This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/).

Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide
General Format
MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers. If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult theMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style. Paper Format The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA style is covered in chapter four of the MLA Handbook, and chapter four of the MLA Style Manual. Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style. General Guidelines • • • • • • • • Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt. Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor). Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).

Formatting the First Page of Your Paper • • • • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking" 1

• •

Double space between the title and the first line of the text. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.)

Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:

Image Caption: The First Page of an MLA Paper Section Headings Writers sometimes use Section Headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay. Essays MLA recommends that when you divide an essay into sections that you number those sections with an arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name. 1. Early Writings 2. The London Years 3. Traveling the Continent 4. Final Years 2

make all of the headings short phrases (and not. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor. Energy Conservation Formatted.Books MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books. flush left Level 2 Heading: italics. Web. This resource. unnumbered: Level 1 Heading: bold. It should. Purdue U Writing Lab. flush left How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA: Entire Website The Purdue OWL. 2008. If you are only using one level of headings. Otherwise. 15 Nov. If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections).) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them. 27 Dec. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. flush left Level 3 Heading: centered. in-text citations. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics 3 . MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. 10 May 2008. for example. the formatting is up to you. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. however. and the Works Cited page. Individual Resources Purdue OWL. Web. Purdue U Writing Lab.). endnotes/footnotes. Contributors:Tony Russell.2 Terracing 2. Allen Brizee. 2008. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide. italics Level 5 Heading: underlined. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document. Soil Conservation 1. bold Level 4 Heading: centered." The Purdue OWL. be consistent throughout the document. if your headings are typically short phrases. 2008. Sample Section Headings The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. Water Conservation 3. Numbered: 1. For instance. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.1 Erosion 1. full sentences).

entire websites) and provide a page number.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. television shows. plays. London: Oxford U. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence. Literature. Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3). General Guidelines • • The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). ” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6). articles) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e. In this example. and newspapers.Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style is covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual. books. where. they would find the following information: Wordsworth. Both books provide extensive examples. The both citations in the examples above. In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life. they can turn to the Works Cited page. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (e. must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. . . DVD) and (2. Web. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text. but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Berkeley: U of California P. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).g. Kenneth. under the name of Wordsworth. William. whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text. so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke. In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author. More specifically. 1967. not in the text of your sentence. scholarly journal articles. If readers want more information about this source. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase. Print. magazines. Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change .g. referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its 4 . you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. since the reader does not know the author of the article. and Method.P. which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited: Burke. In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author For Print sources like books. tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. Print. (263) and (Wordsworth 263). 1966. Print.) upon the source medium (e. Lyrical Ballads.g.

list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith. and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). The Works Cited entry appears as follows: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.). For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79. Web. Yang. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. In such cases.). Ackerson. and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol. or paragraph (par. For instance. and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay. Miller 12). use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. book (bk. of course) followed by a semicolon. so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author. give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page. Thus. Yang. ch. 23 Mar. include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. chapter (ch. We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit. Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors. Yang. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. Jones et al.” GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs.respective entry in the Works Cited.). The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith. the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. but additional citation information can help literary scholars. or list all the last names. though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17). and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Miller 46).). Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions Page numbers are always required. 2009. and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al. Yang.). and Bell counter Smith. if two or more authors have the same last name. 1999. who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. 4). Driscoll. Yang. counter Smith. part (pt. and Moore 76). 5 . section (sec.). For a source with more than three authors. Or Jones. others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. 1). Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38). Or Legal experts counter Smith.

like CNN. You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function. and they don't do that well" (qtd.5-10). use "qtd. or Internet sources. "Visual Studies" 63). Klaus Kinski. an ox. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation. for example. in Weisman 259). a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source. film name). but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title). . Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes. Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner.) .forbes. Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet. and verse in the parenthetical citation. chapter and verse. and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible. always include the volume number followed by a colon. follow the following guidelines: • • • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e. a domain name. Ezek. by page numbers: Visual studies. When creating in-text citations for electronic.Additionally. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures. remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers.com or Forbes. in most cases. website name. because it is such a new discipline. rather than citing an indirect source. For such indirect quotations. followed. In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page: 6 . Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. do not include URLs in-text. Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. then provide the page number(s). An indirect source is a source cited in another source. may be "too easy" (Elkins. If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using." each with faces of a man. a lion. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers.g.cnn. (If you only cite from one volume. but often. . author name. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo. when appropriate.com as opposed to writing out http://www. Herzog and Kinski were often at odds. Citing Multivolume Works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work. article name. Note that. provide only the page number in parentheses. you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. During the presentation. film. followed by book (do not italicize or underline).com or http://www. list only the book. 1. as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17). Put a space after the colon. you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma. some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. For electronic and Internet sources. followed by a shortened title of the work. as each version varies in its translation. these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource). chapter.com.

enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. “Herzog: a Life”).. MLA Formatting Quotations When you directly quote the works of others in your paper. In the first example. 2009. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide. provide line numbers) in the text. . Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition. 12 May 2006 . the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). and the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs. you will format quotations differently depending on their length.” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al. separate the citations by a semi-colon: . Perf. 2002.). Print. Dewey 21). two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited.).. and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse. This resource. they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge. for example. Remember. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation." The OWL at Purdue. CCCC. in-text citations. Its “MLA Formatting and Style Guide” is one of the most popular resources (Stolley et al. In the second example. Contributors:Tony Russell.Herzog. 8 Jan. For example: 7 . Werner. as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3. "Herzog: a Life. Stolley. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. well-known quotations or common knowledge. Purdue University Writing Lab." Online Film Critics Corner. dir. Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference. Fitzcarraldo. Electronic Sources One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is ". Karl. Thus.” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Garcia.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Palmer House Hilton. endnotes/footnotes. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism" (Garcia. . Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.” meaning.” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide. Web. Film. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. based on audience. commas. The Film School of New Hampshire. however. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. “and others. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal. Allen Brizee. Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text. this is a rhetorical choice. Jane.. 1982. Elizabeth. Klaus Kinski." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition. Yates. Filmverlag der Autoren. 10 May 2006. “Stolley et al. 2 May 2002.

