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RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NAGPUR Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Branch:-6thSemester[Electronics And Telecommunication] Subject: - Communication Electronics List of Experiment
Sr. No. Name of Experiment Experiments on Analog Communication:Generation of Amplitude Modulation using transistor BC 548 and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB. Calculation of modulation index for different values of modulating amplitude. 2. Generation of Amplitude Demodulation using Envelop Detector and write MATLAB code for demodulation. 3. Generation of Frequency Modulation using IC 8038 function generator and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB. 4. To perform Frequency Demodulation using IC 565 PLL and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB. 5. Generation of Pre-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot pre-emphasis curve. 6. Generation of De-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot pre-emphasis curve. 7. Generation of DSB-SC using IC 1496 on breadboard and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB. 8. To study FM radio receivers. 9. Generation of FSK using XR 2206IC. And observation of mark and space frequencies. And perform the simulation in MATLAB. Experiments on Digital Communication:10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Generation of PWM signal using IC 555 on breadboard. And Verify Simulation in Micro-cap. Generation of PPM signal using IC 555 on breadboard. And Verify Simulation in Micro-cap. To perform Time Division Multiplexing on breadboard system . To perform Pulse Width Demodulation on breadboard and Verify Simulation in Microcap. Generation of Pulse Position Demodulation on breadboard. And Verify Simulation in Micro-cap. Generation of Pulse Amplitude De-Modulation on breadboard. And Verify Simulation in Micro-cap. To perform Phase Shift Keying and verify the results on CRO. To perform Phase Shift Keying demodulation and verify the results on CRO. To perform Quadrature Phase Shift Keying and verify the results on CRO. 1.
19. 20. 21.
Generation of PAM signal using switching CMOS IC 4016 on breadboard and observation of single polarity and dual polarity waveforms on Digital Storage Oscilloscope. Simulation of Pulse Code Modulation In MATLAB. Observation of Frequency spectrum of Amplitude Modulation on Spectrum Analyzer
Experiment No.: - 01 Aim:- Generation of Amplitude Modulation using transistor BC 548 and compare the
results with simulation results in MATLAB.Calculation of modulation index for different values of modulating amplitude.
Equipments required:CRO, CRO probes, Function Generator (2 nos.), Power supply, Breadboard, connecting wires.
Components:- Transistor: - BC548/549 (1 nos.),Resistor: - 330Ω (2 nos.),
Inductor: - 1mH (1 nos.)
Theory:In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier voltage varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating voltage. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression, Vm = Vm cos wmt Where wm is angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression, Vc = Vc coswct On Amplitude Modulation, The instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by, V = V(t) cos wct V(t)=Vc + ka Vm cos wmt V=Vc[1+ ma cos wm t] cos wct Where ma is modulation index and the modulation index is defined as the ratio of maximum amplitude of modulating signal to maximum amplitude of carrier signal. ma= K Vm / Vc % modulation is defined as, %ma=Vm/Vc
Circuit Diagram: -
Simulation Result In MATLAB: -
Procedure: 1. Assemble components and make connections on the breadboard. 2. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1 MHz respectively. 3. Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. 4. Observe the resulting amplitude modulated signal on CRO. 5. Calculate Vmax and Vmin from the obtained AM wave and hence calculate modulation index. 6. Vary amplitude of modulating signal to get overmodulation, 100% modulation and undermodulation condition. 7. Draw the waveform for overmodulated, 100% modulated, and undermodulated AM wave on graph paper. 8. Write a MATLAB program to generate AM wave. 9. Take the printouts of simulation results. 10. Note the similarity /Differences in the observations and comment on the results.
Observation Table: Table (1): Sr.No. Voltage signal Modulating signal Carrier signal Table (2): Sr. No. Vmax Vmin Modulation index % of modulation index Frequency Amplitude (Vs )
Result: When Vm = ……… When Vm = ……… When Vm = ……… ma =………. ma =………. ma =……….
What are the disadvantages of over modulation? 4. What are the advantages of FM over AM? 3. What are the advantages of AM over FM? 2. Viva Questions: 1.Conclusion: Thus the amplitude-modulated signal is generated and modulation index for different values of modulating amplitudes is calculated. The program to generate AM wave is written in MATLAB and the two results were compared. What is the bandwidth of Am signal? .
1 µF (1 no. . The departure of this output voltage from the envelope may be reduced by proper choice of R and C depending upon the modulation frequency and depth of modulation. Envelope detector utilizes the rectification characteristics of a diode. Apply the amplitude modulated signal to the input side. During the negative half cycle the diode does not conduct and hence discharges the capacitor through R.Experiment No: . Draw the Amplitude modulated signal and demodulated on graph paper.2 Aim: . Observe the output on CRO.).Diode OA79 (1 no. Write the MATLAB code for AM demodulation. The envelope detector operates over linear region of the dynamic current voltage characteristic of the diode.). Components: . Thus the output voltage is spiky in nature but it almost traces the envelope of the modulated carrier voltage and hence it is nothing but original modulating voltage. Equipment Required: -CRO. During the positive half cycle the diode conducts thereby charging the capacitor C to the peak value of the carrier voltage. capacitor 0. Probes. Connecting wires.Generation of AM demodulator using envelope detector and to write MATLAB code for amplitude demodulation. Resistor 10 K (1 no.) Theory: Envelope detector is also called as linear diode detector. Circuit Diagram: - Fig: Circuit diagram of Envelop Detector Procedure: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Assemble the components on the breadboard as shown in the circuit diagram. The modulated carrier voltage is applied to the series combination of diode and the load impendence consisting of resistor R in shunt with capacitor C.
