Noise beyond 120 dB 5.

Which has intrinsic value of its own is called as resource. gum. 2.EEENotes. clean Ground water minerals Considered to be renewable with considerable life span-as long as they have the capacity to renew – unless they are affected by catastrophes or anthrophogenic activity. medicine. non edible oils. They act as a blanket on the surface of the earth.www. rubber. fire wood. Any component which can be transferred in a way such that it becomes more valuable and useful is termed as resource. water. But the matter under high concern is the declination of forest cover year by year. bamboo and many other important items. Around 1/3rd of world land area was found to be forests. Production of Oxygen: Photosynthesis – earth‟s lungs Reducing global warming – sink for carbon di oxide Wild life habitat – 7 million species in tropical forests alone Regulation of hydrological cycle – prevent surface run off – giant sponges – 50-80% moisture Page 33 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 1/5 th of world forests were found in Brazil and 6-7% was in Canada and USA. resin. USES OF FOREST: Commercial uses: Forests provide timber. Solar energy. Ecological uses: 1. food material. Clean air.in UNIT 3:NATURAL RESOURCES Environmental Science and Engineering Any component of the env. Apart from having high commercial importance they provide high environmental services also. wind Human skills energy Available only in Considered to be finite quantity – available always. their rate of renewal is so slow that they are considered as non-renewable FOREST RESOURCES: Forests are one of the most important resources of the world. 3. Resources Renewable Non renewable Continuous Extrinsic Eg. 4. drugs. fibers.

shelter. threatens many wild life species due to destruction of natural habitat biodiversity is lost along with that genetic diversity hilly regions are made prone to landslides soil erosion and loss of soil fertility hydrological cycle is affected (loss of rainfall. Deforestation rate intemperate countries are relatively moderate. overgrazing CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION 1. INDIAN STATUS: Stabilized since 1982.27% of our land area covered by forests(satellite data). As per our NFP. expansion of urban. MAJOR CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION: 1. road building and clearing of forests. Soil conservation – hold solid particles tightly and prevent soil erosion – wind breaks 6. Pollution moderators: absorb toxic gases and purify air reduce noise pollution OVER EXPLOITATION OF FORESTS: Human beings depend heavily on forests for food. fuel and medicine with growing civilization etc. shooted up resulting in large scale mining. Excessive use of charcoal. 3.EEENotes. Shifting of Cultivation – 300 million people – 5 lakh hectares of forest for slash and burn culture 2. fuel wood. But we still have only 19. 5.www. drought etc) Page 34 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . agricultural and industrial areas and overgrazing have lead to over exploitation and rapid degradation of forests. with about 0. It is estimated that in next 60 years we would lose more than 90% of our tropical forest. developmental projects 5. growing food needs 6. But it is alarming in tropical countries. During this period it is estimated that about 1. DEFORESTATION: The total forest area of the world in 1900 was 7000 million hectares -1975 – 2900 mha – 2000 – 2300 mha.in Environmental Science and Engineering 5.44 mha land was brought under afforestation. fuel requirement 3. wood.04% declaration per year between 1982 . 2.90. raw materials for industrial use 4. 4. we have a target of achieving 33% forest area. flood.

Au. Under the Protocol. For example. Mining can be carried out in two ways 1. a developing country can sell its credits to an industrialized country that has exceeded its quota of emissions. particularly tree breading species iii) soil erosion and loss of soil fertility iv) migration of tribal people from one place to another in search of new forest v) extinction of tribal people and their culture MINING: Mining is a process of removing ores from area which is very much below the ground level. Page 35 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . The latter would invest in afforestation and reforestation projects in the developing country.in TIMBER EXTRACTION AND MINING: Environmental Science and Engineering The major activities in forest area are 1. They play an important role in the carbon cycle and the way we manage forests could significantly affect global warming. The Kyoto Protocol on climate change may have a great impact on forest management.www. Mining is done for the extraction of several minerals of metals like Fe. underground mining or sub-surface mining The effects of under ground mining on forest reserves is comparatively less than that of surface mining Relation between forest and climate change: Forests both influence and influenced by climate change. the impact on forests is likely to be regionally varied. Mn. Surface mining 2. a country with forests earns emission credits. These credits are tradable. dramatic. Even now. deforestation contributes significantly to net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atm. timber extraction 2.EEENotes. we can see how any extreme weather has great impact on forests. the 1999 storms in Europe caused heavy damage to forests and also to trees outside forest areas. Forests hold more than 50 per cent of the carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation and soil organic matter. The minerals are especially found in thick forests. If the predicted global warming occurs. mining The important effects of timber extraction are i) thinning of forests ii) loss of biodiversity. and long-lasting. since its forests absorb carbon dioxide.etc. Hence. Ag. that is.

2. of living of them 3. 2. 2. 5. 4. 6. 7. 3. contribute for economic uplift and growth 4. 5. Page 36 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . provide irrigation water 8. India has large number of river valley projects 1. 4. 3. provides large scale employment of tribal people and increase the std. promote navigation and fishery. These dams are regarded as symbol of national development.www. 8. generate electricity 6. Water logging and salinity due to over irrigation micro climatic changes salt water intrusion at river mouth loss of fertility due to sediment deposits out break of vector born diseases. Displacement of tribal people Loss of flora and fauna siltation and sedimentation near reservoir stagnation and water logging near reservoir growth of aquatic weeds micro climatic changes RIS causes earthquakes breeding of disease vectors Downstream problems 1. Environmental problems: The environmental problems can be at upstream as well as downstream Level Upstream problems 1.in DAMS – BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS Environmental Science and Engineering River valley projects with big dams are considered to play a key role in the development of a country. help in checking flood 5. reduce power and water shortage 7.EEENotes. provide drinking water to remote areas 9.

Ground water: 9. Unique features of water 1. lowering of water table and water logging. The recharge of this layer is by rainfall or snowmelt. irrigation and also industrial purposes Out of the total available water 75% is used for agriculture. In our country ~93% of water is used for agricultural purposes. Anomalous expansion on freezing 5. rapid industrial growth and population explosion The use of ground water and surface water rates which are higher than that of recharge ultimately leads to     Water scarcity Water logging Salination alkalization Page 37 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Temperate regions 3.EEENotes. sand etc. Deserts Water is used for domestic. Confined aquifer: sandwiched between impermeable layers. Effects of over utilization of ground water: Reasons: Economic development.in WATER RESOURCES Environmental Science and Engineering Water is an indispensible resource. The recharge is through unconfined aquifer layers. Aquifer: The layer of soil which is permeable has the ability to store water is called an aquifer. The availability of water decreases in the following order. It is generally made up of gravel. Around 97% of world surface is covered with water. nutrients and pollutants 4. Over utilization of ground water: Over utilization of water leads to rapid depletion of water resources. Tropical rain forest 2. High surface tension Global distribution of water is very much random depending on the geographical conditions. High latent heat of vapourisation 3. Good solvent for oxygen. 20% for industrial usage. 1. ground subsidence.86% of fresh water is ground water and it is 35-50% greater than surface water. High specific heat 2. Most of the animals and plants have 60-65% of water in their body.www. Unconfined aquifer: it is covered by permeable layer.

