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In a thermal power plant, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines.
1 Chimney. 6 SCAPH. 11 Final SH. 16 Cold Reheat Line. 21 Furnace. 26 Coal Mill.
2 ID Fan. 7 Air Pre Heater. 12 Platent SH. 17 Hot Reheat Line. 22 Burner. 27 Coal Crusher. 37 Condensate Pump. 42 HP Heaters. 47 Generator. 52 Cooling Towers.
3 ESP. 8 Economiser. 13 Extended Steam Wall. 18 Boiler Drum. 23 Wind Box. 28 Seal Air Fan. 33 IP Turbine. 38 Gland Steam Cooler 1,2. 43 Makeup Pump. 48 Hydrogen Plant. 53 CT Pump.
4 FD Fan. 9 Feed Water Line. 14 Reheater. 19 Down Commer. 24 Hot PA Header. 29 RC Burner. 34 LP Turbine. 39 LP Heaters. 44 Circulating Water Pump.
5 PA Fan. 10 Primary SH(LTSH). 15 Super Heated Steam. 20 BR Header. 25 Cold PA Header. 30 PC Pipes. 35 Condenser. 40 Deareator. 45 Water Treatement Plant.
31 Water Platent. 32 HP Turbine. 36 Ejactor. 41 Boiler Feed Pump. 46 Control Structure. 51 Air Circuit Breaker.
49 Main Transformer. 50 Aux. Transformer.
Introduction to the Steam Turbine De Laval, Parsons and Curtis developed the concept for the steam turbine in the 1880s. Modern steam turbines use essentially the same concept but many detailed improvements have been made in the intervening years mainly to improve turbine efficiency. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Australian (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems.
In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction" turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage isentropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilise percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction. Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. Either way, the principles are the same for all steam turbines. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put, co-generation or pure electricity production. For co-generation, the steam pressure is highest when used as process steam and at a lower pressure when used for the secondary function of electricity production. A typical power station steam turbine and its View of the internals of a typical power station steam turbine. external equipment; and
Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade (or bucket). Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert
the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor. Steam turbines are machines which must be designed, manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms, with two of the most important being: Erosion due to moisture. The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. This has led to the imposition of an allowable limit of about 12% wetness in the exhaust steam; and Solid particle erosion. The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam causes wear to the turbine blades. Cogeneration cycles In cogeneration cycles, steam is typically generated at a higher temperature and pressure than required for a particular industrial process. The steam is expanded through a turbine to produce electricity and the resulting extractions at the discharge are at the temperature and pressure required by the process. Turbines can be condensing or non-condensing design typically with large mass flows and comparably low output. Traditionally, pressures were 6.21 MPa and below with temperatures 441º C or lower, although the trend towards higher levels of each continues. There are now a considerable number of co-generation steam turbines with initial steam pressures in the 8.63 to 10 MPa range and steam temperatures of 482 to 510º C.
Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines:
Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony; and Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. A thrust bearing is made up of a series of Babbitt lined pads that run against a locating disk attached to the turbine rotor. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Specially designed centrifuges remove any water from the oil. Shaft Seals
The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking, merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part of the steam circuit. Turning gear
Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors. Vibration The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious. Reference Web site Back
A current passing through a conductor will develop a magnetic field around the conductor. the term magnetic "flux" will usually be used instead of magnetic "field". A transformer used to increase the voltage is called a "step up" transformer. A voltage is induced in a conductor when the conductor passes through a magnetic field. and 2.Transformers Introduction For transmission and distribution networks to transfer large amounts of alternating current electricity over long distances with minimum losses and least cost. the transfer of electricity efficiently over a long transmission line requires the use of high voltages. . cheaply and efficiently. while that used to decrease the voltage is called a "step down" transformer. The same effect is produced if the conductor is stationary but the magnetic field in which it is located varies. At the receiving end where the electricity is used. in which magnetic effects can be detected. Note: In this discussion on transformers. the high voltage has to be reduced to the levels required by the consumer. A magnetic field is the space or region surrounding a magnet or a current carrying conductor. Magnetic flux refers to the magnetic lines of force. For example. Theory of the Transformer The operation of a transformer is based on two principles: 1. The strength of the magnetic field is generally expressed in terms of magnetic flux density (magnetic flux per square meter). different voltage levels are required in the various parts of the networks. Transformers enable these changes in voltage to be carried out easily.
The tank is constructed with fins or tubes to allow better circulation of the oil and to provide a greater surface area for contact with the cooling air. If one coil (the primary coil) is connected to an AC supply. Large transformers that are of open construction so that cooling is provided by direct contact with the surrounding air are being developed for indoor use. Clamps are used to hold the assembly in place. the conductor used for the windings consists of paper insulated copper bar or wire. The magnitude of the secondary voltage is directly proportional to the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary and primary windings and to the primary voltage.A transformer consists of two coils electrically separate but linked by a common magnetic circuit of low reluctance formed by a laminated soft iron core. is made up of laminated strips of special steel having low hysteresis loss and high electrical resistivity. The assembled transformer has its winding and iron core assembly usually contained in a tank and immersed in transformer oil. This alternating magnetic flux passes through the secondary coil and induces and alternating voltage in the secondary coil. These basic components are shown on the attached diagram and are also shown in the attached part cross-section of a very large transformer. In assembling the transformer. then a cylinder of insulation. which forms a complete magnetic circuit. The basic construction of a core type transformer consist of the iron core. The assembly of the windings on the core allows gaps to enhance the oil circulation around the windings. Very large transformers have banks of fans to provide greater air-cooling and are operated in conjunction with temperature sensors. Construction of a Large Transformer The iron core. followed by the low voltage winding. In installations where the use of transformer oil needs to be avoided. The oil is used for further insulating purposes plus the removal of heat from the windings. great care is taken to ensure windings are well insulated both from the iron core and from each other. Small transformers are often solely air-cooled. For the average transformer used in a power station. Some transformers also have forced oil circulation using a pumping system and an oil cooling circuit. the cooling medium used can be gas (nitrogen is often used). The lamination of the core reduces the eddy-current loss. then a further insulating cylinder and then the high voltage winding. . an alternating magnetic flux is set up in the iron core.
This is checked by megger and by application of a 2 kV RMS or 3 kV DC test voltage on completion or erection of the core and again following replacement of the top yoke after fitting of the windings.These are losses. pressure and temperature. the tap changer switch is an off load manual switch. a number of tests will be required. In some distribution transformers. current and voltage transformers are built into the transformers. The transformer windings will be considered dry when plotted values of power factor drop to a minimum value and the insulation resistance increases rapidly. while in others. Core plate checks . resistance and tap change operation tests. The different coils of the transformer winding are brought out and connected to the selector switch to allow the additional turns to be brought into or taken out of circuit. The most important of these are: 1. For the first transformer of a new design.Most distribution type transformers have a tap changer.These include ratio. and 4. polarity. In large transformers. Tanks are also checked for leak tightness by filling with a fluid of lower viscosity than transformer oil and pressurising for a period of time. It is then best to immerse the transformer winding in the transformer oil while the windings are hot because they tend to absorb the oil. which is a selector switch that allows the voltage ratio of the transformer to be changed by increasing or decreasing the turns of the winding. is left to stand for several days to let any remaining air bubbles become absorbed by the oil. Before the final tests are carried out the transformer. impulse tests including chopped waves to simulate lightning strikes and withstand capability are usually required. 2. the tap changer is a very sophisticated device that is automatically operated on load by the system control. Final The final works test on a transformer fall into three categories: Tests to prove that the transformer has been built correctly . Testing Manufacture To ensure that the manufacturing process is proceeding as per the design program. Devices on a transformer normally protect against overload. Prior to final testing. 3. current transformers are provided in conjunction with the insulated terminals. The time taken can be as long as weeks for very large transformers or a few days for medium sized transformers. Tank tests . the tap changer is an on-load automatic switch. Tests to prove guarantees . Transformer Losses Testing .This is carried out by application of a few temporary turns of cable before the windings are fitted and the core excited to normal flux density. temperature rise and noise levels tests. earth fault. the assembled core and windings are heated to between 850°C and 1200°C for a length of time. Core loss measurement . In a generator transformer. For these protection systems. impedance. Core frame insulation resistance .The first tank of any new design is checked for stiffness and vacuum withstand capability.Incoming core plate is checked for thickness and quality of insulation covering.The test in this category include dielectric or overload and load current runs. and Tests to prove that the transformer will be satisfactory in service for at least thirty years .
The copper losses are proportional to the square of the current and therefore to the kVA output. A voltage is applied to the other winding and the power (watts) in this circuit is measured. Under these conditions. the flux set up in the core is so small that iron losses can usually be neglected and the wattmeter would give the total copper loss. . This power represents the iron losses. A low voltage is applied to the open winding sufficient to circulate full load current through the open winding due to transformer action in the short-circuited winding. Iron Losses Iron losses are due to hysteresis and eddy-current loss produced by the alternating magnetic flux in the iron core. This test is known as the short circuit test for copper losses. The short circuit test is carried out by short circuiting one winding. The iron losses are almost independent of the load and thus are considered to be constant at all loads. Copper losses under these circumstances are negligible.Losses in a transformer are known as 'Iron losses' and Copper Losses'. thus causing the transformer to behave like a coil having a leakage impedance equal to that of both windings. Copper Losses Copper losses are the heat losses in the windings due to the electrical resistance of the windings. one winding of the transformer (whichever is the most convenient) is open circuited. These losses can be calculated from the design data but can also be measured by a test. In order to determine the iron loss.
the internals may have to be removed from the tank and a check made on the condition of the windings and their bracing. A check on the insulation of the transformer windings. To ensure their continued reliable and efficient operation. 9. 7. . If the oil does not meet its quality standards. A check on the connections and the current and voltage transformers where fitted. such as an external fault. This is usually only necessary if the transformer has been subjected to unusual circumstances. 4. 6. Condition of the pressure and temperature elements. If considered necessary. 3. A check on the breather and the condition of its silica gel. A check on the explosion vent (if fitted). The condition of the tank in regard to leaks and cleanliness.Maintenance Large transformers are usually very reliable and efficient. the maintenance of the average oil filled type transformer requires a check on the following: 1. and indicators. A check on the tap changer. Maintenance procedures may require the oil to be filtered on a regular basis. A check on the insulating terminals for condition of insulation (breaks or cracks and cleanliness) and oil leaks. 8. it will have to be changed or filtered. and 10. Oil quality. A check on the condition of the connecting cables and connections in the terminal boxes. 5. or if the transformer has registered high temperatures or excessive noise. 2.
gov. constantly. light. Power travels from the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power distribution grid . Without it. computation..qld. refrigeration. sound. that you realize how important power is in your daily life..htm Power Grids Electrical power is a little bit like the air you breathe: You don't really think about it until it is missing." meeting your every need. entertainment.Reference Web Back site : http://www. It is only during a power failure. cooking.energy. You use it for heating. cooling. Power is just "there. life can get somewhat cumbersome. when you walk into a dark room and instinctively hit the useless light switch.au/electricity/infosite/index.
chances are it is right out in the open for all to see. oil or natural gas.if you live in a suburban or rural area. that you probably don't even notice it anymore. the thing spinning the generator is a steam turbine.it might be a water wheel in a hydroelectric dam. No matter what it is that spins the generator. The steam might be created by burning coal. If you use an oscilloscope and look at the power found at a normal wall-plate outlet in your house. The alternative to AC is DC.The grid is quite public -. it is helpful to understand single-phase power first. and we will see that the power distribution grid depends on transformers. so conversion to DC would involve an extra step. you will be able to really see it and understand what is going on! Power Plant Electrical power starts at the power plant. or alternating current. it is the effective (rms) voltage that is 120 volts). In almost all cases. We will look at all of the equipment that brings electrical power to your home. It is so public. . Single-phase power is what you have in your house. a large diesel engine or a gas turbine. in fact. Transformers must have alternating current to operate. But in most cases. commercial electrical generators of any size generate what is called 3-phase AC power. The rate of oscillation for the sine wave is 60 cycles per second. or direct current. Oscillating power like this is generally referred to as AC. what you will find is that the power at the wall plate looks like a sine wave. To understand 3-phase AC power. You generally talk about household electrical service as single-phase. Something has to spin that generator -. Your brain likely ignores all of the power lines because it has seen them so often. from the negative to the positive terminal of the battery. the power plant consists of a spinning electrical generator. Batteries produce DC: A steady stream of electrons flows in one direction only. and that wave oscillates between -170 volts and 170 volts (the peaks are indeed at 170 volts. The next time you look at the power grid. 120-volt AC service. AC has at least three advantages over DC in a power distribution grid: Large electrical generators happen to generate AC naturally.
The power plant. Why three phases? Why not one or two or four? In 1-phase and 2-phase power." as mentioned above? The power company essentially uses the earth as one of the wires in the power system. they would look like this relative to ground: There is nothing magical about 3-phase power. there are 120 moments per second when a sine wave is crossing zero volts.It is easy to convert AC to DC but expensive to convert DC to AC. so it makes a good return path for electrons. This substation uses large transformers to convert the generator's voltage (which is at the thousands of volts level) up to extremely high voltages for long-distance transmission on the transmission grid. therefore. The 3-phase power leaves the generator and enters a transmission substation at the power plant. High-voltage transmission lines are quite obvious when you see them.000 to 765. However. groundwater. so 3phase is the natural settling point.) "Ground" in the power distribution grid is literally "the ground" that's all around you when you are walking outside. (Car manufacturers do something similar. And what about this "ground. They are normally made of huge steel towers like this: .. and the three phases are offset 120 degrees from each other. at any given moment one of the three phases is nearing a peak. of the earth. It is simply three single phases synchronized and offset by 120 degrees. rocks. so if you were going to pick one or the other AC would be the better choice. It is the dirt. Typical voltages for long distance transmission are in the range of 155. they use the metal body of the car as one of the wires in the car's electrical system and attach the negative pole of the battery to the car's body. If you were to look at the three phases on a graph. it produces three different phases of power simultaneously. etc. In 3-phase power. You can see at the back several three-wire towers leaving the substation.000 volts in order to reduce line losses. Four phases would not significantly improve things but would add a fourth wire. A typical maximum transmission distance is about 300 miles (483 km). There are four wires coming out of every power plant: the three phases plus a neutral or ground common to all three. produces AC. The earth is a pretty good conductor and it is huge. High-power 3-phase motors (used in industrial applications) and things like 3-phase welding equipment therefore have even power output.
. like the ones shown above. It often has circuit breakers and switches so that the substation can be disconnected from the transmission grid or separate distribution lines can be disconnected from the substation when necessary. This may happen in several phases. 3. It has a "bus" that can split the distribution power off in multiple directions. it comes off the transmission grid and is steppeddown to the distribution grid. A power substation typically does two or three things: 1. The place where the conversion from "transmission" to "distribution" occurs is in a power substation.All power towers like this have three wires for the three phases. The Distribution Grid For power to be useful in a home or business. Many towers.000 volts). have extra wires running along the tops of the towers. 2. These are ground wires and are there primarily in an attempt to attract lightning. It has transformers that step transmission voltages (in the tens or hundreds of thousands of volts range) down to distribution voltages (typically less than 10.
A typical small substation The transmission lines entering the substation and passing through the switch tower .
200 volts) for one set of lines. while power leaves in the other . the bus distributes power to two separate sets of distribution lines at two different voltages. The smaller transformers attached to the bus are stepping the power down to standard line voltage (usually 7. Bus Distribution The power goes from the transformer to the distribution bus: this case.The switch tower and the main transformer Now the distribution bus comes into the picture.
For example. It is performing the step-down function for the subdivision.8 meters on a side) near the entrance to a subdivision. the three wires at the top of the poles are the three wires for the 3-phase power. The fourth wire lower on the poles is the ground wire. Regulator Bank You will also find regulator banks located along the line. The power leaves this substation in two sets of three wires. either underground or in the air. As mentioned above. you can look at the power lines in a completely different light. which will often happen at another substation or in small transformers somewhere down the line. In the typical scene pictured on the right. They regulate the voltage on the line to prevent undervoltage and overvoltage conditions. . this particular substation produces two different voltages. you will often see a large green box (perhaps 6 feet/1. each headed down the road in a different direction The next time you are driving down the road.direction at the higher voltage of the main transformer. The wires at the higher voltage need to be stepped down again. In some cases there will be additional wires. typically phone or cable TV lines riding on the same poles.
A typical regulator bank Up toward the top are three switches that allow this regulator bank to be disconnected for maintenance when necessary: .
At this point. we have typical line voltage at something like 7.200 volts running through the neighborhood on three wires (with a fourth ground wire lower on the pole): .
so typically you will see three wires running down a main road. with the two phases running off to the right: Here is a 2-phase to 1-phase tap. Pictured below is a 3-phase to 2-phase tap. with the single phase running out to the right: . and taps for one or two of the phases running off on side streets.Taps A house needs only one of the three phases.
At the House And finally we are down to the wire that brings power to your house! Past a typical house runs a set of poles with one phase of power (at 7.200 volts) and a ground wire (although sometimes there will be two or three phases on the pole. there is a transformer drum attached to the pole. like this: . depending on where the house is located in the distribution grid). At each house.
In many suburban neighborhoods. Here is some detail on what is going on at the pole: . the distribution lines are underground and there are green transformer boxes at every house or two.
from the bottom. to see what is going on: .The transformer's job is to reduce the 7.200 volts down to the 240 volts that makes up normal household electrical service. Let's look at this pole one more time.
It is a good. running 6 to 10 feet (1. solid ground connection. The two from the transformer are insulated. This is a grounding wire. you will see that the ground wire running between poles (and often the guy wires) are attached to this direct connection to ground. The transformer is wired in this sort of configuration: . and the third one is bare. but they are 180 degrees out of phase so the difference between them is 240 volts. If you ever watch the power company install a new pole. 2.There are two things to notice in this picture: 1.8 to 3 m) underground. The two insulated wires each carry 120 volts. The bare wire is the ground wire. Every utility pole on the planet has one. you will see that the end of that bare wire is stapled in a coil to the base of the pole and therefore is in direct contact with the earth. There are two wires running out of the transformer and three wires running to the house. There is a bare wire running down the pole. If you examine a pole carefully. This arrangement allows a homeowner to use both 120-volt and 240-volt appliances.
3. A wire comes loose in a lamp and directly connects power to ground. Fuses and Circuit Breakers Fuses and circuit breakers are safety devices. Let's say that you did not have fuses or circuit breakers in your house and something "went wrong. A mouse chews through the insulation in a wire and directly connects power to ground. A fan motor burns out a bearing. seizes. overheats and melts. . directly connecting power to ground. A person is hanging a picture in the living room and the nail used for said picture happens to puncture a power line in the wall. causing a direct connection between power and ground. 5. 2. cutting it in the process and directly connecting power to ground." What could possibly go wrong? Here are some examples: 1. 4. Someone accidentally vacuums up a lamp wire with the vacuum cleaner.The 240 volts enters your house through a typical watt-hour meter like this one: The meter lets the power company charge you for putting up all of these wires.
When a 120-volt power line connects directly to ground. and circuit breakers are therefore resettable. (The wire in the wall will get hot like the element in an electric oven gets hot. the outlet. . The main breaker lets you cut power to the entire panel when necessary. Either the device or the wire in the wall will burst into flames in such a situation. In a fuse. Inside the circuit breaker panel you can see the two primary wires from the transformer entering the main circuit breaker at the top. A circuit breaker uses the heat from an overload to trip a switch. all of the wires for the different outlets and lights in the house each have a separate circuit breaker or fuse: If the circuit breaker is on. Fuses must be replaced each time they burn out. its goal in life is to pump as much electricity as possible through the connection. then power flows through the wire in the wall and makes its way eventually to its final destination. This kills the power to the wire immediately. A fuse is a simple device designed to overheat and burn out extremely rapidly in such a situation. which is to say very hot!). The power then enters the home through a typical circuit breaker panel like the one above. protecting it from overheating. Within this overall setup. a thin piece of foil or wire quickly vaporizes when an overload of current runs through it.
com Back site : Power Stations Power Stations This section provides a brief description of the major types of power stations and their suitability for particular operational duties. Hydro Electric 3. or the next time you flip on a light. The next time you drive down the road and look at the power lines. are generally used to generate continuous power for up to 24 hours a day. Tidal Fuel Cells 4. Open Cycle Gas Turbines 6. Photovoltaic 8. Combined Cycle Gas 10. and follow demand. These are normally run . Wind 12. examples of actual power stations. Where possible. 1. This is known as providing 'Base Load' power. Steam Turbine 2. Reference Web http://people. Pumped Storage Wave 7. The power distribution grid is truly an incredible system. they are not suitable for use as a provider of 'peak demand' power. Reciprocating 11.howstuffworks. or power to 'top up' the base load providers to meet normal variations in daily power demand. Combinations Power Station Turbines Operations Modern coal fired power stations with generating units of approximately 200 MW or over. Smaller coal fired units are more likely to provide intermediate power. The abundance of cheap fuel makes these units the most economical generators to run. Nuclear 9. but due to their inability to change their output quickly.What an unbelievable story! It took all of that equipment to get power from the power plant to the light in your bedroom. you'll hopefully have a much better understanding of what is going on. MHD 5. Solar Thermal 13.