Simulation Result: 4 2 e d u t i l p m A 0 -2 -4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time Demodulated signal 700 800 900 Amplitude modulated signal 4 2 e d u t i l p m A 0 -2 -4 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time 600 700 800 900 Observations: AM signal: Carrier frequency= Vmax= Vmin= Demodulated Signal: Frequency= Amplitude= Result: The demodulated signal at the output of envelope detector was found to be equal to the modulating signal. Viva Questions: (1) Why envelope detector is also called as linear diode detector? (2) How by proper choice of R and C the performance of the envelope detector can be improved? .
Equipments Required:. ϕ=wct+kfVm1/wmsinwmt+θ1. Write a MATLAB program to generate FM signal.1µf(NO. V=Vcsin[wct+kfVm/wm sinwmt] The modulation index is defined as the ratio of frequency deviation to frequency of modulating signal mf=d/fm where deviation f(fmax=fmin)/2. 7.5. 9. connecting wires. Resistors:-100K(2). 2) Theory:Frequency modulation consists in varying the frequency of the carrier voltage in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating voltage. 2. 3. CRO probes. 10. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression: Vm=Vm coswmt. Where wmis angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude. Adjust the amplitude & frequency of modulating signal to get the frequency modulated output. Procedure:Study the circuit diagram provided in the manual. Draw the waveform on graph paper.Thus the amplitude of the carrier does not change due to frequency modulation. 1. . B) Program to generate FM in MATLAB. Hence the frequency modulated carrier voltage is given by. Study the pin configuration of IC-XR8038. Apply the sine wave modulating signal to the circuit. Change the amplitude of modulating signal & repeat step 5 & 6.3 Aim: -A) Generation of Frequency modulation using XR 8038.Capacitors :-0. 8.Experiment No. From the carrier sidebands chart find the highest order sideband corresponding to obtained modulation index. function generator. Components:-IC:-XR 3038. 6.CRO . 4. power supply. the instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by.6KΩ. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression. Vc=Vcsinφ Where φ=wct+θ. 5. Vc=Vcsin ( wct+θ) On frequency modulation.Breadboard . Take the print out of the simulation result. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequency 1KHZ.
1 2 Signal Modulating Signal Carrier Signal Amplitude Frequency .1 f C2 0.M. Bias 6 7 10 9 8 14 13 12 NC NC Sine Adjust GND Timing Capacitor Square out Sweep Out Observation:Table1:Sr no.Circuit Diagram:-12v R0 5.6K 7 8 C1 0.1 f 4 5 XR8038 6 2 12 R4 100K 10 11 FM O/P V1 -12v IC 8038 Sine Adjust Sine out Triangle out Duty Cycle/Freque ncy Adjust 1 2 3 4 11 5 Vcc F.6K R3 100K R1 5.
= Conclusion:Thus by changing the amplitude of modulating signal the amount of deviation will change. but it remains constant for any change in modulating signal frequency.then B. Viva Questions:1)What is frequency deviation in FM? 2)What are the advantages of FM over AM? 3)What is Carson’s rule for BW calculation of FM signal? .when Vm=….Result:.W. Any slight change in deviation for change in modulating frequency was due to the change in amplitude of generator output.
Equipment required:IC 565.-To perform Frequency Demodulation using IC 565 PLL and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB.01µf.Experiment No. Function generation . iii) Phase difference discriminator iv) Ratio detector v) Foster seeley discriminator vi) PLL. The FM demodulator may be of the following types: i) The slope demodulator.).CRO.C4=0. This detection should be done efficiently and linearly.001µf. PLL -Phase-locked loop principal has been used in application such as FM modulation . Theory:The process of FM Demodulation is to exact the original modulating voltage from the frequency modulated voltage. The PLL IC 565 is used as FM Demodulator IC and it performs its demodulation operation. Component required:R1=560 (2 NO.1µf. ii) The balanced slope demodulator.2)it rectifies this amplitude modulated voltage in linear diode demodulator to extract the original modulation frequency voltage. The FM demodulator performs the detection process in two steps:-1)it converts the frequency modulated voltage into corresponding amplitude modulated voltage using one or more tuned circuits .FM demodulator FSK.C2=0. . Further it is desirable that the detector circuit should be in sensitive to amplitude changes and should not be too critical in its adjustment and operation.C3=0.R2=10K .4 Aim.C1=470Pf.
3) Connect your oscilloscope to pin 7 of the 565 phase locked loop . Viva Question: 1. Result:The demodulated signal was found equal to the modulating signal.To do this adjust R2 until you obtain a sine wave output on the oscilloscope. verify that the output of the phase locked loop is directly proportional to the modulating signal. What is the advantage of using PPL for FM Demodulation? .set the time/cm control to 2ms/cm and the vertical input to 0. You must adjust the 565 PLL to the correct operating frequency .01 f Fm i/p 7 8 560 4 5 565 1 11 590 470pf 6 2 12 7 5 4 Audio o/p 10 -5v Procedure:1) The output of FM is forward to the input of demodulator. 2) Set deviation control R1fully clockwise for maximum deviation .Also set the generation frequency control to be 200HZ. 4) Using the generation frequency control and R the deviation control.5v/cm.you may or may not have an audio output signal displayed on the oscilloscope.Circuit diagram:- 10k 0.At this point . What is Frequency Discriminator? 2.
