~73 7A THE GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOL LIBRARY THE COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE LIBRARY Call Number L 0-111-2,7 11147 Acc~soin Ymter CGSC Form 154 (Rev) 22 Oct 52 Army-CGSC-p5-1707-28 Feb 55-M-2M 99-G. S. Schs., Fort Leavenworth-8.15-27-25M % 3 ~a ARTILLERY FIRING Lectures to The Staff and Line Classes General Service Schools, Fort' Leavenworth, Kansas, October, 1919 BY Major L. J. McNair, F. A. 9,LL Wp Line Class: T. T. 30, October 10. T. T. 41, October 16. T. T. 54, October 23, Staff Class: T. T. 26, October 10. T. T. 50, October 27. T. T. 62, November 5. The Army Service Schools Press Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 1919 Contents Subject Par. --------------------------------------GENERAL PART I. Preparation of fire ----------------------Defined ---------------------------------------- 1-3 4-41 4 5 Mechanism of laying --------------------------6 Methods of laying. Direct. Indirect ------------7 Deflection ------------------Laying for direction. 8 Deflection graduation of sights ----------------9-20 Laying for elevation --------------------------Systems. Independent line of sight. Direct laying -10-15 Indirect laying. Site------------------------16-17 18 Elevation scale graduation ---------------------19 Quadrant laying -----------------------------20 Data needed to lay the piece-------------------Finding the deflection-------------------------21-31 Description, direct and indirect laying. Methods -_ On the ground, without map or compass -- _--------22 21 Reciprocal laying ----------------------------Means for measuring angles --------------------On the ground, without map, but with compass.-By the map, but without compass----------------26 By the map, with compass---------------------Conversion of angles into deflection-------------Deflection difference------------------------29-30 Application of various methods------------------31 23 24 25 27 28 32 Finding the site---------------------------------33 Finding the range------------------------------Finding the elevation-------------------------34-36 34 Range Tables --------------------------------35 Use of tables to find elevation-------------------Time fire. Data for. Corrector__---------------36 Summary of firing data. Refinements of the preparation of fire-------------------------------37-41 37 Summary of firing data------------------------Nature of refinements possible------------------38-39 Atmospheric and ballistic corrections-----------General --------------------------------------Firing -------------------------------PART II. Dispersion-----------------------------------42-46 Probable error------------43-44 Law of dispersion. Effect of dispersion---------------------------- 40 41 42-67 45 3 -4Subject Par. Safe distances from points of fall --------------- 46 Fire for adjustment ----------------------------47-57 Defined -------------------------------------Observation------------------------------------Methods of adjustment-----------------------Adjustment by measured deviations --------------Adjustment by bracketing---------------------51-54 Bracket adjustment ---------------------------47 48 49 50 55 Adjustment of time fire ------------------------- 56 57 Salvo -------Method of fire during adjustment. 58-60 Fire for effect -------------------------------58 Volleys__Classes. Precision, zone, systematic. 59 Use of datum or registration point --------------60 Use of witness point --------------------------61 Special shell ---------------------------62 Effect of fire-----------------------------------6-65 Clearing the crest ----------------------------- Elevation formulas------------------- -------Reaching a reverse slope -----------------------PART III. Special auxiliaries --------------------Aerial observation----------------------------68-72 Balloon-------------------------------------Airplane ---------------Advantages. Disadvantages ------------------- 66 67 68-78 68 69-72 6-----------------69 Communication ------------------------------- 70 Signals ------------------------------------Method -------------------------------------Sound ranging-------------------------------73-75 Apparatus ---------------------------------Method -------------------------------------Possibilities------------------------------Flash ranging ----------------------------------High burst ranging ----------------------------- - 71 72 73 74 7 76 77-78 Artillery Firing General 1. Artillery firing has changed as a result of the war. Contrary however to the general belief, the changes are not in the nature of discarding the old, but adding to it, developing and refining it, when time and the situation permit. The accomplished artilleryman of today must have a much larger technical repertoire than formerly. For example, corrections for atmospheric conditions have greatly developed, although applicable only under certain conditions. Again, when detailed maps of the plan directeur type are available, the newly developed artillery topography affords highly important advan- tages. On the other hand, the older, cruder methods in use before the war are still sound, still necessary, and cannot be neglected without dangerously impairing fighting efficiency. 2. It is the aim and duty of the artilery to deliver effective fire when and where needed. The problem of delivering effective fire on a given point at a given time is largely one of technique. To insure that the given point and time meet the needs of the infantry and the situation in general is a tactical problem; in fact, it is the essence of artillery tactics. 3. This discussion of artillery firing will be confined wholly to technique, and will include the following: (a) repar ti f Metos i ; r 5 --6-Finding the deflection. Complete firing data. (b)- Firing: Dispersion. Fire for adjustment. Fire for effect. Effect of fire. Clearing a crest. Reaching a reverse slope. (c) The special auxiliaries of: Aerial observation. Sound ranging. Flash ranging. High burst ranging. PART I Preparation of Fire 4. The preparation of fire is finding the firing data, which are defined to be "the information and commands necessary to enable the gun squads to accomplish the orderly, rapid and accurate service of the pieces." Therefore 'before one can intelligently proceed with the preparation of fire, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of laying a piece of artillery and how it is served. 5. Mechanism of laying. The object of laying is to give the piece such an elevation (or depression) in a vertical plane and such direction that the projectile will reach the target. Formerly the elevation and direction were matters of guesswork and skill on the part of the gun-. ner; with modern artillery the cannoneer executes commands mechanically by means of laying instruments. The cannoneer must have a certain degree of skill and dexterity, but responsibility for successful results rests mainly with those determining the data announced to the cannoneers. 6. Kinds. of laying. direct. Laying is direct and in- -7- For direct laying the piece is sighted for direction and elevation on the target itself which must be visible to the gunner. For indirect laying the piece is given direction by sighting on any convenient designated point (aiming point), and elevation by a quadrant or level. The cannoneers do not see or know the target of necessity. Indirect laying is easily the predominating method. It has a number of advantages. The pieces can fire effectively from concealed and protected positions. An aiming point is distinct and definite; the target is generally vague and indefinite. Indirect laying is thus possible when direct laying would either be ijipossible or very difficult. Indirect laying affords decided advantages of collective control and eliminates difficulties of target designation. It operates to place the brain work of firing on the officer and makes the soldier's work more purely mechanical. Direct laying is, however, decidedly superior for moving targets. 7. Laying for direction. This operation is the same for either direct or indirect laying. A deflection must be announced, which is the horizontal angle to be set on the sight in order that the piece when laid will give shots correct in direction. The gunner, the cannoneer on the left of the trail near the breech, sets the sight at the deflection ordered and traverses the piece till the line of sight is on the aiming point or target for direction. Laying for direction is not difficult, although errors in sight setting occur occasionally, and accuracy in sight setting must be insisted upon and checked. -8- 8. Deflection graduation of sights. Sights are graduated so that all deflections from 0 to 6400 mils may be set. Unfortunately, however, among the various materiels now in our service, there is not uniformity in the method of graduating the deflection scale. The angular unit is generally the mil,* and all except the British howitzers are graduated clockwise; but in the matter of numbering the scale and its origin, there systems: are the following principal Figure 1 is the old U. S. system, 0 to 6400 mils, with the gun axis at 0, that is, when the sight is set at 0 deflection, its axis is parallel to the gun axis. The limb is graduated in hundreds of mils; single mils are set by means of a micrometer graduated from 0 to 100 mils. Figure2 is the system of the French 75 gun now in our service. It is difficult to understand how the minds who conceived this remarkable weapon could also conceive so clumsy a system of deflection gradua- tion; there is no defense for it. The gun axis is at 100. The circle is divided into four quadrants graduated alike. Each quadrant is divided into eight subdivisions of 200 mils each, called plateaux, and numbered successively 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14. Thus "Plateau 2" means any one of the four identical subdivisions between 200 mils and 400 mils. A micrometer subdivides the plateaux; it reads from 0 to 200 mils. Readings on the micrometer are referred to as "Drum, so and so." A complete deflection *It is asumed that the student is familiar with the mil and its properties; if not, see par. 14 of the War Department manual "Artillery Firing," or other texts in which the matter is discussed. 1 mil=3.375 minutes, 33/8 minutes; 18 mils (more exactly, 17,778) =1 degree. The sight of the British 8-inch and 9.2-inch howitzers is graduated in degrees and minutes, one-half clockwise and the other half counter clockwise; the sight of the 155 Filloux gun (French) is graduated in decigrades. -9- * 1Breech 100' on limb 0-100 on Micrometer fig 1. OLD U.S. must therefore be expressed in two units, thus, "Plateau 4, Drum 175"; while in other systems one number is sufficient, thus, 1435. Figure 3 is the system of the 155-mm. Schneider howitzer used in our division artilery. The gun axis -10- y G Breech 200'5 on Iimb-0200 on Micrometer Fig 2 75 FRENCH GUN is at 1000, that is, the 0 of the sight scale is 1000 mils to the left front. The graduation is from 0 to 6400. The limb is graduated in hundreds, and the micrometer from 0 to 100. No real advantage is derived from the position of the origin of graduation; -11- ''p THE C!"~N (a~ 4fr I00'5 on iimb; 0-100 on Micrometer 155 SCHNEIDER on the other hand, it venience. Figure axis is at 0. HOWITZER considerable incon- causes 4 is the new U. S. system. The gun The scale is in two halves, each grad- -12- 1 l Breech 100'5 on iimb-0-100 on Micrometer Fi9 4. NEW U. 5. uated from .0 to 3200. This is advantageous in reciprocal laying (par. 23). The limb is graduated in hundreds, and the micrometer from 0 to 100. -13- 9. Laying for elevation. This operation is different for the methods of direct and indirect laying. But in both cases a range setting or elevation is announced to give the bore an elevation corresponding to the range of the target. 5i, SCHEME 5. FOR RANGE OF LAYING 155 m.m. HOWITZ E R Two typi- 10. Systems of laying for elevation. cal systems of laying for elevation are shown in Figure 5 is essentially that of the Figures 5 and 6. 