At times of very high or very low temperatures. This presents an opportunity for the 'peaking' units to come 'online'. In the past. water.260 2. landfill gas. a conventional cycling unit (either an oil or a natural gas fired peaking unit) was described as one designed for rapid rates of load increase and a significantly large number of start-up and shutdown cycles compared to base load operation. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 2. usually gas or oil fired turbines. The cost of running these units is much higher than for the coal fired units. bagasse.100 2.340 2. tide and waves. Steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine Hydro-electricity using using gas using using coal as or oil as biomass as geothermal fuel fuel fuel energy Thermal-Electric Power Plants in India (100 MW and Greater ) Location Power Plant Conventional Thermal Power Plants Chandrapur Neyveli Vindhyachal Korba STPS Ramagundam Singrauli Maharashtra SEB Neyveli Lignite Corp. The power generated by these stations is generally used to supply energy to local users.280 2. There is a growing number of small 'renewable energy' stations. demand for heating or air conditioning power becomes higher than normal.050 Owner City State Fuel Total Capacity (MW) . and when the spot price of electricity is high enough for them to be run at a profit.100 2. Ltd. or connected to the grid as 'green power'. Sonebhadra Dist. These units. fuelled by the wind. can respond rapidly to changes in demand. sun.as a 2-shift station (2 x 8-hour shifts) which runs at high load during the morning and evening peak demand periods. NTPC NTPC NTPC NTPC Durgapur Neyveli Sidhi Bilaspur Karimnagar Dist. and so they are only used when absolutely necessary.
260 1. Ltd. Sevalia Medinipurt Dist.550 1. Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 1.470 1. Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam Gujarat SEB NTPC NTPC Maharashtra SEB Chattisgarh SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Madhya Pradesh SEB NTPC DVC Jharkhand SEB DVC National Aluminum Corp.000 1. Rai Bareilli Bokaro Patratu Chandrapura Angul New Delhi Parli Vaijnath Birbhum Dist. Madhya Pradesh SEB Maharashtra SEB NTPC NTPC Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam Maharashtra SEB Gujarat SEB Punjab SEB Haryana Power Generation Corp. Durlavpur Chennai Renukoot Anand Orissa Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka Gujarat West Bengal Punjab Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Gujarat Punjab Haryana Rajasthan Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Bihar Maharashtra Chattisgarh Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand Jharkhand Jharkhand Orissa Delhi Territory Maharashtra West Bengal West Bengal Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal. Ltd. NTPC Maharashtra SEB West Bengal Power Development Corp.470 1.Talcher Anpara Farakka Obra Tuticorin Raichur Wanakbori Kolaghat Ropar Vijayawada Kothagudem Trombay (coal-fired section) Satpura Koradi Rihand Simhadri Suratgarh Nasik Gandhi Nagar Guru Hargobind Tau Devi Lal Kota Ukai Dadri (coal-fired section) Kahalgaon Khaperkheda Korba West Mettur Sanjay Gandhi Unchahar Bokaro Patratu Chandrapura Angul Smelter Badarpur Parli Bakreshwar Mejia North Chennai Renusagar * Dhuvaran NTPC UPRVUNL NTPC UPRVUNL Tamil Nadu SEB KPCL Gujarat SEB West Bengal Power Development Corp.630 1.260 1.260 1.630 1.000 910 870 860 860 850 850 840 840 840 840 840 840 840 805 770 750 720 720 690 630 630 630 619 534 .970 1. Ropar Krishna Paloncha Mumbai Betual Dist. Tuticorin Raichur Dist. Koradi Sonebhadra Dist. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Tata Power Co. Paravade Suratgarh Nasik Gandhi Nagar Bhatinda Panipat Kota Ukai Dam Dadri Kahalgaon Khaperkheda Bilaspur Mettur Umaria Dist. DVC Tamil Nadu SEB Hindalco Industries Ltd.000 1.143 1. Ltd.550 1. Punjab SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Murshidabad Obra Dist.180 1.100 1.150 1. Gujarat SEB Angul Mirzapur Dist.
CESC Ltd. Bokaro Dist. Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal 530 500 500 483 480 450 450 440 440 420 420 420 405 400 350 310 300 287 279 270 269 260 250 250 248 240 240 240 238 236 225 220 220 210 165 150 140 135 135 112 108 . Bihar SEB UPRVUNL Gujarat SEB Faradibad Power Systems Ltd. Sikka Titagarh Jamshedpur Visakhapatnam Calcutta Kanti Jhansi Kutch Faridabad Shyamnagar Durgapur New Delhi Calcutta Raigarh Choudwar West Bengal West Bengal Maharashtra Maharashtra West Bengal Tamil Nadu Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Prdesh Jharkhand West Bengal Chattisgarh West Bengal Bihar Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Orissa Karnataka Tamil Nadu Gujarat Delhi Territory Assam Gujarat West Bengal Bihar Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Bihar Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Haryana West Bengal West Bengal Delhi Territory West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Orissa Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Blast Furnace Gas. Tata Iron & Steel Co. CMS India Ltd. Shahdal Bokaro Panki Korba Rourkela Torangallu Neyveli Surat New Delhi Salakati Dist. Ltd. (ICCL) Hooghly Calcutta Thane Dist. CESC Ltd. UPRVUNL NTPC Steel Authority of India Ltd. UPRVUNL NTPC OPGC. Indian Charge Chrome Ltd. Steel Authority of India Ltd. BSES Ltd. (GIPCL) Indraprastha Power Generating Co. Ltd. AES Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. Burdwan Bilaspur Waria Hazaribagh Dist. Delhi Transco Ltd. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. Jindal Tractebel Power Co. Jharkhand SEB West Bengal SEB Chattisgarh SEB DVC Bihar SEB Madhya Pradesh SEB Steel Authority of India Ltd.Bandel Budge Budge Dahanu Bhusawal Santaldih Ennore Sabarmati Harduaganj Tanda Ib Valley Rayalaseema Tenughat Durgapur Korba East Durgapur DVC Barauni Amarkantak Bokaro Works * Panki NTPC BALCO Rourkela Works * Torangallu Works * Neyveli Zero Surat Indraprastha Bongaigaon Sikka Titagarh Jamshedpur Works * Vizag Steel Works * Cossipore Muzaffarpur Paricha Kutch Faridabad Mulajore Durgapur Works * Rajghat Southern Raigarh Works * Choudwar West Bengal SEB CESC Ltd. Assam SEB Gujarat SEB CESC Ltd. Ltd. Jalgaon Santaldih Ennore Sabarmati Harduaganj Faizabad Barhanpalli Cuddapah Dist. Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. Ltd. Maharashtra SEB West Bengal SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Ahmedabad Electric Co. CESC Ltd.
NTPC PPN Power Generating Co. NTPC NTPC LANCO Kondapalli Power Private Ltd. Dadri Surat Paguthan Etawah Bharuch Hazira Faridabad Baran Kondapalli Aleppey Dist. (GSEG) Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. Park Yelahanka Kozhikode Brahmapuram Samayanallur Samalpatti Melodeon Exports Nagda Madhya Pradesh Coal 106 CMS India Ltd. Ltd. NEEPCO Indraprastha Power Generation Co. BSES Ltd.Nagda Works * Diesel Engine Power Plants Chennai Vasavi Whitefield Ind. Baroda Utran Lakwa NagaiquaidE. Karnataka SEB Kerala SEB Kerala SEB Balaji Power Corp. Milloth Dist. Chennai Bangalore Bangalore Kozhikode Kochi Samayanallur Samilpatti Tamil Nadu Karnataka Karnataka Kerala Kerala Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil 200 158 132 128 110 106 105 Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plants Uran Dahbol Dadri (gas-fired section) Kawas Paguthan Auriaya Gandhar Hazira Essar Faridabad NTPC Anta Kondapalli Kayamkulam Pillaiperumalnallur Pragati Kathalguri Indraprastha GT Vijjeswaran Peddapuram Godavari Tanir Bavi Barge Jegurupadu Trombay (gas-fired section) Kochi-Kerala Hazira GSEG Baroda GIPCL Utran Lakwa Kovilkalappal Perungulam Maharashtra SEB Dahbol Power Co. Ltd. GVK Industries Ltd. New Delhi Vijjeswaran Peddapuram Kakinda Mangalore Jegurupadu Mumbai Kochi Surat Dist. Ltd. Pvt. Spectrum Power Generation Ltd. Ltd. Pillaiperumalnallur New Delhi Dibrugarh Dist. Tanir Bavi Power Co. Gujarat State Energy Generation Ltd. Perungulam Maharashtra Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Gujurat Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Gujarat Haryana Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh Kerala Tamil Nadu Delhi Territory Assam Delhi Territory Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Kerala Gujarat Gujarat Gujarat Assam Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas. Pragati Power Corp. Ltd. Samalpatti Power Corp. Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas 912 826 817 656 655 652 618 516 430 413 368 349 330 330 291 282 272 220 210 208 205 180 173 159 108 135 120 108 105 . (GIPCL) Gujarat SEB Assam SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Tamil Nadu SEB Ransai Dam Ratanagiri Dist. Scintilla Power Co. NTPC NTPC Essar Power Ltd. Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corp. Tata Power Co. Ltd. BSES Ltd. NTPC NTPC Gujarat Pagathuan Energy Corp. Ltd. Ltd.
GMR Group Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd.920 1. ONGC Reliance Industries Ltd.Vatwa Ahmenabad Electric Co. Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Owner Baroda Pampore Hazira Bassein Jamnagar Chennai Haldia Anola City Power Plant Location Gujarat Jammu & Kashmir Gujarat Maharashtra Gujarat Tamil Nadu West Bengal Uttar Pradesh State Fuel Natural Gas Oil Natural Gas Oil Naphtha Naphtha Natural Gas Natural Gas 216 175 165 152 132 124 104 100 Total Capacity (MWe) India's Hydroelectric Power Plants (100 MW and Greater) Location Power Plant Koyna I-IV Sharavathi Dehar Kalinadi Nagjhari Nagarjuna Sagar Idduki Srisailam Right Bank Bhakra Right Bank Salal Ranjit Sagar Upper Indravati Kundah Bhakra Left Bank Chamera I Uri I Lower Sileru Srisailam Left Bank Ranganadi I Kadampari Koteshwar Balimela Pong Owner Maharashtra SEB KPCL BBMB KPCL Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Dikrong Cauvery Bhagirathi Machkund Beas State Maharashtra Karnataka Rajasthan Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Kerala Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Orissa Tamil Nadu Rajasthan Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Orissa Himachal Pradesh Total Capacity (MW) 1. Ltd. Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. BBMB NHPC Punjab SEB OHPC Tamil Nadu SEB BBMB NHPC NHPC Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. (GIPCL) Jammu & Kashmir SEB Reliance Industries Ltd.035 990 840 810 780 770 710 690 600 600 555 540 540 480 460 450 405 400 400 360 360 . Vatwa Gujarat Natural Gas 100 Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plants Baroda GIPCL * Pampore Hazira RIL * South Bassein Jamnagar RIL * Basin Bridge Haldia Chemicals * Anola Gujarat Industrial Power Corp. Satluj Kalinadi Krishna Idduki Krishna Satluj Chenab Ranjit Indravati Kundah Satluj Ravi Jhelum Godavari Krishna Ranganadi. Kerala SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Ltd. NEEPCO Tamil Nadu SEB THDC OHPC BBMB River(s) Koyna Sharavathi Beas.
Meghalaya SEB Punjab SEB Kolab Sone Mahanadi Tapti Rihand Anathodu. Tamil Nadu SEB Punjab SEB Tata Electric Co. Karnataka Power Corp. Kalinadi Ganga Mahi Periyar n/a n/a Subernrekha Sindh Kuttiadi n/a Sharvathi Tons Kalinadi Cauvery Bhaba Khad Sarda Chambal Machkund Umiam Uhl Orissa Madhya Pradesh Orissa Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Kerala Orissa Uttaranchal Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Punjab Assam Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Uttaranchal Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Punjab Maharashtra Jharkhand Jammu & Kashmir Kerala Chattisgarh Karnataka Uttaranchal Karnataka Tamil Nadu Himachal Pradesh Uttaranchal Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Meghalaya Punjab 320 315 308 305 300 300 250 240 240 240 230 207 200 200 198 180 180 180 172 160 150 150 144 140 140 134 132 130 127 125 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 115 115 114 110 . Bihar SEB Jammu & Kashmir SEB Kerala SEB n/a KPCL UJVNL KPCL Tamil Nadu SEB Himachal Pradesh SEB NHPC Madhya Pradesh SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp.Upper Kolab Bansagar Hirakud Ukai Rihand Sabarigiri Rengali Chibro Kadana Upper Sileru Varahi Mukerian Kopili Mettur Tunnel Ramganga Baira Siul Gerusuppa Lower Periyar Rana Pratap Sagar Pench Bhira PSS * Kadra Chilla Mahi Bajaj Sagar Periyar Anandpur Sahib Bhira Subernrekha Upper Sindh Kuttiadi Hasdeobango Jog Khodri Kodasalli Lower Mettur Sanjay Bhaba Tanakpur Gandhi Sagar Machkund Umiam Shanan (Uhl I) OHPC Madhya Pradesh SEB OHPC Gujarat SEB UPJVNL Kerala SEB OHPC UJVNL Gujarat SEB Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corp. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. UJVNL Rajasthan State Electricity Corp. Pamba Brahmani Yamuna Mahi Godavari Varahi Beas Umrong Cauvery Ramganga Siul Sharvathi Periyar Chambal Narmada n/a Bethi. Karnataka Power Corp. Ltd. Madhya Pradesh SEB Tata Electric Co. Punjab SEB NEEPCO Tamil Nadu SEB UJVNL NHPC KPCL Kerala SEB Rajasthan State Electricity Corp.
MP Windfarms Ltd. Subhash Ltd. Subhash Ltd.html http://www. Cape Comorim Kayathar Ramakkalmedu Muppandal State Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Total Capacity (MWe) 259 33 30 25 22 21 20 15 15 14 14 12 11 10 10 10 Gujdimangalam Wind Farm Gujdimangalam Wescare (India) Ltd. Danida India Ltd. Kethanur Wind Farm Andhra Pradesh State Rapid Transit Corp.Loktak I Lower Jhelum Kalinadi Supa Kodayar Power Plant NHPC Jammu & Kashmir SEB KPCL Tamil Nadu SEB Owner Leimatak Jhelum Kalinadi Kodayar River(s) Location Manipur Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Tamil Nadu State 105 105 100 100 Total Capacity (MW) India's Largest Windpower Facilities (10 MW and Greater) Location Power Plant Vankusawade Wind Park Cape Comorim Kayathar Subhash Ramakkalmedu Muppandal Wind Gujdimangalam Puthlur RCI Lamda Danida Chennai Mohan Jamgudrani MP Jogmatti BSES Perungudi Newam Kethanur Wind Farm Hyderabad APSRTC Muppandal Madras Poolavadi Chettinad Owner Suzlon Energy Ltd. Aban Lloyd Chiles Offshore Ltd.gov/international/indiover.energy. Puthlur Lamda Chennai Dewas Chitradurga Dist.energy. Newam Power Company Ltd. Muppandal Wind Farm City Satara Dist.gov.qld. Madras Cements Ltd. Chettinad Cement Corp. BSES Ltd.htm Back Sources of Energy Non RenewablePrimary Energy Source Coal The major use of coal in electricity generation is as a fuel burnt in the furnace of a large steam . Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Ltd.au/electricity/infosite/index. Ltd. Perungudi Kethanur Hyderabad Muppandal Poolavadi Reference Web site : http://fossil.
Gas Gas is an important energy resource.direct normal insolation (DNI) is that part of the radiation coming directly from the sun (usually 80%) and diffusion insolation is that part that has . Fuel Oil The term fuel oil covers a wide range of petroleum products from heavy oil which requires preheating for burning and handling through to a light petroleum fraction similar to kerosene. The term "gas" usually encompasses: Two types of related. Jet fuel is usually burnt in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine (aero-derivative type) which then drives a generator. The high pressure and temperature steam is then supplied to a turbo-generator which produces the electricity. the output of which drives a generator. The overall process is simple but there is a large amount of associated plant and equipment used to optimise the cycle efficiency and minimise environmental pollution. LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is one of the petroleum products produced in the oil refining process. The combustion of the oil can be completed in a smaller volume resulting in smaller furnace size and lower cost. which plays an increasingly significant role as a fuel source for electricity generation. Renewable Primary Energy Sources Solar Solar systems are powered by energy from the sun. Jet Fuel Jet fuel (also known as kerosene) is the lightest fraction of fuel oil having the lowest viscosity and which may be pumped at ambient temperature.generator. both of which contain mainly methane (CH4). business and residential consumers. Heavy fuel oil (also known as residual or bunker C) is difficult to use since it has a very high viscosity and must be heated to about 40°C for pumping purposes. naturally occurring gases (natural gas and coal seam methane). It is usually burnt in the furnace of a steam generator which supplies steam to a turbo-generator. Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is called insolation and has two components . Distillate is used to generate electricity by being burnt in a gas turbine or a reciprocating engine. industrial processes. Distillate Distillate is a lighter fraction of fuel oil having a low viscosity and which may be pumped at ambient temperature. Fuel oil contains no (or very little) ash and this makes the furnace design much easier compared to a design for coal fired plant. It is a product of an oil refinery after crude oil has been processed.
areas with a mean wind speed greater than 6 metres per second are considered suitable for wind energy projects but it is anticipated that improvements in technology will permit areas with lower wind speed to be developed.been scattered by the atmosphere or is reflected off the ground or other surfaces. A vast amount of research effort has been expended in recent years in developing solar cells which are cheaper to produce. heating a fluid that powers a heat engine to generate electricity. The insolation may be reduced by clouds. The wind velocity at a particular location varies with the height above ground level and the nature of the terrain.solar photovoltaic and solar thermal. On a smaller scale. The best information on insolation resource for a particular location is measured data at that location. Sunlight striking the solar cell produces an electric current which may be transmitted to the external load. usually containing silicon. At present. Insolation is typically given as a power density in kW/m2 and average daily insolation as an energy density in kWh/m2-day. Wind Wind energy systems convert the wind's kinetic energy into mechanical or electrical energy. are more efficient and which can produce more energy than is used in their manufacture. atmospheric haze or by the angle of the sun to the surface. unobstructed terrain and natural wind tunnelling features cause some areas to have inherently higher wind speeds. Solar photovoltaic systems convert solar radiant energy directly to electricity through the use of solar cells which are typically solid-state semiconductor devices.9 kW/m2 to 1. Many demonstration plants have been or are currently being performance tested within Australia and throughout the world. The actual amount of energy that can be extracted from the wind is less than the theoretical amount of energy available with the theoretical limit being about 60%. In the receiver. winds result from temperature gradients between the equator and the poles and between the land and seas. Solar thermal technologies convert radiant energy from the sun to thermal energy. For much of the earth's area. a device that tracks the sun. On a global scale. It quickly increases in the early morning and just as quickly falls away in the late afternoon and varies throughout the day. Direct normal insolation is measured with a pyroheliometer. thermal winds can be generated by local thermal effects. . All of these technologies include a collector which redirects and concentrates the insolation on to a receiver. Systems in which the solar radiation is concentrated use only direct normal insolation. the solar energy is absorbed. that is. the instantaneous insolation on a surface oriented towards the sun at noon on a very clear day is typically in the range of 0. Electricity generation using solar energy is by means of two quite different methods . about 40% of the power available in the area swept by the wind turbine blades is converted to electricity.1 kW / m2. There are several different arrangements of solar thermal systems incorporating different shapes of collectors and varying mechanisms of heat transfer. A typical efficiency for a wind turbine is about 40%. Hence the economics of a wind power system are extremely sensitive to the wind velocity resource.this means that a doubling of the velocity results in an eight times increase in available power. The energy flow rate per unit area is proportional to the wind velocity cubed . Local factors such as high altitude.
