# To start with Angle Bisector Theorem A classic example from one of the simcat's which makes use of both

external and internal angle bisector theorems. Find DE : DB, if BC = 3 units, EB = 1 unit and DE is an angle bisector of CDB and DB is an angle bisector of ADE.

We are asked to find DE/DB, From the above figure we see that DE is internal angle bisector of Triangle(DCB) whereas DB is the External angle bisector of Triangle(DCE). So, From an external angle bisector in Triangle(DCE) we have, DC/DE = BC/BE..............i From an internal angle bisector in Triangle(DCB) we have, DC/DB = EC/EB .............ii From i & ii we get, DE/DB = 2/3. In addition to the above Angle Bisector theorem, I have attached a file with respect to angle bisectors that will help you in comprehending the below concept. AP / PM = (b + c) / a where, P is the incentre and a, b, c are the respective sides of the triangle. This concept will be really handy in solving the problems. Thanks in advance. (attached thumbnail pg 7 post 68)

For any set of n positive numbers , Arithmetic Mean >= Geometric Mean >=Harmonic mean The equality occurs only when all the numbers are equal . This can be used if the sum(or product ) of some numbers are given and the maximum(or minimum) value of the product(or sum ) is asked ... Ex : xy=27 minimum value of 3x+4y ? taking 3x and 4y to be two numbers and applying our rule A.M : (3x+4y)/2 G.M : (12xy)^1/2=(4*3*27)^1/2 = 18 A.M >= GM

3x+4y >= 2*18 Hence the minimum value of (3x+4y) is 36 how to put 9 identical rings in 4 fingers. concept= n+r-1Cr-1 this formula is used to distribute n identical things among r people. if the 9 rings are named, a1,a2,a3....a7,a8,a9 we want to distribute them among 4 fingers, means we want to make four groups out of this 9 rings. so if we arrange the 9 rings side by side. _a1_a2_a3 _a4_ a5_ a6_ a7_a8_a9_ we need three separator to divide them in 4 groups. and we can put the separator at any of the black space above. suppose I put first separator after a1, second after a4, 3rd after a6 so groups are a1 a2,a3,a4 a5,a6 a7,a8,a9 that means I can say I have total 12 items ( 9+3) to arrange them selves. that is 12! but 9 rings are identical and 3 separators are also identical so final answer shd be = 12!/9!*3 if we replace 9 with n,3 with r we get n+r-1Cr-1 2. how to distribute 9 different rings among 4 fingers. just a single change rings are different, so we dont have to divide by 9!, so answer = 12!/3! general formula = n+r-1Pr-1 both of the above Q are of arrangement and distribution. examples where this concept can be used. 1. 2. 3. 4. distribute 1o chocolates aming 6 children such that no children is empty handed. find whole number solutions for X+Y+Z = 22 find natural number solutions for X+Y+Z= 22 total number of terms in (a+b+c+d)^15

concept 3. total number of squares which can be made from size in N*N size square. = 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^3 .....N^2 like for 2*2 square we can have total 5 squares, 4 square of 1*1, and the 2*2 square itself. concept 4. total number of rectangles which can be made from N*N square. = 1^3+2^3+3^3.....n^3 concept 5. A plane( restricted) is to be divided in N distinct parts, find the minimum number of lines to do so. formula = > sigma X = N-1 X is the minimum number of lines. suppose we want to divide plane in 16 distinct parts sigma5 = 15 so answer is 5 lines.

Let a = (p^x1)*(q^y2)*(r^z3)*. Since LCM of a and b is (p^x)*(q^y)*(r^z)*.. x2) = x => one of x1 and x2 has to be x. z2) = z => (2z + 1) ways So..(1+2+.. thus.. (n-2)^3. for each side we will have (n-2) small cubes with only 2 sides painted.. can be choosen such that LCM of a and b is (p^x)*(q^y)*(r^z)*. then the answer would be {(2x + 1)(2y + 1)(2z + 1). 12 * (n-2) no of small cubes with ONLY 1 side painted : for each face of the cube ( 6 faces ) we have (n-2)^2 small cubes with only one side painted.. we can say that max(x1.. then number is. of small cubes with ONLY 2 sides painted : A cube is painted on 2 sides means.. it is on the edge of the bigger cube ... 6*(n-2)^2 no of small cubes with NO sides painted : if we remove the top layer of small cubes from the big cube we will end up a chunk of small cubes with no sides painted.. Also. Had the question been that in how many ways two numbers can be choosen such that their LCM is (p^x)*(q^y)*(r^z)*..n)=Sigma[Sigma(n)]
Suppose we have to find the number of ways in which an ordered pair (a. where a and b are natural numbers. no. y2) = y => (2y + 1) ways & max(z1. b)... each having n cubes. the following are the results:
.... but since the corner cubes are painted on 3 sides. this number will be equal to. so th number is..... of small cubes with ONLY 3 sides painted : 8( all the corner cubes ) no.. this can be done in (x + 1)^2 .. and b = (p^x2)*(q^y2)*(r^z2)*. we need to neglect them.x^2 = (2x + 1) ways Similarly. and we have 6 faces in total. so in effect. remember for Cuboids with all different sizes. max(y1.n = sigma (n) 1+3+6+10+. + 1}/2 Number Systems (Concept 1)
Lets brush up some painted cube funda We assume the cube is divided into n^3 small cubes.Sigma denotes the sum of all the term eg1+2+3+. total number of such ordered pairs = (2x + 1)(2y + 1)(2z + 1).and we have 12 edges.

