Patran 2010

Reference Manual
Part 2: Geometry Modeling
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Cont ent s
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
1 Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Overview of Capabilities 2
Concepts and Definitions 4
Parameterization 4
Topology 10
Connectivity 16
Effects of Parameterization, Connectivity and Topology in Patran 18
Global Model Tolerance & Geometry 19
Types of Geometry in Patran 20
Trimmed Surfaces 20
Solids 24
Parametric Cubic Geometry 25
Matrix of Geometry Types Created 27
Building An Optimal Geometry Model 31
Building a Congruent Model 31
Building Optimal Surfaces 33
Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces 38
Building B-rep Solids 41
Building Degenerate Surfaces and Solids 42
2 Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Overview 46
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry 47
Accessing Geometry Using Patran Unigraphics 47
Accessing Geometry Using Patran ProENGINEER 54
PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry 57
3 Coordinate Frames
Coordinate Frame Definitions 60
Geometry Modeling
erence Manual Par
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

ii
Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames 64
Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames
67
4 Create Actions
Overview of Geometry Create Action 72
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids 78
Create Points at XYZ Coordinates or Point Locations (XYZ Method) 78
Create Point ArcCenter 82
Extracting Points 84
Interpolating Points 94
Intersecting Two Entities to Create Points 100
Creating Points by Offsetting a Specified Distance 110
Piercing Curves Through Surfaces to Create Points 112
Projecting Points Onto Surfaces or Faces 115
Creating Curves Between Points 120
Creating Arced Curves (Arc3Point Method) 130
Creating Chained Curves 133
Creating Conic Curves 135
Extracting Curves From Surfaces 139
Creating Fillet Curves 145
Fitting Curves Through a Set of Points 149
Creating Curves at Intersections 151
Manifold Curves Onto a Surface 161
Creating Curves Normally Between a Point and a Curve (Normal Method)
168
Creating Offset Curves 171
Projecting Curves Onto Surfaces 176
Creating Piecewise Linear Curves 183
Creating Spline Curves 185
Creating Curves Tangent Between Two Curves (TanCurve Method) 193
Creating Curves Tangent Between Curves and Points (TanPoint Method)
195
Creating Curves, Surfaces and Solids Through a Vector Length (XYZ Method)
199
Creating Involute Curves 203
Revolving Curves, Surfaces and Solids 208
Creating Orthogonal Curves (2D Normal Method) 214
Creating 2D Circle Curves 222
Creating 2D ArcAngle Curves 226
Creating Arced Curves in a Plane (2D Arc2Point Method) 229
iii CONTENTS
Creating Arced Curves in a Plane (2D Arc3Point Method) 237
Creating Surfaces from Curves 240
Creating Composite Surfaces 250
Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces 254
Creating Surfaces from Edges (Edge Method) 256
Extracting Surfaces 259
Creating Fillet Surfaces 265
Matching Adjacent Surfaces 269
Creating Constant Offset Surface 271
Creating Ruled Surfaces 273
Creating Trimmed Surfaces 277
Creating Surfaces From Vertices (Vertex Method) 286
Extruding Surfaces and Solids 288
Gliding Surfaces 293
Creating Surfaces and Solids Using the Normal Method 297
Creating Surfaces from a Surface Mesh (Mesh Method) 304
Creating Midsurfaces 306
Creating Solid Primitives 311
Creating a Solid Block 311
Creating Solids from Surfaces (Surface Method) 327
Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid 337
Creating a Decomposed Solid 339
Creating Solids from Faces 342
Creating Solids from Vertices (Vertex Method) 345
Gliding Solids 347
Feature Recognition (Pre-release) 350
Feature Types 350
Overview of the Feature Recognition Modules 350
Feature Recognition 352
Edit Hole Feature 358
Edit Hole Feature using Radius Constraint 361
Edit Blend Feature 364
Edit Blend Feature using Radius Constraint 367
Edit Chamfer Feature 370
Edit Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint 373
Edit Feature Parameters 376
Show Hole Feature 377
Show Hole Feature using Radius Constraint 378
Show Blend Feature 379
Show Blend Feature using Radius Constraint 380
Show Chamfer Feature 381
Show Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint 382
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

iv
Show Feature Information 383
Delete Hole Feature 384
Delete Hole Feature using Radius Constraint 385
Delete Blend Feature 386
Delete Blend Feature using Radius Constraint 387
Delete Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint 388
Delete Chamfer Feature 389
Delete Any Feature 390
Clear Feature 391
Creating Coordinate Frames 393
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the 3Point Method 393
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Axis Method 395
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Euler Method 397
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Normal Method 401
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the 2 Vector Method 404
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the View Vector Method 405
Creating Planes 407
Creating Planes with the Point-Vector Method 407
Creating Planes with the Vector Normal Method 408
Creating Planes with the Curve Normal Method 410
Creating Planes with the Plane Normal Method 414
Creating Planes with the Interpolate Method 415
Creating Planes with the Least Squares Method 418
Creating Planes with the Offset Method 424
Creating Planes with the Surface Tangent Method 426
Creating Planes with the 3 Points Method 430
Creating Vectors 433
Creating Vectors with the Magnitude Method 433
Creating Vectors with the Interpolate Method 434
Creating Vectors with the Intersect Method 435
Creating Vectors with the Normal Method 437
Creating Vectors with the Product Method 444
Creating Vectors with the 2 Point Method 446
Creating P-Shapes 449
Rectangle 449
Quadrilateral 449
Triangle 450
Disc 451
Cylinder 452
Cone 453
Sphere 454
v CONTENTS
Paraboloid 455
Five-Sided Box 456
Six-Sided Box 457
Edit P-Shapes 459
5 Delete Actions
Overview of the Geometry Delete Action 462
Deleting Any Geometric Entity 463
Deleting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes or Vectors 464
Deleting Coordinate Frames 466
6 Edit Actions
Overview of the Edit Action Methods 468
Editing Points 470
Equivalencing Points 470
Editing Curves 472
Breaking Curves 472
Blending a Curve 482
Disassembling a Chained Curve 485
Extending Curves 488
Merging Existing Curves 502
Refitting Existing Curves 506
Reversing a Curve 508
Trimming Curves 511
Editing Surfaces 518
Surface Break Options 518
Blending Surfaces 536
Disassembling Trimmed Surfaces 539
Editing Edges from Surfaces 542
Matching Surface Edges 546
Extending Surfaces 551
Refitting Surfaces 566
Reversing Surfaces 568
Sewing Surfaces 570
Subtracting Surfaces 572
Trimming Surfaces to an Edge 573
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

vi
Adding a Fillet to a Surface 575
Adding a Hole to Surfaces 576
Removing a Hole from Trimmed Surfaces 582
Adding a Vertex to Surfaces 584
Removing a Vertex from Trimmed Surfaces 586
Editing Solids 589
Breaking Solids 589
Blending Solids 605
Disassembling B-rep Solids 608
Refitting Solids 611
Reversing Solids 616
Solid Boolean Operation Add 617
Solid Boolean Operation Subtract 619
Solid Boolean Operation Intersect 621
Creating Solid Edge Blends 623
Imprinting Solid on Solid 627
Solid Shell Operation 629
Editing Features 632
Suppressing a Feature 632
Unsuppressing a Feature 633
Editing Feature Parameters 634
Feature Parameter Definition 635
7 Show Actions
Overview of the Geometry Show Action Methods 638
The Show Action Information Form 639
Showing Points 640
Showing Point Locations 640
Showing Point Distance 642
Showing the Nodes on a Point 656
Showing Curves 658
Showing Curve Attributes 658
Showing Curve Arc 659
Showing Curve Angle 661
Showing Curve Length Range 663
Showing the Nodes on a Curve 665
Showing Surfaces 667
Showing Surface Attributes 667
vii CONTENTS
Showing Surface Area Range 669
Showing the Nodes on a Surface 670
Showing Surface Normals 672
Showing Solids 675
Showing Solid Attributes 675
Showing Coordinate Frames 677
Showing Coordinate Frame Attributes 677
Showing Planes 679
Showing Plane Attributes 679
Showing Plane Angle 680
Showing Plane Distance 682
Showing Vectors 684
Showing Vector Attributes 684
8 Transform Actions
Overview of the Transform Methods 686
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
689
Translating Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors 689
Rotating Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors 703
Scaling Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids and Vectors 713
Mirroring Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors 724
Moving Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors by Coordinate
Frame Reference (MCoord Method) 732
Pivoting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors 740
Positioning Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors 749
Vector Summing (VSum) Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids 759
Moving and Scaling (MScale) Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids 768
Transforming Coordinate Frames 777
Translating Coordinate Frames 777
Rotating Coordinate Frames 780
9 Verify Actions
Verify Action 786
Verifying Surface Boundaries 786
Verifying Surfaces for B-reps 788
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

viii
Verify - Surface (Duplicates) 790
10 Associate Actions
Overview of the Associate Action 794
Associating Point Object 795
Associating Curve Object 797
11 Disassociate Actions
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods 800
Disassociating Points 801
Disassociating Curves 802
Disassociating Surfaces 802
12 The Renumber Action... Renumbering Geometry
Introduction 806
Renumber Forms 807
Renumber Geometry 808
Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
1
Introduction to Geometry
Modeling

Overview of Capabilities 2

Concepts and Definitions 4

Types of Geometry in Patran 20

Building An Optimal Geometry Model 31
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of Capabilities
2
Overview of Capabilities
A powerful and important feature of Patran is its geometry capabilities. Geometry can be:
• Created.
• Directly accessed from an external CAD part file.
• Imported from an IGES file or a PATRAN 2 Neutral file.
Complete Accuracy of Original Geometry
Patran maintains complete accuracy of the original geometry, regardless of where it came from. The
exact mathematical representation of the geometry (e.g., Arc, Rational B-Spline, B-rep, Parametric
Cubic, etc.) is consistently maintained throughout the modeling process, without any approximations or
conversions.
This means different versions of the geometry model are avoided. Only one copy of the geometry design
needs to be maintained by the engineer, whether the geometry is in a separate CAD part file or IGES file
or the geometry is part of the Patran database.
Below are highlights of the geometry capabilities:
Direct Application of Loads/BCs and Element Properties to Geometry
All loads, boundary conditions (BC) and element property assignments can be applied directly to the
geometry. When the geometry is meshed with a set of nodes and elements, Patran will automatically
assign the loads/BC or element property to the appropriate nodes or elements.
Although you can apply the loads/BCs or element properties directly to the finite element mesh, the
advantage of applying them to the geometry is if you remesh the geometry, they remain associated with
the model. Once a new mesh is created, the loads/BC and element properties are automatically
reassigned.
For more information, see Introduction to Functional Assignment Tasks (Ch. 1) in the Patran Reference
Manual.
Direct Geometry Access
Direct Geometry Access (DGA) is the capability to directly access (or read) geometry information from
an external CAD user file, without the use of an intermediate translator. Currently, DGA supports the
following CAD systems:
• EDS/Unigraphics
• Pro/ENGINEER by Parametric Technology
• CATIA by Dassault Systemes
With DGA, the CAD geometry and its topology that are contained in the CAD user file can be accessed.
Once the geometry is accessed, you can build upon or modify the accessed geometry in Patran, mesh the
geometry, and assign the loads/BC and the element properties directly to the geometry.
3 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Overview of Capabilities
For more detailed information on DGA, see Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry, 47.
Import and Export of Geometry
There are three file formats available to import or export geometry:
• IGES
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File
• Express Neutral File
In using any of the file formats, Patran maintains the original mathematical form of the geometry. (That
is, the geometry is not approximated into the parametric cubic form.) This means the accuracy of the
geometry in all three files is maintained.
For more information on the import and export capabilities for IGES, PATRAN 2 Neutral File, and the
Express Neutral File, see Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry.
Patran Native Geometry
You can also create geometry in Patran (“native” geometry). A large number of methods are available to
create, translate, and edit geometry, as well as methods to verify, delete and show information.
Patran’s native geometry consists of:
• Points
• Parametric curves
• Bi-parametric surfaces
• Tri-parametric solids
• Boundary represented (B-rep) solids
All native geometry is fully parameterized both on the outer boundaries and within the interior (except
for B-rep solids which are parameterized only on the outer surfaces).
Fully parameterized geometry means that you can apply varying loads or element properties directly to
the geometric entity. Patran evaluates the variation at all exterior and interior locations on the geometric
entity.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
4
Concepts and Definitions
There are many functions in Patran that rely on the mathematical representation of the geometry. These
functions are:
• Applying a pressure load to a curve, surface or solid.
• Creating a field function in parametric space.
• Meshing a curve, surface or solid.
• Referencing a vertex, edge or face of a curve, surface or solid.
For every curve, surface or solid in a user database, information is stored on its Parameterization,
Topology and Connectivity which is used in various Patran functions.
The concepts of parameterization, connectivity and topology are easy to understand and they are
important to know when building a geometry and an analysis model.
The following sections will describe each of these concepts and how you can build an optimal geometry
model for analysis.
Parameterization
All Patran geometry are labeled one of the following:
• Point (0-Dimensions)
• Curve (1-Dimension)
• Surface (2-Dimensions)
• Solid (3-Dimensions)
Depending on the order of the entity - whether it is a one-dimensional curve, a two-dimensional surface,
or a three-dimensional solid - there is one, two or three parameters labeled , , that are associated
with the entity. This concept is called “parameterization”.
Parameterization means the X,Y,Z coordinates of a curve, surface or solid are represented as functions
of variables or parameters. Depending on the dimension of the entity, the X,Y,Z locations are functions
of the parameters , , and .
An analogy to the parameterization of geometry is describing an , location as a function of time, t.
If and , as changes, and will define a path. Parameterization of geometry
does the same thing - as the parameters , , and change, it defines various points on the curve,
surface and solid.
The following describes how a point, curve, surface and solid are parameterized in Patran.
Point
A Point in Patran is a point coordinate location in three-dimensional global XYZ space.
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
X Y t
X X t ( ) = Y Y t ( ) = t X Y
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
5 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Since a point has zero-dimensions, it has no associated parameters, therefore, it is not parameterized.
Figure 1-1 Point in Patran
Curve
A Curve in Patran is a one-dimensional point set in three-dimensional global XYZ space. A curve can
also be described as a particle moving along a defined path in space.
Another way of defining a curve is, a curve is a mapping function, , from one-dimensional
parametric space into three-dimensional global XYZ space, as shown in Figure 1-3.
A curve has one parametric variable, , which is used to describe the location of any given point, ,
along a curve, as shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2 Curve in Patran
The parameter, , has a range of , where at , is at endpoint and at , is at
endpoint .
u ç
1
( )
ç
1
P
ç
1
0 ç
1
1 s s ç
1
0 = P V1 ç
1
1 = P
V2
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
6
A straight curve can be defined as:
(1-1)
Figure 1-3 Mapping Function Phi for a Curve
(1-1) of our straight curve can be represented as:
(1-2)
The derivative of in (1-2), would give us (1-3) which is the tangent of the straight curve.
(1-3)
Because the curve is straight, is a constant value. The tangent, , also defines a vector for
the curve, which is the positive direction of .
For any given curve, the tangent and positive direction of at any point along the curve can be found.
(The vector, , usually will not have a length of one.)
Surface
A surface in Patran is a two-dimensional point set in three-dimensional global XYZ space.
A surface has two parameters, and , where at any given point, , on the surface, can be located
by and , as shown in Figure 1-4.
P 1.0 ç
1
– ( )V1 ç
1
V2 + =

1
1.0 ç
1
– ( )V1 ç
1
V2 + =
u ç
1
( )
cu cç
1
V2 V1 – =
cu cç
1
cu cç
1

ç
1
ç
1
cu cç
1

ç
1
ç
2
P P
ç
1
ç
2
7 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Figure 1-4 Surface in Patran
A surface generally has three or four edges. Trimmed surfaces can have more than four edges. For more
information, see Trimmed Surfaces, 20.
Similar to a curve, and for a surface have ranges of and . Thus, at ,
, is at and at , , is at .
A surface is represented by a mapping function, , which maps the parametric space into the
global XYZ space, as shown in Figure 1-5.
ç
1
ç
2
0 ç
1
1 s s 0 ç
2
1 s s ç
1
0 =
ç
2
0 = P V1 ç
1
1 = ç
2
1 = P V3
u ç
1
ç ,
2
( )
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
8
Figure 1-5 Mapping Function Phi for a Surface
The first order derivatives of results in two partial derivatives, and :
(1-4)
where is the tangent vector in the direction and is the tangent vector in the direction.
At any point for a given surface, and which define the tangents and the positive and
directions can be determined.
Usually and are not orthonormal, which means they do not have a length of one and they are not
perpendicular to each other.
Solid
A solid in Patran is a three-dimensional point set in three-dimensional global XYZ space.
A solid has three parameters, , , and , where at any given point, , within the solid, can be
located by , , and , as shown in Figure 1-6.
u ç
1
ç ,
2
( ) cu cç
1
cu cç
2

cu cç
1
T
ç1
and cu cç
2
T
ç2
= =
T
ç1
ç
1
T
ç2
ç
2
T
ç1
T
ç2
ç
1
ç
2
T
ç1
T
ç2
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
P P
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
Note: Note: The above definition applies to tri-parametric solids only. Patran can also create or import a B-rep
solid, which is parameterized on the outer surface only, and not within the interior. See B-rep Solid,
for more information.
9 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions

Figure 1-6 Solid in Patran
A solid generally has five or six sides or faces. (A B-rep solid can have more than six faces.)
The parameters , and have ranges of , , and . At (0,0,0) is at
and at (1,1,1), is at .
A solid can be represented by a mapping function, , which maps the parametric space into the
global XYZ space, as shown in Figure 1-7.
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
0 ç
1
1 s s 0 ç
2
1 s s 0 ç
3
1 s s P V1
P V7
u ç
1
ç ,
2
ç
3
, ( )
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
10
Figure 1-7 Mapping Function Phi for a Solid
If we take the first order derivatives of , we get three partial derivatives, , and
, shown in (1-5):
(1-5)
Where is the tangent vector in the direction, is the tangent vector in the direction, and
is the tangent vector in the direction.
At any point within a given solid,
,
and , which define the tangents and positive , and
directions can be determined.
Topology
Topology identifies the kinds of items used to define adjacency relationships between geometric entities.
Every curve, surface and solid in Patran has a defined set of topologic entities. You can reference these
entities when you build the geometry or analysis model. Examples of this include:
• Creating a surface between edges of two surfaces.
u ç
1
ç ,
2
ç
3
, ( ) cu cç
1
cu cç
2

cu cç
3

cu cç
1
T
ç1
, cu cç
2
T
ç2
, cu cç
3
T
ç3
= = =
T
ç1
ç
1
T
ç2
ç
2
T
ç3
ç
3
T
ç1
T
ç2
T
ç3
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
11 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
• Meshing an edge or a face of a solid.
• Referencing a vertex of a curve, surface or solid to apply a loads/BC.
Topology is invariant through a one-to-one bicontinuous mapping transformation. This means you can
have two curves, surfaces or solids that have different parameterizations, but topologically, they can be
identical.
To illustrate this concept, Figure 1-8 shows three groups of surfaces A-D. Geometrically, they are
different, but topologically they are the same.
Figure 1-8 Topologically Equivalent Surfaces
Topologic Entities: Vertex, Edge, Face, Body
The types of topologic entities found in Patran are the following:
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
12
Vertex, Edge and Face ID Assignments in Patran
The connectivity for a curve, surface and solid determines the order in which the internal vertex, edge
and face IDs will be assigned. The location of a geometric entity’s parametric axes defines the point
where assignment of the IDs for the entity’s vertices, edges and faces will begin.
Figure 1-9 and Figure 1-10 show a four sided surface and a six sided solid with the internal vertex, edge
and face IDs displayed. If the connectivity changes, then the IDs of the vertices, edges and faces will also
change.
Figure 1-9 Vertex & Edge Numbering for a Surface
Vertex Defines the topologic endpoint of a curve, or a corner of a surface or a solid. A vertex is
separate from a geometric point, although a point can exist on a vertex.
Edge Defines the topologic curve on a surface or a solid. An edge is separate from a geometric
curve, although a curve can exist on an edge.
Face Defines the topologic surface of a solid. A face is separate from a geometric surface,
although a surface can exist on a face.
Body A group of surfaces that forms a closed volume. A body is usually referenced as a B-rep
solid or a Volume solid, where only its exterior surfaces are parameterized. See Solids,
24 for more information.
Important:Generally, when modeling in Patran, you do not need to know the topologic entities’
internal IDs. When you cursor select a topologic entity, such as an edge of a surface, the ID
will be displayed in the appropriate listbox on the form.
13 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Figure 1-10 Face Numbering for a Solid
For example, in Figure 1-9, the edge, ED3, of Surface 11 would be displayed as:
Surface 11.3
The vertex, V4, in Figure 1-9 would be displayed as:
Surface 11.3.1
V4 has a vertex ID of 1 that belongs to edge 3 on surface 11.
The face, F1, of Solid 100 in Figure 1-9 would be displayed as:
Solid 100.1
The edge, ED10, in Figure 1-10 would be displayed as:
Solid 100.1.3
ED10 has an edge ID of 3 that belongs to face 1 on solid 100.
The vertex, V6, in Figure 1-10 would be displayed as:
Solid 100.1.2.2
V6 has a vertex ID of 2 that belongs to edge 2 on face 1 on solid 100.
Topological Congruency and Meshing
When meshing adjacent surfaces or solids, Patran requires the geometry be topologically congruent so
that coincident nodes will be created along the common boundaries.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
14
Figure 1-11 shows an example where surfaces 1 through 3 are topologically incongruent and surfaces 2
through 5 are topologically congruent. The outer vertices are shared for surfaces 1 through 3, but the
inside edges are not. Surfaces 2 through 5 all have common edges, as well as common vertices.
There are several ways to correct surfaces 1 through 3 to make them congruent. See Building a Congruent
Model for more information.
Figure 1-11 Topologically Incongruent and Congruent Surfaces
For a group of surfaces or solids to be congruent, the adjacent surfaces or solids must share common
edges, as well as common vertices.
(MSC.Software Corporation’s Patran software product required adjacent surfaces or solids to share only
the common vertices to be considered topologically congruent for meshing.)
Gaps Between Adjacent Surfaces
Another type of topological incongruence is shown in Figure 1-12. It shows a gap between two pairs of
surfaces that is greater than the Global Model Tolerance. This means when you mesh the surface pairs,
coincident nodes will not be created along both sides of the gap.
15 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Figure 1-12 Topologically Incongruent Surfaces with a Gap
MSC recommends two methods for closing surface gaps:
• Use the Create/Surface/Match form. See Matching Adjacent Surfaces.
• Use the Edit/Surface/Edge Match form. See Matching Surface Edges.
For more information on meshing, see Introduction to Functional Assignment Tasks (Ch. 1) in the Patran
Reference Manual.
Non-manifold Topology
Non-manifold topology can be simply defined as a geometry that is non-manufacturable. However, in
analysis, non-manifold topology is sometimes either necessary or desirable. Figure 1-13 shows a surface
model with a non-manifold edge.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Concepts and Definitions
16
Figure 1-13 Non-manifold Topology at an Edge
This case may be perfectly fine. A non-manifold edge has more than two surfaces or solid faces
connected to it. Therefore, two solids which share a common face also give non-manifold geometry (both
the common face and its edges are non-manifold).
In general, non-manifold topology is acceptable in Patran. The exception is in the creation of a B-rep
solid where a non-manifold edge is not allowed. The Verifying Surface Boundaries option detects non-
manifold edges as well as free edges.
Connectivity
In Figure 1-2, Figure 1-4, and Figure 1-6 in Parameterization, the axes for the parameters, , , and ,
have a unique orientation and location on the curve, surface and solid.
Depending on the orientation and location of the , , and axes, this defines a unique connectivity
for the curve, surface or solid.
For example, although the following two curves are identical, the connectivity is different for each curve
(note that the vertex IDs are reversed):
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Figure 1-14 Connectivity Possibilities for a Curve
For a four sided surface, there are a total of eight possible connectivity definitions. Two possible
connectivities are shown in Figure 1-15. (Again, notice that the vertex and edge IDs are different for each
surface.)
Figure 1-15 Two Possible Connectivities for a Surface
For a tri-parametric solid with six faces, there are a total of 24 possible connectivity definitions in Patran
- three orientations at each of the eight vertices. Two possible connectivities are shown in Figure 1-16.
Figure 1-16 Two Possible Connectivities for a Solid
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18
Plotting the Parametric Axes
Patran can plot the location and orientation of the parametric axes for the geometric entities by turning
on the Parametric Direction toggle on the Geometric Properties form, under the Display/Display
Properties/Geometric menu. See Preferences>Geometry (p. 467) in the Patran Reference Manual for
more information.
Modifying the Connectivity
For most geometric entities, you can modify the connectivity by altering the orientation and/or location
of the parametric axes by using the Geometry application’s Edit action’s Reverse method. See Overview
of the Edit Action Methods.
For solids, you can also control the location of the parametric origin under the Preferences/Geometry
menu and choose either the Patran Convention button or the PATRAN 2.5 Convention button for the
Solid Origin Location.
Effects of Parameterization, Connectivity and Topology in
Patran
The geometry’s parameterization and connectivity affect the geometry and finite element analysis model
in the following ways:
Defines Order of Internal Topologic IDs
The parameterization and connectivity for a curve, surface or solid define the order of the internal IDs of
their topologic entities. Patran stores these IDs internally and displays them when you cursor select a
vertex, edge or face. See Vertex, Edge and Face ID Assignments in Patran for more information.
Defines Positive Surface Normals
Using right hand rule by crossing a surface’s direction with its direction, it defines the surface’s
positive normal direction ( direction). This affects many areas of geometry and finite element creation,
including creating B-rep solids. See Building An Optimal Geometry Model for more information.
Defines Positive Pressure Load Directions
The parameterization and connectivity of a curve, surface or solid define the positive direction for a
pressure load, and it defines the surface’s top and bottom locations for an element variable pressure load.
See Create Structural LBCs Sets (p. 27) in the Patran Reference Manual for more information.
Helps Define Parametric Field Functions
If you reference a field function that was defined in parametric space, when creating a varying loads/BC
or a varying element or material property, the loads/BC values or the property values will depend on the
geometry’s parameterization and the orientation of the parametric axes. See Fields Forms (p. 210) in the
Patran Reference Manual for more information.
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1
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2
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3
19 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Concepts and Definitions
Defines Node and Element ID Order For IsoMesh
The Patran mapped mesher, IsoMesh, will use the geometric entity’s parameterization and connectivity
to define the order of the node and element IDs and the element connectivity. (The parameterization and
connectivity will not be used if the mesh will have a transition or change in the number of elements within
the surface or solid.) See IsoMesh (p. 13) in the Reference Manual - Part III for more information.
Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
Patran uses the Global Model Tolerance when it imports or accesses geometry, when it creates geometry,
or when it modifies existing geometry.
The Global Model Tolerance is found under the Preferences/Global menu. The default value is 0.005.
When creating geometry, if two points are within a distance of the Global Model Tolerance, then Patran
will only create the first point and not the second.
This rule also applies to curves, surfaces and solids. If the points that describe two curves, surfaces or
solids are within a distance of the Global Model Tolerance, then only the first curve, surface or solid will
be created, and not the second.
For more information on the Global Model Tolerance, see (p. 72) in the Patran Reference Manual.
Important:For models with dimensions which vary significantly from 10 units, MSC recommends you
set the Global Model Tolerance to .05% of the maximum model dimension.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Types of Geometry in Patran
20
Types of Geometry in Patran
Generally, there are four types of geometry objects in Patran:
1
• Point (default color is cyan)
• Parametric Curve (default color is yellow)
• Bi-Parametric Surface (default color is green)
• Tri-Parametric Solid (default color is dark blue)
Patran also can access, import, and create Trimmed Surfaces, B-rep Solids and Volume Solids. See
Trimmed Surfaces and Solids for more information.
You also can create parametric cubic curves, surfaces and solids, which are recognized by the
PATRAN 2 neutral file. See Parametric Cubic Geometry for more information.
For more information on the types of geometry that can be created, see Matrix of Geometry Types
Created.
Trimmed Surfaces
Trimmed surfaces are a special class of bi-parametric surfaces. Trimmed surfaces can be accessed from
an external CAD user file; they can be imported from an IGES or Express Neutral file; and they can be
created in Patran.
Unlike other types of bi-parametric surfaces, trimmed surfaces can have more than four edges, and they
can have one or more interior holes or cutouts.
Also, trimmed surfaces have an associated parent surface that is not displayed. A trimmed surface is
defined by identifying the closed active and inactive regions of the parent surface. This parent surface
defines the parameterization and curvature of the trimmed surface.
You can create three types of trimmed surfaces in Patran:
2
• General Trimmed Surface (default color is magenta)
• Simply Trimmed Surface (default color is green)
• Composite Trimmed Surface (default is magenta)
• Ordinary Composite Trimmed Surface (default color is green)
(Green is the default color for both a simply trimmed surface and a general, bi-parametric surface.)
1
The default colors are used if the Display Method is set to Entity Type, instead of Group, on the
Graphics Preferences form under the Preferences/Graphics menu.
2
The default colors are used if the Display Method is set to Entity Type, instead of Group, on the
Graphics Preferences form under the Preferences/Graphics menu.
21 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Types of Geometry in Patran
General Trimmed Surface
A general trimmed surface can have any number of outer edges and any number of inner edges which
describe holes or cutouts. These outer and inner edges are defined by a closed loop of chained curves.
(Chained curves can be created with the Create/Curve/Chain form. See Creating Chained Curves.) An
example is shown in Figure 1-17.
All general trimmed surfaces, whether they are accessed, imported or created, have a default color of
magenta.
1
Figure 1-17 General Trimmed Surface
Important:Simply trimmed surfaces and ordinary composite trimmed surfaces can be meshed with
IsoMesh or Paver. General trimmed surfaces and composite trimmed surfaces can only be
meshed with Paver. See Meshing Surfaces with IsoMesh or Paver (p. 13) in the Reference
Manual - Part III for more information. Also note that some geometric operations are not
currently possible with a general trimmed surface, e.g., a general trimmed surface can not
be used to create a triparametric solid.
1
The default colors are used if the Display Method is set to Entity Type, instead of Group, on the
Graphics Preferences form under the Preferences/Graphics menu.
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22
Simply Trimmed Surface
A simply trimmed surface can only have four outer edges. It cannot have any inner edges, or holes or
cutouts. A simply trimmed surface reparametrizes the bounded region of the parent and is called an
overparametrization. An example is shown in Figure 1-18. (A simply trimmed surface can have three
sides, with one of the four edges degenerating to a zero length edge.)
Like a general trimmed surface, a simply trimmed surface’s outer edges are defined by a closed loop of
chained curves. See Creating Chained Curves.
All simply trimmed surfaces, whether they are accessed, imported or created, have a default color of
green.
1
Figure 1-18 Simply Trimmed Surface
Sometimes a three of four sided region which define a trimmed surface will be created as a general
trimmed surface instead. This occurs when the overparametrization distorts the bounded region of the
parent to such an extent that it would be difficult to mesh and use for analysis.
Composite Trimmed Surface
The composite trimmed surface is a kind of supervisor surface that allows a collection of surfaces to be
considered as one surface defined within a specific boundary. This surface can also have holes in it.
Evaluations on the composite trimmed surface is similar to evaluations on the Patran trim surface
1
The default colors are used if the Display Method is set to Entity Type, instead of Group, on the
Graphics Preferences form under the Preferences/Graphics menu.
23 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Types of Geometry in Patran
(General Trimmed Surface). The big difference is that it is three to five times slower than ordinary
surfaces.
The composite trimmed surface should be considered a tool. Once the surface is built, it is a single entity,
yet processes on multiple surfaces, relieving the applications of the task of determining where and when
to move from one surface to another.
APPLICATION: The composite trimmed surface supervisor is a bounded PLANAR trim surface. It
acquires its name from the type of service it performs. Let us, for a moment, consider the composite
trimmed surface to be a cloud in the sky. The sun, being the light source behind the cloud, creating a
shadow on planet earth only in the area blocked by the cloud. The same is true with the composite
trimmed surface, except a view vector is given to determine the light direction. “Under Surfaces” replace
planet earth. The valid region on the “Under Surfaces” is defined by where the outline of the composite
trimmed surface appears.
STEPS_BUILDING: There are three basic steps in building a composite trimmed surface.
RULES:
1. The composite trimmed surface domain must not encompass any dead space. If any portion has
a vacancy (no “Under Surface” under it), unpredictable results will occur.
2. Processing along the view vector must yield a single intersection solution at any position on the
underlying surfaces within the composite trimmed surface’s domain.
Step 1 Creating the outer perimeter curve. In most cases this is a Patran curve chain entity.
Step 2 Selecting an acceptable view direction for the view vector and planar Composite
trimmed surface entity. The view vector is the most important aspect of building a
composite trimmed surface. The resulting view vector must yield only one
intersection solution at any position on the “Under Surfaces”. The user must select
the proper view for the location of the composite trimmed surface with some
forethought and eliminate the possibility of any of the underlying surfaces
wrapping around in back of one another. In some cases this may not be possible!
The user must then create more than one composite trimmed surface.
Additionally, since the composite trimmed surface supervisor is PLANAR, it
cannot encompass more than a 180 degree field of view. An example of this would
be a cylindrically shaped group of surfaces. It would probably take three properly
placed composite trimmed surface to represent it; one for every 120 degrees of
rotation.
Step 3 Determines which currently displayed surfaces will be become part of the
composite trimmed surface domain (“Under Surfaces”). The user may individually
select the correct underlying surfaces or, if wanting to select all visible surfaces,
the user must place into “ERASE” all surfaces which might cause multiple
intersections and then select the remaining visible surfaces.
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24
Ordinary Composite Trimmed Surface
The only difference between an Ordinary Composite Trimmed Surface and the Composite Trimmed
Surface is that this type will have only four edges comprising the outer loop and no inner loops.
Solids
There are three types of solids that can be accessed or imported, or created in Patran:
1
• Tri-Parametric Solid (default color is dark blue)
• B-rep Solid (default color is white)
• Volume Solid (default color is pink or light red)
on (p. 2) lists the types of solids created with each Geometry Application method.
Tri-Parametric Solid
All solids in Patran, except for B-rep solids and volume solids, are tri-parametric solids. Tri-parametric
solids are parameterized on the surface, as well as inside the solid. Tri-parametric solids can only have
four to six faces with no interior voids or holes.
Tri-parametric solids can be meshed with IsoMesh or TetMesh.
B-rep Solid
A B-rep solid is formed from a group of topologically congruent surfaces that define a completely closed
volume. Only its outer surfaces or faces are parameterized and not the interior. An example is shown in
Figure 1-19.
The group of surfaces that define the B-rep solid are its shell. A B-rep shell defines the exterior of the
solid, as well as any interior voids or holes. Shells can be composed of bi-parametric surfaces and/or
trimmed surfaces.
B-rep solids can be created with the Create/Solid/B-rep form. See Creating a Boundary Representation
(B-rep) Solid on using the form.
1
The default colors are used if the Display Method is set to Entity Type, instead of Group, on the
Graphics Preferences form under the Preferences/Graphics menu.
Note: IsoMesh will create hexagonal elements if the solid has five or six faces, but some wedge
elements will be created for the five faced solid. IsoMesh will create a tetrahedron mesh for
a four faced solid. See Meshing Solids (p. 14) in the Reference Manual - Part III.
25 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Types of Geometry in Patran
Figure 1-19 B-rep Solid in Patran
B-rep solids are meshed with TetMesh. See Meshing Solids (p. 14) in the Reference Manual - Part III for
more information.
Parametric Cubic Geometry
Parametric cubic geometry is a special class of parameterized geometry. Parametric cubic geometry is
supported in Patran by the PATRAN 2 neutral file and the IGES file for import and export.
You have the option to create parametric cubic curves, bi-parametric cubic surfaces and tri-parametric
cubic solids, by pressing the PATRAN 2 Convention button found on most Geometry application forms.
Parametric cubic geometry can also be created in Patran, which are referred to as “grids”, “lines”,
“patches” and “hyperpatches.”
Parametric cubic geometry is defined by a parametric cubic equation. For example, a parametric cubic
curve is represented by the following cubic equation:
(1-6)
where represents the general coordinate of the global coordinates X,Y, and Z; , , , and
are arbitrary constants; and is a parameter in the range of .
For more information on parametric cubic geometry, see Patran Reference Manual.
Note: Unless you intend to export the geometry using the PATRAN 2 neutral file, in most
situations, you do not need to press the PATRAN 2 Convention button to create parametric
cubic geometry.
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2
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Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Types of Geometry in Patran
26
Limitations on Parametric Cubic Geometry
There are some limitations on parametric cubic geometry.
Limits on Types of Curvature
There are limits to the types of curvature or shapes that are allowed for a parametric cubic curve, surface
or solid (see Figure 1-20).
(1-7) and (1-8) below represent the first and second derivatives of (1-6):
(1-7)
(1-8)
(1-7) shows that a parametric cubic curve can only have two points with zero slope and (1-8) shows that
it can only have one point of inflection, as shown in Figure 1-20.
Figure 1-20 Limitations of the Parametric Cubic Curvature
Limits on Accuracy of Subtended Arcs
When you subtend an arc using a parametric cubic curve, surface or solid, the difference between the true
arc radius and the arc radius calculated by the parametric cubic equation will increase. That is, as the
angle of a subtended arc for a parametric cubic entity increases, the accuracy of the entity from the true
representation of the arc decreases.
Figure 1-21 shows that as the subtended angle of a parametric cubic entity increases, the percent error
also increases substantially beyond 75 degrees.
When creating arcs with parametric cubic geometry, MSC recommends using Figure 1-21 to determine
the maximum arc length and its percent error that is acceptable to you.
For example, if you create an arc length of 90 degrees, it will have an error of 0.0275% from the true arc
length.
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27 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Types of Geometry in Patran
For most geometry models, MSC recommends arc lengths represented by parametric cubic geometry
should be 90 degrees or less. For a more accurate model, the parametric cubic arc lengths should be 30
degrees or less.
Figure 1-21 Maximum Percent Error for Parametric Cubic Arc
Matrix of Geometry Types Created
All Geometry Application forms use the following Object menu terms:
• Point
• Curve
• Surface
• Solid
• Plane
• Vector
• Coordinate Frame
Patran will create a specific geometric type of the parametric curve, bi-parametric surface and tri-
parametric solid based on the method used for the Create action or Edit action.
Table 1-1, and list the types of geometry created for each Create or Edit action method. The tables also
list if each method can create parametric cubic curves, surfaces or solids by pressing the PATRAN 2
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Types of Geometry in Patran
28
Convention button on the application form. (Parametric cubic geometry is recognized by the PATRAN 2
neutral file for export.)
For more information on each Create or Edit action method, see Overview of Geometry Create Action
and/or Overview of the Edit Action Methods.