Natural tendency of audio is that the amplitude of high frequency signal is lower as compared to amplitude of low frequency signal. function generator. The noise has greater effects on higher modulating frequencies than on lower ones.2 mH. This is known as deemphasis. Components: Theory: Resistors of 10 K.7 K. Equipment Required: Breadboard system. Assemble components and make connections on breadboard as shown in fig. 5. The S/N ratio reduces as the audio frequency increases. Apply AF input. This is called pre-emphasis. When these signals are recovered at the receiver in order to restore the original amplitudes of higher frequency signals they are suppressed. Observe the waveform on CRO. Vary the AF i/p frequency between 20-20KHZ. 4. CRO probes. an improvement in noise immunity could be expected. 3. connecting wires. 2.Experiment No. Inductor 0. Capacitor of 0. . Frequency modulation is more immune to noise than amplitude modulation & is significantly more immune than phase modulation. Thus. Thus in order to reduce the effect of noise the higher frequency signals are boosted before transmission. dual channel CRO. 2. Observe the variation of o/p amplitude with respect to input frequency.: -5 Aim: Generation of pre-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot pre-emphasis curve. thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In turn the S/N ratio is not same over the entire spectrum of audio signals.1 µf. Circuit Diagram:- Procedure:1. if the higher frequencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver.
Observation:Sr no. Why FM is more immune to noise than AM? 2. Plot the graph between gain and frequency. Viva Questions: 1. Conclusion:The gain offered by the pre-emphasis circuit increases with increase in frequency. What is pre-emphasis? 3. Fin Vin Vout Gain=Vout/Vin Result: As the I/P frequency increases the O/P amplitude increases in case of pre-emphasis. What are the applications of pre-emphasis? .6.
connecting wires.Experiment No. Equipment Required: Breadboard system. 2. This is called pre-emphasis. Inductor 0. Natural tendency of audio is that the amplitude of high frequency signal is lower as compared to amplitude of low frequency signal. thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. The noise has greater effects on higher modulating frequencies than on lower ones. Components: Theory: Resistors of 10 K. an improvement in noise immunity could be expected.: -6 Aim: Generation of De-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot De-emphasis curve. CRO probes. if the higher frequencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver. Apply AF input. dual channel CRO. 2. 3. Frequency modulation is more immune to noise than amplitude modulation & is significantly more immune than phase modulation. Assemble components and make connections on breadboard as shown in fig. This is known as de-emphasis. Capacitor of 0. Thus. function generator.2 mH.7 K. Circuit Diagram:- Procedure:1. The S/N ratio reduces as the audio frequency increases. In turn the S/N ratio is not same over the entire spectrum of audio signals. Observe the waveform on CRO. .1 µf. Thus in order to reduce the effect of noise the higher frequency signals is boosted before transmission. When these signals are recovered at the receiver in order to restore the original amplitudes of higher frequency signals they are suppressed.
What is de-emphasis? 3. Fin Vin Vout Gain=Vout/Vin Result: As the i/p frequency increases the o/p amplitude decreases in case of de-emphasis.r. Observe the variation of o/p amplitude w. How do pre-emphasis and de-emphasis affects the S/N ratio of audio frequencies? 2. Observation:Sr no. 6. Conclusion:The gain offered by the de-emphasis circuit decreases with increase in frequency .Thus suppressing the high frequency component there by improving the signal to noise ratio for higher frequencies.4. Vary the AF i/p frequency between 20-20KHZ. Viva Questions: 1. i/p signal frequency. Plot the graph between gain and frequency.t. 5. What are the application of de-emphasis? .
Experiment No. the transmitted signal would consist of two information-bearing sidebands. These other versions of the AM are used in applications were bandwidth must be conserved or power used more effectively. Theory: - Circuit Diagram: +12 Carrier Signal 100 100K 1K 4 Modulating signal 8 10 XR1496 1 3 2 12 6 1µF 1K 1 C2 0. When the carrier is reduced.1 f 5 14 O/P 1K -12v . Connecting wires. Resistors: 1KΩ (3 nos. CRO. If the carrier could somehow be removed or reduced.Generation of DSB-SC using IC 1496 on breadboard and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB Equipment Required:. To overcome these problems with AM. nearly all being the available power is used in sidebands.) The amplitude-modulated signal is simple to produce but has two practical drawbacks in application to many real communications systems: the bandwidth of the AM signal is twice that of the modulating signal and most of the power is transmitted in the carrier. this is called as double sideband suppressed carrier AM or DSB-SC.).IC 1496 (1 nos. not in the information bearing sidebands. versions on AM have been developed.Function Generator. Components: . and the total transmitted power would be information. 100Ω (2 nos.:.7 Aim: .). Instead of two third of the power in the carrier.
Observe the resulting DSB-SC signal on CRO. 5.5 e d u t i l p m A 0 -0. 3. 2.Simulation Results:1 0. Observation: Table(1)Sr. No. 4.5 e d u t i l p m A 0 -0. Signals Modulating signal Carrier signal Frequency Amplitude in Vs . Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1 MHz respectively.5 -1 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time 600 700 800 900 Procedure: 1. Assemble components and make connections of the breadboard. Draw the time domain and frequency domain representation of DSB-SC on graph paper.5 -1 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time DSB-SC signal 600 700 800 900 Modulating signal 1 0.