The tendency is to construct wind farms consisting of a number of interconnected turbines in a cluster to achieve an economy of scale. thereby generating electricity. The growth and combustion cycle of biomass does not increase the . Sources for biomass fuel include agricultural and forestry residues and municipal and animal wastes. There are numerous hydro-electric schemes throughout the world. S Biomass has a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuels with its primary advantage being that it is renewable. Bagasse (the waste from the crushing of sugar cane) has been used for many years in the sugar industry as boiler fuel for the generation of steam and electricity for use in the sugar mill during the crushing season. As the water is released from the upper to the lower reservoir it passes through a water turbine which drives a generator. with some having a capacity of thousands of megawatts. Care must also be taken in the site selection so as to avoid bird kills. Biomass Biomass is regenerative organic material used for energy production. Another form of water energy resource is associated with the kinetic and potential energy of ocean waves. a gearbox and a generator. Such schemes depend on Government subsidy and/or generous buy back prices for their viability. particularly to threatened and/or migratory species. Wind turbine technology has developed significantly is the last 25 years and one of the latest turbines has done away with the gearbox since this was a major cause of failure in some early machines. The Wells turbine spins in the same direction irrespective of the direction of the air passing through it. The rise and fall of waves in the chamber cause air in the chamber to pass backwards and forwards through a Wells turbine. Europe. generate electricity for sale back to a retailer. The greatest resource for wave power typically occurs between 40 degrees and 60 degrees latitude in each hemisphere. One arrangement uses a water oscillation chamber incorporating a Wells turbine. together with other agricultural/forest wastes.Electricity generation using wind as the energy source uses a wind turbine consisting of a large rotor. the potential energy is associated with the displacement of water above or below the mean sea level. The west coasts of the United States. It may also be potential energy resulting from the changes in the level of ocean water during tidal cycles. Water Water energy systems use the energy contained in the water resource. Tidal energy using conventional hydro-electric technology has been demonstrated on a large scale. A hydro-electric plant is used to generate electricity from the potential energy stored in the water. is now being promoted in facilities that operate all year and which. New Zealand and Japan are considered suitable for wave energy extraction. in the non-crush season. The wind farm must be carefully located so as to prevent objections from residents on the grounds of visual or noise pollution. There are a number of different devices used to generate electricity from ocean waves. a turbogenerator and a sluice gate in the dam to allow the tidal flow to enter or leave the tidal basin. A tidal energy conversion plant typically consists of a tidal basin created by a dam. The kinetic energy of waves is associated with the velocity of the water mass. The energy may be in the form of the potential energy stored in an upper water reservoir which can be released as the water falls to a lower reservoir. Its use.
left when the coal is completely burned.qld. It has a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. mineral impurity. for time brings about a relatively great change even at the low temperatures prevailing in the earth's crust. Reference Web Back site : http://www. It is a mixture of organic chemical and mineral materials . The temperature at which the reaction takes place need not be high. called ash. called moisture. is used to rank coal and it determines four constituents in the coal: 1. the coke-like residue that burns at higher temperatures after volatile matter has been driven off. An alternative method is to process the biomass in a gasifier with the gaseous output being burnt in a combined cycle gas turbine plant.atmospheric carbon dioxide level (however. Allowance must be made in the design of the materials handling system and the steam generator for the specific properties of the biomass to enable satisfactory plant operation. cultivation and harvest of biomass requires the use of fuels that may increase the carbon dioxide level). would result in disposal costs.gov. This means that anthracite is difficult to burn and special consideration . bituminous.the organic chemical materials produce heat when burned and the mineral matter remains. The amount of volatile matter in the coal influences the ease with which the coal can be burnt.au/electricity/infosite/index. 4. is a light-weight material with a high ash content and demands special consideration in the design stage. if not used for energy production.energy. It is usually a low cost fuel since many biomass sources are agricultural or industrial residues that. subbituminous and lignite. Coals are grouped according to rank and are known as anthracite. pressure and temperature. fixed carbon. consisting of gases driven out when coal is heated to certain temperatures. For example. with coals with a high amount of volatile matter being the easiest. 3. which is the fibrous residue from sugar cane milling. known as the 'proximate analysis'.htm Fuel-Coal Coal is created as the result of a natural chemical process in which vegetation is transformed by time. water. Pressure is also important because coal of high rank is generally found in regions that have been under high pressure. Electricity production from biomass generally uses direct combustion of the biomass in a steam generator which supplies a turbo-generator. anthracite is dense and shiny black. bagasse. Anthracite Hard and very brittle. The coal rank increases as the amount of fixed carbon in the coal increases and ranges from anthracite (highest rank) to lignite (lowest rank). The time involved is very long to accommodate the organic chemical reaction which proceeds at a slow rate. 2. An analysis. There is no satisfactory definition of coal. volatile matter.
but they have more volatile matter and burn easily. The overall process is simple but there is a large amount of associated plant and equipment used to optimise the cycle efficiency and minimise environmental pollution. Bituminous By far the largest group. Sometimes this results in an inappropriate design due to an unusual coal/ash property which is not discovered until the plant is operational. The design of a plant for a new coal field is a difficult exercise since much of the design is reliant on empirical data from past experience on other similar coals. In an IGCC plant. with only a few demonstration plants in the world. coal is gasified and the gas burnt in combined cycle gas turbines. sticky mass. bituminous coals derive their name from the fact that on being heated they are often reduced to a cohesive. The high pressure and temperature steam is then supplied to a turbo-generator which produces the electricity. as much as 15 to 30 percent. ash and dust handling and flue gas cleaning plants.must be made in the design of the combustion system to ensure that stable combustion is achieved. This consists of laboratory and perhaps small scale tests but usually not full scale due to the expense. and are free-burning. Subbituminous These coals have high moisture content. The coal may be gasified in a chemical reactor vessel that is integrated with the gas turbine plant. recent pulverised coal plants have been designed to operate at very high steam pressure and temperature with a much improved efficiency approaching that of IGCC without the complexity. In particular. Lignite Lignites are brown and of a laminar structure in which the remnants of woody fibres may be quite apparent. binding. coal properties influence the coal handling and boiler plants while ash properties influence the boiler. This is new technology and is not yet commercial. Plant modifications (if feasible) are then required which usually require an extensive plant outage resulting in lost revenue as well as capital expense. The high usage of coal for electricity generation reflects the ready availability of low cost coal which has enabled Australia to be one of the lowest cost producers of electricity in the world. A more thermally efficient way to use coal is in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. Extensive testing of the coal and ash is required prior to the design of a plant for a new coal field. Use of Coal in Electricity Generation The major use of coal in electricity generation is as a fuel burnt in the furnace of a large steam generator. It is very important that the properties of the coal and ash are well known when designing a coal fired power station since they can strongly influence the capital cost and availability of the plant. However. . They have high volatile content and are free burning but they have high moisture content (up to 65%) and low heating value so they are not economical to transport long distances. Their carbon content is less than that that of anthracites.
htm Electricity and power definitions Auxiliary power/energy All electricity consumed internally within the boundary of a power station or cogeneration plant to run the plant. Reference Web Back site : http://www. Aeroderivative gas turbine Aeroderivative gas turbines originate from the aviation industry. after making allowances for outages due to all causes (Total installed capacity (MW) * period hours MWh losses due to all outages during the period) * 100 divided by: Total installed capacity (MW) * period hours Back pressure steam turbine A simple non-condensing steam turbine. They have higher thermal efficiency and capital cost than industrial gas turbines and their maintenance costs can also be higher. The idea has some inherent practical difficulties concerning the monitoring of a partial combustion process underground together with the possibility of pollution of underground aquifers by the products of combustion. The proposal is to produce a low cost gas which is burnt in a combined cycle gas turbine. It has been used for about 40 years in Uzbekistan where the gas was burnt in a conventional steam generator. food processing waste. and is exhausted at the required steam conditions for use in a process or for direct heating.Another method of coal gasification is to partially combust it while the coal is still underground. Base load Operating regime in which the generator operates at its full capacity (or close to it) at all times.gov. This is known as Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and is an idea which has been around for over 100 years but has not been adopted commercially in any Western economy. Biomass Is material produced by photosynthesis or is an organic by-product of a waste stream suited as a feedstock for electrical and/or thermal energy or the manufacture of fuels and substitutes for petrochemicals and other energy intensive products. The idea has been researched and trialed in many countries with the latest trials being conducted in Australia by CS Energy and Linc Energy. Availability (%) Availability is an indicator of the maximum amount of electrical energy that a unit is able to generate during a period. animal manures and sewerage. Auxiliary Fuel fired boiler used to raise the site boiler steam and/or hot water requirements.energy. High-pressure steam is expanded through the backpressure steam turbine to generate electricity. Performance decreases dramatically at high ambient temperatures. They are lightweight.au/electricity/infosite/index. Exhaust gas temperatures are generally lower than industrial gas turbines. Includes a wide variety of renewable organic materials (eg sugar cane pulp. .qld.
Bottoming cycle Heat is recovered from an industrial process (eg a furnace) and then used to generate steam through a boiler.g. pyrolysis for liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals. Capacity factor (%) Total energy produced for a specified period relative to the total possible amount of energy that could have been produced for the same period. Cogeneration Involves the generation of two products from a single fuel. Boiler drum Generally the steam drum of a boiler where the steam generated is separated from the circulating boiler water. of generation equipment. Production efficiency is achieved by harnessing heat that would otherwise be wasted. and which require long-distance. The composition of the material also has a bearing on its rate of creep. Energy conversion paths include combustion and gasification for heat and power (cogeneration). predominantly coal-fired. useful combined heat and power.e. which is then used to generate electricity. Condensate Steam which has been condensed for return to the boiler. It is typically. The heat and power can also be converted into many applications such as cooling. no degradation. such as those in . Biomass fuels tend to be renewable. Circuit Breakers A type of switch used to control the flow of power in an electrical circuit. and anaerobic digestion and fermentation. Consideration of the material's creep properties is particularly impotant in the selection of materials for components subject to high temperature and high stresses. Temperature and stress on the material directly influence the rate of creep. Creep The plastic (i. centralised power stations. inelastic) movement of a metal or other solid. two to three times more efficient than major conventional.and organic municipal solid waste). Special forms of these are used in switchyards and substations for the control of power between power (transmission and distribution) lines. Capacity The rated continuous load carrying ability expressed in megawatts. sometimes referred to as maximum continuous rating (MCR). Boiler blowdown Stream of water which is bled from the boiler drum or steam supply system to control the concentration of total solids and other contaminants in the boiler water. high-voltage transmission networks. Total period energy generated (MWh) * 100 divided by: Total installed capacity (MW) *period hours Centralised Generation Electricity production based on large-scale power stations which are usually remote from electricity consumers. e. Clean-as-new New unit. Lower pressure steam can also be used for process.
Not relevant to hot water case. This can be as small as a 3 kWe micro-cogeneration plant. 33kV. However. particularly at peak usage times. or as large as a 450 MW industrial on-site system. and immediately part of the shared network. and to drive off noncondensable and potentially corrosive dissolved gases. DegradationDemand Deterioration in power output and/or heat rate of an engine or turbine under operating conditions due to.boilers. Distribution systems are usually operated at medium to low voltages (eg 110kV. Extreme care should therefore be taken in the use of published "demand" values. for example. Deaerator Used to preheat feedwater before entering the waste heat boiler.6kV & 415V). Requires steam to provide the energy for heating. The demand requirements are usually in two forms: Instantaneous Demand .the amount of electrical energy used by the end use consumers over a period of time (measured in MWh or GWh). It also is important in determining if the transmission and distribution systems can cope with the flow of electricity during peak demand times. This measure is used to estimate how hard the power stations need to operate during that period. embedded or localised. usually by an ion exchange process. Continuous process occurring between overhauls. to the consumers. Includes cogeneration and other types of generation such as fuel cells and photovoltaic. 11kV. but are assets which would not need to exist if not for connection to one participant. Demand Demand is usually taken to mean the electricity requirements of the end consumer. It is important in determining the generating capacity required to on-line.the size of the demand at any instance in time and is measured in MW. and Period Demand . usually over long distances. Charges and risks associated with Deep Connection services may eventually be shared with other participants. inlet air contaminants. for example. Demineralised water Pure water produced by removing mineral salts. the term "demand" includes consumption and losses in the distribution and transmission networks and in the power stations as well as end user consumption. 6. Distributed generators can also export electricity into the local grid. Distributed Generation Is power generation generally located close to where it is consumed. Also referred to as decentralised. 66kV. supplying electricity on-site or over-the-fence. Distribution Electrical cabling system which transfers power. fuel contaminants and thermal stress. the amount of fuel consumed in the generation of that energy and the potential income for electricity retailers and generators. Dump condenser Excess steam from the waste heat boiler bypasses the steam turbine and goes directly to the . turbines and superheaters. when arrangements change. but where the assets may eventually become part of the shared network. Deep Connection Transmission assets and services provided by the Transmission Network Operator which are: initially for one participant. in the NEM.
the charge for using the electricity network on or below 66 kV voltage level. Enthalpy Measure Entropy A measure Feedwater Total flow of of supplied the heat energy boiler.condenser. Can also be used to isolate equipment in the exhaust gas stream when the equipment is out of service or requires maintenance. .total auxiliary energy (kWh) * 3600 * 100 divided by / Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) Efficiency Efficiency (s/o) (s/o) (%) is = related 3600 * to 100 Heat Heat Rate Rate (s/o) by: (s/o) (kJ/kWh) / Electrical efficiency (Cogen) NFT) [Cogen gross elec output] + [imported electricity] . Efficiency Thermodynamically. Economiser A counterflow heat exchanger for recovering energy from the exhaust gas. Used to balance site load with steam generated. unavailable to the Forced outage rate (%) Forced outages require the removal of a generating unit from service for repairs that have not been planned. In the National Electricity Code. content in sum of a of a thermodynamic condensate and substance. they are distributed generators. Dump stack & damper Used to control flow and temperature of exhaust gas to bypass the waste heat boiler.[parasitic electricity] dividede by: [Fuel to cogen unit] + [fuel used for imported electricity] Embedded Generation Smaller-scale generators that are connected to electricity distribution networks. See also Heat Rate. Are in contrast to large-scale coal-fired generators that are connected to very high voltage electricity transmission networks. system. DUOS Distribution use of system charge. Heat Rate (gen) (kJ/kWh) Efficiency (Sent Out)% (Total energy generated (kWh) . By nature of where they connect to the grid. Economisers are assumed on WHBs in this analysis. It increases the temperature of the water entering the boiler drum using otherwise wasted exhaust heat and hence increasing steam-raising ability. Used to balance steam generated with site load. Has many specific definitions and care needs to be taken that the meaning is clear. the ratio of useful energy output to energy input into a process. Efficiency (Generated)% Total energy generated (kWh) * 3600 * 100 divided by: Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) Efficiency (gen) is related to Heat Rate (gen) by: Efficiency (gen) (%) = 3600 * 100 . makeup.
this is discounted for steam/heat production. .Total auxiliary energy (kWh) Heat Rate (s/o) is related to Efficiency (s/o) by Heat Rate (s/o) (kJ/kWh) = 3600 * 100 . Greenhouse Intensity (GI) Measure of Greenhouse efficiency as the emission rate of greenhouse gases from fuel burning expressed in kg CO2 (equiv. To convert to efficiency divide by 3600 and invert. fuels can be gaseous or premium liquid fuels such as distillate.) per MWh sent out. For cogeneration. Generated Electrical energy generated Energy by the power (MWh) plant. both natural and anthropogenic. Higher Heating Value (HHV) The amount of heat recovered when the products of complete combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel are cooled to the initial temperature of the air and fuel (kJ/kg)./ Efficiency (s/o) (%) Heat Recovery Steam Generator A boiler that uses waste heat (such as gas turbine or reciprocating engine exhaust gas) to produce steam or hot water. Working fluid is usually air. The fuel heating value consumed per unit of useful output (usually electrical output). that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.Energy Total lost due installed to forced capacity outages (MW) (MWh) * * 100 divide by: period hours Fossil Fuel Derived from hydrocarbon and includes coal. Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere. natural gas. oil and liquid petroleum gas. coal seam methane. Heat Rate (Generated) (kJ/kWh) Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) divided Total energy generated (kWh) Heat Rate (gen) is related to Efficiency (gen) by: Heat Rate (gen) (kJ/kWh) = 3600 * 100 divided by:/ Efficiency (gen) (%) by: Heat Rate (Sent Out) (kJ/kWh) Quantity fuel (kg) * higher heating value of fuel consumed (kJ/kg) divided by:/ Total energy generated (kWh) . Gas turbine An engine operating on what is known as the Brayton cycle with continuous steady flow compression of air. Common unit is kJ/kWh. constant pressure combustion and expansion of the compressed heated gases through an expansion turbine. Heat rate A form of expressing efficiency of an engine or turbine.
the relationship between Higher Heating Value (HHV) and Lower Heating Value (LHV) is (approximately): HHV = 1. evaporation. Used in the context of steam turbine ability to convert steam energy into mechanical energy.e.1 Makeup Treated raw water. . ISO conditions Ambient conditions stated in the ISO Standard 2314 = 15°C. or effectively zero loss. (i. The electrical resistance of the power lines is the main contributor to these losses. For Natural Gas. as opposed to leaving the turbine as exhaust steam energy at the exhaust steam pressure. Generally have lower thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures than aeroderivative gas turbines. It can be thought of as the load (% MCR) that would have produced the same total energy over the same operating hours. sampling or venting. Load factor (%) (Also called Output Factor) . which is added to the system to replace steam and water lost to site requirements. Parasitics The plant's internal power consumption and losses. Network Losses Amount of energy lost when electricity flows in the power lines of a transmission and/or distribution network. blowdown. more robust.For Natural Gas.1 * LHV Industrial gas turbine Heavier. The plant is shut down for the remainder of the time. Peaking Operating regime in which the generator operates at its full capacity (or close to it) only for short periods at times of high demand. at average sea level) and 60% Relative Humidity (RH). the relationship between Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Higher Heating Value (HHV) is (approximately): LHV = HHV/1. Operating Hours Total number of hours during which a unit generates electricity over a period of time.total energy produced for a specified period relative to the total possible amount of energy that could have been produced for the operating hours during the same period. Total Total energy generated during installed capacity the (MW) period * (MWH) operating * 100 hours Lower Heating Value (LHV) The amount of heat recovered when the products of complete combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel are cooled to just above the dew point of the water vapour it contains (kJ/kg). Isentropic Constant entropy. 0 metres ASL. and cheaper than aeroderivative gas turbines.
Reserve Plant Margin Reserve Plant Margin is a well used (but generally misunderstood) simplistic measure which. natural resources such as biomass. is meant to give an indication of the ability of the electricity system's generation plant to cope with the estimated peak (instantaneous) demands on the system. Typical vehicle engine. Each generator provides prices at which it is willing to supply designated levels of MW. Dividing by the total power station sent out supply required to meet the maximum peak (instantaneous) demand estimated for that interval of time. usually by more than one year. The grouping of these prices within the NEM is known as the pool. hydro. Taking away 1. Pulveriser A machine that grinds coal into a fine powder for injection into the furnace of a pulverised coal fired boiler. in theory. Summing the supply capacities of all the power stations able to operate at any time during a particular interval of time(usually the three winter months or the three summer months). 3. The ability of demand side management techniques (such as hot water switching and short . Tend to be distributed and connected to local distribution networks. The unavailability of power stations due to scheduled and unscheduled outages. the Reserve Plant Margin . such as Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station. solar (photovoltaic) and tidal. Includes power generated from non-hydrocarbon. It is measured by: 1. The energy limits of the northern hydros and some peaking plants.Planned outage rate (%) Planned outages are due to overhaul (or other) work which is planned well in advance. wind. Process Steam used within an industrial plant.3 means that there is a 30% "excess" in sent out supply capacity available to meet the maximum peak demand (i. It also includes power generated using waste products. Energy Total lost due installed to planned outages capacity (MW) * (MWh) period * 100 hours Pool Price Price of electricity available for supply in the National Electricity Market. The short term overload capabilities of some of the power stations. Note: The reserve plant margin calculation may not take into account: The generating capacity kept in reserve for system stability reasons. Renewable Generation Produces no net greenhouse emissions.30%). 2. Reciprocating engine An engine characterised by the movement of the pistons in the cylinders back and forth in a straight line driving a crankshaft to convert the work into rotary shaft work. A value of (say) 0.e. usually for steam heating.
thankfully. This is the generated energy minus the auxiliary energy used in the plant. usefulness and usage. Supplementary fired Additional gas firing into a waste heat boiler when the unfired exhaust gas is not sufficiently hot for raising the site steam requirements (temperature or steam mass flow). Substation Similar to a "switchyard" but is usually associated with lower voltage distribution lines. Retrofit Any improvement activity on an existing power plant that generally involves fitting new equipment to an existing plant. A reserve plant margin less than this meant that there was a risk of not having sufficient plant to meet the demand peaks. values between about 20% to 25% have been used in Queensland. Supply Supply has many meanings depending on the point of view of the organisation providing the data. or The load limits on the interconnectors and inter-zonal transmission lines. and other.term reduction in industrial loads) to reduce peak loads. the reserve plant is compared to a "guesstimated" optimum value that is supposed to take some account of these factors. Generally steam admitted into a steam turbine must be superheated (that is. Sent Out Energy Electrical energy leaving the power plant. reasons. Most of the equipment is enclosed within a building. Shallow Connection Transmission assets and services provided for one participant where the assets will never be part of the shared network. Can generally be done on gas turbine exhausts because sufficient oxygen remains in the exhaust. Superheater A heat exchanger part of a boiler for increasing the temperature of saturated steam to superheated steam. Converts steam energy to mechanical energy. For these. Steam turbine An engine in which a vaned wheel is made to revolve by the impingement of steam. the importance of the Reserve Plant Margin measure has. The main definitions can be described by working back from the electricity end user to the power station: . above the saturation temperature at that pressure). while more than this indicated an over-capacity in generating plant to meet the peak demands and that some plant would be under-utilised. Historically. The main problem with using the reserve plant measure is that most people are not be aware of the way in which it is calculated and so would assume that there was always a large excess in generating capacity and that all peak loads would be met. The interconnectors being able to supply some of the required capacity. With the advent of the NEM. declined in importance. Not generally done on reciprocating engine exhausts due to lower excess oxygen in exhaust. Energy generated (MWh) minus auxiliary energy (MWh).
and Supply generated . Switchyard Fenced area containing electrical equipment used to control the transfer of power from one set of power lines to another set of power lines.au/electricity/infosite/index. In the National Electricity Code. such as owner's engineering. the charge for using the electricity network above 66 kV voltage level Turnkey Installation to the point of readiness for operation. Total Sum of the installed capacity of each unit capacity making up the power plant.this is equal to the supply from the transmission system plus transmission system losses.htm . and methane from landfill sites. Some owner's costs. Supply from the transmission system . Topping cycle High-pressure steam is raised in an auxiliary boiler and expanded through a backpressure steam turbine to the required site steam conditions. Transmission Electrical cabling system which transfers large amounts of power.this is equal to the end user demand plus the demand from any large user being supplied directly from the transmission system plus the losses in the distribution system.gov. TUOS Transmission use of system charge. usually over long distances. but is also used in association with lower voltage distribution lines. sludge gas from sewerage treatment plants. generally a single design and construct contract. Waste heat boiler A boiler that uses waste heat (such as gas turbine or reciprocating engine exhaust gas) to produce steam or hot water. Waste Waste products used in power generation include cane residue (bagasse) in the sugar industry. Note: For each of these.this is equal to the end user consumption.this is the electricity generated by the power stations and is equal to the supply sent out from the power stations plus losses within the power stations that are associated with the generation of the electricity.qld. Transmission systems are usually operated at extra high voltages (eg 132kV. owner's start up labour and fuel.energy.Supply from the distribution system . spares. Supply sent out from the power stations . It is usually associated with high voltage transmission lines. 275kV & 330kV). may be excluded and need to be considered in the indirect costs or elsewhere. Reference Web Back site : http://www. Thermal efficiency (Cogen) [Cogen gross elec output] + [imported electricity] + [site steam] [fuel to cogen unit] + [fuel used for imported electricity] + [fuel to aux boiler] Where [site steam] includes hot water as (overall) divided by: applicable. the "instantaneous" and "period" values of the electricity supply are required.
most of the electrons are firmly bound to the nucleus and hence there are few "free" electrons. In other materials. Increasing the magnitude of the EMF applied to the conductor will increase the drift velocity of the electrons in the conductor. Electric Current Normally. The number of electrons in each atom of the material largely determines a material's physical.Electricity and motors Electricity The word "electricity" can be used to mean an electrical charge that does not move (static electricity) or an electric charge that moves (current electricity) or a form of energy (electrical energy). All materials are made up of atoms. When wandering electron encounters an atom. Every atom consists of a nucleus containing a number of positively charged protons around which an equal number of negatively charged electrons move. which do not have any electrical charge. Electricity passes easily through these materials which are called conductors. Electricity does not easily pass through these materials which are called nonconductors or insulators. The nucleus also contains neutrons. the free electrons in a conductor are moving in random directions. the free electrons can be induced to move (drift) generally in one direction. The rate at which the electrons appear to drift through the conductor is called the drift velocity. chemical and electrical properties. the electron could attach itself to the atom and could force another electron to leave that atom. If an appropriate electrical force (called an electromotive force or EMF) is applied to the conductor. A free electron can easily be induced to leave its atom and move about in random directions in the spaces between the atoms. The number of electrons per second appearing to move past any point of the conductor gives a measure of the electric current. The atoms in some materials have "free" electrons that are loosely bound to their nuclei. This movement of electrons is called current electricity and an electric current is said to flow. All of these depend on what is happening to the electrons in a material. This increase in drift velocity .
would manifest itself as an increase in the electric current passing through the conductor. The source of EMF can be a battery or a generator or a photoelectric cell. For an electric current to flow through a conductor, the EMF source must apply an electric charge to one end of the conductor and an opposite electric charge to the other end. A simple example of this is the electric current flowing in a metal wire (the conductor) connected between the "negative" terminal and the "positive" terminal of a battery (the EMF source). All materials offer some resistance to the flow of electrons and hence work has to be done in forcing the electrons through the material. Materials with low resistance are the "conductors", the "insulators" having high resistance. The degree of resistance ranges from almost zero (for special materials called "super conductors") to very high (for the materials used to insulate powerlines). When an electric current flows through a conductor, two effects are produced: the electrical energy used to overcome the electrical resistance in the conductor is converted to thermal energy which increases the temperature of the conductor. Examples:heaters, stoves and electric kettles use the heating effects (conversion of electrical energy to thermal (heat) energy); and incandescent light bulbs emit light because their elements are raised to a high temperature (electrical to thermal energy conversion). a magnetic field forms around the conductor. for example: When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the interaction between its magnetic field and the other magnetic field exerts a force on the conductor. In an electric motor, this interaction forces the shaft to rotate (conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy). Most of the ways in which electricity is used can be traced back to these two effects. Electrical energy can therefore be easily converted to other forms of energy.