Table 1-1 Types of Curves Created in Patran
Create or Edit Method Type of Curve
PATRAN 2
Convention?
(Parametric Cubic)
XYZ Parametric Cubic Not Applicable
Arc3Point Arc Yes
2D Arc2Point Arc Yes
2D Arc3Point Arc Yes
2D Circle Circle Yes
Conic Parametric Cubic N/A
Extract Curve On Surface Yes
Fillet Parametric Cubic N/A
Fit Parametric Cubic N/A
Intersect PieceWise Cubic Polynomial Yes
Involute Parametric Cubic N/A
Normal Parametric Cubic N/A
2D Normal Parametric Cubic N/A
2D ArcAngles Arc Yes
Point Parametric Cubic N/A
Project Curve On Surface Yes
PWL Parametric Cubic N/A
Revolve Arc Yes
Spline, Loft Spline option PieceWise Cubic Polynomial Yes
Spline, B-Spline option PieceWise Rational Polynomial Yes
Spline, B-Spline option NURB* Yes
TanCurve Parametric Cubic N/A
TanPoint Parametric Cubic N/A
Chain Composite Curve No
Manifold Curve On Surface Yes
29 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Types of Geometry in Patran
*NURB splines are created if the NURBS Accelerator toggle is pressed OFF (default is ON)
on the Geometry Preferences form, found under the Preferences/Geometry menu. This is true whether
you create the spline in Patran or if you import the spline from an IGES file. See
Preferences>Geometry (p. 467) in the Patran Reference Manual for more information. If the NURBS
Accelerator is ON, PieceWise Rational Polynomial splines will be created instead.
Table 1-2 Types of Surfaces Created in Patran
Create or Edit Method Type of Surface
PATRAN 2
Convention?
(Parametric Cubic)
XYZ Parametric Bi-Cubic Not Applicable
Curve Curve Interpolating Surface Yes
Decompose Trimmed Surface Yes
Edge Generalized Coons Surface Yes
Extract Surface On Solid Yes
Extrude Extruded Surface Yes
Fillet Parametric Bi-Cubic N/A
Glide Parametric Bi-Cubic N/A
Match Parametric Bi-Cubic N/A
Normal Sweep Normal Surface N/A
Revolve Surface of Revolution Yes
bordered Ruled Surface No
Vertex Curve Interpolating Surface Yes
Trimmed (Surface Option) Trimmed Surface No
Trimmed (Planar Option) Trimmed Surface No
Trimmed (Composite Option) Composite Trimmed Surface No
Table 1-3 Types of Solids Created in Patran
Create or Edit Method Type of Solid
PATRAN 2
Convention?
(Parametric Cubic)
XYZ Parametric Tri-Cubic Not Applicable
Extrude Extruded Solid Yes
Face Solid 5Face, Solid 6Face Yes
Glide Glide Solid Yes
Normal Sweep Normal Solid Yes
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Types of Geometry in Patran
30
Revolve Solid of Revolution Yes
Surface Surface Interpolating Solid Yes
Vertex Parametric Tri-Cubic N/A
B-rep Ordinary Body No
Decompose Tri-Parametric Yes
Table 1-3 Types of Solids Created in Patran
Create or Edit Method Type of Solid
PATRAN 2
Convention?
(Parametric Cubic)
31 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
A well defined geometry model simplifies the building of the optimal finite element analysis model. A
poorly defined geometry model complicates, or in some situations, makes it impossible to build or
complete the analysis model.
In computer aided engineering (CAE) analysis, most geometry models do not consist of neatly trimmed,
planar surfaces or solids. In some situations, you may need to modify the geometry to build a congruent
model, create a set of degenerate surfaces or solids, or decompose a trimmed surface or B-rep solid.
The following sections will explain how to:
• Build a congruent model.
• Verify and align surface normals.
• Build trimmed surfaces.
• Decompose trimmed surfaces into three- or four-sided surfaces.
• Build a B-rep solid.
• Build degenerate surfaces or solids.
Building a Congruent Model
Patran requires adjacent surfaces or solids be topologically congruent so that the nodes will be coincident
at the common boundaries. See Topological Congruency and Meshing for more information.
For example, Figure 1-22 shows surfaces 1, 2 and 3 which are incongruent. When meshing with Isomesh
or Paver, Patran cannot guarantee the nodes will coincide at the edges shared by surfaces 1, 2 and 3.
Figure 1-22 Incongruent Set of Surfaces
To make the surfaces in Figure 1-22 congruent, you can:
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
32
• Use the Edit/Surface/Edge Match form with the Surface-Point option. See Matching Surface
Edges on using the form.
• Or, break surface 1 with the Edit/Surface/Break form. See Surface Break Options on using the
form.
The following describes the method of using the Edit/Surface/Break form.
To make surfaces 1 through 3 congruent, we will break surface 1 into surfaces 4 and 5, as shown in
Figure 1-23:
Figure 1-23 Congruent Set of Surfaces
The entries for the Edit/Surface/Break form are shown below:
33 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Since Auto Execute is ON, we do not need to press the Apply button to execute the form.
Figure 1-24 Cursor Locations for Surface Break
Building Optimal Surfaces
Building optimal surfaces will save time and it will result in a better idealized finite element analysis
model of the design or mechanical part.
Optimal surfaces consist of a good overall shape with no sharp corners, and whose normal is aligned in
the same direction with the other surfaces in the model.
u Geometry
Action: Edit
Object: Surface
Method: Break
Option: Point
Delete Original
Surfaces
Pressing this button will delete surface 1, after
the break.
Surface List: Surface 1 Cursor select or enter the ID for surface 1.
Break Point List Point 10 Cursor select or enter the ID for point 10, as
shown in Figure 1-24.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
34
Avoiding Sharp Corners
In general, MSC.Software Corporation (MSC) recommends that you avoid sharp inside corners when
creating surfaces. That is, you should generally try to keep the inside corners of the surfaces to 45 degrees
or more.
The reason is that when you mesh surfaces with quadrilateral elements, the shapes of the elements are
determined by the overall shape of the surface, see Figure 1-25. The more skewed the quadrilateral
elements are, the less reasonable your analysis results might be.
For further recommendations, please consult the vendor documentation for your finite element analysis
code.
Figure 1-25 Surfaces With and Without Sharp Corners
Verifying and Aligning Surface Normals Using Edit/Surface/Reverse
Patran can determine the positive normal direction for each surface by using right hand rule and crossing
the parametric and axes of a surface. Depending on the surface’s connectivity, each surface could
have different normal directions, as shown in Figure 1-26.
Note: You can use the surface display lines to predict what the surface element shapes will look
like before meshing. You can increase or decrease the number of display lines under the
menus Display/Display Properties/Geometric. See Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the
Patran Reference Manual.
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1
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2
35 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Figure 1-26 Opposing Normals for Two Surfaces
The normal direction of a surface affects finite element applications, such defining the positive pressure
load direction, the top and bottom surface locations for a variable pressure load, and the element
connectivity.
Use the Edit/Surface/Reverse form to display the surface normal vectors, and to reverse or align the
normals for a group of surfaces. See Reversing Surfaces on using the form.
Example of Verifying and Aligning Surface Normals
For example, Figure 1-27 shows a group of eight surfaces that we want to display the normal vectors, and
if necessary, reverse or align the normals. To display the surface normals without reversing, do the
following:
Important:In general, you should try to maintain the same normal direction for all surfaces in a model.
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Building An Optimal Geometry Model
36
Figure 1-27 Group of Surfaces to Verify Normals
You should see red arrows drawn on each surface which represent the surface normal vectors, as shown
in Figure 1-28.
u Geometry
Action: Edit
Object: Surface
Method: Reverse
Surface List Surface 1:8 Make sure you turn Auto Execute OFF before
cursor selecting surfaces 1-8.
And do not press Apply. Apply will reverse
the normals.
Draw Normal Vectors
37 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Figure 1-28 Surface Normal Vectors
Align the normals by reversing the normals for surfaces 1 through 4:
Figure 1-29 shows the updated normal directions which are now aligned.
Figure 1-29 Aligned Surface Normal Vectors
Surface List Surface 1:4
-Apply-
Draw Normal Vectors This will plot the upda
directions.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
38
Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces
Trimmed surfaces are preferred for modeling a complex part with many sides. However, there may be
areas in your model where you may want to decompose, or break, a trimmed surface into a series of three
or four sided surfaces.
One reason is that you want to mesh the surface area with IsoMesh instead of Paver. (IsoMesh can only
mesh surfaces that have three or four edges.) Another reason is that you want to create tri-parametric
solids from the decomposed three or four sided surfaces and mesh with IsoMesh.
To decompose a trimmed surface, use the Geometry application’s Create/Surface/Decompose form. See
Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces, 254 on using the form.
When entered in the Create/Surface/Decompose form, the select menu that appears at the bottom of the
screen will show the following icons:
Point/Vertex/Edge Point/Interior Point. This will select a point for decomposing in the
order listed. If not point or vertex is found, the point closest to edge will be used or a point
will be projected onto the surface.
Use cursor select or directly input an existing point on the surface. If point is not on the
surface, it will be projected onto the surface.
Use to cursor select a point location on an edge of a trimmed surface.
Use to cursor select a point location inside a trimmed surface.
Use to cursor select a vertex of a trimmed surface.
39 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Example
Figure 1-30 shows trimmed surface 4 with seven edges. We will decompose surface 4 into four four-sided
surfaces.
Figure 1-30 Trimmed Surface to be Decomposed
Our first decomposed surface will be surface 3, as shown in Figure 1-31. The figure shows surface 3
cursor defined by three vertex locations and one point location along an edge. The point locations can be
selected in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.
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40
Figure 1-31 Point Locations for Decomposed Surface 4
Figure 1-32 shows the remaining decomposed surfaces 5, 6 and 7 and the select menu icons used to cursor
define the surfaces. Again, the point locations can be selected in a clockwise or counterclockwise
direction.
Figure 1-32 Point Locations for Decomposed Surfaces 5, 6 and 7
41 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Use Surface Display Lines as a Guide
Generally, the surface display lines are a good guide to where the trimmed surface can be decomposed.
MSC recommends increasing the display lines to four or more. The display lines are controlled under the
menus Display/Display Properties/Geometric. See Preferences>Geometry (p. 467) in the Patran
Reference Manual for more information.
Building B-rep Solids
Boundary represented (B-rep) solids are created by using the Geometry application’s Create/Solid/B-rep
form. See Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid, 337 for more information on the form.
There are three rules to follow when you create a B-rep solid in Patran:
1. The group of surfaces that will define the B-rep solid must fully enclose a volume.
2. The surfaces must be topologically congruent. That is, the adjacent surfaces must share a common
edge.
3. The normal surface directions for the exterior shell must all point outward, as shown in
Figure 1-33. That is, the normals must point away from the material of the body. This will be done
automatically during creation as long as rules 1 and 26 are satisfied.
B-rep solids created in Patran can only be meshed with TetMesh.
Figure 1-33 Surface Normals for B-rep Solid
Important:At this time, Patran can only create a B-rep solid with an exterior shell, and no interior
shells.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
42
Building Degenerate Surfaces and Solids
A bi-parametric surface can degenerate from four edges to three edges. A tri-parametric solid can
degenerate from six faces to four or five faces (a tetrahedron or a wedge, respectively).
The following describes the best procedures for creating a degenerate triangular surface and a degenerate
tetrahedron and a wedge shaped solid.
Building a Degenerate Surface (Triangle)
There are two ways you can create a degenerate, three-sided surface:
• Use the Create/Surface/Edge form with the 3 Edge option. See Creating Surfaces from Edges
(Edge Method) on using the form.
• Or, use the Create/Surface/Curve form with the 2 Curve option. See Creating Surfaces Between
2 Curves on using the form.
Figure 1-34 illustrates the method of using the Create/Surface/Curve form with the 2 Curve option.
Notice that the apex of the surface is defined by a zero length curve by using the Curve select menu icon
shown in Figure 1-34.
Figure 1-34 Creating a Degenerate Surface Using Create/Surface/Curve
Important:IsoMesh will create hexahedron elements only, if the solid has six faces. Some wedge
elements will be created for a solid with five faces. IsoMesh will create tetrahedron
elements only, for a solid with four faces. TetMesh will create tetrahedron elements only,
for all shaped solids.
43 Chapter 1: Introduction to Geometry Modeling
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
Building a Degenerate Solid
Four Sided Solid (Tetrahedron)
A four sided (tetrahedron) solid can be created by using the Create/Solid/Surface form with the 2 Surface
option, where the starting surface is defined by a point for the apex of the tetrahedron, and the ending
surface is an opposing surface or face, as shown in Figure 1-35.
Five Sided Solid (Pentahedron)
A five sided (pentahedron) solid can be created by using:
• The Create/ Solid/Face form with the 5 Face option. See Creating Solids from Faces on using the
form.
• The Create/Solid/Surface form with the 2 Surface option. See Creating Solids from Surfaces
(Surface Method) on using the form.
Figure 1-36 and Figure 1-37 illustrate using the Create/Solid/Surface form to create the pentahedron and
a wedge.
Figure 1-35 Creating a Tetrahedron Using Create/Solid/Surface
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Building An Optimal Geometry Model
44
Figure 1-36 Creating a Pentahedron Using Create/Solid/Surface
Figure 1-37 Creating a Wedge Using Create/Solid/Surface
Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
2
Accessing, Importing &
Exporting Geometry

Overview 46

Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry 47

PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry 57
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview
46
Overview
Patran can access geometry from an external CAD system user file. Geometry can also be imported (or
read) from a PATRAN 2 Neutral file or from an IGES file. Patran can export (or write) some or all
geometry to an external PATRAN 2 Neutral file or IGES file.
Geometry can be accessed or imported into the user database either by using the File/Import menus or by
using the File/CAD Model Access menus on the Patran main form. Geometry can be exported from the
database using the File/Export menus.
For more information on executing the File/Import and File/Export forms, see File>Import, 77 and
File>Export (p. 196) in the Patran Reference Manual.
For more information on accessing CAD models, see Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry, 47.
For more information on import and export support of geometry for the PATRAN 2 Neutral file, see
PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry, 57.
For more information on which IGES entities are supported by Patran for importing and exporting, see
IGES Entities Supported for Import, 107 and Geometric Entity Types and their Supported IGES
Equivalents (p. 206) in the Patran Reference Manual.
47 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
Patran can directly access geometry from an external CAD file for the following CAD systems that are
listed in Table 2-1.
This unique Direct Geometry Access (DGA) feature allows you to access the CAD geometry and its
topology that are contained in the CAD file. Once the geometry is accessed, you can build upon or modify
the accessed geometry in Patran, mesh the geometry, and assign the loads and boundary conditions as
well as the element properties directly to the geometry.
You can execute a specific Patran CAD Access module by using the File/Importing Models menus on
the main form. See File>Import (p. 77) in the Patran Reference Manual for more information.
For more information on using Patran ProENGINEER, see Importing Pro/ENGINEER Files (p. 138) in
the Patran Reference Manual.
For more information on using Patran Unigraphics, see Importing Unigraphics Files (p. 149) in the Patran
Reference Manual.
Accessing Geometry Using Patran Unigraphics
If Patran Unigraphics is licensed at your site, you can access the geometric entities from an external
EDS/Unigraphics part file.
Features of Patran Unigraphics
• Unigraphics part file can be accessed in Patran using one of two methods. The first method is
express file based import. The second method is direct parasolid transmit file based import. In
both cases, Unigraphics geometry is imported and stored in a Patran database.
• Patran uses the original geometry definitions of the accessed entities, without any
approximations. Parasolid evaluators are directly used for entities imported via the direct
parasolid method.
• CAD Access filters are provided that can be selected based on the defined EDS/Unigraphics
entity types, levels, and layers.
Table 2-1 Supported CAD Systems and Their Patran CAD Access Modules
Supported CAD System Patran CAD Access Module *
*Each Patran CAD Access module must be licensed before you can access the appropriate external
CAD file. You can find out which Patran products are currently licensed by pressing the
MSC.Software Corporation (MSC) icon on the main form, and then pressing the
License button on the form that appears.
EDS/Unigraphics Patran Unigraphics
Pro/ENGINEER by Parametric Technology Patran ProENGINEER
CATIA by Dassault Systemes Patran CATIA
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
48
• You can automatically create Patran groups when accessing the geometry based on the defined
entity types, levels, or layers.
For more information on using Patran Unigraphics, see Importing Unigraphics Files (p. 149) in the Patran
Reference Manual.
Tips For Accessing EDS/Unigraphics Geometry for Express File Based Import
1. When you execute EDS/Unigraphics, make sure the solid to be accessed is topologically
congruent with no gaps (see Figure 2-1). For more information, see Topological Congruency and
Meshing, 13.
Verify that the edges of the solid’s adjacent faces share the same end points or vertices, and that
there are no gaps between the faces.
You can improve Patran Unigraphics’ performance by reducing the number of entities to be
processed by using the Entity Type filter on the Patran Import form and unselect or un-highlight
all entities of a particular type that you do not want, before you access the part file. For example,
you can unselect the entity type, “Bounded-Plane”, to eliminate all bounded plane entities. For the
direct parasolid import option, the entity type filter can be used for wire body/sheet body/solid
body only.
Put those entities in EDS/Unigraphics that you want to access into specific layers. Then select to
only those layers in the Patran Import form before importing the part.
Make sure the Patran Global Model Tolerance is reset to an appropriate value if you will be
accessing long thin surfaces and solids with small dimensions (default is 0.005). For example, set
the tolerance value so that it is smaller than the smallest edge length (greater than 10.0E-6) in the
model. This will improve model usability on some models.
Figure 2-1 Topologically Congruent Surfaces for Patran Unigraphics
49 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
Tips For Accessing Parasolid Geometry
This section provides helpful hints and recommendations regarding the usage of Patran as it pertains to
Parasolid integration.
Solid Geometry Guidelines
Disassembling
Solids
The Edit/Solid/Disassemble function in the Geometry Application can be used
to create simply trimmed surfaces (green 4-sided) with one command. This can
be a big timesaver if the B-rep Solid is being disassembled to eventually create
tri-parametric solids (blue) for Hex meshing. This command will convert all 4-
sided B-rep Solid faces into simply trimmed surfaces (green) which then can
be used to construct tri-parametric solids.
Solids Break If difficulties are encountered in breaking a solid:
1. First disassemble the original solid (Edit/Solid/Disassemble).
2. Try to reconstruct a new solid using Create/Solid/B-rep. If this is
unsuccessful due to gaps between surfaces, use the Edit/Surface/Sew
and try again. If a solid is created, continue with the break operation.
3. If steps (a) and (b) were unsuccessful:
• Break the trimmed surfaces from the disassembled solid (step (a)). If this
operation is slow, refit the surfaces (Edit/Surface/Refit) before the break
operation.
• Create the additional surfaces in the interior required to enclose the
individual solid volumes.
• Create the new individual solids using Create/Solid/B-rep. If the B-rep can
not be created due to surface gaps, use Edit/Surface/Sew and try again.
Global Model
Tolerance
After successful access of Unigraphics geometry via the Parasolid Direct
method, the Global Model Tolerance will be set relative to the models
geometric characteristics. This tolerance is the recommended tolerance for
Patran applications to use for best results.
Solids -
Group Transform
Group transform for solids is not supported. For information about
transforming solids in pre-release format, see , 50.
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Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
50
Meshing Guidelines
Hybrid
TetMesher -
Global Edge
Lengths
The Hybrid tetmesher only accepts global edge lengths for mesh criteria if
attempting to directly mesh a solid. If you encounter difficulties, decrease the global
edge length.
Hybrid
TetMesher -
Mesh Control
The Hybrid tetmesher does not write nodes that lie on solid edges into the mesh seed
table. This limits the ability of the Hybrid tetmesher to recognize existing meshes.
For example, if your requirements are: (1) to match adjacent meshes (i.e., multiple
solids); (2) that the mesh be able to recognize a hard curve/point; or (3) to define
mesh seed prior to solid meshing, follow these steps:
• Define any desired hard points/curves and mesh seeds.
• Surface mesh the geometry using the paver, creating triangular elements which
completely enclose the desired geometric volume.
• Invoke the Hybrid tetmesher, using the previously created triangular elements as
input.
Paver If the paver exhibits difficulties meshing some geometry or making congruent
meshes:
• Delete any existing mesh on the problematic geometry.
• Perform an Edit/Surface/Refit.
• Do an Edit/Surface/Edge Match if congruency is an issue.
• Mesh again.
51 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
PRE-RELEASE CAPABILITY: Solid Geometry Guidelines
Solids - Group
Transform
Group transform for solids is not supported. If a transformed solid is required,
consider the following alternatives: (1) Perform the transformation in the native
CAD system and then again access the desired geometry in Patran; (2) Enable an
environment variable before executing Patran. At the system prompt, type:
setenv P3_UG_ENTITY_FILTER 1
which allows the transformation of Parasolid solid geometry and perform the
transformation. If a solid is successfully constructed, continue as planned. If not,
either:
• Mesh the original solid and transform the resulting finite element mesh, with
the limitation being that element properties and loads/boundary conditions
will have to be assigned directly to the finite elements; or
• Try to reconstruct a B-rep solid from the constituent surfaces that result from
the transformation, by first using Geometry tools such as Edit/Surface/Sew,
Edit/Surface/Edge Match, etc., to reconnect the surfaces and then use
Create/Solid/B-rep.
• Initially access the original geometry (Unigraphics only) using the Express
Translation method. If a solid is successfully imported, a transformation of
the geometry is supported.
Surface/Curve Geometry Guidelines
Surface Congruency Unigraphics does not automatically enforce surface congruency. Typically,
CAE applications require congruent meshes; therefore, geometric surfaces
must usually be congruent. Accessing geometry through Parasolid simply
retrieves the Unigraphics geometry exactly as it is defined; an explicit action
must be taken to sew geometric surfaces, otherwise they will not be congruent.
It is recommended that models with surfaces be sewn up in Unigraphics prior
to access by Patran. Patran offers the ability to also invoke the Unigraphics
surface sew tool; in fact, this is the default operation when accessing Sheet
Bodies.
Unigraphics Sew
With Verify During
Geometry Access
“Unigraphics Sew” and “Verify Boundary” toggles are, by default, ON during
import. The Verification entails placement of markers at all incongruent
surface edges, thus allowing a user to quickly identify whether the Unigraphics
Sew was completely (or partially) successful. The markers may be removed
using the Broom icon.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
52
Problem
Unigraphics Entities
From Import
Patran detects three different types of anomalies during Unigraphics part file
import:
a) Suspect939 Entities: Sometimes Unigraphics needs to take special actions
to convert surfaces from earlier version parts. These surfaces are attributed
with “Suspect939.” Although for the most part these surfaces are usable,
Unigraphics recommends that these surfaces be replaced. As such, Patran will
not attempt to include these surfaces in the Unigraphics sewing, and we
recommend that these surfaces be refitted once imported into Patran. You will
find these surfaces in a group named, <model_name>_UG_SUSPECT.
b) Invalid Entities: Before importing the Unigraphics model, Patran will check
each surface and curve entities to ensure consistency and validity.
Occasionally, some entities do not pass the checks. These invalid entities will
be excluded from both UG sewing and Patran import. If you see such a
message in the invoke window, you should go back to UG to ensure the model
is valid. Please reference the next section, Unigraphics Model Checks, 53 for
steps to do this check. One recommended way is to refit/reconstruct the surface
in Unigraphics and then reimport it into Patran.
If UG sewing is turned on for the Patran import, there is a chance that invalid
entities are created by the UG sew. These entities will be brought into Patran
and put into a group named, <model_name>_UG_INVALID. As there is no
guarantee that entities in this group will work with any applications, we
strongly recommend you first commit/save the Patran database and then
reconstruct these bodies if possible.
c) Gap Surfaces: Sometimes surfaces, that are degenerate or are/close to being
zero area, appear in the model. These surfaces are called “gap surfaces.” If
there are any such gap surfaces, they will be in a group named,
<model_name>_GAP_SURFACE. Please inspect the imported model and
determine if these gap surfaces should be removed from the model.
Surface/Curve Geometry Guidelines
53 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
Unigraphics Model
Checks
Unigraphics provides geometry evaluation tools which are extremely useful in
judging the quality of a model. Here are some geometry/topology checks
Unigraphics can perform and provide results with any UG part: (1) In
Unigraphics V13.0, “Info” is available at the top menu bar, under
Info/Analysis/Examine Geometry. If you use this on surfaces and any are ill-
defined, they will be flagged as “suspect”. (2) In Unigraphics V13.0, Info is
available at the top menu bar. To run all checks:
• Use Info->Analysis->Examine Geometry...
• Choose “Set All Checks”, then “OK”.
• Choose “Select All” to check the entire model currently selectable.
• NOTE: Default Distance tolerance is 0.001 units and Default Angle
tolerance is 0.5 units.
Patran Surface Sew In addition to accessing the Unigraphics surface sew tool, Patran offers an
additional capability to sew surfaces beyond what Unigraphics supports (e.g.,
resolution of T-edges). If the Unigraphics surface sew does not resolve all
incongruences, try using the Patran surface sew as well. This capability can be
accessed through Edit/Surface/Sew in the Geometry application. If both the
Unigraphics and Patran surface sew tools cannot remove all of the gaps and
incongruencies, then two options are available. The first option is to refit all of
the surfaces (Edit/Surface/Refit). Sometimes, after this operation, these
surfaces can be sewn together (Edit/Surface/Sew).
The other option for sewing the model using Patran surface sewing is to
increase the global tolerance in Patran and sew the model again. Changing the
global tolerance in Patran is generally not recommended, but in this case may
be necessary. The necessity of increasing the global tolerance is determined by
checking the incongruent edges of the model (Verify/Surface/Boundary) to see
if they share vertices, or by the gap closure operation when gaps cannot be
closed between surface since the edge curves are too far apart. The tolerance
value should be set to a value just larger than the distance between the vertices
to be equivalenced (vertices which should be shared at the ends of incongruent
curves), or just larger than the “allowable gap closure tolerance” which is
issued by the sewing (or edge match) operation.
(Note that there are cases where sewing will report that gaps exist which are
not really gaps. This is because the operation of checking for gaps does not
necessarily know about the engineering intent of the model. We suggest that
the user check the gaps reported to make sure that they are gaps. Furthermore,
we suggest that the global tolerance be increased conservatively, e.g., double
the tolerance instead of increasing it by an order of magnitude.)
Surface/Curve Geometry Guidelines
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Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
54
Accessing Geometry Using Patran ProENGINEER
If Patran ProENGINEER is licensed at your site, you can access the geometric entities from an external
Pro/ENGINEER part file.
You can execute Patran ProENGINEER either from Patran or from Pro/ENGINEER by doing one of the
following:
Refitting Geometry The technique of refitting geometry has been identified as a potentially viable
method of removing problematic geometry that prevents subsequent meshing,
application of LBC’s, editing, transforming, etc. Edit/Curve/Refit and
Edit/Surface/Refit are available under the Geometry application. These
functions will more regularly parameterize poorly parameterized geometry
(for surfaces, this typically involves those with compound curvature), which
can currently lead to difficulties in successfully building CAE models.
Congruency and boundary definitions are retained.
Edit/Surface/Refit As previously mentioned, the Edit/Surface/Refit function in the Geometry
application can be used to successfully handle problematic Sheet Body
geometry. The situations where this applies include:
• Accessing geometry with the Unigraphics Sew option disabled with
subsequent attempts to make the surfaces congruent by using Patran’s
surface sew, edge match, etc.
• Difficulties rendering, meshing, edge matching, disassembling,
transforming, etc.
• Surfaces that result from disassembling solid geometry (i.e., for regioning).
Curves Coincident
With Surface and
Solid Edges
Wire Bodies coincident with Sheet Body and Solid Body edges are not
equivalenced. This is a different behavior from what occurs if the “Express
Translation” method is used. If coincident curves are not detected by the user,
they may, for example, apply a Loads/Boundary Condition to what they
believe is a surface or solid edge, when in fact they are applying it to a curve.
To avoid this situation:
• Move all Wire Bodies to a separate group and post only when required.
• If Wire Bodies are accessed, use the new Geometry function
Edit/Point/Equivalence to connect the curve and surface/solid vertices.
• Disable access of Wire Bodies and only access when needed.
Surface/Curve Geometry Guidelines
55 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
Executing Patran ProENGINEER From Patran
Execute Patran ProENGINEER from Patran by using the File/Import... menu and make sure the
Pro/ENGINEER button is pressed on the Import form. See Importing Pro/ENGINEER Files (p. 138) in the
Patran Reference Manual for more information.
Executing Patran ProENGINEER From Pro/ENGINEER
Execute Patran ProENGINEER from Pro/ENGINEER by doing the following:
1. Execute Pro/ENGINEER by entering:
p3_proe
p3_proe will ask for the command name to run Pro/ENGINEER. Press <CR> if you want to
accept the default command pro.
Enter the command name for running Pro/ENGINEER.
[pro]?: <cr>
Open the Pro/ENGINEER assembly file or part file. Then, select
the Pro/ENGINEER menus in the following order:
File
Export
Model
Patran Geom
The Patran menu will list four options:
Filter
Run Patran
Create .db
Create .geo
You can select any one of the above four options.
If Filter is selected:
• A menu appears which allows the user to select:
Datum Points
Datum Curves
Datum Surfaces
Datum Planes
Coordinate System Datums
for output to the intermediated .geo file. (Default = no datum entities).
If Run Patran is selected:
Note: Make sure Patran ProENGINEER has been properly installed by following the instructions
in Module and Preference Setup (Ch. 3) in the Patran Installation and Operations Guide
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Direct Geometry Access of CAD Geometry
56
• A Patran ProENGINEER intermediate.geo file will be created from the current
Pro/ENGINEER object in memory.
• Patran will automatically be executed and a database will be created and opened.
• The Patran ProENGINEER intermediate.geo file containing the Pro/ENGINEER geometry
will be loaded into the Patran database, and both Pro/ENGINEER and Patran will remain
executing.
If Create .db is selected:
• A Patran ProENGINEER intermediate.geo file will be created from the current
Pro/ENGINEER object in memory.
• A batch job will be submitted in background mode that will:
One, execute Patran and create and open a database.
Two, load the.geo file into the Patran database.
And, three, close the database and exit Patran.
If Create .geo is selected, a Patran ProENGINEER intermediate.geo file will be created from the
current Pro/ENGINEER object in memory.
For more information on the Patran ProENGINEER intermediate.geo file, see Executing Patran
ProENGINEER From Pro/ENGINEER (p3_proe) (p. 147) in the Patran Reference Manual.
57 Chapter 2: Accessing, Importing & Exporting Geometry
PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic
Geometry
The PATRAN 2 Neutral file is supported by MSC.Software Corporation’s Patran.
With the PATRAN 2 neutral file, Patran can import or export only parametric cubic geometry by
executing the File/Import menus on the main form.
Patran cannot export non-parametric cubic geometry using the PATRAN 2 Neutral file. Instead, you may
use export the entire geometry model using the IGES file.
Depending on Geometry application methods used to create the geometry, you may or may not be able
to create parametric cubic curves, surfaces or solids. Also, some geometry Create action methods can
generate only parametric cubic geometry.
For information on how to import or export a PATRAN 2 Neutral file, see Importing PATRAN 2.5 Neutral
Files, 92 and Exporting to a PATRAN 2.5 Neutral File (p. 196) in the Patran Reference Manual.
For the definition of parametric cubic geometry, see Parametric Cubic Geometry.
For information on what types of curves, surfaces and solids you can create in Patran, see Table 1-1, and
starting on (p. 28).
For more information on how to export an IGES file, see Exporting to IGES Files (p. 206) in the Patran
Reference Manual.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
58
Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
3
Coordinate Frames