If there are m number of circles . If there are n number of straight lines .8 (all the corner small cubes of the cuboid) Two faces . Hence.6(L .(L .2)(c . So. They intersect each other in 2*(mc2) ways = m (m-1)= 2p2 ways 3.2) + 4(b .2) + 2(b .2)(c . you get Three faces .of straight lines) 4.2) You can put different integer values for number of small cubes producing different edge lengths of cuboid to get varied results.a x b x c (All lengths different) Three faces . for others.2)^3 Problems on Intersection of Straight lines . of parallelograms possible = nc2 * mc2= mn (m-1) (n-1)/4 5. number of such small cubes corresponding dimension a of the cuboid = 4(a-2).The entire volume of small cubes except for two cubes in each of the rows and columns will not be painted at all. total with two faces painted = 4(a . put a=b=c=L. When n straight lines and m circles intersect each other . To verify for a cube.There are two (a-2) units of small cubes on one face of the cuboid and there is a pair of such faces. There is one case when collinear and non.2) Zero faces . hence this is the simplest . Formation of Points and Formation of Triangles..Since each face of the cuboid is a combination two different dimensions. they intersect in at most 2 * m * n = 2* ( no. total with one face painted = 2(a .8 Two faces . They intersect each other in nc2 ways 2.2) One face . for others. When n parallel lines intersect m straight lines . Quadrilaterals Etc Basic Concept Fundas 1. Then no.. Similarly.12(L .2)(b .2) + 4(c .2)(c .2)^2 Zero faces .2) + 2(a . and asked how many triangles it can formed=> The funda for this .collinear points are given .2)(b . So. (a . of circles ) * ( no.2) One face . hence for the face which is a combination of a and b dimensions.( Triangles that can be formed with all points ) – ( Triangles formed with collinear points )
. Circles. the number of small cubes is 2* (a-2)(b-2) [multipliesd by 2 because there are 2 such faces for the combination] Similarly.

50 3. 24 3. Standard Formula = 2* nc2= n*(n-1) = np2 => 8 * (8-1)= 8*7 => 56 ———————————————————————————————– 3. 53 3.16 3. no of points is asked => ( no. 28 4. The number of points of intersection of 8 different circles is 1. 56 => Standard formula = nc2 => 8c2 = 8*7/ 2= 28 ———————————————————————————————– 4. 56 => Guess easy now . 1. 16 2. ———————————————————————————————– 2. 56 4. Number of different quadrilaterals that can be
formed by joining this is 1. 76 4. no of points into which 4 circles and 4 straight lines intersect is . 56 2. The max . 60 => total points = 8 => Collinear points = 4 . 28 4. 8 2. For quadrilaterals standard approach is followed
1. The max. Non – collinear points = 4 => Standard approach = => 4c0 * 4c4 + 4c1* 4c3 + 4c2 * 4c2 => 1+ 16+36 => 53
No f quads with 0 points : 1 No of quads with 1 point 4 * 4C3 = 16 No of quads with 2 points 4C2 * 4C2 = 36 so in all 53. 4 points out of 8 points are collinear .26 2.72 => Since max. number of points of intersections of 8 straight lines 1. of points possible due to intersection of 4 circles with each other ) +
.And the same funda is applied whenever such variations in condition occurs 6.

of points possible due to intersection of 4 circles with 4 straight lines ) => 4p2+ 4c2+ 2*4*4 => 4*3+2*3+32 => 12+6+32 => 50 ———————————————————————————————– 5. thus answer is
.400 d. How many triangles can be formed using these points as vertices. => Here total points= 12 => These 12 points can formed 12c3 triangles => and 7 collinear points can also form 7c3 triangles => Thus total triangles possible = 12c3-7c3 => 185 ———————————————————————————————– 7. If 5 straight lines are intersected by 4 straight lines . 4 points are collinear . of points possible due to intersection of 4 straight lines ) + ( no. The number of parallelograms possible => Standard formula => 5c2 * 4c2 =>60 ———————————————————————————————– 6. a.205 c.( no. The sides BC. 5 points are also collinear => So triangles formed with these points is omitted .5 interior points respectively on them.4. then number of triangles thus formed is….200 b.410 => Here total number of points will be A+B+C+3+4+5 => 3+3+4+5= 15 Points => Total number of triangles possible = 15c3 => 3 points are collinear . Now problems on Formation of triangles If there are 7 points out of 12 lie on the same straight line .AB of triangle ABC have 3.CA.

If their points of intersection are joined. on other line parallel to it and 3 non collinear pts outside two lines and all are in same plane . 6 => 1.17c3+ 1—( This one is added cause 7 points can give one circle ) => 7 points are collinear .if there are collinear 7 pts and 8 collinear pts. 4. 11. on a circle and 10 non collinear pts outside circle in same plane how many circles can be made? => Total Points = 7+10 = 17 => For a circle formation 3 points are required —. ———————————————————————————————– There are 6 straight lines in a plane. 3. 4 2. 3.3C3 .3.=> 15c3 – 3c3-4c3-5c3 => 205
However. 3 1. so circles are omitted —.7C3 +1 (+1 because 7 points are on the same circle).if there are 7 pts. 2. I am afraid that there is a mistake made in deriving the above solution.4. But 7 points are on the same circle. 4 1. the solution becomes 12C3 . 6 1. Now. of circ can be made
. We should not include the existing vertices (A. no 2 of which are parallel and no 3 of which pass through the same point. B.4C3 . then the number of additional lines thus introduced is (a) 45 (b) 78 (c) 105 (d) none of the foregoing => solution for this => Total points formed from the intersection : (6c2)c2 = 105 Number of existing lines from these points : 6*5c2 = 60 So. And there are 17 points. 4. 5. hence 17C3 circles can be formed. C) since the question was how many triangles can be formed from using the new points as vertices. find no. The total vertices to be considered should be 3+4+5 = 12 instead of 15.5.2.5C3 = 220 – 1 – 4 – 10 which yields 205 as the answer. 2. 2.6 10. 105-60 = 45 9.7c3 => Thus the answer is 17c3 + 1 -7c3 3 points are required for a circle. hence 17C3 .which one is the list containing the number of points at which a circle can intersect a triangle ??? 2.