What is the bandwidth of the DSB-SC signal? 2. The frequency domain representation of DSB-SC signal shows that DSB-SC signal do not contain the carrier component and it consists of two symmetrically placed sidebands. How SSB signal could be generated from DSB-SC signal? 3. Viva Questions: 1. What is ring modulator? .Result & Conclusion: The Balanced modulator IC 1496 can be used for the generation of DSB-SC signal.
Amplifier: It increases the level of the signal level appreciably before the signal is fed to the mixer and it also helps images frequency rejection.Experiment No. Double tuned circuits may be used but it is preferred particularly at the higher frequencies . Separate local oscillator is always used and another transistor serves as a frequency mixer. The IF used in FM receiver is higher than that in AM. At ultrahigh frequencies it is preferred to keep the local oscillator frequency smaller than the signal frequency by an amount equal to the IF. Block diagram:- Loud Speaker IF amplifier Limiter FM Detector AF amplifier RF amplifier Frequency Mixer Local Oscillator Theory: The block diagram of FM radio receiver is shown in the diagram. Since FM broadcast takes place either in VHF or UHF band single transistor frequency converter is not used. (1) R.8 Aim:-Study of FM radio receiver. The constituent stages of the FM receiver are as follows. In FM broadcast the signal bandwidth is large being 150 KHz therefore the RF amplifier must be designed to handle this large bandwidth. Further this IF amplifier should be designed to have high overall bandwidth of the order of 150 KHz. (2) Frequency mixer: It performs the usual function of mixing or heterodyning the signal frequency voltage and the local oscillator voltage to produce the difference voltage and frequency voltage which is the intermediate frequency voltage. (3) Local oscillator: A separate local oscillator is always used. Equipments Required:FM receiver kit. Typical value of intermediate frequency is 12MHz. (4) IF amplifier: A multistage IF amplifier is used to provide large gain. This high IF helps in image rejection.F.
(6) FM detector: This extracts the original audio modulation frequency voltage from the frequency modulated carrier voltage. A discriminator is used as a frequency detector. What are the functions of RF amplifier? . Similarly the loud speaker must be capable of reproducing all high frequency tones up to 15 KHz. (7) Audio amplifier: The output of the FM detector is fed to an audio frequency small signal amplifier and one or more audio frequency large signal amplifiers. Often two or more loud speaker are used each reproducing a limited range of frequencies.in the UHF range. What is Super heterodyne principle? 2. to use stagger tuned single tuned circuit which are found to produce more gain bandwidth product than the conventional double tuned circuits. the maximum modulating frequency permitted is 15 KHz and hence the audio frequency must be designed to accommodate such large bandwidth. In FM broadcast. The output audio voltage is then fed to the loud speaker. Viva Question: 1. (5) Limiter: The IF amplifier is followed by limiter which limits the IF voltage to predetermined level and thus removes all amplitude variations which may be incidentally caused due to changes in the transmission path or by manmade static or natural static.
Breadboard .In FSK the nominal unmodulated carrier frequency . Circuit Diagram:-12v 1 2 3 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 NC NC Sine out 22k -12v 4 0.Corresponding to mark condition and space condition is transmitted for logic level 1 and logic level 0 respectively.220ΩCapacitors-1µf.:-9 Aim:-A) Generation of Frequency shift keying using XR 2206 and observe the mark and space frequencies . Components:-IC:-XR2206. power supply. CRO probes.1 f R3 1K 1K 5 6 7 8 R1 100 R4 XR 2 2 0 6 R3 220 -12v NC R1 100K C1 10 f Sq. B) Program to generate FSK signal in MATLAB. Resistors:-22K. Requirements:.1K(2). function generator.Experiment No.wave o/p .100K(2). connecting wires.10µf Theory:Frequency shift keying is the digital system of frequency modulation . CRO dual channel.Digital signal generated in system like telegraphy is not transmitted as it is instead they are transmitted using keying techniques .
2. Assemble components and make connection on breadboard as shown in fig. 6. Take the print out of the simulation result. 4. Apply square wave input. Write a MATLAB program to generate FSK signal.Simulation result in MATLAB:- Procedure:1. Observe the waveform on CRO & note down mark & space frequencies. Get it checked before turn on the power supply . 3. 5. Observation:The standard mark frequency f(mark)= 1/R1C3 Space frequency f(space)= 1/R2C3 Observe I/P square wave Frequency= Amplitude = Observe O/P sine wave Mark frequency= Space frequency= .
And Space frequency is …… Conclusion: Mark frequency is greater than space frequency.Result:Mark frequency is ……. Viva question:1) What is FSK? 2) What are mark and space frequencies? 3) Which component in the circuit governs the mark and space frequencies? . FSK system is used for digital data transmission.