155 howitzer and is the simpler. , Figure 6 is that of the 75 gun and embodies the so-called independent line of sight. -14-- 11. In Figure 5, K is an optical sight for accurate laying. It is mounted on a shank R curved to a circumference having the trunnion w as a center. The sight and shank, K and R, slide up and down in a seat B fastened to the cradle. The sight shank is graduated for range. The graduation for a particular range is so placed that when the shank is set at this graduation, the sight axis makes a vertical angle with the gun axis equal to the elevation corresponding to the given range. S. is the elevating screw fixed at the lower end of the trail of the carriage and at the upper end of the cradle. It is operated by a handwheel and suitable gears M. 12. If now any desired range be set on the shank R, and the piece then elevated by means of the elevating system S and M until the line of sight is at the height of the target, the operation will result in the piece being elevated above the target by an amount corresponding to the range. In other words, the piece will be laid for range (or elevation). This case is direct laying (par. 6), and is the simplest. It will be noted that as soon as the range is announced, the operations of setting this range and elevating the piece the proper amount are simple and easily performed by the gunner, a corporal. 13. As thus described, laying for elevation or range involves two operations, i. e.: (a) Setting the range on the sight shank. (b) Sighting on the target. With this system, these operations must be performed successively and practically by one man. Moreover a change of range after the first shot involves a complete repetition of the process. In view of these facts, the French introduced the independent line of sight shown in Figure 6. A sub- -15- cradle or rocker is placed between the cradle and trail-a mechanical complication, it is true. The lower end of the elevating screw S is mounted, not on the trail as in Figure 5, but on the rocker. This ri. 6. INDEPENDENT 75 m.. LINE OF SIG HT FRENCH GUN MODEL 1897 screw is operated by a cannoneer on the right of the piece, No. 1. The rocker can be elevated by the gunner on the left of the piece through the pinioh H. The piece can therefore be elevated by either the gunner or No. 1, but in different ways. A range scale R moves when the piece is moved with respect to the rocker, and thus indicates ranges -16- of the piece with respect to the rocker. The sight K is fixed to the rocker so that when the range scale reads 0, the line of sight is parallel to the bore of the piece. 14. When a range is- announced, No. 1 (on the right) turns Ml and S till R indicates this range. At the same time, before or after, the gunner (on the left) turns H, thus moving the whole, system, till the line of sight is on the target. This constitutes lay- ing for range, the same result as in par. 12, but tained in a different manner. two-fold: (a) ob- 15. The advantage of this system is in general The two phases of laying for elevation, described in par. 13 as successive, are made simultaneous and apportioned to two, instead of one, cannoneers. This saves time. Changes of range do not entail relaying. No. 1 merely changes the range setting by means of M and S; the gunner does nothing. This is important as the gunner is also concerned with the deflection and is busy (par. 7). In other words, the sight is constantly available to the gunner for sighting purposes, and is independent of changes of range. (b) 16. Indirect laying (par. 6). When the target cannot be seen, the elevation must be given by the bubble, which refers it to the horizontal. Except when the target is on the same level as the piece, L P T S Fig. 7. INFLUENCE QF SITE // ITH INDIRECT LAYING. -17- 'this involves a correction of the elevation for range to make it correct with respect to the target. Thus, in Figure 7, GH is a horizontal through the piece, and T is a target more elevated than the piece. The angular difference of level at the piece between the target and the piece is called the site. In the figure, the site is TGH. If direct laying were used, an elevation E would reach the target; but if used with indirect laying without correction for site, the' shot would fall short by PT. If the elevation for indirect laying were increased by the site S, the piece would have the same elevation above the target as for direct laying, and would be correctly laid. The site is (plus) when the target is above the piece, and - (minus) when the. target is belowthe piece. With this convention, the elevation for indirect laying (quadrant elevation) is the elevation for .the range with the site added algebraically. + Example : The piece is on contour 520, the target elevation is 610 feet. Map range, 3700 yards. Elevation for range only, 6°21'. What is the elevation for indirect laying? Solution : The target is 610-520=90 feet=30 yards above the piece. The site is+, and equal to 30 -mils, or 8 mils, or 27' 3.7 The elevation required is therefore 6°21+27'=648'. 17. - With the sighting systems shown in Figures 5 and 6, the site is announced as such separately from the range (except in quadrant laying, par. 18), and is combined automatically by the mechanism. operation of indirect laying is as follows: The For Figure 5, the announced range is set on the sight shank R as for direct laying. The site announced is set on the scale r. - The piece. is then -18- elevated till the bubble of r is centered, which lays the piece for elevation. This operation is performed entirely by the gunner on the left side of the piece. at once centers the bubble of r by moving H. announced. ently. The two cannoneers For Figure 6, the gunner sets the site on r and No. 1 work independ- on the right turns M and S till R indicates the range 18. Elevation scale graduation. The scale used in laying for elevation are graduated either in range or in angular units. Those graduated in range are in meters, * this having been adopted for service in Europe.. gun is so graduated. The scales graduated in angular The 155 howitzer is graduated in The 75 units vary. (of a twentieths degree); the 155 Filloux gun (G. P. F.) and the British howitzers in degrees and minutes. The mil has been adopted for future angular graduations. 19. Quadrant laying. The methods of laying for elevation indirectly just described (pars. 16 and 17), while simple and mechanical, involve mechanisms with joints which become worn. For very accurate work, where speed is not essential, laying for elevation is by gunner's quadrant. The quadrant is a frame carrying a pivoted arm which can be set at any useful elevation. This arm carries a bubble. The instrument is held by hand on the tube of the piece, so that the play of auxiliary The elevation set is the quadparts is eliminated. rant elevation (par. 16). *Increase meters 10% to obtain yards. Thus 1200 meters= 1200 +120=1320 yards (1312, more exactly). crease yards 10% to obtain meters. -131=1181 meters (1200, exactly). De- Thus 1312 yards=1312 -19- 20. It is thus seen that the cannoneers, in order to lay the piece, need the following data: (a) Deflection, and for direct laying (b) Range, or for indirect laying (b) Site, (c) Range, or for quadrantindirect laying (b) Quadrant elevation, which includes site. The practical finding of these data constitute the major portion of the preparation of fire, and will be considered first. FINDING THE DEFLECTION 21. For direct laying, the deflection is that which, for the particular piece, corresponds to the axis of the bore (par. 8). For the 75 gun, this would be Plateau 0, Drum 100. Strictly speaking, it would be necessary to correct for the drift, the values of which are given in the range tables. A cross wind is usally allowed for, as is also any considerable cross movement of the target. Direct laying is generally hurriedly prepared, however, and refinements are not often practicabe, so that the corrections are made as a result of the observation of the first shots. For indirect laying, the deflection determination is more difficult. The ideal method would be to set an instrument at the gun position and measure the angle from the target clockwise to the aiming point. This direction and origin of measurement must become a fixed habit; otherwise errors and confusion are almost inevitable. The angle thus measured, when modified for peculiarities of sight graduation (par. 8), is the deflection. Practically, the problem is not as simple as this, since the target ordinarily cannot be seen from the position of the piece. ,1tualbir:k"+2 L i U U,. £U-Yb4 -20A number of the principal methods of finding the deflection will be explained, as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) On On By By the ground, without map or compass. the ground, without map, but with compass. the map, but without compass. the map, with compass. In all cases; the problem is to measure the deflection at a point other than the piece, where the target can be seen, or from a map, and transmit this measurement to the piece in a form which can be used to lay the piece for direction. TI G'G P Fig. 8. -21- 22. '(a) On the ground, without map dr compass. Two cases arise, (A) a distant point P is used as an aiming point, and (B) the battery com- mander's instrument B is used as an aiming point. For (A), TGP, as indicated in Figure 8, is the angle sought, T being the target and G the piece. For (B), the angle TGB is sought. Since these angles cannot be measured directly, recourse must be had to indirect methods. The battery commander's post is' probably the nearest point from which the target and the aiming point or piece can be seen. But even 'from here, if the angles TBP and TBG' be measured, they are incorrect due to the displacement of B and G. Measurements made from B can be -utilized, however. Draw BT' parallel to GT, BP' parallel-to GP, and BG' in prolongation of GB. Then, for case (A), T'BP' is exactly the angle sought, since its sides are parallel to those of TGP. Similarly for case (B), T'BG' is the angle sought. This is called the parallel method. Another is called the parallax method, but is less simple'and will not be discussed. Although simple in principle, the parallel method presents some difficulty practically, because there is nothing on the, ground to establish the parallels BT' and BP'. If time is important they must be estimated by eye. This can be done with surprising accuracy after a little practice. If more time is available, the angular offset at B of T' from T and of P' from P can be calculated more or less accurately depending on the speed necessary. For example, the offset T'BT in mils is roughly BG in yards divided by BT in thousands of yards. In the case ofP'BP, BG is rather oblique for good calculations; a better value would be BG" divided by BP in thousands, where BG" is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle BPG. When an instrument is available, the ac- -22- curacy of the method depends almost wholly on the time and care used to find the offsets T'BT and P'BP. Case (A) is restated: An instrument (which is graduated clockwise) is set up at B and oriented, not on T but on T' so that BT' is parallel to GT. Without disturbing the orientation, it is pointed, not on P, but on P' so that BP' is parallel to GP. The instrument reading is then the angle sought.. 23. Reciprocal laying. For case (B), however, the offset of the aiming point is eliminated. The instrument oriented and pointed on T' as before is then pointed on G, instead of on G' estimated. The angle T'BG thus obtained is not the angle sought but differs from it by exactly 3200 mils. If T'BG is less than 3200, 3200 is added to it; if T'BG is greater than 3200, 3200 is subtracted from it. The correctness of this rule can readily be verified by inspection of Figure 8. This method, where the battery commander "lays" on the piece as an aiming point and the piece on the battery commander, is called reciprocal laying. The term' is perhaps more correctly applied to two pieces, one of which is laid in the desired direction and is used by the above method to assist in laying the other piece parallel to itself. It was seen above that the method involves a calculation, causing occasional errors and delay. This is eliminated in the graduation of the sights of the 75 gun and the laAtest American models (Figures 2 and 4, par. 8). The angle-measuring instrument is graduated in the same manner as the sight. With either of the sights named, no conversion of the angle measured at B is necessary; the angle is announced as read. The correctness of this statement is best established by considering actual values with a diagram such as Figure 8. -23- 24. Measurements on the ground as in the preceding paragraph are preferably made by instrument, such as the aiming circle, scissors telescope, etc. When instruments are not available, the determination is still possible, but naturally with much less accuracy. The means used would be handbreadths, the B. C. ruler, the field glass, and the like. 25. (b) On the ground, without map, but with conpass. This requires an aiming circle (par. 517, Manual of Artillery Firing), but as this instrument is very portable, it may be considered as nearly always available. The aiming circle is similar in type to the transit, but is smaller, less elaborate, and less accurate. It measures horizontal and vertical angle in mils, and can be oriented in any desired direction. The telescope and compass are both mounted on the upper limb. It will be noted that the method described in pars. 22-24 requires a point B from which the target can be seen, as well as the piece or an aiming point. This is not always possible. The compass furnishes a solution in case the previous method cannot be used. The method of using the compass is simply an extension of the method of par. 22. The aiming circle is set up at a point from which the target can be seen, as near as possible to the piece; and oriented on a line parallel to the line piece-target (par. 22). This places the 0 of the scale in a position for the measurement of -deflections (par. 21). Without disturbing the orientation, the telescope and compass are turned until the compass needle is opposite its index. This index is on the telescope axis, so that the telescope is pointing to the magnetic north. The angle has then been measured from the -24- target to a fictitious aiming point, i. e., the magnetic north. The angle thus measured is then transmitted to a similar instrument near the piece and from which the piece can be seen; or the instrument can be moved to this position. The latter is better if time permits, for compasses have individualities. The instrument setting is -left unchanged; it is only necessary to place the needle opposite its index by turning both upper and lower limbs. The instrument is then oriented the same as previously. From this point the method is exactly the same as that of par. 22. The -telescope is turned on an aiming point or the piece, whichever method is selected, and the reading is the same as the angle T'BP' or T'BG in Figure 8, par. 22. 