snow melt. Water is a valuable commodity and it has to be conserved. river.www.EEENotes. Submerges the flooded area 2. Reduction in carrying capacity due to obstructions or sediments etc. 5.in  water pollution or contamination Environmental Science and Engineering creates declining of water levels crops failure and reduction in agricultural production over pumping of ground water create drought. Dams and reservoirs can be constructed Embankments and proper channel management Flood way should not be encroached Forecasting or flood warning Decrease of run off by infiltration through afforestation or rain water harvesting etc. sudden release of water from dams. Page 38 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . It is the responsibility of everyone to ensure the purity of water. 4. Removal of dense forests from hilly regions Effects: 1. pond. mining increases water run off 5. whenever the water in flow is greater than the carrying capacity of the channels flood occurs. heavy rainfall. surface water body like lake. which in turn force to utilize the ground water. Loss of soil fertility due to soil erosion 3. 2. Prolonged down pour leading to overflowing of rivers and lakes 3. overgrazing. famine and food shortage over pumping of ground water sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers land subsidence may due to over pumping of ground water river pollution due to industrial activities and dumping of waste into rivers. are formed. Causes: 1. Extinction of civilization at costal area Flood management: 1. streams etc. ultimately leads to over pumping Clean water is universal right. 3. 4. Surface water: When evaporation and transpiration rates are lower than the rainfall. 2. Flood: over flow of water. Deforestation.

industrial effluents etc makes land useless and dry Population explosion in man and livestock leads to enhanced requirement of timber. drying of wetlands Pollution of soil with solid waste. fuel wood.EEENotes.www. grazing Shifting cultivation Effects:      Increase of water in stream pond Ground water table get declined Loss of agricultural crops Loss of biodiversity Government spent a lot of money as drought relief f und Control measures     Rain water harvesting Watershed management Prevent deforestation Encourage afforestation Page 39 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Hydrological: deficiency in surface and subsurface water supplies Agricultural: inadequate soil moisture to meet the need of a particular crop at particular time or susceptibility of crops during different stages in its development Socioeconomic: reduction in the availability of food and social securing of people Causes:      Deforestation and lesser rainfalls coupled with cutting of trees for timber leads to desertifictation. subsidence of soil. Over drafting of ground water. Types: Meterological : in order of month or year. actual moisture supply at a given place consistently falls below critical level.in Drought : Environmental Science and Engineering Unpredictable delay in climatic condition occurring due to monsoon rain failure.

Ganges .Europe Distributional conflict-relative storage Euphrates. reduced in lower basin due to extensive use. Jordan Conflicts management:    Enact laws to check practices to control water pollution Sharing river solved by interlinking river Power must be given to national water authority and river basin authority and river s-basin authority for equitable distribution of basin waterdemand fo0r nationalization of water needs Control of water resources Military food resources Political resources Terrorism Military targets Development disputes Page 40 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .2 dam construction Construction of power stations on Conflicts through pollution-rhine river.www. Colorada and Rio Grande. Shipping traffic in international water .EEENotes. Nile.plataneous in upper basin.in CONFLICTS OVER WATER Environmental Science and Engineering Due to increase in population and decrease in water resources conflicts over water starts Conflicts over the water around world was classified as       Causes:       Conflicts through use 1. Anatolian dam project by turkey Farakka dam in India Distributional conflict: Absolute shortage.

 Great volume of debris has been generated which disrupt the surface and ground water circulation.  Deeper excavation of ground causes lowering of water table. which adversely affects the flora and fauna.  Deforestation takes place due to removal of vegetal covers. which leads to drying of wells or sea water intrusion  In stone quarries.EEENotes. 1.www. open cast mining and 2. blasting of rocks not only annoying the people nearby. It also reduces the water carrying capacity of streams very close to mining area  The stacking of over burden and building of soil banks creates problems of landslides  Under ground fire in coalmines is a hazard that is difficult to control  Mining and ore processing normally causes air pollution and water pollution  The acid water generated in coalmines can pose a serious problem of water pollution. FOOD RESOURCES: PROBLEMS FACED BY FOOD RESOURCES Overgrazing modern agriculture Land degradation Soil erosion Loss of useful species high yield variety crops micronutrients imbalance nitrate pollution Eutrophication Pesticide related problems Water logging Salinity Page 41 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . underground mining. In both types each steps in mining processing produce several environmental effects such as. but also cause hazard from fly rocks and dusts and damage to buildings due to vibrations The disposal of waste material produced after concentrations of ore create increase concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements in the environment.in MINERAL RESOURCES Environmental Science and Engineering  Environmental impacts of over extraction of mineral resources:  Depending on the conditions of terrain and depth of ore deposits 2 types of mining operations are carried out.

compacted soil cannot be used for further cultivation  Soil erosion-cover of vegetation gets removed from soil  Loss of useful species-good quality grasses and herbs with high nutritive value.in WORLD FOOD PROBLEMS:            Environmental Science and Engineering Problems mainly under nutrition and malnutrition Natural calamities:-famine. earthquake.Switch grass Modern agriculture: The practice through which specific plant species are cared and managed so as to obtain maximum yield of consumable parts of plants –agriculture Makes use of hybrid seeds and selected and single crop variety.eg. drought. bacteria. interferes with water uptake by plants  Fossil fuels and pesticides produce air pollution Impacts related to high yielding varieties:   Monoculture ie the same genotype is grown over vast areas. storm Disease and medical facilities Pest damage:-insects. Lantane. gale. Disease spread easily Micronutrient imbalance e.www. Xanthium etc  To prevent –match the forage supplement to the herd‟s requirement. viruses. flood. dry. parasites consume 60% of world‟s food production Hunger Population explosion in rural areas Environmental pollution Lack of water for irrigation Less rainfall due to deforestation Livestock overgrazing Overfishing CHANGES CAUSED BY OVERGRAZING AND AGRICULTURE: Overgrazing: Process of eating away the vegetation along with its roots without giving a chance to regenerate Land degradation-leads to organically poor.EEENotes.g. when grazed lose even the root stocks which carry the reserve food for regeneration get destroyed which gives raise to secondary species like parthenium.g Zinc deficiency-affect soil productivity Page 42 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering  . pesticides and irrigation water e. high tech equipment and lots of energy subsides in the form of fertilizers. green revolution  Damage to soil  Water contamination  Water scarcity  Global climate change  Water logging-results when soil is over irrigated  Soil salinity-increase plant productivity.

