kuzjz;lid

--

kW Ma;T Njit

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (jkpo;ehL – GJr;Nrhp)

GJ kyh;
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; `{irdh kd;]py;> 3tJ khb> vz; 255(g.vz;.123) mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001 njhiyNgrp: 91-44- 25352459 : kpd; mQ;ry;: rightstn@gmail.com

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 2

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

fhzpf;if

kdpj chpikg; Nghuhl;l tuyhw;wpy; mopahj RtLfisg; gjpj;Jr; nrd;w -ek; neQ;rpy; epiwe;J thOk; %j;j tof;fwpQh; -jk; tho;tpd; ,Wjptiu kuzjz;lid xopg;gpw;fhf mh;g;gzpg;Gld; cioj;j fsg;Nghuhsp – kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofj;jpd; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) Kd;dhs; mfpy ,e;jpaj; jiyth; -jpUkpF.Nf.[p.fz;zgpuhd; (09.11.1929 – 30.12.2010) mth;fspd; tPu epidTf;F

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 3

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

gjpg;Giu
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------fz. FwpQ;rp -----------------------------,e;jpaj; Jizf; fz;lj;jpy; kpfg;nghpa kdpj chpik mikg;ghf kf;fs; rptpy;

chpikf; fofk; (People‟s Union for Civil Liberties – PUCL) tpsq;FfpwJ. ,e;jpahtpd; Kd;dhs; Jizf; FbauRj; jiyth; fpU~;zfhe;j;> Nguhrphpah; u[pdp Nfhj;jhhp > ePjpgjp jhh;f;Fz;Nl> ePjpgjp ,uhN[e;jh; rr;rhh;> %j;j tof;fwpQh; Nf.[p.fz;zgpuhd;> Nguhrphpah; [pg;gh; MfpNahh; gpA+rpvy; mikg;gpy; ngUikkpf;f gzpahw;wpAs;sdh;. jkpo;ehL mikg;gpy; v];.tp.,uh[Jiu mth;fsJ gq;fspg;G kpfTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,j;jifa ePz;l neba ghuk;ghpak; nfhz;l gp.A.+rp.vy; mikg;G gy;NtW tof;Ffisj; njhLj;J> Vio – vspa kdpjh;fspd; chpikia epiyehl;bAs;sJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> njhiyNgrpapy; xl;Lf;Nfl;gijj; jLf;ff; Nfhhpa (1997) tof;fpy;> jdp kdpjuJ me;juq;fk; ghJfhf;fg;glNtz;Lk; (Right to Privacy) vDk; jPh;g;igg; ngw;wJ. mNjNghy; gp.A+.rp.vy;. njhLj;j kw;Nwhh; tof;fpy;> Njh;jypy; epw;gth;fsJ nrhj;J tptuk;> mtuJ Fw;wg;gpd;dzp Fwpj;J ntspg;gilahfj; njhptpf;f Ntz;Lk; vDk; jPh;g;igg; ngw;wJ (2003). tPlw;wth;fSf;Fk;> mehijfSf;Fk; ,utpy; jq;Ftjw;Fg; ghJfhg;ghd ,lq;fis muR toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w jPh;g;ig (2010) ngw;wJ. NkYk; kf;fSf;F czT ngWk; chpikiaAk; gp.A+.rp.vy; cj;juthjg;gLj;jpAs;sJ(Food right) . fhty; epiyar; rhTfs;> Nkhjy; rhTfs; (Encounter deaths) Mfpad jLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vDk; jPh;g;gpidAk; gp.A+.rp.vy;. ngw;Ws;sJ. ,g;gbg; gy;NtW kf;fs; rhh;ghd jPh;g;Gfis ,t;tikg;G fLk; rl;lg; Nghuhl;lj;jpw;Fg; gpwF ngw;Ws;sJ. ,it midj;Jk; cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpy; tof;fhbg; ngw;w kdpj chpik NgZk; jPh;g;GfshFk;. NkYk; jlh> nghlh Mfpa rl;lq;fis vjph;;j;J ePjpkd;wj;jpYk;> ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F ntspapYk; Nghuhl;lq;fis gp.A+.rp.vy; Kd;ndLj;jJ. jtpuTk;> kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofj;jpd; kw;Nwhh; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f mk;rk;> ,t;tikg;G ve;jnthU epjp cjtpiaAk; cs;ehl;bypUe;Njh ntspehl;bypUe;Njh ngWtjpy;iy vd;gjhFk;. ,t;tikg;gpy; cs;sth;fs; jq;fsJ nrhe;jg; nghWg;gpypUe;Jjhd; kdpj chpikf;fhd gzpiaj; njhlh;e;J Kidg;Gld; nra;J tUfpd;wdh;. kuz jz;lid ,e;jpahtpypUe;J Kw;wpYk; xopf;fg;glNtz;Lk; vd gp.A+.rp.vy; mikg;G

mJ Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l Mz;bypUe;J – 1975 – njhlh;e;J Kaw;rpj;J tUfpwJ. Nfhit khtl;lj;ijr; Nrh;e;j Nfhtpe;jrhkp vd;gth; jdJ J}f;F jz;lidiaf; Fiwf;ff;Nfhhpf;
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 4

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

fUiz kD nfhLj;jhh;. ,uz;L Kiw mtuJ fUiz kD kWf;fg;gl;lJ. jz;lid epiwNtw ,uz;L ehl;fs; ,Uf;ifapy; mtuJ J}f;F> gp.A+.rp.vy; mikg;gpd; ,ilawhj Kaw;rpahy;; jLj;J epWj;jg;gl;lJ (2000) vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. 1950 Kjy; 2006 tiuapyhd Ik;gj;jhW Mz;Lfspy; kuz jz;lid Fwpj;J ,e;jpahtpy; toq;fg;gl;l mWE}w;W Ik;gJf;Fk; mjpfkhd cr;rePjpkd;wj; jPh;g;GfisAk;> mtw;wpd; rhuj;ijAk; gp.A+.rp.vy; mfpy ,e;jpar; nrayh; Kidth; tp.RNu~; kw;Wk; tof;fwpQh; jpUkjp. ehfiryh MfpNahh; njhFj;Js;shh;. mij gp.A+.rp.vy; jkpo;ehL/GJr;Nrhp mikg;G Nk 2008 - y; „Mgj;jhd yhl;lhp‟ (Lethal Lottery – The Death Penalty in India) vDk; E}yhf ntspapl;lJ. ,e;E}y; gd;dhl;L kd;dpg;G mitapd; (Amnesty International) xj;Jiog;NghL ntspaplg;gl;lJ vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. ,e;j E}ypy; Rl;bf;fhl;lg;gl;l thjq;fis mbg;gilahf itj;J mz;ikapy; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; ,U kuz jz;lid tof;Ffspy; jz;lidf; Fiwg;G nra;Js;sJ.
[Rthkp rpujhde;jh (vjph;) fh;ehlf muR (2008)/ re;Njh~; Fkhh; (vjph;) kfuh~;bu muR (2009)]

mhpjpDk;

mhpjhd

(The rarest of the rare cases) vdr; rl;lj;jpy;

tof;fpy;jhd; vJ

kuz mhpjpDk;

jz;lid mhpjhd

toq;;fg;glNtz;Lk;

Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jhYk;>

tof;F vd;gJ Fwpj;Jj; jpl;ltl;lkhd tiuaiwfs; VJkpy;iy. vdNt xNu Fw;wr;nraYf;F xU ePjpkd;wj;jpy; xUtUf;F kuzjz;lid toq;fg;gLtJk;> gpwpNjhh; ePjp kd;wj;jpy; mth; kuz jz;lidapypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLtJk; > xNutpjkhd Fw;wj;jpw;fhf xUtUf;F kuzjz;lidAk;> kw;nwhUtUf;F jz;lidf;Fiwg;G toq;fg;gLtJk; njhlh;e;J ,e;jpahtpy; ele;J nfhz;Ljhd; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,uh[Pt; fhe;jp nfhiy tof;fpNyNa Kjypy; 26 NgUf;Fk; xl;Lnkhj;jkhf kuzjz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJk;> gpwF ehd;F NgUf;F kl;Lk; kuzjz;lid vdf; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJk; midtUk; mwpe;jNj! ntt;NtW ePjpkd;wq;fspy; ,j;jPhg;Gfs; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jhYk;> ; ,j;jifa jPh;g;gpw;Fj; jh;f;f hPjpahd mbg;gil ,y;iy vd;gijNa ,J fhl;LfpwJ. vdNtjhd; njd;dhg;gphpf;fhtpd; kw;Wk; kr;RD murpay; (1995) rl;l tof;F kd;wj;jpy; muR(vjph;) nkf;thd;ahNd [ State Vs Makwanyae & Machunu (1995)

Constitutional court of South Africa ]

tof;fpy; jPh;g;gspj;j ePjpgjp “kuz jz;lid vd;gJ

kpfTk; Mgj;jhd xU yhl;lhp” vdf; Fwpg;gpl;lhh;. yhl;lhpapy; ahUf;Fg; ghpR tpOk; vd;gJ njhpahjJ NghyNt> Fw;wtof;fpy; ahUf;Fj; J}f;F jz;lid vd;gJk; njhpahky; Ngha;tpLfpwJ. ,ijj;jhd; nghJ kf;fs; mjph;~;lk; vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wdh;. NkYk; kuzjz;lidia ePf;fpdhy;> ehl;by; Fw;wq;fs; mjpfhpj;JtpLk; vdf;
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 5

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

$Wfpd;wdh;. Mdhy; ,jw;F mwptpay; mbg;gil VJk; ,y;iy. kuzjz;lidia xopj;j ehLfspy; Fw;wq;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpf;ftpy;iy vd;gij gy ehLfspd; mDgtj;jpypUe;J ehk; czh;fpNwhk;. vdNt ,j;jifa jh;f;fkw;w> nfhba> kdpj ehfhpfj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;ghd kuzjz;lidia cyfpy; jw;nghOJ 137 ehLfs; xopj;Js;sd. ,e;jpahTk; - Fwpg;ghfj; jkpo;ehLk; - ,e;j mzp thpirapy; ,iza Ntz;Lk;. Nguwpthsd; - KUfd; - rhe;jd; MfpNahuJ kuz jz;lidiaf; iftpLtjpypUe;J ,e;j Kaw;rpiaj; njhlq;fNtz;Lk; vdj; jkpo; ehl;L kf;fSk;> Gyk; ngah;e;j jkpo; kf;fSk;> midj;J kdpj chpik Mh;tyh;fSk; fhj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;. vdNt jkpof Kjy;th; mth;fSk; jkpo;ehL muRk; ,e;jpahtpw;Nf topfhl;Lk; tifapy; Kd;khjphpahd Kbtpid ,t;tof;fpy; vLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd gp.A+.rp.vy; mikg;Gf; fdpTld; Ntz;LfpwJ. ,e;jg;gpd;dzpapy; kuz jz;lid Fwpj;J kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofj;jpd; epiyg;ghl;il tpsf;fj;jf;f tifapy; ,f;FWntspaPL ntsptUfpwJ. 2000 Mk; Mz;bNyNa kuz jz;lidf;F vjpuhd fUj;Jf;fisj; jpul;b ‘kuzjz;lid

Njitah?’ vd;w E}iy gp.A+.rp.vy; rhh;ghf GJkyh; gjpg;gfk; ntspapl;lJ. mijf; fhyQ;nrd;w jpU.[pg;gh;> gp.A+.rp.vy;. nfhilf;fhdy; khehl;by; ntspapl;lhh; vd;gJ
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f nra;jpahFk;. gp.A+.rp.vy; mikg;gpd; mfpy ,e;jpar; nrayh; Kidth; jpU.tp.Rnu~; mth;fs;> %j;j tof;fwpQh; jpUkjp ehfiryh RNu~;> kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (jkpo;ehL – GJr;Nrhp) mikg;gpd; Jizj; jiyth; jpU.fz.FwpQ;rp> Nfhit gp.A+.rp.vy;. mikg;igr; Nrh;e;j jpU.nghd; ,g;nghOJ ntsptUk; nfhs;if mwpf;ifia ey;Yyfk; J}f;Ff; fapw;iw mWj;njwpAk; Xh; gLj;jpf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf;

re;jpud; MfpNahuJ xj;Jiog;Gld;
ntspf;nfhzh;e;Js;shh;. jkpo;$W Majkhf ,t;ntspaPl;ilg; gad; fofk; tpUk;GfpwJ.

,e;j mwpf;if ntsptu midj;J mYtyf cjtpfisAk; nra;j nrd;id gp.A+.rp.vy; mYtyfj;ijr; Nrh;e;j jpU.f.rutzd;> jpU.v];.ee;jFkhh; MfpNahUf;F vk; ed;wp. ,t;tof;Ff;Fj; Njitahd rpy tptuq;fisf; nfhLj;Jjtpa kuzjz;lidf;F vjpuhd kf;fs; ,af;fg; nghWg;ghsh;fs; tof;FiuQh; jpU.nry;tuh[;> jpU.ghyKuspth;kd; MfpNahUf;Fk; vkJ ed;wp. Mq;fpyj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l ,t;twpf;ifiaj; jkpopy; nkhopkhw;wk; nra;a vdf;F tha;g;gspj;j kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofj; Njhoh;fSf;Fk; vkJ ed;wp. Mf];L 23/2011 ---- GJkyh;

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 6

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

kuzjz;lid – kWMa;T Njit
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;)
,e;jpahtpy; chpikfisg; neUf;fb epiy gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lNghJ „kf;fs; mij vjph;j;J [dehaf

ghJfhg;gjw;fhf

ehafh;‟n[ag;gpufh~;