ri!) The number of ways of choosing n out of r objects is nCr = n!/((n-r)! r!) The number of distributions of n distinct objects in k distinct boxes is kn. b and h is painted on surface and then cut into cubes of 1cm3 sizes. at this value of X. 8 and zero respectively.. how to find maximum. 6(k-2)2. f(x) = X^2 + 4X + 3. now example.. find value of X for which .. 1. f(-2) = 4-8+3 = -1. how many cubes have two faces painted and how many cubes have three faces painted. generalizing for f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c. 12(k-2).
. so at x=-2. the circles made with it are omitted… 7c3 and 8c3 => Thus answer is 18c3-7c3-8c3 A cuboid with dimensions l. if f(x) = -X^2 + 4X + 3 f"(x) = -2x + 4 X= 2.if f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c. of points = 7+8+3= 18 Points => Number of circles that can be made with these points = 18c3 => And since 7 points and 8 points are collinear . the number of ways of doing the two step process is nm. F(x) is maximum.. when a<0 at this value of X . ri of type i is n!/(r1! r2!.. r2 of type 2. . f'(x)= 2aX+b. if 2X+4 = 0 X= -2 here a>0. Ans: No of cubes with no face(side) painted is (l-2)(b-2)(h-2) No of cubes with one face(side) painted is 2(l-2)(b-2) + 2(b-2)(h-2) + 2(l-2)(h-2) No of cubes with two faces(sides) painted is 4(l-2) + 4(b-2) + 4(h-2) No of cubes with three faces(sides) painted is 8 (always constant) No of cubes with four or more faces (sides) painted is zero. (Multiplication Principle) If there are n choices for the first step of a two step process and m choices for the second step.. The number of arrangements of n objects is n! The number of arrangements of r out of n objects is nPr = n!/(n-r)! The number of arrangements of n objects in a circle is (n-1)! The number of arrangements of n objects on a key ring is (n-1)!/2 The number of arrangements of n objects with r1 of type 1. The number of ways of distributing n identical objects in k distinct boxes is (n+k-1)Cn. If problem statement says its cube instead of cubiod with k cm sides. when a>0. Then the answers will be (k-2)3.. USE first derivation test. 2ax+b= 0. f(x) will attain minimum value. x=-b/2a (2ax+c=o)gives maximum or minimum value of f(x) depending upon a>0 or a<0. Now how many cubes have none of the faces painted. how many cubes have one face painted. minimum .=> Total no. f(x) is minimum.. f(2) = -4+8+3 = 7 is the maximum value of f(x).

xy^3 = 64. f(x) = l x-2 l + l x-8 l + l x-11 l here x= 2+8+11/3 = 7 will give the minimum value ( f(7) = 11) f(x) = l x-2 l + l x-5 l + l x-11 l here x= 5 will give the minimum value. minimum value of x+12y = 8+24 = 32. if 3x+5y=15. so the sum of the quantities will be minimum when quantities are equal. there product is maximum when they are equal. take x= 12y/3 putting it in 1. ( f(5) = 9) 3. accordingly. example.b. when sum of any quantities is constant.for more examples and explanation with graphs visit the linkFirst derivative Test second derivative test 2. when they are equal. here 3x+5y=15 => 3x/2 + 3x/2 + 5y/3 + 5y/3 + 5y/3 = 15. when the product of any quantity is constant. => 5(3x/2) = 15. here sum is constant. either at x=a or x= b or x= c or x=avg(a.y>0 ax+by is minimum when ax/m = by/n concept of CRT : before getting to chinese remainder theorem . =>x=2. x+12y = x+ (12y/3)*3 now. we need to adjust x+12y. a. y = 2.y>0 x^m*y^n is maximum when ax/m = by/ n = p/m+n 4. answer is 2^2*(9/5)^3.--------------1 as I said. find maximum value of x^2*y^3. and y = 9/5.x. sum of the all the quantity is minimum. when sum of any quantities is constant. generalizing it. we get maximum value of x^2*y^3. so when 3x/2 = 5y/3. there product is maximum when they are equal.b. we get x= 8 =>12y/3 = 8. find minimum value of x+12y. generalizing it.c) will f(x) minimum. f(x) = l x-a l + l x-b l + l x-c l for such questions. taking 3x/2 = 5y/3 putting it in 1. x*(12y/3)^3= 64 *64 ( coz xy^3 = 64)-----------1 the product is constant.x. let me explain whats the need for it? problem: find the smallest number when divided by 5 leaves 3 and when divided by 7 leaves 4
. how to find minimum value of ax+by where x^m*y^n=P a. how to find maximum value of x^m*y^n where ax+by=P.b.

1001 .87.7*11*13 so find the remainder when 3^1001 divided by 1001 3^1001 / 7 ----> 3^5/7 .remainder .13) + 113 = 143k + 113 so we have combined two conditions so now our job is to compare this with third one 143k + 113 = 7a + 5 143k + 108 = 7a
.91.32 18 is common to both series .3.25.22..25.69. same is the case with chinese remainder theorem find the remainder of 3^1001 divided by 1001 . remainder .74..18.102. so we have the answer..113 so smallest number is 113 whats the next number then ? its of form LCM(11.8.47.113.28.14.58.126.5 3^1001/11 ----> 3/7 .35.3 3^1001/13 ----> 3^5/13 .11. when divided by 11 leaves remainder 3 and when divided by 13 leaves remainder 9? first take any two condition .61.36.4.3. find the smallest number which when divided by 7 gives remainder 5 ..80.23. i always prefer big numbers 11b + 3 = 13c + 9 divisor of 13 + 9 = 9.33 divisor of 7 + 4 .common approach divisor of 5 + 3 ..18.13.9 so we get 7a + 5 = 11b + 3 = 13c+9 now what is word interpretation of the above statement .100.48.139 divisor of 11 + 3 . remainder ..

It is rearranged to form another 5 digit number. => Starts from March. = 9. The difference of these numbers will be divisible by ??
Zeller's Rule : With this technique named after its founder Zeller.140+ 3k + 105 + 3 = 7a so 3k + 3 should give 0 remainder when divided by 7 so k = 6 final remainder is hence 143(6) + 113 = 971 this is all about chinese remainder theorem to sum up . Zeller's Rule Formula: F = K + [(13xM .1)/5] + D + [D/4] + [C/4] . When digits of a number N1 in base N are rearranged to form a number N2.2C K = Date => for 25/3/2009. then N2-N1 is always divisible by N-1. Dec = 10. A five digit number is in base 19. March = 1. you can solve any 'Dates and Calendars' problems. = 12 D = Last two digits of the year => for 2009 = 09 C = The first two digits of century => for 2009 = 20
. M = Month no. April = 2. Find the value of a. A number 2342a121 is in base 8 and it is divisible by 7. May = 3 Nov. then the number is divisible by N+1
Problems
1. we take 25 In Zellers rule months start from march. A palindromic number in base 16 will always be divisible by which number? 3. use this theorem only when denominator is factorisable to prime factors. 2. when the sum of digits in base N is divisible by N-1 2. All you have to know is the formula given below and how to use it. A number is base N is divisible by N-1.
Bases
1. Jan = 11 Feb. If a number in base N has even number of digits and that number is a palindrome. 3. Zellers rule can be used to find the day on any particular date in the calendar in the history.