Pulse width modulation is analog pulse modulation type. CRO. In this system carrier is used as a square wave. Theory:- Circuit Diagram:- .01µf (1 no. In pulse width modulation. CRO Probes. Basically sampling theorem is used for this system . connecting wires.the original signal can be reconstructed in the received with minimal distortion . Components:-IC:-555. 10µf In Pulse modulation. Capacitors:-0. continuous waveform is sampled at regular intervals and the information collected at the sampling times together with synchronizing pulse if any is transmitted.Experiment No.). Resistors:-18k (2 no. DC power supply. Equipment required: Breadboard.). function generator.which states that in any pulse modulation system if the sampling rate exceeds twice the maximum signal frequency . each pulse has fixed amplitude & starting time but the width of each pulse is kept propotional to the magnitude of the modulating signal.10 Aim:-Generation of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal using IC555.
4. 6. 3. Procedure:1. Apply a sine wave modulating signal of around 5V. 8.3 (output pin) on CRO and note down the amplitude and time period . Draw modulating signal . 3. Observe the waveform on pin no. simulate it and repeat all the observations. 5.Trigger pulses are applied to pin 2 and the modulating signal is applied to pin 5. which varies the pulse width depending on instantaneous modulating voltage.Simulation Result in Microcap:- Circuit Description:Pulse width modulation may be generated by applying trigger pulse(at the sampling rate ) to control the starting time of pulse from a monostable multivibrator and feeding the signal to be sampled to control the duration of the pulses.This is the pulse width modulated wave.Note the change in width of pulses . Vary the frequency and the amplitude of the modulating signal and observe the corresponding changes in the width of pulses. Study the circuit and pin configuration of IC555. 7. 2. 80-150HZ to the pin 5. Observed the square waveform (PWM wave) at pin no.carrier signal and PWM signal on graph paper. The circuit diagram of monostable multivibrator using IC555 is shown in the above figure . Note the similarly /differences in the observations and comment on the same in results. . Assemble components and make connections on the breadboard. Pin 5 is control voltage pin. Design the same circuit using Microcap simulation software.
Viva questions:1. Amplitude Time period Frequency in HZ Carrier wave:Sr no Amplitude Ton Toff Frequency in HZ Conclusion:Thus the width of the pulses varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. Describe the method of demodulation of PWM? 3. Explain pulse duration modulation? 2. What are the drawbacks of PWM over PPM? .Observation Table:Modulating wave:Sr no.
).IC 555 (1 no. In PWM each pulse has a leading edge and a trailing edge but the location of the leading edges are fixed whereas those of trailing edges are not but are dependent on the pulse width. 1K (2 no. we may state that the trailing edges of PWM pulses are position modulated. Thus PPM may be obtained from PWM by simply getting ride of the leading edges and flat tops of PWM pulses.1µF (2 no. Components: .). connecting wires.18K (2 no). 10k (1 no). 10 µF (1 no.Experiment No.Breadboard. CRO probes. Signal generator. Aim: . Thus. Theory:Capacitors. Resistors:.). which in turn is dependent on the signal value at that instant.).0. Circuit Diagram: - . PPM has the advantage over PWM of requiring constant transmitter power output but has the disadvantage of dependence on transmitter receiver synchronization.To generate Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) using IC 555 and to simulate the Equipment Required: .11 circuit in micro cap. Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) is the type of pulse modulation in which the amplitude and width of the pulse is kept constant but the position of each pulse in relation to the position of a recurrent reference pulse is varied by each instantaneous sampled value of the modulating wave. PPM may be obtained from PWM. CRO.
Observe the PPM signal on CRO. Observation Table: Sr. Assemble the components on the breadboard to build the circuit of PPM as given in circuit diagram. Simulate the circuit to generate PPM in microcap. Draw the modulating signal and PPM signal on graph paper. Study the circuit diagram and the pin configuration of IC 555. 2. Apply sine wave modulating signal to pin number 5 of IC 555 and observe the same signal on CRO and note down its amplitude and frequency.No. 6.Simulation Result: - Procedure: 1. 3. 4. Signal Amplitude Frequency . 5.
Result:PPM signal is generated using IC 555 and observed on CRO. Conclusion:PPM signal can be generated by first generating PWM by using differentiator and diode clipper. Viva Questions: 1) What is the advantage of PPM over PWM? 2) What is the difference between pulse modulation and CW modulation? . The same circuit is simulated in microcap. Both PPM waveforms were compared and were found same.
100 K (1 no. IC 555.). most of the transmission time would be wasted . B) To construct 3 channels Time division multiplex generator which uses pulse duration modulation (PDM).). a single radio transmitter. Components: IC 4017. A PAM –TDM waveform for 3 channels is shown in fig . 0.).).Experiment No. several information channels are transmitted over the same communication circuit simultaneously using a time sharing tech. Equipments Requirement:-Dual Trace CRO.01µF (1 no. the 3rd by channel 2 and the 4th by channel 3. As an example .This means that if a single channel is transmitted .). Variable resistor 50K (1 no. There are two basic types of multiplexing time division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM). Power supply 15V DC. . Theory:Multiplexing is the process of transmitting several separate information channels over the same communication circuit simultaneously without interference.:-12 Aim:-A) To construct a Pulse Duration Modulator.). Variable resistor 100k (2 no. The second pulse amplitude by channel 1. Connecting wires.).). 1M (1 no. In TDM. The primary advantages of TDM are that several channels of information can be transmitted simultaneously over a single cable. C) To measure the characteristics of Time Division Multiplexed generator and verify its operation.instead this time is fully utilized by transmitting pulse from other PAM signal during the intervals. This set of pulses is called a frame.The 1st pulse is a synchronizing pulse which is used at the receiver in demultiplexing. PAM waveform is can be generated that have a very low duty cycle .). Resistors 1K (1 no. Where as telephone systems uses PCM-TDM. Capacitors 22µF (1 no. 39 K (1no. Diode IN 4149 (4 no.