ehuhazd;>

Mr;rhhpa

fpUgshdp> Gfo; tha;e;j tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;l tPuh;fs; kw;Wk; kf;fs; njhz;lhw;Wk;
Fbkf;fs; gyuhYk; cUthf;fg;gl;l kdpj chpik mikg;Gjhd; kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofkhFk; (People‟s union for Civil Liberties – PUCL). ,t;tikg;G cUthf;fg;gl;l 1975 Mk; Mz;bypUe;Nj kuz jz;lid vd;gJ nfhLq;Nfhd;ikahdJ; jd;dpr;irahdJ; Neh;ikaw;wJ; kdpjkhz;GfSf;F KuzhdJ vd;gij gp.A.rp.vy; typAWj;jp tUfpwJ. r%fj;jpy; vOk; rpf;fy;fSf;F capiug;gwpf;Fk; mZFKiw> murikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; kjpg;gPLfSf;Fk;> [dehaff; fUj;jpaYf;Fk; Vw;Gilajy;y! Vnddpy; Vio vspNahh;fSk; Fw;wkw;wth;fSk;jhd; ,Wjpapy; mjpf msT ,jw;F ,iuahfpd;wdh; vd;gJ vq;fsJ epiyghL MFk;. vdNt ,j;jifa nfh^uj; jz;lidia xopj;Jf;fl;ba cyfpYs;s 137 ehLfspd; mzpthpirapy; ,e;jpahTk; ,iza Ntz;Lnkdj; njhlh;e;J ehq;fs; typAWj;jp tUfpNwhk;. ; 1991 Mk; Mz;L epfo;e;j ,uh[Pt; fhe;jp nfhiyapy; njhlh;Gila rhe;jd; - KUfd; Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ J}f;F jz;lidiaf; iftplf;NfhUk; fUiz kD kj;jpa muR mikr;ruitapd; mwpTiuf;F Vw;g ,e;jpaf; FbauR jiytuhy; kWf;fg;gl;l #oypy;> mk;%thpd; caph; gwpf;fg;gltpUf;fpw kpf mtrukhd #oypy;> kPz;Lk; vq;fs; epiyghl;il typAWj;JfpNwhk;. ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk; (IPC) gphpT 54 kw;Wk; gphpT 55A Fw;wtpay; eilKiwr; rl;lk; (Cr.P.C) gphpT 432(a) kw;Wk; 433(7)> ,e;jpa murikg;Gr; rl;lk; ~uj;J 161 Mfpa rl;lq;fspd; NfhUfpNwhk;. mbg;gilapy; %tuJ J}f;F jz;lidia MAs; jz;lidahff; Fiwf;Fk;gb jkpof muir Ntz;LfpNwhk;; mth;fsJ capiuf; fhf;FkhW fdpTld;

tof;F tptuk;
nrd;idapypUe;J 40 fp.kP njhiytpy; ,Uf;Fk; =ngUk;GJ}h; Njh;jy; nghJf;$l;lj;jpy; 1991 Nk 21 Mk; ehsd;W Kd;dhs; gpujkh; ,uh[Pt; fhe;jpAk;> mtNuhL 18 Ngh;fSk; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. gaq;futhjk; kw;Wk; rPh;FiyT eltbf;iffs; (jLg;G) rl;lk; 1987
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 7

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

(jlh) ,e;jpa jz;lidr;rl;lk;> ntbnghUl;fs; rl;lk;> MAjq;fs; rl;lk; kw;Wk; gpw rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; ,t;tof;fpy; 26 Ngh; kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lJ. G+tpUe;jty;yp rpwg;G ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ,J Fwpj;j tprhuiz eilngw;wJ. ,Wjpapy; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l midtUf;Fk; - 26 NgUf;Fk; - rpwg;G ePjpkd;wj;jpy; J}f;F jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,t;tof;fpd; Nky; KiwaPl;L kD cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jhy; Vw;;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; jlhr; rl;lg;gphpTfs; 3(3)> 3(4) kw;Wk; gphpT 5 Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; rpwg;G ePjpkd;wj;jhy; toq;fg;gl;l jz;lidia cr;rePjpkd;wk; jdJ jPh;g;gpy; js;Sgb nra;jJ. ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk;> MAjq;fs; rl;lk;> ntbnghUl;fs; rl;lk; kw;Wk; gpw rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; njhlh;Gila ePjpkd;wk; cWjp nra;jJ. 1) espdp (A1) 2) rhe;jd; vd miof;fg;gLk; uFuh[; (A2) 3) KUfd; vd miof;fg;gLk; jh]; (A3) 4) ,uhgh;l; ga]; (A9) 5) n[aFkhh; (A10) 6) ,utpr;re;jpud; vd miof;fg;gLk; utp(A16) 7) Nguwpthsd; vd miof;fg;gLk; mwpT(A18) Mfpa VO NgUf;F kl;LNk ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk; 120B/302 mbg;gilapy;> nra;ag;gl;l Fw;wq;fSf;fhd jz;lidia cr;r ePjpkd;wk; cWjp nra;jJ. vQ;rpAs;s Fw;wk; rhl;;lg;gl;l 19 NguJ Fw;wj;ijAk;> jz;lidiaAk; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; js;Sgb nra;jJ. rpW Fw;wq;fSf;fhfr; rpyh; jz;bf;fg;gl;ldh;; rpiwapy; chpa fhyk; milf;fg;gl;bUe;jjhy; rpyh; tpLjiyAk; nra;ag;gl;ldh;; rpyh; KOikahff; Fw;wq;fspypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;L tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;ldh;. NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s VO Nghpy;> espdp - rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; Mfpa ehy;tuJ J}f;F jz;lid kl;Lk; cWjp nra;ag;gl;lJ. vQ;rpapUe;j %tUf;Fk; tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. Fw;wj;ijAk;> mjw;fhd jz;lidia kl;LNk cr;r

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 8

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

J}f;F jz;lid cWjpahf;fg;gl;l ehy;tUk;> jz;lid Fiwg;Gf; Nfhhp tpz;zg;gpj;jdh;. 2000 Vg;uy; khjj;jpy; espdpf;F kl;;Lk; J}f;F jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahff; Fiwj;J jkpof MSeh; Miz toq;fpdhh;. (ghh;f;f: fbjk; vz; 406/ ehs; 24.4.2000 / cs;Jiw mikr;rfk;> jkpo;ehL muR) rhe;jd; - KUfd; Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ jz;lidf; Fiwg;G tpz;zg;gk;> ,e;jpaf; FbauRj; jiythplk; fle;j 12 Mz;Lfshf epYitapy; fple;J> 2011 Mf];l; khjj;jpy; kWf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhf Clfr; nra;jpfs; njhptpf;fpd;wd.

jz;lidf;Fiwg;Gf; tptuk; -

Nfhhp

Gjpjhf

tpz;zg;gpg;gjw;fhd

gpd;d zp

Fwpj;j

jz;lidf; Fiwg;Gf; Nfhhp kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; tpz;zg;gpf;f rl;lj;jpy; ,lKz;L. %tuJ fUiz kDf;fSk; ,e;jpaf; FbauR jiytuhy; kWf;fg;gl;bUe;jhYk;> kPz;Lk; jz;lid Fiwg;Gf; NfhUk; mth;fsJ tpz;zg;gj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhs;s jkpof muRf;Nfh> jkpof MSeUf;Nfh vt;tpjj; jilAk; ,y;iy. “fUiz kD xd;W kWf;fg;gl;lhYk;> muR (1976(1) FbauRj; jiytuJ 157) my;yJ MSeuJ

mjpfhuk; Kw;wpYk; Kbe;Jtpl;ljhf MfhJ” vd [p.fpwp];l fTl; kw;Wk; N[. G+ka;ah (vjph;) Me;jpug;gpuNjr SCC tof;fpy; cr;rePjpkd;wk; njhptpj;Js;sJ. vdNt mLj;jLj;J fUiz kDf;fs; NghLtJk;> mtw;iwf; FbauRj; jiyth;/MSeh; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; Ma;T nra;tJk; Vw;fj;jf;fNj MFk;. ,jw;F jkpo;ehl;bNyNa Kd;Djhuzk; cs;sJ. <NuhL khtl;lj;ijr; Nrh;e;j Nfhtpe;jrhkp vd;gtuJ fUiz kDf;fSk; hpl; kDf;fSk; mLj;jLj;J kWf;fg;gl;l NghJk; 2000 khh;rR khjj;jpy; gp.A.rp.vy; kj;jpa ; muRf;Fg; Gjpjhf xU fUiz kDitf; nfhLj;jJ. cldbahfj; jz;lidf;F nrayhf;fj; jil (Executive stay) toq;fg;gl;L> ,Wjpapy; kj;jpa murpd; ghpe;Jiuapd; Nghpy; ,e;jpaf; FbauRj; jiyth;> J}f;F jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahff; Fiwj;J Mizapl;lhh;. Nfhtpe;jrhkpapd; caph; gp.A.rp.vy;. mikg;ghy; filrp Neuj;jpy; fhg;ghw;wg;gl;L> jw;NghJ mth; Nfhit kj;jpa rpiwapy; cs;shh;. jz;lidf; Fiwg;G tpz;zg;gk; Kd;djhff; FbauRj; jiytuhy; kWf;fg;gl;bUe;jhYk;> kd;dpg;G my;yJ jz;lidf; Fiwg;Gr; nra;Ak; MSehpd; mjpfhuj;ij mJ ghjpf;fhJ. MSehpd; mjpfhuk; fl;lw;wJ> KOikahdJ.