of letters before T and it is equal to 2 which is coeffcient of 2! Again strike off the first letter E.E. and it is equal to 2.. Then count the no.T Then count the no.T.no letters are pending...so only E.R.S.T Then count the no. Hope this clears your confusion.M..E..S.of letters before E and it is equal to 0 which is coeffcient of 1! Finally add 1 to the above values to get the rank of the word MASTER as follows: 2(5!) + 0(4!) +2(3!)+2(2!)+0(1!)+1=257 The concept of rank goes like this. divide the no.T.(2 x 20) = 25 + 12/5 + 09 + 09/4 + 20/4 .R.S.M.T.so 0 letters.S.R..of letters before M.R. Also in case of E we have A. Write the alphabetical order of the letters of the given word ' MASTER ' as A.E.Please PM me if further clarification is required..E.e 2 letters.but we have already counted A.we have A.E.. S. Say for the number of letters before S.which is the coefficient of 5!. Given word is MASTER The letters of the are M.of letters before S and it is equal to 2 which is coeffcient of 3! Again strike off the first letter T.i. 2009. by 7.e 2 letters remain.. A.S... The remainder will give you the day.M.. 1 = Monday 2 = Tuesday 3 = Wednesday 4 = Thursday 5 = Friday 6 = Saturday 7 = Sunday So it's Wednesday on 25th march.E. I hope you will find the above method very useful
SHORTCUT METHOD TO FIND RANK OF A GIVEN WORD
This shortcut method is used when the lettors of the given word are not repeated. If the number is more than 7. A. Similarly in case of T.but we have already taken care of all of them.E. T Then count the no.S before it.M.Example: 25/03/2009 F = 25 + [{(13 x1).M & R before it.R are left.E..M..S.but we have already counted A & M.S.we have A.R.40 = Replace the number with the day using the information given below.
.M..R.i.R..M.1}/5] + 09 + 09/4 + 20/4 .E... A. Again strike off the first letter A.R.T Now strike off the first letter M. A.so we will go with E & R.T Then count the no.of letters before A and it is equal to 0 which is coefficient of 4! Again strike off the first letter S..2x20 =25+2+09+2+5-40 [ We will just consider the integral value and ignore the value after decimal] = 43 .M. S.A.. M..R. A..

now we can extend it for 4 . Where r=inradius R=circumradius 2.negative Tn >or equal 0 2.P ..5 to be the sides of a right triangle. now this goes on .It is possible only when all the terms of A. why ? last digit is nothing but divide by 10 .. r=1 and R=10/4 2r+2R makes the perimeter 2+5=7... 2(2R+r)=10+2=12 which is the standard formula. Greatest possible sum of the A. 3.For an right angle triangle R>=[root(2)+1]r
let me start from divisibility of 2 if last digit is divisible by 2 .Basic Formulae for Sequences and Series Some more formulae1. other numbers cant be treated this way
.. 10 is perfectly divisible by 2..... lets take last digit --> divide by 10 10 /4 --> not perfectly divisible now move to next digit--> divide by 100 100 is perfectly divisible by 4 ..it is possible only when all the terms of A.So area is 6 and the perimeter is 12.P are non. jus try for various numbers the above logic works for factor of 10^n .. Consider.The value should be P=2(2R+r).4.. then it is divisible by 2 .......P are non.Least possible sum of the A.. Tn = Sn-S(n-1)
1....positive Tn < equal 0 3.The perimeter of a right angle triangle=(2r+2R) And the area =r^2+2rR I think there is a small error with this formula for perimeter.P ..

.3.. so according to this concept we have . Nomenclatures:
. is it divisible ? by this method we can say 378 .77.. divisor can be tricky like 143 235378/143 ..37.143.9. etc . jus work on it . remainder 1 case if remainder is 1 .235 = 143..
u might think wats so special about it ...... 10^6 has 1 as remainder. take 3 10/3 --> not divisible 100/3 --> not divisible 1000/3 --> not divisible and it goes on .123= 7 which is divisible by 7 hardly 2 sec answer . u can easily find divisibility This is a very useful method to determine the last non zero digit of a factorial.11.27. here comes next case ..4..------------------------------------------------------------------lets take an example of other number . so its alternative say number is 123130 to checked divisibility by 7 ..7.5.13. like 7
10/7 --> not divisible but remainder is not 0 or 1 or -1 100/7 --> not divisible but remainder is not 0 or 1 or -1 1000/7 --> not divisible but remainder is -1 so every three digit we will have -1 remainder .... thats all u r done applying this formula .8. 130 ... we can test divisibility of 2. if 10^3 has -1 remainder . add the digits ---------------------------------------------------now here comes one more set of numbers ..

.+8^2 = [n (n+1) (2n+1)]/6 (summation formula) = 204 rectangles :
.. Z(1)=1 Z(2)=2 Z(3)=6 Z(4)=4 Z(5)=2 Z(6)=2 Z(7)=4 Z(8)=2 Z(9)=8
NO..there are 8*8 squares...+n^2 squares..XX)
Z(x)=L(4^y)*z(x/5)*z(x%10) Please don get frightened by the above formula..Ill tell you how it works... there are 5 squares (4 small aquares. OF SQUARES AND RECTANGLES IN A CHESSBOARD in a chessboard.. similarly in an n*n chessboard. 15=10*1+5. when x is odd is odd is 4 when x is even is 6 Hence.Z(x)= The last non zero digit of x! L(x)=The last non zero digit of x but don't you think that for higher values it will become recursive.. n=8 => no... y= the higest multiple of 10 in the target number.hence y=2 and so on So.hence y=1 22=10*2+2.. so in a 8*8 chessboard....of squares = 1^2 +2^2+3^2+..z(79)=4*8*8=6
As i told u it will sound cumbersome.You get down and solve its way easier
Suppose we want to find the non zero digit of 15! then. How r u getting z(3) and z(5) ? by similar approach or there any table? It is good to remember the values for Z(1) to Z(9). Z(15)=L(4^1)*z(15/5)*z(15%10)=4*z(3)*z(5)=4*6*2=8. there are 1^2 +2^2+. like for x=79 u will have to calculate z(79/5) = z(15.. 1 big square).. in a 2*2 chessboard.. z(79)=l(4^7)*z(15)*z(9) z(15)=L(4^1)*z(3)*z(5)=4*6*2=8 last digit of 4^x.