streams. Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Mobility through soil. cause blue baby syndrome methaemoglobinemia.www. lighting. So that water table rises close to surface. electrical energy. Solar. washed away into rivers. water. Carbondioxide and ethylene accumulate around roots and affects plants ENERGY RESOURCES Growing energy needs: Population explosion. geothermal. heating. hydropower. wind.Resources which have accumulated in nature over a long span of time and cannot be quickly replenished when exhausted. Industries. soil root zone becomes saturated with so much water blocking oxygen supply for growth and soil becomes unsuitable. biomass.wood. cooling.in  Environmental Science and Engineering Nitrate pollution-nitrogenous fertilizers applied deep soil contaminates ground water. biofuel. natural gas produce 95% of energy Sources of energy PrimaryRenewable energy-resources which can be generated continuously in nature and are in exhaustible and can be used again endlessly. natural gas Secondary-petrol. when it rains can harm fishes Creating super pest Death of non starget organisms Salinity Water logging Water logging / salinisation: Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation. air. building all need energy.affects infants  Eutrophication: Over nourishment of lakes due to agriculture field wash out-leads to algal bloom-dead organic matters increases due to decomposition-leads to oxygen demand Problems associated with pesticide use:          Evolution of genetic resistance Imbalance in ecosystem Creation of new pest Persistence. oil. mining. hydrogen Non – renewable energy. Occurs in clayey soil. Agriculture. Tidal. petroleum. Water logging results when soils are over irrigated without drainage. transportation.EEENotes. Luxurious life.coal. coal burning Page 43 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Fossil fuels like coal.

Solar energy: Total energy from sun per year-35.000 times the energy used by man Used to run car. Cost more Energy non renewable 1.www. Difficult to store 4. Low cost 3.eg. Reliable supply 4.highly pollution Available only in few places High running cost Limited supply and will one day get exhausted Use of alternate energy sources: Refers to energy sources which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. Lower cost Disadvantage 1. Easy to store 3.EEENotes. Decentralized power production 4.largest wind farm-Kanyakumari in tamilnadu is generating 380 MW electricity Page 44 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . power plants and spaceships Energy harvesting devises: Solar heat collectors Solar cells „ Solar cooker Solar water heater Solar furnace Solar power plants Wind energy: Average wind velocity of earth -9 m/sec and power produced when a windmill is facing the wind od 10 miles/hr-50 watts. Unreliable supply 2.in Environmental Science and Engineering Energy renewable Advantage 1. Wide availability 2. Available in high concentrated form 2. Available for the future 1. Produced in small quantity 3. Low pollution 5.

It has been estimated that more than 5000 million tonnees of top soil is eroded annually along with 5 million tones of nutrients.g Leucaema. Sea weeds.www.potato.kully. Page 45 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .sohana Biomass energy Organic matter produced by plants Types: 1. Geothermal energy Energy harassed from the hot rocks inside earth. its kinetic energy is transformed into turbine blades and used to generate electricity Minimum water falls height-10 m Hydro power potential of India-4x1011KW/Hr Tidal Energy Uses the natural motion of tides to fill reservoirs which are then slowly discharged through electricity producing turbines Ocean thermal energy Energy available due to the difference in water temperature.Sugarcane. natural geysers in Manikaran.Energy plantations: Solar energy is trapped by green plants through photosynthesis and converted to biomass e. A difference of 20 0c or more is required for operating OTE power plants. Sweetbeet aquatic weeds like hyacinth.EEENotes. Petro crops Latex containing plants Euphorbias.cereal-energy plantations Produce energy by burning directly or by getting converted into burnable gas or converted to fuels by fermentation. The soil profile of land determines its ability to serve socio-economic needs.in Hydro power:    Environmental Science and Engineering Comes from damming of rivers and utilization of high pressure. sweet sorghum. The surface of the tropical ocean and at deeper level is called OTE. „About 1/3 of this is lost in sea while the rest in reservoirs and rivers leading to flood. eg. oil palms rich in hydrocarbons and yield oil like substance under high temperature and pressure-refined to form gasoline LAND RESOURCE Land is critically important national resource which supports all living organisms including plants and animals.

carrying capacity or the number of people and animals the land can normally support without significant stress. Simultaneously. Land Degradation: Land degradation is defined as the reduction in soil capacity to produce in terms of quality. This retains water for crops at each level and reduces soil erosion by water run off. The definition is also based on 1. sustainability or ability to produce continuously and indefinitely. All these lands cannot be utilized for agricultural purpose. Whenever degradation occur exceeding nature‟s restorative capacity. communication media and water flow. degraded lands and waste lands have to be improved by ecological restoration. rockslides etc. Contour Farming: This method is adopted for gently sloped land. Effective steps have to be taken for preventing diversion of land suitable for sustainable farming to non-farm uses. level terraces. This involves planting crops in rows across the contour of gently sloped land. Landscapes generally undergo degradation but are usually compensated by nature‟s inherent recovering ability. slides induced by man and his activities Some of the human activities that cause land sliding are      massive deforestation erratic agricultural practices road building Unscientific quarrying etc. slides due to natural factors 2. landslips. The Department of Land Resources was setup in April 1999 by ministry of Rural Development to act as nodal agency for land resource management. Terracing: Terracing reduces soil erosion on steep slopes by concerting the land into a series of broad.in Environmental Science and Engineering About 38% of the area in India suffers from moderate to high degree of water based erosion.33 hectare in 2000. The per capita availability of land in the country has declined from 1.www. Constructions Soil erosion: 1. quality of land resource that makes it sustainable or resistant to degradation 3.EEENotes. Some land would be required for other activities (to maintain urban area).37 hectare in 1901 to 0. 2. These hazardous features have reduced the overall progress of the region as they obstruct the roads. the result will be a disaster. There are two types of slides 1. quantity goods and services. Engineering. 2. Man induced landslides: The hill slopes are prone to land slides. Page 46 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

73%of its energy and command 85%of its income Less developed countries has 78% of population.water. ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL IN CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES: Natural resources-forest. The trees and shrubs provide shade which reduce water loss by evaporation and preserve soil moisture. Japan.EEENotes.food.mineral and energy Overuse of these resources cause problems Conserve water:  Don‟t keep water taps running  Install water saving toilets  Check forwater leaks  Reuse soapy water  Use drip and sprinkling irrigation  Conserveenergy  Turn off lights. Alley Cropping or Agro forestry: In this method crops are planted together in strips or alleys between trees and shrubs that can provide fruits and fuel wood. So poor low developed countries able to sustain their life Two basic cause of unsustainability are over population in poor countries and over consumption of resources by rich countries generate wastes Rich countries lower down their consumption level Poor countries fulfilled by providing them resources Review questions Page 47 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Wind Breaks or Shelter Belts: Wind breaks and shelter belts or trees are established to reduce wind erosion and also for retaining soil moisture. Canada. Australia have 22% of natural resources. 15% of income Gap arises due to increase in population distribution of resources and wealth Problem solved by equitable distribution of resources and wealth Global consensus has to be reached for more balanced distribution of basic resources like safe drinking water.fan when not in use  Use solarcooker for cooking  Try riding bicycle Protect soil:  Don‟t uproot plants  Grow grass which binds soil andprevent erosion  Make compost  Use green manure  Don‟t over irrigate  Use mixed cropping EQUITABLE USEOF RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE IFE STYLE:         Most developed countries like USA.www. fuel etc. 27% of energy. food.soil. use 88%. 12% Usage of natural resources.in Environmental Science and Engineering 3.