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 9

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kD

rpiwf;ifjpfSf;F fUiz fhl;Lk; mjpfhuk; vd;gJ fhyq;fhykhf ,Ue;JtUk; jdpr;rpwg;ghd gpNuk;uh[; mjpfhukhFk;. “kd;dpg;G tof;fpy; toq;Fk; cr;r jdpr;rpwg;Ghpik ePjpkd;wKk; mjpfhuk;> ekJ murikg;G tpjpfs; 72 kw;Wk; 161 y; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ” vd muR (vjph;) (2003(7)
SCC

121)

cWjp

nra;Js;sJ.

“,t;tjpfhuk; KOikahdJ> fl;lw;wJ> tpjpfshy; jLf;f ,ayhjJ” vdTk; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. (gQ;rhg; muR (vjph;) N[hfPe;jh; rpq;> 1990(2) SCC 661) ekJ murikg;Gr; rl;lk; $l;likg;G tbtj;jpy; jdpj;jd;ik $WfSk; ,ize;j xd;whFk;. rpy mjpfhuq;fs; kj;jpa murplKk;> rpy mjpfhuq;fs; khepy muRfsplKk; jd;dhl;rp chpikNahL mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. vdNt khepyq;fs; vd;git ntWkNd kj;jpa murpd; Kfth;fNsh my;yJ J}jh;fNsh my;y! kj;jpa muRk;> khepy muRk; ,e;jpa murikg;Gr;rl;lj;jpypUe;Jjhd; jkf;fhd mjpfhuj;ijg; ngWfpd;wd. murikg;Gr;rl;lk; cs;sJ. “kj;jpa ghfk;
X mj;jpahak; II>

“eph;thf

cwTfs;”

vd;w

jiyg;gpy; jPq;Nfh

murpd;

nray;gLj;Jk;

mjpfhuj;jpw;Fj;

jilNah>

Vw;glhjthW xt;nthU khepy murpd; nraw;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuKk; gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. kj;jpa muRk; Njitahd topfhl;Ljiy khepy muRf;F toq;Fk; tifapy; mika Ntz;Lk;” vd 257 Mk; tpjp Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. FbauRj; jiytuhy; jz;lidf; Fiwg;Gf; NfhUk; fUiz kD kWf;fg;gl;l gpwF> jz;lid Fiwg;Gf; NfhUk; Gjpa kDf;fis MSeh; ngWtjh Ntz;lhkh vd;gJ Fwpj;J ,e;jpa muR> nraw;gLj;Jk; rpy Fwpg;Gfis tpjp 257d; fPo; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sjhfj; njhpatUfpwJ. Mdhy; ,f;Fwpg;gpd; jd;ik vd;d vd;gJ nghJ muq;fpy; ,d;W tiu ntspg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; mf;Fwpg;gpd; jd;ik vJthf ,Ug;gpDk;> mJ jz;lid Fiwg;Gf; NfhUk; Gjpa tpz;zg;gq;fis ghprPypf;Fk; MSehpd; mjpfhuj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;jNth> tiuaiwf;F cl;gLj;jNth my;yJ jLf;fNth ,ayhJ. Vnddpy; tpjp 161 d;gb MSehpd; mjpfhuk; KOikahdJ> fl;lw;wJ> tpjpfshy; tiuaiwf;F cl;gLj;j KbahjJ vd cr;r ePjpkd;wk; jpUk;gj;jpUk;gf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. murikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; 257 MtJ tpjpapd; mbg;gilapy; toq;fg;gLk; ve;j xU topfhl;LjYk;> MSehpd; mjpfhuj;ij tpjp 161 d; mbg;gilapy; jLf;f KbahJ. kuz jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahf khw;Wk; khepy murpd; mjpfhuk; ,e;jpa murikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; 161 Mk; tpjpapd; fPo; mikr;ruit %yk; Mseuhy; nray;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk; gphpT 54 kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eilKiwr; rl;lk; gphpT 433 d; fPo;> khepy muR nraw;gLj;Jk; mjpfhuj;jpw;Fk; ,e;j Kd;nkhopT nghUe;Jk;. ,J jtpu ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; eilKiwr; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapYk; ,e;j mjpfhuk; mike;Js;sJ.
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 10

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

mjhtJ ,e;jpa jz;lidr; rl;lk;> Fw;wtpay; eilKiwr; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapYk;> kuz jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahf khw;wf; $ba mjpfhuk; khepy muRf;F cz;L. ,uh[Pt; fhe;jp nfhiy tof;F> kj;jpa Gydha;Tj; Jiwahy; tprhhpf;fg;gl;L tof;Fj; njhlug;gl;bUe;jhYk;> Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;L kuz jz;lid toq;fg;gl;;lJ jkpo;ehl;;by;jhd;. NkYk; ,t;tof;fpy; jz;lid ngw;w espdpf;Fj; jz;lidf; Fiwg;G toq;fpaJ jkpo;ehL muRjhd; vd;gijAk; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. khepy mikr;ruitapd; mwpTiuapd; mbg;gilapy; MSeh; jz;lidf; Fiwg;G

tpz;zg;gq;fisg; ghprPypf;fyhk;. espdpapd; jz;lid mt;thWjhd; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.

jlh tof;fpypUe;J ePf;fg;gl;ljd; tpisT
,uh[Pt; fhe;jp nfhiy rk;gtk; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLk; nghOJ> cr;r ePjpkd;wj; jPh;g;G rpy tptuq;fisr; Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ. ,r;rk;gtj;jpy; 18 Ngh; nfhy;yg;gl;ljd; tpisthf ,e;jpa kf;fspilNa ngUk; gPjp cUthf;fg;gLk; vd;w tptuk;> rhl;rpakhfg; nghpJg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; ,uh[{t; fhe;jpiaj; jtpu NtW ve;jnthU ,e;jpadJ kuzj;ijAk; ,th;fspy; xUtNuDk; tpUk;gpdhh;fs; vd;gjw;fhd Mjhuk; KOikahf ,y;iy. vdTk;> vdNt jlh gphptpd; fPo; ,th;fs; kPjhd tof;ifj; njhlu KbahJ vdTk; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; kpfj; njspthfj; jPhg;;gspj;J tpl;lJ. NkYk; ,yq;ifapy; ,e;jpa mikjpg;gil nra;j ml;^opaq;fSf;Fg; gopthq;fNt =ngUk;GJ}h; rk;gtk; eilngw;wJ vd;gJ rhl;rpaq;fs; %yk; njhpatUtjhfTk; cr;r ePjpkd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. NkYk; ,t;tof;fpy; Fw;wk;rhl;lg;gl;lth;fs; ,e;jpa muRf;F vjpuhfNth> ve;j xU fhty;Jiw fhty;Jiw mjpfhhpiaf; nfhiy nra;a Ntz;Lnkd;Nwh rjpj;jpl;lk; jPl;ltpy;iy. ,jw;F ePjpkd;wj;jpy; ve;jtpjkhd rhl;rpaKk; ,y;iy. [ gj;jp 59/61/67 – cr;rePjpkd;wj; jPh;g;G ] [ „muR (vjph;) espdp kw;Wk; gyh;‟> 1999 (5) SCC 253 ] vdNt ,f;Fw;wj;jpd; gpd;dzpia kdjpw; nfhz;L ,th;fSf;fhd kuz jz;lidia MAs; jz;lidahff; Fiwf;FkhW Ntz;LfpNwhk;. kd;dpg;G/jz;lidf; Fiwg;G Mfpatw;iw toq;Fk; NghJ MSeh;/FbauRj;jiyth; MfpNahh; rl;l epiyiaj; jhz;b KbntLf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; flikiaAk; nfhz;Ls;sdh;. tof;F kd;wj;jpy; itf;fg;glhj > Fw;wj;jpd; r%fg;gpd;dzp Fwpj;j tptuq;is kd;dpg;G toq;Fk;NghJ Ma;Tf;F vLj;Jf;nfhs;s Ml;rpj;Jiwf;F mjpfhuk; cz;L. mg;nghOJ Fw;wthsp vdj;jPhg;gspf;fg;gl;;ltuJ elj;ij > FLk;gk;> ;
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 11