. ans b )this should be solved using the relative speed concept time taken for them to meet for the first time will be relative distance/ relative speed here relative distance is 200 and relative speed is 95=4..204 = 1092
CIRCULAR MOTION
Consider a circle with circumference 200 sq metres and two people A and B moving in clockwise direction with speeds 5m/s and 9m/s a) when do they meet at the starting point for the first time ? b) after how much time will they meet for the first time ? c) at how many distinct points they meet ? d) if they move in opposite direction then in how many distinct points do they meet ? ans a) time taken by A to reach the starting point for the first time is 200/5 = 40 sec.. the lcm of the speeds must be 1 e) find the number of distict points at which 2 bodies with speed 4 and 8 meet when they move in clockwise direcion and when they move in anticlock wise direction ? here we first need to divide the HCF so we get 1:2 now using the formula stated above the number of distict point they meet when moving in same
.. so for an 8*8 chessboard... the lcm of the speeds must be 1 ans d ) when 2 bodies move in circular motion in opposite direction then the number of distict points they meet is the sum of the speeds here it will be 14 ..1 2*2. of rectangles = 1296 **No. there are 9 rectangles (4 1*1s. we get no.. for the second time 80 seconds for the third time 120 seconds and so on .+8^3 => no.in a 2*2 chessboard. there are 1^3 +2^3+3^3+... of rectangles that are not squares in an 8*8 chessboard => 1296.2 2*1s. here it is 9-5 = 4 distinct points. so ans is 200/4= 50 ans c)when 2 bodies are moving in circular motion in same direction the number of distinct points where they meet is the difference of the speeds . similarly time taken by B to reach the starting place is 200/9 for the second time 2 * 200/9 for the third time 3 * 200/9 so they meet for first time at the starting point at the LCM of their time periods which are 40 and 200/9 in this case and hence they will meet at t= 200 for the first time . there are. of rectangles = [{n^2}{(n+1)^2}/4 n=8.+n^3 rectangles... rectangles = 1^3+2^3+.. 2 1*2s) for an n*n chessboard.

(sdfdsf24)^ odd = last 2 digits 24 (dfdsfd24)^even = last 2 digits 76 (dbfh26)^odd = last 2 digits 26 (dfdsaf26)^even = last 2 digits 76 few examples : last 2 digits for (71)^45 = 51 (2)^32 = (2^10)^3 * 2^2 = (1024)^3 *2^2 = asjahsj76 *4 = sdnsj04 (6)^76 = (3*2)^76 = (81)^19 * (1024)^7 * (2)^6 = aks21 * 24 * 64 = ss56
last 2 digits of a number
]
divide the number by 100 then it will give the last 2 digits
.c with speeds 5. if last 2 digits are 76 then (abcdef76)^z where z is a natural number will always give the last 2 digit as 76. if the last digit is 1 say the number is (abcdefg1)^thgfds then the units digit will be 1 and the tens digit will be g*s e. g)consider three bodies a.9.9 respectively moving in clock-wise direction and c with speed 13 in anti-clockwise direction now number of distinct points at which all three meet ? a-b=4 a+c=18 b+c=22 hcf is 2 so they all will meet at 2 distinct points
last 2 digits of a number
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divide the number by 100 then it will give the last 2 digits if division is cumbersome u may use one of the following methods: points to remember : if last 2 digits are 25 then (abcdef25)^z where z is a natural number will always give the last 2 digit as 25.13 respectively moving in clock-wise direction now number of distinct points at which all three meet ? a-b = 4 b-c = 4 a-c = 8 so number of distinct points will be the hcf of the differences which is 4 ans.b.direction will be 2-1 = the number of distict point they meet when moving in opposite direction is 2+1 = 3 f)consider three bodies a.b with speeds 5.g (1231)^4563 last 2 digits will be 91.

now if u want to calculate for 36!. if last 2 digits are 76 then (abcdef76)^z where z is a natural number will always give the last 2 digit as 76. then find for 40! and then back tract to 36!.. But finding 30! and moving to 36! might be tricky.
HOW to find the last non zero digit in x! I appreciate Siddharth's approach. then 36!*7*8*9*4 = 2 (i am writing all the last digit) 36!*6 = 2 so last non-zero digit of 36! = 2 Last non-zero digit of 10! = 8
.g (1231)^4563 last 2 digits will be 91. correct me if i any mistakes thanks for your method...... for eg..i have marked in bold.originally i used this method : finding the last non-zero digit of N! The last non-zero digit of a number N is (4^n)*(2n)! ..since it involves a 35 and will introduce an unnecessary 0.20.but you made a small mistake. (for N = 10. if the last digit is 1 say the number is (abcdefg1)^thgfds then the units digit will be 1 and the tens digit will be g*s e..30.if division is cumbersome u may use one of the following methods: points to remember : if last 2 digits are 25 then (abcdef25)^z where z is a natural number will always give the last 2 digit as 25.. Following is another approach: nice method.. the result can be easily back tracked. (sdfdsf24)^ odd = last 2 digits 24 (dfdsfd24)^even = last 2 digits 76 (dbfh26)^odd = last 2 digits 26 (dfdsaf26)^even = last 2 digits 76 few examples : last 2 digits for (71)^45 = 51 (2)^32 = (2^10)^3 * 2^2 = (1024)^3 *2^2 = asjahsj76 *4 = sdnsj04 (6)^76 = (3*2)^76 = (81)^19 * (1024)^7 * (2)^6 = aks21 * 24 * 64 = ss56
p.s.. here N =40! and n=40/10 = 4 so the last digit is 4^n*(2n)! = 4^4*8! = 6*2 = 2 2 is the last non-zero digit of 40!....) where n=N/10 For nos other than multiples of 10.. if u are asked for 36!..