bringing the benefits of irrigation.www. What are the sources of water Ground water. What is sardar sarovar Narmada project? It is a multipurpose project on river Narmada. power and drinking water to Gujarat.e. surface water. all the water is not absorbed in the soil. electrical energy 6.chemical extractions 4. Marshes 3. What is ocean thermal energy conversation? In oceans. This difference can be harnessed to produce power. such water evaporates leaving behind a thin crust of dissolved salts in the top soil.in 1.EEENotes. Smelting. What is integrated pest management? The process of controlling crop pests using ecological system Page 48 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .. Give two examples of primary and secondary sources of energy? Primary source-fossil fuels. a thermal gradient (i. the temperature difference) of about 200C exists between surface water heated by sun and colder deep water. Mathya Pradesh and Rajasthan. What is wetland?give examples and use Wetlands are the natural water storage bodies on ground surface Eg. hydro energy Secondary source-petrol.Swamps. State the major process which have major environmental impact while processing of minerals. 5. What is artesian well? Environmental Science and Engineering A well or hole in aquifer flows freely at the surface 2. 7. Meadows. This concept is OTEC. rain water 9. 10. sea water. What is salinization? During over irrigation. Give any four environmental benefits of dam     Source of cleaner and safer power For irrigation of agricultural lands Helps in recharging of ground water Habitat for many fishes and wildlife 8.

employment etc Causes. transportation. communication.EEENotes. so difficult to accommodate with their limited area . health.So cities spread into rural areas     Urban energy requirement: Residential and commercial lighting Public and private transportation Electrical and electronic appliances Page 49 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .in Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 4:SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT From unsustainable to sustainable development: Brundland commission describes sustainable development as the development that meet needs of present generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own need Concept of sustainable development   A symbiotic relationship between consumer human race and producer natural system Compatibility between ecology and economics Aim of sustainable development:   Inter generational equity Intra generational technology Significance of sustainable development:  Developing appropriate technology  Reduce . medical facilities and employment Urban sprawl: Urban growth is fast . reuse.www. trade. recycle of natural resources  Providing environmental education and awareness  Consumption of renewable resources  Conservation of nonrenewable resources  Population control Urban problems related to energy: Urbanization: Movement of human population from rural areas top urban areas for betterment of education. Cities are main centers of economic growth. education.

penalty.EEENotes. play ground diverted to surface tank Advantages of rainwater harvesting Page 50 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .www.in Solution: Use public transport instead of motor cycles Energy consumption must be minimized Use solar and wind energy Impose strict laws. and energy audit Water conservation: Process of saving water for future utilization Water source:  Fresh water  River  Stream  Pond  Ocean Need for water conservation: Environmental Science and Engineering  Population increases water requirement also increases  Due to deforestation annual rainfall decreases  Over exploitation of ground water Ways of water conservation  Reducing evaporation loss  Reducing irrigation loss  Reuse water  Avoid sewage discharge Water conservation method  Rain water harvesting  Watershed management Rain water harvesting Objective: To meet increasing demands of water Raise water table by recharging ground water Reduce ground water contamination from salt water intrusion Roof top rainwater harvesting  Involves collecting water that falls on roof of house  Rainwater from roof top. road surface.

Page 51 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering - . storage tanks and channels . ponds. Mini 3. resulting better income to rural population Improved availability of fodder for animals and increase in milk yield Increase in employment & involvement of women Increase in net returns from all crops. . training camps and exposure visits. dams. The management of rainfall & resultant runoff. degraded land and supplement folder and fuel wood resources available to rural communities Agriculture Aims to increase agricultural productivity in sustained manner and to diversify crop production . Forestry Halt deforestation. repair of old channels . Micro 2. Macro Watershed Management. lakes. provide vegetative cover. Farm. Himalaya. implementing measures to check soil erosion Horticulture  establishment of private orchard  Rejuvenation of existing orchards  Distribution of horticulture plant for home garden planting. Types 1. water harvesting tanks. Pits.  Animal husbandry  Energy conservation  Community participation  Training and awareness programme Advantages of Watershed projects Improved access to drinking water in project areas during drought Increase in cultivation area leading to increase in employment Increase in crop yield.in  Increases the well water availability  Raise ground water level  Minimizes soil erosion Watershed management: Environmental Science and Engineering It is defined as land area bounded by divide line from which water drains under influence of gravity in to stream.www.EEENotes.Major objective shall be achieved through organizing farmers. Eg.Construct check dams. reservoir.

Provide safe land for building Repair damaged infrastructure. land. Page 52 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 1. Adopt sustainable and eco friendly development. system to work again by allowing. Following are some of the ways to safeguard environment. policies. Resettlement and Rehabilitation of people: Environmental Science and Engineering Resettlement – simple relocation or displacement of human population. Includes replacing the lost economic assets. Therefore human beings are ethically responsible for the preservation of the world‟s ecological integrity. . To sacrifice the consumption of some of the good which reduces environment quality 2. water as well as various living components of biosphere and failure to tackle the problem of pollution and environmental degradation are exposing the humanly to the thread of a global environment crisis.www. it is the duty of each and every one to protect our nature. Even though our government is formulating several rules.in . (e. laws. Safeguard Employment. system to function naturally.Restoration of ecological balance. The environment ethics literally means conscious efforts to protect environment and to maintain its stability from the pollutants. Rehabilitation – making. recycling. waste management and harvesting non conventional energy If we change as individuals then the society will also change by itself. Minimize the resource utilization and conservation 3. The society is nothing but an extension of the individual.g) reduction of waste. regulations.EEENotes. It emphasis that real development cannot occur unless the strategies which are formulated are implemented are environmentally sustainable. Effects:          Loss of land Loss of recourse Unsatisfactory comp[enasation Social and cultura problems Changes in tradition of indigenous people Spread of disease Submergence of valuable forest Waterlogging Extinction of wild life Environmental ethics:Over exploitation of forests.Decrease in soil erosion.