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fyhr;rhug;gpd;dzp >

cstpay; Mfpatw;iwAk;> rpiwapy; milf;fg;gLk; Kd;G –

milf;fg;gl;bUe;jnghOJ – kw;Wk; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;l gpwF mtuJ elj;ij Mfpatw;iwAk; jz;lidf;Fiwg;gpd;nghOJ fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. „Nf`h; rpq; (vjph;) ,e;jpa muR‟ tof;fpy;> [ 1989(1) SCC 204 ] xU Fw;wk; my;yJ jz;lid Fwpj;J ePjpkd;wk; vLj;j Kbtpw;F khw;whf NtW xU Kbtpid vLf;fyhk; vd cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; murpay; rl;l eLth;Mak;(Constitutional
Bench)

vLj;Jiuj;Js;sJ. jkpo;ehL muR kuz jz;lidiaf; KbntLj;Js;sJ. espdpiaj; jtpu> 1. jpahfuh[d; vDk; jpahF 2. ,nydpd; (v) muq;frhkp 3. FU%h;j;jp 4. fypangUkhs; MfpNahUf;Fk; Kd;djhfj; jkpof murhy;; jz;lidf;Fiwg;G toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. vdNt> ePjpkd;wj;jpy; vLj;J itf;fg;gl;l gy;NtW tptuq;fisf; fle;J> jkpof muR ,t;tof;fpy; Rje;jpukhdNjhh; Kbit vLf;fyhk;. mJkl;Lky;y> xd;Wf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l fUiz kDf;fis Vw;fTk; rl;lj;jpy; toptif cs;sJ. vdNt rhe;jd; - KUfd; Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ Ke;ija fUiz kD> kj;jpa mikr;ruitapd; ghpe;Jiuapd; Nghpy; FbauRj; jiytuhy; kWf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w fhuzk;> ,g;nghOJ kPz;Lk; Gjpa jz;lidf; Fiwg;ig/fUiz kDitg; ghprPypg;gjw;Fj; jilahf ,Uf;f KbahJ. MfNt [ 54/55A(IPC) gphpT 433(a) & 432(7) Cr.P.C ] kw;Wk; ,e;jpa murikg;Gr;rl;l tpjp 161 Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; kuz jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahfj; jkpof muR Fiwf;f KbAk;. Fiwj;Jg; gy;NtW rkaq;fspy;

jz;lidf; Fiwg;gpw;fhd gpd;dzp
,e;jpahtpd; Kd;dhs; FbauRj; jiyth; lhf;lh;.mg;Jy; fyhk;(2002 - 2007) jdJ gjtpf; fhyj;jpy; kuz jz;lidf; Fiwg;G tpz;zg;gq;fis Ma;Tf;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;nghOJ rpy mbg;gil msTNfhy;fis cUthf;fp> cs;Jiw mikr;rfj;jpw;F topfhl;bdhh;. mitahtd –
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 12

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

1. ve;j xU tpz;zg;gj;ijg; ghpe;Jiuf;Fk; Kd;Gk; cs;Jiw mikr;rfk;> tof;fpd; r%ftpay; $Wfisf; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. 2. rl;lf;$Wfs; jtpuTk;> xt;nthU tof;fpd; kdpjhgpkhd kw;Wk; ,uf;fq;fhl;lj;jf;f mk;rq;fisAk; mikr;ruit ghprPypf;fNtz;Lk;. jz;lidf;ifjpapd; taJ> mtuJ cly; epiy kw;Wk; kd epiy MfpadTk; ,jpy; cs;slq;Fk;. 3. kuz jz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahff; FbauRj; jiyth; Fiwj;jhy; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lth; kPz;Lk; Fw;wk; GhpAk; tha;g;G cs;sjh vd;gijAk; Ma;T nra;a Ntz;Lk;. 4. jz;lidf; ifjpapd; ghprPypf;fNtz;Lk;. FLk;gj;jpduJ nghUshjhug; nghWg;Gf;fs; Fwpj;Jk;

„re;jhrpq; (vjph;) gQ;rhg; muR‟ [ AIR 1976 SC 2386 ] tof;fpy;> jz;lid nfhLg;gjw;F Kd; rpy tp~aq;fisf; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd cr;r ePjp kd;wk; fUj;Jj; njhptpj;Js;sJ. jz;lid toq;Ftjw;F Kd; ftdpf;fNtz;ba mk;rq;fs;> jz;lid Fiwg;gpw;Fk; nghUe;jf; $baitNa MFk;. mitahtd – “ifjpapd; Ke;ija tuyhW (mg;gb VNjDk; ,Ue;jhy; ) mthpd; taJ> Ntiy> fy;tp> tPl;L tho;if> kdr; rkepiy> r%f ey;ypzf;fk;> czh;T kw;Wk; kdepiy> kPzLk; ; kWtho;tpw;fhd tha;g;G> r%fj;NjhL xd;wpize;J ,ay;ghd tho;tpw;Fj; jpUk;Gk; tha;g;G> elj;ij kw;Wk; gapw;rp ngWk; tha;g;G> toq;fg;gl;l jz;lid kPz;Lk; Fw;wk; Ghpahky; jLf;Fk; tha;g;G” Nghd;wit ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;glyhk;.

rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; MfpNahh; rpiwapYk;> jz;lidf;F Kd;Gk; gpd;Gk; thOk; Kd;khjphpahd tho;f;if.
fle;j 20 Mz;Lfshf ,k;%tUk; kw;wth;fSf;F Kd;khjphpahdNjhh; tho;if tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. ,th;fs; kPJ ,r;rk;gtj;jpw;F Kd;dhy;; Fw;wg;gjpTfs; VJk; ,y;iy. rpiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; fle;j 20 Mz;Lfshf ,k;%tUk; r%f hPjpahfg; gaDilath;fshfTk;> NtY}h; rpiwapYs;s kw;w midtUf;Fk; cjtp Ghpaf;$bath;fshfTk; ,Ue;J te;Js;sdh;. rpiwapy; cs;s gpw ifjpfSf;Ff; fy;tp Gfl;LtjpYk; fiyf; FOf;fisf; fl;b mikg;gjpYk;> rpiw mYtyh;fSf;Fj; Jiz epw;gjpYk; gaDilath;fshfj; jpfo;fpd;wdh;.