All of you might remember the method of balancing a beam in school days.. Just write down the numbers between 11 and 20 and you will see the gap. last digit of 70! is 2. so when you consider
. For example.. So now a load of 7x will act on point A and 2x will act on point C and a net load of 9x will act on point F.. but is It has never let me down. but I can't prove it. Last digit of 70! will be given by 8^7 For last digit of 8^7 = 2^21 =( 2^10)^2 * 2 = 76*2 =2 Therefore. Consider line AC such that F is the fulcrum and AF=2 units and FC=7units. Following is what i found out: a^b^c = a^(b^c) Above is not equal to a^(b*c) In fact.. Now there is a point E on the line BC. And you have loads at point B & F. I found this method. then just multiply the above 2 with 71*72*73 or simply 2 with 1*2*3 Therefore. which i found. Note that between 1 and 10 we have 4 and 8. (a^b)^c=a^(b*c) One correction. which are pure multiples (I am sorry to coin this word) of 2. If you are asked for 73!. The power of 2 remains the same. So here's what you can do. such that it divides BC into the ratio. 3:5 and there is another point F on the line AC such that it divides AC into the ratio 2:7 Now the question is in what ratio does the line AE divides the line BF??? Ok since I have always been weak in geometry. So the method is this.. ie 7:2. say. Let us consider a triangle ABC of any dimension.. to be pretty useful.For 20! = 8*8 = 4 [6 is dropped] This can continue for any number of 10s. we need to put loads in the inverse ratio. If Last non-zero digit of 10! = 8 then the last non-zero digit of 20! = 8x8x2 (this 2 comes from 20)=8 Last non zero digit of 70!= last non zero digit of (8^7) x2x3x4x5x6x7 That is incorrect. Similarly create a beam balance for BC also. Now to balance this beam. last non zero digit for 73! become 2*6 = 2 [ignoring 10s digit] always got confused with power of powers.

1) Any odd prime numbers can be represented in ONLY 1 way. hence Integer numbers IS NOT POSSIBLE. And for odd prime numbers.the fulcrum at O. The reasoning behind is for prime number 2 when mutplied with 2 we can always break up into factors of Even numbers. a = 3 and b = 0 and thats why we 9-0 =9 so we see that only two ways we can represent the number 9 as DIFFERENCE OF SQUARES OF INTEGERS numbers. if you want to find integers a and b. in that case 9 = 9*1 = 3*3 (In this case both Odd) if a+b = 9 and a-b = 1 therefore a = 5 and b = 4. so also we can break up into 1 ways into both even factors. So many ways a and b are chosen? If N = a^2 . OK this was not the best of explanations.b^2 = (a+b) (a-b). thats why we have 25-16 = 9 and also if a+b = 3 and a-b = 3. but if you can just check out the attached image. For example : Number 8 = 2*4 = always 1 way. For odd Numbers. hence 0 ways. Hence 4*2 we can always break up.
. you can calculate the length and that will give you the ratio.
3) Any other even numbers more than 1 way. For example Number 6 = 2*3 = 1*6 (So we don't get any combination for either Both Even or Both Odd). Attached thumbnails. I believe it will be pretty clear. For example : 3 = 3*1 ONLY so only 1 way 2) Other than this any composite Odd numbers can be represented in More than 1 way
For Even Numbers: 1) Any number of the form 4K+2 CANNOT be represented at all.b^2 and a and b are integers. then (a+b) and (a-b) should be both either odd or even
For example if we take N = 9 . where AE divides BF. we already have 2 twos in 4.(later pg 5 post 50) Difference of Squares : The concept is if there is any N = a^2 . 2) Any Prime factor Multiple of 4 is ALWAYS 1 way. Source : Byju's class Notes last year Its great to keep all the concepts at a single place.
If we extend this concept.

5.5. two digit etc.. (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9)(1 + 11*4 + 111*4*3 + 1111*4*3*2) = 701025 jus form the general formula for other number The general formula is (n-1)! * (111.3. Time taken by person B is say t2 and speed being s2. (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9)*4!*11111 = 6666600 find the sum of all the numbers less than 10000 formed by digits 1...n times)) Good one even I learnt this concept For the first question(explanation) How many numbers will be there having 1 at the first place ..
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The Second case is when you take one digit. P----------------------S----------------------Q -----------------------------------------------Time taken by person A is say t1 and speed being s1. This type of questions appear frequently in Mocks and other exams. So for the 1st Case where the number of digits are always same thats is always a 5 digit number.four digit nos. 5*24*10000 and so on => Contribution of first place to the sum = (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9)*4!*10000 Similarly for 2nd place it will be (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9)*4!*1000 Similarly for other places => Final sum comes out to be (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9)*4!*11111 In the similar manner you can try next one There are some questions where a person A and person B starts at different time and meets at a specific time and then reaches the destination at same time from where the other has started.7. then 4! * (11111) * 25 = 600 * 11111 = 6666600. For one digit.triple.9 ? No repetition ---it means all single digit. Lets say person A and B starts from points P and Q at different times and meets at point S and reaches the points Q and P at the same time.find the sum of all the numbers greater than 10000 formed by digits 1.9 ? No repetition.7. (n-1)! * (n-1)C(n-1) * (1111.3.n times) (Sum of the terms).double.4! there contribution to sum = 1*24*10000 Similarly for other numbers it will be 3*24*10000. Sigma (Numbers ) = 25 = (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) For two digit = 1! * 11 * (Sum of the numbers taking two at a time) = 1! * 11 * 4C1 * (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) For three Digits : = 2! * 11 * 4C2 * (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) For four Digits : = 3! * 11 * 4C3 * (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) Adding all (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) * (1 + 4C1 * 11 + 2! * 4C2* 111 + 3! * 4C3*1111 + 4! * 4C4 * 11111) Hence General terms can be Sigma (Terms) * (1 + 1! * (n-1)C(1) (11) + 2! * (n-1)C2 * 111 + ..