4. Effects: 1. Has increase by 25%. Its conc. It acts as a protective shield for the life on the earth. 3. and will makes the average global temp. the level of carbon dioxide in the atm. which cause rise in sea level Change the climate and rainfall – reduction in food production The biological productivity of ocean also decreased due to warming of earth‟s surface With more carbon dioxide in the air. Methyl bromide used during packaging of fruits to prevent bacterial action flows out into the atmosphere as soon as the packing is opened. mining. to 45 0 C. exhaust from increasing automobiles and other anthropogenic activities. the plants will grow bigger with increase in yield and resulting in the soils getting poor quality 7. industrialization. Ozone layer depletion: Ozone is an important chemical species present in the stratosphere. Causes for ozone layer depletion: 1.www. This cause heavy damage to ozone. High altitude aircrafts and chemicals emitted by industrial plants and automobiles. 4. 5.EEENotes. 3. Causes: Over the last century. 3. 2. by burning of fossil fuels. the level of nitrous oxide by 19% and the level of methane by 100%. thus maintaining equilibrium. Chlorine released from CFC and Bromine released from halogens are the most important chemicals associated with ozone layer depletion 2. deforestation. the conc. Of green house gases may double in the atom. Effects: Increase evaporation of surface water – influence climate change Leads to declining biodiversity Melting of mountain glaciers and polar ice. Marked rise in cause skin cancer Damage immune system Eye ailment such as cataract Shorter life of paints and plastics Restricted growth and crop damage Page 53 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . These 3 major global warming gases are released into the atm. Ozone is produced and also broken down by photochemical reactions. If proper precautions are not taken. The halogens are used in fore extinguishers and CFC are extensively used in air conditioners and refrigerators. is about 10 ppm. 5. with in next 50 years. 6. 2. 4. 1.in Green House Effect and Global Warming: Environmental Science and Engineering The raise of earth‟s surface temperature due to intense green house effect is called global warming.

Population size is smaller but the resource consumption is high due to luxurious life style (i.EEENotes.17% of the total geographical area of India. World Bank estimates our population to reach 11 billion by 2045. According to Paul Ehrlich and John Hodlren model Overall environmental impact = no.e. 1. water and other resources in an area – causes degradation of limited resources – poverty and under nourishments. The waste land do not fulfill their life sustain potential wasteland contributes about 20.www. Reasons for formation      Over grazing and over exploitation Toxic effluent discharged from sewage and industrial wastes Mining activities destroy forest and cultivable land Use of pesticides also produce wasteland Erosion. desertification. Population has increased tremendously. Consumption over – population: These conditions occur in more developed countries (MDC). Two types of conditions of population and consumerism exists. There is less per capita consumption although the overall consumption is high. water logging also degrade land Wastelands can be reclaimed by the following way  Conserving the soil – land is brought under vegetal cover. voluntary agencies and government is very important Consumerism and Waste Products Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the people.) per capita consumption is high. effective participation of the people. Destruction of aquatic life Environmental Science and Engineering Waste land reclamation: Any land which is not put to optimal use is defined as waste land. More consumption of resources lead to high waste generation – greater is the degradation of the environment. This can be done by growing grasses and shrubs  To reclaim the land/soil. But the consumerism has increased to a very large extent. 2. Low Developed Countries (LDC) are more prone to these conditions. of people x per capita use of resources x waste generated per unit of resources Page 54 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . People over – population: When there are more people than available food. Early human societies used to consume much less resources.in 6. Consumerism is related to both population size and increase in demands due to change in life style.

Comparison of consumption and waste generation Parameter Global value % USA Population Production of goods Energy use Pollutants and wastes CFC Production 4. 1986 SPCB is to follow the guidelines provided in schedule VI. 2.www. 3. of people MDC low LDC High Low Low Environmental Science and Engineering Per capita consumption of high resources Waste generated high Over all environmental impact of these two types of consumerism may be same or even greater in case of MDC. 1986 CG is to take action to protect and improve environment and SG to co ordinate actions. water or soil Maximum permissible limits of concentration of pollutants (including noise pollutant) procedures and safe guard for handling hazardous items Prohibition of using hazardous items Prohibition and restriction of certain industries in certain area Procedure and safe guard for prevention of accidents Environment (Protection) Rules. CG to set up 1. Some are as follows Page 55 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 6.7 21 25 25 22 India 16 1 3 3 0.in Parameter No. Std of quality of ]air.7 Environment (Protection) Act. 5.EEENotes. 4.

Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. Prevention. To emphasize clean technology to increase fuel efficiency and decrease environmental pollutants The act provides for environmental Audit for checking complying with the environmental laws and regulations. Page 56 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 3. The salient features and provisions of Act are summed as follows.in Environmental Science and Engineering 1. liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) in the atmosphere in such a concentration that may be or tend to be harmful to human being or any other living creature or plants or property or environment. took up the task of setting National parks and sanctuaries. accounts and audits of the CPCB & SPCB The act provides penalties for the defaulters and duties and powers Wildlife [protection] act. Advises industries for treating the waste water and gases – use of technology – achieve prescribed std. Discharge of effluents and emissions into environment is permitted by SPCB after taking into account capacity of the receiving water body 5. 1976 the powers are transferred from state to central government. budgets.EEENotes. 4. 1981 Salient features 1. Maintenance and Restoration of Quality – surface and ground water Establishment of central PCB and state PCB Confers powers and functions to CPCB and SPCB The act provides for funds. Direction of PCB can be appealed in the appellate authority. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974: Maintaining and restoring the wholesomeness of water by preventing and controlling its pollution. Encourage recovery of biogas. CPCB & SPCB similar to water pollution board 5. 3. [I B of W L] was created in 1952 in our country which after WLA. Section 20 provides for emission std to auto mobile 6. 2. energy and reusable matter 4. Section 19 provides for SG to declare „air pollution control area‟ in consultation with SPCB 7. 1972. Noise pollution – inserted in 1987 4. 1972: Land mark in the history of wildlife legislation. 5. 1. 2. Encourage recycling and reusing the wastes 3.www. control and abatement of air pollution 2. Air pollution has been defined as the presence of any solid.

Forest (conservation) Act. Deer 1981. 6 Provides grants for setting up of national parks. 1980 It deals with conservation of forest and includes reserve forest. Provision for conservation of all types of forests. wild life sanctuaries etc. their powers & duties etc. Environmental Science and Engineering 2 Provide appointments of advisory Board. However construction in forest for wild life or forest management is exempted from non forestry activity. 5 Guides central 200 authorities. State government can use forest only forestry purpose. Many conservation projects for endangered species were started under this act. 2. Salient features 1. seismic surveys. Tigers 1973 Crocodile [1974]. 7 The Act imposes ban on trade & commence of scheduled animals. 1992 Amendment: 1. 9 Provide captive breeding programme for endangered species. exploration drilling and hydro electric project in forest area without cutting trees or with limited cutting of trees – prior approval CG to be sought. 3 Prohibition of hunting of endangered species [was first] mentioned.www.in Wildlife [protection] Act 1 Defines wild life related terminology. protected forest and any forest land irrespective of ownership.EEENotes. Advisory committee appointed for funding conservation 3. This amendment allows transmission lines. mining etc. Page 57 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Lion 1972. 8 Provides legal proves to officers to punish the offenders. Non forest activity means clearing land for cash-crop agriculture. wildlife warden. Illegal non-forest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under this act. 4 List of endangered species is provided.