26. (c) By the map, but without compass. A simple method is that indicated in par. 21. The piece, target and aiming point are located accurately on the map. The angle at the piece from the target clockwise to the aiming point is then measured with the protractor. A more practicable and more general, and in most cases more accurate, method is the following, used on stabilized fronts: A line is materialized on the ground and carefully surveyed as to direction The direction is then expressed in true azimuth. plotted on the map, as well as the position of the target and piece. The angle between the line of fire (piece-target) and the line on the ground (orienting line) is then measured. clockwise from the line of fire.by means of the protractor. The aiming circle or similar instrument is then set up on the orienting line at any point where the piece can be seen. The angle read from the map is then set and the aiming circle pointed on the orient- -25- ing line by turning the entire instrument. This places the zero of the horizontal scale in a direction parallel to the desired line of fire. The telescope and upper limb can then be pointed on a distant aiming point or on the piece as expedient and the deflection found as in par. 22-23. 27. (d) By the map, with compass. This method is much the same as (b), par .25. It is necessary to know the declination constant of the compass of the aiming circle used. 'This is the setting such that when applied and the entire aiming point turned till the needle is opposite its index, the zero of the scale will be pointed at the true north. In other words, it is the setting which will permit orientation on the true north by means of the needle. Begin by setting up the aiming circle at any point from which the piece can be seen and orienting it on the true north in the manner described. Mark the true north on the ground by setting the upper limb at 0, sighting through the telescope and setting a stake on the vertical hair. Plot the piece and target on the map, and with the protractor measure the angle at the piece from the target clockwise to. the grid or true north. Set this angle on the aiming circle and turn the whole till the telescope is on the stake marking the true north. The aiming circle is then oriented in a direction parallel to the line of fire, and the angle to the piece or aiming point can be read with his orientation, in the same manner as for (a), par. 22. 28. Conversion of angle read into deflection. The angle at the piece measured clockwise from the target to the aiming point, discussed in the foregoing paragraphs, must be converted to the sight graduations, unless the instrument used has a second -26- scale which makes the conversion automaticaly. This is true of the French aiming circle for the 75 gun and of the new American aiming circle for the "New. U. S." scale shown in Figure 4, par. 8. If the aiming circle makes no conversion, the following methods are applicable: 75 gun. Add 100 to the angle read (see Figure 2, par. 8) ; subtract as many quadrants of 1600 mils as possible. The remainder is converted into plateau and drum by inspection, thus: Angle read on aiming circle, 2975. 2975+ 100-3075 .3075-1600= 1475 or Plateau,14, Drum 75 Or the angle read is 435 435+100=535 or Plateau, 4, Drum 135 155 howitzer. Add 1000 to the angle read (Figure 3, par. 8) ; if the sum is greater than 6400, subtract this amount, thus: Angle read is 5800. 5800+1000=6800 6800-6400= 400 Subtract 3200 (Figure 4, par. 8). New U. S. from the angle read if it is greater than 3200. 29. Deflection difference. Thus far only a single piece has been considered, but the battery commander has ordinarily to find the deflection for In Figure 9 the the four pieces of his battery. pieces G1, G 2 , G 3 , and G 4 are laid with parallel lines of fire (parallel fire), by means of a common aiming The deflections are d 1 , etc., as indicated. point P. SimilarG 2 P 1 , G 3 P 1 and G 4 P 1 are all parallel to G 1P. are parallel to G 9 P,, and G 4 P8 is ly G 3 P 2 and G 4 P. parallel to G 8 P. It will thus be seen that the deflections decrease successively from the right (1st piece) to the left (4th piece). d 2 is less than d 1 by the angle P 1 G 9 P, or G 9 PG 1 , or roughly 1 platoon front -27-L'?7es f bre P DEFLECTION OIFFERENCE G2 G1 divided by the distance to the aiming point G1P, or 20 GAP (in thousands) Also d3 is less than d2, and d4 than d3, by the same amount. -28- In other words, if the pieces be equally spaced, the deflection of the adjacent pieces for parallel fire differs by a constant amount called the deflection difference. The deflection difference is announced as such with respect to a certain piece, usually the right, for which the deflection determination was made. A command might be, for example, "Plateau 8, Drum 135; on No. 1, close 5." All pieces set the deflection P1. 8, Dr. 135. Close means to decrease the deflection, swinging the line of fire nearer to No. 1. Accordingly No. 2 decreases its deflection 5, No. 3 twice 5 or 10, and No. 4 three times 5 or 15. 30. For nearby aiming points the deflection difference is so large that it would introduce serious errors to assume it constant for all pieces. For this reason nearby aiming points are not used (nearer than 1000 yards). In case distant aiming points are not available, reciprocal laying (par. 23) must be used. In this case, a deflection is read and announced for each piece, or it may be read for one piece and the others laid parallel to it by laying on the sight of the laid piece (par. 23). 31. The applicability of the various methods of finding the deflection depends on the situation and also on the facilities at hand particularly the maps and instruments. For rapid work, such as the hasty occupation of position and immediate opening of fire, (a) on the ground, without map or compass, is ordinarily the most suitable method (par. 22). The use of an aiming point is more rapid than reciprocal laying, but frequently the ground is such that a suitable aiming point cannot be found. Reciprocal laying is very satisfactory. Method (c) (par. 26) is the most precise and satisfactory method developed for a highly organ- -29-- ized stabilized sector, carefully surveyed. If a good map and time are available, it can be used even when the terrain is not so well organized beforehand. The compass method (d) (par. 27) is a fair substitute for (c) when the ground is not organized for the use of the latter. In connection with the use of maps there is always a considerable amount of topographical work to be done for accurate work unless the map and the This makes data pertaining to it are very complete. an abundance of time essential. FINDING THE SITE 16). 32. The site is necessary for indirect laying (par. It may be determined: (a) (b) (c) By direct measurement. By indirect measurement and calculation. From the map. An estimation of site, unless comparative, is generally worthless. It is better to use 0 than pure estimation, unless the site is so considerable that its sign at least is reasonably certain. St Bh, Sy _ _ g B' Fag.I. SITE DETERMINATION -30- (a) Direct measurement. An aiming circle is set up sufficiently near the piece to be considered as at the piece for practical purposes. The site is then measured directly by the portion of the instrument used for vertical angles. (b) Indirect measurement and calculation. In Figure 10, B is the observation point where the target T and the piece G are visible. But T is not visible from G. The figure is one enclosed by 5 faces; the side faces are vertical, as well as the lines BB' and TT'; the face GB'T' is horizontal. Construct BBh parallel to B'T', and BBh' parallel to B'G. The angle TGT' is the one desired but it cannot be measured directly. The best solution ordinarily possible, and a general one, is to find the difference in elevation between G and T, T'T, and divide this by the distance GT' or GT. TT' is made up of BB'+ BhT'. BB'=Sg (measurable) X GB (in thousands). Similarly BhT St (measureable) XBT (in thousands). GT must either be estimated, or be determined by plane table, calculation, or similar means. Example: St=+25 Sg=-10 mils BT4000 yards mils GB= 800 yards GB makes an angle of 450 with the line of fire GT. Required: The site S Solution: BB' = 8 yards BhT = 100 yards TT'=108 yards GB projected on GT is about 800 x.7=560 yards BT projected on GT is substantially 4000 yeards. 108 Therefore GT=4560 yards and S =-=24 mils 4.56 And, since T is higher than G, the sign is +, or mils. S= +24 Careful attention must be paid to the signs of St and Sy; BB' and BhT will not always be added as in this case. -31- (c) From the map. This is simple, provided the map is contoured or otherwise provided with elevations. The difference in elevation between the piece and the target is read from the map, together with the range. The site can then be computed as in the preceding case. FINDING THE RANGE 33. Three methods are used: (a) The map, (b) Range finder, (c) Estimation, in the order of general accuracy. The map is ordinarily more accurate than the range finder, their relative accuracy depending on the quality and scale of the map, assuming that the range finder is well handled. The accuracy of a map range can frequently be increased by topographical operations to locate accurately the target and the piece; time is an important factor in such work. The service range finder in the hands of a reasonably trained officer or soldier is some four times more accurate than estimation. Its probable error for artillery ranges up to about 5000 yards is 90 yards. The range finder is in most cases more rapid than the map. It is the only reliable means of effectively attacking a rapidly moving target which is visible only a short time. FINDING THE ELEVATION 34. As seen in par. 11 and those following, some systems of sights have scales so graduated that the range may be set directly on the sight in either direct or indirect laying. In the latter case, the site is set separately. Such graduations, however, are strictly correct for but one ammunition, and during the war there -32- were as many as 20 kinds of ammunition issued for the 75 gun at one time.* So that even though the sight be graduated in range, it is-often necessary to use tables showing the proper setting for a given range for the ammunition to be used. Such tables are called range tables or firing tables. When the sight is not graduated in range, range tables are indispensable. The range tables give considerably more data than the elevation corresponding to a given range, some being more as of interest or for study than practical utility. The drift is the movement of the projectie out of its initial plane of fire due to the rifling, gravity, and the air resistance. It is to the right for righthanded rifling. The angle or slope of fall is sometimes necessary, for example as in par. 67. The probable error is discussed under Firing (par. 43). 