Coordinate Frame Definitions 60

Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames 64

Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate
Frames 67
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Coordinate Frame Definitions
60
Coordinate Frame Definitions
Patran can create and support three types of coordinate frames:
• Rectangular (X,Y,Z)
• Cylindrical (R, Theta, Z)
• Spherical (R, Theta, Phi)
Patran also has a default global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Coord 0 is the default reference
coordinate frame for many application forms (which can be changed to another coordinate frame). Also,
Coord 0 cannot be deleted, even if specified.
Each coordinate system defined in Patran has three principal axes. These axes define how spatial
locations are determined in that coordinate system, and are internally numbered 1, 2 and 3. The meaning
of each principal axis depends on if the coordinate frame is rectangular, cylindrical or spherical.
When a coordinate frame is created, its principal axes and its orientation are displayed at the appropriate
location on the model. The ID of the coordinate frame is also displayed at the coordinate frame’s origin.
Rectangular Coordinate Frame
Figure 3-1 shows the principal axes of a rectangular coordinate frame and a point, P, in rectangular space.
In a rectangular frame, the principal axes 1, 2 and 3 correspond to the X, Y and Z axes, respectively.
Points in space specified in a rectangular coordinate frame are entered in the order: x-coordinate, y-
coordinate and z-coordinate.
Important:Coordinate frame angles for the cylindrical and spherical coordinate frames (that is, and
) are expressed in degrees. Special conditions apply when defining
spatial functions in cylindrical or spherical coordinate frames. For more information, see
Procedures for Using Fields (p. 195) in the Patran Reference Manual.
u
u
61 Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Coordinate Frame Definitions
Figure 3-1 Rectangular Coordinate Frame
Cylindrical Coordinate Frame
Figure 3-2 shows a cylindrical frame in which the principal axes 1, 2 and 3 correspond to the R, T ( )
and Z axes, respectively. Points specified in a cylindrical coordinate frame are entered in the order: radial-
coordinate, theta-coordinate and z-coordinate.
u
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Coordinate Frame Definitions
62
Figure 3-2 Cylindrical Coordinate Frame
Spherical Coordinate Frame
Figure 3-3 shows a spherical frame in which the principal axes 1, 2 and 3 correspond to the R, T ( ) and
P ( ) axes, respectively. Points specified in a spherical coordinate frame are entered in the order: radial-
coordinate, theta-coordinate, and phi-coordinate.
A node’s local directions (1, 2, 3) can vary according to its position within the spherical coordinate frame.
For example:
See Input LBCs Set Data (Static Load Case) (p. 36) in the Patran Reference Manual.
If node lies along R direction, then dir 1 of node is along +R
If node lies along R direction, then dir 2 of node is along -P
If node lies along R direction, then dir 3 of node is along +T
If node lies along T direction, then dir 1 of node is along +T
If node lies along T direction, then dir 2 of node is along -P
If node lies along T direction, then dir 3 of node is along -R
If node lies along P direction, then dir 1 of node is along +P
If node lies along P direction, then dir 2 of node is along +T
If node lies along P direction, then dir 3 of node is along -R
u
u
63 Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Coordinate Frame Definitions
Figure 3-3 Spherical Coordinate Frame Definition
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Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames
64
Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames
There are six ways you can create a local rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame in Patran.
They are listed as separate methods under the Geometry Application’s Create action:
• 3Point
• Axis
• Euler
• Normal
• 2Vector
• View Vector
For more information on using the application forms for the Create methods, see Creating Coordinate
Frames.
You can also create coordinate frames using the Transform action’s Translate and Rotate methods. For
more information, see Transforming Coordinate Frames.
The following sections briefly discuss the Create methods for coordinate frames.
3 Point Method
Figure 3-4 illustrates using the Create action’s 3 Point method for creating a coordinate frame by
specifying three points:
Figure 3-4 Coordinate Frame Creation Using the 3 Point Method
Axis Method
Figure 3-5 illustrates using the Axis method to create a coordinate frame by specifying a point location
at the origin, a point location on axis 1, 2, or 3, and a point location on one of the two remaining axes.
65 Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames
Figure 3-5 Coordinate Frame Creation Using the Axis Method
Euler Method
The Euler Create action creates a new coordinate frame through three rotations from an existing
coordinate frame. Specifically, the following steps are performed in the order shown:
1. Input the reference coordinate frame ID.
1. Enter the point location of the coordinate frame’s origin.
1. Enter the axis and rotation angle for Rotation 1.
1. Enter the axis and rotation angle for Rotation 2.
1. Enter the axis and rotation angle for Rotation 3.
The final orientation of the new coordinate frame depends on the order of rotations that are made.
Normal Method
Figure 3-6 illustrates using the Normal method to create a coordinate frame, where its origin is at a point
location on a surface. The positive axis 3 direction is normal to the surface by using right-hand rule and
crossing the surface’s parametric direction with the direction. The axis 1 direction is along the
surface’s direction and the axis 2 direction is orthogonal to axis 1 and 3.
For more information on the definition of the parametric and axes, see Parameterization.
ç
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Figure 3-6 Coordinate Frame Creation Using the Normal Method
67 Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames
Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear
Coordinate Frames
You can translate or scale geometry in Patran by using the Transform action’s Translate method or Scale
method. For information and examples on using either form, see Translating Points, Curves, Surfaces,
Solids, Planes and Vectors or Scaling Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids and Vectors.
On either form, you can choose either the Cartesian in Refer. CF toggle or the Curvilinear in Refer. CF
toggle.
If Curvilinear in Refer. CF is chosen, you can specify either an existing cylindrical or spherical
coordinate frame as the reference, and the translation vector or the scale factors will be interpreted as R,
, Z for the cylindrical system, and as R, , for the spherical system. (Both the axis and axis are
measured in degrees.)
Figure 3-7 throughFigure 3-10 are examples of using the Translate and Scale methods with the
Curvilinear in Refer. CF toggle.
Figure 3-7 Translate Method where Surface 1 is Translated <1 90 0> within Cylindrical
Coordinate Frame 1
u u u u u
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68
Figure 3-8 Scale Method where Curve 1 is Scaled <2 1 1> within Cylindrical Coordinate
Frame 1
Figure 3-9 Scale Method where Curve 1 is Scaled <2 1 1> within Cylindrical Coordinate
Frame 1
69 Chapter 3: Coordinate Frames
Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames
Figure 3-10 Scale Method where Curve 1 is Scaled <1 2 1> within Cylindrical Coordinate
Frame 1
Points along the z-axis of a cylindrical coordinate system and at the origin of a spherical coordinate
system cannot be transformed uniquely in the (cylindrical) or and (spherical) coordinates
respectively. This is due to the fact that there is no unique for points on the z-axis of a cylindrical
coordinate system or and coordinates at the origin of a spherical coordinate system. Therefore, in
Patran, any point on the z-axis of a cylindrical coordinate system or at the origin of a spherical coordinate
system is not transformed.
u u |
u
u |
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70
Chapter 4: Create Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
4
Create Actions

Overview of Geometry Create Action 72

Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids 78

Creating Solid Primitives 311

Feature Recognition (Pre-release) 350

Creating Coordinate Frames 393

Creating Planes 407

Creating Vectors 433

Creating P-Shapes 449

Edit P-Shapes 459
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Overview of Geometry Create Action
72
Overview of Geometry Create Action
Select any method to obtain detailed help.
Object Method Description
Point • XYZ • Creates points from their cartesian coordinates or from existing
nodes or vertices.
• ArcCenter • Creates a point at the center of curvature of the specified curves.
• Extract • Creates points on existing curves at a parametric coordinate
location.
• Interpolate • Creates one or more points between two existing point locations that
are uniformly or nonuniformly spaced apart.
• Intersect • Creates points at the intersection of any of the following pairs of
entities: Curve/Curve, Curve/Surface, Curve/Plane, Vector/Curve,
Vector/Surface, Vector/Plane.
• Offset • Creates a point on an existing curve.
• Pierce • Creates a point at the location where a curve intersects or pierces a
surface or solid face.
• Project • Creates points from an existing set of points or vertices that are
either projected normally or projected through a defined vector or
projected through the current view angle, onto an existing surface or
solid face.
73 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Overview of Geometry Create Action
Curve • Point • Creates curves through two, three or four point locations.
• Arc3Point • Creates arced curves through a starting, middle and ending point
locations.
• Chain • Creates a chained composite curve from two or more existing
curves. Usually used for creating trimmed surfaces.
• Conic • Creates a conic curve based on a defined altitude and focal point and
a starting and ending points.
• Extract • Creates a curve on an existing surface either at a parametric
coordinate location or on an edge of the surface.
• Fillet • Creates a fillet curve with a defined radius between two existing
curves or edges.
• Fit • Creates a curve that passes through a set of point locations based on
a least squares fit.
• Intersect • Creates a curve at the intersection of two surfaces or solid faces.
• Manifold • Creates a curve on a a surface or solid face that is between two or
more point locations.
• Normal • Creates a curve that is normal from an existing surface or solid face
to a point location.
• Offset • Creates either constant or variable offset curves from an existing
curve.
Object Method Description
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Overview of Geometry Create Action
74
Curve
(cont.)
• Project • Creates curves from an existing set of curves or edges that is
projected onto a surface either normally or from a defined plane or
vector or based on the current view angle.
• PWL • Creates contiguous straight curves between two or more point
locations.
• Spline • Creates a spline curve that passes through two or more point
locations.
• TanCurve • Creates a curve that is tangent between two curves or edges.
• TanPoint • Creates a curve from a point location to a tangent point on a curve.
• XYZ • Creates a curve at a defined origin based on a vector that defines its
length and orientation.
• Involute • Creates involute curves either using an Angles option or a Radii
option.
• Revolve • Creates curves that are rotated from point locations about a rotation
axis for a defined angle.
• 2D Normal • Creates straight curves that are perpendicular to an existing curve or
edge and that lies within a defined plane.
• 2D Circle • Creates a circle within a defined plane.
• 2D
ArcAngles
• Creates arced curves within a defined 2D plane.
• 2D Arc2Point • Creates an arced curve that lies within a defined plane and that uses
a starting, ending and center point locations.
• 2D Arc3Point • Creates an arced curve that lies within a defined plane and that
passes through a starting, middle and ending point locations.
Object Method Description
75 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Overview of Geometry Create Action
Surface • Curve • Creates surfaces that passes through either two, three, four or N
curves or edges.
• Composite • Create surfaces that are composed from multiple surfaces.
• Decompose • Creates surfaces from an existing surface (usually a trimmed
surface) based on four cursor defined vertices that lie on the existing
surface.
• Edge • Creates surfaces from three or four curves or edges.
• Extract • Creates a surface within a solid based on either the parametric
coordinate location or on the face of the solid.
• Fillet • Creates a filleted surface with one or two defined radii between two
existing surfaces or faces.
• Match • Creates a surface that is topologically congruent with one of the two
specified surfaces.
• Offset • Creates constant offset surfaces from an existing surface.
• bordered • Creates a surface that is created between two existing curves or
edges.
• Trimmed • Creates a trimmed surface that consist of an outer chained curve
loop and optionally, an inner chained curve loop.
Surface
(cont.)
• Vertex • Creates a surface from four point locations.
• XYZ • Creates a surface at a defined origin based on a vector that defines
its length and orientation.
• Extrude • Creates a surface from an existing curve or edge that is extruded
through a vector and is optionally scaled and rotated.
• Glide • Creates a surface that is created from a specified director curve or
edge, along one or more base curves or edges.
• Normal • Creates surfaces from existing curves through a defined thickness.
• Revolve • Creates surfaces that are rotated from curves or edges about a
rotation axis for a defined angle.
• Mesh • Creates a surface from a congruent 2-D mesh (shell mesh).
• P-Shape • Creates a surface (rectangle, triangle, cyclinder, sphere, six-sided
box, quadrilateral, disk, cone, paraboloid, or five-sided box) with
user input.
Object Method Description
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76
Solid • Primitive • Creates a solid (block, cylinder, cone, sphere or torus) with user
input a point, length, width, height, and reference coordinate frame.
It also provides an option to perform boolean operation with the
input target solid using the created block, cylinder, cone, sphere or
torus as the tool solid.
• Surface • Creates solids that pass through two, three, four or N surfaces or
faces.
• B-rep • Creates a B-rep solid from an existing set of surfaces that form a
closed volume.
• Decompose • Creates solids from two opposing solid faces by choosing four
vertex locations on each face.
• Face • Creates solids from five or six surfaces or faces.
• Vertex • Creates solids from eight point locations.
• XYZ • Creates a solid at a defined origin based on a vector that defines its
length and orientation.
• Extrude • Creates a solid from an existing surface or face that is extruded
through a vector and is optionally scaled and rotated.
• Glide • Creates a solid that is created from a specified director curve or
edge, along one or more base surfaces or faces.
• Normal • Creates solids from existing surfaces through a defined thickness.
• Revolve • Creates solids that are rotated from surfaces or faces about a rotation
axis for a defined angle.
Coord • 3Point • Creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame
based on defined point locations for its origin, a point on Axis 3 and
a point on Plane 1-3.
• Axis • Creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame
based on point locations that define the original and either points
one Axis 1 and 2, Axis 2 and 3, or Axis 3 and 1
• Euler • Creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame
based on three rotation angles about Axes 1, 2 and 3.
• Normal • Creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame
whose Axis 3 is normal to a specified surface or solid face, and
whose origin is at a point location.
Object Method Description
77 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Overview of Geometry Create Action
Plane • Vector
Normal
• Creates a plane from a specified point as the plane origin and a
specified direction as the plane normal.
• Curve
Normal
• Creates a plane from a point on or projected onto a specified curve
as the plane origin and the curve tangent at that point as the plane
normal.
• Interpolate • Creates a plane from the interpolating points on a specified curve as
the plane origins and the curve tangents at those points as the plane
normals.
• Least Squares • Creates a plane from the least square based on three and more
specified non-colinear points.
• Offset • Creates a plane that is parallel to a specified plane with a specified
offset distance.
• Surface
Tangent
• Creates a plane from a specified point on or projected to a specified
surface as the plane origin and the surface normal at that location as
the plane normal.
• 3 Points • Creates a plane from three specified non-colinear points. The plane
origin is located at the first point.
• Point-Vector • Creates planes at a point and normal to a vector.
Vector • Magnitude • Creates a vector by specifying the vector base point, the vector
direction and the vector magnitude of the desired vector.
• Intersect • Creates a vector along the intersecting line of two specified planes.
The vector base point is the projection of the first plane origin on
that intersecting line.
• Normal • Creates a vector that has the direction parallel to a specified plane
and the base point at a specified point on or projected onto that
plane.
• Product • Creates a vector that is the cross product of two specified vectors
and has its base point located at the base point of the first vector.
• 2 Point • Creates a vector that starts from a specified base point and pointing
to a specified tip point.
Object Method Description
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78
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Create Points at XYZ Coordinates or Point Locations (XYZ
Method)
The XYZ method creates points from their cartesian coordinates or at an existing node, vertex or other
point location as provided in the Point select menu.
79 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Point XYZ Method Example
Creates Point 6 using the Create/XYZ method that is located at the global rectangular coordinates X =
10, Y = 5 and Z = 3.125.

Point XYZ Method On a Surface Example
Creates Point 5 using the Create/XYZ/Point select menu icons listed below which locates Point 5 on
Surface 1, whose exact location is cursor defined.
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Point XYZ Method At Nodes Example
Creates Points 1 through 4 using the Create/XYZ/Point select menu icon listed below which locates the
points at Nodes 10 through 13.
81 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids

Point XYZ Method At Screen Location Example
Creates Points 1 through 5 using the Create/XYZ/Point select menu icon listed below which locates
Points 1 through 5 by cursor defining them on the screen.
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Create Point ArcCenter
The ArcCenter method creates a point at the center of curvature of the specified curves which have a non-
zero center/radius of curvature.
83 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Point ArcCenter Method Example
Creates point 3 using Create/Point/Arc Center which locates point 3 in the center of the arc.
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Extracting Points
Extracting Points from Curves and Edges
Creates points on an existing set of curves or edges at the parametric coordinate location of the curve
or edge, where has a range of .
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1
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1
0 ç
1
1 s s
85 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Extract Method Example
Creates Point 7 using the Create/Extract method, where the point is located at is equal to 0.75, on
Curve 1. Notice that the curve’s parametric direction arrow is displayed.
ç
1
u ( )
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Point Extract Method Example
Creates Point 5 using the Create/Extract method, where the point is located at is equal to 0.75, on
the edge of Surface 1.
ç
1
u ( )
87 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Extracting Single Points from Surfaces or Faces
Creates single points on an existing set of surfaces or faces at a specified u,v parametric location on the
surface.
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Point Extract from Surfaces or Faces Method Example
Creates Point 5 using the Create/Extract Point from Surface or Face method, where the point is located
at is equal to 0.333 and is equal to 0.666, on Surface 1. ç
1
u ( ) ç
2
v ( )
89 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Extracting Multiple Points from Surfaces or Faces
Creates multiple points on an existing set of surfaces or faces where the bounds of the grid of points is
defined by a diagonal of two points.
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Multiple Point Extract from Surfaces or Faces Diagonal Method Example
Creates Points 7 through 28 on Surface 1 in the bounds defined by points 5 and 6.
91 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Extracting Multiple Points from Surfaces or Faces
Creates multiple points on an existing set of surfaces or faces where the bounds of the grid of points is
defined by a parametric , diagonal. ç ç
2
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Multiple Point Extract from Surfaces or Faces Parametric Method Example
Creates Points 5 through 28 on Surface 1 in the bounds defined by u-min=0.333, u-max=0.666, v-
min=0.333, and v-max=0.666.
93 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Parametric Bounds for Extracting Points from a Surface
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94
Interpolating Points
Between Two Points
The Interpolate method using the Point option will create n points of uniform or nonuniform spacing
between a specified pair of point locations, where n is the number of interior points to be created. The
point location pairs can be existing points, vertices, nodes or other point location provided by the Point
select menu.
95 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Point Interpolate Method With Point Option Example
Creates five interior points starting with Point 3 that are between Points 1 and 2, using the
Create/Interpolate/Point option. The spacing is nonuniform at L2/L1 = 2.0.
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Point Interpolate Method With Point Option Example
Same as the previous example, except the five new points are uniformly spaced between Nodes 1 and 2,
by using the Point select menu icon listed below.
97 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Interpolating Points on a Curve
The Interpolate method using the Curve option creates n points along an existing curve or edge of
uniform or nonuniform spacing where n is the number of interior points to be created.
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98
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
99 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Interpolate Method With Curve Option Example
Creates five uniformly spaced interior points, starting with Point 6 on Curve 1, using the
Create/Point/Interpolate/Curve option.
Point Interpolate Method With Curve Option Example
Creates Points 5 through 9 that are nonuniformly spaced by using the Create/Interpolate/Curve option,
where the points are created on an edge of Surface 1.
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Intersecting Two Entities to Create Points
The Intersect method creates points at the intersection of any of the following pairs of entities:
Curve/Curve, Curve/Surface, Curve/Plane, Vector/Curve, Vector/Surface, Vector/Plane. One point will
be created at each intersection location. The pair of entities should intersect within a value defined by the
Global Model Tolerance. If the entities do not intersect, Patran will create a point at the closest approach
on each specified curve, edge, or vector for the Curve/Curve and Vector/Curve intersection options.
101 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Preferences Commands (p. 439) in the Patran Reference Manual
Point Intersect Method At An Edge Example
Creates Point 17, using the Create/Intersect method, at the intersection of Curve 3 and an edge of Surface
1.
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Point Intersect Method with Two Curves Example
Creates Points 1 and 2, using the Create/Intersect method, at the intersection of Curves 1 and 2.
103 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Intersect Method with Two Curves Example
Creates Points 1 and 2, using the Create/Intersect method. Because the curves do not intersect, Points 1
and 2 are created at the closest approach of the two curves.
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Point Intersect Method with a Curve and a Surface Example
Creates Points 1, 2 and 3 using the Create/Intersect method at the intersection of Curve 6 with Surface 1.
105 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Intersect Method with a Curve and a Plane Example
Creates Points 1, 2, and 3 using the Create/Intersect method at the intersection of Curve 2 with Plane 1.
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Point Intersect Method with a Vector and a Curve Example
Creates Points 1, 2, and 3 using the Create/Intersect method at the intersection of Vector 1 with Curve 2.
107 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Intersect Method with a Vector and a Curve Example
Creates Point 1 on Vector 1 and Point 2 on Curve 2, using the Create/Intersect method. Since the entities
do not intersect, Points 1 and 2 are created at the closest approach between the Vector and the Curve.
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Point Intersect Method with a Vector and a Surface Example
Creates Points 1 and 2 using the Create/Intersect method at the intersection of Vector 1 and Surface 1.
109 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Point Intersect Method with a Vector and a Plane Example
Creates Point 1 using the Create/Intersect method at the intersection of Vector 2 and Plane 1.
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Creating Points by Offsetting a Specified Distance
The Offset method creates a point on an existing curve by offsetting a specified model space distance
from an existing point on the same curve.
111 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Preferences Commands (p. 439) in the Patran Reference Manual
Point Offset Method Example
Creates point 3 on curve one, .75 units from point 1 using Create/Point/Offset.
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Piercing Curves Through Surfaces to Create Points
The Pierce method creates points at the intersection between an existing curve or edge and a surface or
solid face. The curve or edge must completely intersect with the surface or solid face. If the curve or edge
intersects the surface or face more than one time, Patran will create a point at each intersection.
113 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Point Pierce Method Example
Creates Point 15, using the Create/Pierce method at the location where Curve 3 intersects Surface 1.
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Point Pierce Method Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except the curve is defined by Points 13 and 14 by
using the Curve select menu icon listed below.
115 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids

Projecting Points Onto Surfaces or Faces
The Project method creates points by projecting an existing set of points onto a surface or solid face
through a defined Projection Vector. New points can be projected from other points, vertices, nodes or
other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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117 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• The Viewing Menu (Ch. 7) in the Patran Reference Manual
Point Project Method With Normal to Surf Option Example
Creates Points 21 through 28, using the Create/Project/Normal to Surf option. Points 13:16, 18:20 and
Node 1 are all projected normally onto Surface 1. Notice Delete Original Points is pressed in.
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Point Project Method With Define Vector Option Example
Creates Points 21 through 28, using the Create/Point/Project/Define Vector option. The points are
projected onto Surface 1 through the vector <-1 0 1> that is expressed within the Refer. Coordinate
Frame, Coord 1. Notice that Delete Original Points is pressed in.
119 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Point Project Method With View Vector Option Example
Creates Points 21 through 28, using the Create/Project/View Vector option. The points are projected onto
Surface 1 using the view angle of the current viewport. Notice that Delete Original Points is pressed in
and Points 13 through 20 are deleted.
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Creating Curves Between Points
Creating Curves Through 2 Points
The Point method using the 2 Point option creates straight parametric cubic curves between two existing
point locations. The point locations can be existing points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations
provided on the Point select menu.
121 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Curve Point Method With 2 Point Option Example
Creates Curve 3, using the Create/Point/2 Point option, which is between Point 1 and Node 10.
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Creating Curves Through 3 Points
The Point method using the 3 Point option creates parametric cubic curves that pass through three
existing point locations where the starting point defines the curve at and the ending point defines
the curve at . The point locations can be existing points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations
provided on the Point select menu.
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123 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Curve Point Method With 3 Point Option Example
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Creates Curve 1, using the Create/Point/3 Point option, which is created through Points 1 and 2 and Node
10. Point 2 is located on the curve at x1(u) =0.5.
Curve Point Method With 3 Point Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Point 2 is located on the curve at =0.75,
instead of 0.5.
ç
1
u ( )
125 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Creating Curves Through 4 Points
The Point method using the 4 Point option creates parametric cubic curves that pass through four existing
point locations where the starting point defines the curve at and the ending point defines the curve
at . The point locations can be existing points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations provided
on the Point select menu.
ç
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ç
1
1 =
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127 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Curve Point Method With 4 Point Option Example
Creates Curve 1, using the Create/Point/4 Point option, which is created through Points 1, 2 and 3 and
Node 10. Point 2 is located at =0.333 and Point 3 is located at =0.667. ç
1
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Curve Point Method With 4 Point Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Point 2 is located at x1(u) =0.25 and Point
3 is located at x1(u) =0.80.
129 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Curve 4 Point Parametric Positions Subordinate Form
This subordinate form is displayed when the Parametric Positions button is pressed on the Geometry
Application’s Create/Curve/Point form for the 4 Point option.
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130
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creating Arced Curves (Arc3Point Method)
The Arc3Point method creates true arced curves that pass through three specified point locations. Patran
calculates the arc’s center point location and the radius and angle of the arc. The three point locations can
be points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations that are provided on the Point select menu.
131 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Arc3Point Method Example
Creates Curve 3, using the Create/Arc3Point method, which creates a true arc through Points 1 through
3. Notice that Create Center Point is pressed which created Point 4.
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Curve Arc3Point Method Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except that the point locations for the arc are specified
with point coordinate locations.
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Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Creating Chained Curves
The Chain method creates a chained composite curve from one or more existing curves or edges. The
existing curves and edges must be connected end to end. If a chained curve is used to create planer or
general trimmed surfaces for an inner loop, they must form a closed loop. Chained curves are used to
create planar or general trimmed surfaces using the Create/Surface/Trimmed form.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Trimmed Surfaces
• Creating Trimmed Surfaces
• Disassembling a Chained Curve
Curve Chain Method Example
Creates Curve 11, using the Create/Chain method, which is created from Curves 3 through 10. Notice
that Delete Constituent Curves is pressed and Curves 3 through 10 are deleted.
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Creating Conic Curves
The Conic method creates parametric cubic curves representing a conic section (that is, hyperbola,
parabola, ellipse, or circular arc), by specifying point locations for the starting and ending points of the
conic and the conic’s focal point. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point
locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Curve Conic Method Example
Creates Curve 1, using the Create/Conic method whose focal point is Point 3, the starting and ending
points are Points 1 and 2, and the conic altitude is 0.50.
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Curve Conic Method Example
This is the same as the previous example, except that the conic altitude is increased to 0.75 from 0.50 for
Curve 2.
139 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Extracting Curves From Surfaces
Extracting Curves from Surfaces Using the Parametric Option
The Extract method creates curves on an existing set of surfaces or solid faces by specifying the surface’s
or face’s parametric or coordinate location where has a range of and has a range
of .
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1
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2
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0 ç
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1 s s ç
2
0 ç
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1 s s
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Curve Extract Method With the Parametric Option Example
141 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Creates Curve 1, using the Create/Extract/Parametric option. The curve is created on Surface 2 at
= 0.75. Notice that the parametric direction is displayed.
Curve Extract Method With the Parametric Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Curve X is created at = 0.75, instead
of = 0.75.
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2
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Curve Extract Method With the Parametric Option Example
Creates Curve 3 which is at on a surface defined by Curve 2 and an edge of Surface 1 by
using the Surface select menu icons listed below.
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2
v ( ) 0.25 =
143 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Extracting Curves From Surfaces Using the Edge Option
The Extract method creates curves on specified edges of existing surfaces or solid faces.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Extract Method With Edge Option Example
Creates Curve 3, using the Create/Extract/Edge option. The curve is created on one of the edges of
Surface 1.
145 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Creating Fillet Curves
The fillet method is intended for use with 2D construction. The created curve is a circular arc. For this
reason, the method will not work if the provided curves are not co-planar. The Patran 2.5 switch overrides
this requirement and places no restriction on coplanarity. The result is a single cubic line so that it is more
like a slope continuous blend between the 2 curves.
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147 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve Fillet Method Example
Creates Curve 3, using the Create/Fillet method. The fillet curve is created between Curve 1 and Point 4
and Curve 2 and Point 5, with a radius of 0.5. Notice Trim Original Curves is pressed.
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Curve Fillet Method Example
Creates Curve 3, using the Create/Fillet method. The fillet curve is created between Curve 1 and Point 2
and Curve 2 and Point 3, with a radius of 0.25.
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Fitting Curves Through a Set of Points
The Fit method creates a parametric cubic curve by fitting it through a set of two or more point locations.
Patran uses a parametric least squares numerical approximation for the fit. The point locations can be
points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve Fit Method Example
Creates three curves starting with Curve 1, using the Create/Fit method. The curve is created through
Points 1 through 6.
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Creating Curves at Intersections
Creating Curves at the Intersection of Two Surfaces
The Intersect method using the 2 Surface option creates curves at the intersection of two surfaces or solid
faces. The two surfaces or faces must completely intersect each other.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Intersect Method With 2 Surface Option Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Intersect method with the 2 Surface option. The curve is located at the
intersection of Surfaces 1 and 2.
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Curve Intersect Method With 2 Surface Option Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except the second surface is instead defined by Curves
2 and 3 by using the Surface select menu icon and selecting Curves 2 and 3 to create Surface 2.
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Curve Intersect Method With 2 Surface Option Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Intersect/2 Surface option. The curve is located at the intersection of
Surfaces 1 and 4.
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Creating Curves at the Intersection of a Plane and a Surface
The Intersect method with the Plane-Surface option creates curves at the intersection of a defined plane
and a surface or a solid face. The plane and the surface or face must completely intersect each other.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Intersect Method With Plane-Surface Option Example
Creates Curve 1 which is located at the intersection of Surface 1 and a plane whose normal is defined at
{[0 2.5 0][0 3.5 0]}.
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Curve Intersect Method With the Plane-Surface Option Example
Creates Curve 1 which is located at the intersection of Surface 2 and a plane whose normal is defined by
the Z axis of Coord 1, Coord 1.3, by using the Axis select menu icon listed below.
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Intersect Parameters Subordinate Form
The Intersect Parameters subordinate form appears when the Intersect Parameters button is pressed on
the Create/Curve/Intersect application form.
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Tip: More Help:
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Creating Curves at the Intersection of Two Planes
This form is used to create a curve from the intersection of two planes.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Creating Curve Intersect from Two Planes Example
Create curve 1 with a length of 0.334 from the intersection of plane 1 and 2.
161 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Manifold Curves Onto a Surface
Manifold Curves onto a Surface with the 2 Point Option
The Manifold method with the 2 Point option creates curves directly on an existing set of surfaces or solid
faces by using two point locations on the surface. The point locations must lie on the surface or face. The
point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
163 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Manifold Method With the 2 Point Option Example
Creates three curves starting with Curve 1 using the Create/Manifold/2 Point option. The curves are
created on Surface 1 between Point 7 and Points 2,5 and 8.
Curve Manifold Method With the 2 Point Option On a Face Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Manifold/2 Point option on a face of Solid 1 that is between Points 5 and 12.
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Manifold Curves onto a Surface With the N-Points Option
The Manifold/N-Points option creates curves directly on a set of surfaces or solid faces by using two or
more point locations on the surface. The point locations must lie on the surface or face and they can be
existing points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
165 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Manifold Method With N-Points Option Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Manifold/N-Points option. The curve is created on Surface 1 through
Points 5, 8, 17, 18 and 4.
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Curve Manifold Method With N-Points Option On a Face Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Manifold/N-Points option. The curve is created on the top face of Solid
1, through Points 6, 12, 13 and 5.
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Manifold Parameters Subordinate Form
The Manifold Parameters subordinate form appears when the PATRAN 2 Convention toggle is ON and
the Manifold Parameters button is pressed on the Create/Curve/Manifold application form.
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Tip: More Help:
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Creating Curves Normally Between a Point and a Curve
(Normal Method)
The Normal method creates straight parametric cubic curves from a point location, normally to a curve
or an edge. The point location can be points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations provided on the
Point select menu.
169 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve Normal Method Example
Creates Curve 6 using the Create/Normal method. The curve is created from Point 13 normally to the
edge of Curve 5.
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Curve Normal Method From An Edge Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Normal method. The curve is created from Point 20 normally to an edge
of Surface 4 by using the Curve select menu icon listed below.
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Creating Offset Curves
Creating Constant Offset Curve
This form is used to create a constant offset curve.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creating Constant Offset Curve Example
Create offset curves 2 thru 4 by offsetting a distance of .5 from curve 1 using a repeat count of 3.
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Creating Variable Offset Curve
This form is used to create a variable offset curve.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Parameterization Control for Variable Offset Curve
This form is used to define the parameterization control for the offset curve. There are two types; Arc
Length and Parameter Value.
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Creating Variable Offset Curve Example
Create curves 2 thru 3 from curve 1 by offsetting a start distance of .25 and an end distance of 1. Use
parameter values of .5 and 1.0.
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Projecting Curves Onto Surfaces
The Project method creates curves by projecting a set of curves or edges along a defined projection
vector, onto a surface or solid face.
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Available options are:
Normal to Plane - The curves or edges in Curve List will be projected through a vector that is normal to
at least one of the curves or edges that define a plane.
Normal to Surf - The curves or edges in Curve List will be projected through a vector that is normal to
the surface or solid face specified in Surface List.
Define Vector - The project direction is defined by the vector coordinates entered in the Projection
Vector databox which is expressed within the Refer. Coordinate Frame. Example: <1 1 0>. The Vector
Select menu will appear to allow you alternate ways to cursor define the vector definition.
View Factor - The project direction is defined by the view angle in the current viewport. Patran will
project the existing points using the normal direction of the screen.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• The Viewing Menu (Ch. 7) in the Patran Reference Manual
Curve Project Method With the Normal to Plane Option Example
Creates Curve 7 using the Create Project/Normal to Plane option. The curve is projected from Curve 6
onto Surface 2 that is normal to the plane defined by Curve 6.
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Curve Project Method With the Normal to Surf Option Example
Creates Curve 8 using the Create/Project/Normal to Surf option. The curve is projected from Curve 6
normally onto Surface 2. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed and Curve 6 is deleted.
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Curve Project Method With Define Vector Option Example
Creates Curve 7 with the Define Vector option. The curve is projected from Curve 6 onto Surface 2
through the vector that is defined by Points 19 and 20 by using the Vector select menu icon listed below.
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Curve Project Method With View Vector Option Example
Creates Curve 7 with the View Vector option. The curve is projected from Curve 6 onto Surface 2
through the view angle of the current viewport. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed and Curve
6 is deleted.
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Project Parameters Subordinate Form
The Project Parameters subordinate form appears when the Project Parameters button is pressed on the
Create/Curve/Project application form.
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Tip: More Help:
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Creating Piecewise Linear Curves
The PWL method will create a set of piecewise linear (or straight) parametric cubic curves between a set
of existing point locations. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations
provided on the Point select menu.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve PWL Method Example
Creates seven curves starting with Curve 5 using the Create/PWL method. The straight curves are created
through Points 12 through 18 and Node 1.
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Creating Spline Curves
Creating Spline Curves with the Loft Spline Option
The Spline method using the Loft Spline option creates piecewise cubic polynomial spline curves that
pass through at least three point locations. Patran processes the slope continually between the point
segments. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided on the Point
select menu.
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Tip: More Help
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
187 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve Spline Method With Loft Spline Option Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/Spline method with the Loft Spline option. The curve is created through
Points 1 through 5. Notice that since End Point Slope Control are not pressed in, Start and End Point
Tangent Vector are disabled.
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Curve Spline Method With Loft Spline Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Curve 2 is created with End Point Slope
Control is pressed in. The Start Point Tangent Vector is defined by Points 1 and 2, and the End Point
Tangent Vector is defined by Points 4 and 5, using the Vector select menu icon listed below.
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Creating Spline Curves with the B-Spline Option
The Spline/B-Spline option creates spline curves that pass through at least three point locations. Patran
processes the slope continually between the point segments. The point locations can be points, vertices,
nodes or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
191 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Curve Spline Method With B-Spline Option Example
Creates Curve 1 with the B-Spline option. The B-spline has an order of 3 and uses Points 1 through 5.
Since Interpolation is not pressed, the curve is not forced to pass through all the points.
Curve Spline Method With B-Spline Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that the order for Curve 2 is three, instead of
five.
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Curve Spline Method With B-Spline Option Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Interpolation is pressed and Curve 3 is forced
to pass through Points 1 through 5.
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Creating Curves Tangent Between Two Curves (TanCurve
Method)
The TanCurve method creates straight parametric cubic curves that are tangent between two existing
curves or edges. The curves or edges cannot be straight, or else Patran will not be able to find the tangent
location on each curve.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve TanCurve Method Example
Creates Curve 10 using the Create/TanCurve method. The curve is tangent between Curves 9 and 8 with
Points 26 and 25 as the endpoints selected in the Point 1 and 2 Lists. Notice that Trim Original Curves is
pressed.
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Creating Curves Tangent Between Curves and Points
(TanPoint Method)
The TanPoint method creates straight parametric cubic curves that are tangent between a point location
and a curve or an edge. The curve or edge cannot be straight, or else Patran will not be able to find the
tangent location. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided on
the Point select menu.
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197 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Curve TanPoint Method Example
Creates Curve 10 using the Create/TanPoint method. The curve is tangent between Point 25 and Curve
9. Notice that Trim Original Curves is pressed in and Curve 9 is trimmed.
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Curve TanPoint Method Example
Creates Curve 1 using the Create/TanPoint method. The curve is tangent between Point 9 and an edge of
Surface 1.
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Creating Curves, Surfaces and Solids Through a Vector
Length (XYZ Method)
The XYZ method creates parametric cubic curves, surface, or solids from a specified vector length and
origin. The origin can be expressed by cartesian coordinates or by an existing vertex, node or other point
location provided by the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Curve XYZ Method Example
Creates Curve 3 using the Create/XYZ method, whose origin is located at Point 6 and whose vector
orientation and length is <20 10 0>.
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Surface XYZ Method Example
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/XYZ method, whose origin is located at Point 6 and whose vector
orientation and length is <20 10 5>.
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Solid XYZ Method Example
Creates Solid 1 whose origin is located at Point 6 and whose vector orientation and length is <20 10 5>
which is expressed within the Reference Coordinate Frame, Coord 0.
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Creating Involute Curves
Creating Involute Curves with the Angles Option
The Involute/Angles option creates parametric cubic curves from a point location. The point location can
be a point, vertex, node or other point locations provided on the Point select menu. Involute curves are
like the unwinding of an imaginary string from a circular bobbin. Intended for gear designers, the Angles
option requires the angle of the unwinding and the starting angle.
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205 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Curve Involute Method With the Angles Option Example
Creates four curves starting with Curve 5 using the Create/Involute/Angles option, where the curve is
unwound 360 degrees about the involute axis {[0 0 0][0 0 1]}, from Point 13.
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Creating Involute Curves with the Radii Option
The Involute/Radii option creates parametric cubic curves from a point location. The point location can
be a point, vertex, node or other point location provided on the Point select menu. Involute curves are
like the unwinding of an imaginary string from a circular bobbin. Intended for the material modeling
community, the Radii option requires the base radius of the bobbin and the radius of the stop of the curve.
207 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Curve Involute Method With the Radii Option Example
Creates six curves starting with Curve 5 using the Create/Involute/Radii option, where the curve is
unwound starting with a base radius of 0.1 and a stop radius of 2, about the involute axis {[0 0 0][0 0 1]},
starting from Point 13.
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Revolving Curves, Surfaces and Solids
The Revolve method creates curves, surfaces or solids by the rotation of a point, curve or surface
location, respectively. The new geometric entity is rotated about a defined axis. Point locations can be
points, vertices, or nodes, Curve locations can be curves or edges. Surface locations can be surfaces or
solid faces.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Curve Revolve Method Example
Creates Curves 5 and 6 using the Create/Revolve method, where the curves are created from Points 12
and 13 about the axis, {[0 0 0][0 0 1]} for 180 degrees, with an offset of 30 degrees.
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Surface Revolve Method Example
Creates Surface 1 where the surface is created from a curve defined by Points 1 and 2 using the Curve
select menu icon listed below. The surface is revolved 45 degrees about the axis {Point 1 [x1 y1 1]}.
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Surface Revolve Method Example
Creates four surfaces starting with Surface 2 using the Create/Revolve method, where the surfaces are
created from Curves 9 through 12 about the axis, {[0 0 0 ] [ 1 0 0 ]} for 360 degrees.
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Solid Revolve Method
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Revolve method, where the solid is created from Surface 2. The axis is
defined by the Points 15 and 12 using the Axis select menu icon listed below, for a rotation of 90 degrees.
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Solid Revolve Method
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Revolve method, where the solid is created from Surface 1 about the X
axis of Coord 1 (by using the Axis select menu listed below) for 90 degrees.
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Creating Orthogonal Curves (2D Normal Method)
Creating Orthogonal Curves with the Input Length Option
The 2D Normal/Input Length option creates straight parametric cubic curves that lie on a defined 2D
plane and is perpendicular to a curve or an edge. The curve is defined from a specified point location.
The point location can be a point, vertex, node or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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216
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Connectivity
• Topology
Curve 2D Normal Method With the Input Length Option
Creates Curve 1 with the Input Length option, where the curve is 1 unit long; it lies within the plane
whose normal is the Z axis of Coord 3; it is perpendicular to the top edge of Surface 1; and its starting
point is near Point 3.
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Curve 2D Normal Method With the Input Length Option
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Flip Curve Direction is pressed.
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Creating Orthogonal Curves with the Calculate Length Option
The 2D Normal/Calculate Length option, creates straight parametric cubic curves that lie on a defined
2D plane and is perpendicular to an existing curve or edge. The curve is defined from specified point
location. The point location can be a point, vertex, node or other point locations provided on the Point
select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Connectivity
• Topology
Curve 2D Normal Method With the Input Length Option Example
Creates Curve 1 with the Input Length option. The distance of Curve 1 is 1.0; it lies within the plane
whose normal is the global coordinate frame’s X axis, Coord 0.1; and it is starts from a point that is
closest to Point 6.
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Curve 2D Normal Method With the Calculate Length Option Example
Creates Curve 1 with the Calculate Length option. The distance of Curve 1 is the distance between Points
3 and 4; it lies within the plane whose normal is the Z axis of Coord 3; and it starts from a point that is
closest to Point 3.
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Creating 2D Circle Curves
The 2D Circle method creates circular curves of a specified radius that is within a defined 2D plane, based
on a center point location. The point location can be a point, vertex, node or other point locations
provided on the Point select menu.
223 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve 2D Circle Method With the Input Radius Option Example
Creates Curve 5 using the Create/2D Circle method with the Input Radius option, where the circle has a
radius of 1.0, its center point is at Node 1, and it lies within the plane whose normal is the Z axis of Coord
0.
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Curve 2D Circle Method With the Calculate Radius Option Example
Creates Curve 5 using the Create/2D Circle/Calculate Radius option, where the radius is measured from
Point 12 to Node 1, its center point is at Node 1, and it lies within the plane whose normal is the Z axis
of the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
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Creating 2D ArcAngle Curves
The 2D ArcAngles method creates arced curves within a defined 2D plane. The Arc parameter inputs are
Radius, Start Angle and End Angle. The point location for the arc’s center is to be input.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve 2D ArcAngle Method Example
Creates Curve 1 using Create/Curve/2D ArcAngles.
229 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Creating Arced Curves in a Plane (2D Arc2Point Method)
Creating Arced Curves with the Center Option
The 2D Arc2Point method creates arced curves within a defined 2D plane. Two options are provided.
The Center option inputs are point locations for the arc’s center and the arc’s starting and ending points.
The Radius option inputs are the radius and point locations for the arc’s starting and ending points.
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231 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve 2D Arc2Point Method With Center Min. Angle Option Example
Creates Curve 5 using the Create/2D Arc2Point method, where the Minimum Angle is chosen; the arced
curve is between Point 13 and Node 1; its center point is Point 12; and the curve lies within the plane
whose normal is {[0 0 0][0 0 1]}.
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Curve 2D Arc2Point Method With Center Max. Angle Option Example
Creates Curve 5 using the Create/2D Arc2Point method, where the Maximum Angle is chosen; the arced
curve is between Point 13 and Node 1; its center point is Point 12; and the curve lies within the plane
whose normal is {[0 0 0][0 0 1]}.
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Creating Arced Curves with the Radius Option
The 2D Arc2Point method creates arced curves within a defined 2D plane. Two options are provided.
The Center option inputs are point locations for the arc’s center and the arc’s starting and ending points.
The Radius option inputs are the radius and point locations for the arc’s starting and ending points.
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235 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve 2D Arc2Point Method with Radius Option Example
Creates Curve 1 by creating an arc with a radius of 1.5 using [-1 -.5 -1] and [1 1 1] as start/end points and
in the Z construction plane.
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Arc2Point Parameters Subordinate Form
The Arc2Point Parameters subordinate form appears when the Arc2Point Parameters button is pressed
on the Create/Curve 2D Arc2Point application form.
237 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Creating Arced Curves in a Plane (2D Arc3Point Method)
The 2D Arc3Point method creates arced curves within a defined 2D plane, based on point locations for
the arc’s starting, middle and ending points. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other
point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
239 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Curve 2D Arc3Point Method Example
Creates Curve 5 using the Create/2D Arc3Point method. The arced curve is created through the Points
13, 14 and Node 1 and it lies within the plane whose normal is {[0 0 0][0 0 1]}. Notice that Create Center
Point is pressed in and Point 16 is created.
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Creating Surfaces from Curves
Creating Surfaces Between 2 Curves
The Curve method using the 2 Curve option creates surfaces between two curves or edges. Degenerate
three-sided surfaces can be created. See Building a Degenerate Surface (Triangle) for more information.
241 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Curve Method With the 2 Curve Option Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Curve/2 Curve option. The curve is created between Curves 5 and 6.
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Surface Curve Method With the 2 Curve Option Example
Creates Surface 2 that is degenerate with the 2 Curve option which is between an edge of Surface 1 and
a zero length curve defined by Point 5, twice.
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Creating Surfaces Through 3 Curves (Curve Method)
The Curve method using the 3 Curve option creates surfaces that pass through three existing curves or
edges.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Curve Method With 3 Curve Option Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Curve/Curve option. The curve is created through Curves 5, 6 and 8.
245 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Surface Curve Method With 3 Curve Option Example
Creates Surface 2 through Curves 2, 3 and an edge of Surface 1.
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Creating Surfaces Through 4 Curves (Curve Method)
The Curve method using the 4 Curve option creates surfaces that pass through four existing curves or
edges.
247 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Curve Method With 4 Curve Option Example
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/Curve/4 Curve option. The curve is created through Curves 5,6 and 8
and the edge of Surface 2 by using the Curve select menu icon listed below.
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Creating Surfaces from N Curves (Curve Method)
The Curve method using the N-Curves option creates surfaces that pass through any number of curves or
edges.
249 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Curve Method With N-Curves Option Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Curve/N-Curves option. The curve is created through Curves 5,6,8,9
and 10.
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Creating Composite Surfaces
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Figure 4-1 The Composite method creates surfaces composed from multiple surfaces.
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Trimmed Surfaces
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
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General Comments
If valid boundary loops are identified and any of the vertices in the vertex list are not part of a boundary,
the location will be marked red and the user will be prompted to “ignore and continue” or “stop”.
The Surface Builder always computes the optimal view plane based on the Surface List. In most cases
this is satisfactory; however, in some instances, it can create a very distorted parametrization of the new
surface, leading to poor finite element mesh quality. Sometimes the view selected by the user as “best”
is more successful than the recommended optimal plane (i.e., answer “No” to the prompt asking
permission to reorient the model to a better view); otherwise, the proposed Composite Surface will have
to be represented by multiple composite surfaces.
If the Composite Surface Builder often fails because of unresolved boundary edges, the gap and clean-
up tolerances are most likely too small. If edges disappear the tolerances are probably too large. The
default gap and clean-up tolerances are set equal to the global model tolerance and can be changed on the
Options form.
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Composite Surface Options
Surface Composite Method Example
Creates Surface 2 from the surfaces in the viewport.
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Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces
The Decompose method creates four sided surfaces from an existing surface or solid face by choosing
four vertex locations. This method is usually used to create surfaces from a multi-sided trimmed surface
so that you can either mesh with IsoMesh or continue to build a tri-parametric solid.
See Decomposing Trimmed Surfaces for more information on how to use the Decompose method.
255 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Trimmed Surfaces
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Decompose Method Example
Creates Surfaces 3, 4 and 5 using the Create/Decompose method. The surfaces are created from Trimmed
Surface 2 and they are defined by the cursor selected vertices listed in the Surface Vertex databoxes on
the form.
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Creating Surfaces from Edges (Edge Method)
The Edge method creates three or four sided surfaces that are bounded by three or four intersecting curves
or edges, without manifolding the surface to an existing surface or face.
257 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• Surface Edge Method With the 3 Edge Option Example
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/Edge/3 Edge option. The degenerate surface is created from Curves
5 and 6 and the edge of Surface 2. See Building a Degenerate Surface (Triangle).
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Surface Edge Method With the 4 Edge Option Example
Creates Surface2 using the Create/Edge/4 Edge option. The surface is created from Curves 5 through 8.
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Extracting Surfaces
Extracting Surfaces with the Parametric Option
The Extract method creates surfaces by creating them from within or on a solid, at a constant parametric
, , or coordinate location, where has a range of , has a range of ,
and has a range of . One surface is extracted from each solid.
ç
1
u ( ) ç
2
v ( ) ç
3
w ( ) ç
1
0 ç
1
1 s s ç
2
0 ç
2
1 s s
ç
3
0 ç
3
1 s s
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261 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry, 25
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Extract Method With the Parametric Option Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Extract/Parametric option. The surface is created at
within Solid 1. Notice the parametric direction is displayed near Point 19.
ç
3
w ( ) 0.75 =
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Surface Extract Method With the Parametric Option Example
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/Extract/Parametric option. The surface is created at
within a solid that is defined by Surfaces 1 and 2 by using the Solid select menu icons listed below.
ç
3
w ( ) 0.75 =
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Extracting Surfaces with the Face Option
The Extract method creates surfaces by creating them on a specified solid face. One surface is extracted
from each solid face.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Extract Method With the Face Option Example
Creates Surfaces 2 and 3 using the Create/Extract/Face option. The surface is created on two faces of
Solid 10.
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Creating Fillet Surfaces
The Fillet method creates a parametric bi-cubic surface between two existing surfaces or solid faces. The
existing surfaces or faces do not need to intersect. If they do intersect, the edges of the surfaces or faces
must be aligned, and they must intersect so that a nondegenerate fillet can be created.
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267 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Surface Fillet Method Example
Creates Surface 4 using the Create/Fillet method that is between Surfaces 1 and 3 with the fillet’s
endpoints, Points 2 and 10, cursor selected. Surface 4 has a varying fillet radius of 0.25 to 0.5.
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Surface Fillet Method Example
Creates Surface 5 using the Create/Fillet method that is between Surfaces 3 and 4 with the fillet’s
endpoints, Points 19 and 25, cursor selected. Surface 5 has a constant fillet radius of 0.75.
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Matching Adjacent Surfaces
The Match method creates parametric bi-cubic surfaces with common boundaries (or matched edges)
from a pair of topologically incongruent surfaces or solid faces that have two consecutive common
vertices but unmatched edges. The surface pair need not have matching parametric orientations. Patran
requires geometry to be topologically congruent for IsoMesh and Paver to create coincident nodes at the
common boundaries. See Topological Congruency and Meshing for more information.
You can also match incongruent surfaces with the Edit action’s Edge Match method. See Matching
Surface Edges for more information.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Meshing Surfaces with IsoMesh or Paver (p. 13) in the Reference Manual - Part III
Surface Match Method Example
Creates Surface 4 using the Create/Match method that is topologically congruent with Surface 2. Notice
that Delete Original Surfaces is pressed in and Surface 3 is deleted.
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Creating Constant Offset Surface
This form is used to create a constant offset surface.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creating Constant Offset Surface Example
Create surfaces 2 and 3 by offsetting from surface 1, a distance of 0.5 with a repeat count of 2 and
reversing the direction vector of surface 1.
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Creating Ruled Surfaces
The Ruled method creates ruled surfaces between a pair of curves or edges.
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275 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• Meshing Surfaces with IsoMesh or Paver (p. 13) in the Reference Manual - Part III
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Surface Ruled Method Example
Creates Surface 1 using the Create/Ruled method which is created between Curves 1 and 2.
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Surface Ruled Method Example
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/Ruled method which is created between Curve 5 and an edge of
Surface 2 by using the Curve select menu icon listed below. Notice that since Equal Parametric Values
was pressed in, Surface 3’s parametric direction is the same as for Curve 5. ç
1
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Creating Trimmed Surfaces
The Trimmed method creates a trimmed surface. You must first create at least one chained curve for the
surface’s outer loop or boundary by using the Create/ Curve/Chain form before using this form, or by
bringing up the Auto Chain form from within this form. (Note that an outer loop must be specified, and
the inner loop being specified is not necessary.) Trimmed surfaces can be meshed by Paver.
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279 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Creating Chained Curves
• Meshing Surfaces with IsoMesh or Paver (p. 13) in the Reference Manual - Part III
Creating Trimmed Surfaces with the Surface Option
Creates Surface 3 using the Create/Surface/Trimmed/Surface option which is created from chained
Curve 22 for the outer loop, chained Curve 21 for the inner loop and Surface 2 for the parent surface.
Notice that Delete Outer and Inner Loop and Delete Constituent Surface are pressed in and Curves 21
and 22 and Surface 2 are deleted.
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Creating Trimmed Surfaces with the Planar Option
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Surface/Trimmed/Planar option which is created from chained Curve
14 for the outer loop and chained Curve 13 for the inner loop. Notice that Delete Outer Loop and Delete
Inner Loop are pressed in and Curves 13 and 14 are deleted.
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Auto Chain Subordinate Form
The Auto Chain form provides a more interactive, user-controllable way of creating Chain Curves. A
start curve is selected for the chain and then during the creation of the chain, if necessary, the user will
be prompted to make decisions on how to proceed by selecting the appropriate buttons. Toggles are
provided for additional control of the chain curve creation. This subordinate form is accessible from
either the Create/Curve/Chain or the Create/Surface/Trimmed forms.
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Creating Trimmed Surfaces with the Composite Option
The Create/Surface/Trimmed/Composite option provides a tool for combining surfaces into a single
trimmed surface, where the parent trimmed surfaces may have gaps or overlaps of a specified distance,
and are not required to be topologically congruent. Though the constituent surfaces are used for all
evaluations without any approximation, the resulting composite surface is seen as a single trimmed
surface by all operations that reference it, such as the Paver.
Shadow Surface Method
The method used to create a composite trimmed surface is called a Shadow Surface Method. The best
way to describe a shadow surface is to use a real life analogy. Consider a cloud in the sky to be a shadow
surface. Then the sun, being the light source behind the cloud, creates a shadow on the planet Earth, only
Next: Used to update the "Choose Curve to
Continue" databox when multiple
choices are possible, i.e. a branch.
OK: Used to finalize the selection on the
curve echoed in the "Choose Curve
to Continue" databox and continue
the auto chain process.
Previous: Used to update "Choose Curve to
Continue" databox when more than two
curves form a branch. Use in
conjunction with the Next button.
Quit: Used to end the auto chain process
without attempting to creating a
chain.
Backup: Used to backup one curve at a time in
the list of curves that have been
previously selected as constituents for
the resulting chain.
Stop: Used to end the auto chain process
and attempt to create a chain from
the constituent curves. (Only
necessary when pressing the Apply
button did not create a chain.)
Delete: Used to delete the curve in the "Choose
Curve to Continue" databox from the
database.
Break: Used to break the curve in the
"Choose Curve to Continue"
databox.
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in the area blocked by the cloud. The same is true of the shadow surface, except a view vector is used to
determine the light direction. The shadow itself is called an Under Surface, whose valid region is
defined by where the outlines of the shadow surface appear with respect to a given view.
The Shadow Surface itself is a collection of specified surfaces, which may have gaps or overlaps of a
specified distance, and may or may not be topologically congruent. It is bounded by outer and inner
loops, defined as closed chains of curves or surface edges.
During surface evaluations, the Under Surface is used to classify the point relative to which constituent
surface (amongst the Shadow Surface) contains it. The point is mapped to the parameter space of that
constituent surface, and the evaluation is done directly on that surface.
Creating Composite Surfaces
The steps in creating composite surfaces are, for the most part, the same as those for creating a normal
trimmed surface, with the following exceptions:
• More than one surface is specified to define the curvature (multiple parent surfaces).
• A Gap Distance parameter must be specified to define the maximum length for gaps or
overlaps.
• An appropriate view must be obtained, satisfying the following:
• Double Intersections between the Shadow Surface and the view vector must not occur. In other
words, the Shadow Surface must not wrap around on itself relative to the current view. This is
because the Under Surface is flat, and there is not necessarily a one-to-one mapping from the
Shadow Surface to the Under Surface. Surfaces that combine to create a cylinder, therefore,
cannot be used to create a single composite surface.
• No Dead Space. Unpredictable results will occur if any portion of the Shadow Surface does not
have an Under Surface counterpart. An example of dead space would be an area on the Shadow
Surface which runs parallel to the view vector. Since this portion has no area with respect to its
projection onto the Under Surface, it will not be represented properly in the resulting composite
surface. This can cause unwanted holes or spikes in the geometry.
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Surface Trimmed Method - Composite Option Example
Creates Surface 5 using the Create/Surface/Trimmed/Composite option which is created from chained
Curve 5 for the outer loop, chained Curve 4 for the inner loop and Surface 1:4 for the parent surface.
Notice that Delete Outer and Inner Loop and Delete Constituent Surface are pressed in and Curves 1 and
2 and Surfaces 1:4 are deleted.
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Creating Surfaces From Vertices (Vertex Method)
The Vertex method creates four sided surfaces from four existing point locations that define the surface’s
vertices or corners. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided
on the Point select menu.
287 Chapter 4: Create Actions
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Vertex Method Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Vertex method which is created from Points 12, 13, 14 and Node 1.
Notice that since Manifold is not on, the Manifold Surface databox is disabled.
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Extruding Surfaces and Solids
The Extrude method creates surfaces or solids by moving a curve or edge, or a surface or solid face,
respectively, through space along a defined axis with the option of scaling and rotating simultaneously.
This method is convenient for adding depth to a cross section, or for more complex constructions that
require the full capabilities of this form.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Surface Extrude Method Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Extrude method which is created from Curve 5. The surface is
extruded +10 units in the global Y direction.
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Surface Extrude Method Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Surface 1 is extruded +10 units in the
global Y direction about an angle of 90 degrees and with a scale factor of 2. The origin of the scale and
rotation is at Point 14.
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Solid Extrude Method Example
Creates Solid 2 using the Create/Extrude method which is created from a face of Solid 1. The solid is
extruded +10 units in the global Y direction, with a scale factor of 2. The origin of the scale is at Point 21.
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Gliding Surfaces
Gliding Surfaces with the 1 Director Curve Option
The Glide method creates biparametric surfaces by sweeping base curve along a path defined by a set of
director curves or edges.
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More Help:
• Gliding Surfaces with the 2 Director Curve Option
Surface Glide Method - 1 Director Curve Example
Creates Surfaces 2 through 4 using the Create/Glide method which is created from Curve 10 for the
Director Curve and Curves 11, 13 and 14 for the Base Curves. The scale is set to 1.0 and Fixed Glide is
pressed in.
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Gliding Surfaces with the 2 Director Curve Option
This option sweeps a base curve along a path defined by a pair of director curves. Automatic scaling is
optional.
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Surface Glide Method - 2 Director Curve Example
Creates Surface 1 by using Curves 1 and 2 as the director curves and Curve 3 as the base curve to glide
along.
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Creating Surfaces and Solids Using the Normal Method
The Normal method creates parametric bi-cubic surfaces or solids which are defined by a set of base
curves or surfaces, respectively, and an offset distance from those curves or surfaces in the direction of
the curvature. The offset may be constant or have a varying thickness.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Surface Normal Method Example
Creates Surface 2 using the Create/Normal method which is created from Curve 5. It has a varying
thickness of 0.75 at and x2=0 and a thickness of 2.0 at x1=0 and x2=1. Notice that the parametric
direction is on.
ç
1
0 =
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Surface Normal Method Example
Creates Surface 2 which is created from an edge of Surface 1. It has a constant thickness of 0.25 and the
normal direction is defined by a construction point, Point 9. Notice that the normal direction is measured
from the first vertex of the edge (Point 5) to Point 9.
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Solid Normal Method Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Normal method which is created from Surface 1 and has a thickness of
0.5. Notice that since PATRAN 2 Convention is not pressed in, the Solids per Surface databox is
disabled.
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This example is similar to the previous example, except that the thickness is -0.5 instead of +0.5.
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Solid Normal Method From a Face Example
Creates Solid 2 using the Create/Normal method which is created from a face of Solid 1 and has a
thickness of 0.25.
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Creating Surfaces from a Surface Mesh (Mesh Method)
The Mesh method creates a surface from a congruent 2-D mesh. Vertices can be defined on the surface
boundary by selecting nodes in the Outer Corner Nodes or Additional Vertex Nodes listboxes.
Every edge of the surface will have at least one node. If no node is selected to identify a vertex, then one
will be selected automatically. The nodes entered in the Outer Corner Node listbox will define the
parametrization of the surface and will also be a vertex. If no nodes are selected, 4 appropriate nodes will
be selected automatically. Also the 4 nodes selected should be on the outer loop. Additional vertices can
be defined by selecting nodes in the Additional Vertex Nodes listbox.
The longest free edge loop will be the outer loop of the surface. The holes inside the mesh can be
preserved or closed by invoking the options in the Inner Loop Options pull-down menu. When few of the
inner holes need to be preserved Inner Loop Options is set to Select. Identify the holes by selecting at
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least 1 node on the hole. If selected, nodes on the outer loop and those not on the free boundary, will be
ignored.
The parametrization of the surface can also be improved by setting Surface Creation Methods to Better
Parametrization. However, if speed were important and the mesh used to create the surface is of poor
quality, selecting the Fast option under the Surface Creation Methods pull-down menu would create a
better surface.
Tessellated Surface is a representation of the underlying mesh that is used to create it. Therefore the
surface is piecewise planar and the normals are not continuous. The surface is primarily generated to
facilitate the meshing operation on complex surface models. Though these surfaces support most of the
geometry operations, it has limitations due to the nature of the surface.
To create a tessellated surface the mesh should have the following characteristics:
• Congruent 2-D elements
• Should be one connected set of elements
• No more than 2 elements should share the same 2 nodes
• The outer or inner loop should not intersect.
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Created Tessellated Surface from Geometry Form
Figure 4-2
Creating Midsurfaces
Creating Midsurfaces with the Automatic Option
This form is used to create a Midsurface using the Automatic Method.
Note: When the Inner Loop Options is set to Select, a node listbox opens. Here the holes to be
preserved can be identified by the nodes on its edge. Any nodes not on the hole edge or on
the outer boundary will be ignored.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Create Midsurface Automatic Example
Create surfaces 1t6 by automatically computing the midsurfaces of solid 1 where the solid wall thickness
is less than 8.1.
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Creating Midsurfaces with the Manual Option
This form is used to create a Midsurface using the Manual Method. The resulting midsurface will be
trimmed to the domain of the parent surface pairs.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Create Midsurface Manual Example
Create surfaces 1t3 by manually selecting solid faces Solid 1.5 and Solid 1.9, Solid 1.4 and Solid 1.8,
Solid 1.7 and Solid 1.10 as face pairs to create the midsurfaces from.
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Creating Solid Primitives
Creating a Solid Block
This form is used to create a solid block with user input a point, length, width, height, and reference
coordinate frame. It also provides an option to perform boolean operation with the input target solid using
the created block as the tool solid.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
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Creates solid blocks 1 and 2 at [0 0 0] and [2 0 0] with parameters of X=1.0, Y=1.0, Z=1.0 and X=2.0,
Y=2.0, Z=2.0 respectively.