5. There after every year 5th June is celebrated as Environment Day. Constitutional Provisions: Added in 1976 – Article 48A – “The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country” Article 51A (g): “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. National parks etc. Has this may create imbalance to ecology of the forest. Wild life sanctuaries. Central and state pollution control Board: Central pollution control Board (CPCB): 1. control or abatement of pollution Laboratories for analysis of water. 6.in Environmental Science and Engineering 2. 3. 5. 3. 4. rubber.r. lakes. are prohibited from exploration except with CG prior approval. SPCB advises state government w. Cultivation of coffee. oil yielding trees.t. Advices CG in matters – prevention and control of water pollution Co ordinates SPCB and provide technical assistance and guidance Training programs for prevention and control of pollution by mass media and other ways Publishes statistical and technical details about pollution Prepares manual for treatment and disposal of sewerage and trade effluents Lays std for water quality parameters plans nation-wide programs for prevention. 7. Plantation of mulberry for rearing silk worm is prohibited.EEENotes. Proposal sent to CG for non-forestry activity must have a cost benefit analysis and environmental impact statement (EIS). rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. fruit bearing trees. By these two articles one constitution makes environment protection and conservation as one of our fundamental duties. 4. 2. tea (cash crop).www. sewage or trade effluents State pollution control Board (SPCB): SPCB has similar functions as SPCB and governed by CPCB 1. Tusser (a type of silk yielding insect) cultivation in forest area is allowed since it discourages monoculture practices in forests and improves biodiversity. trees of medicinal values are also prohibited in reserved forest area with out prior approval from CG. 6. Environmental Legislation 1972 June 5th – Environment was first discussed as an agenda in UN conference on Human Environment. location of any industry that might pollute Page 58 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 8.

Protection of trees. 6. Draw backs of the forest (conservation) act 1980     Inheritance of exploitative and consumerist elements of the British period Tribal people (i. birds and animals have marginalized poor people. 2. Involving public in decision making envisaged by policy statement of the ministry of environment and forest (1992) is only in paper. Draw backs of wild life (protection) act  Fall out of Stockholm conference not localized  Ownership certificate of animals article – illegal trading  Trade through J & K. construction activities degrades watershed Page 59 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . What are the effects of global warming?  Increase the sea level  Negative effect on crop production and forest growth  Decrease the water resource  Increase the drought 3.25000/. Lays std for effluents to take samples from streams.www. 4. deforestation. 5.fine. This act not applicable to J&K  Offender to get just 3 years imprisonment and or Rs.EEENotes. then the unit is neglected 3. Enforcement of environmental legislation – major issues Target of 33% of land to be covered by forest not achieved Rivers turning to open sewers Big towns and cities polluted Wild life endangered EFP (Effluent Treatment Plant) or Air Pollution Control devices are expensive – leads to closure of units.in Environmental Science and Engineering 2. 1. Pollution control laws not backed up by policy pronouncements or guidelines 7.e. Chairman of PCB – political nominee. 3. 8. Explain the factors affecting watershed Overgrazing. wells or trade effluents or sewage passing through an industry. Define the term environmental ethics. Environmental ethics refers to the issues. If the sample is not confirming to the water quality std. Review Questions 1. principals and guidelines relating to human interactions with their environment 2. Every industry to obtain consent from PCB before commencing an effluent unit by applying in prescribed form with fee. mining.) inhabitants of forest are left by the act Instead of attracting public support (tribal) it has intrigued in the human rights. Government should provide subsidy for small units. Hence political interference. Samples taken are analysed at recognized labs.

in Environmental Science and Engineering 4. plastics 6.  Damage genetic materials in the skin cells which cause skin cancer.EEENotes. What is waste land reclamation? The restoration of disturbed land to ecologically stable condition. 5 Write the consequences of ozone layer depletion. What is meant by Environmental audit? Environmental audits are indented to quantify environmental performance and environmental position. To make the land more productive for agriculture 7.  Affect the aquatic forms  Global warming  Degradation of paints. What are the state enactments of environmental legislations of India     Smoke control Landuse Pest control Water pollution Page 60 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .www.

in Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 5: HUMAN POULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Population growth: Stone age – quite stable Droughts. Population explosion: Population explosion means the tremendous increase in the number of people.3 in 1900 & 60.7 developing countries and 6. Most of our natural resources are under threat because of the population growth.1 in 1950 4. the resources will be exhaust shortly. Population explosion increase disease.9 developing countries. Science and technological advancement has increased the expectancy of human. In India 22. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is 1. Family welfare programme:    Population explosion must be differenced Population is not controlled will deplete all resources Family planning Page 61 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Infant mortality: % of infants died out of those born in a year last 50 years.3 and 60. outbreak of diseases lead to human deaths. People started living with good sanitation food and medical facilities increase in population exponentially. economic inequity and environmental abuse. Invention of modern medical facilities reduces mortality rate. Reason for population explosion: 1. Life expectancy: The average no.EEENotes.www. Increase in birth rate in developed countries due to illiteracy 2.6 and 23.5…… If a quantity varies by a fixed % 10^1. Doubling Time Td = 70/r 2% 3. in developing countries the population increase is at a rate of 3.7 in developing countries and 2 in developed countries.5 in 2000. It is a known fact that the increase of population is playing vital role of all environmental damage. Therefore we need population stabilization to achieve good health.5 years. If the exploitation of resource is going on in this trend. 10^2 etc. 4. 6.4 & 82-84 years. In agriculture based families children are said to be assets who help the parents in fields. Population characteristics and variation among nations: 1.3. Replacement level: Under low life expectancy and high infant mortality 2.D experienced large scale mortality due to plague – about 50% of people in Asia and Europe died due to the disease. 2. of years a new born baby is expected to live. 5. education and prosperity.4% per year. 14 th century A. Therefore. Exponential growth: 1. In Japan and Sweden 77-77. The life expectancy of global males and females has risen from 40 to 55.

lacks hygienic conditions and health facilities. UNDHR defines specific rights to life. desertification.EEENotes. Health hazards may be arising from: water contamination or pollution. Every one of these has implications for the health of the individual as well as society as a whole. dignified and secured living condition wee raised only after “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) by UNO on 1012. Human rights means that a human being must enjoy on this earth 2.1948 3. lacks clean drinking water. freedom of movement right of equal pay for equal work. knowledge and benefits of their small family to people  Education in held and family welfare system  Sex education awareness WHO estimated 50% of worlds married couples adopted family planning measures. Human rights: 1. unregulated urbanization. WHO estimates -One out of every five is malnourished. 300 million couples not assessed to family planning Environment and human health: Environment is defined as man along with his surroundings. right to health care. Therefore. association. radiation effect of nuclear water. which surrounds us. education etc. deforestation. The environmental dangers created by man are many: Population explosion. It highlights on protection to all individuals against injustice and human right violation 4.www. diseases caused from improper disposal of solid wastes and also due to noise pollution. air pollution. Poverty and population leads to violation of human rights. liberty. -one out of 3 lack fuel for cooking -1/5 is desperately poor -every year 40 million people die due to contaminated water 7.in  Environmental Science and Engineering Allowscouples to describe their family size and also time spacing of their offspring  Provide importance. freedom of thought. Universal declaration rights are universal but disparity between developing and developed countries. 6. use of pesticides enters through food chain. None can be ignored because the scale of potential calamity is increasing day by day. which consists of biotic. creating water. 5. Acute scarcity of employment Page 62 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . security. use of pesticides in agriculture etc. they in turn affect our health. air and landscape pollution. abiotic and sociological components. But positive hopes for all people for a happy. when we cause danger to these components. Foundation of human was laid in 13th century. right to form or join union.