35. When the range has been found (par. 33), the use of the tables to find the range setting or elevation is best explained by the following examples: ((a) The range has been determined as 1600 meters. What range should be announced for the 75 gun, using shell with direct laying? In the range tables, opposite the range 1600, is found the required value, 1400. The range scale was graduated for the French shrapnel; the shell is a more efficient form ballistically and has a higher muzzle velocity. (b) The range has been determined as 7300 meters, and the site as +24 mils. What data should *Due either to form or weight of projectile necessitating different tables. or fuse, -33- be announced in order to lay the 155 howitzer for elevation by means of the sight mounting? Since there is no stated condition to make this inadvisable, the smallest possible charge will be used. Charge 1 will theoretically reach this range but conditions might well give a short with the maximum elevation ; therefore Charge 0 is chosen. The re- quired data are then: Charge tion, 481 twentieths. 0; Site, +24; Eleva- (c) The range has been determined as 6800 memils. What data should be ters and the site as -5 gun for elevation announced in order to lay the by the sight mounting, using shell? A reference to the table shows that this range is off the scale of ranges, but a range setting is given with a notation in the column, "Site + 100., This means that the range setting may be used if the site is raised 100 mils, which has the, effect of increasing the elevation sufficiently to make up the deficiency in the range scale. Therefore the required data are: Shell; Site, +95; Range, 450. (d) The range has been determined as 4600 meters and the site as +14 mils. What data should be announced in order to lay the 75 gun for elevation by means of the gunner's quadrant (par. 19), using shell ? The elevation for 4600 meters is 803' 14 14 mils = = 47' (dividing by .3 is substantially the same as 15 .3 multiplying by 3.375, footnote, par. 8). Therefore 8'3'+47'-8'50' is the quadrant elevation. The data Shell; Quadrant, 8050'. required are then: Time fire is with projectiles, 36. Time fire. either shell or shrapnel, equipped with time fuses set to give bursts in air before the projectile strikes. In this case, an additional element of the firing data is -34- necessary, the fuse setting. This may be the tabular time of flight given in the range tables, or a special column of fuse settings may be included in the tables. It ordinarily hapens, however, that the tabular settings are incorrect due to atmospheric conditions or other causes. This necessitates a correction of the tabular values each time a new range is used, for if the tabular values are incorrect for one range, they are incorrect for other ranges. The graduations are in range to avoid the range tables. The range announcement serves both for the sight and the fuse setter. If the bursts are not correct, the range setting is not changed; but instead the correction is made on an auxiliary scale, called the corrector or correctorscale. In this way the correction once made is applied automatically thereafter regardless of range. The range tables or drill regulations give a tabular corrector which is ordinarily used to start firing in the absence of more accurate data as to the correct value for the particular conditions. SUMMARY OF FIRING DATA. REFINEMENTS OF THE PREPARATION OF FIRE 37. Summary of firing data.-From the preceding discussion, the firing data and the methods of obtaining them may be summarized as follows: Aiming point: Distinct, definite and distant point, or an instrument near the pieces. Used to lay for direction with indirect laving. Deflection: (par. 21 et seq.) : Setting of sight to be used to give correct direction; necessary in both direct and indirect laying. Deflection difference (par. 29): Correction applied with indirect laying to make the deflection applicable to the pieces other than the one for which it was determined. Site (par. 32): The angular height of the target from the piece, used with indirect .laying; announced and set separately from the elevation, or included in the announced elevation, according to materiel and method. -35Projectile, charge, fuse: Generally speaking, mat- ters of selection rather than determination; must be specified however. Necessary in time fire Fuse setting (par. 36) only. Method of fire (pars. 57 and 58, b) : Discussed later. Range or elevation (par. 33 et seq.) : Range of target determined in various ways; range tables then used to give the proper range or elevation setting to be announced. 38. Refinements of the preparationof fire. Reference has already been made in several instances in the foregoing discussion to particulars in which the preparation of fire could be refined if time and facilities permitted, such as: The use of accurate maps for deflection and range. Topographical operations to secure more accurate data as to deflection, site and range. Care and minuteness of instrumental measurements; calculations; entering into deflection, site and range. The advantage of so doing is evident: the effect desired is produced more rapidly and more surely, as the accurate preparation eliminates a part of the adjustment during firing. This shortening of the fire for adjustment renders our artillery less exposed to neutralization or destruction before accomplishing its mission. 39. In addition the war gave great impetus to the practical application in the field of refinements in the following respects: (a) Those related to peculiarities and irregularities of the pieces and ammunition which affect the fire, such as, weight and form of projectile, variation in powder charge, wear of the bore and its effect on velocity. (b) Atmospheric conditions, such as, the density or weight of air, temperature and its effect on the air and powder, wind. All of these matters had been studied before the war, but their practical application had been limited to the coast artillery. Their wide application in the war was possible on account of the elaborate -36- organization and equipment of the front. Their application in the future will depend on the recurrence of comparable conditions. Refinements of this character had the greatest tactical importance in the, surprise attacks on the Western front in 1918. In fact, during the winter 1917-1918, the Germans radically revised their artillery technique along these lines in order to permit their great offensive of 1918. The French had their system perfected upon our arrival in Europe in 1917, the process having been started immediately upon the organization of the Western front. 40. No detailed explanation of corrections for the elements enumerated is possible here; they are covered in the service firing tables and in the Manual of Artillery Firing. It is of importance, however, that the combat arms with which artillery works appreciate in a general way the disturbing elements affecting artillery fire. Those here considered are distinct from disper- sion discussed later (par. 42). Values are tabulated below for 75 shell at ranges of 5,000 and 10,000 meters, for the various elements stated. Range-Meters 1,000 5,000 1.5 inches of barometer change, due either to temperature or pressure, will change the actual range, in meters, by 10 meters/sec., or 33 ft/sec., change in the muzzle velocity of the piece will change the actual range, in meters, by A wind up or down the range of 22 miles per hour will cause a variation from the tabular range, in meters, of A variation of 1 lb. 10 oz. in the weight of projectile will cause a variation in the range, in meters, of 144 ' 367 93 134 88 322 40 132 955 365 (NOTE: These values are for a concrete case, and are strictly correct only for this case.) -37- If a combination of such influences should occur, as is possible, in such a way that their results would be cumulative, it can be seen that the point of fall of projectiles would be changed by 365 meters for the range of 5,000 meters and 955 meters for the range 10,000 meters. The dominating element in the above figures is temperature, and it is appreciated that large variations in this element are possible even in a few hours. It is possible to correct at least partially for such conditions, provided the necessary meteorlogical and other data are available. This may or may not be the case. 41. In general, it may be concluded that the preparation of artillery fire requires a period of time varying from a minute to hours and days, depending on the situation. The artilleryman's art consists not only of a familiarity with all methods, but of a sensibe appreciation of what methods are applicable and appropriate in a given situation, and what results can be expected. PART II Firing DISPERSION 42. In the preparation of fire, it is believed that sufficient details were given to bring out the unavoidable approximations and the many uncertain elements entering into the problem, and make it evident that the preparation of fire must in the general case be imperfect. Imperfections are not confined to the preparation of fire, but enter into the firing itself, notably because of dispersion. Dispersion is the scattering of shots intended to strike or burst in the same place. Shots fired with the same data and ammunition should strike in the same place, but it is well known that such is never the case. 43. Law of dispersion. It has been conclusively established that the points of fall of a very large number of supposedly like shots will always be grouped according to a fixed law, called the law of errors. The law can be applied to a particular case and all desired details calculated, when a characteristic value, called the probable error, is known. Explanation of the law of dispersion by what is sometimes called the 25-16-7-2 rule is sufficient for this discussion. The supposedly like shots group themselves about a center, or center of impact. Consider the position of the shots only in range. One-half are short and one-half over. Their distribution is shown in Figure 11. The parallel lines are equi-spaced and one probable error apart. The middle line passes through the center of impact. With the space divided in this manner, the percentages of a very large 39 -40- number of shots which would fall for range in the various spaces are those shown. 2% 3 7% 2 16% 1 25/Q Center 25% 1 0 16% 2 7% 3 2% 4 Figure 11. These values are not strictly accurate, but are sufficiently so for practical purposes. The principal inaccuracy is in the outer or 2% spaces. The shots are not actually confined to the limits "4" shown, but the proportion outside is very small ( 7/io of 1% for both sides of the center). Two per cent includes all shots not included in the other spaces. The spaces are subdivisible with fair accuracy, thus: 50% of the shots are within 1 probable error of the center; within what limits would 70% be included? in each. 70-50=20% are in the 16% spaces, 10% By proportion, which is not strictly correct, 19%6 the 10% would occupy of the 16% space; or 70% of the shots would be within 1s/s probable errors of the center. The same process applies to dispersion in direction. -41- * 44. Probable error. The values of the probable errors for the different projectiles and ranges are given in the range tables. These values are a measure of the accuracy of the piece. The values given, however, are those of the proving ground, with very favorable conditions. For this reason, it is customary to increase the tabular probable errors by 50% in using them practically. It should be remarked that the probable error in deflection is very small as compared with that in range, and that the probable error, in both range and deflection, increases rapidly as the range increases. 45. Dispersion is a practical factor in several respects: (a) It makes hits less frequent. (b) It prevents our infantry from receiving the full measure of protection from artillery fire, because the fire on the objective of attack must cease or lift when they are still some distance away; or if the infantry approach too close, they suffer casualties from our artillery fire. (c) It greatly increases the difficulty of conducting artillery fire. 46. It is generally taken that infantry cannot approach more closely than the following distances to the center of impact of fire of the 75 gun, in the direction of range, that is, when the fire is over their heads: H. E. shell or time shrapnel, depending on the range, 150 to 200 meters. Time shell, ' 200 to 250 meters. This takes into consideration the dispersion of the trajectory, the effective radius of the fragments, and, in time fire, the dispersion of the fuse in time of burning. If the fire is enfilade, these distances may be reduced to about 75 meters. If the ground slopes -42- downward from us toward the enemy, they must be increased. FIRE FOR ADJUSTMENT 47. It is eminently desirable to correct whatever inaccuracies occur in the preparation of fire, during the firing itself. This is in general possible if the firing can be observed, and the period of the firing devoted to this correction is called fire for adjustment. When the adjustment has been completed as far as circumstances permit, fire for effect is or may be undertaken. If observation is not possible, fire for effect is delivered from the outset, but with diminished effectiveness due to lack of adjustment. No amount of careful preparationof fire can entirely eliminate the necessity of fire for adjustment, nor yield the same effectiveness. 