Conversely, most of the electricity in a large electricity supply system is generated by the use of magnetic fields in machines called, appropriately enough, "generators" (which can be thought of as being electrical motors driven backwards). Other forms of energy are used to produce the mechanical energy used to rotate the shafts of the generators. There are other ways in which electricity can be generated, but they all involve the conversion of a source of energy into electrical energy. Electrical energy can therefore be easily produced by the conversion of other forms of energy. A law of physics formulated by Isaac Newton notes that 'Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred from one form into another'. The usefulness of electricity therefore lies in its unique ability to be a convenient and easily controlled means to transport energy from one location to another location and to convert energy from one form into another form. The Familiar Forms of Electricity
Ever walked on a carpet and been "zapped" when you touch a metal object. That is an example of static electricity. Static electricity is used to a lesser extent than current electricity in our every day lives. The ENERGEX web site has a good explanation of this form of electricity. A more useful form of electricity is "current" electricity in which the electric current "flows" in one direction only - Direct Current (DC). The batteries in our torches, toys, portable radios and cars
are the most common sources of DC low voltage, low power electricity. Higher voltage, higher power DC systems are used for particular applications, such as energy storage systems associated with renewable energy systems that are not connected to an electricity supply network. High voltage, high power DC powerlines have been used successfully in special applications such as interconnectors between transmission systems and undersea power cables. Large DC electric motors are common in certain applications, such as electric locomotives where high starting torque and variable speed are required. The most useful type of "current" electricity is the type in which the direction of flow of the electrical current changes direction many times in each second - Alternating Current (AC). AC electricity powers the appliances in our homes, turns the electric motors of industry and energises our electric lights. The current in an AC system does not instantaneously change direction. Rather, it gradually (in relative terms) increases in magnitude until it reaches a maximum in one direction, then gradually reduces to zero, gradually increases to a maximum in the other direction, then reduces to zero - and the whole cycle starts all over again. The number of complete cycles carried out in a second is called the frequency of the AC electricity supply. In Australia, the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second, with 60 cycles per second used in America. If DC and AC electricity can both be used successfully, why is AC the dominant form of current electricity? The answers lie in the consideration of: economics - in general, AC electrical equipment is smaller and cheaper to manufacture than DC equipment of similar duty; and voltage changes - changes in voltages can be easily carried out in an AC system, but voltage changes in DC systems are complicated and require significant equipment. This ability to change voltage is particularly important in transmission and distribution systems where line losses are reduced if the voltage is increased. The voltages used in a large electrical supply system and the importance of having various voltages in the system are discussed in the Transmission and Distribution section.
Phases There is one further major characteristic of an AC electricity supply that requires explanation phases. A DC circuit has two wires through which the current in the circuit flows from a source of electricity through a load and back to the source. A single-phase AC circuit also has two wires connected to the source of electricity. However, unlike the DC circuit in which the direction of the electric current does not change, the direction of the current changes many times per second in the AC circuit. The 240 volt electricity supplied to our homes is single phase AC electricity and has two wires - an "active" and a "neutral". The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). However, the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits, making a total of three circuits or phases. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i.e. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).
But why 3 phases? Why not 2 or 4? Because the magnitude and direction of the electricity flowing in each of the phases is slightly displaced in time from the electricity flowing in the other phases, the current flowing in the common neutral will be the sum of the neutral currents from the 3 phases. The resultant current in the common neutral is smaller in a 3 phase system than in systems with other numbers of phases. This ability to use a common neutral of relatively small capacity has large economic advantages and is the main reason why 3 phases are used. 3 phase electricity has another advantage. We mentioned above that, in Australia, the voltage between the active and neutral in the single phase, low voltage supply to our homes is 240 volts and that this phase is only one of the phases in the 3 phase system. The voltage between the phases of this 3 phase system is 415 volts (in Australia). A 415 volt, 3 phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 240 volt, single phase supply. 3 phase supplies are normally restricted to large electrical loads, such as large electric motors. As we travel back up the electrical network, the voltage increases and the neutral disappears! Why? The answer can be found in the consideration of why a neutral is used. A single phase supply must have a neutral, whereas a 3 phase supply does not require a neutral. More complicated reasons deal with fixing the voltage of the single phase supply relative to the earth (because domestic appliances have their metal enclosures connected to earth) and for fault protection purposes. 3 phase, medium voltage, distribution systems and high voltage transmission systems therefore use one wire for each phase and no neutral. The above discussions focussed on active and neutral conductors (wires) as being the means to convey the electricity. One type of system uses the earth as the return path, with only the active being conveyed by a wire conductor. This type of single-phase supply system is called the Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) system and is use to supply small loads which are located far from the main distribution networks.
No section on electricity is complete without a short warning on the dangerous aspects of electricity. The following discussion is brief. Electricity and the Human Body
Water makes up most of the human body, thus making the body an electrical conductor. If a person touches an electrically energised object (such as a bare wire or faulty equipment) and the person is touching the ground, electricity will pass through the person to ground. Depending on the voltage of the electricity, the frequency of the AC supply, the magnitude of the current flowing through the body and the amount of time the current is flowing, the result can range from a slight tingle to a harmful and potentially fatal shock. The critical path of electricity through the human body is through the chest cavity. A current flowing from one hand to the other, or from a hand to the opposite foot, or from the head to either foot will pass through the chest cavity and could paralyse the respiratory or heart muscles (thus initiating ventricular fibrillation) and/or burning of vital organs. Electricity passing through any area of the body can result in burns caused by the current flowing in tissues and can be at the skin surface or in deeper layers or both. Electrical Protection
Any piece of approved electrical equipment is designed for operation at a particular voltage and is insulated to protect its operator from coming into contact with its electrically live parts. Portable hand held electric appliances, such as electric drills, are unlikely to cause an electric
and do not use your finger to clean the connection. Again if you are unsure of how do this. replace worn electrical leads. This disconnects the appliance from the supply. the current in the circuit will greatly exceed that of the circuit breaker or fuse and cause them to operate. This device does not provide protection unless the electricity has a path to earth. NEVER touch a fallen powerline unless given specific assurances of its safety by a person qualified to do so. This device is identified by various names. the device's short detection and operating times would normally prevent severe injury to the person. particularly electric blankets and those appliances with metal cases. with the outside of the item made from a suitable insulating material. and think "safety" when doing anything associated with electricity. the electrical supply must have an active and a return path. Residual Current Device (RCD) and Safety Switch. Protection against faulty equipment or circuits causing shocks to people in a domestic dwelling can be provided in two ways. . in conjunction with suitably rated circuit breakers or fuses. including Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB). extension leads and appliances. The disadvantage of the system is that. A protective device has been developed to sense any imbalance of current through the active and neutral conductors. particularly those on electric irons. have a qualified electrician regularly check the household's electrical systems. by having the circuits wired in accordance with the Multiple Earthed Neutral system.shock because they are usually double insulated. Theory of Electric Motors An electric generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the presence of a magnetic field. The circuit breakers or fuses are rated to operate just below the current limit of the wiring. and the appliance is connected to the earthing circuit. 1. for an electrical component to function. If the victim has been removed from the electrical hazard. be through a person. If this happened. make sure that a light has been switched off before changing the bulb . if the appliance does not have an earth connection or if the earthing circuit is faulty. An electric motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy in the presence of a magnetic field. get qualified help without delay. which could. get qualified help without delay. When there is a fault to earth on an appliance. If an Electrical Accident Occurs Do not touch the victim unless you are sure that the victim is not still in contact with the electrical hazard or that the electricity has been switched off. the protection will not operate. in the worst case. The current through the circuit will be identical through both the active and neutral conductors. Some install simple safety switches ways on the to Avoid household power Electrical and lighting Accidents circuits. If you are unsure of how do this. or 2. protect power points from the probing of children. first aid can be applied.
Compound motors are used where high starting torque and fine speed control are desired. the forces acting on the loop will rotate it. However. When a current carrying loop is placed in a magnetic field so that it makes an angle with the magnetic field. It cannot be run on light or no load because it may overspeed.The field winding in a separately excited motor is energised from an independent source of electricity and so not affected by the load or voltage drop in the armature. The starting torque is of the order of 300-500% of the full load torque. the conductor experiences a force. and d) Compound motor . Motors can operate on direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). and b) An Armature with commutator and brushgear. The speed of a shunt motor drops slightly as the load increases. particularly in industrial applications. The principal types of three phase motors are the induction motor and the synchronous motor. DC DC motors have two main parts: Motors a) A Yoke which supports poles and field windings and provides a path for the magnetic flux. For this reason.An electric motor operates on the principle of electrodynamics that states that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. Electric motor use the latter method to produce a magnetic field. when the conductor is inclined to the magnetic field. The starting torque of a shunt motor is 100-150 % of the full load torque. DC motors are classified on the type of connections to the field windings: a) Separately excited motor .The field in a series motor is connected in series with the armature winding. Its speed remains practically constant over the entire load range. The series motor finds extensive application in traction and in other jobs where high starting and accelerating torque is required and the motor is never required to run on light load. thus producing mechanical energy.A compound motor has a series as well as shunt field and its speedtorque characteristic is determined by the relative strengths of the two fields. rolling mills. a series motor is used with a directly coupled load. c) Series motor .5 kW) are used for specific purposes. The speed of a series motor is high at light loads and falls off rapidly with increasing load. In general. a shunt motor is considered a constant speed motor for all practical purposes. The magnetic field can be produced by a magnet or by a current carrying coil wound on soft iron pole pieces. DC motors and small single phase AC motors (up to about 2. The field windings are designed to give practically constant speed at all loads. Larger three phase AC motors are the electric motors most used. such as cranes. The starting torque about 250-300% of full load torque. b) Shunt motor. and excavators. .
In the case of wound rotor induction motor. all of the resistance of the star connected speed controller is inserted in the rotor circuit. The disadvantages of DC motors and are: High capital cost of the motor and the control gear. arrangement inside The speed at which the magnetic field rotates is known as the synchronous speed. Increased operating and maintenance costs because of commutators and brushgear. The attraction between the stator field and the rotor field causes the rotor to follow the stator field. At the start up. The voltage induced in the squirrel cage winding produces current in the rotor bars. the voltage and current are induced by the rotating field similar to that in the squirrel cage induction motor. In this way. 1. The synchronous speed of a three-phase motor is determined by two factors. Principle of operation of a three phase induction motor The principle of operation for all three-phase motors is the rotating magnetic field. 2. both below and above the normal speed. and Quick starting. of the and motor. The torque produced by an induction motor results from the interaction between the stator flux and the rotor flux. a field is created in the rotor core. 1. The The number frequency of stator of poles.DC motors possess the following advantages: High starting torque. reversing and accelerating. This additional resistance causes an excellent starting torque and a large percent slip. AC 3 Phase Induction Motors The most commonly used motor in industrial applications is the three-phase induction motor. 2. The induced current set up form a closed path from the rotor windings through the slip rings and brushes to a star connected speed controller. stopping. The rotor always turns at a speed slightly less than that of the stator field. The The three voltages of the change stator polarity windings at around regular the intervals. There are three factors that cause the magnetic field to rotate. the and AC. 3. Characteristics of Induction Motors Some of the important characteristics of induction motors are: . As a result. Speed control over a wide range. the stator field cuts the rotor bars and induces the required rotor voltage and current in the rotor field. The field set up by the stator windings cuts the copper bars of the rotor. The voltages of the three-phase system are 120° out of phase with each other.
eliminates the magnetic locking of the rotor and increases starting torque. It ranges from 85% to 99% in the case of squirrel cage motors above 5 HP. the torque varies as the square of the terminal voltage. The efficiency is less in the case of slip-ring motors. and are slotted in their inner periphery. The Simple Rugged Reliable Low Easy Simple High advantages of an AC induction design. the speed of an induction motor is more or less constant with load. size and load. and v) The efficiency of an induction motor is inversely proportional to slip. induction Squirrel-cage Wound-rotor Each of these two types of three phase induction motors consist of: The Stator. . Squirrel cage rotor: The rotor is constructed of laminated steel sheets assembled around a shaft. iii) The torque varies directly with the slip. Such motors operate by virtue of the eddy currents established in the rotor. slow speed motors and motors running at part load. and The Rotor. Skew effectively reduces noise. The three single-phase windings are connected in star or delta formation. The efficiency of three phase induction motors varies with type. there Induction three-phase motor. A motor with a lower value of slip will be more efficient than a motor with a higher slip because of the increased losses in the rotor of the latter. The copper bars are soldered to two copper end rings. In the case of rotors with aluminium windings.The stator is a three-phase winding placed in the slots of a laminated steel core and formed of three single-phase windings spaced 120 electrical degrees apart. Stator: The squirrel-cage and the wound-rotor induction motors have nearly the same stator construction and winding arrangement. maintenance. iv) The slip varies inversely as the square of the terminal voltage. initial operation control gear for of are two types induction or slip-ring of and starting and efficiency. 2. the bars and end rings are all die cast in position without soldering at the ends. the rotor is sometimes made up of solid steel without any winding. The three line leads from the three windings are brought out to a terminal box mounted on the frame of the motor. It is about 75% for smaller motors. In very small motors. operation. ii) The slip is proportional to the load. Skewed rotors are twisted (skewed).i) For the same slip. speed control. cost. The laminations of the steel core are insulated by varnish or oxide coating. The slots of the rotor are not always parallel to the slots on the stator. and Motors induction and motor. motors: motor are as follows: Construction Broadly 1. construction. The aluminium conductor rotors are therefore more rugged. The rotor winding consists of copper or aluminium bars. and since the slip varies over a small range only.
as the rated capacity of the motor is exceeded. The stray power losses include mechanical friction losses. These losses are nearly constant at all loads and are often called fixed losses. However. A motor running at high speed and near full load has a better power factor than when it operates at part load and low speed. As the load on the motor incr4eases. The three leads from these windings terminate at three slip rings mounted on the rotor shaft. These windings are placed 120 electrical degrees apart. which may have a starting current in the order of 600% of its full load current. The insulated coils of the rotor winding are grouped to form the same number of poles as in the stator windings. a three-phase winding on its . Power Factor of Induction Motors The power factor of an induction motor depends on its type. Leads from the carbon brushes are connected to an external speed controller. As the load increases. The copper losses consist of the I2R losses in the windings of the motor. the efficiency increases with load. Induction Motor Losses and Efficiency The losses in an induction motor consist of stray losses and the copper losses. The brush holders are fixed rigidly. At light loads. the copper losses become excessive and the efficiency decreases. The three single-phase rotor windings are connected in star. AC 3 Phase Synchronous Motors A synchronous motor consists of a DC field winding on its rotor. Slip is usually expressed as the percentage by which the speed of the rotor falls behind the speed of the rotating synchronous speed of the stator field. In practice. Slip-ring motors have lower power factors than squirrel cage motors of the same size. Carbon brushes press against these slip rings and are held securely by adjustable springs mounted in the brush holders. the power factor of the inductive motor at the rated load is between 0. This current produces the magnetomotive force (mmf) required to send the stator flux across the air gap and through the magnetic circuit. The power factor at no load is approximately 0. Wound-rotor (or slip-ring motor): The cylindrical core of the rotor is made up of steel laminations. slotted to hold the formed coils of the three single-phase windings.85 and 0. the fixed losses become a smaller part of the input power. the percent efficiency is low because the fixed losses form a large part of the input power. size. An increase in load increases the current in the motor windings and hence the I2R losses. The no load current consists mainly of magnetising current. and are: Relatively low starting current (250 to 350% of the full load current) compared to a squirrel-cage motor.15 lagging. Hence the power factor at no load is low.90 lagging. The in-phase component of the no load current is low. The Its High advantages susceptibility starting to torque of speed of 200 a control by 250% slip-ring regulating of full motor rotor load resistance.The speed performance of a squirrel cage motor is measured in terms of slip. rotational speed and load. the in-phase current component supplied to the motor increases and hence the power factor increases. Thus. torque. windage losses and iron losses.
but is enough to start the motor. the reactance of the rotor is much higher than the resistance when the motor starts. The magnetic effect of a single phase winding results in a pulsating magnetic field which may not be able to start the rotor turning if the rotor is in certain positions. No voltage is generated in the auxiliary rotor winding during synchronous operation. The ability of a synchronous motor to operate at leading power factor makes it suitable to be used for power factor improvement. the inductive effect decreases and the power factor improves. the rotor current and the rotor power factor. further variations are required to provide a phase difference for starting purposes. The AC from the alternator is converted to DC by bridge connected silicon diodes and then supplied directly to the field winding. This is done by either: placing a non-inductive resistance in series with the starting winding. When the motor comes up to speed. A synchronous motor is started as an induction motor or by a separate induction motor. This arrangement eliminates the exciter. commutator and the field slip rings. or half a pole pitch. This does not produce an exact 90 degree phase difference. The torque of the induction motor is dependent on the magnetic field strength (flux per pole). it is called a synchronous condenser. AC Single Phase Motors Single phase motors are usually used in domestic appliances because they are suitable for low power ratings. there is considerable inductance inherent in the rotor circuit. An alternator mounted on the motor shaft replaces the exciter. the DC excitation is supplied to the field winding and the motor pulls into synchronism. As a laminated iron frame surrounds the rotor conductors. The DC excitation is provided by an exciter driven either from the motor's shaft or by a separate motor. In order to make a single phase motor self-starting. the power factor decreases and the torque rapidly reduces to . Due to this large inductance. To reduce maintenance. subjecting the rotor current to a low power factor. If a condenser is provided. the starting winding and condenser are left in the circuit. As the motor comes up to speed. The starting torque of the induction motor is therefore low. the rotor frequency will be less than the stator or supply frequency. On starting with the rotor at standstill. The resistance is constant and the torque improves to a maximum at approximately 80% nominal speed. from the main winding. Above this speed. This will provide a 90 degree phase difference. As the motor is only supplied by a single phase source of electricity.stator and a means to bring it to speed (usually a squirrel cage winding placed in the salient poles on the rotor). or connecting a condenser in series with the starting winding. Starting torque can be improved by adding resistance to the rotor circuit. Maximum torque is reached when the value of rotor reactance reaches the value of rotor resistance. a second (starting) winding is installed in the stator slots at 90 degrees. When a synchronous motor is used exclusively for power factor improvement and not for driving any mechanical load. It is usual to fit the single phase motor with a centrifugal switch which will take the starting winding out of service as soon as the motor comes up to speed. brushless synchronous motors are now being manufactured.