Page 63 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . national pride. Merit of universal education and child labour prevention is of much less importance than his struggle for existence 9. The main of education is to produce citizens with sound character and health. Value education increases awareness about our national history. constitutional rights and duties. Schools should provide a healthy environment for sharing responsibilities of community life and relationships. Value based education has a very significant role in providing proper direction to youth to inculcate positive attitude and to teach them the distinction between right and wrong. The objective of education should not be merely coaching the students to get through the exams with good results and get some good job. Therefore moral education should be included in the school curriculum.a sense of commitment towards the management of the resources in a sustainable way so that our children and grand children too have a safe and clean planet. The scientific and technological advancements have shrunk the world into a village. Value education shall prepare individuals for participation in social life and acceptance of social rules.EEENotes. Value education help in arriving value based judgements based on practical understanding of various natural principles. It is crucial to the retention of national identity. It teaches them to be compassionate. Life based upon good principles is an essential requisite. aommunity development and environment. Value Education: Education is one of the most important tools in bringing about socioeconomic and cultural progress of a country.in Environmental Science and Engineering 8. peaceful. peaceful and harmonious society. enjoyable and sustainable future. helpful. The principles of ecology and fundamentals of environment help to create a sense of earth citizenship and a sense of care for the earth and its resources . Good citizens are the only hope for the progress and prosperity of the country. our cultural heritage. national integration. Developed and developing country give importance only to „respect to human rights‟ and „non social – economic rights‟ respectively. Education should give overall development of the student personality. But in the drive to development man has become too materialistic. Value based environmental education: Environmental education is something that every person should be well versed with.www. self centered and over ambitious. Education does not simply mean acquiring information but using the resources within the limits of ethical value. generous and tolerant so that they can move towards more harmonious. The curriculum should provide enough opportunity for pupils to acquire a considerable amount of knowledge that is essential for morally responsible living in our democratic society. peace loving.

Education. Therefore these values can be added up with env. education. 5. our attitudes and life style to protect nature. discipline. Spiritual values: highlights on self contentment. compassion can be woven into env.www. tolerance.semen Transmission of AIDS  Prostitution  Homosexual activity  Use of contaminated syringe in blood transfusion and drug addicts  Maternal-fetal transmission Symptoms:       Persistent fever Fatique.virus is passed through iinfected blood.in Environmental Science and Engineering Following the Supreme Court directives 1998 environmental education has been included in the curriculum right from the school stage to university level. Let us see how environmental education can be made value based one. 1. conservation can be easily attained. 2. reduction of wants etc. Social values like love.EEENotes. Education should stress on earth centric views rather than human centric view such that it include the ethical values. HIV/AIDS AIDS-Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Acquired means disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent. weekness Diarrhea Wait loss Low number of T cells in blood Swelling lymph nodes. If this harmony is disturbed it may lead to imbalance in ecology and catastrophic results. education can bring about a total transformation of our mind set. Preparation of text books materials on environmental education – to built a positive attitude towards environmental factors. Global values: Stress on the concept human is part of nature and all natural processes are inter linked and they are in harmony. Value based env. Cultural and religious values: Our culture and religions teach us not to exploit nature – but to perform such functions which project and sacred nature. 4. 6. This will reduce our consumerist approach If the mentioned values are incorporated in env. the goal of sustainable development and env. The objective of it is to make everyone environment literate. Env. Education. neck Page 64 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Immune deficiency means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of immune system HIV-Human immuno deficiency virus cause AIDS disease. This will help to nurture all forms of life and biodiversity. 3.

Comprehensive administrative system can be developed by using computer network techniques. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) – performs complex chemical and heavy metal analysis in water and waste water. Inductive coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). is used for waste water analysis.EEENotes. Net-work analysis. Application of computers in the field of Environment & human health: 2. Inventories of emission sources are compiled and maintained 5. 3. Instruments for monitoring and analysis of meteorological parameters. attached with powerful computers to facilitate easy manipulations. Eg. Page 65 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Unknown parameters can be stimulated by computer techniques 3. EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment) problems can be analyzed 4. 1. the acoustic sounding system. radar is used 2.www.in  Susceptible to infections Treatment:  AZT-Azidi thymidine  DDI – Dideoxyinosine Screening test:  ELISA-Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay  Western blot  Polymer chain reaction  Saliva and urine test  Branched DNA test  Immuno fluorescent antibody assay The major precautions to avoid AIDS      Environmental Science and Engineering education prevention of blood borne HIV transmission primary health care counseling services drug treatment Role Of Information Technology In Environment And Human Health: Computer based instruments for environment studies: There are several on-line use instruments by which data can be collected automatically at fixed interval of time. statistical analysis and the status of environmental pollutions can be high lighted 6.

. What do you mean by carrying capacity of population? The maximum popu. cold drink 8. What are the two primary strains of HIV HIV-1 Strain HIV -2 strain Page 66 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . What is ameobiasis?Give its source.www. vegetables.lation size that an ecosystem can support under particular environmental condition 2. caused by amoeba i.e.in Environmental Science and Engineering Remote sensing-Graphical Interface System are useful for coral reef mapping and ocean resources. food chain-fruits. What is silicosis and asbestosis? Silicosis is caused due t contamination of free silica Asbestosis is due to asbestos fibres deposited in lungs 5. Entameoba histolytica and charecterised by liquid stools with mucous and blood Source. They are also useful to access the loss of biodiversity/hot spots etc.EEENotes. What are the reasons for population explosion? Improved sanitary conditions Better heath care increase in productivity of agriculture and industry 3. 7. Review questions: 1. contaminated drinking water. List any four vector borne disease Malaria Dengue Filaria Encephalitis 6. This is a water borne disease. What are the factors influencing human population Unwanted fertility To increase the income for family and support Lack of knowledge on population control methods 4.