48. Observation, on which fire adjustment depends, is viewing the bursts or strike of the projectiles in order to determine their location with respect to the target. Observation is of two broad classes, aerial and terrestrial. The former is discussed later (par. 68). Terrestrial observation is classified, according to the position of the observer with respect to the line of fire, as: axial, when the observer is on or near the line of fire; forward, when he is materially in advance of the pieces; lateral, when he is to one flank. Combined observation is the use of more than one observer at considerably separated points; this method, when well organized, enables the shots to be located with respect to the target in both range and direction. A single observer near the line of fire observes for direction by noting the angular deviation of the shot from the target. A command to the battery "Left (or right) (so much)," stating the deviation observed, will correct the direction of the shot rea- -43- sonably closely. He cannot, however, measure directly the distance of the shot from the target in range. If, however, the smoke of the burst obscures the target, he knows the burst is short; if the smoke brings .the target into relief, he knows the shot is over. 49. The two classes of observation: Combined, which locates the shot in both direction and range, and the single-observer forms, which locate definitely only in direction, and short or over in range, control and determine the two methods of fire for adjustment, i. e.: (a) Adjustment by measured deviations. (b)' Adjustment by bracketing. 50. Adjustment by measured deviations. The second shot is corrected by the amount the first shot deviates from the target and should thus hit the target; in general, it does not, and is corrected by onehalf the deviation. The third shot is corrected by one-third its deviation; and so on till the adjustment is sufficiently refined. This gives due weight to all of the shots fired and should insure a steady approach to the target. Unfortunately, however, the information as to the position of the shot essential to this method'is rarely available, and its application is limited principally to highly organized fronts. It should be noted that dispersion makes its influence felt in this method by protracting and complicating the process. 51. Adjustment by bracketing. This is the method in general use. The fire is opened at the range determined. The direction is corrected by the measured deviation. If the observation for range is "short," the range is increased; if "over," the range is decreased. The amount of the range change depends on the accuracy of the initial determination; if we were very confident of its accurcy; about 100 meters would be sufficient; but if the ini- -44- tial range was estimated and rather long, 400 meters range change would be advisable. One or more shots are observed at this altered range, and if still in the same sense as the first range, the range is again changed the same amount. Finally, a range will be found which gives shots in the opposite sense. There will thus be two ranges, differing by 100, 200, or 400 meters, or by an equivalent amount in elevation, one range giving observations short and the other giving observations over. These two ranges or elevations constitute what is called a "bracket." The size of the bracket is generally stated, thus, "a 100meter bracket has been obtained." 52. It would seem that a bracket based on correctly observed shots would make it certain that the target lay within its limiting ranges. This would be true but for one factor-dispersion. If one shot is observed at say the short limit of the bracket, a reference to Figure 11 will show that the shot may be one at the short limit of the dispersion. In this case, although the particular shot is short, the range may.really be over, which raises doubt as to the correctness of the bracket. For this reason, it is good practice to verify a bracket, before finally accepting it, by securing at least two observations at each limit. 53. After obtaining the first bracket the process of range adjustment is continued by firing at the mid-range of the bracket. When this range has been observed, a new bracket results of one-half the size of the former one.' This process is continued until a bracket is obtained of a size equal to six tabular errors, approximately 100 to 200 meters, generally nearer the former value. Firing at the mid-range of this bracket will almost surely give both shorts and overs for the same range. Based -45- on the proportions of shorts and overs, small changes of elevation are made until substantially equal proportions of shorts and overs are obtained. This constitutes what is known as a precision adjustment, used for the destructionof a target such as a battery or trench. 54. It frequently happens that, during the early stages of bracketing, a range gives both shorts and overs. The bracketing ceases in this case, and firing at.this range is continued, if a precision adjustment is sought. 55. ~Bracket adjustment. Frequently the target is of indefinite extent in range, so that there would be no object in a precision adjustment on some one point of it; or again, the time available may be too short to permit a precision adjustment, for such firing takes time; or the target may be susceptible of movement or in slow movement. In such cases, the bracketing process is cut short with a bracket of about 200 meters, sometimes more or less, depending on the conditions. Fire for effect must then cover all of the bracket in order to be sure of reaching the target; and this method is followed (par. 58-b).. Such an abbreviated or rough adjustment is called a bracket adjustment. 56. Adjustment of time fire. Time fire may be with either shrapnel or shell. The adjustment of time shrapnel consists essentially of a. bracket adjustment for range the same as though the fire were percussion, followed or accompanied by an adjustment of the fuse so that the projectile will burst in air at the proper height. This height depends on the weapon: For the 75 gun, the best height of burst in fire for effect is 3 mils above the target, but the trajectory passing through the target. With time shell fire, the object is to place the burst vertically above the target, at a linear height -46- of about 20 meters. The methods are somewhat different from those used with time shrapnel. 57. Method of fire during adjustment. The usual method of fire during adjustment is the salvo, and generally by the entire battery. A salvo is the successive discharge of the pieces at regular interval from one flank of the battery to the other. The interval is about three seconds. The object of the interval between shots is to permit the observation of individual shots, in order that all possible information may be derived from them. Salvos may be platoon or battery, depending on whether two or four pieces are used. FIRE FOR EFFECT 58. Fire for effect is of three classes, depending on the extent of the preceding adjustment: (a) That based on a precision adjustment (par. 53), called precision fire for effect. This is simply a continuation of the last stages of adjustment. Successive salvos are fired at the range or elevation determined in adjustment. Firing is continued until the desired effect is obtained or until a large accumulation of observations gives definite indication that the range is incorrect. In the latter case, which would generally be due to changed atmospheric conditions, a suitable change in elevation is made and the firing continued. (b) That based on a bracket adjustment, called zone fire for effect (par. 55). The entire depth of the bracket is searched, in bounds of 25 to 50 meters for shell and 100 meters for time shrapnel. If ammunition is available, a shell should be fired every 10 meters in deflection for the 75 gun and every 20 meters for the 155 howitzer . The method of covering the area depends, however, on the time and -47- ammunition available and the importance of the target. The method of fire used may be battery volleys, in which each piece fires rapidly a prescribed number of rounds with fixed data, but without regard to the other pieces; or zone fire, in which each piece fires rapidly and independently through an entire series of different firing data. Zone fire is somewhat more rapid than volleys, but the fire is not as well in hand and is apt to become erratic unless the battery is extremely well trained. (c) That based merely on the preparation of fire, without previous adjustment, called systematic fire for effect. The method is the same as for zone fire for effect, except that the depth and width searched must in the general case be greater than with the bracket adjustment, in order surely to cover the errors in the firing data. It was this method which was used so extensively in the great surprise attacks on the Western front, since the consideration of secrecy prevented practically all preliminary fire for adjustment. This method particularly, and (b) to a lesser extent, are extravagant in ammunition, and relatively ineffective. The lack of concentrated effect must be offset by increasing the amount of artillery firing on a given locality; the rate of fire is limited by the resistance of the mat6riel. Precision adjustment (a) is the only method which can be relied upon for considerable destruction. Methods (b) and (c) cause more or less destruction, but are principally effective in neutralizing, that is, causing the enemy to take cover, and keeping down or stopping his fire. 59. Adjusted fire can be delivered on a target without adjustment on that target itself, particularly when good maps are available. A prominent -48- point, called the datum or registration point, is selected in the vicinity of the target, and a precision adjustment made upon it. The fire is then shifted to the target by measuring the difference in data between the datum point and the target, either from the map or on the ground. The use of a datum point may be necessitated either because observation on the target is not possible or because the target has not yet appeared. Registration is an effective method of preparing to attack prospective targets quickly, but it may reveal prematurely the presence of the artillery. 60. Another case special to a highly organized sector is the use of a witness point. An adjustment may be secured on a target by special means, such as flash or sound ranging, aerial observation, exceptional atmospheric conditions, etc., but it may not be possible or desirable to fire for effect at the time, or it may be necessary to repeat the fire for effect at some other time, when conditions would be changed and the same facilities for adjustment would not be available. It is therefore necessary to "record" the adjustment on the ground in such a manner that it can be utilized later when desired. This is done by means of a nearby point called the witness point, of the same character as the datum point but used differently. Immediately after the adjustment on the target, a precision adjustment is made on the witness point. The difference in the firing data on the target and the witness point are compared and recorded. When later it is necessary to fire on the- same target, but observation on it is not possible, an adjustment is made on the witness point, the previous differences in data for the target applied to the new adjustment, and fire for effect delivered on the target. It is essential that the first firing on the witness point be de- -49= livered immediately before or after the adjustment on the target, to eliminate discrepancies due to changed atmospheric conditions. SPECIAL SHELL 61. In addition to the principal projectiles, the H.E. shell and the shrapnel, there are a number of special shell, notably the gas shell and the smoke shell, as well as the thermite, the star or illuminating, and the incendiary shell. There is nothing special in the methods of firing these projectiles. They are ordinarily constructed so as to give the same trajectory as the shell, thus enabling the necessary adjustments to be made with shell. This is generally advisable in order to avoid betraying the intention of using the special shell before it can be used effectively. The kinds of special shell, their effects, and the quantities to be fired to produce the desired effect are covered in other lectures and in special regulations. EFFECT OF FIRE 62. Before the lade war, the data on the effect of fire was largely experimental, and thus limited; or calculated, considering the effect of the individual projectile and the dispersion as measured by. the probable error. In service however there are so many conditions entering into the effect produced that pre-war data have been largely discarded in favor of the large mass of practical data accumulated during the war. Some few data are given here, from French sources: Destruction of batteries: By 75 gun, 500 to 800 rounds. By 155 howitzer, 300 to 400 rounds. By 155 gun, 400 to 600 rounds. -50By 8 or 9 inch calibers, 200 to 300 rounds. By 12-inch, or similar calibers, 100 to 200 rounds. For each weapon, it is assumed that the protection of the battery attacked is such that it can be successfully attacked by the particular weapon. Wire cutting : 75 gun, a breach 25 meters wide in a band of wire 15 to 20 meters deep, 600 to 800 rounds at mid-range and 1,000 to 1,200 rounds at long rannge, fired by one battery. 