Introduction to RADAR SYSTEMS

MERRILL I. SKOLNIK
Research Division Electronic Communications, Inc. Institute for Defense Analyses International Student Edition McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. New York San Francisco Toronto London

KOGAKUSHA COMPANY, LTD. Tokyo

CONTENTS
Preface
CHAPTER

1. THE NATURE OF RADAR Introduction The Radar Equation Radar Block Diagram and Operation Radar Frequencies History of Radar Development Applications of Radar References

1 1 3 5 7 8 14 19 20 20 21 23 25 29 35 40 50 56 57 58 61

1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6.

.CHAPTER 2. THE RADAR EQUATION 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. Prediction of Range Performance Minimum Detectable Signal Receiver Noise Probability-density Functions Signal-to-noise Ratio Integration of Radar Pulses Radar Cross Section of Targets Cross-section Fluctuations Transmitter Power Pulse Repetition Frequency and Range Ambiguities Antenna Parameters System Losses

ANTENNAS .4. 4. 4. 5.3. 4.14. 4. 6. 4. TRACKING RADAR Tracking with Radar Sequential Lobing Conical Scan Simultaneous Lobing or Monopulse Target-reflection Characteristics and Angular Accuracy Tracking in Range Tracking in Doppler Acquisition Examples of Tracking Radars Comparison of Trackers References RADAR TRANSMITTERS 5. 4.1. 6.8. 6. The Doppler Effect CW Radar Frequency-modulated CW Radar Airborne Doppler Navigation Multiple-frequency CW Radar References MTI AND PULSE-DOPPLER RADAR CHAPTER 4.2. 2. 3.9.10.8.1.5.6.7. 6.5. 4.3.5. 4. 3.6. 3.1. 4. CHAPTER 6. 5. 5.4. 5. 5.3. 5. 5. 3.8. 4.3. 6. 6. 6. 6.1.7. CHAPTER Moving-target-indication (MTI) Radar Delay Lines and Cancelers Subclutter Visibility MTI Using Range Gates and Filters Pulse-doppler Radar Noncoherent MTI MTI from a Moving Platform—AMTI Fluctuations Caused by Platform Motion Effect of Sidelobes on Pulse-doppler AMTI Radar References 5.2.4. 3.6.4.5.2.2. 5.9.10. Propagation Effects Summary References CW AND FREQUENCY-MODULATED RADAR 66 67 70 72 72 73 86 103 106 111 113 113 119 140 151 153 154 155 157 159 162 164 164 165 166 175 184 189 190 190 192 195 196 198 198 199 216 225 227 233 244 248 255 260 CHAPTER 3.2. 5.7. Introduction Magnetron Oscillator Klystron Amplifier Traveling-wave-tube Amplifier Amplitron and Stabilitron Grid-controlled Tubes Comparison of Tubes Modulators References CHAPTER 7.13.

8.1.5. 8.1.3. 9.5.6.4. 7.10. RECEIVERS The Radar Receiver Superheterodyne Receiver Receiver Noise Noise Figure Effective Noise Temperature Environmental Noise RF Amplifiers Crystal Mixers IF Amplifiers Displays Duplexers References 9. CHAPTER 9.7.4. 7.9.13. 10. Antenna Parameters Antenna Radiation Pattern and Aperture Distribution Parabolic-reflector Antennas Scanning-feed Reflector Antennas Cassegrain Antenna Lens Antennas Array Antennas Pattern Synthesis Cosecant-squared Antenna Pattern Effect of Broadband Signals on Antenna Patterns Effect of Errors on Radiation Patterns Radomes Focused Antennas References 8. EXTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM RADAR 453 453 453 455 461 462 SIGNALS 10. 9.2. 7.4.2.10.11. 8.9. 7. 8.1. 9. 7. 8. 8.1.3. 9. Introduction Phase and Amplitude Measurements Review of Radar Measurements Statistical Estimation of Parameters—Likelihood Function Theoretical Accuracy of Range and Doppler-velocity Measurements .5.6. 8. 7.6.5.7.8. 7. 9.2.7.2. 8. 7. 10.9. DETECTION OF RADAR SIGNALS IN NOISE Introduction Matched-filter Receiver Correlation Detection Detection Criteria Inverse Probability Detector Characteristics Performance of the Radar Operator Delay-line Integrators Binary Integration References 260 264 269 277 282 286 294 320 329 330 336 343 347 349 356 356 357 361 363 365 366 373 385 388 391 395 403 408 408 409 418 422 427 430 439 445 446 449 CHAPTER 8. CHAPTER 10.8. 10. 9. 7.7.3. 7. 7. 10. 7.8. 8.11.3.4. 8.12. 9. 9.

11. 13.2.3.6. 12. 12.10.3. Introduction Ground Clutter Sea Clutter Clutter Reduction Meteorological Echoes Attenuation by Precipitation Visibility of Targets in Weather Clutter Angels Interference ECMandECCM References ENGINEERING AND DESIGN CHAPTER 13. 12. 12. 12.5.7. RADAR 603 603 604 610 618 619 621 14. 11.8. SYSTEMS 13. 14.4. 12.3.6. PROPAGATION OF RADAR WAVES 474 476 482 493 498 501 501 501 506 506 509 512 516 517 518 519 521 521 522 527 534 539 543 545 551 554 559 567 570 570 571 572 579 582 585 594 601 CHAPTER 11. 11.7. 12. 10.9.8.9. 12. CLUTTER. 13.9.4.2. 14.5.4.5.10.1. 12. 14. Introduction Radar Echoes from the Moon Radar Echoes from the Planets Radar Detection of the Sun Radar Detection of Meteors Radar Observation of Auroras . 10. AND INTERFERENCE CHAPTER 12. 10.5. Introduction Propagation over a Plane Earth The Round Earth Refraction Anomalous Propagation Low-altitude Coverage Radar Diffraction Screen Attenuation by Atmospheric Gases Microwave-radiation Hazards References WEATHER. 13. 11. 13.3. 12.2. 13. Systems Engineering Radar Parameter Selection Example—Aircraft-surveillance Radar ASDE Airborne Weather-avoidance Radar Bistatic Radar Radar Beacons References DETECTION OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL OBJECTS CHAPTER 14.1.2. 11. 11.7.6. 13.1.4.6. 14.1.6.7.8. Uncertainty Relation Angular Accuracy Transmitted Waveform Pulse Compression References 11. 11. 14. 11.

14. Radar Observation of Ionized Media and Tracking of Earth Satellites and Space Vehicles References Index Povratak na popis literature 624 628 634 637 .7.8. 14.

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