Creates solid block 1 at [-1 .5 .5] with parameters of X=5.0, Y=1.0, Z=1.0 while performing a boolean
add operation with solid 1.
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Creating Solid Cylinder
This form is used to create a solid cylinder with user input a point, height, radius, optional thickness, and
optional reference coordinate frame. It also provides an option to perform boolean operation with the
input target solid using the created cylinder as the tool solid.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creates solid cylinder 1 at point 1with parameters of Height=3.0, Radius=0.25, along X axis.
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Creates Solid Cylinder 1 at point 1 with parameters Height=3.0, Radius=0.25, a wall thickness = 0.125
along X axis while performing a boolean add operation with solid 1.
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Creating Solid Sphere
This form is used to create a solid sphere with user input a point, radius, and optional reference coordinate
frame. It also provides an option to perform boolean operation with the input target solid using the created
sphere as the tool solid.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creates Solid Sphere 1 at [0 0 0] with a Radius of 1.0 along the Z axis.
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Creates Solid Sphere 1 at point 1with a Radius of 0.5 along the Y axis while performing a boolean add
operation with solid 1.
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Creating Solid Cone
This form is used to create a solid cone with user input a point, base radius, top radius, height, optional
thickness, and optional reference coordinate frame. It also provides an option to perform boolean
operation with the input target solid using the created cone as the tool solid.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creates Solid Cone 1 at [0 0 0] and Cone 2 at [3 0 0] along the Z axis with parameters Height=2.0, Base
Radius=1.0, Top Radius=0.5 and Thickness for Cone 1=0.0 and Thickness for Cone 2=0.125
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Creates Solid Cones 1 and 2 at [.5 1 .5] along the Y axis with parameters Height=-5.0, Base Radius=0.25,
Top Radius=0.0625 while performing a boolean add operation with Solid 1 and 2.
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Creating Solid Torus
This form is used to create a solid torus with user input a point, major radius, minor radius, and optional
reference coordinate frame. It also provides an option to perform boolean operation with the input target
solid using the created torus as the tool solid.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creates Solid Torus 1 and 2 at [0 0 0] with parameters Major Radius=1.0, Minor Radius=0.5 and Torus
1 along the X axis and Torus 2 along the Y axis.
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Creates Solid Torus 1 at [0 0 0] along the Z axis with parameters Major Radius=1.0, Minor Radius=0.25
while performing a boolean add operation with Solid 1.
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Solid Boolean operation during primitive creation
This form is used to perform a Solid boolean operation on an existing solid during the creation of a new
primitive solid. This is a child form of the parent Create,Solid,Primitive form.
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More Help:
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
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Creating Solids from Surfaces (Surface Method)
Creating Solids from Two Surfaces
The Surface method with the 2 Surface option, creates solids between two surfaces or solid faces.
Solid Surface Method With 2 Surface Option Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Surface/2 Surface option. The solid is created between Surfaces 2 and 3.
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Solid Surface Method With 2 Surface Option Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Surface/2 Surface option. The solid is created between Surface 2 and a
surface defined by Curves 5 and 6, using the Surface select menu icon listed below.
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Creating Solids from Three Surfaces (Surface Method)
The Surface method with the 3 Surface option creates solids that pass through three existing surfaces or
solid faces.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Surface Method With 3 Surface Option Example
Creates Solid 2 using the Create/Surface/3 Surface option. The solid is created between a face of Solid
1, Surface 2 and a surface defined by Curves 5 and 6 by using the Surface select menu icon listed below.
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Creating Solids from Four Surfaces (Surface Method)
The Surface method using the 4 Surface option creates solids that pass through four existing surfaces or
solid faces.
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More Help:
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Surface Method With 4 Surface Option Example
Creates Solid 2 using the Create/Surface/4 Surface option. The solid is created between a face of Solid
1, Surface 2, a surface defined by Curves 5 and 6 and Surface 3.
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Creating Solids with the N Surface Option
The Surface method using the N-Surfaces option creates solids that pass through any number of existing
surfaces or solid faces.
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More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Display>Geometry (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Surface Method with N-Surfaces Option Example
Creates Solid1 using the Create/Surface/N-Surfaces option. The solid is created between Surfaces 2, 7,
8, 9 and 10.
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Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid
The B-rep method creates boundary represented solids by specifying a list of surfaces or solid faces that
form a closed topologically congruent volume. B-rep solids can only be meshed with Patran’s TetMesh.
For more information, see Gliding Solids, 347.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• B-rep Solid
• Building B-rep Solids
Solid B-rep Method Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Solid/B-rep method which is created from Surfaces 2, 3, 4, and 8 through
14. Notice that since Delete Original Surfaces is pressed in, the surfaces are deleted.
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Creating a Decomposed Solid
The Decompose method creates solids from two opposing solid faces by choosing four vertex locations
on each face and then a solid is created from the two decomposed faces.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Solid Decompose Method with Face 1 Option Example
Creates Solid 2 by selecting four points on solid face Solid 1.6 and four points on solid face Solid 1.5.
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Solid Decompose Method with Face 2 Option Example
Creates Solid 2 by selecting four points on solid face Solid 1.6 and four points on solid face Solid 1.5.
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Creating Solids from Faces
The Face method creates a solid from five or six surfaces or solid faces which define the solid’s exterior
faces. The surfaces or faces can be in any order and they can have any parametric orientation, but they
must define a valid exterior of a solid.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Solid Face Method With 6 Faces Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Face method which is created from Surfaces 2 through 7. The option is
set to 6 Face.
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Solid Face Method With 5 Faces Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Face method which is created from Surfaces 1 through 5. The option is
set to 5 Face.
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Creating Solids from Vertices (Vertex Method)
The Vertex method creates parametric tri-cubic solids by specifying a list of eight point locations that
represent the eight vertices of the new solid. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other
point locations provided on the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Solid Vertex Method Example
Creates Solid 2 using the Create/Vertex method which is created from Points 12 through 15 and Nodes
34, 44, 254 and 264.
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Gliding Solids
The Glide method creates triparametric solids by sweeping a base surface curve along a path defined by
a set of director curves or edges.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Matrix of Geometry Types Created
Solid Glide Method Example
Creates Solid 1 using the Create/Glide method which is created from Curve 5 for the Director Curve and
Surface 2 for the Base Surface. The scale is set to 0.25 and Fixed Glide is pressed in.
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Feature Recognition (Pre-release)
Feature Types
The Feature Recognition Tool support the following feature types:
• Circular Hole features.
• Transition features.
• Blends
• Chamfers
The Actions supported for features are: Recognize, Clear, Show, Delete, Edit
The Methods supported for features are: Automatic, Interactive
Feature Definition
The feature has the following attributes:
Name: string identifier, i.e., Hole 1
Parameters: the values defining the feature, i.e.,
• for holes the parameters are radius and depth
• for blends the parameters are radius1 and radius2
• for chamfers the parameters are height1 and height2
Id: the internal id used for storage
Label: the numeric value of the feature name; i.e., if the feature name is Hole 1, the label is 1.
Automatic Recognition
You select the solid list from which the features are to be recognized from the viewport and the
corresponding features for which recognition was called is recognized. In case of transition features
automatic recognition recognizes all the features with chaining.
Interactive Recognition
You can interactively pick the face (or edge for holes) list from the viewport and only those features
which contain the selected faces (or edges for holes) are recognized. Single or compound/chain features
can be recognized during interactive recognition.
Overview of the Feature Recognition Modules
The feature recognition technology integrated in Patran is centered around two modules:
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Hole module. This module provides recognition of hole features in the input model. It
recognizes circular features. It can recognize circular holes which may be blind or thru. Non-
circular features like the rectangular holes, cannot be recognized with this module. Every hole
feature has two associated attributes namely the radius, and depth. In case of blind holes both
these attributes can be modified/edited, but in case of a thru hole only its radius can be
modified/edited. During recognition phase the dependency relations between different hole
features are also recognized. Subsequent operations on these features require satisfying these
dependency relations. For example, if hole 2 is dependent upon hole 1 (parent child relation)
then deletion of hole 1 will automatically result in deletion of hole 2. Similar relations apply for
editing of dependent features.
Blend/Chamfer module. This module provides recognitions of transition features namely blend
features and chamfer features. Two types of blends are recognized – constant radius blends and
variable radius blends. Thus each blend has two attributes namely the maximum radius and
minimum radius. However in case of constant radius blends the values of these two attributes are
same. Similarly a chamfer feature has two attributes which are its slope heights. Transition
features such as blends and chamfers are rarely isolated, and are usually connected to other
blends/chamfers to form a blend/chamfer chain. Thus automatic recognition by default
recognizes blends and chamfers with chaining, whereas, interactive recognition allows features
to be recognized as a single feature or a compound or chain feature. Figure below shows a blend
chain.
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Limitations
Only one feature type per solid can be recognized and worked on at a time. For example, if you
have recognized holes from one solid, then recognize blends on the same solid in the same
Patran session, the feature modeler will replace the hole features with the newly recognized
blend features for the solid. You can recognize holes for one solid and blends for another solid
and the holes and blends will be stored in the feature modeler. All previous edits to the model by
editing hole parameters or deleting holes will be saved however.
Solids whose geometry source is Parasolid is the only type supported for Feature Recognition.
Feature Recognition
Recognize Feature Hole Automatic
Recognizes circular features from the selected Solid. It can recognize circular holes that are blind or
through. The dependency relations between different holes are also recognized.
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Recognize Feature Hole Interactive
Recognizes circular features from the selected Solid Face or Edge . It can recognize circular holes that
are blind or through. The dependency relations between different holes are also recognized.
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Recognize Feature Blend Automatic
Recognizes transition features such as Blend features from the selected Solid. It can recognize constant
radius and variable radius blends. The dependency relations between different blends are also
recognized. Automatic recognition by default recognizes blends with chaining.
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Recognize Feature Blend Interactive
Recognizes transition features such as Blend features from the selected Solid Face. It can recognize
constant radius and variable radius blends. The dependency relations between different blends are also
recognized.
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Recognize Feature Chamfer Automatic
Recognizes transition features such as Chamfer features from the selected Solid. The dependency
relations between different chamfers are also recognized.
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Recognize Feature Chamfer Interactive
Recognizes transition features such as Chamfer features from the selected Solid Face. The dependency
relations between different chamfers are also recognized.
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Edit Hole Feature
Edit the Hole Feature Parameters. The radius and depth parameters for a blind hole or the radius of a
through hole can be edited.
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Edit Hole Feature
Edit the four selected holes by changing the radius values from 4 and 5 to 8.
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Edit Hole Feature
The four selected hole radii changed from values from 4 and 5 to 8.
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Edit Hole Feature using Radius Constraint
Edit the Hole Feature Parameters using a Radius Constraint. The radius and depth parameters for a blind
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hole or the radius of a through hole can be edited.edited.
Edit Hole Feature Using Radius Constraint
Edit the four selected holes by changing the radius values and depth from 3 and 15 to 5 and 5 respectively.
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Edit Hole Feature Using Radius Constraint
The four selected holes radii and depths changed from 3 and 15 to 5 and 5 respectively.
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Edit Blend Feature
Edit the Blend Feature Parameters. The radius R1 and radius R2 parameters for a Constant Radius or a
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Variable Radius blend can be edited.
Edit Blend Feature
Edit the four selected blends by changing the R1 and R2 radii from 4 and 4 to 3 and 6 respectively.
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Edit Blend Feature
The four selected blends R1 and R2 radii changed from 4 and 4 to 3 and 6 respectively.
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Edit Blend Feature using Radius Constraint
Edit the Blend Feature Parameters using a Radius Constraint. The radius R1 and Radius R2 parameters
for a Constant Radius or Variable Radius Blend can be edited.
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Edit Blend Feature Using Radius Constraint
Edit the four selected blends by changing the R1 and R2 radii from 5 and 5 to 10 and 10 respectively.
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Edit Blend Feature Using Radius Constraint
The four selected blends R1 and R2 radii changed from 5 and 5 to 10 and 10 respectively.
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Edit Chamfer Feature
Edit the Chamfer Feature Parameters. The height H1 and height H2 parameters for a chamfer can be
edited.
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Edit Chamfer Feature
Edit the three selected Chamfers by changing the H1 and H2 heights from 3 and 3 to 5 and 5 respectively.
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Edit Chamfer Feature
The three selected Chamfers H1 and H2 heights changed from 3 and 3 to 5 and 5 respectively.
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Edit Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint
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Edit the Chamfer Feature Parameters using a Height Constraint. The height H1 and height H2 parameters
for a chamfer can be edited.
Edit Chamfer Feature Using Height Constraint
Edit the three selected chamfers by changing the H1 and H2 heights from 2 and 2 to 4 and 4 respectively.
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Edit Chamfer Feature Using Height Constraint
The three selected chamfers H1 and H2 heights changed from 2 and 2 to 4 and 4 respectively.
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Edit Feature Parameters
The Edit Feature Parameters form allows the feature name and parameters to be displayed and modified
for alteration of a model.
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When a column of the spreadsheet is selected, the value is copied to the input databox for editing. Once
the value is modified, press return to update the selected column with the new parameter definition. When
all the desired parameter values are modified, press the OK button to save the changes.
If the Feature Name is changed and the same name is used for multiple feature names, the feature label
will be appended to the input name. For example, if you entered “test” for the name of Hole 1 and Hole
2, then the resulting name for Hole 1 will be “test” and the name for Hole 2 will be test 2.
Show Hole Feature
Show the Hole Feature Parameters. The radius and depth parameters and the number of faces for each
hole is displayed.
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Show Hole Feature using Radius Constraint
Show the Hole Feature Parameters using a Radius Constraint. The radius and depth parameters and the
number of faces for each hole is displayed.
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Show Blend Feature
Show the Blend Feature Parameters. The radius R1 and radius R2 parameters and the number of faces
for each blend is displayed.
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Show Blend Feature using Radius Constraint
Show the Blend Feature Parameters using a Radius Constraint. The radius R1 and Radius R2 parameters
and the number of faces for each blend is displayed.
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Show Chamfer Feature
Show the Chamfer Feature Parameters. The height H1 and height H2 parameters and the number of faces
for each chamfer is displayed.
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Show Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint
Show the Chamfer Feature Parameters using a Height Constraint. The height H1 and Height H2
parameters and the number of faces for each chamfer is displayed.
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Show Feature Information
The Show Feature Information form allows the parameters of a feature to be displayed.
The spreadsheet shows the following information for each feature selected:
• Feature Name
• Parameter Name 1 and value
• Parameter Name 2 and value
• Number of Faces
Picking a spreadsheet cell will highlight the feature in the Patran secondary highlight color
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Delete Hole Feature
Delete Hole Features.
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Delete Hole Feature using Radius Constraint
Delete Hole Features using a Radius Constraint.
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Delete Blend Feature
Delete Blend Features.
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Feature Recognition (Pre-release)
Delete Blend Feature using Radius Constraint
Delete Blend Features using a Radius Constraint.
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Delete Chamfer Feature using Height Constraint
Delete Chamfer Features using a Height Constraint.
389 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Feature Recognition (Pre-release)
Delete Chamfer Feature
Delete Chamfer Features.
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Delete Any Feature
Delete any features in the model.
391 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Feature Recognition (Pre-release)
Clear Feature
Clear features from the feature modeler derived from a solid without deleting the associated geometry.
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393 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the 3Point Method
The 3Point method creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame by specifying three
point locations. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided on the
Point select menu. For more information, see Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames.
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
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Coordinate Frame 3Point Method Example
Creates a cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 100, using the Create/3Point method. Its origin is located
at [0,0,0]; a point on its Z axis is at [0,0,1]; and a point on the R-Z plane is at [0,0,1]. The coordinate
values are expressed within the global coordinate frame, Coord 0.
Coordinate Frame 3Point Method Example
Creates a cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 200. Its origin is located at Point 8; a point on its Z axis is
at [x8 y8 2] (which is at the X and Y coordinates of Point 8 and at Z=2); and a point on the R-Z plane is
at Point 6.
395 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Axis Method
The Axis method creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame by specifying three
point locations for the coordinate frame’s origin, at the first, second or third axis and on one of the
remaining two axes. The point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other point locations provided
on the Point select menu. See Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate Frames.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Coordinate Frame Axis Method Example
Creates a rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 100, using the Create/Axis method. Its definition is
expressed within the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0; its origin is located at [0,0,0]; a point on its
X axis is at Point 20; and a point on its Y axis is at Point 12.
397 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Euler Method
The Euler method creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame through three specified
rotations about the axes of an existing coordinate frame. See Overview of Create Methods For Coordinate
Frames.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
399 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Coordinate Frame Euler Method Example
Creates a spherical coordinate frame, Coord 200, using the Create/Euler method. Its definition is
expressed within the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 100; its origin is located at Point 14 and it is
rotated 45 degrees about Coord 100’s X axis.
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Rotation Parameters Subordinate Form Example
The Rotation Parameters subordinate form appears when the Rotation Parameters button is pressed on
the Geometry Application Create/Coord/Euler form. See Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Euler
Method.
This form allows you to define up to three rotations to be performed about the specified Reference
Coordinate Frame axes. The rotations are performed in sequence from top to bottom on the form.
401 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the Normal Method
The Normal method creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame with its origin at a
point location on a specified surface or solid face, and its axis 3 direction normal to the surface or face.
The coordinate frame’s axis 1 direction can be aligned with the surface’s or face’s parametric
direction, and its axis 2 direction will be aligned with the direction or visa versa. See Overview of
Create Methods For Coordinate Frames for more information.
You can plot the parametric and directions by pressing the Parametric Direction button on the
Geometric Properties form under the Display/Display Properties/Geometric menu.
ç
1
ç
2
ç
1
ç
2
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Coordinate Frame Normal Method Example
Creates a rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 1, using the Create/Normal method whose Z axis is normal
to Surface 2 and its origin is at Point 16. Notice that Coord 1’s X and Y axis are aligned with Surface 2’s
and directions. ç
1
ç
2
403 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Coordinate Frame Normal Method On a Face Example
Creates rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 2 at Point 17, whose Z axis is normal to the top face of Solid
1.
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Creating Coordinate Frames Using the 2 Vector Method
The 2 Vector method creates a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frame with its origin at the
designated location. Two of the through coordinate frame axes are defined using existing vectors; their
directions are imposed at the selected origin and the new coordinate frame is then created.
405 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Coordinate Frames
Creating Coordinate Frames Using the View Vector Method
The View Vector method creates a rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical coordinate frame at the
designated origin, using the Euler angles that define the current model orientation within the graphics
viewport.
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407 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Creating Planes
Creating Planes with the Point-Vector Method
The Point-Vector method creates planes at a point and normal to a vector.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Point-Vector Method Example
Creates a plane at a point and normal to a vector.
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Creating Planes with the Vector Normal Method
The Vector Normal method creates Planes whose normal is in the direction of the specified vector and
crosses the vector at a specified offset.
409 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Vector Normal Option Example
Creates a plane from Vector 1. The normal of the plane is parallel to the Vector.
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Creating Planes with the Curve Normal Method
Creating Planes with the Curve Normal Method - Point Option
The Point on Curve method using the Point option creates Planes normal to a tangent vector of a point
along a curve. The plane centroid will be the point location on the curve.
411 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Point Option Example
Creates a plane whose normal is parallel to the tangent of Curve 1 on the location where Point 3 is
projected on the curve.
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Creating Planes with the Curve Normal Method-Parametric Option
The Point on Curve method using the Parametric option creates Planes that are normal to a specified
curve at a parametric position along the curve. The plane centroid will be the parametric position along
the curve.
413 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Parametric Option Example
Creates a plane on Curve 1 at the specified parametric location. Its normal is parallel to the tangent of
Curve 1 at that location.
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Creating Planes with the Plane Normal Method
The Plane Normal method creates a plane normal to an existing plane. The line defined by the projection
of the new plane onto the existing plane is defined by selecting a vector; this vector is projected normally
onto the existing plane. The new plane’s normal direction is defined by the vector cross product of the
existing plane normal by the projected vector.
415 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Creating Planes with the Interpolate Method
Creating Planes with the Interpolate Method - Uniform Option
The Interpolate method creates Planes whose normals are in the direction of the curve tangents at the
interpolating points on the curve. Uniform option will space the planes along the curve based on the equal
arc lengths or equal parametric values upon the user’s choice.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Plane Interpolate Example
Creates planes on curve 1 at the interpolating points. The plane’s normals are parallel to the tangents of
Curve 1 at each location.
417 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Creating Planes with the Interpolate Method - Nonuniform Option
The Interpolate method creates Planes whose normals are in the direction of the curve tangents at the
interpolating points on the curve. Nonuniform option will space the planes along the curve based on the
space ratio applied on the arc length or the parametric values upon the user’s choice.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Creating Planes with the Least Squares Method
Creating Planes with the Least Squares Method - Point Option
The Least Squares method using the Point option creates Planes that are a least squares fit to a set of
points that are not co-linear.
419 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Point Option Example
Creates a plane based on the least squares calculated from Point 1:4.
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Creating Planes with the Least Squares Method - Curve Option
The Least Squares method using the Curve option creates Planes that are a least squares fit to a non-linear
curve.
421 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Curve Option Example
Creates a plane based on the least squares calculated from Curve 1.
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422
Creating Planes with the Least Squares Method - Surface Option
The Least Squares method using the Surface option creates Planes that are a least squares fit to a surface.
423 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Surface Option Example
Creates a plane based on the least squares calculated from Surface 1.
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Creating Planes with the Offset Method
The Vector Normal method creates Planes whose normal is in the direction of the specified vector and
crosses the vector at a specified offset.
425 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Offset Method Example
Creates planes, which are parallel to Plane 1 but have a offset of 1.0 from each other.
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426
Creating Planes with the Surface Tangent Method
Creating Planes with the Surface Tangent Method - Point Option
The Tangent method using the Point option creates Planes that are tangent to a specified surface at a
specified point on the surface. The plane centroid will be the point location on the surface.
427 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Point Option Example
Creates a plane which is tangent to Surface 1 at Point 5.
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Creating Planes with the Surface Tangent Method - Parametric Option
The Tangent method using the Parametric option creates Planes that are tangent to a specified surface at
a parametric position on the surface. The plane centroid will be the tangent point on the surface.
429 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Parametric Option Example
Creates a plane which is tangent to Surface 1 at the specified parametric locations.
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430
Creating Planes with the 3 Points Method
The 3 Point method creates Planes which pass through three specified points that are not co-linear. The
plane centroid will be average of the first point.
431 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Planes
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
3 Points Method Example
Creates a plane from Point 1:3.
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433 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Creating Vectors
Creating Vectors with the Magnitude Method
The Magnitude method creates Vectors from a specified vector magnitude, direction and base point. The
base point can be expressed by cartesian coordinates or by an existing vertex, node or other point location
provided by the Point select menu.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
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434
Magnitude Example
Creates a vector based at point 1 and directing along the X axis. The vector has a magnitude of 1.0.
Creating Vectors with the Interpolate Method
Between Two Points
The Interpolate method using the Point option will create n points of uniform or nonuniform spacing
between a specified pair of point locations, where n is the number of interior points to be created. The
point location pairs can be existing points, vertices, nodes or other point location provided by the Point
select menu.
435 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Creating Vectors with the Intersect Method
The Intersect method creates Vectors from the intersections of pairs of Planes. The origins of the two
planes will be projected onto the intersection line to determine the base and tip of the resulting vector. If
the base and tip are not unique, the tip will be assumed.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Intersect Example
Creates a vector along the intersection of Plane 1 and Plane 2.
437 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Creating Vectors with the Normal Method
Creating Vectors with the Normal Method - Plane Option
The Normal method using the Plane option creates Vectors from normal vectors to a Plane; originating
at the plane and passing through a point. The tip point can be expressed by cartesian coordinates or by an
existing vertex, node or other point location provided by the Point select menu.
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Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Plane Option Example
Creates a vector which is directing along the normal of Plane 1.
439 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Creating Vectors with the Normal Method - Surface Option
The Normal method using the Plane option creates Vectors from normal vectors to a Plane. The base
point can be expressed by cartesian coordinates or by an existing vertex, node or other point location
provided by the Point select menu.
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440
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Surface Option Example
Creates a vector which is directing along the normal of Surface 1 at Point 5.
441 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Creating Vectors with the Normal Method - Element Face Option
The Normal method using the Element Face option creates Vectors from normal vectors to an Element
Face. The base point of the vector will be the element face centroid by default, but a node on the element
face may also be specified.
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442
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Element Face 2D Option Example
Creates a vector along the normal of the element face at Node 6.
443 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Element Face 3D Option Example
Creates a vector along the normal of the element face at Node 2.
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444
Creating Vectors with the Product Method
The Product method creates vectors of the cross products of two existing vectors. The base point of the
created vector will be the base point of the first vector.
445 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Product Example
Creates Vector 3, which is the cross product of Vector 1 and Vector 2.
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446
Creating Vectors with the 2 Point Method
The 2 Point method creates vectors between two existing point locations. The point locations can be
existing points, vertices, nodes, or other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
447 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
2 Point Option Example
Creates a vector starting from Point 1 and ending at Point 2.
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448
449 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating P-Shapes
Creating P-Shapes
Rectangle
The rectangle is defined by an origin point p1, a corner point p2 along direction-1 or the u-direction, and
a corner point p3 along direction-2 or the v-direction. All points are given with respect to the Reference
Coordinate Frame. The point p3 is constrained to be orthogonal to the vector p1-p2 and will be corrected
as necessary.
Quadrilateral
A Quadrilateral is defined by an origin point p1, and corner points p2 in direction-1 (u-direction), and p3
in direction-2 (v-direction), and an opposite corner p4 in the Reference Coordinate Frame.
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Triangle
A triangle is defined by an origin point p1, and corner points p2 in direction-1 (u-direction) and p3 in
direction-2 (v-direction). In Patran, the triangle is created as a bi-parametric surface and has one
degenerate side at the origin point p1.
451 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating P-Shapes
Disc
A disc is defined by an external and internal diameter. It is defined in a Reference Coordinate Frame with
an Axis of Revolution shown as the vector p1-p2. The Angle Origin Vector is shown as vector p1-p3 and
the start and end angle are measured in degrees circumferentially from that vector.
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Cylinder
A cylinder is defined by a diameter in a Reference Coordinate Frame with an Axis of Revolution shown
as the vector p1-p2. This vector also gives the height of the cylinder. The Angle Origin Vector is shown
as vector p1-p3 and the start and end angle are measured in degrees circumferentially from that vector.
453 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating P-Shapes
Cone
A cone is defined by diameters at the base and apex in a Reference Coordinate Frame with an Axis of
Revolution shown as the vector p1-p2. This vector also gives the height of the cone. The Angle Origin
Vector is shown as vector p1-p3 and the start and end angle are measured in degrees circumferentially
from that vector.
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Sphere
A sphere is defined by a diameter in a Reference Coordinate Frame with an Axis of Revolution shown
as the vector p1-p2. The Angle Origin Vector is shown as vector p1-p3 and the start and end angle are
measured in degrees circumferentially from that vector.
The sphere may be truncated at the poles. The base truncation gives the height of the sphere from the
equator to the “bottom” of the sphere. If the negative truncation distance is equal to the radius, then the
sphere is not truncated. The same applies to the apex truncation. Note that a negative truncation distance
measures “below” the equator while a positive truncation measures “above” the equator.
455 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating P-Shapes
Paraboloid
A paraboloid is defined by a diameter in a Reference Coordinate Frame with an Axis of Revolution
shown as the vector p1-p2. This vector also gives the un-truncated height of the paraboloid. The Angle
Origin Vector is shown as vector p1-p3 and the start and end angle are measured in degrees
circumferentially from that vector.
The paraboloid may be at the apex and also at the base. Both truncations are measured from the apex of
the paraboloid.
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Five-Sided Box
A Five-sided box is defined as a solid, but is an open-shell meaning that it is a connected set of five
surfaces which is not closed. The five-sided box is defined with dimensions dx, dy, and dz in the x, y,
and z directions at the global origin. The face that is "missing" from the 5-sided box is the z+ face. At
the time of creation, a local coordinate frame is used to create the solid at a user-prescribed location. The
local coordinate frame is represented by an axis which defines the local origin of the solid at the axis
begin point and the x-direction of the solid. The y-direction is defined by a vector. The z-direction is
defined ortho-normal to the x-y plane.
457 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Creating P-Shapes
Six-Sided Box
A Six-sided Box is a parameterized solid defined with dimensions dx, dy, and dz in the x, y, and z
directions at the global origin. At the time of creation, a local coordinate frame is used to create the solid
at a user-prescribed location. The local coordinate frame is represented by an axis which defines the local
origin of the solid at the axis begin point and the x-direction of the solid. The y-direction is defined by
a vector. The z-direction is defined ortho-normal to the x-y plane.
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459 Chapter 4: Create Actions
Edit P-Shapes
Edit P-Shapes
This form is used to edit P-Shapes by their parameters. One or more P-Shapes of the same type may be
modified. A P-Shape may be selected by its label. The P-Shapes listed in the listbox may be filtered by
name or by type, e.g., Rectangle, Triangle, etc. P-Shapes which are listed in the listbox may be displayed
on the screen using the “Show P-Shape” button and the display is reset using the “Reset” button.
P-Shapes can also be selected off the screen using the “Select P-Shape(s)” select data box . Since
different types of P-Shapes may be selected in either the listbox or in the select data box, the “Filter for
P-Shape(s)” button is used to isolate one type of P-Shape.
If only entity is selected for edit, then you can edit the P-Shape Label. The parameters to edit are identical
to the Create P-Shape forms for each geometry type. If multiple entities are selected, certain parameters
may not be editable such as the Axis of Revolution for cones (spheres, paraboloids) since modifying that
parameter to be the same will transform all cones edited to be in the same location.
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Chapter 5: Delete Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
5
Delete Actions