155 howitzer, same breach, 200 to 300 rounds. Destruction of trenches: 75 gun, not effective, except to a certain extent when the trench can be enfiladed. 155 howitzer, 80 to 100 rounds for each point selected for destruction. CLEARING THE CREST. REACHING A REVERSE SLOPE 63. Clearing the crest. In paragraph 7 it is stated that protection and concealment are advantages of indirect laying; in fact, they are the principal ones. The amount of protection afforded by a ridge behind which artillery is emplaced depends principally on the steepness of the slope in front of the position, the steeper the slope the better the protection. But if the slope is too steep, firing will bi impossible because projectile will not clear the crest. It is evident that the crest can be cleared for a long range or a large site when it would not be cleared for a short range or small site. A number of methods are used to determine whether a crest can be cleared under given conditions, but this discussion will be limited to a single method. 64. In paragraph 16 it is shown that the quad- rant elevation used for indirect laying is the elevation for the range increased algebraically by the site. If St is the site of the target, Ert is the eleva- -51- tion for range of the target, Eqt is the quadrant elevation for the target, then E qtErt + St a given These values can be readily found in case by the methods already explained (see par. 37), and have no reference to clearing the crest. Now suppose it were the intention to fire, not at the target, but at the crest itself. If the elevation for the range from piece to crest is Ere, S, is the site of the crest measured from the position of the piece in the same manner as for the target, and Eqc is the quadrant elevation sought,-then we have as for the target Eq-E rc+Sc Escc Ert Eqc 5\c Eqgs Fig. 12. CLEARING THE .CREST. These elements are shown in Figure 12. It is evident that if the elevation for firing on the target is greater than that for firing on the crest, the crest will be cleared. The addition of the elevation for the range of the crest and the site of the crest will always be an arithmetical one, since from its nature the crest will be above the pieces and its site plus (+). The site of -52-- the target, however, must be carefully considered as to sign. The following examples illustrate the method stated: 1. Site of target,-12 mils; range of target, 3,400 meters. The pieces are in position 600 meters behind a crest whose site is 70 mils. Can the crest be cleared with 75 shrapnel fire? With shell fire? Shrapnel. The elevation for the range of the target is, by the range tables, 60 11'. The site of the target, in mils, is 12/.3=40', minus. The quadrant elevation is then 6° 11'-40'=5° 31'. The elevation for the range of the crest is 42'. The site of the crest is 70 X 3.375=236'z--3' 56'. The quadrant elevation of the crest is the 30 56'+42'=4° 38'. The quadrant elevation for the target is then greater than for the crest, so that the crest will be cleared. Shell. E 0 t=4° 35'-40'=3° 55k. This is less than the quadrant elevation of the crest, so that shell cannot be fired at the given range. 2. A certain battery position has been tentatively selected from the map, on the eastern slope of Sentinel Hill, on the 900-foot contour. What is the minimum range which could be used with 75 shell, firing west over the hill? Assume the site of the target as 0 and the height of the treees on the hill as 20 feet. Judged from the contours, the shoulder on the slope is about on the 1,000-foot contour. The distance between the 900 and 1,000-foot contours is 200 yards, or 600 feet. The vertical interval, including the trees is 120 feet. The slope Qf the "crest" is then 120/600=20% 20X4/7=11.43, or the slope is 110 26' -53- In addition it is well to allow 30' clearance to cover inaccuracy and irregularities on the hill. The elevation for the range of the crest is about 10'. The permissible quadrant elevation is then 110 26'+40'=12° 26' Since the site of the target is 0, this is the permissible elevation for the range of the target, or the required minimum range is 6,400 meters. 65. With the pieces in position the elevation which will clear the crest can be measured with the laying instrument directly. Allowance must be made however, for the drop of the projectile between the pieces and the mask, if this distance is considerable. 66. Elevation formulas. It is sometimes found convenient to make use of formulas which give the elevation for a given range without the use of range tables. A number are given below, but no formula of this kind is accurate for all ranges, unless it is very complex. In problems to clear the crest, a clearance of 30' should be allowed in the case of the 75 gun and 1o for the 155 howitzer to cover inaccuracy in the formula as well as for other uncertain factors. -54- E is the elevation in degrees; R is the range in thousands of meters. 75 gun. Shrapnel. R (R+4) E = 4 Shell. 155 howitzer. R Charge (R±5) 6 Shell Elevation Limit of range. Approx. 9000 00 R (R+5) 4 (R+6) 4 (R+6) 3 (R+5) 0 R 8000 1 R 7000 2 R 6000 3 4 5 2 R (R+2) R (R+4) R (R+6) 5000 4000 3000 67. Reaching a reverse slope. Ground protected from hostile fire by a covering crest can be reached if the angle of fall of the fire directed upon it is sufficiently great.. The vulnerability of terrain to fire in this manner may be determined by comparing the reverse slope with the slope of fall of the trajectory. The latter is given in the range tables, but may also be determined by means of the empirical formulas given in par. 66 for the elevation. The angle of fall may be taken as one-half greater than the elevation. The slope of terrain may be determined from the map for this purpose in the same manner as in problem 2, par. 64. Or the scale of map distances may be used. PART III Special Auxiliaries AERIAL OBSERVATION 68. Aerial observation is of two kinds, balloon and airplane. The methods of balloon observation are essentially those used on the ground. Communication is normally by telephone, connection being given direct to the battery firing. 69. Airplane observation. Airplane observation of fire has the advantage of vertical observation, which is of great value not only in the observation of fire but also in the location of targets. In terrestrial observation, the deviation laterally only can be measured; that in range can only be determined as short or over. With vertical observation, the deviation of the shot both laterally and in range can be measured, at least as far as the position of the observer is concerned. The disadvantages of airplane observation of fire are in communication with the ground, in the movement of the plane, the obstruction of vision for various reasons, and the operations of hostile planes. In addition, a high degree of co-operation between the artillery and the airplane is necessary and is difficult of attainment. 70. Communication between the airplane and the ground is now by radio; it was at first by visual signals, and indications point to the use of radio telephone for the future. Communication between the ground and the airplane is ordinarily by panel signals displayed on the ground, but some airplanes are now equipped with facilities for receiving radio, in which case reciprocal radio communication is possible. 55 -56- 71. The present official manual covering the method of procedure is "Aerial Observation for Artillery," A. E. F. No. 80, Revised, with changes. Communication is by code for the sake of breIn the vity; messages can rarely be spelled out. ground panels, there are conventional combinations to represent the various necessary phrases, such as, the method of fire, "battery is ready to fire," "battery has fired," "repeat," "acknowledged," etc. The radio signals from the airplane to the ground are combinations of letters and numerals to designate targets, start and interrupt the fire, and to report the results of shots, particularly as to the deviations from the target in range and direction. The observer can estimate distances in connection with the burst of shots by comparison with known distances between prominent objects; or he may have a photograph of the target with the map grid to scale on it. When the shots are close to the target (about 100 meters in range or 10 meters in direction), the observer reports only the sense, as short or over, right or left. 72. The methods of adjustment and fire for effect are those described in connection with terrestrial observation (par. 47 et seq.). Adjustment by measured deviations can sometimes be used, when the observer can estimate deviations with great accuracy (par. 50). The preparation of fire must be as accurate as possible. In addition, if the battery has opportunity to adjust partially, the first shots are less apt to be lost by the aerial observer and the adjustment will be abbreviated. The preliminary adjustment might be a shift of fire from datum point (par. 59), balloon observation, or other means. -57- The method of fire is mostly by battery salvo; but may be by volley if the shots are difficult to see; or by single piece, to simplify. In the early stages of adjustment each salvo is fired at the signal "Fire" of the observer. During fire for effect, the firing may be continuous or in long series, the observer reporting on the fire in general terms at intervals, unless the fire is so erroneous as to demand an interruption. Airplane observation at night is possible, under special conditions. SOUND RANGING 73. Sound ranging is a valuable auxiliary in artillery work in two ways: to locate hostile batteries, and to locate the strike of our own projectiles in fire for adjustment. The system is a development of the war, the matter having been actively pushed by all of the warring nations during the stabilized period up to the Spring of 1918. Six stations are selected and accurately surveyed on the are of a circle whose center, in general terms, is about where the sound to be located is expected to originate. The stations are from 1200 to 1700 meters apart; the arc of stations should be from 1500 to 6000 meters behind the front line. At each station is installed a microphone connected electrically to a central station. Here there is an apparatus consisting essentially of a moving picture film on which shadows are cast by suitable devices as follows: first, a continuous longitudinal line for each microphone; second, transverse lines every hundreth of a second. affording a scale for time measurements. When a microphone is disturbed by a sound its particular line on the film shows zigzag instead of straight. The central station is located in a well protected spot usually well behind the -58- lines. There is also a control station, which must be in advance of all microphones. Its function is as follows: The apparatus in the central station cannot operate continuously as it moves too rapidly and must be read occasionally. It is so arranged that it can be started and stopped electrically from the control station. Thus, when the. operator at the control station hears a sound which he considers desirable to locate, he starts the instrument in the central station; because of the location of the control station, the sound has not yet reached the microphones. After the sound has ceased, the operator stops the apparatus, and the readings can be taken. 