B. Find the number of ways of selecting 4 books from a set of 12 books such that no 2 books are adjacent to one another. Ans is 9c4 (12-3) I normally use A + B + C + D+E = 12 where + are books and A.25. of books. C. E can take 12-4 (4 Books) = 8 B. D >=1 and A and E can be 0. D and E are the separators.. The Formula is a mixed fraction n[n/(2n+1)] hence N can take values from 1. How we can find different pythagorus triplets. then
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The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them isnC2. hence the first mixed fraction becomes 1[1/3] = 4/3 One side of the pythagorus theorem is denominator which is 3 and other side is numerator which is 4. then
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The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them isnC2 – mC2 + 1.2. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is nC3 – mC3. ie x-x-x-x (where x is book and ..is space between books) There are 3 hpyens. C . The usual method involves finding the total number of combinations and eliminating the invalid ones. the hypotenuse is 4+1 = 5 Hence the triplet is 3.hence PS = t1*s1.. the other side is 24 and hypotenuse is 24+1 = 25 hence 7.. C.5.
(b) In a plane if there are n points out of which m points are collinear. Lets take n = 3 2n+1 = 7 Mixed fraction becomes = 24/7 the first side becomes 7.
. Hence Subtract 8 -3 which is 5 hence 9C4. As they reach the destination at the same time.. use options to keep either the time ratio same or speed ratio same.4. B . To pick 4 books we'd require at least 7 books. D. hence (t1 * s1)/(t2) = (t2*s2)/(t1) hence s1/s2 = root(t2/t1) This is the principle and depending upon the questions. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is nCk.24. SQ = t2 * s2. Here's a little short cut. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is nC3. all the other remaining pythagorus triplet is multiples of the triplets given by the above formula n + [n/2n+1] if not mixed fraction a) In a plane if there are n points of which no three are collinear.. subtract this from the total no. Hence Sum of A.

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The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is nCk – mCk.. b .
Cauchy-Schwartz Equation: If a ... they always satisfy the relationship (a^2+b^2)(c^2+d^2)>=(ac+bd)^2 This can be generalized to a large number of variables as (a1^2+a2^2+a3^2+.1 8K+N where N=0.we no that in a rt angld isosceles triangle the hypotenuse is tr2 times the equal sides. 2>All perfect squares of the form 3K+N where N=0...
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Exactly one side common with that of the polygon are n × (n – 4).
(c) The number of diagonals of a n sided polygon are nC2 – n = n × (n – 3)/2. then that number formed is exactly divisible by p eg..1.. fr 3....1 4K+N where N=0.. the other two nos are two consecutive no..)(b1^2+b2^2+b3^2+.......4+5=9=3^2 fr 5.. in geometry.1..)>=(a1b1 +a2b2+a3b3+.4.. in an isosceles triangle with enclosed angle=120 degree the larger side is rt3 times the equal sides.i hope so.. (p-1)times same digit is repeated .fr 9.. min value= 14^2/14=14 every odd no is a part of pythagorian triplet. 666666 is divisible by 7.. (d) The number of triangles that can be formed by joining the vertices of a n-sided polygon which has. c .4 9K+N where N=0. No side common with that of the polygon are n × (n – 4) × (n – 5)/6.....)^2 Questions: 1>Find the least value of X^2+Y^2+z^2 if X+2y+3Z=14 Sol:-->(X^2+Y^2+z^2)(1^2+2^2+3^2)>=(X*1+Y*2+z*3)^2 hence .. then their radii are in GP series
.7 3>For any two integers satisfying. d are four real numbers.......s addin up to the odd nos squre. Few Concepts: 1> For any prime number p. 3<a<b ---->a^b > b^A 4>If three circles touch Each other in a row and they have two direct common tangents..12+13=25=5^2 ... Exactly two sides common with that of the polygon are n..40+41=81=9^2 fr 25=312+313=625.

To Find out Pythagorean triplets There is a formula (N2-1)/2. the pythagorean triplets are (3)2-1/2 = 4 and (3)2+1/2 = 5. 9>If a n digit number is multiplied by an (n+1) digit number . 12>The number of times the sign of the coefficients of an equation changes. hence 17C3 circles can be formed. then AC^2 + BD^2 = AD^2 + BC^2 + 2 * AB * CD. So. For any other number .e. then the cone will have maximum volume when rotated about the smallest side as an axis and minimum when rotated about the side perpendicular to the smallest side as an axis. Adding some more fundas: 1) Every isosceles Trapezium is a cyclic quadrilateral. 3 points are required for a circle. the triplets are (15)2-1/2 = 112 and (15)2+1/2 = 113. 2) if in Trapezium. 10> Difference between Principal Interest and Compound Interest for the second year=Pr^2 And Difference between PI and CI for the third year=Pr^2(r+2)where r=(R/100) and P is the amount and R is the rate of interest. meet at a point after time T then reach their respective destinations after time T1 and T2. AB and CD are Parallel sides. i. then the least value of x^2+ax+b is 1)9/4 2)-9/4 3)-1/4 4)1/4
a + b = -a => a = -b/2 ab = b => a = 1
. 7>Suppose we get a question like(I) A and B start at same time towards each other. or (II)their start at different time .
please solve one question from quadratic equations: if a and b(not equal to 0) are the roots of the eqation x^2+ax+b=0.( N2+1/2) of any number N. Any number that doesn’t have an odd factor can’t be expressed as a sum of two or more consecutive numbers. 13>The number of ways of writing any number as a sum of two or more consecutive positive numbers = number of odd factors of that number-1. For Example if the number is 3. But 7 points are on the same circle. and then reaches their destination after time T at the same time . eg. 50 has two odd factors. Then VA/VB =Root(T2/T1) And T = Root(T1*T2) where T is the same they take either to reach their meeting point in first or Destination in second case 8>If a Right Angled Triangle is rotated about its Axis to generate a cone. !5. All even numbers which are multiple of 4 can be also written as the difference of two perfect squares.meet each other at a time where A takes T1 to reach and B takes T2 to reach.5>Product of factors of a number = (Number )^(total no of factors/2) 6>All odd natural numbers can be represented as the difference of two perfect squares. it can be written in only one way as a sum of two or more consecutive positive numbers which is 11+12+13+14. the product has 2n or (2n+1) digits. And there are 17 points. gives the number of roots of a quadratic or higher degree equation. 11>If A and B takes K days when working together and X+K and Y+K days when working alone respectively to complete a work then (X/K)=(K/Y) or XY=K^2.