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 13

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

I mwpT vdg;gLk; Nguwpthsd;
ifJ nra;ag;gl;l NghJ Nguwpthsdpd; taJ 19. mg;nghOJ mth; muR ghypnlf;dpf; fy;Y}hpapy; 86 tpOf;fhL kjpg;ngz; ngw;W> kpd;dZtpay; kw;Wk; nra;jpj; njhlh;G gphptpy; gl;lar; rhd;wpjo; ngw;wpUe;jhh;. rpiwapy; ,Ue;j kpf ePz;l fhyj;jpy;> ,e;jpuh fhe;jp jpwe;jntspg;gy;fiyf;fofk; %yk; fzpdpg; gad;ghl;Lj; Jiwapy; ,sq;fiyg; gl;lk; (B.C.A) ngw;whh;. jw;nghOJ mth; mjpy; KJfiyg;gl;lk; (M.C.A) gbj;J tUfpwhh;. rpiwapy; fy;tpaw;w kw;Wk; Rkhuhff;fy;tp gapd;w vz;zw;w ifjpfs;> fy;tp fw;gjw;F ,th; cWJizahf ,Ue;J te;Js;shh;. gy ifjpfs; gj;jhk; tFg;G/ gd;dpuz;lhk; tFg;G kw;Wk; gl;lg;gbg;G Mfpatw;wpy; Njh;r;rp ngw ,th; cjtpAs;shh;. rpiwapy; xU fiyf;FOit cUthf;fp> ,irapy; <LghL cilath;fSf;F ,irf;fUtpg; gapw;rp> ghly; gapw;rp Mfpait ngw cjtpAs;shh;. ,e;j ,irf;FO> rpiw ifjpfs; kw;Wk; rpiw mjpfhhpfs; kfpOk; tz;zk; ,ir epfo;rpfs; elj;jp tUfpwJ. NkYk; „,yf;fpak; khWkh?‟ vDk; xU ehlfj;ijak; ifjpfs; ebg;gjw;fhfg; Nguwpthsd; vOjpj;je;Js;shh;. md;ikapy; NtY}h; rpiwf;F te;j rpiwj;Jiw mikr;rh; Kd;dhy; NguwpthsDk; mtuJ ,irf;FOTk; fiy epfo;rpfis elj;jp mikr;ruJ ngUk; ghuhl;bidg; ngw;wd. Nguwpthsdpd; cjtpahy; fy;tp gapd;W tpLjiyahd ifjpfs;> rpiwf;F ntspNa nrd;W “Nguwpthsd; fy;tpg;ghriw” vDk; Nrit mikg;ig cUthf;fpAs;sdh;. mt;tikg;gpd; %yk; Vio vspa Foe;ijfSf;Fj; Njitahd fy;tprhh; cjtpfisr; nra;J mUk;gzp Mw;wp tUfpd;wdh;. fle;j 20 Mz;Lfspy; vt;tpj rpiwf;Fw;wj;ijAk; Nguwpthsd; nra;atpy;iy vd;gNjhL rpiw mjpfhhpfspd; fz;ljpw;Fk; cs;shdjpy;iy. Nguwpthstd; ngw;Nwhh; ,UtUk; taJ Kjph;e;jth;fs;. mth;fsJ KJikf; fhyj;jpy; mth;fisg; NgZtjw;Fk; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; mth;fSf;F NtW kfd; ,y;iy. mtuJ je;ij> jpU.Fapy;jhrd;> gzp Xa;T ngw;w Xh; Mrphpah;. jw;NghJ mth; Neha; tha;g;gl;Ls;shh;. mtuJ md;idahh; jpUkjp mw;Gjk; mk;khs; FLk;gj; jiytpahf cs;shh;. trjp mjpfk; ,y;yhj FLk;gkhfg; Nguwpthsdpd; FLk;gk; cs;sJ. fle;j ,UgJ Mz;Lfshfg; Nguwpthsdpd; jhahh; jpUkjp mw;Gjk; mk;khs; Xa;twpahky; mtuJ FLk;gj;ijg; Ngzpg; ghJfhj;J tUfpwhh;. mj;NjhL Nguwpthsdpd; tof;F njhlh;ghd gzpfisAk; mth; njhlh;e;J ftdpj;J tUfpwhh;. jdJ kfidf; ftdpj;Jf;

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 14

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

nfhs;tijg;NghyNt> ,e;jpahtpy; mjpf cwTfs; ,y;yhj MfpNahiuAk; ghFghbd;wpg;Ngzp tUfpwhh;. II KUfd; vd;wiof;fg;gLk; jh]; ,yq;ifapy; gpwe;j KUfd;> rpiwf;F tUKd;

rhe;jd; kw;Wk; KUfd;

+2 gbg;Gj;NjwpapUe;jhh;. (A level in

Srilanka) rpiwg;gl;lgpwF> ,e;jpuhfhe;jp jpwe;jntspg; gy;fiyf;fofk; %ykhf mth; fzpdpg; gad;ghl;by; ,sq;fiy kw;Wk; KJfiyg;gl;lk; ngw;Ws;shh;. (B.C.A & M.C.A) NkYk; mth; thndhyp kw;Wk; njhiyf;fhl;rp ,ae;jputpay; gbg;gpy; rhd;wpjo; ngw;Ws;shh;. NkYk; ,Urf;futhfd ,ae;jputpay; gbg;gpYk; rhd;wpjo; ngw;Ws;shh;. mth; xU rpwe;j XtpaUk; $l. 2009 Mk; Mz;L mth; tiue;j Xtpaq;fspd; fz;fhl;rp> rpiwj;Jiw Kd;dhs; ,af;Feh; jpU.eluh[; IPS mth;fshy; jpwe;Jitf;fg;gl;Lg; ghuhl;Lg;ngw;wJ. rf ifjpfSf;Fk;> rpiwg;gzpahsh;fSf;Fk; kpfTk; cjtpahf ,Ue;J tUfpwhh; KUfd;. fle;j ,UgJ Mz;Lfspy; KUfd; rpiwf;Fw;wk; VJk; nra;atpy;iy vd;gNjhL> rpiw mjpfhhpfspd; fz;ldj;jpw;Fk; cs;shdjpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. III rhe;jd; vd;wiof;fg;gLk; uFuh[; ,yq;ifapy; gpwe;j rhe;jd;> rpiwf;F tUKd; gj;jhk; tFg;Gj; NjwpapUe;jhh; (O level in Srilanka). rpwe;j vOj;jhsuhd ,th;> gy ftpijfs;> rpW fijfs; kw;Wk; Gjpdq;fis vOjpAs;shh;. “13-05-2009” vd;w ngahpy; mth; vOjpa Gjpdk;> ,yf;fpa mikg;Gfs; gytw;why; ghuhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. ntspte;Js;sJ. mtuJ ftpijfs;> jkpo;g;gj;jphpiffs; rpytw;wpy;

rhe;jd;> kpfTk; Md;kPf czh;T cilath;; gf;jpkhd;. NtY}h; rpiwapypUf;Fk; Nfhapypd; nghWg;ig ,th; Vw;Wf;nfhz;L> ehs;NjhWk; mf;Nfhapypy; G+irfs; nra;J tUfpwhh;. rf ifjpfSk;> rpiwg; gzpahsh;fSk; kpfTk; kjpf;fj;jf;ftuhf ,th; ,Ue;J tUfpwhh;. nghJthf> rhe;jd; KUfd; Nguwpthsd; Mfpa %tUk; rpiwapy; cjtpGhpgth;fshfTk;> xOf;fk; kpf;fth;fshfTk; fl;Lg;ghL kpf;fth;fshfTk; tpsq;FtNjhL> rfifjpfSf;Fk; rpiwg;gzpahsh;fSf;Fk; cjtpfukhfTk; tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. jq;fisf;fhl;bYk; tha;g;Gf;Fiwthf cs;sth;fSf;F> md;whl tho;tpw;Fj; Njitahd gapw;rpfisf; fw;Wj; jUfpd;wdh;; rpiw tho;f;if jUk; kdr;Nrhh;tpypUe;J rf ifjpfis tpLtpf;Fk; tifapy;> mth;fisf; fiyfshy; kfpo;tpj;J tUfpd;wdh;;
kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 15