Overview of the Geometry Delete Action 462

Deleting Any Geometric Entity 463

Deleting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes or Vectors 464

Deleting Coordinate Frames 466
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462
Overview of the Geometry Delete Action
The Geometry Application Delete action can remove any or all geometric entities from the database.
Objects that are available for deletion are listed in Table 5-1.
Auto Execute Is Off By Default
By default, the Auto Execute toggle is OFF. For more information, see Auto Execute (p. 26) in the
Patran Reference Manual.
Using the Abort and Undo Buttons
When the Delete action form starts to execute, you may press the Abort key at any time to halt the delete
process. You may also press the Undo button immediately after the Delete action completes to restore
the deleted entities back to the database. See System Tool Palette (p. 14) in the Patran Reference Manual
for more information.
Table 5-1 Geometry Delete Action Objects and Descriptions
Object Description
Any Deletes different types of geometric entities at the same time.
Point Deletes any number of points.
Curve Deletes any number of curves.
Surface Deletes any number of surfaces.
Solid Deletes any number of solids.
Coord Deletes any number of user defined coordinate frames.
463 Chapter 5: Delete Actions
Deleting Any Geometric Entity
Deleting Any Geometric Entity
Setting the Object menu to Any deletes any number of points, curves, surfaces, solids or coordinate
frames (except the global coordinate frame, Coord 0) from the database. You can also delete geometric
entities by using the Group/Delete menu.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Group>Delete (p. 297) in the Patran Reference Manual
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464
Deleting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes
or Vectors
Setting the Object menu to Point, Curve, Surface, Solid, Plane or Vector removes any number of
specified points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes or vectors from the database.
465 Chapter 5: Delete Actions
Deleting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes or Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• The List Processor (p. 43) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Group>Delete (p. 297) in the Patran Reference Manual
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466
Deleting Coordinate Frames
Setting the Object menu to Coord removes any number of specified user defined coordinate frames from
the database The global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0, cannot be deleted. Also, a coordinate
frame will not be deleted if it is being referenced as a Nodal Reference Coordinate Frame or Analysis
Coordinate Frame, elsewhere in the model.
Tip: More Help:
• The List Processor (p. 43) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• Node Coordinate Frames (p. 47) in the Reference Manual - Part III
Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
6
Edit Actions

Overview of the Edit Action Methods 468

Editing Points 470

Editing Curves 472

Editing Surfaces 518

Editing Solids 589

Editing Features 632
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468
Overview of the Edit Action Methods
Object Method Description
Point • Equivalence • Finds groups of points which are within global model tolerances
of each other and for each group, equivalences the points into
one point.
Curve • Break • Breaks curves into n+1 curves at either a point location or at a
parametric coordinate location.
• Blend • Creates curves from two or more curves or edges by forcing a
first derivative continuity across the boundaries.
• Disassemble • Creates curves that represent a specified chained curve.
• Extend • Extends or lengthens one curve or edge or a pair of curves or
edges, either through a straight line extension, or through a
continuous curvature.
• Merge • Creates one or more curves from an existing set of curves or
edges. Some of the original curvature may be lost.
• Refit • Creates Uniformly parameterized Piecewise Cubic curves from
existing curves.
• Reverse • Redefines the connectivity of a curve or edge by reversing the
curve’s or edge’s positive parametric direction.
• Trim • Shortens the length of a curve or edge at either a point location or
a parametric coordinate location on the curve.
Surface • Break • Breaks a surface or a solid face into two or four smaller surfaces
at either a point, curve or surface location, or at a parametric
coordinate location on the surface.
• Blend • Creates surfaces from two or more surfaces or solid faces by
forcing a first derivative continuity across its boundaries. A
parametric green surface is required for this operation to work.
• Disassemble • Creates surfaces that represent the specified B-rep solid.
• Edge Match • Recreates a specified surface either by closing a gap between it
and another adjacent surface; or by creating an additional vertex
and converting the surface into a trimmed surface.
• Extend • Extends or lengthens a surface: by a percentage in the U and/or V
parametric directions, to its intersection with a curve, plane,
point or another surface, or by a fixed length. Also extends a pair
of surfaces to their intersection.
• Refit • Creates a non-uniformly parameterized network of bicubic
patches from existing surfaces.
• Reverse • Redefines the connectivity of a surface or solid face by reversing
the surface’s or face’s positive parametric directions.
469 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Overview of the Edit Action Methods
• Sew • Combines Edit, Point, Equivalence and Edit, Surface, Edge
Match functionality to equivalence surface vertices and merge
edges.
Solid • Break • Breaks a solid into two, four or eight smaller solids either at a
point, curve or surface location, or at a parametric coordinate
location.
• Blend • Creates solids from two or more solids by forcing a first
derivative continuity across its boundaries.
• Disassemble • Creates surfaces that represent a specified B-rep solid.
• Refit • Creates uniformly parameterized Piecewise Cubic solids from
existing solids.
• Reverse • Redefines the connectivity of a solid by reversing the solid’s
positive parametric directions.and moving the location of the
parametric origin.
Feature • Suppress • Displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry
that can be suppressed from the geometric model
• Unsuppress • Displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry
that can be unsuppressed from the geometric model.
• Parameters • Displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry
whose parameters can be edited to be used to regenerate the
geometric model based on the new parameter values.
Object Method Description
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470
Editing Points
Equivalencing Points
The Point Equivalence method finds groups of points which are within global model tolerance of each
other and for each group and equivalences the points into one point.
Editing Point Equivalence Method Example
Equivalences points 5 and 6 resulting in point 5 at the mid-point between points 5 and 6.
471 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Points
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Editing Curves
472
Editing Curves
Breaking Curves
Breaking a Curve at a Point
The Break method with the Point option creates n+1 curves by breaking an existing curve or edge at one
or more point locations. The point locations can be defined by either existing points, nodes, vertices,
curve/curve intersections, or curve/surface intersections. Also, the break point location does not have to
lie on the curve or edge.
473 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 33) in the Patran Reference Manual, Part 1: Basic Functions
• Topology (p. 10)
Curve Break Method At a Point Example
Creates Curves 2 and 3 by breaking Curve 1 at Point 2. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed in
and Curve 1 is deleted.
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474
Curve Break Method Between Two Points Example
Creates Curves 1 and 2 by breaking a curve defined by Points 1 and 2 (by using the Curve select menu
icon listed below) at the break location of Node 1. Notice that Node 1 does not have to be colinear with
Points 1 and 2.
475 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Break Method At An Edge Example
Creates Curves 1 and 2 by breaking an edge of Surface 1 (using the Curve select menu icon listed below)
at the break location defined by Node 1.
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Breaking a Curve at a Parametric Location
The Break method with the Parametric option creates two curves from an existing curve or edge, at the
curve’s parametric coordinate location, where has a range of . ç
1
u ( ) ç
1
0 ç
1
1 s s
477 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
478
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Curve Break Method At a Parametric Location Example
Creates Curves 2 and 3 by breaking Curve 1 at . Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed
in and the Parametric Direction is turned ON.
ç
1
0.25 =
479 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Break Method At a Parametric Location On An Edge Example
Creates Curves 1 and 2 by breaking an edge of Surface 1 (by using the Curve select menu icon listed
below) at . ç
1
0.25 =
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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480
Breaking a Curve at a Plane Location
The method breaks a curve with a plane. The curve will be broken at each intersection point with the
plane.
481 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
482
Blending a Curve
The Blend method creates a set of parametric cubic curves from an existing set of two or more curves or
edges by enforcing a first derivative continuity across its boundaries. The set of existing curves or edges
must be connected.
Tip: More Help:
483 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Curve Blend Method At Weighting Factor = 1.0 Example
Creates Curves 6 through 10 by equally blending Curves 1 through 5. Notice that Delete Original Curves
is pressed in.
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484
Curve Blend Method At Weighting Factors Other Than 1.0 Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that four weighting factors are used for the four
curve pairs: 1e-6, 1.0, 1.0, 1e6.
485 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Disassembling a Chained Curve
The Disassemble method operates on one or more chains (composite curves) and breaks them into the
original curves that composed the chain. A chained curve can be created by using Geometry
Application’s Create/Curve/Chain form. Chained curves are usually used in Patran for creating trimmed
surfaces.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
486
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 33) in the Patran Reference Manual, Part 1: Basic Functions
• Trimmed Surfaces (p. 20)
• Creating Chained Curves (p. 131)
• Creating Trimmed Surfaces (p. 277)
487 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Disassemble Method Example
Creates Curves 8 through 13 from chained Curve 7. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed in and
Curve 7 is deleted.
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488
Extending Curves
Extending a Curve With the 1 Curve Option
The Extend method with the 1 Curve option extends one or more curves which start at either the
beginning or the end of an existing curve or edge, and moves in the tangent direction for a defined length.
489 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
You can either extend curves in a straight line or maintain the same curvature as the existing curve or
edge.
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490
491 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Understanding the List Processor (p. 776) in the Patran Reference Manual
Curve Extend Method For One Curve Example
Extends curve 1 in a straight line by an actual length of 1.0.
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492
Curve Extend Method For One Curve Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Continuous Curvature is pressed in, instead of
Straight Line, and Fraction of Original is pressed in based on a value of 1.5.
493 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Extend Method For One Edge Example
Creates Curve 1 by extending it from an edge of Surface 1 (by using the Curve select menu icon listed
below). Both Straight Line and Actual are pressed in, with a length of 1.0 entered.
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494
Extending a Curve Using the Through Points Type
The Extend method with the 1 Curve option using the Through Points switch modifies one curve by
extending the curve through N-points.
495 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Understanding the List Processor (p. 776) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
496
Curve Extend Method For Through Points Example
Extends Curve 1 by passing through the selected screen points.
497 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Extending a Curve Using the Full Circle Type
The Extend method with the 1 Curve option using the Full Circle switch creates one curve by extending
the curve to a full circle, given the start, end, or interior point of the curve. If the curve has zero radius of
curvature, a circle will not be created.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
498
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Understanding the List Processor (p. 776) in the Patran Reference Manual
499 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Extend Method For Full Circle Example
Extends Curve 1 to a full circle by selecting Curve 1 and then Point 1.
Extending a Curve With the 2 Curve Option
The Extend method with the 2 Curve option extends a set of curves in a straight line by extending them
from two existing curves or edges. Patran will extend the specified endpoints to where the two curves
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500
will intersect. If the distance from the intersection to the endpoint of one of the existing curves, is within
a distance of the Global Model Tolerance, then Patran will extend only one curve instead of two. (The
Global Model Tolerance is defined on the Global Preferences form under the Preferences/Global menu).
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Preferences Commands (p. 439) in the Patran Reference Manual
501 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Extend Method For Two Curves Example
Extends Curves 1 and 2 to their point of intersection.
Curve Extend Method For A Curve and An Edge Example
Creates Curve 3 and extends Curve 1 by extending them from Curve 1 and an edge of Surface 1 by using
the Curve select menu icon listed below.
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502
Merging Existing Curves
The Merge method creates one or more curves from an existing set of curves or edges. The shape of the
new curves, relative to the existing curves or edges, will be preserved to the extent possible, but, in
general, some detail will be lost. The existing curves or edges must be connected.
503 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parameterization
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
504
Curve Merge Method Example
Creates Curve 6 by merging Curves 1 through 5. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed and
Curves 1 through 5 are deleted.
Curve Merge Method Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that the merge tolerance is 0.00001.
505 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Merge Method Example
Creates Curves 6 through 8 from merging Curves 1 through 5.
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Editing Curves
506
Refitting Existing Curves
The Refit method using the Uniform option creates uniformly parameterized Piecewise Cubic curves
from existing curves. The number of piecewise cubic segments per curve is input as the refit parameter.
507 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Parameterization
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
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508
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
Reversing a Curve
The Reverse method redefines the connectivity of an existing set of curves or edges by reversing the
positive direction of the curves or edges. You can plot the curve’s direction by selecting the
Parametric Direction toggle on the Geometric Properties form found under the menus Display/Display
Properties/Geometric.
ç
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509 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Curves
510
Curve Reverse Method Example
This example reverses Curves 6, 7 and 8. Notice that the parametric direction is displayed for the curves.
Curve Reverse Method With Associated Elements Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Curves 7, 8 and 9 have associated bar elements.
Although the node IDs are not reversed, Patran internally reverses the bar elements’ connectivities. For
example, for Bar 1 the nodes are stored as Nodes 2 and 1, instead of 1 and 2.
511 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Trimming Curves
Trimming a Curve With the Point Option
The Trim method with the Point option modifies an existing set of curves by trimming them at a specified
point location along each curve. The trim point can be defined by either existing points, nodes,
curve/curve intersections, or curve/surface intersections. You cannot trim existing edges.
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512
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Curve Trim Method At a Point Example
Trims Curve 9 at Point 9, with Point 9 cursor selected in the Curve/Point List as end of the curve to
discard or trim off.
513 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Curve Trim Method At a Point Example
Trims Curve 9 at the intersection of Curves 9 and 10 by using the Point select menu icon listed below for
the Trim Point List. Point 8 is cursor selected for the Curve/Point List as the end of the curve to trim.
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514
Trimming a Curve Using the Parametric Option
The Trim method using the Parametric option modifies an existing set of curves by trimming them at a
specified parametric coordinate location, where has a range of . You cannot trim existing
edges.
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1 s s
515 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
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516
Curve Trim Method At a Parametric Location Example
Trims Curve 9 at , where Point 8 is cursor selected as the end of the curve to trim.
Curve Trim Method At a Parametric Location Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Point 1 instead of Point 8 is cursor selected as
the end of the curve to trim in the Curve/Point List box.
ç
1
u ( ) 0.75 =
517 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Curves
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Editing Surfaces
518
Editing Surfaces
Surface Break Options
Breaking a Surface With the Curve Option
The Break method with the Curve option creates two surfaces by breaking a surface or solid face at a
curve location.The curve location does not have to lie on the surface, but it must intersect on opposite
edges of the surface or face. The curve location can be a curve, an edge or other curve locations provided
on the Curve select menu.
519 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Surface Break Method At a Curve Example
Breaks Surface 1 at Curve 3. Notice that Curve 3 does not lie on Surface 1. Instead, Patran projects the
curve break location on the surface. Also, Delete Original Surfaces is pressed in and Surface 1 is deleted.
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520
Surface Break Method At Two Points Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except the curve break location is defined by Points
8 and 9 using the Curve select menu icon listed below.
521 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Surface Break Method At a Curve on a Face Example
Breaks a face of Solid 1 using the Surface select menu icon listed below, at the break location of Curve 1.
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522
Breaking a Surface With the Surface Option
The Break method with the Surface option creates two surfaces by breaking a surface or solid face at a
surface location.The surface break location must intersect the surface or face on opposite edges. The
surface break location can be a surface or a solid face.
523 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Surface Break Method At a Surface Example
Creates Surface 4 and 5 by breaking Surface 1 in half with the break location of Surface 3.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
524
Breaking a Surface With the Plane Option
This method breaks a surface with a plane. The surface will be broken along its intersection with the
plane.
525 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Breaking a Surface With the Plane Option Example
Creates Surfaces 3 and 4 by breaking Surface 2 in half with the break location of Plane 1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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526
Breaking a Surface With the Point Option
The Break method with the Point option creates two or four surfaces by breaking an existing surface or
solid face defined at a point location. If the point is on an edge, then two surfaces are created. If the point
is located on the interior, then four surfaces are created. The point location can be a point, a node, a
vertex, a curve/curve intersection or a curve/surface intersection.
527 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Surface Break Method At a Point Example
Breaks Surface 1 into four Surfaces at Point 5. Notice that Delete Original Surfaces is pressed and
Surface 1 is deleted.
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528
Surface Break Method At a Point Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that the break location is at Point 4 instead of
Point 5, and Surfaces 2 and 3 are created instead of four surfaces.
529 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Surface Break Method At a Vertex Example
Breaks Surface 1 along the diagonal into Surfaces 2 and 3 at Point 1 which is located at the vertex of
Surface 1.
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530
Breaking a Surface Using the 2 Point Option
The Break method using the 2 Point option creates two surfaces by breaking an existing surface or solid
face defined by two point locations. The point locations must lie on opposite edges of the surface or face.
The point locations can be points, nodes, vertices, curve/curve intersections, or curve/surface
intersections.
531 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
Surface Break Method At 2 Points Example
Breaks Surface 1 into Surfaces 2 and 3 defined by Point 5 and Node 1. Notice that Delete Original
Surfaces is pressed in and Surface 1 is deleted.
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532
Breaking a Surface With the Parametric Option
The Break method with the Parametric option creates two surfaces from an existing surface or solid face.
The break location is defined at the surface’s or face’s parametric or coordinate location, where
has a range of and has a range of .
ç
1
ç
2
ç
1
0 ç
1
1 s s ç
2
0 ç
2
1 s s
533 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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534
Surface Break Method At Parametric Location u=0.25 Example
Breaks Surface 1 into Surfaces 2 and 3 at . Notice that Delete Original Surfaces is pressed
and Surface 1 is deleted and that the parametric direction is displayed.
Surface Break Method At Parametric Location v=0.25 Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that the break location is at .
ç
1
u ( ) 0.25 =
ç
2
v ( ) 0.25 =
535 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Surface Break Method On a Face At Parametric Location v=0.25 Example
Breaks a face of Solid 1 by using the Surface select menu icon listed below at . ç
2
v ( ) 0.25 =
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Editing Surfaces
536
Blending Surfaces
The Blend method creates a set of parametric bi-cubic surfaces from an existing set of two or more
surfaces or solid faces by enforcing a first derivative continuity across its boundaries. The set of existing
surfaces or faces must share at least one edge with another surface or face in the set.
537 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
Note: A parametric green surface is required for this operation to work.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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538
Surface Blend Method Example
Blends Surfaces 1, 5, 3 and 4 with a default weight factor of 0.5 applied to all surface edges.
Surface Blend Method Example
Blends Surfaces 1 through 4 with a weighting factor of 1.0 applied to two edges (highlighted in the
“Before” picture).
539 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Disassembling Trimmed Surfaces
The Disassemble method operates on one or more trimmed surfaces and creates the parent surface that
has the same curvature as the trimmed surface. A trimmed surface can be created either by using the
Geometry Application’s Create/Surface/Trim form or by using the Create/Surface/Planar Trim form.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
540
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Trimmed Surfaces
• Creating Trimmed Surfaces
541 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Surface Disassemble Method Example
Operates on Surface 2 which is a general trimmed surface. Surface 3 is the new parent surface. Notice
that new curves associated with Surface 2 are also created.
Surface Disassemble Method Example
Operates on Surface 1 which is a planar trimmed surface. Notice that the new parent surface, Surface 2,
is also planar and that new curves associated with Surface 1 are created.
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542
Editing Edges from Surfaces
Removing Edges from Surfaces with Edge Option
With this form you can remove a given edge of a trimmed surface. This process differs from the vertex
removal function which was topological in nature. This operation is both topological and geometrical in
that the shape of the trimmed surface will be altered as well as the topology. The edges adjacent to the
543 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
removed edge will be extended until they intersect. This intersection must take place within the domain
of the parent surface.
Removing Edges from Surfaces with Edge Length Option
With this form you can automatically remove all edges whose length is less than a specified value.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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544
Adding Edges from Surfaces
With this form you can automatically add edges to a surface.
545 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Replacing Edges from Surfaces
With this form you can automatically replace edges on a specified surface with an existing curve.
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Editing Surfaces
546
Matching Surface Edges
Matching Surface Edges with the 2 Surface Option
The Edge Match method with the 2 Surface option recreates the second surface of a specified pair that
547 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
share two common vertices but has a gap or unmatched edges. The gap must be less than 10 times the
Global Model Tolerance or else Patran will not close the gap. The existing pair of surfaces or faces do
not need to have matching parametric and orientations. This method is useful for correcting
topologically incongruent surface pairs so that they are congruent before you mesh. Also see Matching
Adjacent Surfaces, 269.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Topological Congruency and Meshing
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548
Surface Edge Match Method Example
Edits Surface 2 which is specified as the second surface of the pair and closes the gap between Surfaces
1 and 2.
Surface Edge Match Method Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except Surface 1 is specified as the second surface of
the surface pair.
549 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Matching Surface Edges with the Surface-Point Option
The Edge Match method with the Surface-Point option recreates a specified surface as a trimmed surface
that includes an additional cursor defined vertex point. This method is useful for correcting topologically
incongruent pairs of surfaces so that they are congruent before you mesh.
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550
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Topological Congruency and Meshing
Surface Edge Match Method With Surface-Point Example
Recreates Surface 1 which was a parametric bi-cubic surface, into a trimmed surface which has the
vertices Points 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 so that Surface 1 is congruent with Surfaces 2 and 3. The additional vertex
551 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
specified in the Point List was cursor selected at Point 5 by using the Vertex select menu icon listed
below.
Extending Surfaces
Extending Surfaces with the 2 Surface Option
This form is used to extend two surfaces to their line of intersection.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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552
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending a Surface With the 2 Surface Option Example
Extend surface 1 to the line of intersection of surface 2.
553 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Extending Surfaces to a Curve
This form is used to extend a surface to an intersecting curve.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
554
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending a Surface to a Curve Example
Extend Surface 1 to the edge of Surface 2.
555 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending Surfaces to a Plane
This form is used to extend a surface to an intersecting plane.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
556
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending a Surface to a Plane Example
Extend Surface 1 to Plane 1.
557 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Extending Surfaces to a Point
This form is used to extend a surface to an intersecting point.
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558
Extending a Surface to a Point Example
Extend Surface 1 to Point 1.
559 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Extending Surfaces to a Surface
This form is used to extend a surface to an intersecting surface.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
560
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
561 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Extending a Surface to a Surface Example
Extend Surface 1 to the line of intersection of Surface 2 and break Surface 2 at the line of intersection to
create Surface 3 and 4, then delete Surface 2.
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562
Extending Surfaces with the Percentage Option
This form is used to extend a surface by a percentage in the U and/or V parametric directions.
563 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending a Surface With the Percentage Option Example
Extend Surface 1 by 100% in the U direction starting at U-Max = 1 and shrink Surface 1 by 50% in the
V direction starting at V-Max=1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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564
Extending Surfaces with the Fixed Length Option
This form is used to extend a surface by a fixed length.
565 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Extending a Surface With the Fixed Length Option Example
Extend Surface 1 by a fixed length of 5.0 units in the X direction.
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566
Refitting Surfaces
The Refit method creates a non-uniformly parameterized network of bicubic patches from existing
surfaces. The Refit Tolerance is input as the refit parameter.
567 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Topological Congruency and Meshing
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
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568
Reversing Surfaces
The Reverse method redefines the connectivity of an existing set of surfaces or solid faces by exchanging
the positive and directions of the surfaces or faces. You can plot the and directions for the
surfaces by pressing the Show Parametric Direction toggle on the Geometric Attributes form found under
the menu Display/Geometry.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
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569 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
• Connectivity
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Showing Surface Attributes
Surface Reverse Method Example
Reverses the parametric and directions for Surface 1. Notice that the parametric directions are
displayed on the surfaces. Also, notice that Auto Execute is not on so that you can press the Draw Normal
Vectors button without executing the form.
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570
Sewing Surfaces
The Sew method sequentially combines the actions of the Edit/ Point/ Equivalence method to
equivalence surface vertices and the Edit/ Surface/Edge Match method to merge edges. The composite
action is a "sewing" of the surfaces. Vertices and edges are both equivalenced according to the
restrictions of the previously mentioned methods; however, since the operation is sequential, vertices will
already be equivalenced before doing the edge merging.
571 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Surface Sew Method Example
Edits surfaces 1 and 2 by closing the gap between edges which share common vertices.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
572
Subtracting Surfaces
The Subtract method .
573 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Trimming Surfaces to an Edge
This form is used to trim a Surface with one of its edges and optionally delete the surface with the
smallest surface area after the trim.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
574
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Trim Surface To Edge Example
Trim the sliver from surface 5 by selecting the surface edge surface 5.4.
575 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Adding a Fillet to a Surface
This form facilitates the creation of a fillet edge between two existing edges sharing a given vertex. This
operation, when successful will replace the input vertex with a new edge.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
576
Adding a Hole to Surfaces
Adding a Hole to Surfaces with the Center Point Option
The Add Hole method using the Center Point option adds a circular hole to a Surface. The circular hole
is defined in the tangent plane of the supplied, manifolded center point.
577 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Adding a Hole to a Surface with the Center Point Option Example
This will add nine circular holes to surface 1 using points 52:60. Warning messages will be generated for
the other points due to interference of holes at these points with surface edges.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
578
Adding a Hole to Surfaces with the Project Vector Option
The Add Hole method using the Projection Vector option adds a circular hole to a Surface. The circular
hole is defined in the plane of the supplied vector and vector-projected onto the surface.
579 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Adding a Hole to a Surface with the Project Vector Option codeindent10
This will add two holes to surface 6 using points 78 and 82 and the projection vector defined by the x
axis of Coordinate Frame 0.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
580
Adding a Hole to Surfaces with the Inner Loop Option
The Add Hole method using the Inner Loop option adds a hole to a Surface. The hole is defined by the
supplied closed, chained curves which will define inner loops for the creation of a Trimmed Surface.
581 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Adding a Hole to a Surface with the Inner Loop Option Example
This will add 5 new holes to surface 6 using curves 14, 15, 16, 29, and 30.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
582
Removing a Hole from Trimmed Surfaces
The Remove Hole method removes a hole from a Trimmed Surface. The hole to remove can be any edge-
curves which are inner loops of a Trimmed Surface.
583 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Removing a Hole from a Trimmed Surface Example
This will remove all the small inner loops from surface 4.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
584
Adding a Vertex to Surfaces
The Add Vertex method adds a vertex to a surface. The point used to create a vertex can be any point
which is on the edge of the selected surface. If a hardpoint is converted to a surface vertex in the process
of adding a vertex to a surface, then this point(vertex) cannot be reassociated to the surface as a hardpoint.
585 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Adding a Vertex to a Surface Example
This will add a vertex to surface 2 using point 3. The result is surface 2 becomes a trimmed surface with
five vertices.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
586
Removing a Vertex from Trimmed Surfaces
The Remove Vertex method removes a vertex from a Trimmed Surface. The vertex to remove can be any
vertex of a Trimmed Surface with the exception that one vertex per loop must remain.
587 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Removing a Vertex from a Trimmed Surface Example
This will remove vertex 3.4.2 from trimmed surface 3. The result is a parametric bicubic surface.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Surfaces
588
589 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Editing Solids
Breaking Solids
Breaking Solids with the Point Option
The Break method with the Point option breaks an existing solid into two or four smaller solids at a point
location. The point location can be on or within the solid.
More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
590
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Solid Break Method with the Point Option Example
Breaks Solid 1 into eight solids by referencing Point 9. Notice that Delete Original Surfaces is pressed
and Solid 1 is deleted.
591 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Break Method with the Point Option Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except that the break point is on a face instead of inside
of Solid 1, and four solids are created instead of eight.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
592
Solid Break Method with the Point Option Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except that the break point is on an edge instead of on
a face of Solid 1, and two solids are created instead of four.
593 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Breaking Solids with the Parametric Option
The Break method with the Parametric option creates two, four or eight solids from an existing solid. The
break location is defined at the solid’s parametric , , and coordinate locations where has a
range of , has a range of and has a range of .
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
ç
1
0 ç
1
1 s s ç
2
0 ç
2
1 s s ç
3
0 ç
3
1 s s
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
594
595 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Connectivity
• Display>Named Attributes (p. 400) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Break Method with the Parametric Option Example
Breaks Solid 1 into eight smaller solids at , , and . Notice that Delete Original
Surfaces is pressed and Surface 1 is deleted and that the parametric direction is displayed.
ç
1
0.5 = ç
2
0.5 = ç
3
0.5 =
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
596
Solid Break Method with the Parametric Option Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except instead of , and Surface 1 is
broken into four solids instead of eight.
ç
1
0 = ç
1
0.5 =
597 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Break Method with the Parametric Option Example
This example is similar to the first example, except and instead of and ,
and Surface 1 is broken into two solids instead of eight.
ç
1
0 = ç
2
0 = ç
1
0.5 = ç
2
0.5 =
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
598
Breaking Solids with the Curve Option
The Break method with the Curve option breaks an existing solid into two solids at a curve break location.
The curve location must completely lie on and bisect a face of the solid.
599 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Solid Break Method with the Curve Option Example
Breaks Solids 2 and 3 into two solids each at Curve 1. Notice that Delete Original Solids is pressed and
Solid 1 is deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
600
Breaking Solids with the Plane Option
The method breaks a solid with a plane. The solid will be broken along its intersection with the plane.
601 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
602
Breaking a Solid with the Plane Option Example
Creates Solids 2 and 3 by breaking Solid 1 along its intersection with Plane 1. Notice that Delete Original
Solids is pressed and Solid 1 is deleted.
Breaking Solids with the Surface Option
The Break method with the Surface option breaks an existing solid into two smaller solids at a surface
break location. The surface break location must completely pass through the solid.
603 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
Solid Break Method with the Surface Option Example
Breaks Solid 1 into two solids at Surface 1. Notice that Delete Original Solids is pressed and Solid 1 is
deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
604
Solid Break Method with the Surface Option Between Two Surfaces Example
This example is the same as the previous example, except that the solid is defined by Surfaces 2 and 3 by
using the Solid select menu icon listed below.
605 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Blending Solids
The Blend method creates a set of parametric tri-cubic solids from an existing set of two or more solids,
such that the first derivative continuity is maintained across the surface boundaries between adjacent
solids. The existing solids can have any parametrization, but they must share common faces.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
606
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• PATRAN 2 Neutral File Support For Parametric Cubic Geometry
• Topology
• Parametric Cubic Geometry
Solid Blend Method Example
Creates Solids 4, 5 and 6 by blending Solids 1, 2 and 3. Notice that Delete Original Solids is pressed and
Solids 1, 2 and 3 are deleted.
607 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Blend Method Example
This example is similar to the previous example, except that weighting factors, 1e6 and 1e-6, are used so
that Solids 1 and 3 dominate the slope.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
608
Disassembling B-rep Solids
The Disassemble method operates on one or more boundary represented (B-rep) solids and breaks them
into the original surfaces that composed each B-rep solid. A B-rep solid can be created by the Geometry
Application’s Create/Solid/B-rep form.
609 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
610
Disassemble a B-rep Solid Example
Disassemble solid 1 into its constituent surfaces and convert all possible surfaces into Simply Trimmed
surfaces (green). If “Conver to Simply Trimmed” toggle was OFF, the resulting surfaces would maintain
their original type; (magenta).
611 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Refitting Solids
Refitting Solids with the To TriCubicNet Option
This form is used to refit a solid to alternative mathematical solid representations. The form provides
three Options; To TriCubicNet, To TriParametric, and To Parasolid.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
612
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Solids
• Building B-rep Solids
• Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid
613 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Refitting Solids with the To TriParametric Option
This form is used to refit a solid to alternative mathematical solid representations. The form provides
three Options; To TriCubicNet, To TriParametric, and To Parasolid.
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Solids
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
614
• Building B-rep Solids
• Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid
Refitting Solids with the To Parasolid Option
This form is used to refit a solid to alternative mathematical solid representations. The form provides
three Options; To TriCubicNet, To TriParametric, and To Parasolid.
615 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Solids
• Building B-rep Solids
• Creating a Boundary Representation (B-rep) Solid
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
616
Reversing Solids
The Reverse method redefines the connectivity of an existing set of solids by exchanging the positive
and directions of the solids. Then, to maintain a positive parametric frame, Patran translates the
parametric origin up the original axis and then reverses the direction. You can plot the , and
directions for the solids by pressing the Show Parametric Direction toggle on the Geometric Attributes
form found under the menu Display/Geometry.
Solid Reverse Method Example
Reverses the parametric directions for Solid 1 (only the top half of Solid 1 is shown). Notice that the
parametric origin is relocated.
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
ç
3
ç
1
ç
2
ç
3
617 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Boolean Operation Add
This form is used to perform a Solid boolean of “Add”.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
618
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Boolean Operation Add Example
Add Solids 2 and 3 to Solid 1.
619 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Boolean Operation Subtract
This form is used to perform a Solid boolean operation of “Subtract”.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
620
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Boolean Operation Subtract Example
Subtract solids 2 and 3 from solid 1.
621 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Boolean Operation Intersect
This form is used to perform a Solid boolean operation of “Intersect”.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
622
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Boolean Operation Intersect Example
Intersect solids 2 and 3 with solid
623 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Creating Solid Edge Blends
Creating Constant Radius Edge Blends from Solid Edges
This form is used to create a constant radius edge blend on an edge(s) of a solid.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
624
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creating Constant Radius Edge Blend from Solid Edges Example
Create an Edge Blend of Radius 0.25 on Solid 7 edges Solid 7.1.5 7.3.6 7.11.1 and 7.3.1.
625 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Creating Chamfer Edge Blend from Solid Edges
This form is used to create a constant angle chamfer on an edge(s) of a solid.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
626
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Creating Chamfer Edge Blend from Solid Edges Example
Create Chamfers with offset of 0.02 and angle of 45 degrees on Solid 1 edges Solid 1.1.3 1.1.12 1.1.6
1.1.4 1.2.4 and 1.4.4.
627 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Imprinting Solid on Solid
This form is used to imprint solid bodies on solid bodies.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
628
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Imprint Solid on Solid Example
Imprint Solid Cylinders 2 and 3 onto the faces of Solid Block 1. The Cylinders have been deleted to show
the results of the imprint.
629 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Solid Shell Operation
This form is used to create a void in a solid by shelling the selected faces.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Solids
630
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Solid Shell Operation Example
Shell solids 1t4 with a wall thickness=0.25 using faces solid 4.1 4.2 3.6 2.1 2.4 2.5 1.4 and 1.2.
631 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Solids
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Features
632
Editing Features
Suppressing a Feature
The Edit,Feature,Suppress method displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry that
can be suppressed from the geometric model.
633 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Features
Unsuppressing a Feature
The Edit,Feature,Unsuppress method displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry that
can be unsuppressed from the geometric model.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Features
634
Editing Feature Parameters
The Edit,Feature,Parameters method displays the list of CAD features associated with the geometry
whose parameters can be edited to be used to regenerate the geometric model based on the new parameter
values.
635 Chapter 6: Edit Actions
Editing Features
Feature Parameter Definition
The Feature Parameter Definition form allows the parameters of a CAD feature to be displayed and
modified for regeneration of a CAD model.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Editing Features
636
Chapter 7: Show Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
7
Show Actions