all factors of form (3n + 2) can be expressed as (2^(2k + 1))*(7^n) k can take 3 values (0. Just find the number of factors of N/3 and that will be the answer. the eq becomes x^2 + x .2 = (x + 1/2)^2 -9/4 => Least value will be -9/4 the min. for example.in this case check if 171 is divisible by 13...2. we can go for (4n + 1) or (4n + 3) Or some other form see all prime numbers (except 2 and 3) can be expressed in the form on 6k+1 or 6k1.7. hence if a area under the curve is asked.. has maxima = -D/4a at x = -b/2a [D = b^2-4ac] 2) All polynomials of degree 1 would be a straight line.3.e. say the number is 171 and you want check whether the number is prime or not.in this case it would be 13(13^2=169)..if it divisible then the number is not prime else the number will be prime...though the reverse is not true. 3) if the Polynomial is given as ax^n + bx^(n-1) +. i m explaining it with the help of an example. So all the factors of form (3k + 1) are expressed as (2^2k)*(7^n) k van take 4 values(0.i. would exist at x= -b/2*a. 1.5=6*1-1 another way of checking whether a number is prime or not is this. 1.. (3n + 1)(3n + 1) = (3k + 1) (3n + 1)(3n + 2) = (3k + 2) (3n + 2)(3n + 2) = (3k + 1) Lets consider the example of N = 3136 = (2^6)*(7^2) i) (3n + 1) We know that 2 is of form (3k + 2).. 7 is also of form (3k + 1)....5. 2) and b can take 2 values => Number of such factors = 3*3 = 9 Similarly. 2. if a number can be expressed in the form of 6k+1 or 6k-1 it is not necessarily a prime number. but 4 is of form (3k + 1). and the value is = -D/4*a b is coeff of x a is coeff of x^2 hence min val = -9/4 How to find the number of factor of form (3n + 0/1/2) of number N. For factors of form (3n + 1) or (3n + 2) We know that.2 x^2 + x . 3) and n can take 3 values (0. so find the nearest square root of the number. This helps in elimininating some options..11.so divide 171 with all prime number less than or equal to 13. Equations: 1) Quadratic Equation ax^2+bx+c = 0.13=6*2+1..+ z = 0 then sum of the roots (taken one at a time) = -b/a
... solve for x = 0 and y =0 and we can get the two points and draw straight lines. 2) => Number of such factors = 4*3 = 12 ii) (3n + 2) We know 2 is of form (3n + 2) So. 1.. Its easier for the factors of kind 3n.=> b = -2 So.

8. 99. then the graph opens downwards.sum of roots taken two at a time = +c/a similarly it continues with alternate -/+ signs.1)^2 Well guys here is a small funda for calculating squares of number ending with 5. 31. 4) For Quadratic equations.
. 3n^2 . but calculation of ( ab*(ab+1) ) may become complicated with larger digit numbers. How many maximum regions can 4 spheres divide the space into? f(n) = n^2 . So here it goes To find the square of number ending with 5 like 25. but this is targeted to those who are unaware of this method.n + 2 the three dimensional plane is divided into distinct regions (can be unbounded) by drawing spheres. (85)^2 = (8*9)=72. Well many may be aware of this. Some examples (45)^2 = (4*5)=20. 16. 2) Area of cyclic quadrilateral = sqrt[(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)(s-d)] 3) If one pair of opposite sides are equal in a cyclic quadrilateral then the diagonals are equal. 163. 57. if a>0. 75 135 etc.3n + 1 We are drawing 8 circles on an infinite plane. There are n non-overlapping identical triangles. where a and b can be any number. 4n^2 . 35. 20 concatenated with 25 gives 2025. 72 concatenated with 25 gives 7225 (195)^2 = (19*20)= 380 concatenated with 25 gives 38025 Same applies to any number ending with 5. Parallelogram rhombus and trapezium(not iso trapezium) can't be. How many maximum distinct regions can be obtained by drawing the 8 circles in this way? f(n) = n^2 .4n + 1 = (2n . Consider number a number ab5. 4. 256 Plane Division by Lines N(n)=1/2(n^2+n+2) There are n non overlapping identical rectangles. Then (ab5)^2 is concatenation of(ab *(ab+1)) and 25 . then the graph would be a parabola with opens upward and if a<0. then at max how many bounded regions these intersecting rectangles can form.n + 2 Circle Division by Chords ( for n=1 to n) 1. then at max how many bounded regions these intersecting triangle can form. Square and Iso Trapezium can be circumscribed in a circle. Therefore suitable for up to 3 digits number Some quick and basic concepts 1)Rectangle. 2.

4) Angle bisectors of cyclic quadrilateral meet and form cyclic quadrilateral.. again divide by 100.. then you can write it as 12^600 * 12.central angle subtended by a side = exterior angle = 360/N 6) In a regular hexagon of side A units. and sides of 120-30-30 triangle are in the ratio 1:1:root(3) In a solid figure no. let us find power of 12 which is nearer to 100. 5) In regular polygon of N sides. of faces + vertices = no. Now you would have to find rem(12/100) * rem(12^600/100) In the end if numerator is greater than 100... this is a bit time consuming but with practice you will get it. So the expr become 144^300/100 --> divide 144/100 rem = 44 step3. triangle of side A and an isosceles triangle 120-30-30(A being the side opp to 30 degrees) have the same area root(3)/4 * A^2 . You always have to continue dividing by 100 until the numerator doesnt become less than denominator..e. of edges+2 i.. of cubes having 3 faces painted = 8 2 faces painted = 12(n-2) 1 face painted = 6(n-2)^2 0 faces painted = (n-2)^3
find the remainder when 12^600/100 or say 34^320/107 and the like..we get 12^2. F+V=E+2 9) If a larger cube painted by a color is broken into n smaller cubes.. step2.. i've tried searching through the threads and have come across things like Chinese remainder theorem and Euler's method and stuff...but haven't been able to find a post that explains these concepts properly and how to apply them to solve the problems.... then no. Like this go on and ultimately you will end with a term less than 100 in numerator. That will be the remainder. if numerator was 12^601. the longest diagonal = 2A 7) Eq.
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For these kind of problems you can do the following: step1. similarly. The expr now become 44^300/100 --> repeat step1. 12^600/100 --> now since 12 is less than 100.