The insulation needs to be checked to ensure there has been no movement. accessible) abnormal dust. An insulation check is to be made on the stator prior to assembly and a further test given when the motor is being reinstalled. no cracking or signs of deterioration. The maintenance on a motor can include the following: Disassemble the motor in a workshop. . This applies particularly to the feet of the motor.become zero at synchronous speed. RTDs or thermocouples. In some cases the insulation may need to be sprayed with an insulating varnish or even re-dipped. leakage (if of from are the not bearings. motors should be checked on a regular basis. This includes the connections to any heaters. oil plates signs sun. wet. If the environment is hostile (e. It can be as much as washing the parts including the windings thoroughly with a spray using water and a solvent. The environment in which the motors are operating and the importance of the motors' continued operation should dictate the regularity of the checks to be made. The induction motor will therefore never reach synchronous speed due to its inherent induction and loss factors. unduly or in hot. heat. Maintenance of Electric Motors Under normal operation. and Air intakes and filters (if applicable) are not clogged. Protection There is no evident damage to incoming cables and or terminal boxes. Visual checks should include: Cleanliness of the surroundings. Clean the windings and the rotor. the windings are given an appropriate insulation test.g. ensuring that cooling vanes are clear of extraneous matter. The slot wedges should be checked for tightness and or cracking. This may involve as little as dusting the parts down with a clean dry cloth. the stator and rotor will have to be placed in an oven or at least heated to thoroughly dry the insulation. The condition of any internal connections is to be made and the connections into the terminal boxes. vibration etc is noise. The condition of the fan and fan cover is to be checked. dirty and hot). Signs The The of motor motor grease frame is against and not the or bearing showing weather. It is normal to carry out maintenance on motors when the item being driven is to be serviced. The motor frame/housing is to be checked for any damage. place. the checks should be at least on a daily basis. After this process. Checks are to be made for any signs of abrasion on the rotor or the iron core of the stator. Under these circumstances.
it is normal to further check the state of the coupling or other drive mechanism associated with the motor. use of anti-condensation heaters. use of porous plugs and type of painting. Efficiency. cooling system and required temperature rise limits. Noise Levels. 2. 10. 9. 7. 8. On reinstallation in the field. requirement for special lubrication systems and bearings. and Ratings of Enclosures. The tests normally required for type tests are as follows: 1. the specification will list a number of Engineering Standards that the motor will have to meet.The coupling of the motor is to be checked for wear and any sign of looseness during operation. Locked rotor test (see description below). on reassembly. the bearings must be changed. Where possible. the correct recommended grease or oil is used. Other items will detail the starting characteristics. Resistance of windings. size. Momentary overload. This series of tests are called 'Type Tests'. 3. Bearings must be checked for wear and deterioration. Noise (as per AS 1081 with the level as described in AS 1469). 5. of Cooling. It is normal to require that the first motor of a design be subjected to a more stringent set of tests than subsequent motors of the same design. and The cables being connected to the motor are checked for condition and to ensure they are connected in the correct sequence on the motor terminals. The protection required during transport and lifting facilities can also be specified. Medium voltage insulation (as per AS 1359 Pt. mounting and the tests that the motor must be subjected to during manufacture. 50. ensuring that the correct type is used. Care is taken to ensure rotation direction is correct prior to final connection to the driven equipment. 4. 50 or equivalent). and. Temperature rise (see description below). and . 6. Electric Motor Standards and Tests When purchasing an electric motor. 60). the vibration and noise levels. the motor should be given a no load run in the workshop prior to reinstallation in the field. 60. 69 & AS 1469 1991 Methods Protection Degree Rotating Electrical Machines. No-load losses and current. If there is any sign of deterioration. Generally the larger electric motors would be expected to comply with at least the following Australian Engineering Standards or their equivalent: -AS -AS -IEC -AS 1359 parts 1081 34-6: 1939 4. Terminations are checked and made in accordance with maintenance instructions for tightness and phasing. The performance tests required during manufacture are specified to be in accordance with AS 1359 part 60 or its equivalent. Power factor. speed. winding insulation. the inbuilt thermal protection devices required. These will determine the details of the motor type. Vibration (as per the requirements of AS 1359 Pt.
the motor temperature rise should not exceed that specified. For example. of and description windings. A full load test at full copper loss . To satisfy the specified requirements. Terminals are usually described to suit the cabling requirement of size and direction of location of the cables on the side or top of the motor. then these are to be energised while the test is in progress. current. insulation. It is preferable to carry out this test at 100% rated voltage but if this is not possible (due to the potential of damaging the motor and/or the limitations of the test facilities). Test Certificates are required for all tests and should show the results and description of all tests.11.the motor is uncoupled and run at full voltage until thermal equilibrium is reached. if anti-condensation heaters are fitted. voltage and current. Resistance No-load Locked Medium rotor losses (see voltage Vibration. A record of all readings.the motor is coupled to a load as close to full load as the test facility will allow. These less stringent tests are known as 'duplicate' tests and include the following: 1. A no-load test which provides full voltage iron loss for the motor . Determination of run-up speed/torque characteristic. 3. including temperature. Starting torque can be evaluated using a torque arm which locks the rotor. The Insulation Class on the windings. and 2. A curve is then drawn through the plotted values and extrapolated to the 100% rated voltage value. are to be supplied as part of the test results. 5. 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR . the specification could require a motor whose windings are to have insulation of 'F' Class and a maximum temperature rise of 800° C when operating at an ambient temperature of 400° C.65 mw. 2. 4. Note that. The voltage is slowly increased until full load current circulates in the stator winding. 5. the maximum Temperature Rise under full load conditions and the maximum ambient temperature are usually specified together. the voltage reduced until full load current is reached and the motor run until thermal equilibrium is reached. the voltage can be raised in equal increments up to 50% rated voltage. below). Locked Rotor Tests are performed with the rotor locked to establish starting torques and starting currents. If the proposed manufacturer has previously produced this type of motor and has carried out the required type tests.6 kV. Photographs STATOR OF 6. Temperature Tests are conducted in two parts: 1. less stringent test may be allowed.
. Note the air cooler mounted on the top of the motor assembly.DIAGRAM OF A LARGE SQIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR This motor is similar to that in the above photo.
Reference Web Back site : http://www.au/electricity/infosite/index.gov.htm Electrical Cables .energy.qld.
It is meant to provide: 1. and 3. The cables must not develop a hazard by induction. Conductor sizing The cables must be able to conduct power in a manner that will allow the connected device to operate to its full capacity. Cable Construction . in other equipment. Installation 1. or through other means. The cable also must be protected from the detrimental effects of the environment in which the cable is installed. The installation of cables Wiring requirements Rules. The temperature rating of the cable must be suited to ambient conditions. resistance to UV becomes a factor. A general understanding on what is involved in sizing and installing electrical cables. If the cable is to be installed in an area where it is subject to flammable dust or liquid. This information sheet does not discuss uninsulated wires and focuses only on insulated cables. The cable support must protect the cable from any reasonable chance of damage. A cabling system must be installed in such a manner that it presents no danger to any person likely to come in contact with the cables. additional factors must be considered. 2. The cable must be able to conduct the full load current without causing any significant voltage drop at the terminals of the load connection. In considering this factor. the starting current requirements of the connected device has also to be taken into consideration and the cable must be able to withstand a fault on the system to which it is connected. The cable must be able to withstand the voltage to which it will normally be subjected. The type of insulation must suit the type of installation and the environment. Also if the cable is to be installed where it is subject to direct sunlight.The electrical conductors strung between the poles and towers of overhead powerlines are usually bare wires without an insulation covering. 3. This information sheet is not meant to provide the reader with an in-depth knowledge of cable sizing. An electrical cable is generally defined as being an insulated electrical conductor. 2. Any cabling system must meet the following requirements: Safety 1. selection or methods of installation. Theory The sole function of an electric cabling system is the transfer of electric power. The load to be supplied can vary from a small indicating lamp to a large generator transformer. and 4. A general appreciation of the factors that should be generally considered when confronted with cabling information. and 2.
above ground. 4. Type of protection being provided for the circuit to which the cable is to be connected. underground in conduit. Therefore below 16 mm2 .). and 5. and 2. Possible short circuit withstand currents.6 times the cross sectional area.Conductors Copper and aluminium are the materials most used for conductors. 2. Aluminium conductors have approximately half the specific gravity as copper conductors. The temperature the cable has to withstand. sheathings. The current carrying capacity for Mineral Insulated Metal Sheathed (MIMS) cables are based on an operating temperature of 100° C for the external surface of either bare metal sheathed or served cables. Normally aluminium conductors cost less than copper conductors. The maximum operating voltage of the cable. aluminium cables are not generally used Copper is a better conductor than aluminium. insulating sleeves on connections and sealing compounds used on the cable.g. Current required by the load being supplied. which will interfere with the conductivity of the termination. This influences the quality and type of the insulation. an aluminium conductor would need to have 1. in cable ladders. Insulation The type of insulation is influenced by a number of factors such as: 1. The decision on which conductor to be used in the cable will require the above factors to be considered. The sizing of the conductors will require consideration of the information in the various standard specifications and the Wiring Rules. etc. Because of the equivalent aluminium conductor requiring a larger cross sectional area than that of copper the size of the cable is larger. How the cable is to be installed (e. coverings. This includes the rated full load and the starting current (if applicable). To achieve the same current flow as a copper conductor. underground direct buried. Higher continuous operating temperatures are permissible for bare metal sheathed cables. The termination of an aluminium conductor requires great care to avoid problems due to the formation of aluminium oxide on the metal surface. dependant upon factors such as: . 3. In most cases the main factors to be considered are: 1. Aluminium conductors of cross-sectional area less than 16 mm2 have proved difficult to terminate due to its tendency to 'cold flow'. The maximum ambient temperatures expected to be encountered by the cable. This will result in greater space required to terminate an aluminium conductor than a copper conductor of equivalent current carrying capacity.
Typical combinations of outer sheathing and protection are: 1. For power cables. Mechanical protection can be provided by placing steel or aluminium wire along the length of the cable between a plastic bedding material wrapped around the insulated cores and the outer sheath. This inner sheath also provides a secondary moisture barrier to prevent water reaching the primary insulation in the event of the outer sheath being damaged. The The suitability location of of the the cable cable away terminations from the and combustible mountings.1. Finally an outer PVC sheath is applied. The insulation screen may be either an extruded layer of semi-conducting material or a semi-conducting varnish applied direct to the insulation surface. A PVC inner sheath is provided over the copper tape to provide a bedding for the armour wires. The conductor core screen normally consists of an extruded layer of semi-conducting support tape. The cable cores (the conductors) are encased in an outer sheath to provide additional protection and insulation. For 11 kV cables. 3. The minimum temperature of use of MIMS cables will be dependent on the cable seal used and manufacturer's recommendations should be followed. This is due to them normally being connected to loads of higher fault ratings through circuit breakers rather than fuses. On 415 volt cables. with a semiconducting tape applied over it as protection against mechanical damage from the metallic screen. materials. This can result in the temperature limits of the insulation of cables in the vicinity of the terminals exceeding the limits otherwise specified. To assist in overcoming electrical stresses the high voltage cable is manufactured with conductor and core screens. Other environmental and external influences.1 series. A helically applied copper tape screen is provided over the semi-conducting insulation screen to carry both leakage and fault currents. which prevents the extruded material being 'lost' between the conductor strands. In such cases reference should be made to warnings given in the electrical equipment Standards. Current carrying capacities determined in accordance with the AS/NZS 3008. Where extruded screens are used. the choice of insulation is usually between paper and polymeric. these being non-ferrous to avoid eddy current heating. the outer covering is a PVC sheath and the insulation described as PVCPVC. the colour coding of the cable cores is designated in the standards and the Wiring Rules. Higher voltage cables are generally subject to greater electrical stresses than 415 volt cables. these should be 'cold strippable' to ease the process of terminating. do not take into account the effect of temperature rise on the terminals of electrical equipment. and 4. Paper insulated cables have lead or alloy sheaths and in consequence are heavier and more difficult . 2. The cable construction is completed by applying a layer of aluminium armour wires. 2. 3. The circuit breakers do not restrict the fault current as much as fuses thereby placing the high voltage cable under greater stress. The location of the cable away from areas where there is a reasonable chance of persons touching the exposed surface.
e. 2. The preferred insulation for 11kV cables used in power stations is of the thermosetting type. These give a conductor continuous operating temperature of 900C and a short circuit temperature of 2500C. cable.3 kV multi-core cable.3 kV kV single single core core cable. 11 3. 3. i. and 3. . Typical construction diagrams of several types of cables can be viewed at the bottom of this page: 1. Plastic insulated cables can be made more fire retardant than paper insulated cables and are therefore preferred for power station applications. Thermosetting materials give significant benefits since short circuit requirements and resultant temperature effects often dictate the size of 11 kV cables. XLPE or EPR.to terminate and install than plastic insulated cables.
2. it is crucial that cables are selected of the right type and construction to suit the surrounding temperatures or they will fail under short circuit conditions. As noted above.Installation The requirements for the installation of cables are generally those required to meet the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000. Selection of cables that are unsuitable for the ambient temperatures. or the insulation will rapidly . Adequate support of the cables . There are a number of precautions that must be considered for the longterm reliability of the cables: 1.Insufficient support of the cables can place strain on the cables causing premature electrical and or mechanical failure.
Change of original installed conditions can cause cable problems. For example. This is important in assisting trouble shooting and reconnection at a later date. and -Cables should be designated with cable numbers and the cores identified with wire numbers. -Segregation of cables should be maintained to prevent undue heating and induction. This is most important in respect to the separation of power and control or communication cables. Checking cable installations for change in original installation conditions. care must be taken to ensure to ensure that the clamps used are of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand the effects of a cable fault. . For example. Checking of the terminations for signs of overheating and damage. Bunching of cables in cable ladders or if passing through openings can result in cables becoming overheated and failing. Bending radiuses should not be less than 15 times the cable diameter. When terminating cables. cables originally installed as open wiring and then covered with heat absorbent material can become overheated if operating at maximum rating and could cause a fire. This is particularly important for larger diameter cables and cables of medium voltage and above. 4. Checking its insulation resistance between phases and to earth. correct terminating accessories must be used. if three single-phase cables are installed in trefoil. This is particularly important if the conductor is aluminium. -The terminal to which each cable core is to be fixed must be of a size suited to the size of the cable. Tables are available which recommend radii Vs cable diameter and type. Where cables are installed in a location where they can be subject to mechanical damage. If terminating lugs are used they must be: -Of the correct material to suit the conductor. if possible this is done along the length of cables and its support system. 3. and suitable tightness of the connections. they must be given suitable mechanical protection. 6. and 3. Maintenance Cable maintenance consists primarily of: 1. -The lugs must be of the correct size and type for the terminating procedure used and the cable size. 2. -There should be sufficient space in the terminal box to maintain safe electrical clearances and allow the terminations to be carried out without undue bending of the cables. 5. -The terminating of the lugs must be carried out with tools of the correct type and size to suit the lug and cable size. Checking the cable insulation for physical deterioration or damage. The withstand capability of cable fixing methods needs consideration.deteriorate.
htm Condenser and cooling system The condensers and cooling systems involved in condensing the exhaust steam from a steam turbine and transferring the waste heat away from the power station.0 kV. This describes a control cable of 1000 metres in length. PVC/PVC .0kV. 3. it is usual to nominate the cable's cross sectional area. The insulation structure is to be PVC on the cores and a sheath of PVC as the outside cover. * 1000 metres. The outer sheath is to be black in colour.au/electricity/infosite/index. 2. 3. mm2.6/1. connection.5 core + E copper. insulated in white PVC and suitable for a voltage up to 1. 12 core + E.cores white with black numbers 1 to 12 with outer sheath black. Cable Size and Type Designation When designating the required cable size and type. 4 mm2. All these cores are of copper. Examples of cable descriptions are given below: * 100 metres. and reduced One connection. the operating voltage and the insulation required.energy.6/1. An earth core is also required Reference Web Back site : http://www. with 12 cores of copper conductor each of 4mm2 cross sectional area.gov. This indicates that 100 metres of cable are required.0 kV. The cable is to be suitable for voltages up to 1.4. The environmental effects of these systems will also be briefly discussed. 0. 0. Each core to be numbered in black inscription in order to provide ready core identification. Care should be taken to ensure that mechanical protection is in place and in good condition where deemed necessary. 16 mm2.qld. One cores of cross diameter core sectional core for for the area the equal neutral earth to 16 PVC-PVC. The cable has 5 cores: Three 1.0 kV. .
These types of condensers are also classified: As single pressure or multi-pressure. from which the condensate pumps take their suction. depending on the number of parallel water flow paths through each shell. The condenser also has the following secondary functions: The condensate is collected in the condenser hot well. and Provide for de-aeration of the collected condensate. Note: Within limits. Provide short-term storage of condensate. Decreasing the condensate temperature will result in a lowering of the turbine backpressure.Condensers The function of the condenser is to condense exhaust steam from the steam turbine by rejecting the heat of vaporisation to the cooling water passing through the condenser. Provide a low-pressure collection point for condensate drains from other systems in the plant. decreasing the turbine backpressure will increase the thermal efficiency of the turbine. and As either single pass or two-pass. This pressure is called the turbine backpressure and is usually a vacuum. Large power plant condensers are usually 'shell and tube' heat exchangers. . A typical power plant condenser has the following functional arrangement. depending on whether the cooling water flow path creates one or more turbine backpressures. By the number of shells (which is dependent on the number of low-pressure turbine casings). The temperature of the condensate determines the pressure in the steam/condensate side of the condenser.
The type of cooling system used is therefore heavily influenced by the location of the plant and on the availability of water suitable for cooling purposes. pumped through the plant condenser and discharged back to the source. water pumped from intakes on one side of the power plant passes through the condensers and is discharged at a point remote from the intake (to prevent recycling of the warm water discharge). lake or ocean. Systems that have dry cooling (described in a following section) sometime use direct contact condensers. Open Cycle Cooling Systems Open cycle (once through) cooling systems may be used for plants sited beside large water bodies such as the sea. and Direct contact types where the cooling water is sprayed directly into the steam. Have a minimal resistance to the flow of heat from the steam/condensate through the material into the cooling water. lakes or large rivers that have the ability to dissipate the waste heat from the steam cycle. In the open system. Plants in remote dry areas without economic water supplies use closed cycle dry cooling systems that do not require water for cooling. and Provide mechanisms to remove organic and inorganic deposits on the heat transfer surfaces in contact with the cooling water. The parts of shell and tube condensers and plate condensers involved in the transfer of heat from the steam and condensate to the cooling water should have the following properties: Be resistant to corrosion from both the steam/condensate and the cooling water. Plate condensers are used mainly for smaller power plants.Other types of condensers are: Plate types consisting of a series of parallel plates that provide paths for the steam and the cooling water. Types of Cooling Systems Some power stations have an open cycle (once through) cooling water system where water is taken from a body of water. Inland plants away from large water bodies prefer to use closed cycle wet cooling system with wet cooling towers. Hybrid cooling systems are used in particular circumstances. The selection process is also influenced by the cooling system's environmental impacts (refer to a following section for a brief discussion on this topic). This type of condenser is used in applications where the cooling water is the same quality as the steam condensate. such as a river. .
The helper towers are used in the warmer summer periods to limit the temperature of the discharged cooling water. Environmental requirements have become more stringent on the allowable rise in temperature of the receiving waters. Open Cycle with Helper Cooling Tower In this system. Systems with helper cooling towers are common in Germany and France where cooling supplies are drawn from the large rivers. A typical 350 MW unit would have a flow of some 15000 to 20000 L/s. . Lake cooling systems are a variant on a true open system as the temperature of the lake is increased from the circulation of the warm water. usually to less than 30º C. cooling towers are installed on the discharge from open systems in order to remove part of the waste heat.Open systems typically have high flow rates and relatively low temperature rises to limit the rise in temperature in the receiving waters. so that the load on the receiving waters is contained within pre set limits. so that closed systems are now more commonly used in Australia.
8 litres of water per kWh of power generated. Some of the warm water. is transferred to the rising air.5% of the cooling water flow. The falling water is broken up into droplets or films by the extended surfaces of the tower 'fill'. and this is visible in the plume of water vapour above towers in times of high humidity. heat is removed from the falling water and transferred to the rising air by the evaporative cooling process. This 'fill' in the later Queensland towers is manufactured from plastic. The evaporation rates of the Queensland 350 MW cooling systems are typically 1. The waste heat in the cooling water is then discharged to the atmosphere by the cooling tower.Closed Cycle Wet Cooling Systems In closed cycle wet cooling systems. the waste energy that is rejected by the turbine is transferred to the cooling water system via the condenser. In the cooling tower. typically 1 to 1. .
and Pumps and pipes. The heat exchange 'fill' is in a layer above the cold air inlet at the base of the shell as shown in the tower sectional view.two types are commonly used. concrete natural draught towers and mechanical draught towers. Natural Draught Towers Concrete natural draught towers have a large concrete shell. These towers therefore do not require fans and have low operating costs. creating the natural draught to provide airflow and operate the tower.The major components of a closed cycle wet cooling water system are: Cooling towers . and . The warm air rises up through the shell by the 'chimney effect'. The cooling towers have two basic configurations for the directions of the flow of air in relation to the falling water through the tower fill: The counter-flow tower where the air travels vertically up through the fill (a diagram of this type of tower is shown below).
This performance limitation also limits their use in Australia. fans have the advantage of being able to provide lower water temperatures than natural draught towers. Mechanical Draught Cooling Towers In mechanical draught cooling towers. Natural draught towers are only economic in large sizes. .5 to 2. typically 1.The cross-flow tower where the air travels horizontally through the fill. While fans have the disadvantage of requiring auxiliary power.0 MW for a 420 MW unit. which justifies the cost of the large concrete shell. They are not used in the drier areas of Western USA. South Africa and Eastern USA. particularly on hot dry days. large axial flow fans provide the airflow. Natural draught towers are the most common towers for large generating units in Europe. as their performance is better suited to cooler and more humid areas.