This set of Ecosystem is called Biome (Small ecosystem) A group of Organisms Interacting among themselves and with environment is known as ecosystem. animals eating species. Differentiate between a biome and an ecosystem On earth there are many sets of ecosystems which are exposed to same climatic conditions and having dominant species with similar lifecycle.EEENotes. Differentiate between genetic diversity and species diversity Genetic diversity – diversity within species ie. Consumers. then the species in the subsequent tropic levels are also affected.. Net work of food chain – Food web – if one species gets affected. The sum of varieties of all the living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity. List any two applications of information technology in environment Data on environmental degradation will help to restore the conditions Geographic information system by application of information techniology will help in environmental conservation FIVE YEARS ANNA UNIVERSITY EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWERS UNIT 1: ENVIRONMENT. trees. variations of genes within the species. ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY 1. Define the terms producers and consumers Producers – depend on their food themselves through Photosynthesis. if one species gets affected or becomes extinct. it does not affect other tropic levels so seriously.in Environmental Science and Engineering 9. List any two drugs used in treatment of AIDS AZT-Azidothymidine DDi-Dideoxyinosine 10.depend directly or indirectly on the producers eg. 4.. All green plants . Eg. .www. Plant eating species. What are ecological pyramids? Page 67 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Species diversity . 3.diversity between different species. Define: Food chain and Food Web In linear food chains.Climatic adaptations and physical structure. 5.is the basic functional unit of Ecology. 2.

hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water.composting 5. 7. Ecology – study of interactions among organisms or group of organisms with their environment (Biotic and Abiotic Organisms) 9. Biodiversity – the variety and variability among all groups of living organisms and the ecosystem in which they occur. 6. What are the effects of noise pollution?    Interferes with man‟s communication Hearing damage Physiological and psychological changes 4. 3. Define a) Decibel b) COD a) Decibel:-Decibel (dB) is defined as the one tenth of the longest unit Bel.incineration. What are the causes of water pollution?   Domestic sewage Industrial effluents Page 68 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . How solid wastes are disposed ultimately? Landfill.EEENotes. b) COD:-COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is the amount oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using some oxidizing agent like K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Define biodiversity. Define “Hot spots of biodiversity” The hot spots are the geographic areas which possess high endemic species. What is marine pollution? Marine pollution is defined as the discharge of waste substances in to the resulting in harm to living resource. What is ecological succession? The progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of stable community in a particular area is called ecological succession. UNIT 2:ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 1.in Environmental Science and Engineering Graphical representation of structural and function of tropic levels of an ecosystem is called ecological pyramids. hazards to human health. 8. Define ecology. 2.www.

cyclone. practices.SO2 another to form new pollutants Examples: NO. materials. earthquake and Tsunami 7. Differentiate between pollution prevention and pollution control Pollution prevention It means using processes.in      Synthetic detergents Agro chemicals Oil Thermal pollutants Run off from land fills Environmental Science and Engineering 6. 8. Differentiate between primary and secondary air pollutants with examples: Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants These are emitted directly in the These are pollutants in which atmosphere in harmful form some of the primary air pollutants may react with one Examples:CO.NO. flood.g.EEENotes. products or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste or environmental disturbances and reduse risk to human health Pollution control The proper control measures practiced to minimize the pollution level.NO2------HNO3/NO3 Page 69 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . landslide. What is disaster? Give few examples Disaster is a geological processes and is defined as the sudden calamity which brings misfortune and miseries to human community e..www.

in 9.  Land degradation  Loss of useful species. Distinguish renewable and non-renewable sources of energy Energy renewable Advantage Disadvantage Energy non renewable Wide availability Unreliable supply Low cost Produced in small Decentralized power quantity production Difficult to store Low pollution Cost more Available for the future Available in high highly pollution concentrated form Available only in few places Easy to store Reliable supply High running cost Lower cost Limited supply and will one day get exhausted 2. What is desertification? Give any two reasons for it.mining. overgrazing. without exhausting resources.EEENotes. or extending progress. Desertification means degradation of one fertile land to desert like land. What is sustainable development? Sustainable development is defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.overgrazing 5. 4. Write any two adverse effects caused by overgrazing.www. Give any six air pollutants  Sulphur dioxide  Nitrogen oxides  Sulphur trioxide  Carbon dioxide  Hydrocarbons  Carbon monoxide Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT:3 NATURAL RESOURCES 1. Reason-deforestation. What are the reasons for deforestation? Page 70 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 3. beyond the foreseeable future.

 Scarring and disruption of land surface  Land subsidence  Smelting causes air pollution  Acid mine drainage contaminates ground water UNIT 4:SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1.manganese 9.    Prevent excessive irrigation Subsurface drainage and bio drainage by trees like Eucalyptus trees are adopted Leakage from water pump are detected 10. Write any two effects of ground water depletion. What is an aquifer? A highly permeable layer of sediment or rock containing water 8. Define Land Degradation. What are the advantages of rainwater harvesting?  Reduction in the use of current for pumping water  Mitigation by effects of droughts and achieving drought proofing Page 71 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Land degradation means process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil. increasing demands for wood resources 6. What is green house effect? Green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the earth‟s surface due to blanketing effect of man made carbondioxide in the atmosphere 3. increasing industrial activity. 7.www. The management of rainfall and resultant run off is called watershed management 2. What does strategic metals and minerals mean? These are the metals and minerals that a country uses but cannot produce itself.iron.EEENotes.. essential for defence. List any four adverse affects of mining.g. Define watershed management.  lower the surface water level  Land subsidence  Salt water intrusion  Climate change 11. cobalt.in Environmental Science and Engineering Deforestation means increasing agricultural production. What is water logging and how it is prevented? Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to surface. e.

droughts and landslides  To develop rural areas in the region with clear plan for improving the economy  To generate huge employment opportunities  To protect the soil from erosion by run off  To rise ground water level UNIT 5 : HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 2. What are the major precautions to avoid AIDS?  education  prevention of blood borne HIV transmission  primary health care  counseling services  drug treatment 4. 5. forest fire.virus is passed through iinfected blood. density. Differentiate between HIV and AIDS. which are possessed by all human being irrespective of their caste. HIV-Human innuno deficiency virus cause AIDS disease. What are the effects of acid rain?  Acid rain corrodes houses. pest and disease. is termed as population explosion. Human rights are the fundamental rights. 5. sex and language. bridges and fences. Define “Human rights”. AIDS-Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Acquired means disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent. What is population explosion? The enormous increase in population due to low death rate (mortalityt) and high birth rate (natality). nationality. statues. Page 72 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 6.semen.EEENotes. Write any two applications of information technology in environment. Immune deficiency means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of immune system 3.  Land and water management  Information on type. What is acid rain? The presence of excessive acids in rain water is acid rain. monuments. biomass.www.in    Environmental Science and Engineering Increasing the availability of water from well Rise in ground water level Minimizing the soil erosion and flood hazards 4. What are the objectives of watershed management?  To minimize the risk of foods.  Deteriorate the paint and stone 6.

Write the value of education to the society.EEENotes. What are the reasons responsible for population explosion?  Invention of modern medical facilities reduces the death rate and increases the birth rate. death and marriage  encourage late marriage and later child birth  constrain the spread of AIDS/HIV Page 73 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .www.  Improve the integral growth of human being  create attitude and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle  to understand about natural environment.  Increase of life expectancy  Illiteracy 8. What are the major objectives of family welfare programme in India?  reduce infant mortality rate to below 30/100 infants  achieves 100% registration of birth. 9.in Environmental Science and Engineering 7.

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