Note that the sync pulse is a relatively short duration pulse 5. 3 are approximately equal turn potentiometer R1 fully clockwise. 6.1M 14 2 4 100K 50K +15 V IC 4017 7 100K 4 8 3 10 15 1K 3. and R3 to midrange. Now switch your oscilloscope to external triggering. Return R1 to midrange .Circuit Diagram:- +15 V +15 V 16 100K 5. Adjust the triggering control to obtain a table display. connect the oscilloscope external trigger input to pin 3 of the 4017 IC. Return R2 to midrange. While channels 1. 4.01µ Procedure:- 1. Connect your oscilloscope to pin 3 the 555 IC. 2. Study the circuit configuration given in the manual. Set R1. .9K 7 2 6 555 3 O/P 0. 2. Adjust R3 fully clockwise and then fully counter clockwise.Now adjust R2 alternately clockwise and counter clockwise. R2. This should trigger the oscilloscope on the TDM waveform sync pulse. 3. 7. If you cannot stabilize the display. Observe the o/p on CRO.
What are the applications of TDM? . Viva Question:1. What is the difference between TDM and FDM? 2. pin no. 13 on the 4017 steps the counter to the next pulse. Also when R2 is adjusted channel 2 pulse duration changes. therefore when R1 is adjusted the 1st pulse duration is changes. In this case R1 becomes the timing resistor. this circuit is a time division multiplex generator with the i/p signals being the position of R1. R2 and R3. This is channel 1. Turn off your experiment.8. The same is true for R3 and channel3 Thus. Results & Conclusion: When the IC 555 o/p goes low.
R6=10K. During the time interval when the PWM i/p is low the input to the transistor Q2 is high and it gets saturated.22µF. Thus the waveform at the collector of Q2 is more or less a saw-tooth waveform whose envelope is same as the modulating signal. Q1=Q2=BC 148. C1=C2=0.1µF. Equipment Required: -Pulse width modulator. pulse width demodulator. CRO. Therefore. R5=2.7K. R4=1K+1M pot. C3=C4=0. This signal is then passes through OP-AMP low pass filter to smooth the shape of envelope and finally it gives o/p whose envelope is nearly equals to the modulating i/p signal. The transistor Q1 works as a inverter.Experiment No. the width of the pulses of the carrier pulse train is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. R2=1K.:-13 Aim: . The pulse width demodulator circuit can be formed by using transistorized circuit with OP-AMP low pass filter. The collector voltage of Q2 during this interval is then low.To study Pulse Width Demodulation and to observe the changes in demodulated output with respect to modulating i/p signal. R3=100 . A PWM i/p signal is applied to the base of Q1 and demodulated o/p is obtained from OP-AMP o/p. The capacitor C1then discharges very rapidly through Q2. the input to the transistor Q2 is low. Circuit Diagram:- . Components: -R1=560 . Hence during the time interval when the PWM is high. Patch cords. Theory: In PWM. during this time interval the transistor Q2 is cut-off and the capacitor C1 gets charged through resistor R4.
4. . Apply a PWM i/p to the base of the transistor Q1. 2. Connect one channel of CRO to observe modulating signal and other to demodulated o/p. First verify and note the PWM i/p signal. 6. 3. Result: The envelope of the sawtooth waveform can be set equals to the modulating signal hence through OP-AMP IC 741 low pass filter we obtained demodulated o/p equals the modulating signal the circuit can be used for pulse width demodulator.Procedure: 1. Vary the amplitude and frequency of modulating i/p and observe the corresponding change in demodulated o/p. Adjust the amplitude and frequency to obtain the demodulated o/p whose envelope is nearly equals to the modulating signal. 5. Study the circuit provided in the manual switch on the power supply.
Depending on the voltage at the pin no. While the position of the pulses relative to reference pulses changes in accordance with the modulating signals. This noise is then removed with the help of low pass filter. Pin no. Patch cords. R4=R5=R6=2. The pulse position demodulation circuit consists of two parts. R1=10K. A pure AF output thus obtained at the output of the IC 741. CRO. First part is a IC 3140 comparator which gives the AF output with noise.001µF. Circuit Diagram:- . 2 the output of the IC 3140 is changing. the original signal at the received at the receiver. pin no. The pulse position demodulator is a circuit which gives the original modulating signal at the output. C4=0. When the pulse position modulated signal is applied at the input side then. R2=15K pot. C2=C3=10µF. 6. 2 and 3 and output pin no.e. IC 3140.2 of IC 3140. Theory: In Pulse Position Modulation the analog AF input signal is converted into the PPM output which means amplitude and duration of pulse remains constant.To study Pulse Position Demodulation and to observe the changes in Equipment Required: -Pulse Position Modulator. Since input is a PPM output the output is an AF output with some noise. IC 3140 is a comparator with two input i.6K. Aim:.Experiment No. IC 555.7K. This noise can be eliminated by the filter using IC 741.3 is kept at fixed voltage while output of the PPM is applied at the pin no. which is the second part of the circuit. Components : -C1=0.Output depends on the input comparision. R3=5.1µF.:-14 Demodulated output with respect to modulating i/p signal.