74. Depending on the origin of the sound, it will be recorded at the central station for the different microphones at different times. Nothing will be known directly as to the direction of the sound, but the instrument makes it possible to read for each pair of adjacent stations, the difference in the time of arrival of the sound at the two stations. Knowing the velocity of sound, the difference in distance of the origin of the sound from the two stations may be found. Mathematically, this determines a hyperbola somewhere on which the origin of sound is located. Practically the asymtote of this hyperbola may be substituted for the hyperbola itself; and since the asymtote is a straight line, the solution is simplified. In this manner, the direction of the sound is determined, not for each microphone as is often believed, but for each pair of microphones. For six microphones then, there would be five direction lines found, whose mean intersection locates the sound. 75. Not only can the sound be located, but by means of the characteristics of the film record of the microphone disturbance, the nature of the -59- sound recorded can be determined, such as the caliber of the piece firing, whether it is a gun or a howitzer, and even the exact type. Sound ranging has its limitations. During heavy firing, the records are so confused that determinations are impossible; 5 rounds per seconds is stated as a limit in this connection. Atmospheric conditions materially affect its operation, necessitate corrections, and in some cases prevent reliable determinations. An example of the latter is a wind blowing perpendicular to the line of microphones and toward the source of sound. On the other hand, fog and night do not interfere as in the case of visual systems. A well trained section will be able to report the coordinates of a hostile battery in from 3 to 5 minutes after the firing. The accuracy is variable. Under favorable conditions, the error should be within 50 meters up to 8000 meters range; and in all practicable cases, it should not exceed 150 meters. When observations on the same position for a long period of time are possible, extreme accuracy is attained by averaging the results. FLASH RANGING 76. This system is in principle the location of the flashes of hostile batteries or of our own projectile bursts by means of angular observations from the extremities of known base lines. Usually four observation posts work together, thus giving two check readings. The posts are accurately located and equipped with special instruments. A source of difficulty is the identification and simultaneous reading of the same flash from widely separated points. This is facilitated by means of a light system. The posts are connected with a -60- central station by telephone and by light signals. When an observer sees a flash, he sets his instrument. accurately on it and at the same time presses a key which lights his lamp in the central station. If the lamps of all or sufficient observers light at the same instant, the central operator can assume the observers see the same flash, and he telephones them to read and report. The readings are set on a plotting board, and the result reported by telephone. In 1918, much progress was made by our flash ranging sections in following moving operations and obtaining useful results, which is far more difficult than operations on a stabilized front. HIGH BURST RANGING 77. This is a phase of the work of the flash ranging sections. It is used under the following conditions: A target' cannot be seen, except perhaps by aerial observation which we will say is not available; but the location of the target on the map is accurately known. This might often be the case, as bridges, buildings, road crossings, railroads, etc. The firing data is prepared as accurately as. possible from the map. A series of 10 or 12 shots is then fired at data so calculated as to give air bursts surely high enough to be visible, but with the trajectory directed as accurately as possible on the target. The bursts are observed and located horizontally and vertically by the flash ranging sections. The center of the group is then calculated, and by means of charts, the point of fall of the trajectory prolonged through the center can be determined. Unless the trajectory thus found is considerably in error with respect to the target, fire for effect can be undertaken, by searching an area about -61- Under conditions in the calculated trajectory. Europe, it was stated that the accuracy of the method was sufficient to permit the searching of an area as small as six probable errors in range. Precision fire cannot be executed by this method. 78. High burst ranging may be used in the same manner as a witness point (par. 60). For example, an airplane adjustment may have been made on a target. To record this adjustment for subsequent use without the necessity of readjusting by airplane, the high burst method is resorted to immediately after the first adjustment. When it is later desired to resume the fire, a series of high bursts is fired, observed, and the results compared as to trajectory with the 'former ones. The difference determines a correction which will put the fire again on the invisible target. ABRIDGED ARTILLERY RANGE TABLES FOR USE AT GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOLS FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS 1. 75 mm. Gun. (a) (b) American shrapnel. H. E. steel shell, Model 1917, RY fuse (French). 2. 155 mm. Howitzer. Long H. E. steel shell, Model 1914, short fuses. Charge 00 Charge Charge Charge Charge Charge Charge 0 1 2 3 4 5 October, 1919 Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. Army Service Schools Press -3CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF AMMUNITION Division Artillery 75 Gun and 155 Howitzer 30' Elevation Kind of projectile, fuse o ycel ?r G w w U2, a 75 GUN American shrapnel French shrapnel ------1755 1755 1780 1800 1130 16.4 13.7 14.6 17.6 1720 1900 1820 1660 9250 9700 7700 8400 6500 11400 11100 10700 11200 890 840 840 880 95 97 93 87 E. E. shell, normal charge Long fuse -------Short fuse --------- Reduced charge Short fuse ---------AL semi-steel shell Long fuse Charge 00._ Steel shell, Mod. 1917*.Semi-steel shell, Mod. 1918* -------------Steel AL R/2 shell______ 155 HOWITZER 40' Shrapnel, Charge 00_. Charge 0_. Charge 1__ Charge 2__ Charge 3__ Charge 4__ Charge 5__ 89.5 1440 1350 1160 940 830 740 680 1420 1310 665 1420 1310 665 1475 1360 680 1475 1360 680 10800 10200 8300 7000 5800 4800 4050 10400 9700 3950 10150 9500 3800 12250 11400 4250 11950 11200 4150 Elevation 865 835 800 730 685 615 580 122 115 106 112 100 100 93 Long shell (O.A.) Short Charge 00.. fuse Charge 0.. Charge 5__ Long fuse Charge 00-Charge 0. Charge 5-Semi-steel shell (F.A.) Short fuse Charge 00.. Charge 0.. 'Charge 5_. Long fuse Charge 00.. Charge 0.. Charge 5__ 95. 95.5 96.0 96.5 2, 3, 4, 5. NOTE: In all cases the iSS charges are 7 in numher: : 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. NOTE: In all cases the 155 charges are 7 in number 00, 0, 1, *Average for various fuses. -475 GUN American Shrapnel 21-sec. Combination Fuse. Probable Error d 0 55 a 03 55 c a r o 0 d+ cd a a n o- C b4 a b m. 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 0 22 0 28 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 35 42 50 58 6 14 23 32 41 50 00 11 21 32 43 55 7 19 32 45 58 12 36 40 54 9 24 39 55 11 27 44 1 18 36 54 13 31 50 10 30 50 10 30 51 m. 400 500 600 690 790 880 970 1060 1160 1250 1350 1440 1540 1650 1750 186.0 1970 2070 2180 2290 2400 2510 2610 2720 2830 2930 3030 3140 3250 3360 3460 3570 3680 3780 3890 3990 4100 4210 4310 4410 4520 4620 4720 4830 4930 5030 5130 0/o mils 0 0 sec. ft/sec. m. m. m. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 1.0 470 10 0 500 3 2.1 411 10 1 1000 5 3.4 363 141 1 1500 7 4.8 332 10 1 2000 10 6.4 311 10 1 2500 13 3.0 294 10 2 3000 17 9.8 280 11 2 3500 21 11.6 268 11 2 4000 26 13.6 258 12 2 4500 75 GUN American Shrapnel -575 GUN 21-sec. 5) Combination Fuse. Probable Error 0 a) a) 0- 0 o S m. 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 3000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700. 8800 8900 11 11 11 12 1.2 13 13 1.3 14 14 13 35 58 20 43 6 29 53 18 43 m. 5230 5330 5440 0/ 32 mils 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 18 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 22 23 25 27 30 sec. 15.7 ft,'sec. 249 m. 13 m. 3 M. 5000 38 S 0 50 17.9 241 15 3 5500 S 44 20.3 236 17 3 6000 15 9 15 36 16 3 16 30 16 58 17 1? 18 18 19 27 57 27 58 30 a; S0 52 22.9 231 19 3 6500 a) O 20 2 20 35 21 9 21 45 22 23 23 1 23 40 24 21 25 3 25 48 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 36 40 36 27 20 16 17 27 50 24 20 21 61 25.7 4 7000 72 28.7 4 7500 87 32.3 4 8000 1.09 36.9 4 8500 75 GUN -675 GUN H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec. -Probable Error 50 A 0 50 d W o . 0 SA . +' aPic P4, Iz bi P m. 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 m. mils 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 11.7 4.2 ft/sec. m. I m" m. o 16 o 22 o 28 o 34 o 40 0 46 0 52 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 59 6 13 20 27 34 42 50 58 6 14 22 31 40 49 350 450 525 600 675 750 825 925 1000 1075 1175 1250 1325 1400 1500 1575 1650 1725 1800 1900 1975 2050 2125 2225 2300 2375 2475 2575 2650 2750 2825 2925 3000 3100 3200 3275 3375 3475 3550 3650 3725 3825 3925 4025 4100 4200 4300 522 8 500 2 474 8 iooo 3 433 9 1500 5 398 9 2000 2 58 3 7 3 17 3 27 7 368 10 2500 3 38 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 49 00 11 23 35 47 59 12 25 38 52 6 20 34 48 10 342 12 3000 12 322 14 3500 16 .307 17 400( 7 3 7 18 7 33 7 49 8 5 19 295 20 4500 75 GUN -775 GUN H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec. Probable Error * 0; bO r b 0 bI 0 01 . y ++ c'v *-+S o 50 v a c5~ 0; °a5 5 0;Fl 5 m. 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 21 37 53 10 27 44 1 18 86 54 12 30 49 8 27 m. 4375 4475 4550 4650 4725 4825 4900 5000 5075 5175 5250 5350 5425 3675 3725 3925 4040 4150 4250 4375 4500 4695 4750 4950 5075 5175 5300 5300 0/a mils 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 "7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 sec. 13:4 ft/sec. 285 m. 24 m. 3 M. 5000 23 28 15.3 276 27 3 5500 32 17.2 269 31 3 6000 12 46 13 5 13 25 13 45 14 6 14 27 14 48 15 10 37 19.3 263 35 4 6500 43 U? f 0 49 21.4 259 40 4 7000 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 3000 8100. 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500 9600 9700 9800 9900 15 32 15 54 16 17 16 40 17 4 17 4 17 52 1316 18 41 19 7 19 33 20 0 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 27 55 23 52 21 51 22 54 26 59 33 7 43 20 58 4350 -f- 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 63 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 23.7 256 45 4 7500 ~55 S / f r a / O 26.0 254 49 4 8000 28.4 253 54 5 8500 + 71 31.0 252 59 5 9000 Cl p 80 17 18 18 19 19 33.7 253 63 5 9500 4 75 GUN H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 -875 GUN RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec. Probable Eri'or 0)0 0 0) 0 .4. b0c W 32~ m. 28 37 0 d 1000 sec. 36.8 ft/sec. 255 m. 68 m. 5 m. 10000 1000 10100 10200 10300 10400 110500 29 18 30 1 30 46 31 34 32 25 34 21 35 28 5 33 21 36 47 38 26 40.8 0a 258 73 6 10500 5) 0) 47.6 262 79 6 11000 11100 40 50 75 GUN -9CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00 Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 Short Fuses, M. V. 1420 ft/sec. Probable Error Elevation 9 a 0cc mils 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 Abp bS ao . A a m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 26 35 47 58 9 21 32 44 55 7 20 32 45 58 11 24 38 52 6 20 35 50 6 22 38 54 10 27 43 00 17 35 52 09 27 44 02 19 37 55 1/20's 9 12 16 19 23 27 31 35 38 42 47 51 55 59 64 68 73 77 82 87 92 97 102 107 sec. 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.4 11.8 12.2 12.6 12.9 13.3 13.7 14.1 14.5 14.8 15.2 15.6 ft/sec. 410 m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 384 361 11 I 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 339 320 113 118 123 129 134 140 146 152 157 163 169 175 181 186 192 198 205 211 217 224 230 3 3 3 3 3 304 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 17 1 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 5 5 6 6 6 6 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 10 14 10 33 10 52 11.11 11 30 CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00 -10CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00 Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 Short Fuses, M. V. 1420 ft/sec. Probable Error Elevation a N WB a: Gece 0.'b. cm m. 1 m. 