Overview of the Geometry Show Action Methods 638

Showing Points 640

Showing Point Distance 642

Showing Surfaces 667

Showing Surface Normals 63

Showing Solids 675

Showing Coordinate Frames 677

Showing Planes 679

Showing Vectors 684
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Geometry Show Action Methods
638
Overview of the Geometry Show Action Methods
Figure 7-1
Object Method Description
Point • Location • Shows the coordinate value locations for a list of specified
points or vertices. You may enter a reference coordinate system
ID to express the coordinate values within.
• Distance • Shows the distance and the x, y and z offsets between one or
more pairs of points and/or vertices.
• Node • Lists the IDs of the nodes that are located on a specified point
or vertex that is within the Global Model Tolerance value.
Curve • Attributes • Lists the geometric type, length, and starting and ending points
for a list of specified curves or edges.
• Arc • Shows the total number of Arcs in the model, total number of
Arcs in the current group and the geometric modeling
tolerance.
• Angle • Shows the angle between two curves for a list of specified
curves or edges.
• Length Range • Shows the Start and End Point, Length, and Type for a list of
specified curves or edges which are in the Minimum and
Maximum Curve Length Range specified.
• Node • Lists the IDs of the nodes that are located on a specified curve
or edge that is within the Global Model Tolerance value.
Surface • Attributes • Lists the number of vertices and edges associated with each
specified surface or solid face, as well as the area and geometric
type.
• Area Range • Shows the Vertices, Edges, Area, and Type for a list of
specified surfaces or faces which are in the Minimum and
Maximum Surface Area Range specified.
• Node • Lists the IDs of the nodes that are located on a specified surface
or solid face that is within the Global Model Tolerance value.
Solid • Attributes • Lists the number of vertices, surfaces (or faces) associated with
each specified solid, as well as the solid’s volume and
geometric type.
Coord • Attributes • Shows the ID, the xyz coordinate location of the origin and the
type for each specified coordinate frame.
Plane • Attributes
Vector • Attributes
639 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Overview of the Geometry Show Action Methods
The Show Action Information Form
When a Show action is executed, Patran will display a spreadsheet form at the bottom of the screen. This
form displays information on the geometric entities that were specified on the Show action form.
Cells on the form that have a dot (.), means there is additional information associated with that cell. If a
cell with the dot is pressed with the cursor, associated information is displayed in the textbox at the
bottom of the form.
Tip: More Help:
• Show Point Distance Information Spreadsheet
• Show Point/Curve Distance Information Spreadsheet
• Show Point/Surface Distance Information Spreadsheet
• Show Curve Angle Information Spreadsheet
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Points
640
Showing Points
Showing Point Locations
Setting Object to Point and Info to Location will show for a list of specified point locations, the
coordinate value locations that are expressed within a specified reference coordinate frame. Also shown
is the element property set assigned to the points. Point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or other
point locations provided on the Point select menu.
641 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Points
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• The Show Action Information Form
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
642
Showing Point Distance
Showing Point Distance with the Point Option
Show the distance between two points. A multi-page spreadsheet is used to display the distance, direction
cosine and point location data for each point pair.
Tip: More Help:
643 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Show Point Distance Information Spreadsheet
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
644
Cell Callback Actions
Showing Point Distance with the Curve Option
Show the distance between point/curve pairs. A multi-page spreadsheet is used to display the distance,
direction cosine and minimum point location data for each point/curve pair.
From Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
To Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
Reference CID Highlights both points using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the reference frame (type, origin, etc.) in the textbox.
Other columns Highlights both points using the secondary highlight color; displays the long
(un-abbreviated) form of the data in the textbox.
645 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
646
Show Point/Curve Distance Information Spreadsheet
647 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Cell Callback Actions
Showing Point Distance with the Surface Option
Show the distance between point/surface pairs. A multi-page spreadsheet is used to display the distance,
direction cosine and minimum point location data for each point/surface pair.
From Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
From Curve ID Highlights the curve using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the curve (type, etc.) in the textbox.
Reference CID Highlights both entities using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the reference frame (type, origin, etc.) in the textbox.
Other Columns Highlights both entities using the secondary highlight color; displays the long
(un-abbreviated) form of the data in the textbox; and displays a marker on the
curve where the minimum distance occurs.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
648
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
649 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Show Point/Surface Distance Information Spreadsheet
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
650
Cell Callback Actions
Showing Point Distance with the Plane Option
Show the distance between point/Plane pairs. A multi-page spreadsheet is used to display the distance,
direction cosine and minimum point location data for each point/plane pair.
To Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
From Surface ID Highlights the surface using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the surface (type, etc.) in the textbox.
Reference CID Highlights both entities in the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the reference frame (type, origin, etc.) in the textbox.
Other columns Highlights both entities in the secondary highlight color; displays the long (un-
abbreviated) form of the data in the textbox; and displays a marker on the surface
where the minimum distance occurs.
651 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
652
Show Point/Curve Vector Information Spreadsheet
653 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Cell Callback Actions
Showing Point Distance with the Vector Option
Show the distance between point/vector pairs. A multi-page spreadsheet is used to display the distance,
direction cosine and minimum point location data for each point/vector pair.
To Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
From Vector ID Highlights the plane using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the vector (type, etc.) in the textbox.
Reference CID Highlights both entities in the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the reference frame (type, origin, etc.) in the textbox.
Other columns Highlights both entities in the secondary highlight color; displays the long
(unabbreviated) form of the data in the textbox; and displays a marker on the
surface where the minimum distance occurs.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
654
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
655 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Show Point/Curve Distance Information Spreadsheet
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Point Distance
656
Cell Callback Actions
Showing the Nodes on a Point
Setting Object to Point and Info to Node will show the IDs of the nodes that lie on at specified point
locations that are within the Global Model Tolerance. Point locations can be points, vertices, nodes or
other point locations provided on the Point select menu.
To Point ID Highlights the point using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
From Plane ID Highlights the plane using the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the plane (type, etc.) in the textbox.
Reference CID Highlights both entities in the secondary Highlight color; displays general
information about the reference frame (type, origin, etc.) in the textbox.
Other columns Highlights both entities in the secondary highlight color; displays the long
(unabbreviated) form of the data in the textbox; and displays a marker on the
surface where the minimum distance occurs.
657 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Point Distance
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• The Show Action Information Form
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Curves
658
Showing Curves
Showing Curve Attributes
Setting Object to Curve and Info to Attributes will show the geometric type, length, the starting and
ending points, and material and element properties for a list of specified curves or edges.
Tip: More Help:
659 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Curves
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
Showing Curve Arc
Setting Object to Curve and Info to Arc will show the total number of Arcs in the model, total number of
Arcs in the current group and the geometric modeling tolerance.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Curves
660
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
661 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Curves
Showing Curve Angle
Setting Object to Curve and Info to Angle will show the angle between pairs of curves. The point on each
curve where the angle is calculated from is shown via a primary graphics marker in the graphics marker
color. This is useful if the two curves do not intersect.
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Curves
662
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
Show Curve Angle Information Spreadsheet
663 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Curves
Cell Callback Actions
Showing Curve Length Range
Setting Object to Curve and Info to Length Range will show the Start and End Point, Length, and Type
for a list of specified curves or edges which are in the Minimum and Maximum Curve Length Range
specified.
First Curve ID Highlights the curve using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the point (type, location, etc.) in the textbox.
Second Curve ID Highlights the curve using the secondary highlight color; displays general
information about the curve (type, etc.) in the textbox.
Other Columns Highlights both curves in the secondary highlight color; displays the long (un-
abbreviated) form of the data in the textbox; and displays a marker on each curve
at the respective locations where the minimum distance occurs.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Curves
664
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
665 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Curves
Showing the Nodes on a Curve
Setting the Object to Curve and Info to Node will show the IDs of the nodes that lie on the specified
curves or edges that are within the Global Model Tolerance.
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Curves
666
• Types of Geometry in Patran (p. 19)
• The Show Action Information Form
667 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Surfaces
Showing Surfaces
Showing Surface Attributes
Setting the Object to Surface and Info to Attributes will list the number of vertices and edges associated
with each specified surface or solid face, as well as the its area, geometry type and material and element
properties .
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Surfaces
668
Tip: More Help:
• Parameterization
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
669 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Surfaces
Showing Surface Area Range
Setting Object to Surface and Info to Area Range will show the Vertices, Edges, Area, and Type for a list
of specified surfaces or faces which are in the Minimum and Maximum Surface Area Range specified.
Tip: More Help:
• Parameterization
• Topology
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Surfaces
670
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry (p. 18)
• Types of Geometry in Patran (p. 19)
• The Show Action Information Form
Showing the Nodes on a Surface
Setting the Object to Surface and Info to Node will show the IDs of the nodes that lie on the specified
surfaces or solid faces that are within the Global Model Tolerance.
671 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Surfaces
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Surfaces
672
Showing Surface Normals
Setting the Object to Surface and Info to Normals enables the user to display surface normals of varying
densities on the surface.
673 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Surfaces
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Surfaces
674
Tip: More Help:
• Topology
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
• Types of Geometry in Patran
• The Show Action Information Form
675 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Solids
Showing Solids
Showing Solid Attributes
Setting the Object to Solid and Info to Attributes will list the number of vertices and faces associated with
each specified solid, as well as the volume, geometry type and material and element properties .
Tip: More Help:
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Solids
676
• Solids
• The Show Action Information Form
677 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Coordinate Frames
Showing Coordinate Frames
Showing Coordinate Frame Attributes
Setting the Object to Coord and Info to Attributes will list the ID, the coordinate value location of the
coordinate frame’s origin and the coordinate frame type for each specified coordinate frame.
Tip: More Help:
• Global Model Tolerance & Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Coordinate Frames
678
• Coordinate Frame Definitions, 60
• The Show Action Information Form, 639
679 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Planes
Showing Planes
Showing Plane Attributes
Setting Object to Plane and Info to Attributes will show for a list of specified plane, displaying the plane
origins and the plane normal that are expressed within a specified reference coordinate frame.
Tip: More Help:
• Showing Point Locations
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Planes
680
Showing Plane Angle
Setting Object to Plane and Info to Angle will show the angle between pairs of planes.
681 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Planes
Show Plane Angle/Distance Information Spreadsheet
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Planes
682
Showing Plane Distance
Setting Object to Plane and Info to Distance will show the distance between pairs of planes.
683 Chapter 7: Show Actions
Showing Planes
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Showing Vectors
684
Showing Vectors
Showing Vector Attributes
Setting Object to Vector and Info to Attributes will show a list for a specified vector displaying the vector
origins and the vector directions that are expressed within a specified reference coordinate frame.
Tip: More Help:
• Showing Point Locations
Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
8
Transform Actions