(5) Draw the above observation on the graph paper. Conclusion: By adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal and passing through op-amp 741. (4) Now vary the frequency and amplitude of modulating i/p & observe the corresponding change in PPM demodulated output. low pass filter we obtained demodulated output equals to the modulating signal. (2) Apply PPM input.Procedure: (1) Study the circuit provided in the manual. What is the concept behind demodulating the PPM signal? . What are the applications of PPM? 2. (3) Connect the CRO at the output of IC 741 to get a Pulse Position Demodulated output. Viva Questions:1. Keep the modulating frequency between 70-500 Hz.
Phase Modulation is used.The o/p of the PCM system is also a binary data. .8 and Modulating Binary signal is applied to pin no. conversion process is referred to as the modulation . Phase Shift Keying is a modulation in which the phase of the carrier signal changes with respect to the digital signal.1 The BPSK O/P is taken from pin no. The carrier is applied to pin no.To generate and to observe Phase Shift Keying (PSK) using IC1496. If they are to be transmitted over copper wires.:-16 Aim: . But if they are to be transmitted through space using antenna. The binary signal to be transmitted changes the phase of the sine wave carrier depending upon whether 0 or 1 is transmitted. the most commonly used coding scheme is binary sequence such as 0011101011. Equipment Required: PSK kit. For transmission purpose this has to be converted to a continuous electrical waveform. 12. The circuit diagram is shown in the manual. As the modulating signal consists of only two levels the modulation technique is known as Phase Shift Keying.IC 1496 internally consists of differential amplifier configuration . IC1496. Function generator dual channel. Theory: The original source of information.its carrier suppression is rated at a minimum of –5db with a typical value of –65db at 500khz. they can be Directly Transmitted as two voltage levels +v and –v. CRO. speech.Experiment No. Digital multimeter. text. IC1496 is used as a Balanced Modulator for implementing BPSK. The BPSK can be implemented by using a Balanced Modulator. It is also called as Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK).
12. no. 8. Viva Questions:- 1. 5) Switch ON the power supply.Circuit Diagram:- 8 10 4 2 1 IC 1496 14 3 5 12 6 Procedure: 1) Study the circuit provided on the front panel of kit. Observation Table: Sr. non linear binary data minimum 200Hz pin no.1 4) Connect CRO at the o/p i. 7) Draw the observed waveform on the graph paper. Carrier signal Amplitude (V) frequency (KHz) Modulating signal Amplitude(V) Freq(KHz) Result: - The carrier signal changes phase as Binary signal changes its state from logic 0 to logic 1. FSK and ASK? .e. 6) Observe the PSK O/P on the CRO. pin no. What is the advantage of PSK over FSK? 2. What is the difference between PSK.e. 2) Apply the sine wave of 400Hz to pin no. 3) Apply the square wave i.
.To study the phase shift keying demodulator circuit.17 Aim: . while it could be constructed using diode and transformer. which reproduces the data that is being transmitted. Circuit Diagram: Balanced Modulator PSK I/P Low Pass Filter Data O/P Frequency Multiplier X2 Band Pass Filter Phase Detector VCO Frequency Multiplier X2 Procedure: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Study the circuit given on the front panel of the kit. Theory: Demodulation of BPSK signal is done with a balanced modulator. Connect the CRO probe at the output terminal for the kit. Switch on the circuit. Vary the rate of digital data in order to check the output from the CRO. CRO and connecting probes. Provide a PSK signal at the input terminal of the kit. Equipments Required: PSK generator. The balanced modulator is constructed using IC for better resolution and sensitivity. The key to demodulating BPSK is that a carrier with the correct frequency and phase relationship must be applied to the balanced modulator along with the BPSK signal.Experiment No. The BPSK signal and carrier signal is applied to the balanced modulator IC for demodulation of the binary signal that is embedded into the carrier signal.
What is the advantage of QPSK over PSK? . Viva Questions: 1. What is Binary PSK? 2. And as the bit rate at the I/P of PSK modulator changes the O/P also changes accordingly.Result: The PSK Demodulator circuit gives the original binary transmitted data at the o/p.
The Phase shifter uses the Lag characteristics of resistor. Equipment Required: -QPSK kit. Theory: - Circuit Diagram:Data I/p 011001 Balanced Modulator R1 R3 Din Clock 2 Bit Spli tter I/ P fc 900 Shifter R2 R4 QAM O/P Clock I/P Balanced Modulator .:-18 Aim: .To perform Quadrature Phase Shift Keying and verify the results on CRO.are fed to a linear summer. Function generator dual channel. The result at the output is a vector sum of the output of the two balanced modulators. which will be in Phase with their respective fc signal for a logic 1 binary input & 180 degree out of phase for logic 0. The first bit into the splitter is presented to the upper balanced modulator & the second bit to the lower one. Linear summing avoids developing sum & difference frequencies normally generated by a nonlinear circuit used for standard radio modulators. CRO. Digital Multimeter.Experiment No. The Digital symbol outputs of the bit splitter fed to digital modulating inputs of two balanced modulators. The output from the balanced modulators. The reference carrier frequency (fc) is applied to the input of the Top balanced modulator & to the lower one through 90 degree phase shifter . that is designed to lag the input by 90 degree. capacitor circuit to generate a signal. A bypass filter rejects unwanted signal produced by the summer.