Pipe materials used include steel. The design of the pipework must consider the environment internal to the pipe as well as the external environment. and the mechanical towers can provide a more controlled performance over this wide range of conditions. Circulating water piping carries the cooling water from the circulating water pumps to the condenser and returns the water to the cooling tower or discharge structure. carbon steel pipes in seawater service require either an internal coating. The source of water for the plant generally depends on the plant's location. 'horizontal dry pit' and 'vertical dry pit'. The steam condensing pressures and temperatures of a dry cooled unit are significantly higher than a wet cooled unit. These protective measures significantly increase the capital cost of an installation such that it can be as economical to install fibre reinforced plastic pipe to obtain the same service life. The most common materials used in large mechanical draught cooling towers are timber for the framing and plastic for the cladding and internals. As existing water sources become strained and new water sources more scarce and expensive to develop. the quality of circulating water in future power plants is expected to decline further. or both. Pumps and Pipes in a Cooling Water System Circulating water pumps supply cooling water at the required flow rate and pressure to the power plant condenser and the plant auxiliary cooling water heat exchangers. The large flow rates associated with circulating water systems typically require the use of large diameter piping in the range 900 mm to 2400 mm diameter. The large water requirement generally makes it uneconomical to use high quality water sources. Coastal sites generally use seawater or brackish water as the circulating water source. fibre reinforced plastic and reinforced concrete. Compare this to wet cooling towers. vertical wet pit and horizontal dry pit are used about equally. higher operating temperatures. The minimum temperature that can be theoretically provided is that of the dry air. Closed Cycle Dry Cooling Systems Dry cooling systems are used where there is insufficient water. For once through systems. vertical wet pit pumps are in common usage. Dry cooling systems are the least used systems as they have a much higher capital cost. which is typically 20º C on summer afternoons. Any pipe materials considered must include measures to protect the pipe for the service life of the plant. Water from many sources can contain high concentrations of corrosive contaminants. heat transfer is by air to finned tubes. or a cathodic protection system.Mechanical draught towers are used exclusively in central and western USA as their climate can vary from freezing to hot with low humidity. . which can be regularly over 30º C and up to 40º C on typical summer afternoons in Queensland. and lower efficiency than wet cooling systems. For example. Concrete pipes may require a dense concrete mix to withstand chloride attack. This will increase the trend towards corrosion resistant piping materials. which cool towards the wet bulb temperature. or where the water is too expensive to be used in an evaporative system. either by pumping directly from the sea or extracting the water from the local bores. For re-circulating cooling systems. In the dry cooling system. with occasional use of vertical dry pit pumps. These pumps are required to operate economically and reliably over the life of the plant. The three types of pumps commonly used for circulating water service are 'vertical wet pit'. due to the low transfer rates of dry cooling and operation at the dry bulb temperature.
The direct system is the most commonly used as it has the lowest capital cost. the water from the cooling cycle mixes with the boiler water. finned tube. . The maintenance of the water quality to suit all circuits is critical to the successful operation of the system. The indirect dry cooling system. which may be wet with some dry or dry with part wet. A variation on this type of indirect system is the system that uses a direct contact condenser in place of the traditional tube type condenser. so that the cooling banks are usually as close as possible to the turbine. Indirect Dry Cooling System Indirect dry cooling systems have a condenser and turbine exhaust system as for wet systems. the turbine exhaust steam is piped directly to the air-cooled. Direct Dry Cooling System In the direct dry system. The water pipework allows the towers to be sited away from the station. being typically 4 to 5 MW for a 420 MW unit. but significantly higher operating costs. and 2. The finned tubes are usually arranged in the form of an 'A' frame or delta over a forced draught fan to reduce the land area.There are two basic types of dry cooling systems: 1. The direct dry cooling system. condenser. Variations on the full dry and full wet systems are hybrid systems. The steam trunk main has a large diameter and is as short as possible to reduce pressure losses. with the circulating water being passed through finned tubes in a natural draught cooling tower. In the spray condenser. The power required to operate the fans of this system is several times that required for wet towers.
which have been developed to overcome some of the disadvantages of the full wet and full dry systems.Hybrid Systems There are two common hybrid systems. Wet with Part Dry One of the problems with wet towers is that in cold and humid climates the towers plume. These towers . a dry section above the wet zone provides some dry cooling to the exhaust plume to remove the condensing water vapour. In the part dry or plume abatement tower. can create fog.
In a re-circulating cooling system.are common in Germany and England where environmental problems with mechanical towers have arisen. there is provision for water sprays to evaporatively cool the finned tubes for short periods of extreme temperature. heat is removed from the steam turbine and transferred to the source body of water. the cooling water carries waste heat removed from the steam turbine exhaust to the cooling tower. surrounding water bodies typically do not suffer adverse thermal effects. which rejects the heat directly to the atmosphere. this waste heat transfer process may negatively affect the body of water buy increasing the temperature of the water. In the once-through cooling water system. When a supply of electrical energy is required. Because of this direct path to the atmosphere. However. Environmental Effects of Cooling Systems All the heat transferred from the exhaust steam to the cooling system eventually finds its way into the earth's atmosphere. Some water is discharged from the cooling water system to maintain the concentration of chemicals in the cooling water below licensed limits. This water is often discharged to surrounding watercourses. The heat is then gradually transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation. With the part wet towers. Electrical energy can be indirectly stored by converting the electrical energy to some other form of energy ("storage" energy). the storage energy is reconverted back to electrical energy. Dry with Part Wet Problems with full dry towers are centred on loss of performance in hot weather. In dry cooling systems. Types of energy storage General Electrical energy cannot be stored directly. the waste heat is transferred directly to the atmosphere. Large quantities of "storage" energy are difficult to store and reconvert . convection and radiation.
The electrical energy is therefore stored as the gravitational potential energy of the water in the upper storage. Pumped Hydro-electric Storage In the pumped hydroelectric storage concept. a common trait of many renewable energy sources. storage systems may produce additional system advantages. then draws off the battery during the night. The potential energy in the water is reconverted into electrical energy again by the turbine / generator. the storage efficiency could be as low as 70%.e. the water in the upper storage is released and flows through a turbine on its way back to the lower storage. Energy storage systems could also be justified if they are more economic than new generating capacity that would be used only during times of peak load. Because of losses and inefficiencies in the elements of this system. The most common example of this is a system that utilises the excess electricity from a photovoltaic array to charge a battery during daylight hours. batteries and compressed air storage systems. When required. electrical energy from the electricity supply network is used to pump water from a lower level water storage to a higher level water storage.Energy storage technologies allow generation facilities to be more evenly utilised. Note: Storage efficiency = Electrical Energy Output / Total Electrical Energy Input . energy storage concepts are economical when the costs of the energy storage system's construction. when there is spare generating capacity and the cost of electricity is lower) can be converted and stored. then reconverted for use during peak hours (when electricity can be sold at a premium). Other developmental storage technologies include superconducting magnets and flywheels.The most widely used energy storage systems are pumped hydroelectric storage systems. storage systems may also be useful in combination with intermittent energy sources. Additional electrical energy generated during off-peak hours (i. An energy storage system under development is based on regenerative fuel cell technology. In this type of application. If economically competitive. operation and maintenance are offset by the differential between peaking and base-load energy costs. Furthermore. and area frequency and voltage control. but these will not be discussed here. such as spinning reserve. such as that employed at Wivenhoe power station in Queensland.
4 MWh in Germany. Advanced batteries such as the sodium-sulphur and the zinc-bromine battery are being developed for this application. Also. Note: A 17 MW. Because of their small sizes and because battery storage systems are environmentally compatible in virtually any area. they offer a means of matching load growth. 2. inter-coolers and Motor Generator. the only battery available for large energy storage applications is the lead-acid battery. Battery energy storage systems have several advantages in addition to their load levelling capability. it is first preheated in the recuperator. typical Compressor Turbine CAES unit consists of five basic components: after-cooler). with a consequential reduction in system losses. 14. area frequency and voltage control.4 MWh system would be able to produce 17 MW of instantaneous electrical power and provide a total of 14. 4. ac switchgear and a building to house these components. Battery storage systems also have dynamic source benefits because they provide spinning reserve. dc/ac converter. The heated air is then mixed with small quantities of oil or gas. which drives an air compressor. and then used on demand during peak periods to generate power with a turbogenerator system. transformer. The recuperator reuses the energy extracted by the compressor coolers. A disadvantage of battery storage systems is the high initial cost. Most of the electric energy from the grid is therefore stored as the pressure potential energy of the compressed air in the cavern. 21 MW. Because battery systems can be added to in small increments. batteries using existing technologies require replacement every 8 to 10 years. which is burned in the combustor. combustors). and 10 MW. The hot gas from the combustor is expanded in the turbine to generate electricity. 3. The combustor and turbine components are identical to those used in a conventional gas . and Underground Electricity from the grid powers an electric motor.Battery Storage A battery storage system comprises the battery. Examples of large battery installations in operation are: 17 MW. with the small amount extracted by the compressor coolers is stored as heat energy. made up of battery round trip (dc to ac) efficiencies of about 78% and power conditioning system efficiencies of about 94%. expander train (including expanders and Recuperator. When air is extracted from the cavern. which uses lead electrodes and a sulphuric acid electrolyte. Typical round trip (ac to ac) efficiencies are around 72%. 40 MWh in USA. charger. A 1.4 MWh of electrical energy before requiring a recharge. Currently. 14. The heat generated by the compression process is extracted by inter-stage cooling and after cooling and stored. Air is compressed during off-peak periods. they can be located near the loads. 5. Compressed Air Energy Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a technology in which energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern. 14 MWh in Puerto Rico. stored in a cavern. cavern train (compressor. and increased system reliability.
instead of having to utilise some of its output to compress its air needed for combustion.turbine. Inc. An important performance parameter for a CAES system is the charging ratio. plant operated by Nordwest Deutsche Kraftwerke (NDK) since 1978. The plant has reported high availability of 86% and a starting reliability of 98%.8 . Fast start-up is an advantage of CAES. Three types of geological formations used for compressed air storage are salt dome. The first commercial scale CAES plant in the world is the 290MW Huntorf. In a constant pressure cavern. The Huntorf plant runs on a daily cycle in which it charges the air storage for 8 hours and provides generation for 2 hours. water from a surface reservoir displaces the compressed air to maintain a constant pressure in the cavern. A significant contributor to the cost of a CAES system is the construction of the underground cavern. A low charging ratio results in low off-peak electrical energy requirements during the charging cycle. However. there are two classes of cavern design concepts. and about 12 minutes under normal conditions. all the power of the turbine can be used to generate electricity (its combustion air has already been compressed and stored). Less fuel is therefore required to generate the same quantity of electricity. By comparison. Germany. The Alabama Electric Co-operative. Two of these are illustrated below. However. the overall cycle efficiency would be the ratio of the electrical energy generated to the total energy input (electrical energy from the grid + fuel energy). in McIntosh. The Huntorf plant has a salt cavern. which is defined as the ratio of the electrical energy required to charge the system versus the electrical energy generated during discharge (the number of kWh input in charging to produce 1 kWh output). A CAES plant can provide a start-up time of about 9 minutes for an emergency start. conventional combustion turbine peaking plants typically require 20 to 30 minutes for a normal start-up. In addition to the geological formation classifications. This plant has the maximum existing CAES cavern capacity of around 1. aquifer and rock caverns. the air pressure is allowed to drop as air is withdrawn from storage. In a constant volume cavern. Alabama built the second commercial scale CAES plant. constant volume (also called un-compensated) and constant pressure (also called compensated). resulting in a high thermal efficiency of the energy recovery stage.
supplies compressed air supporting generation of 100MW for 26 hours. This system has a high speed of response. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. one for each electrolyte. The plant is designed to store 120 MWh of energy and discharge it at a nominal power rating of 15 MW. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. One of the most commercially advanced of these is the regenerative fuel cell technology. Regenerative fuel cell systems store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes). It will be used in conjunction with an adjacent combined cycle gas turbine power station to meet power requirements. In contrast to most types of battery system. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cell through separate manifolds and are transformed electrochemically inside the cell.3. The regenerative fuel cell. Electricity Generation The electricity production process involves. 305m tall and 460m below grade. The Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System There are several methods to used chemical energy as the form of energy storage. The cell has two compartments. . The first Regenesys™ system is expected to be operational in 2002 at Little Barford. It began operation in 1991 and provides 110 MW of power generation. The CAES plant has a full load nett plant heat rate of 4819 kJ/kWh (74. which uses an aquifer cavern for storage. Israel also has a 100MW CAES unit under construction.million cubic metres. the conversion of energy from a (primary) energy source to electrical energy. (sometimes known as redox flow cell technology) converts electrical energy into chemical potential energy by 'charging' two liquid electrolyte solutions. The cavern which is 70m in diameter. supplies real and reactive power and is therefore suited to many different applications on a power system. The cavern for the McIntosh plant was mined from a salt dome by dissolving salt with fresh water.7 % thermal efficiency) with a charging ratio of 1. a 35MW CAES unit is under construction in Japan. This chemical energy is converted back to electrical energy on discharge. A commercial application of this system is the Regenesys™ system. In addition to the NDK and the McIntosh CAES facilities. in simple terms.
The major generator components are the stator. It carries the rotating electric field into which direct current is introduced to produce the electromagnetic field and which is used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy in the stator. The shaft is made to spin by fluid energy imparted to components attached to it. Wind Reciprocating Engines This section provides brief discussions on how rotational energy can be produced. the components are pistons and connecting rods driven by internal combustion forces. as the name implies. which is usually hydrogen for large machines.There are many sources of energy that may be used and many types of energy conversion processes. either directly or through a gearbox. The amount of direct current required is produced by an excitation system. it is pertinent to give some mention to the item of equipment fundamental to the conversion of rotating energy into electrical energy and is the final link in the energy conversion process which commenced with the energy source . Hot Gas Turbines . The stator winding provides the generator output voltage and current and which is connected to the electric power system. Rotational Energy Rotational energy is the kinetic energy possessed by a spinning shaft. some energy conversion processes can be used to convert several different sources of primary energy. the components are blades which are driven by a fluid which may be air.Steam Turbines . A rotating generator is the most common means of generating electricity. with emphasis on turbines & reciprocating engines. These processes can be grouped in several ways. The stator. water. It is important to distinguish between the primary energy source and the energy conversion processes because some primary energy sources can be used in several types of energy conversion processes. but the following grouping is used here: Conversion of Rotational Energy in a rotating generator. Electricity Generation By Conversion of Rotational Energy Turbines . The Generator Before turbines are discussed. In the case of a reciprocating engine. is the stationary portion of a generator and consists of a core and windings. . The rotor of the generator is connected to the turbine. gas or steam. Conversely.the generator. Energy Conversion Processes This section will look in particular at the energy conversion processes. The generator frame supports the weight of the stator and rotor and acts as a containment vessel for the coolant gas. Water Turbines . In the case of a turbine. The various methods used to develop the rotational energy are discussed. rotor and frame.
the time involved in reaching full load and the life consumed each start. A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical process involving stored materials. Reciprocating Reciprocating engines and their use in electricity Engines generation. The turbine rotors for steam. Conversion of Electromagnetic Radiation (Solar Energy) in a Photo Voltaic cell (which produces an electrical potential when exposed to light) or by heating a working fluid in an electricity generating cycle. . quite different depending upon the properties of the fluid which drives it. The actual detailed design of the rotor is. Conversion of Kinetic Energy by the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) process in which the flow of a conducting plasma through a static magnetic field produces an electrical current. The operating duty is quite different also and depends upon the ease of starting and stopping the turbine. This is mechanically connected to the rotor of the generator which produces the electrical power output from the generator stator. Fuel Cells are devices that convert a fuel to electricity also by electrochemical means. For example. the rotor of a steam turbine has many blades and is much smaller in diameter than the rotor of a wind turbine which may only have three blades made from a quite different material.Turbines The main component of any turbine is the rotor. blade shape and materials. water and wind turbines are very different with respect to size. Conversion of Chemical Energy in a Fuel Cell or Battery. hot gas. however. All turbine rotors may be considered to be generically similar in that they all consist of a shaft with blades attached.
and area frequency and voltage control. When a supply of electrical energy is required. the water in the upper storage is released and flows through a turbine on its way back to the lower storage. When required. storage systems may produce additional system advantages. Energy storage systems could also be justified if they are more economic than new generating capacity that would be used only during times of peak load. electrical energy from the electricity supply network is used to pump water from a lower level water storage to a higher level water storage. The electrical energy is therefore stored as the gravitational potential energy of the water in the upper storage. such as that employed at Wivenhoe power station in Queensland. In this type of application.e. storage systems may also be useful in combination with intermittent energy sources. the storage energy is reconverted back to electrical energy.The most widely used energy storage systems are pumped hydroelectric storage systems. The most common example of this is a system that utilises the excess electricity from a photovoltaic array to charge a battery during daylight hours. An energy storage system under development is based on regenerative fuel cell technology. The potential energy in the water is reconverted into electrical energy again by the turbine / generator. such as spinning reserve. Because of losses and inefficiencies in the elements of this system. Additional electrical energy generated during off-peak hours (i. but these will not be discussed here. Other developmental storage technologies include superconducting magnets and flywheels. a common trait of many renewable energy sources. Large quantities of "storage" energy are difficult to store and reconvert Energy storage technologies allow generation facilities to be more evenly utilised. then reconverted for use during peak hours (when electricity can be sold at a premium). batteries and compressed air storage systems. Pumped Hydro-electric Storage In the pumped hydroelectric storage concept. then draws off the battery during the night.Types of energy storage General Electrical energy cannot be stored directly. the storage efficiency could be as low as 70%. operation and maintenance are offset by the differential between peaking and base-load energy costs. Note: Storage efficiency = Electrical Energy Output / Total Electrical Energy Input . If economically competitive. when there is spare generating capacity and the cost of electricity is lower) can be converted and stored. Furthermore. Electrical energy can be indirectly stored by converting the electrical energy to some other form of energy ("storage" energy). energy storage concepts are economical when the costs of the energy storage system's construction.
and 10 MW. with a consequential reduction in system losses. Examples of large battery installations in operation are: 17 MW. . Currently. Because of their small sizes and because battery storage systems are environmentally compatible in virtually any area. area frequency and voltage control. 14. the only battery available for large energy storage applications is the lead-acid battery. 14 MWh in Puerto Rico. they can be located near the loads. Air is compressed during off-peak periods. Advanced batteries such as the sodium-sulphur and the zinc-bromine battery are being developed for this application. Also. 21 MW.Battery Storage A battery storage system comprises the battery. they offer a means of matching load growth. Because battery systems can be added to in small increments. and increased system reliability. Typical round trip (ac to ac) efficiencies are around 72%. Compressed Air Energy Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a technology in which energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern. stored in a cavern.4 MWh in Germany. ac switchgear and a building to house these components. 14. batteries using existing technologies require replacement every 8 to 10 years.4 MWh system would be able to produce 17 MW of instantaneous electrical power and provide a total of 14. which uses lead electrodes and a sulphuric acid electrolyte.4 MWh of electrical energy before requiring a recharge. 40 MWh in USA. made up of battery round trip (dc to ac) efficiencies of about 78% and power conditioning system efficiencies of about 94%. and then used on demand during peak periods to generate power with a turbogenerator system. transformer. Note: A 17 MW. Battery energy storage systems have several advantages in addition to their load levelling capability. charger. dc/ac converter. A disadvantage of battery storage systems is the high initial cost. Battery storage systems also have dynamic source benefits because they provide spinning reserve.
Most of the electric energy from the grid is therefore stored as the pressure potential energy of the compressed air in the cavern. which is defined as the ratio of the electrical energy required to charge the system versus the electrical energy generated during discharge (the number of kWh input in charging to produce 1 kWh output). the overall cycle efficiency would be the ratio of the electrical energy generated to the total energy input (electrical energy from the grid + fuel energy). However. A low charging ratio results in low off-peak electrical energy requirements during the charging cycle. it is first preheated in the recuperator. An important performance parameter for a CAES system is the charging ratio. which drives an air compressor. A significant contributor to the cost of a CAES system is the construction of the underground cavern. resulting in a high thermal efficiency of the energy recovery stage. Less fuel is therefore required to generate the same quantity of electricity. When air is extracted from the cavern. However. 2. 3. By comparison. with the small amount extracted by the compressor coolers is stored as heat energy. Three types of geological formations used for compressed air storage are salt dome. The hot gas from the combustor is expanded in the turbine to generate electricity. combustors). inter-coolers and Motor Generator. 4. aquifer and rock caverns. Two of these are illustrated below. and Underground Electricity from the grid powers an electric motor. which is burned in the combustor. typical Compressor Turbine CAES unit consists of five basic components: after-cooler). all the power of the turbine can be used to generate electricity (its combustion air has already been compressed and stored). expander train (including expanders and Recuperator. cavern train (compressor. The heated air is then mixed with small quantities of oil or gas. The heat generated by the compression process is extracted by inter-stage cooling and after cooling and stored. Fast start-up is an advantage of CAES. A CAES plant can provide a start-up time of about 9 minutes for an emergency start. instead of having to utilise some of its output to compress its air needed for combustion. conventional combustion turbine peaking plants typically require 20 to 30 minutes for a normal start-up. . and about 12 minutes under normal conditions. 5.A 1. The recuperator reuses the energy extracted by the compressor coolers. The combustor and turbine components are identical to those used in a conventional gas turbine.
Regenerative fuel cell systems store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the electrolytes). In a constant pressure cavern. supplies compressed air supporting generation of 100MW for 26 hours.8 million cubic metres. The CAES plant has a full load nett plant heat rate of 4819 kJ/kWh (74. a 35MW CAES unit is under construction in Japan. plant operated by Nordwest Deutsche Kraftwerke (NDK) since 1978. The Huntorf plant runs on a daily cycle in which it charges the air storage for 8 hours and provides generation for 2 hours. This plant has the maximum existing CAES cavern capacity of around 1. Inc. in McIntosh. In addition to the NDK and the McIntosh CAES facilities. Alabama built the second commercial scale CAES plant. The cavern for the McIntosh plant was mined from a salt dome by dissolving salt with fresh water. The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. The regenerative fuel cell. The Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System There are several methods to used chemical energy as the form of energy storage. (sometimes known as redox flow cell technology) converts electrical energy into chemical potential energy by 'charging' two liquid electrolyte solutions.In addition to the geological formation classifications. there are two classes of cavern design concepts. which uses an aquifer cavern for storage.7 % thermal efficiency) with a charging ratio of 1. The plant has reported high availability of 86% and a starting reliability of 98%. In a constant volume cavern. 305m tall and 460m below grade. In contrast to most types of battery .3. The Huntorf plant has a salt cavern. one for each electrolyte. water from a surface reservoir displaces the compressed air to maintain a constant pressure in the cavern. This chemical energy is converted back to electrical energy on discharge. physically separated by an ion-exchange membrane. Israel also has a 100MW CAES unit under construction. One of the most commercially advanced of these is the regenerative fuel cell technology. the air pressure is allowed to drop as air is withdrawn from storage. Germany. The cell has two compartments. constant volume (also called un-compensated) and constant pressure (also called compensated). It began operation in 1991 and provides 110 MW of power generation. The first commercial scale CAES plant in the world is the 290MW Huntorf. The Alabama Electric Co-operative. The cavern which is 70m in diameter.