Overview of the Transform Methods 686

Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
689

Transforming Coordinate Frames 777
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Transform Methods
686
Overview of the Transform Methods
Object Method Description
Point • Translate • Create points by successively offsetting them through a translation
vector from an existing set of points, nodes or vertices.
• Rotate • Create points by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of points, nodes or vertices.
• Scale • Create points by scaling an existing set of points, nodes or vertices.
• Mirror • Create points by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of points,
nodes or vertices.
• MCoord • Creates points by translating and rotating them from an existing set
of points, nodes, or vertices by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates points from existing points, nodes or vertices by using a
planar rotation defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates points by translating and rotating existing points, nodes or
vertices, using a transformation defined by three original and three
destination point locations.
• Vsum • Creates points by performing a vector sum of the coordinate
locations of two sets of existing points, nodes or vertices.
• MScale • Creates points by simultaneously moving, scaling, rotating and/or
warping an existing set of points, nodes or vertices.
Curve • Translate • Create curves by successively offsetting them through a translation
vector from an existing set of curves or edges.
• Rotate • Create curves by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of curves or edges.
• Scale • Create curves by scaling an existing set of curves or edges.
• Mirror • Create curves by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of curves
or edges.
• MCoord • Creates curves by translating and rotating them from an existing set
of curves or edges by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates curves from existing curves or edges by using a planar
rotation defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates curves by translating and rotating existing curves or edges,
using a transformation defined by three original and three
destination point locations.
• Vsum • Creates curves by performing a vector sum of the coordinate
locations of two sets of existing curves or edges.
• MScale • Creates curves by simultaneously moving, scaling, rotating and/or
warping an existing set of curves or edges.
687 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Overview of the Transform Methods
Surface • Translate • Create surfaces by successively offsetting them through a
translation vector from an existing set of surfaces or solid faces.
• Rotate • Create surfaces by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of surfaces or solid faces.
• Scale • Create a set of curves by scaling an existing set of curves or edges.
• Mirror • Create surfaces by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of
surfaces or solid faces.
• MCoord • Creates surfaces by translating and rotating them from an existing
set of surfaces or solid faces by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates surfaces from existing surfaces or solid faces by using a
planar rotation defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates surfaces by translating and rotating existing surfaces or
solid faces, using a transformation defined by three original and
three destination point locations.
• Vsum • Creates surfaces by performing a vector sum of the coordinate
locations of two sets of existing surfaces or solid faces.
• MScale • Creates surfaces by simultaneously moving, scaling, rotating
and/or warping an existing set of surfaces or solid faces.
Solid • Translate • Create solids by successively offsetting them through a translation
vector from an existing set of solids.
• Rotate • Create solids by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of solids.
• Scale • Create solids by scaling an existing set of solids.
• Mirror • Create solids by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of solids.
• MCoord • Creates solids by translating and rotating them from an existing set
of solids by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates solids from existing solids by using a planar rotation
defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates solids by translating and rotating existing solids, using a
transformation defined by three original and three destination point
locations.
• Vsum • Creates solids by performing a vector sum of the coordinate
locations of two sets of existing solids.
• MScale • Creates solids by simultaneously moving, scaling, rotating and/or
warping an existing set of solids.
Object Method Description
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Transform Methods
688
Coord • Translate • Create rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frames by
successively offsetting them through a translation vector from an
existing set of coordinate frames.
• Rotate • Create rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate frames by
performing a rigid body rotation about a defined axis from an
existing set of coordinate frames.
Plane • Translate • Create solids by successively offsetting them through a translation
vector from an existing set of solids.
• Rotate • Create solids by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of solids.
• Mirror • Create solids by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of solids.
• MCoord • Creates solids by translating and rotating them from an existing set
of solids by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates solids from existing solids by using a planar rotation
defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates solids by translating and rotating existing solids, using a
transformation defined by three original and three destination point
locations.
Vector • Translate • Create solids by successively offsetting them through a translation
vector from an existing set of solids.
• Rotate • Create solids by performing a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of solids.
• Mirror • Create solids by a defined mirror plane of an existing set of solids.
• MCoord • Creates solids by translating and rotating them from an existing set
of solids by referencing coordinate frames.
• Pivot • Creates solids from existing solids by using a planar rotation
defined by three point locations.
• Position • Creates solids by translating and rotating existing solids, using a
transformation defined by three original and three destination point
locations.
• Scale • Create solids by scaling an existing set of solids.
Object Method Description
689 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes
and Vectors
Translating Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and
Vectors
The Translate method creates a set of points, curves, surfaces, solids planes or vectors which are
successively offset from each other by a defined Translation Vector <dx dy dz>. Points can be translated
from points, vertices or nodes. Curves can be translated from curves or edges. Surfaces can be translated
from surfaces or solid faces. Solids are translated from solids.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
690
691 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames
Translating Points Radially
Creates Points 8 through 14 by translating Points 1 through 7, three units radially outward within the
cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 100. Notice that Curvilinear in Refer. CF is pressed.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
692
Translating Points
This example is the same as the previous example, except Cartesian in Refer. CF is pressed instead of
Curvilinear in Refer. CF.
693 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating Curves
Creates Curves 2 through 6 by translating Curves 1 three times - two units in the X direction and one unit
in the Y direction within the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
694
Translating Curves Radially
Translates Curve 1 three times and radially one unit outward within the cylindrical coordinate frame,
Coord 100. Notice that Curvilinear in Refer. CF is pressed.
695 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating Edges
Creates Curve 2 by translating the outside edge of Surface 1, two units radially outward within cylindrical
coordinate frame, Coord 100.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
696
Translating Surfaces
Creates Surfaces 2 and 3 by translating Surface 1 two times - one unit in the X direction and two units in
the Y direction within the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 10.
697 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating Surfaces Radially
Creates Surfaces 2 through 4 by translating Surface 1 three times and one unit radially outward within
the cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 100.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
698
Translating Solid Faces
Creates Surfaces 1 through 4 by translating the top faces of Solids 1 through 4, 0.5 units radially outward
within the spherical coordinate frame, Coord 20. Notice that Curvilinear in Refer. CF is pressed.
699 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating Solids
Translates Solids 1 through 4, 1.5 units in the X direction and 1.5 units in the Y direction, within the
global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Notice that Delete Original Solids is pressed and Solids
1:4 are deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
700
Translating Solids
Creates Solid 2 by translating Solid 1, 90 degrees within the cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 1.
Notice that Curvilinear in Refer. CF is pressed.
701 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating Planes
Translates Plane 1 2 units in the Z direction with the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Note
that Delete Original Plane is not pressed and Plane 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
702
Translating Vectors
Translates Vector 1 2 units in the X direction with the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
703 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Rotating Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Creates a set of points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes or vectors by a rigid body rotation about a defined
axis from an existing set of entities. Points can be rotated from other points, vertices or nodes. Curves
can be rotated from other curves or edges. Surfaces can be rotated from other surfaces or solid faces.
Solids are rotated from other solids.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
704
705 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Rotating Points and Nodes
Creates Points 7 through 14 from Point 1 and Node 10 by rotating them six times, 30 degrees about the
global rectangular coordinate frame’s Z axis, Coord 0.3, with an offset angle of 60 degrees. (Coord 0.3
can be cursor defined by using the Axis select menu icon listed below and cursor selecting Coord 0.)
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
706
Rotating Curves
Creates Curves 2 through 7 by rotating Curve 1 six times, 30 degrees about the axis defined by {[0 0 0][0
0 1]}. Notice that the axis definition is equivalent to Coord 0.3 from the previous example.
707 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Rotating From An Edge
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Curves 1 through 6 are rotated from an
edge of Surface 1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
708
Rotating Surfaces
Creates Surfaces 4 through 18 by rotating from Surfaces 1, 2 and 3, five times, 30 degrees each about the
axis defined by Points 4 and 1. The axis is defined by cursor selecting the points using the Axis select
menu icon listed below.
709 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Rotating From Solid Faces
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Surfaces 1 through 16 are rotated from the
outside faces of Solid 1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
710
Rotating Solids
Creates Solids 2 through 4 by rotating from Solid 1, three times, 90 degrees each about the global Z axis,
Coord 0.3. Coord 0.3 is cursor defined by using the Axis select menu icon listed below.
711 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Rotating Planes
Rotates Plane 1 90 degrees around the Y Axis in the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Notice
that Delete Original Plane is not pressed and Plane 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
712
Rotating Vectors
Rotates Vector 1 90 degrees around the Z Axis in the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
713 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Scaling Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids and Vectors
The Scale method creates a set of points, curves, surfaces, solids or vectors by scaling an existing set of
entities. Points can be scaled from other points, vertices or nodes. Curves can be scaled from other curves
or edges. Surfaces can be scaled from other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are scaled from other solids.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
714
715 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
• Translating or Scaling Geometry Using Curvilinear Coordinate Frames
Scaling Points and Nodes
Creates Points 6 through 9 by scaling them from Points 1, 2, 5 and Node 100 two times along the global
X and Y axes, with Point 4 as the origin of scaling.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
716
Scaling Points Radially
Creates Points 25 through 44 by scaling them from the points on the outside edge of Surfaces 1 through
4, two times radially within the cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 100. Notice that Curvilinear in Refer.
CF and Delete Original Points are pressed.
717 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Scaling Curves
Creates Curve 2 by scaling them from Curve 1, 1.5 times along the X axis of rectangular coordinate
frame, Coord 20. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed and Curve 1 is deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
718
Scaling From An Edge
Creates Curves 1 through 4 by scaling them from the outside edges of Surfaces 1 through 4, 1.5 times
radially outward within the cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 20. Notice that Curvilinear in Refer. CF
is pressed.
719 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Scaling Surfaces
Creates Surfaces 5 through 8 by scaling Surfaces 1 through 4 1.5 times along the radial axis of cylindrical
coordinate frame, Coord 20. Notice that Cartesian in Refer. CF and Delete Original Surfaces are pressed.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
720
Scaling Surfaces Radially
This example is the same as the previous example, except that Curvilinear in Refer. CF is selected instead
of Cartesian in Refer. CF.
721 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Scaling From Solid Faces
Creates Surface 1 by scaling it from the top face of Solid 1, 1.5 times in the X, Y and Z directions of the
global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
722
Scaling From Solids
Creates Solids 5 through 8 by scaling them from Solids 1 through 4, two times in the X and Y directions
of the global rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0.
723 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Scaling From Vectors
Scales Vector 1 with a scale factor of 2 in the X direction in the global rectangular coordinate frame,
Coord 0. Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
724
Mirroring Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Creates a set of points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes or vectors by a defined mirror plane of an existing
set of entities. Points can be mirrored from other points, nodes or vertices. Curves can be mirrored from
other curves or edges. Surfaces can be mirrored from other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are mirrored
from other solids.
725 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Mirroring Points and Nodes
Creates Points 7 through 12 by mirroring them from Points 1 through 6 and Node 100, about the mirror
plane whose normal is the global X axis, Coord 0.1. Coord 0.1 can be cursor defined by using the Axis
select menu icon listed below.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
726
Mirroring Curves
Creates Curves 3 and 4 by mirroring them from Curves 1 and 2 about the plane whose normal is the
global Y axis, Coord 0.2, and with an offset of Y=-1.
727 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Mirroring From Edges
Creates Curves 1 through 8 by mirroring them from the inner and outer edges of Surfaces 5 through 8
about the plane whose normal is rectangular coordinate frame 1’s Y axis, Coord 1.2.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
728
Mirroring Surfaces
This example is similar to the previous example, except that Surfaces 1 through 4 are mirrored from
Surfaces 5 through 8.
729 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Mirroring Solids
Creates Solid 2 by mirroring Solid 1 about the plane whose normal is defined by {[0 0 0][1 0 0]}. Notice
that the mirror plane normal definition is the same as entering the global X axis, Coord 0.1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
730
Mirroring Planes
Mirrors Plane 1 against the X-Y plane and with an offset of 1 unit in the Z direction in the global
rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Notice that Delete Original Plane is not pressed and Plane 1 is
kept. Also, the Reverse Plane is not pressed and Plane 2 is not reversed.
731 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Mirroring Vectors
Mirrors Vector 1 against the X-Y plane and with an offset of 1 unit in the Z direction in the global
rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0. Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is
kept. Also, the Reverse Vector is not pressed and Vector 2 is not reversed.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
732
Moving Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
by Coordinate Frame Reference (MCoord Method)
Translates and rotates a new set of points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes or vectors from an existing set
of entities by referencing coordinate frames. The new entities’ local position with respect to the To
Coordinate Frame is the same as the local position of the original entities with respect to the From
Coordinate Frame. Points can be moved from other points, nodes or vertices. Curves can be moved from
other curves or edges. Surfaces can be moved from other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are moved from
other solids.
733 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Moving Points and Nodes
Creates Points 7 through 12 from Points 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and Node 100 by moving them from the global
rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0, to the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 100.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
734
Moving Curves
Creates Curves 7 through 12 by moving Curves 1 through 6 from cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord
200 to cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 300.
735 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Moving From Edges
This example is similar to the previous example, except that Curves 1 through 8 are moved from the
outside edges of Surfaces 1 through 4, from Coord 200 to Coord 300.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
736
Moving Surfaces
Creates Surfaces 5 through 8 by moving from Surfaces 1 through 4 from cylindrical coordinate frame,
Coord 200, to cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 300.
737 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Moving Solids
Creates Solids 5 through 8 by moving Solids 1 through 4 from the global coordinate frame, Coord 0, to
the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 1.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
738
Moving Planes
Moves Plane 1 from the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0, to the rectangular coordinate frame,
Coord 1. Notice that Delete Original Plane is not pressed and Plane 1 is kept.
739 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Moving Vectors
Moves Vector 1 from the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 0, to the rectangular coordinate frame,
Coord 1. Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
740
Pivoting Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Creates points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes and vectors by using a planar rotation defined by a
specified Pivot Point about which the entity will be rotated, and a Starting Point and Ending Point for
the rotation. Points can be pivoted from other points, nodes or vertices. Curves can be pivoted from other
curves or edges. Surfaces can be pivoted from other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are pivoted from other
solids.
741 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
742
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Pivoting Points
Creates Point 4 from Point 3 by pivoting at the global origin, [0 0 0], from Node 100 to Point 2.
743 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Pivoting Curves
Creates Curves 9 through 15 from Curves 1 through 6 by pivoting them at Point 12, from Point 14 to
Point 13. (Curves 7 and 8 are for illustration and are not used for the pivot.)
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
744
Pivoting From Edges
Creates Curves 9 through 16 by pivoting from the outside edges of Surfaces 1 through 4, at Point 12, from
Point 14 to Point 13. Curves 7 and 8 are for illustration and are not used for the pivot.
745 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Pivoting Surfaces
This example is similar to the previous example, except that Surfaces 1 through 4 are pivoted to create
Surfaces 5 through 8. Curves 7 and 8 are for illustration and are not used for the pivot.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
746
Pivoting Solids
Creates Solid 2 by pivoting from Solid 1 at Point 1, from Point 2 to Point 3. Curves 1 and 2 are for
illustration and are not used for the pivot.
747 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Pivoting Planes
Pivots Plane 1 using the 3 pivoting points, Point 1 through 3. Notice that Delete Original Plane is not
pressed and Plane 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
748
Pivoting Vectors
Pivots Vector 1 using the 3 pivoting points, Point 1 through 3. Notice that Delete Original Vector is not
pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
749 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Positioning Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and
Vectors
Creates points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes and vectors by translating and rotating an existing set of
entities using a transformation defined by three original point locations to three destination point
locations.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
750
The original points and destination points need not match exactly; however, if either the original point
locations or the destination point locations lie in a straight line, the transformation cannot be performed.
Points can be repositioned from other points, nodes or vertices. Curves can be repositioned from other
curves or edges. Surfaces can be repositioned from other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are repositioned
from other solids.
751 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
752
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 33) in the MD Patran Reference Manual, Part 1: Basic Functions
• Coordinate Frame Definitions (p. 60)
Positioning Points
Creates Points 9 through 12 from Points 1through 4 by repositioning them based on the original and
destination point locations listed on the form.
753 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Positioning Curves
Creates Curves 25 through 32 by repositioning Curves 13 through 24 from Points 9, 13 and 12, to
destination Points 2, 6 and 3. Notice that Delete Original Curves is pressed and Curves 13 through 24 are
deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
754
Positioning From Edges
This example is similar to the previous example, except that the edges of Solid 1 are repositioned to the
new location to create Curves 13 through 20.
755 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Positioning Surfaces
Creates Surface 5 from Surface 4 by positioning it from Points 8, 9 and 11 to the destination Points 7, 2
and 3.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
756
Positioning Solids
Creates Solid 3 by repositioning it from Solid 2, based on the original and destination points listed on the
form. Notice that Delete Original Solids is pressed and Solid 2 is deleted.
757 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Positioning Planes
Positions Plane 1 from where defined by the position Point 1 through 3, to where defined by the position
Point 4 through 6. Notice that Delete Original Plane is not pressed and Plane 1 is kept.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
758
Positioning Vectors
Positions Vector 1 from where defined by the position Point 1 through 3, to where defined by the position
Point 4 through 6. Notice that Delete Original Vector is not pressed and Vector 1 is kept.
759 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Vector Summing (VSum) Points, Curves, Surfaces and Solids
Creates points, curves, surfaces or solids by performing a vector sum of the coordinate locations of two
sets of existing entities to form one set of new entities. Points can be created from the summation of other
points, nodes or vertices. Curves can be created from the summation of other curves or edges. Surfaces
can be created from the summation of other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are created from the
summation of other solids.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
760
761 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Vector Summing Points
Creates Points 7, 8 and 9 by summing the vectors drawn from the origin, [0 0 0], to Points 1 and 4, 2 and
5 and 3 and 6. The “After” picture below has the vectors drawn to Points 2 and 5 to show how Point 8
was created.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
762
Vector Summing Points
This example is the same as the previous example, except that a Multiplication Factor 2 is increased from
“1 1 1” to “2 2 2”.
763 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Vector Summing Curves
Creates Curves 20 through 27 which are summed between Curves 12 through 19 and Curves 1 through
4. Notice that in order to create the spiral, Curve 1:4 must be entered twice in the Curve 2 List to match
the eight curves listed in the Curve 1 List.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
764
Vector Summing Curves
Creates Curve 3 by summing Curves 1 and 2. Notice that the multiplication factors of “.5 .5 .5” are
entered for both Multiplication Factors 1 and 2 and Curve 3 becomes the “average” of Curves 1 and 2 in
length and in curvature.
765 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Vector Summing Surfaces
This example creates Surface 4 from vector summing the coordinate locations of Surfaces 1 and 3.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
766
Vector Summing With Solid Faces
This example is similar to the previous example, except that Surface 4 is created by vector summing the
coordinate locations of the outside face of Solid 1 and Surface 3.
767 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Vector Summing Solids
Creates Solid 3 by vector summing the coordinate locations of Solids 1 and 2.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
768
Moving and Scaling (MScale) Points, Curves, Surfaces and
Solids
Creates a set of points, curves, surfaces and solids by simultaneously moving, scaling, rotating and/or
warping an existing set of entities. Points can be moved and scaled from other points, nodes or vertices.
769 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Curves can be moved and scaled from other curves or edges. Surfaces can be moved and scaled from
other surfaces or solid faces. Solids are moved and scaled from other solids.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
770
771 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Translating and Mirroring Points
Creates Points 8 through 13 by simultaneously translating and mirroring Points 1 though 7, two units in
the global X direction and mirroring about the global YZ plane.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
772
Mirroring and Scaling Curves
Creates Curves 7 through 12 by simultaneously scaling and mirroring Curves 1 through 6. The curves are
scaled two times in the global Y direction and they are mirrored about the global XZ plane.
773 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Mirroring and Scaling Curves
This example is similar to the previous example, except that the curves are mirrored and scaled within
the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 100.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
774
Translating and Rotating Surfaces
Creates Surfaces 5 through 8 from Surfaces 1 through 4 by translating them 10 units in the global Z
direction and rotating them -120 degrees about the global X axis.
775 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
Translating, Mirroring and Scaling Solids
This example simultaneously translates, mirrors and scales Solids 5 through 8 from Solids 1 through 4,
by translating them 1.57 units in the global X direction and 1.0 unit in the global Y direction; mirroring
them about the global XZ plane; and scaling them .5 in the X direction and .5 in the Y direction.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Points, Curves, Surfaces, Solids, Planes and Vectors
776
777 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Coordinate Frames
Transforming Coordinate Frames
Translating Coordinate Frames
Creates coordinate frames which are successively offset from each other by the Translation Vector <dx
dy dz>, starting from an existing set of specified coordinate frames.
Tip: More Help:
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Coordinate Frames
778
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Translating Coordinate Frames
Creates the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 2, from coordinate frame, Coord 1, by translating it two
units in the global X direction.
779 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Coordinate Frames
Translating Coordinate Frames
Creates the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 2, from coordinate frame, Coord 1, by translating it
through a translation vector defined by Points 1 and 2, using the Vector select menu icon listed below.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Coordinate Frames
780
Rotating Coordinate Frames
Creates a set of coordinate frames which are formed from a specified set of existing coordinate frames
by a rigid body rotation about a defined axis.
781 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Coordinate Frames
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Coordinate Frames
782
Tip: More Help:
• Select Menu (p. 35) in the Patran Reference Manual
• Coordinate Frame Definitions
Rotating Coordinate Frames
Creates the rectangular coordinate frame, Coord 2, from coordinate frame, Coord 1, by rotating it 45
degrees about the axis listed on the form.
783 Chapter 8: Transform Actions
Transforming Coordinate Frames
Rotating Coordinate Frames
Creates the cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 200, from cylindrical coordinate frame, Coord 100, by
rotating it 90 degrees about Coord 100’s Z axis, Coord 100.3, using the Axis select menu icon listed
below. Notice that Delete Original Coords is pressed and Coord 100 is deleted.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Transforming Coordinate Frames
784
Chapter 9: Verify Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
9
Verify Actions

Verify Actions 785
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Verify Action
786
Verify Action
Verifying Surface Boundaries
The Boundary method for surfaces will allow you to plot the free or non-manifold edges for a list of
specified surfaces or solid faces. A free edge is any edge that is not shared by at least one other surface
or solid face. A non-manifold edge is shared by more than two surfaces or solid faces. Non-manifold
often indicates a geometry which is not manufacturable; it may be alright for surface models or on shared
solid faces, but is illegal in a B-rep solid.This method is recommended for verifying cracks in the model,
or more specifically in a surface set to be used in creating a B-rep solid.
787 Chapter 9: Verify Actions
Verify Action
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Verify Action
788
Verifying Surfaces for B-reps
The B-rep method for surfaces will allow you to plot the free or non-manifold edges for a list of specified
surfaces or solid faces. A free edge is any edge that is not shared by at least one other surface or solid
face. A non-manifold edge is shared by more than two surfaces or solid faces. Non-manifold often
indicates a geometry which is not manufacturable; it may be alright for surface models or on shared solid
faces, but is illegal in a B-rep solid.This method is recommended for verifying cracks in the model, or
more specifically in a surface set to be used in creating a B-rep solid.
789 Chapter 9: Verify Actions
Verify Action
Update Graphics Subordinate Form
The Update Graphics subordinate form is displayed when the Update Graphics button is pressed on the
Verify/Surface/Boundaries form. This subordinate form allows you to erase or plot in the current
viewport, groups of congruent or incongruent surfaces.
This form is useful for checking for surface cracks, topologically incongruent surfaces, or non-manifold
edges shared by more than two surfaces. MSC.Software Corporation suggests you use either the
Edit/Surface/Edge Match form (see Matching Surface Edges) or the Create/Surface/Match form (see
Matching Adjacent Surfaces) to correct any incongruent surfaces that have a gap between them.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Verify Action
790
Tip: More Help:
• Topological Congruency and Meshing
• Building a Congruent Model
• Group>Create (p. 271) in the Patran Reference Manual
Verify - Surface (Duplicates)
Surfaces in the entire model are checked for being duplicate.
791 Chapter 9: Verify Actions
Verify Action
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Verify Action
792
Chapter 10: Associate Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
10
Associate Actions

Overview of the Associate Action 794
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Associate Action
794
Overview of the Associate Action
The Associate action causes a geometric entity to become embedded on another geometric entity.
Surfaces with associated geometry will not get trimmed (i.e., a four sided iso parametric patch will
remain so even after associations are made to the patch).
Associations allow the mesher to create nodes on or along the associated geometry.
Loads or boundary conditions may be applied to associated geometries.
Mesh seeds can be placed on the associated geometry.
The nodes lying on the associated geometry have the associated geometry as topological associations
(i.e., nodes that lie on a curve associated to a surface will have their topological associations to the curve
rather than with the surface).
Associations are marked by filled blue triangles for points and filled yellow triangles for curves.
Table 10-1 Geometry Associate Action Objects and Descriptions
Object Method Description
• Point Curve Associate point to a curve.
Surface Associate point to a surface.
• Curve Curve Associate curve to a curve.
Surface Associate curve to a surface.
Important:The iso-mesher will not generate meshes that conform to hard geometries, if the hard
geometries lie interior to the surface. The iso-mesher ignores the interior hard geometries
to mesh the surface.
795 Chapter 10: Associate Actions
Overview of the Associate Action
Associating Point Object
Figure 10-1
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Associate Action
796
Figure 10-2
797 Chapter 10: Associate Actions
Overview of the Associate Action
Associating Curve Object
Figure 10-3
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Associate Action
798
Figure 10-4
Chapter 11: Disassociate Actions
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
11
Disassociate Actions

Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods 800
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
800
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
The disassociate action causes the association records to be deleted. All other information such as mesh
seed and loads and boundary conditions will be preserved on the disassociated entity, if there are any.
The disassociate action causes the filled blue triangles and yellow triangles that mark the association of
points and curves respectively, to be removed.
801 Chapter 11: Disassociate Actions
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
Disassociating Points
Figure 11-1
Object Description
• Point • Remove all point associations.
• Curve • Remove all curve associations.
• Surface • Remove all surface associations.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
802
Disassociating Curves
Disassociating Surfaces
803 Chapter 11: Disassociate Actions
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
Figure 11-2
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Overview of the Disassociate Action Methods
804
Chapter 12: The Renumber Action... Renumbering Geometry
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
12
The Renumber Action...
Renumbering Geometry

Renumber Forms 807
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Introduction
806
Introduction
Most often, ID numbers (IDs) for geometric entities are chosen and assigned automatically. The
Renumber Action permits the IDs of points, curves, surfaces, solids, planes, or vectors to be changed.
This capability is useful to:
• Offset the IDs of a specific list of entities.
• Renumber the IDs of all existing entities within a specified range.
• Compact the IDs of an entity type sequentially from 1 to N.
IDs must be positive integers. Duplicate IDs are not permitted in the List of New IDs, or in the selected
Entity List (old IDs). A Starting ID or a List of New IDs may be entered in the input databox. If a
geometric entity outside the list of entities being renumbered is using the new ID, the renumber process
will print a warning message stating which ID is already in use and proceed to use the next highest
avaliable ID since each entity must have a unique ID. The default is to renumber all the existing entities
beginning with the minimum ID through the maximum ID consecutively starting with 1.
If only one ID is entered, it is assumed to be the starting ID. The entities will be renumbered
consecutively beginning with the starting ID.
If more than one ID is entered and there are fewer IDs in the List of New IDs than there are valid entities
in the selected Entity List, renumbering will use the IDs provided and when the list is exhausted, the next
highest available ID will be used thereafter to complete the renumbering. The List of New IDs may
contain a # signifying to use the maximum ID + 1 as the Starting ID. However, the list may have more
IDs than needed.
The IDs in the selected Entity List may contain a #. The value of the maximum existing ID is
automatically substituted for the #. There may be gaps of nonexisting entities in the list but there must be
at least one valid entity ID in order for renumbering to take place.
A percent complete form shows the status of the renumber process. When renumbering is complete, a
report appears in the command line indicating the number of entities renumbered and their new IDs. The
renumber process may be halted at any time by pressing the Abort button and the old IDs will be restored.
807 Chapter 12: The Renumber Action... Renumbering Geometry
Renumber Forms
Renumber Forms
When Renumber is the selected Action the following options are available.
Object Description
• Point • The point menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDS of points.
• Curve • The curve menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDs of curves.
• Surface • The surface menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDs of surfaces.
• Solid • The solid menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDs of solids.
• Plane • The plane menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDs of planes.
• Vector • The vector menu selection provides the capability to renumber or
change the IDs of vectors.
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Renumber Forms
808
Renumber Geometry
MSC.Fatigue Quick Start Guide
I ndex
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2
Numerics
3 point method
overview, 64
A
accuracy, 2
any geometry entity
delete action, 463
arc center
point, 82
arc3point method
curve, 130
axis method
overview, 64
B
bi-parametric surface, 20
blend method
curve, 482
solid, 605
surface, 536
body, 11
break method
curve, 472, 476, 480
example, 32
solid, 589, 593, 598, 600, 602
surface, 518, 522, 526, 530, 532
B-rep method, 41
B-rep solid, 8, 20, 24, 41
exterior shell, 41
shell, 24
building a B-rep solid, 41
building a congruent model, 31
example, 32
building a degenerate solid, 43
building a degenerate surface, 42
building optimal surfaces, 33
C
CAD access modules, 47
CAD user file, 2, 20, 46, 47
capabilities, 2
Cartesian in Refer. CF button, 67
CATIA, 2, 47
chain method
curve, 133
chained curve, 21, 22
conic method
curve, 135
connectivity
curve, 16
definition, 16
modifying, 18
solid, 17
surface, 17
coordinate frame
attributes
show action, 677
create method overview, 64
definitions, 60
delete action, 466
rotate method, 780
translate method, 777
create action, 27
overview, 72
Ind
ex

Index
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

810
curve
arc3point method, 130
blend method, 482
break method, 472, 476, 480
chain method, 133
conic method, 135
delete action, 464
disasemble method, 485
extend method, 488, 494, 497, 499
extract method, 139, 143
fillet method, 145
fit method, 149
intersect method, 151, 155
manifold method, 161
mcoord method, 732
merge method, 502
mirror method, 724
mscale method, 768
offset method constant, 171
offset method variable, 173
pivot method, 740
point method, 120, 122, 125
position method, 749
refit method, 506
reverse method, 508
rotate method, 703
scale method, 713
translate method, 689
trim method, 511, 514
vsum method, 759
XYZ method, 199
curve 4 point parametric positions subordinate
form, 129
curve angle
show action, 661
curve arc
show action, 659
curve attributes
show action, 658
curve length range
show action, 663
curve method, 42
curvilinear coordinate frame, 67
examples using translate and scale, 67
scale method, 67
translate method, 67
Curvilinear in Refer. CF button, 67
cylindrical coordinate frame
definition, 61
D
Dassault Systemes, 2, 47
Decompose method, 38
decomposing trimmed surfaces, 38
example, 39
default colors, 20, 21, 22, 24
degenerate surfaces and solids, 42
delete action
any geometry entity, 463
coordinate frame, 466
curve, 464
overview, 462
plane, 464
point, 464
solid, 464
surface, 464
vector, 464
DGA, 2, 47
Direct Geometry Access, 2, 47
disasemble method
curve, 485
surface, 539
disassemble method
solid, 608
display lines, 34, 41
E
edge, 11
edge match method, 32
closing gaps, 15
surface, 546, 549
edge method, 42
edge refit method
surface, 566
edit action, 27
overview, 468
EDS/Unigraphics, 2, 47
element connectivity, 35
element properties, 2
equivalence method
point, 470
811 INDEX
euler method
overview, 65
examples
arc3point curve, 131, 132
ArcCenter point, 83
blend
curve, 483, 484
solid, 606, 607
surface, 538
break
curve, 473, 474, 475, 478, 479
solid, 590, 591, 592, 595, 596, 597,
599, 603, 604
surface, 519, 520, 521, 523, 527, 528,
529, 531, 534, 535
chain curve, 134
conic curve, 137, 138
disassemble
curve, 487
surface, 541
edge match surface, 548, 550
equivalencene point, 470
extend curve, 491, 492, 493, 496, 499, 501
extend surface, 552, 554, 556, 558, 561,
563, 565
extract
curve, 140, 141, 142, 144
point, 85, 86
point from surface, 88
point from surface diagonal, 90
point from surface parametric, 92
fillet curve, 147, 148
fit curve, 150
interpolate point, 95, 96, 99
intersect
curve, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157
point at edge, 101
point with curve and plane, 105
point with two curves, 102, 103, 104
point with vector and curve, 106, 107
point with vector and plane, 109
point with vector and surface, 108
manifold curve, 163
mcoord
curve, 734, 735
plane, 738
point, 733
solid, 737
surface, 736
vector, 739
merge curve, 504, 505, 510, 513, 516
mirror
curve, 726, 727
plane, 730
point, 725
solid, 729, 731
surface, 728
mscale
curve, 772, 773
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

812
point, 771
solid, 775
surface, 774
offset curve, 172, 175
offset point, 111
offset surface, 272
pierce point, 113, 114
pivot
curve, 743, 744
plane, 747
point, 742
solid, 746
surface, 745
vector, 748
point curve, 121, 123, 124, 127, 128
position
curve, 753, 754
point, 752
solid, 756, 757, 758
surface, 755
project point, 117, 118, 119
reverse
curve, 510
solid, 616
surface, 569
rotate
coordinate frame, 782, 783
curve, 706, 707
plane, 711
point, 705
solid, 710
surface, 708, 709
vectors, 712
scale
curve, 717, 718
point, 715, 716
solid, 722
surface, 719, 720, 721
vector, 723
sew surface, 571
translate
coordinate frame, 778, 779
curve, 693, 694, 695
plane, 701
point, 691, 692
solid, 699, 700
surface, 696, 697, 698
vector, 702
trim curve, 512
vsum
curve, 763, 764
point, 761, 762
solid, 767
surface, 765, 766
XYZ
curve, 200
point, 79, 80, 81
solid, 202
surface, 201
extend method
curve, 488, 494, 497, 499
surface, 551, 553, 555, 557, 559, 562, 564
extract method
curve, 139, 143
multiple points, 89, 91
point, 84
single point, 87
F
face, 11
face method, 43
field function, 4, 18
fillet method
curve, 145
fit method
curve, 149
G
general trimmed surface, 21
geometry types, 20
global coordinate frame, 60
global model tolerance, 19
surface gaps, 14
grid, 25
H
hyperpatch, 25
I
IGES, 3, 20, 25, 46
813 INDEX
interpolate method
point, 94, 97
vector, 434
intersect method
curve, 151, 155
intersect parameters subordinate form, 158
point, 100
intersect parameters subordinate form, 158
IsoMesh, 19, 24, 38
L
line, 25
load/BC, 2
loads/BC, 2
M
manifold method
curve, 161
match method
closing gaps, 15
mathematical representation, 2
mcoord method
curve, 732
plane, 732
point, 732
solid, 732
surface, 732
vector, 732
merge method
curve, 502
refit, 506
meshing, 13
mirror method
curve, 724
plane, 724
point, 724
solid, 724
surface, 724
vector, 724
MSC.Patran CATIA, 47
MSC.Patran ProENGINEER, 47, 54
.geo intermediate file, 56
executing from MSC.Patran, 55
executing from Pro/ENGINEER, 55
MSC.Patran Unigraphics, 47
features, 47
global model tolerance, 48
user tips, 48
mscale method
curve, 768
point, 768
solid, 768
surface, 768
multiple points
extract method, 89, 91
N
native geometry, 3
neutral file, 3, 25, 46, 57
nodes, 808
renumber, 808
nodes on curve
show action, 665
nodes on point
show action, 656
nodes on surface
show action, 670
normal method
overview, 65
O
offset method
constant curve, 171
point, 110
surface, 271
variable curve, 173
P
p3_proe, 55
parameterization
B-rep solid, 8
curve, 5
definition, 4
point, 4
solid, 8
surface, 6
trimmed surface, 7
parameterized geometry, 3
Geometry Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2

814
parametric axes, 16
plotting, 18
parametric cubic equation, 25
parametric cubic geometry, 57
definition, 25
limitations, 26
recommendations, 25, 26
subtended arcs, 26
parametric curve, 20
Parametric Technology, 2, 47
Parasolid
tips for accessing, 49
patch, 25
PATRAN 2 Convention, 28, 29
PATRAN 2 Convention button, 25, 28
Paver, 38
pentahedron, 43
pierce method
point, 112
pivot method
curve, 740
plane, 740
point, 740
solid, 740
surface, 740
vector, 740
plane
mcoord method, 732
mirror method, 724
pivot method, 740
position method, 749
rotate method, 703
translate method, 689
plane angle
show action, 680
plane distance
show action, 682
point, 20
delete action, 464
equivalence method, 470
extract method, 84
interpolate method, 94, 97
intersect method, 100
mcoord method, 732
mirror method, 724
mscale method, 768
offset method, 110
pierce method, 112
pivot method, 740
position method, 749
project method, 115
rotate method, 703
scale method, 713
translate method, 689
vsum method, 759
XYZ method, 78
point distance
show action, 642
point location
show action, 640
point method
curve, 120, 122, 125
curve 4 point parametric positions
subordinate form, 129
position method
curve, 749
plane, 749
point, 749
solid, 749
surface, 749
vector, 749
pressure load, 4, 18, 35
Pro/ENGINEER, 2, 47
project method
point, 115
R
rectangular coordinate frame
definition, 60
refit method
solid, 611
renumber
action, 807
815 INDEX
reverse method, 18, 34
curve, 508
solid, 352, 353, 616
surface, 568
rotate method
coordinate frame, 780
curve, 703
point, 703
solid, 703
surface, 703
S
scale method
curve, 713
point, 713
solid, 713
surface, 713
vector, 713
sew method
surface, 570
show action
coordinate frame attributes, 677
curve angle, 661
curve arc, 659
curve attributes, 658
length range, 663
nodes on curve, 665
nodes on point, 656
nodes on surface, 670
overview, 638
plane angle, 680
plane distance, 682
point distance, 642
point location, 640
showing plane attributes, 679
showing vector attributes, 684
solid attributes, 675
surface area range, 669
surface attributes, 667
surface normals, 672
show action information form, 639
simply trimmed surface, 22
single point
extract method, 87
solid
blend method, 605
break method, 589, 593, 598, 600, 602
delete action, 464
disassemble method, 608
mcoord method, 732
mirror method, 724
mscale method, 768
pivot method, 740
position method, 749
refit method, 611
reverse method, 352, 353, 616
rotate method, 703
scale method, 713
translate method, 689
vsum method, 759
XYZ method, 199
solid attributes
show action, 675
solids
type of, 24
spherical coordinate frame
definition, 62
subtract method
surface, 572
suface normals
show action, 672
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surface
blend method, 536
break method, 518, 522, 526, 530, 532
delete action, 464
disassemble method, 539
edge match method, 546, 549
extend method, 551, 553, 555, 557, 559,
562, 564
mcoord method, 732
mirror method, 724
mscale method, 768
offset method, 271
pivot method, 740
position method, 749
refit method, 566
reverse method, 568
rotate method, 703
scale method, 713
sew method, 570
sharp corners, 34
subtract method, 572
top and bottom locations, 35
translate method, 689
vsum method, 759
XYZ method, 199
surface area range
show action, 669
surface attributes
show action, 667
surface boundaries
verify action, 786
surface method, 43
surface normals, 18, 34, 41
example of aligning, 35
T
TetMesh, 24, 25, 41
tetrahedron, 43
topologic entities
edge, 11
face, 11
vertex, 11
topological congruency, 31
definition, 13
gaps, 14
topology
definition, 10
ID assignment, 12, 13, 18
transform action
overview, 686
translate method
coordinate frame, 777
curve, 689
plane, 689
point, 689
solid, 689
surface, 689
vector, 689
trim method
curve, 511, 514
trimmed surface, 20
decomposing, 38
default colors, 20
definition, 20
general trimmed, 21
parent surface, 20
simply trimmed, 22
tri-parametric solid, 8, 20, 24
types of geometry, 27
curves, 28
solids, 29
surfaces, 29
U
update graphics subordinate form, 789
V
vector
interpolate method, 434
mcoord method, 732
mirror method, 724
pivot method, 740
position method, 749
rotate method, 703
scale method, 713
translate method, 689
verify action
surface boundaries, 786
update graphics subordinate form, 789
vertex, 11
817 INDEX
volume solid, 20
vsum method
curve, 759
point, 759
solid, 759
surface, 759
W
wedge solid, 43
X
XYZ method
curve, 199
point, 78
solid, 199
surface, 199
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