Observation Table: Sr. 2) Apply the carrier signal to the kit at given socket. 12. Carrier signal Amplitude (V) frequency (KHz) Modulating signal Amplitude(V) Freq(KHz) Result: The carrier signal changes the phase as the Binary signal changes its state from logic 0 to logic 1. What is DPSK? . Viva Questions: 1. pin no. 4) Switch ON the power supply. (1600Hz) 3) Connect CRO at the o/p i. 7) Draw the observed waveform on the graph paper.e. 5) Observe the O/P on the CRO. no. What is the difference between PSK and QPSK? 2.Procedure: 1) Study the circuit provided on the front panel of kit.
01µf.Such type of modulation is called as Pulse Modulation.R5=10K pot Theory:- In pulse modulation some characteristics of pulse (carrier) is change in accordance with the sample of the modulating signal . signal generator. It is applied in many types .IC2=4016 CMOS switch.But If DC level is introduced to the modulating signal then it results single polarity PAM. Pulse Amplitude Modulation the amplitude of the pulse is varied in accordance with the modulating signal then it is called as pulse Amplitude modulation . Equipment required:-PAM kit. Component required:-R1=39K.01µf.If the characteristics of pulse such as amplitude . C1=0.duration(width).But some of common types are Pulse Amplitude modulation (PAM) .and Pulse position modulation (PPM).IC1=555.19 Aim: . Circuit Diagram: +Vcc +12V 1K 39K 4 8 I/P +Vcc +12V 2 6 5 IC 555 3 1K 16 1 2 PAM O/P 0.PDM or PWM and PPM respectively.PAM gives dual polarity (AC type) PAM output called as natural PAM sampling .Experiment No. dual channel CRO.Pulse width modulation (PWM).C2=0.C3=1µf.01µF 13 Modulator IC 4016 7 . R2=18K.Generation of PAM signal using switching CMOS IC 4016 on breadboard and observation of single polarity and dual polarity waveforms on Digital Storage Oscilloscope. R3=R4=10K.Its waveform is shown in fig 1. position is change in accordance with the modulating signal than it is called as PAM.
Vary the input frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal and observe the corresponding change in PAM output.Connect dual Channel CRO for at i/p and o/p side. How single polarity PAM signal is generated from dual polarity PAM? . 4. 70 Hz at the point marked as I/P 4. What is the difference between single polarity and dual polarity PAM signal? 2. By introducing DC voltage it gives single polarity PAM output. Apply a sine wave modulating signal of around 5-VPp. Viva Questions:1. Conclusion:As the amplitude of sampling pulse is changed in accordance with the modulating signal so it is called as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM).Procedure:1. Switch on the power supply and note the amplitude and frequency of sample pulse internally generated by IC555 connect the same at pin 13 of CMOS IC by using patch cord. Assemble components and make connection on breadboard as shown in fig. 6. 5. Note DC voltage V2 given potential divider R3 and R4 now introduced DC voltage V2 by shorting points A and B by patching repeat. 2. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of modulating i/p to get Dual polarity PAM output. In the above step keep CRO in DC mode. 3.
The quantized number is coded using binary code .converted into corresponding back-to–front binary number and then sent.The signal is continuously sampled and quantized . These levels are transmitted in a binary code. simulink.Experiment no.20 Aim: -To study the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and to simulate PCM in MATLAB. MATLAB Simulink Diagram:- . the result closely resembles the corresponding analog transmission. Hence the actual number of these standard level is a power of 2 such as 16. Requirements: -MATLAB software.128. If adequate quantizing levels are used. the total amplitude range of the signal is divided into a number of standard levels at equal intervals.each sample magnitude being converted to the nearest standard amplitude .32. Theory:In PCM.64.
What is Quantization? . What is sampling? 2.Simulink Results:Input Signal Output Signal Viva Questions: 1.
the amplitude of the carrier voltage varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating voltage.Observation of Frequency spectrum of amplitude modulated (AM) signal on Spectrum Analyzer. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression.21 Aim: .Spectrum analyzer. V = V(t) cos wct V(t)=Vc + ka Vm cos wmt V=Vc[1+ ma cos wm t] cos wct Where ma is modulation index and the modulation index is defined as the ratio of maximum amplitude of modulating signal to maximum amplitude of carrier signal. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression.) Theory: In amplitude modulation. connecting wires. Vc = Vc coswct On Amplitude Modulation. resistor 330 (2 no.Experiment No. ma= K Vm / Vc % modulation is defined as.). %ma=Vm/Vc Circuit Diagram: - . Equipments required:. breadboard. function generator.). Inductor 1mH (1 no. patch cords. Components:Transistor BC 548/549 (1 no. power supply. The instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by. Vm = Vm cos wmt Where wm is angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude.
Assemble components and make the connections on the breadboard. Viva Questions: 1. What is the bandwidth of AM signal? 2.the difference components called as lower sideband (LSB). The LSB is mirror image of the USB. 6. 5. Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. 3. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1 MHz respectively. Result: The sinusoidal voltage on being amplitude modulated by a single sinusoidal modulating voltage consists of three frequency components.Procedure:1. Observe the resulting amplitude modulated signal on CRO. 2. the sum component called as upper sideband (USB) and carrier component. 4. Draw the frequency spectrum on graph paper. What is the advantage of AM over FM? . Observe the same signal on spectrum analyzer.