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

NkYk; ifjpfspd; r%f hPjpahd NjitfisAk;> czh;T kw;Wk; Md;kPfj; NjitfisAk; epiwNtw;wj;jf;f tifapy; gq;Fgzp Mw;wptUfpd;wdh;. mt;tifapy; ,th;fisf; nfhy;tjhy; ahUf;Fk; vt;tpjg;gaDk; fpilf;fg;Nghtjpy;iy. vdNt> J}f;Ff; nfhl;lbapypUe;J mth;fs; tho;T fhg;ghw;wg;glNtz;Lk;. nghWg;Gtha;e;j Fbkf;fshfTk;> ,ay;ghd tho;f;if elj;jj;jf;f jFjpAilath;fshfTk; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk; vd;gij ,th;fs; nka;g;gpj;Jf; fhl;bAs;sdh; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplNtz;ba Kf;fpar; NrjpahFk;. Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l cz;ikfspd; mbg;gilapy; ghh;f;Fk;nghOJ> rhe;jd; KUfd; -

Nguwpthsd; Mfpa %tUk;> ,e;jpaf;FbauRj; jiythpd; jz;lidf;Fiwg;Gf;Fj; Njitahd mbg;gil msTNfhYf;F Vw;wth;fshf cs;sdh; vd;gJ njspthFk;. gaq;futhjr; nray; nra;tNjh> rPh;FiyT eltbf;ifapy; <LgLtNjh ,k;%thpd; Nehf;fky;y vd;gij cr;r ePjpkd;wj; jPh;g;G jpl;ltl;lkhf vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ. ,r;rk;gtk; eilngw;wnghOJ> ,k;%tUk; kpf ,sk; tajpduhf ,Ue;Js;sdh;. NkYk; rpiwapypUe;j fhyj;ij tPNz fopf;fhky;> jq;fsJ fy;tpj;jFjpia Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Ls;sdh;; mjd; %yk; mth;fs; r%fg;nghWg;Gk;> nka;g;gpj;Js;sdh;. nghUshjhug; gad;ghLk; cs;sth;fs; vd;gijAk;

NkYk; fle;j ,UgJ Mz;Lfspy; mth;fsJ cjtp kNdhghtk;> md;G nfhs;sj;jf;f jd;ik> ey;ypzf;fk;> Vio – vspa FLk;gj;ijr; Fw;wk; rhh;e;jth;fSf;Ff; ,iof;f fy;tpfw;gpj;j vd;gijj; nrt;tpa gz;G Mfpad> njspthf;FfpwJ. ,th;fs; kPz;Lk; khl;lhh;fs;

kpf ePz;l fhj;jpUg;G
,k;%tUk; 1991 Mk; Mz;L ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;. rl;l eilKiwfs; 1999 Mk; Mz;L KbTw;W> espdp – rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; MfpNahUf;F kuzjz;lid cWjp nra;ag;gl;lJ. gpd;dh; espdpapd; jz;lid Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ. gpwF rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ fUiz kDf;fs; 1999 Mk; Mz;L rkh;ggpf;fg;gl;lJ. mjd;gpd; ,f;fUiz kD 12 Mz;Lfshf epYitapy; ,Ue;J> 2011 ; Mf];L khjj;jpy; ,e;jpaf; FbauRj;jiytuhy; epuhfhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. fle;j kpf ePz;l 20 Mz;Lr; rpiwtho;tpy;> FLk;gf; fhuzkhfNth my;yJ NtW Kfhe;jpuj;jpNyh xUKiw $l gNuhypy; ntspte;J ,th;fs; ntsp cyifg; ghh;j;jjpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf> cah;ePjpkd;wk; J}f;F jz;lidia cWjp nra;jgpd;> fle;j 12 Mz;Lfshf mth;fsJ

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 16

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

fUiz kDtpd; fjp vd;d vd;gJ njhpahj ifaW epiyapNyNa mth;fs; tho;e;J te;Js;sdh;. „jpUkjp jphpNtzpngd; (vjph;) F[uhj; muR‟ tof;fpy;> cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; murikg;G eLth; Mak; (Constitution Bench) [ 1989(1) SCC 678 ] , kuz jz;lid epiwNtw;wj;jpy; tpsf;fKbahj ePz;l fhyjhkjk;> mbg;gil chpikfis(Fundamental rights) kPWtjw;F xg;ghdjhFk; vdf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; mbg;gilapy;> gpwF te;j cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpd; eLth; Mak;> „jahrpq;(vjph;) ,e;jpa muR‟ [ 1991(3) SCC 61 ] tof;fpy; kuz jz;lid epiwNtw;Wtjpy; Vw;gLk; jhkjk;> murikg;G tpjp 21 f;F vjpuhdJ. ,jd;tpisthf kuzjz;lidiaNa mfw;wf;NfhUk; chpikia mtUf;F mspf;fpwJ. „Nrh; rpq;(vjph;) gQ;rhg; muR‟ [(1983) 2 SCC (Cri)] 248 tof;fpd; jPh;g;G> J}f;F jz;lidf; ifjpfspd; jz;lid epiwNtw;wj;jpy;> njhlh;r;rpahd fhyjhkjk; Vw;gLj;Jk; cstpay; ghjpg;Gf;fisj; njspthfg; Gyg;gLj;JfpwJ. „n[fjP]; (vjph;) kj;jpag;gpuNjr muR‟ [ (2009) 9 SCC 495 ] tof;fpy; J}f;F jz;lidf; ifjpfspd; epiyia NtjidNahL ntspg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. epahakhd fhy ,ilntspapy; fUiz kD Fwpj;J xU KbT vLf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ,y;yhtpl;lhy; jz;bf;fg;gl;l ifjpf;Fr; rhjfkhf me;j mjpfhuk; nray;glNtz;Lk;. ek;gpf;if mbg;gilapy; 15 Mz;LfNsh mjw;F mjpfkhfNth tho;e;J te;jhYk; kuz jz;lidf; ifjp> kpFe;j mr;rj;jhy; #og;gl;bUf;fpwhd;. jdJ tho;T me;juj;jpy; njhq;Ftjhf mtd; czh;fpwhd;. NkYk; fUiz kD ghprPspf;Fk; mjpfhhpf;F kuz jz;lidf; ifjp jd; gl;baypy; cs;s xU vz; kl;LNk vdTk;> me;j mjpfhhpf;Fj; jd;kPNjh jd; FLk;gj;jpd; Ntjid Fwpj;Njh vt;tpj mf;fiwAk; ,y;iy vd;gijAk; mtd; czh;e;jpUf;fpwhd;. ,jw;F ,izahfNt> ,j;jifa ifjpapd; FLk;gj;jpdh;> mtuJ ngw;Nwhh;> kidtp kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs;> rNfhju rNfhjhpfs; MfpNahUk; ,af;fkw;W mirahky; eufj;;jpy; coy;fpd;wdh;.NkYk; jq;fsJ Nerj;Jf;FhpatuJ epr;rakw;w jiytpjp Fwpj;J mwpahjjhy; mth;fshy; tho;tpy; vOe;J $l epw;f Kbahj mty epiy Vw;gLtij vz;zpg; ghUq;fs;. ifaW epiy> ntWik> kdf;frg;G Mfpatw;why; FLk;gj;jpDs; ,Wjpahf cz;lhFk; Gwf;fzpg;G> kdr;Nrhh;T Mfpaitjhd; rpiwf;ifjpia Nkhrkhd epiyf;Fj; js;SfpwJ.