These processes can be grouped in several ways. It is important to distinguish between the primary energy source and the energy conversion processes because some primary energy sources can be used in several types of energy conversion processes. There are many sources of energy that may be used and many types of energy conversion processes. Conversely. This system has a high speed of response. but the following grouping is used here: Conversion of Rotational Energy in a rotating generator. A rotating generator is the most common means of generating electricity. the conversion of energy from a (primary) energy source to electrical energy. Energy Conversion Processes This section will look in particular at the energy conversion processes. The various methods . It will be used in conjunction with an adjacent combined cycle gas turbine power station to meet power requirements.system. The first Regenesys™ system is expected to be operational in 2002 at Little Barford. some energy conversion processes can be used to convert several different sources of primary energy. in simple terms. The plant is designed to store 120 MWh of energy and discharge it at a nominal power rating of 15 MW. A commercial application of this system is the Regenesys™ system. supplies real and reactive power and is therefore suited to many different applications on a power system. Electricity Generation The electricity production process involves. the electrolytes flow into and out of the cell through separate manifolds and are transformed electrochemically inside the cell.
Steam Turbines . Water Turbines . Energy . The shaft is made to spin by fluid energy imparted to components attached to it. The amount of direct current required is produced by an excitation system. Wind Reciprocating Engines This section provides brief discussions on how rotational energy can be produced. water and wind turbines are very different with respect to size. the components are pistons and connecting rods driven by internal combustion forces. hot gas. All turbine rotors may be considered to be generically similar in that they all consist of a shaft with blades attached. The actual detailed design of the rotor is. In the case of a turbine. quite different depending upon the properties of the fluid which drives it. Reciprocating Reciprocating Conversion of engines Chemical and their in use a in Fuel electricity Cell or Engines generation. The stator. The major generator components are the stator. is the stationary portion of a generator and consists of a core and windings. rotor and frame. as the name implies. however. gas or steam. The Generator Before turbines are discussed. with emphasis on turbines & reciprocating engines. This is mechanically connected to the rotor of the generator which produces the electrical power output from the generator stator. the components are blades which are driven by a fluid which may be air. either directly or through a gearbox.the generator. The generator frame supports the weight of the stator and rotor and acts as a containment vessel for the coolant gas. blade shape and materials. water. In the case of a reciprocating engine. The operating duty is quite different also and depends upon the ease of starting and stopping the turbine. The rotor of the generator is connected to the turbine. Hot Gas Turbines . Electricity Generation By Conversion of Rotational Energy Turbines .used to develop the rotational energy are discussed. For example. Battery. which is usually hydrogen for large machines. Rotational Energy Rotational energy is the kinetic energy possessed by a spinning shaft. Turbines The main component of any turbine is the rotor. the time involved in reaching full load and the life consumed each start. It carries the rotating electric field into which direct current is introduced to produce the electromagnetic field and which is used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy in the stator. it is pertinent to give some mention to the item of equipment fundamental to the conversion of rotating energy into electrical energy and is the final link in the energy conversion process which commenced with the energy source . The stator winding provides the generator output voltage and current and which is connected to the electric power system. The turbine rotors for steam. the rotor of a steam turbine has many blades and is much smaller in diameter than the rotor of a wind turbine which may only have three blades made from a quite different material.
Reference Web Back site : http://www. Conversion of Electromagnetic Radiation (Solar Energy) in a Photo Voltaic cell (which produces an electrical potential when exposed to light) or by heating a working fluid in an electricity generating cycle.au/electricity/infosite/index.gov. Question Can you please explain the terms Volts. Watts and Kilowatt Hours? . Conversion of Kinetic Energy by the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) process in which the flow of a conducting plasma through a static magnetic field produces an electrical current.energy.A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical process involving stored materials. Fuel Cells are devices that convert a fuel to electricity also by electrochemical means.htm FAQ on electricity 1.qld.
000 V. that you use light bulbs of different wattage (e.000 watt-hours. 75 watt or 60 watt) in your home. your home is supplied with 240 V electricity and. that transmission lines (the ones using large steel towers) operate at “high voltage”.g. For convenience. that when you purchase a new electrical heater. 33 kV. essentially. power stations are producing electricity to match the rate electricity is consumed by the end users (plus losses).g. 110 kV and 275 kV are common. For convenience. 3. become unclear through general use. Usually. Electrical energy is commonly measured in terms of kilowatt-hours (kWh) here 1 kWh = 1. power stations are rated in terms of kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) where 1 MW = 1. that the electricity supplied to your home is at 240 volts. and 5. Note: The “rate of use of electrical energy” (kW) in your home is continually varying. Electrical Terminology – VOLTS. 1. The wattage of the new 1. or gigawatt-hours (GWh) where 1 GWh = 1. For example you may (or may not) know: 1. The “rate at which electrical energy can be produced” determines the wattage of a power station. the term kilowatt (kW) is often used instead of 1.000 kWh. 2. a 2. the 1 kW electrical heater mentioned above would use 1 kWh of electrical energy during each hour it is switched on (i. (More correctly. 4. In the “low voltage” part of the electricity supply network.e. a measure of how fast electricity is being used – more correctly the “rate of use of electrical energy”. with 415 V electricity. voltages of 11 kV. these should be called a 240 V single phase supply and a 415 V 3-phase supply. that when you pay your quarterly electricity account. A commonly used analogy is the water supply to your home where the water pressure forces the water through the pipes. in many cases. higher voltages are identified in kilovolts (kV) where 1 kV = 1.000 watts. In the “high voltage” parts of the electrical supply network. At the other end of the electricity supply system.) Electrical wattage is a harder concept to visualise because it is. Your quarterly electricity account uses data from this . 66 kV. Large amounts of electrical energy are measured in terms of megawatthours (MWh) where 1 MWh = 1. both at work and at home.000 W electrical heater would use electrical energy twice as fast as a 1. As a simple example. one of your considerations is its wattage (e. For example. These explanations attempt to show the correct usage of these terms. The meter in the switchboard of your home is designed to overcome this variability in its recording of your consumption of electrical energy (kWh). Voltage is measured in volts (V). Electrical voltage can be thought of a measure of the electrical “pressure” applied to the electrical system to force the electricity to flow through the wires. electrical energy used in 1 hour = 1 kW x 1 hour = 1 kWh).000 W electrical heater mentioned above therefore could be identified as 1 kW. you are paying for the kilowatt-hours of electricity you have used in your home during that quarter. if you have a large air conditioner. WATTS & KILOWATT HOURS These are the electrical terms most frequently used.000 kW.Answer: The correct use and meaning of many electrical terms have.000 W heater.000 MWh. We will talk about “phases” in a later discussion.000 watts).
This circuit consists of a battery. and again….meter to identify the amount of electrical energy (kWh) you have used (and for which you have to pay) during the quarter. The EMF is measured in terms of volts. the positive side) of the battery. it really means the voltage difference between two parts of an electrical circuit. The rate at which the electrical current changes direction through a full cycle (flows in one direction. a switch and a light bulb connected by wires to form a loop from one terminal of the battery to the other terminal. America uses 60 cycles per second AC electricity. AC electricity has a frequency of 50 cycles per second. For example. we really mean that the voltage between the active and neutral wires is 240 volts and. But why does the filament heat up? This is where the term "resistance" come into the picture. 3. the negative side) of the battery. Question: Can you please tell me what is meant by Voltage. Current and Resistance? Answer: Voltage can be thought of as being the electrical "pressure" in an electrical circuit. A battery is the EMF source most commonly used to produce small amounts of direct electrical current. Electrical current flows from one side (e. In Australia and most of the rest of the world. the voltage between the active wire and earth is also 240 volts. NOTE: An expansion of the above answer can be found in the Office of Energy’s new “Electricity Information” web site by clicking on the “What and How of Electricity” icon in the home page of the Office of Energy web site. an electrical current flows. for example a torch. then reverses flow again. changes direction and flows in the opposite direction then changes back to the original direction) is called its “frequency”. It is important to understand that when the term voltage is used. . DC and frequency? Answer: Electricity is said to flow when electrons in a suitable material (a “conductor”) are induced to move in a particular direction when a suitable force (an “electromotive force” or EMF) is applied to the material. What is happening in the light bulb? The simple answer is that the current flowing through the filament of the bulb heats the filament to a high enough temperature that it glows. Why does it do this? It’s because the EMF source is not constant and changes its polarity (positive and negative sides) in a regular manner. When we talk about the 240 volt supply to our homes. and again. through the element in the torch bulb (in the process heating the element to produce light) and completes the circuit back to the other side (e.g. For example. Question: What is meant by the terms AC. the light bulb glows and produces light. the common torch uses a battery as the EMF source. When the switch is closed. This flow of electricity is called an electrical current and is measured in terms of amperes (usually shortened to amps). 2. because the neutral wire is kept at the voltage of the earth. then reverses its direction of flow for a short period of time.g. a 9 volt battery is a shorthand way of saying that the voltage across the terminals of the battery is 9 volts. Direct Current (DC) electricity is the easiest to visualise because here the electrons (the electrical current) always move in the same direction. Alternating Current (AC) electricity can be thought of as electricity that flows in one direction for a short period of time. Let us now consider a simple DC (direct current) circuit.
through the other part of the switch. it is to highlight the large number of items. in this simple circuit. conversely. and that is the loss of electrical energy when current flows through an item. the total voltage drop from one battery terminal through the circuit to the other battery terminal is made up of the sum of all these voltage drops. 4. we will call the metal connector pieces in the torch "wires"): between one battery terminal and the wire connected to along the wire. It is important to realise that: it. The magnitude of this energy loss is given by the equation Energy Loss = I2R.Put simply. This energy is absorbed by the item and the temperature of the item increases. height and width) of the material(s) in the item. then increasing the resistance (R) will decrease the current (I) and. Note that. each with their own voltage drop. decreasing the resistance (R) will increase the current (I). through one part of the switch. across the contact surfaces of the switch. Now think about the enormously more complex electricity supply network and try to work out the huge number of items (each with their own voltage drop remember) involved in the supply of electricity to our homes! We think that the operators of the network do a pretty good job of keeping the voltages in every part of the network within the set limits. there will be resistance in the following items and therefore an associated voltage drop (Note: for simplicity. between the switch and the next wire. Some of your appliances have three pin plugs while other appliances have only two pin plugs. and how safety switches work? Answer: The power points in your home have three sockets. This is why the filament in our torch bulb heats up when current passes through it! We can draw another conclusion from our torch example . The V = I x I x R relationship applies to any part of the circuit. . Why? The answer lies in the concept of "earthing". and so on. if the voltage (V) remains constant. between the wire and the switch. every item inhibits the free flow of electrical current through it. The relationship between them is V = I x I x R. You are probably wondering why we've gone to such detail? Well. The degree to which the current is inhibited is termed the "resistance" of the item.the total energy loss in the circuit is made up of the sum of all the energy losses from each of the items. Question: Could you please explain 'Earthing'. When a voltage (ie voltage difference) (V) is applied across an item that has a resistance (R). current and resistance. In our torch. a current (I) will flow. There is one further concept that is associated with voltage. the current through all the items is the same. The resistance of an item results from the electrical properties of the material(s) that make up the item and the geometry (length. and the total resistance in the circuit is made up of the sum of all the resistances of the items.
Your power points may all be connected to the one "power" circuit or they could be divided into two or more separate power circuits. The bottom socket is connected to a separate wire which is "earthed" (connected to the earth). it may have been too late so save you. you may be lucky enough to escape with only a mild shock. the electrical current (flow of electricity) passing through the active wire to earth through the earth wire could be large enough to activate the overload protection device in the active wire's circuit. We saw above that the overload protection device in a circuit could operate if the active wire contacted the earth wire. the overload protection device could be a type of switch that operates on current overload. the active wire comes in contact with the earth wire. the appliances may have plugs with only two pins (active and neutral). Because these insulated enclosures do not need to be earthed. current will pass through you to earth. If your connection to earth is poor (eg you are standing on a carpet or a wood chair). in a normal circuit. neutral and earth). Lets now look at what happens when you become part of an electric circuit. The need for a separate earth wire can be explained by considering your toaster. If you contact an active wire and you are electrically connected to the earth. A toaster usually has a metal enclosure. To understand how it operates. Because metals are electrical conductors (ie allow electricity to pass through them). Your lights could also be supplied from one or more "lighting" circuits. An appliance that requires its enclosure to be earthed must therefore have a three pin plug (active. the current passing through you may be high enough to activate the circuit's overload protection device and turn off the supply to that circuit . the current in the neutral wire would be less than the current in the active wire. your electric hot water system and your electric stove usually have their own circuits.The top two sockets in a power point are connected to the active and neutral wires. the size and duration of the electric current passing through you to ground may have more drastic consequences! A current could also flow through you if you contact both the active and neutral wires. One such device is the "safety switch". the electricity would pass to earth. for any reason. If a fault occurs in the circuit and some current flows to earth. the current flowing in the active wire of the circuit is exactly the same as the current in the neutral wire of the circuit. this metal enclosure is "earthed" so that. Each circuit in your home should be protected against overload by a device that senses the current passing through the active wire of the circuit and isolates the circuit when the current is too high. What is needed is a device that would sense that something is wrong and switch off the supply of electricity before you are injured. More usually now. we need to realise that. A current overload could also occur if the active wire came into direct contact with the neutral wire. An increasing number of appliances are enclosed in materials that prevent the flow of electricity through them (ie they are electrical insulators).but by the time that happened. Because safety switches can sense and react to this type of situation much quicker (and at a smaller current) than a normal overload protection device. if the active wire came in contact with the metal enclosure. If. In both these cases. severe electrical shocks and electrocutions are prevented. If not. This device is also called an "earth leakage circuit breaker" because of the way it operates. A circuit is the term used to describe an active wire that can be isolated from within your home's switchboard. . For example. A safety switch senses this imbalance in currents and isolates the circuit if the imbalance becomes greater than a preset value. The overload protection device could be a fuse (a special type of wire that melts if the current passing through it is more that its rated current).
Because electrical current flows in response to an applied voltage.However. so that the voltage between the active and earth is also 240 volts. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i. the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. they are called phases. These pollutants usually have some form of discharge licence limits imposed on their concentrations. As we travel back up the electrical network.gov. the voltage of the AC supply must also have been changing polarity from positive to negative and back again at the same frequency as the alternating current. The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). The neutral wire is kept at the same electrical potential as the earth. The voltage between the phases in the low voltage distribution system is 415 volts (in Australia). This section also contains additional information on phases and on a type of electricity supply system that uses a single wire . 5. the voltage increases and the neutral disappears! Why? The explanation can be found in the Office of Energy’s new “Electricity Information” web site by clicking on the “What and How of Electricity” icon in the home page of the Office of Energy web site and going to the “Introduction” section. discussions in this section will be directed to coal fired power stations. A 3-phase supply to a home would normally be required only for large electrical loads.htm Flue gas cleaning This information sheet explores the options available to reduce the concentrations of pollutants in the flue gas being discharged from a thermal power station. However. the voltage between the active and neutral wires is 240 volts (in Australia).qld.au/electricity/infosite/index. A 415 volt 3-phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 240 volt single phase supply. it must be realised that safety switches cannot protect you if you come in contact with both the active and neutral wires because in this case current does not flow to earth and there is no imbalance in the active and neutral currents. Concentration limits at the point of discharge which have been set regardless of the amount of the pollutant or the location of the point of discharge. These licence limits are usually: 1. Reference Web site : http://www. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits.energy. making a total of three circuits. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).e.the Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) system. such as a large air conditioner. 3 phase supplies are common in industrial areas and shopping centres. Except if explicitly mentioned otherwise. Question: What is meant by the term 'Phases'? Answer: Alternating Current (AC) electricity changes its direction of flow in a regular. Because these circuits are electrically linked (see below). cyclic manner. In this “low voltage” part of the distribution system. and/or . this can be identified by the larger than normal plugs.
and 3. 2.htm Back Geothermal Power Plants This unique system taps the natural supplies of heat energy that have accumulated inside the earth. 3. . Compliance with concentration limits away from the point of discharge usually is brought about by economic and performance optimisations of several factors: 1. The discharge velocity of the gas from the chimneys . Equipment can be installed to clean the flue gas so that it complies with the discharge point concentration limits. has a lower density). Thus. The equipment to clean the flue gas can be divided into several groups: 1.hotter gas has more buoyancy (i.height is usually an advantage. except where they (mainly buoyancy and discharge velocity) are influenced by the flue gas cleaning equipment. and 4. Reference Web site : http://www.qld. Equipment to remove other gases for which there are not licence limits but which could have economic implications. The buoyancy of the flue gas leaving the chimneys . Concentration limits at one or more points away from the point of discharge. Equipment to remove solid particles (generally called "particulates") . Equipment to remove gaseous impurities such as oxides of sulphur and oxides of nitrogen. but more costly.higher velocities are an advantage.energy. These factors will not be discussed further in this information sheet.au/electricity/infosite/index.gov.e.the two main types of equipment for this duty are electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. 2. The height of the chimneys . but may require additional fan power. The location of the chimneys in relation to each other. particularly the strength and direction of the wind. buildings outside of the power station boundaries and weather conditions. the power station's buildings and cooling towers. This equipment is discussed below.2. but may reduce the thermal efficiency of the generating plant. geothermal power is generally considered to be "earth friendly". such as carbon dioxide if carbon taxes or carbon trading are implemented.
Mo-V steel. HIGHLY RELIABLE LONG BLADE SERIES 12Cr steel blades backed up by close calculation and ample experience are adopted. is strong enough against foreign matter. in which the diaphragm type nozzles are combined with strong cross section blades. The wall is covered with a stainless steel impingement shield to prevent erosion. Special care is given to determine blade width and blade tip shroud band construction. This rotor is a low-FATT type. it is made of highly corrosionresistant Cr. . STABLE AND LOW-FATT ROTOR Because the turbine rotor operates in erosive geothermal steam. corrosion-resisting protector. careful consideration is given to minute details including the dust-and-drain prevention and disposal structures.Design & Construction Features HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND STRONG STEAM PATH The steam path is designed on the basis of massive results of tests and studies and by means of the most advanced computer techniques so that the maximum stage efficiency can be obtained. The impulse type design. which has been used for many high and intermediate-pressure united rotors in fossil fuel powered steam turbines. and the inspection manhole. Furthermore. SIMPLE SINGLE-SHEEL CONSTRUCTION Simple single-shell construction without an internal casing considerably simplifies maintenance. EFFECTIVE SEPARATION OF MOISTURE AND DUST Moisture and dust in the steam path are satisfactorily shaked off by centrifugal force toward the outside wall.
When contacting and mixed with sprayed cooling water in the condenser. This condensed water is pumped to the cooling tower by a condensate pump and is cooled to 27°C. no flashing was required. the wet steam becomes condensed water at 49°C.Geothermal Turbine Sectional View 110MW Geothermal Steam Turbine The geothermal steam turbine is. which is directly connected to the turbine. oil cooling water. direct condensing system utilizing natural steam spurting out from production wells was employed for the power plant. and also by vacuum conditions in the condenser interior. etc. This cooling water is delivered to the condenser by utilizing potential energy between the cooling tower and the condenser rather than by pumping. 52°C. Left: 110MW Geothermal Turbine Above: 110MW geothermal turbine under shop assembly Since the steam does not contain hot water and its maximum superheating degree is 9°C. so to speak. since geothermal steam contains up to several percent of gaseous impurities. However. Since the . geothermal steam turbines require much more technical consideration than do standard thermal steam turbines. Issues involved include such phenomena as corrosion of turbine component parts and the accumulation of and erosion by solid substances in the steam paths. Superheating steam is changed into wet steam from the turbine second stage and is expanded up to 102 mmHg absolute. a thermal turbine in which mother nature plays the role of a boiler. Consequently. Cooled water is used as condenser cooling water.
because geothermal wells are scattered in geothermal field Toshiba has a developed a standardised series of portable small size geothermal turbine and generator sets. Overflowing condensed water is fed back to the underground through injection wells.000kW power is consumed for driving the condensate pump and the cooling fans and other pumps. Small sized geothermal power plant is generally used for the following purposes: • • • • • An experimental unit as a pilot plant for a larger size installation Meet the needs of electricity demand in limited area Power source during construction Auxiliary or emergency power source for main geothermal generating plant Simplification steam transmission lines as a well-head unit. maintainability. Steam flowing through the ejectors amounts to approximately 34 tons per hour. demand for small sized geothermal power plant has also expanded. high efficiency and high reliability. easy operation including start and stop. The Toshiba portable type turbine and generator set is completely assembled on a common base then shipped to the site. Consequently. Toshiba is always working to satisfy customer needs in the geothermal power generation field. installation and adjustment work at site can be minimised. At the same time. Since 4. Noncondensed gases contained in the steam are continuously ejected from the condenser by using steam ejectors. no water replenishment is required from the exterior. Special consideration is given to easy transportation. Frame Turbine type Type-TPO Back pressure/ Type-TPB Back pressure Type-TPC Condensing . This portable type turbine and generator set is supported by our extensive experience with geothermal units. Geothermal power plant unit capacity has been increasing in recent years .condensed water is recycled in this system. suitable toa range of applications.000kW. supported by technological innovation and driven by the economics of larger installations. the net power output at high tension side of step-up transformer is 106. about 4% of the total steam. based on our high engineering capability and extensive experience.