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 34 36 37. 50 10 30 50 11 33 55 18 41 04 28 53 18 43 09 36 03 31 59 28 58 29 00 32 04 36 09 43 17 52 27 03 39 16 54 33 15 58 40 38 34 35 43 01 34 1/20's 237 mils 29 30 31 32 33 34 6 sec. 16.0 16.4 16.8 17.2 17.6 ft/sec. 268 m. 19 20 m. 5000 243 250 257 264 271 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 5100 5200 5300 21 21 22 1 2 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 18.0 18.4 18.8 19.2 19.7 20.1 20.6 21.1 21.5 278 286 294 35 36 37 301 309 38 39 40 42 23 24 2 318 326 334 343 352 361 370 380 389 399 410 420 431 441 452 43 44 46 10 10 10 11 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 23.9 24.4 24.9 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.1 27.6 28.2 28.7 29.3 29.9 30.5 249 25 26 27 27 2 2 47 48 50 51 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500 11 12 12 12 13 53 54 56 13 14 14 57 59 60 62 64 66 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 29 463 474 486 497 509 14 15 15 16 16 30 31, 2 3 32 249 33 3 17 17 18 521 533 545 558 571 585 599 31.1 31.7 32.5 19 19 20 20 21 22 34 35 251 36 37 3 33.0 33.6 34.3 35.0 35.8 36.6 37.5 38.4 39.3 254 83 86 89 92 95 99 104 615 633 651 672 694 720 751 793 38 39 40 41 23 24 25 26 27 29 31 3 4 43 44 46 258 49 110 118 40.4 41.7 43.5 39 40 4 CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00 -11'CHARGE 0 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 _1 _ CHARGE 0 Short Fuses, M. V. 1310 ft/sec. Probable Error S a) a cS Pi Elevation a: c a, 0.' wi b F 3 m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300' 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 0 40 0 52 104 117 130 ° 1/20's 13 17 21 26 30 v F t > a A m. 0 m. 50 % 2 2 2 mils 0 0 1 sec. 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.2 9.5 ft/sec. 385 in. 8 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 143 156 2 09 34 39 43* 9 0 2 23 2 36 2 49 48 52 56 10 10 0 6 7 7 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 03 17 31 46 61 66 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 106 111 117 123 128 134 140 146 152 158 164 170 177 183 190 196 203 8 8 9 9 10 2 2 2 2 2- 11 11 4 01 4 15 4 30 4 45 5 01 5 5 5 6 6 17 34 51 08 25 0 1 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 30 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 12 12 1 13 6 42 6 59 717 7 35 6 53 8 8 8 9 9 12 31 50 09 29 13 14 1 9.9 10.2 10.6 10.9 11.3 11.7 12.0 12.4 12.8 13.1 13.5 13.9 14.3 14.7 15.1 15.5 15.9 16.3 14 15 1 9 48 10 08 16 1 10.28 10 48 11 08 11 11 12 12 12 29 49 10 32 54 209 216 223 230 236 243 251 258 17 17 18 1 CHARGE CHARGE 0 0 155 HOWITZER 155 HOWITZER CHARGE CHARGE 0 0 -12CHARGE 0 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 0 Short Fuses, M. V. 1310 ft/sec. Probable Error _ Elevation: -'5 +- bs 5 +) 4 5 b0 m. 5000 5100 6200 5300 5400 5500 )600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 66"0 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 (600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 e500 8600 $700. 8800 5900 13 13 14 14 14 16 39 02 25 49 1/20's 265 273 281 288 296 304 312 321 329 338 347 356 365 374 384 394 404 414 424 435 446 457 469 471 493 506 518 532 546 560 575 591 607 625 644 665 688 715 746 787 %'/o 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 45 46 47 48 50 r, M. 53 54 56 57 59 61 62 64 66 68 70 72 75 77 79 82 85 88 92 95 100 105 112 mils 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 sec. 16.7 17.1 17.6 18.0 18.4 18.9 19.3 19.3 20.2 20.7 21.2 21.7 22.2 22.7 23.2 23.7 24.2 24.7 25.2 25.7 26.3 26.8 27.3 27.9 23.5 29.1 29.7 30.4 31.0 31.7 32.4 33.1 33.9 34.8 35.7 36.6 37.7 38.8 40.0 41.5 ft/sec. 260 m. 19 m. 1 m. 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 3800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 20 256 20 2 2 15 13 15.37 16 02 16 27 16 54 17 17 18 18 19 19 9° 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 39 21 48 15 43 11 41 11 42 13 45 19 52 27 03 39 17 55 35 17 00 46 33 21 15 11 15 25 45 18 20 22 252 22 23 24 249 24 25 26 2 2 14 1 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 1..5 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20' 20 21 22 23 24 26 28 247 27 28. 29 2 246 30 31 32 2 3 247 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 43 46 3 249 3 . 4 250 CHARGE 0 155 HOWTITZER CHARGE 0 -13CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 1 Short Fuses, M. V. 1050 ft/sec. Probable Error b4 Elevation c 0) " n 1 1/20's 500 sec. 3 3 4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 ft/sec. 304 m. m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 COO 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 107 125 22 28 6 0 144 2 02 2 21 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 40 59 19 39 59 19 39 59 20 35 41 47 53 60 66 73 80 86 93 100 107 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 11 12 7 289 7 0 1100 1200 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 8 277 1300 1400 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 8 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.0 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.6 14.0 14.5 14.9 15.3 15.8 16.2 16.7 267 5 41 6 02 114 121 9 9 10 259 1 1 6 23 6 44 7 06 741 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 51 13 36 59 22 45 08 32 56 21 128 135 142 149 157 164 172 180 187 195 203 211 219 227 235 243 252 260 269 278 286 295 305 314 324 333 343 353 363 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 10 11 '1 3100 3200 254 3300 3400 21 22 23 24 25 26 11 12 1 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 250 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 11 45 1210 12 35 13 01 1327 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 53 19 46 14 42 11 40 09 39 09 13 1 3500 27 28 29 3600 14 247 14 1 3700 3800 3900 4000 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 4100 15 4200 4300 4400 1 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 17.2 17.7 18.1 18.6 244 16 17 39 40 19.1 CHARGE CHARGE 1 1 155 HOWITZER 155 HOWITZER CHARGE CHARGE 1 1 -14CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 1 Short Fuses, M. V. 1050 ft/sec. Probable Error Elevation 0 bC 00 m. 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 1/20's mils 42 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 Sec. 19.6 20.1 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.5 25.1 25.7 26.4 27.0 27.7 28.5 29.3 30.1 31.0 32.1 33.2 34.6 36.5 38.7 S a 0 a S cO a ft/sec. 241 m. 18 m. 2 m. 5000 5100 6200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 18 41 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29 30 32 33 35 36 39 41 13 45 19 53 27 03 40 18 59 41 24 11 00 52 49 50 56 10 32 05 54 02 50 374 384 395 406 418 429 441 453 466 480 494 508 524 548 557 576 597 619 648 671 702 738 781 837 43 44 46 47 49 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 65 67 70 73 77 80 85 90 95 102 117 19 239 20 21 22 239 22 2 2 11 11 11 12 12 23 24 25 236 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 3 3 236 31 239 33 34 3 CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1 -15155 HOWITZER CHARGE 2 Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 2 Short Fuses, M. V. 9241 ft/sec. 00 Probable Error Elevation 00 a o a 0~w a0 i. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 31 54 17 41 04 27 51 16 40 04 1/20's 30 38 46 54 61 69 77 85 mils sec. 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.8 15.3 15.8 16.3 16.9 17.4 17.9 18.5 19.1 19.7 20.2 20.8 21.4 22.0 22.7 23.3 24.0 24.7 25.4 26.2 27.1 28.1 29.2 30.4 31.9 34.1 ft/sec. 268 n. 5 i. 0 i. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 257 6 0 93 101 110 118 126 135 143 152 160 169 178 187 196 205 214 223 233 242 252 262 273 283 294 305 317 329 341 7 250 7 0 5 29 5 54 6 19 6 44 7 09 7 35 8 8 8 9 01 27 54 21 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 8 245 8 9 1 1 9 48 240 10 15 10 43 11 10 11 39 12 07 12 37 13 07 13 39 14 10 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 43 16 51 27 03 40 17 55 33 13 53 34 16 59 46 33 20 10 03 01 02 07 19 39 15 9 10 1 11 235 11 1 12 230 12 13 14 225 14 15 1 1 353 366 378 391 404 418 431 445 460 475 491 507 523 541 560 581 602 626 653 685 726 786 16 221 16 17 18 218 19 20 21 216 22 23 24 25 26 28 31 2 2 1 2 9 1 1010 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 .20 36 19 39 18 217 218 2 3 CHARGE CHARGE 2 2 HOWITZER 155 HOWITZER 155 CHARGE CHARGE 2 2 -16CHARGE 3 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 3 Short Fuses, M. V. 820 ft/sec. o Elevation o " Probable Error _ a 5 b 55 m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 2 2 2 3 3 00 29 57 25 58 1/20's 40 50 59 68 78 87 97 107 116 127 137 147 158 169 180 191 202 214 226 238 250 262 275 288 392 316 330 344 358 373 387 402 418 433 450 467 485 504 524 546 570 597 628 663 703 751 806 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 mils 1 sec. 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.5 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.3 6.7 7.2 7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.6 12.1 12.6 13.1 13.7 14.2 14.7 15.3 15.3 16.4 17.0 17.6 18.2 18.8 19.5 20.2 20.9 21.7 22.5 23.4 24.4 25.5 26.6 27.9 29.4 31.5 ft/sec. 243 m. 4 mo. 0 mo. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500. 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 4 21 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 50 20 49 20 51 22 54 27 00 33 07 42 18 54 30 07 45 25 06 48 29 11 54 38 237 5 6 0 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 231 6 7 0 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 * 13 14 15 16 18 20 8 225 8 9 1 23 24 26 27 29 30 32 34 35 37 39 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 55 58 61 64 69 74 79 86 93 105 219 9 10 1 11 214 11 12 1 13 209 13 14 15 1 19 22 20 07 20 53 21 40 22 29 23 24 25 26 27 20 14 12 12 17 205 16 17 18 1 2 28 29 29.50 31 23 33 08 35 09 37 32 40 18' 202 19 20 21 22 23 25 28 2 "202 203 2 2 CHRG CHARGE 8 3 5 155 OIZRCAG HOWITZER CHARGE 3 -17CHARGE 4 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 4 Short Fuses, M. V. 730 ft/sec. Probable Error Elevation w J be ¢ ( 4 q h m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 1/20's 2 34 3 09 3 44 4 19 4 55 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 30 31 33 31 09 47 25 03 43 24 06 49 33 18 04 51 40 29 20 13 07 04 05 09 16 25 37 51 10 33 05 42 27 0/0 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 42 45 47 50 54 57 60 64 68 72 78 86 95 mils 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 8 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 sec. 2.3 2.8 3.2 3.7 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.6 6.1 6.6 7.1 7.6 8.1 8.7 9.2 9.8 10.3 10.9 11.5 12.1 12.8 13.4 14.1 14.7 15.4 16.1 16.8 17.5 18.3 19.1 19.9 20.8 21.9 23.0 24.3 25.6 27.3 ft/sec. 218 m. 4 m. 0 m. 500 600 700 800 900 51 63 75 86 98 110 123 186 148 161 174188 202 216 231 246 261 277 293 310 327 344 362 881 402 423 445 468 492 517 543 571 602 634 669 712 769 5 213 5 0 6 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 207 6 7 1 8 201 8 9 10 194 10 11 12 188 12 13 14 15 183 16 17 18 19 183 184 21 23 1 2 1 1 1 .7 7 7 8 8 9 10 .10 -11 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 6 35 37 38 26 2 2 CHARGE 4 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 4 -18CHARGE 5' 155 HOWITZER Long H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1914 CHARGE 5 Short Fuses, M. V. 665 ft/sec. Probable Error Elev: stion a 0 a C0 E- b4 a bO m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3460 3500 3600 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 07 49 31 13 57 41 26 12 59 47 37 28 20 13 08 06 08 11 15 23 32 41 54 11 35 1/20's 62 76 90 104 119 134 149 164 180 196 212 229 247 264 283 302 323 344 365 388 411 434 458 484 512 541 573 608 648 697 758 837 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 17 mils 1 sec. 2.5 3.0 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 ft/sec. 198 m. 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 194 5.7 6.2 6.8 7.3 7.9 8.5 9.1 9.7 10.3 188 11o 6 6 7 8 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 18 20 22 23 25 27 29 32 10.9 11.0 12.2 12.9 13.6 14.4 15.1 15.9 16.7 17.5 18.3 19.3 20.4 g1.5 22.8 24.5 27.2 182 8 34 37 6 7 7 9 10 39 42 45 48 51 55 59 64 69 75 7 8 8 176 11 12 13 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 20 27 04 28 39 30 24 172 32'25 34 50 37 54 41 50 81 90 107 14 15 16 17 19 20 23 172 173 CHARGE 5 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 5
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