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 17

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

kfpo;r;rpaw;w ,j;jdpkdpjh;fspd; Fw;wkh ,J? ,t;tsT mUtUf;fj;jf;f Kiwapy;jhd; ,th;fs; elj;jg;glNtz;Lkh? vd;Wjhd; Nfl;f Ntz;bAs;sJ”.(jPh;g;gpd; gj;jpfs; 48>50>51) ,k;%thpd; tof;fpy; fUiz kDitg;ghprPyid nra;tjpy; kpf ePzl jhkjk; ; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJ njspT . ,j;jifa jhkjk; rpiwf;ifjpfsplKk;> mtuJ FLk;gj;jpdhplKk; fLk; ghjpg;ig cUthf;Fk; vd cr;rePjpkd;wk; Rl;bf;fhl;BAs;sJ. ,ijg; Nghd;w jPa jhkjNk nfhba> ,opthd kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w elj;ijia cUthf;Fk;. ,J ,e;jpa murikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; 21 MtJ tpjpia kPwpajhFk;. ,j;jifa jhkjk; rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ kuzjz;lidiaf; Fiwf;fj;; Njitahd tYthd mbg;gilia cUthf;fpAs;sJ. rhe;jd; - KUfd; - Nguwpthsd; MfpNahuJ kuzjz;lidia eilKiwg;gLj;j> jz;lidf;Fiwg;G kDtpd; kPJ khepy muR ,Wjpj; jPh;khdk; vLf;Fk;tiu> jkpo;ehL muR nray; epiwNtw;wy; jil (Executive stay) toq;fNtz;Lk;. Kd;Ng Rl;bf;fhl;ba tz;zk;> fUiz kD epYitapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> kuzjz;lidia epiwNtw;whky;> nray; epiwNtw;wy; jil tpjpg;gjw;F epiwa Kd;Djhuzq;fs; cs;sd. jw;nghOJ Nfhit rpiwapy; kWf;fg;gl;L> cs;s ,uz;L Nfhtpe;jrhkp vd;gtuJ fUiz Njhy;tpapy; kDf;fs; Kbe;j

FbauRj;jiytuhy;

Rw;Wr;rl;lg;Nghuhl;lk;

gpwFk;> 2000 Mk; Mz;by; nray; epiwNtw;wy; jil (ES) toq;fg;gl;lijr; Rl;bf;fhl;l tpUk;GfpNwhk;. eLtz; murhy; toq;fg;gl;l ,j;jifa jil gy Mz;Lfs; njhlh;e;jJ. ,Wjpapy; 2008 Mk; Mz;L FbauRj; jiyth; kuzjz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiwjz;lidahff; Fiwj;J Mizapl;lhh;. jz;lidf; Fiwg;Gf;NfhUk; tpz;zg;gk; kWghprPyidf;F cfe;j mbg;giliaf; nfhz;bUe;jhy;> mt;tpz;zg;gk; epYitapypUg;gijf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> jz;lidia epWj;jpitg;gJ nghUj;jkhdjhFk; vd cr;rePjpkd;wk; njspTgLj;jpAs;sJ – „jahrpq; (vjph;) ,e;jpa muR‟> [ 1991 (3) SCC 61 ] vdNt khz;GkpF jkpof Kjy;tUk;> jkpof muRk; ,t;tp~aj;jpy; jiyapl;L Nguwpthsd; - KUfd; - rhe;jd; MfpNahUf;F NehplTs;s JauKbitj; jLj;J epWj;JkhW kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf;fofk; (jkpo;ehL/GJr;Nrhp) Ntz;LfpwJ. NkYk; khz;GkpF jkpof Kjy;tUk;> jkpo;ehL muRk; jkJ kd;dpg;G toq;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp ,th;fsJ kuzjz;lidia tho;ehs; rpiw jz;lidahf IPC gphpT 54, r/w 55
A; 433(a) r/w 432(7) Cr.P.C.

Mfpatw;wpd; chpikf;

mbg;gilapy; fofk;

jz;lidf;

Fiwg;G

nra;a

Ntz;Lk;

vdTk;

kf;fs;

rptpy;

Ntz;LfpwJ.

rl;lk;>

fUizapd;

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

gp.A+.rp.vy;. (jkpo;ehL/GJit) 18

fUiz kD

rhe;jd;> KUfd;> Nguwpthsd;

mbg;gilapy; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lhy;jhd;> cz;ikahd ePjp fpilf;Fk; vd gp.A+.rp.vy;. cWjpahf ek;GfpwJ. ,yq;ifapy; eilngw;w ,dg;gLnfhiy> Nghh;Fw;wk; kw;Wk; kdpjFyj;jpw;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;lth;fSf;F ePjp Ntz;b jkpo;ehL rl;lg; Nguitapy; tuyhw;Wg; Gfo;kpf;f jPh;khdj;ij ,aw;wpa rpw;gpahfpa khz;GkpF jkpof Kjy;th;> kuz jz;lidia ,e;jpahtpy; Kjd;Kjy; xopj;j khepyk; jkpo;ehL vd;w ngUikia epiyehl;l Ntz;Lk;. mnkhpf;f If;fpa ehl;by; ,jw;F ,izahd cjhuzq;fs; cs;sd. A+dpad; gpuNjrq;fs; jtpu 33 khepyq;fs; ,e;jpahtpy; ,Ug;gJ Nghy;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; 50 khepyq;fs; cs;sd. kj;jpa muR mstpy; kuzjz;lid rl;lG+h;tkhf Vw;fj;jf;f jz;lidahf ,Uf;Fk;nghOJ> myh];fh> `tha;> Inahth> nka;d;> khNr#nrl;];> kpr;rpfd;> kpdpNrhl;lh> epA+n[h;rp> tlf;F NlNfhlh> NuhL Iyz;L> nth;khd;l> Nkw;F nth;[pdpah> tp];fhd;rpd; - kw;Wk; nfhyk;gpah khtl;lk; - vd 13 ; khepyq;fspy; kuz jz;lid jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. vdNt Nguwpthsd; - KUfd; rhe;jd; MfpNahuJ kuzjz;lidia jkpof Kjy;th; Fiwj;jhy;> mJ ,q;Fs;s jkpo; kf;fs;> Gyk;ngah; jkpo; kf;fs; kw;Wk; mfpy ,e;jpa> cyf kdpj chpikr; r%fj;jhy; gutyhf tuNtw;fg;gLk;. cyfk; KOtJKs;s ehLfSk;> muRfSk; kuzjz;lidia xopj;Jf;fl;l Ntz;Lnkd;W If;fpa ehLfs; rig 2010 brk;gh; khjj;jpy; epiwNtw;wpa jPh;khdj;jpw;F Vw;g jkpof murpd; jz;lidf; Fiwg;G tpsq;Fk;. etPd ehfhpf rKjhaj;jpw;F xt;thj kuz jz;lidia xopj;j cynfq;FKs;s 137 ehLfspd; mzpthpirapy;> jkpofKk; ,ize;J epw;f Ntz;Lnkd;Wk; kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; tpUk;GfpwJ.

kf;fs; rptpy; chpikf; fofk; (gp.A+.rp.vy;) `{irdh kd;]py;> vz; 255> mq;fg;gehaf;fd; njU> nrd;id 600 001

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