. This construction minimized damages from foreign materials and less susceptible to deterioration of performance due to increased leakage caused by packing rules.condensing Type Power range Steam condition throttle press Speed No of stage Oil cooler Application Single stage curtis with reduction gear 500-2000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 50Hz 6200/1500RPM 60Hz 7400/1800RPM 1 stage Water or air Power source for construction and start for blackout efficiency Multistage rateau with reduction gear 2000-9000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 50Hz 6000/1500RPM 60Hz 6000/1800RPM Max. 6 stages Water or air Power generation and power Power generation and power for auxiliaries for auxiliaries and high reliability High Toshiba portable steam turbines are of impulse type. The nozzle diaphragm consists of web with an inner and an outer ring of sufficient strength. multistage nozzles and blades and low steam consumption. and are strongly fixed to a solid type rotor wheel. and the nozzle partitions are rugged and efficient cross section. The impulse design features sturdy and simple construction. The blades also have a rugged and efficient cross section. Portable Turbine Generator Main Flow Diagram Typical main flow diagram of the portable turbine generator with low level type condenser and water cooled oil cooler is as follows. 6 stages Water or air Multistage rateau with reduction gear 2000-9000kW 3-10 kg/cm2 g 60Hz 5000/1800RPM 50Hz 5000/1500RPM Max.
(Click to Enlarge) Toshiba's portable turbine generator's versatility is suited to a wide range of applications. Mechanical Outline Outline Weight Dimen sion . oil cooler can be selected from two typesair cooled oil cooler and water cooled oil cooler-depending on site suitability. operation patterns and site conditions. For example.
7W 7.0 Reduction Gear: 2.0 Reduction Gear: 2.3 Total: 42.3 (ton) 2.com/newtic/geo_home.T Y P E · T P C Turbine: 17.7W 7.5 Generator: 13.atals.5 Generator: 13. in addition.6H (m) T Y P E · T P B Turbine: 15. The equipment can thus be installed and relocated at various sites and operated successfully.0 Others: 12. since the turbine. The unit has a steam turbine driven oil pump and mechanicalhydraulic control system.3H (m) Easy transportation and construction Toshiba's portable turbine generator unit's compactness ensures simplicity of construction and ease of handling. Therefore the unit can be installed without need for any electric network in the area. No power source for start Toshiba portable turbine generator can be started without any auxiliary power source except a battery for instrumentation.8 (ton) 2. Reference Web http://www.3 Others: 12.3L 2. generator and their necessary auxiliary equipmentare all skid mounted in Toshiba's workshopso transportation to site is quite simple.5 Total: 45.0L 3.htm Back site : .
However. their use has been generally limited to generating electricity in periods of peak electricity demand. Over the last ten years there have been major improvements to the sizes and efficiencies of these gas turbines such that they are now considered an attractive option for base-load electricity generation. The hot pressurised gas coming out of the combustors is at very high temperature (up to 1350° C). In the past.aeroderivative and industrial. aeroderivative units are aircraft jet engines modified to drive electrical generators. because of their more robust construction. As their name suggests. start up can take from 10 to 40 minutes to produce full output. These units have a maximum output of 40 MW. The main components of a gas turbine are an air compressor. Industrial gas turbines have a lower capital cost per kilowatt installed than aeroderivative units and. several combustors (also called burners) and a turbine. Fuel is mixed with the high pressure air in burners and burnt in special chambers called combustors. are suitable for base load operation. giving the turbine energy to spin and do work. They are not suitable for base load operation. such as turn a generator to produce electricity. where most of the remaining heat energy in the gas is used to produce steam. Gas turbines are ideal for this application as they can be started and stopped quickly enabling them to be brought into service as required to meet energy demand peaks. Because some of its heat and pressure energy has been transferred to the turbine.GAS Introduction to Gas TURBINE Turbines Gas turbines have been used for electricity generation for many years. This gas then passes through a turbine. Depending on size. their previously small unit sizes and their low thermal efficiency restricted the opportunities for their wider use for electricity generation. the gas is cooler and at a lower pressure when it leaves the turbine. They are also called combustion turbines or combustion gas turbines. Industrial gas turbines range in sizes up to more than 260 MW. The air compressor compresses the inlet air (raises its pressure). . the compressor uses some (about 60%) of the turbine's energy. It is then either discharged up a chimney (often called a stack) or is directed to a special type of boiler. called a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). As the turbine is connected to its compressor. How does a Gas Turbine Work? Gas turbines use the hot gas produced by burning a fuel to drive a turbine. There are two basic types of gas turbines . Aeroderivative units can produce full power within three minutes after start up.
This type of air compressor can change its capacity (mass of air sucked through the air compressor) only by changing its speed of rotation. with the smallest blades to the right (the direction of air flow is from left to right). This washing can be carried out on line (with the gas turbine operating) or when the compressor is stopped. The mass of air being compressed therefore remains constant regardless of the amount of air required for combustion of the fuel at partial loads. when the gas turbine is used to generate electricity. "washing" of the compressor blades must be carried out whenever blade fouling becomes too severe. As the air becomes more and more compressed. coal. methane. Demineralised water and detergent are commonly used for washing. as they can never completely eliminate all impurities. Note: A row of blades fixed to the outer casing of the compressor is also located after each row of moving blades. natural gas. The row of largest blades can be seen at the left end of the compressor in the photo above. and Gas produced as a by-product of an industrial process such as oil refining. distillate and "jet fuel" (a type of kerosene used in aircraft jet engines). heavy fuel oil. municipal waste and biomass. show these major components. gas turbine and air compressor must remain constant (3000 rpm in Australia). Erosion of the blades can be caused by hard particles in the air entering the compressor. Fuel Gas turbines can operate on a variety of gaseous or liquid fuels. However. Inspections for fouling and erosion are usually carried out at defined intervals of operating time. Filters are used to remove impurities from the inlet air. . including: Liquid or gaseous fossil fuel such as crude oil. for example. the sizes of the blades become smaller from row to row.The attached cross section of a typical large gas turbine and photo of a similar large gas turbine with its top half casing removed. Air Compressor The air compressors used in gas turbines are made up of several rows of blades (similar to the blades on a household fan). The energy used to compress this excess air accounts for most of the reduction in efficiency of a gas turbine at partial loads. Each row of blades compress and push the air onto the next row of blades. the speed of rotation of the generator. Gas produced by gasification processes using. However.
Special burners (usually called "dry low NOx burners") are used to reduce the concentration of NOx in the exhaust gas to less than 25 ppm at full load. without the use of water or steam injection. power output and thermal efficiency of the gas turbines are higher than when using most liquid fuels. Inlet Air The air coming into the compressor of a gas turbine must be cleaned of impurities (such as dust and smoke) which could erode or stick to the blades of the compressor or turbine. the combustor cools. Note: the values of NOx concentrations and loads depend on the design of the equipment and on the fuel used. Special heat resistant materials (such as ceramics) are used to line the inside walls of the combustors. Some burners incorporate both types of burner into the one arrangement (called "hybrid" burners). thus cooling the air). The fuels used in gas turbines power generation plants are often relatively more expensive and in smaller quantities than those required by power generation plants using other fuels (such as coal).When natural gas is used. The inlet air is usually passed through silencers before it enters the compressor. These "low load" burners produce significantly higher concentrations of NOx (over 100 ppm). Dry filters or water baths are usually used to carry out this cleaning. the power of the gas turbine decreases. then allowed to fully burn in the combustors. particularly in the heat resistant lining material. This effect can be reduced by cooling the air (by equipment similar to air conditioners) or. This rapid heating and cooling produces stresses in the combustor and can cause cracking. These dry low NOx burners usually cannot operate effectively below about 60% load. When a gas turbine starts. As the hot gas from the combustors passes through the moving and fixed blades of the turbine. The fuel must be free of chemical impurities and solids as these either stick to the blades of the turbine or damage the components in the turbine that operate at high temperature. Burners and Combustors The compressed air and fuel is mixed and metered in special equipment called burners. The burners are attached to chambers called combustors. Water or steam can be injected into the combustors to reduce the concentration of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) in the exhaust gas (by reducing the temperature of the flame). When the gas turbine shuts down. by passing the air through an evaporative cooler (the air evaporates droplets of water. The temperature of the gas in the combustors and entering the turbine can reach up to 1350° C. A row of "fixed" blades is located after each row of the "moving" blades. The combustors must be inspected for cracks after a certain number of starts. At this point. These fixed blades are attached to the casing of the turbine and do not rotate. the combustor quickly heats up. The power and efficiency ratings of a gas turbine are usually based on the inlet air being at ISO conditions of 15° C and 65% relative humidity. The fuel & air mixture is ignited close to the exit tip of the burners. Turbine The turbine (also called the "power" turbine) consists of several rows of blades (the "moving" blades) that are fastened to the rotating shaft of the turbine. another type of burner takes over and allows the fuel to be burnt stably down to low loads. If the inlet air is hotter and drier than ISO conditions. The area between the combustors and the turbine are also lined. reducing the power and efficiency of the gas turbine. . more usually.
The turbine components most subject to conditions causing creep are regularly inspected and tested. The smallest row of blades can be seen at the left end of the turbine in the photo of the gas turbine with its top half casing removed. The compressor section of the gas turbine provides this cooling air. Turbine blades can be manufactured with passages inside the blades that allow air to pass through the blades to keep them cool. The exhaust gas is usually visually clear and free of particles. The hot components of the turbine. Refer to "emissions" for information on the chemical compositions of the exhaust gas. with the largest blades to the right (the direction of gas flow is from left to right). Research into better (and cheaper) materials for these high temperature. Emissions The main chemical emissions from a gas turbine are dependent on the type of fuel used. turbine blades are made from exotic alloys that retain their strength at the high temperatures experienced in the turbine. The moving blades in the turbine are subjected to extreme temperature (from the hot gas exiting the combustors) and stress (from the combination of their rotation and the pressure of the hot gas). The materials for the turbine blades (and other components of the turbine) are therefore selected to give a balance between hot gas temperature (and efficiency) and material selection (and cost). depending on the design of the gas turbine and the fuel used. The type and cleanliness of the air and fuel used therefore has a major impact on the amount of maintenance performed on the gas turbine. The heat energy in this gas can be extracted in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to produce steam that can be used to produce electricity (Combined Cycle generating plant) or used for process heating. Various coatings for turbine blades have been developed as another way to minimise this high temperature damage to the blades. The ability of the gas turbine to do work and the efficiency of the gas turbine are consequently reduced. causing it to rotate. materials to withstand the higher temperatures are usually more expensive than those that can withstand lower temperatures. At these high operating temperatures. This deformation could result in the moving parts touching the fixed parts with possible catastrophic results. hard particles and chemical impurities in the air and fuel (even at extremely low levels) can damage the blades of the turbine. New materials and techniques used to manufacture the turbine blades have resulted in a significant increase in operating temperatures. Some of this reduction can be regained by maintenance of the gas turbine. If the exhaust gas is not passed to a HRSG. This energy transfer reduces the pressure of the gas and causes the gas to become cooler as it passes through the turbine. high stress duties is ongoing. Metals at high temperature & high stress gradually change their metallurgical properties and plastically deform ("creeps"). .energy is transferred from the hot gas to the turbine. Ceramic blades offer the possibility of still higher operating temperatures. it is ducted through a silencer and then discharged up a stack. Exhaust Gases The temperature of the exhaust gas from the gas turbine is typically in the range of 500°C to 640°C. The efficiency of the gas turbine improves if the hot gas temperature rises. particularly the blades. Currently. However. thus reducing their effectiveness. are also subject to "creep" failure. The blades of the turbine become larger from row to row to accommodate the expansion of the gas as its pressure reduces. This allows the blades to operate in combustion temperatures that would otherwise be too hot for the material of the blades.
silencers and ducts .reduced temperature generally results in increased power output.a decrease in pressure loss increases power output. Thermal Efficiency . The temperature of the hot gas leaving the combustors . The drop in pressure across the exhaust gas silencers. higher mass flows result in higher power output.if less energy is used to compress the air. 60% relative humidity and an atmospheric pressure equivalent to average sea level conditions.an increase in pressure increases power output. 3. Inject steam or water into the combustors or turbine. The amount of CO2 produced per unit of electrical energy is also highly dependent on the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. Divide the turbine into two parts and reheat the gas between the two parts by passing the gas through additional burners and combustors located between the two parts. Cooling the inlet air mainly used in hot weather conditions. 8. 6. 3. 5. Increasing the pressure of the air at the discharge of the air compressor. ducts and stack . In general. Reducing the humidity of the inlet air. power and efficiency for each application. The drop in pressure across the inlet air filters. the power output from the gas turbine is influenced by: 1. all these methods increase costs and some decrease the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. 7. 4. The temperature of the exhaust gas . Wash or otherwise clean the fouling from the blades of the air compressor and turbine at regular intervals. NOx (oxides of nitrogen) can be controlled either by injecting water or steam into the combustors or by using special dry low NOx burners. Variations in these conditions during the operation of the gas turbine will result in changes to the power output of the gas turbine as indicated below. Using the exhaust gas to heat the air from the compressor (mainly used in cold weather conditions). The concentration of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the exhaust gas is dependent on the carbon content of the fuel used. Divide the compressor into two parts and cool the air between the two parts. 2. However. Further details of these are given in the "burners and combustors" section above. and 9. Increasing the pressure of the air entering or leaving the compressor . more energy is available at the output shaft. The energy used by the air compressor . 6. Various methods that have been used to achieve an increase in power output include: 1. SOx (oxides of sulphur) are usually not a problem as most fuels used in gas turbines have low sulphur contents. The methods used are therefore a compromise between cost.However. 7. 2.in general.increased temperature generally results in increased power output. some generalisations can be made. Power Output Gas turbine output power values are usually given for ISO conditions of 15° C. Combinations of the above methods. The mass flow through the gas turbine . 4.a decrease in pressure loss increases power output. 5.
3.a decrease in pressure loss increases efficiency. The mass flow through the gas turbine . silencers and ducts . Divide the turbine into two parts and reheat the gas between the two parts by passing the gas through additional burners and combustors located between the two parts. Divide the compressor into two parts and cool the air between the two parts. 5. 8. The methods used are therefore a compromise between cost. The reliabilities of the models improve as these types of failures are designed out. Cooling the inlet air mainly used in hot weather conditions.if less energy is used to compress the air. In general. Operational factors such as the cleanliness of the fuel and inlet air. all these methods increase costs and some decrease the amount of power able to be output by the gas turbine. and 9. The temperature of the exhaust gas . The energy used by the air compressor . higher mass flows result in higher efficiencies. more energy is available at the output shaft.The thermal efficiency of a gas turbine is the proportion of the energy in the fuel that is converted to mechanical energy in the output shaft. Wash or otherwise clean the fouling from the blades of the air compressor and turbine at regular intervals. The drop in pressure across the inlet air filters. Combinations of the above methods. increase thermal efficiency and reduce costs. the way the gas turbine is operated and the quality of the maintenance practices also have an effect of reliability. . 3. Inject steam into the combustors or turbine. ducts and stack . 5. The temperature of the hot gas leaving the combustors . 4. 2. 2. 6. However. 60% relative humidity and an atmospheric pressure equivalent to average sea level conditions. Variations in temperatures and relative humidities during the operation of the gas turbine will result in changes to the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine as indicated below. Various methods have been used to achieve the above goals: 1. Increasing the pressure of the air at the discharge of the air compressor. However. 6. The drop in pressure across the exhaust gas silencers. New models of gas turbines often have significant changes to critical components in an effort to improve power output. thermal efficiency is influenced by: 1.reduced temperature generally results in increased efficiency.increased temperature generally results in increased efficiency. 7. The manufacturers analyse these failures and improve the component. Reliability The reliability of a gas turbine depends mainly on the design of its components and the selection of materials used in critical components. the use of unproven designs and technologies can result in unforseen failures.in general. Reducing the humidity of the inlet air. Gas turbine efficiency values are usually given for ISO conditions of 15° C (dry bulb). Using the exhaust gas to heat the air from the compressor (mainly used in cold weather conditions).a decrease in pressure loss increases efficiency. 4. power and efficiency for each application.
Statutory limits on noise levels at site boundaries can be achieved either by increasing the distance from the boundary to the plant or by installing noise abatement equipment on the machines. The burners and combustors are located between the compressor and turbine. . Silencers are usually fitted in the inlet air and exhaust gas ducts.Noise Gas turbines are very compact and occupy small ground area. The exhaust gas (red) leaves the turbine at the right. The inlet air (blue) enters the compressor at the left.
The section that would hold the burners and combustors is between the compressor and the turbine. .The photo shows what such a gas turbine looks like when its top half casing has been removed for inspection or maintenance. The air compressor is on the left and the turbine is on the right. Note the large bolts that are used to hold the two halves of the casing together.
for a large gas turbine. The heat resistant ceramic tiles used in these hot areas can be clearly seen. the cross-section of a typical burner/combustor combination. the arrangement of these combustors and the area between the combustors and the turbine.The photo shows. .
Therefore air from the compressor is used for cooling key turbine components. it spins the rotating blades. Higher temperatures generally mean higher efficiencies which. natural gas) into the combustion chamber where it mixes with the air. Gas flowing through a typical power plant turbine can be as hot as 2300 degrees F. typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel (e. Land based gas turbines are of two types: (1) heavy frame engines and (2) aeroderivative engines. but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor which draws air into the engine.. and operate at very high compression ratios (typically in excess of 30). The advanced turbines that . Heavy frame engines are characterized by lower compression ratios (typically below 15) and tend to be physically large. Aeroderivative engines tend to be very compact. high pressure gas stream that enters and expands through the turbine section. pressurizes it. in turn. One key to a turbine's fuel-to-energy efficiency is the temperature at which it operates. The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and rotating aerofoil-section blades. and they spin a generator to produce electricity. The combustion system.g. and feeds it to the combustion chamber literally at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. The rotating blades perform a dual function: they drive the compressor to draw more pressurized air into the combustion section. As hot combustion gas expands through the turbine. but some of the critical metals in the turbine can withstand temperatures only as hot as 1500 to 1700 degrees F. the requirement for cooling the turbine limits the ultimate thermal efficiency. Aeroderivative engines are derived from jet engines. as the name implies. can lead to more economical operation. One of the major breakthroughs achieved in the Department of Energy's advanced turbine program was to break through previous limitations on turbine temperatures using a combination of innovative cooling technologies and advanced materials.The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees. however. The combustion produces a high temperature.
With the higher temperatures achieved in the Energy Department's turbine program. future gas turbine combined cycle plants are likely to achieve efficiencies of 60 percent or more. High-pressure steam from these boilers can be used to generate additional electric power with steam turbines. capped power generating efficiencies for turbine-based power generating systems. A recuperator captures waste heat in the turbine exhaust system to preheat the compressor discharge air before it enters the combustion chamber. the scorching heat of combustion gases caused metals in the turbine blades and in other internal components to begin degrading. The Department of Energy's Fossil Energy took on the challenge of turbine temperatures in 1992. this effectively limited the generating efficiency at which a turbine power plant could convert fuel into electricity. The barrier was heat. When waste heat is captured from these systems for heating or industrial purposes. the advanced turbines achieved the higher firing temperatures while actually reducing the amount of nitrogen oxides formed to less than 10 parts per million (NOx is a product of high temperature combustion). for all practical purposes. A waste heat boiler generates steam by capturing heat from the turbine exhaust. along with new firing techniques to stabilize combustion and minimize nitrogen oxide formation. Another way to boost efficiency is to install a recuperator or aste heat boiler onto the turbine's exhaust. Above 2300 degrees F. two of its private sector partners produced "breakthrough" turbine systems that pushed firing temperatures to 2. and nine years later. Turbine Successes " Breakthrough" Gas Turbines For years. These boilers are also known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). Moreover. a configuration called a combined cycle.emerged from the Department's research program were able to boost turbine inlet temperatures to as high as 2600 degrees F . Among the innovations that emerged from the Department's Advanced Turbine Systems program were single-crystal turbine blades and thermal barrier coatings that could withstand the high inlet temperatures. A simple cycle gas turbine can achieve energy conversion efficiencies ranging between 20 and 35 percent.nearly 300 degrees hotter than in previous turbines.600 degrees F and permitted combined cycle efficiencies that surpassed the 60 percent mark . Since higher temperatures are the key to higher efficiencies. The GE H-System Turbine . the overall energy cycle efficiency could approach 80 percent. gas turbine manufacturers faced a barrier that.the "four-minute mile" of turbine technology.
htm http://www. specially designed for the European power grid.fossil. combined cycle Millennium power plant in Charlton. nearly five percentage points better than the prior best available system.gov. South Wales. however.energy.au/electricity/infosite/index.S. The unit announced in February 2000 was slated to be one of two 60-hertz turbines that would have powered the 800-megawatt Heritage Station being built in Scriba. market that would break through the temperature barrier and push efficiencies to unprecedented levels. 2000. Using an innovative dry low-NOx combustion system. a 249-megawatt simple cycle plant. the City of Lakeland. Siemens Westinghouse W501G Advanced Gas Turbine In May 2001.gov Back : . Massachusetts. GE Power Systems unveiled the first gas turbine slated for the U.energy. A 50-hertz version. was shipped to Baglan Bay Power Station near Cardiff. half the average of the turbines in commercial use. was not built when the anticipated demand for electric power in the region failed to materialize. the turbine achieved nitrogen oxide emission levels of 9 parts-per-million. New York. In addition. Using advanced materials and revolutionary new steam-cooling technology. the Energy Department's other advanced turbine development partner. announced that its advanced W501G turbine had gone into commercial operation at the 360-megawatt. the new turbine is capable of operating at 2600 degrees F.qld. The Siemens Westinghouse engine has demonstrated a net efficiency of approximately 58 percent in combined cycle application. Siemens Westinghouse. in an industry where improvements are typically measured in tenths of a percent. also went into operation using the advanced turbine at about the same time. The H System was the first turbine to surpass the 60 percent efficiency threshold. Florida's McIntosh Unit 5. The power plant. Reference Web site http://www. in December 2000 and began test operations in November 2002.On February 18.
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