. and the Works Cited page. Jan Harold Brunvand. Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses. you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.. which are three periods ( .. Felt in the blood.). however... With tranquil restoration.. Through a long absence. I was obliged to confess.. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash... / My mother's countenance / Could not unfrown itself. Allen Brizee. and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. /. when omitting one or more full lines of poetry. space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: These beauteous forms. hoping it would be gone on the morrow. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. 28-30) Contributors:Tony Russell.. I put it on the landing of the stairs. or even in their room.According to some. (22-24. it crept to Mr.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Inquiries were made as to how it got there. . dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184).. and there he found it on quitting his chamber.. in an essay on urban legends. dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . According to Foulkes's study. use a standard three-period ellipses. and I had no more sense. and felt along the heart. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. keep formatting as close to the original as possible: In his poem "My Papa's Waltz. . Earnshaw's door. Start the quotation on a new line. you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks.. at the end of each line of verse: (a space should precede and follow the slash) Cullen concludes. This resource. Long Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose: place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Shugrue 202) Adding or Omitting Words In Quotations If you add a word or words in a quotation.. And passing even into my purer mind. and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).. / We Romped until the pans / Slid from the kitchen shelf.. . (quoted in Shrodes." Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father: The whiskey on your breath / Could make a small boy dizzy. "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.. maintain original line breaks. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Finestone. . or else attracted by hearing his voice.. / But I hung on like death: / Such waltzing was not easy. ) preceded and followed by a space. When quoting verse. 8 .) For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them. states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). in-text citations. endnotes/footnotes. If you omit a word or words from a quotation. maintain double-spacing. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. though others disagree. By chance. have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man's eye: . When omitting words from poetry quotations. so. with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin. (Bronte 78) When citing long sections of poetry. . For example: In an essay on urban legends.

Johnson. See Blackmur.) Place a period and a space after each endnote number. Snyder 21-35. Krieg 50-57. Provide the appropriate note after the space. (Each endnote is indented five spaces. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. she reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist. Krieg 78-91. for a contrasting view. not a politician!" (Weller 124). Hull. 7th edition (sec. Footnotes are single-space with a hanging indent. which refers to brief additional information that might be too digressive for the main text: 4. 3. certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references. which refer to other publications your readers may consult: 1. The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text.7 so we would do well to ignore it. for an insightful analysis of this trend. (Use Note if there is only one note. Footnotes (below the text body) In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text.6 Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis. In a 1998 interview. 9 . See Johnson and Hull 45-79. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. angle brackets (>). scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness. 230-32). 3rd edition (sec. Note that when a long dash appears in the text. see Pyle 43. however.MLA Footnotes and Endnotes Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers. for papers submitted for publication. as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text. Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes in the Document Body Endnotes and footnotes in MLA format are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase or clause to which the note refers: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless.5. the footnote/endnote number appears before the dash: For years. most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA) recommend limited use of footnotes/endnotes. should be listed on a separate page. MLA style does. Kather 23-31. 7. Provide the appropriate note after the space. (Each footnote is indented five spaces. however. subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. Several other studies point to this same conclusion.5. no formatting). This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication. subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.) The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page. consult “Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.) Place a period and a space after each footnote number. The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which. 2. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery. 259-60). 6. Or. allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes. For more information on using endnotes and footnotes. or other symbols for note references. you can also use footnotes/endnotes for occasional explanatory notes (also known as content notes). see Wollens 120-35. especially chapters three and four. Notes are double-spaced with a hanging indent. Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes Endnotes Page MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered. Do not use asterisks (*). begin footnotes four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text.

break lines only at slashes. Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009 • • • For every entry.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. David M. or DVD. include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period. MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format According to MLA style. Wallace. List page numbers of sources efficiently." or "II. Double space all citations. you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. John". This resource. PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain. in-text citations. a work by Dr. David Foster Do not list titles (Dr. etc. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name. an). Kenneth Levy. Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources. short prepositions." Putting it all together. Author names are written last name first. MA. page number header as the rest of your paper. Basic Rules • • • • • Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. CD-ROM. However. magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. books. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. for entire edited collections. or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind. endnotes/footnotes. Sir. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke. include suffixes like "Jr. list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. Martin Luther. if your instructor or publisher insists on them.) with names. Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries. Jr. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. The Art of War." with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma. you should type the online database name in italics. editor names). Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. but do not capitalize articles (the. Martin Luther King. For long URLs. however. Saint. but other possibilities may include Film.) or degrees (PhD. etc. Allen Brizee. New to MLA 2009: Use italics (instead of underlining) for titles of larger works (books.. More than One Work by an Author 10 .).. DDS. do. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250. Capitalization and Punctuation • • Capitalize each word in the titles of articles. articles) Listing Author Names Entries are listed alphabetically by the author's last name (or. A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain. you must determine the Medium of Publication. when needed. Jr. would be cited as "King. There Is Nothing Left to Lose. etc. but do not skip spaces between entries. and the Works Cited page.Contributors:Tony Russell.

11 . 1999.5.. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Steven and Karen Pomeroy. list solo-author entries first: Heller. first name format. Kenneth. The Education of an E-Designer. A Grammar of Motives.] When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group..) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.] ---. [.. 148-81). consult “Citing Nonperiodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Penguin. For more information.. order the entries alphabetically by title. 7th edition (sec. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. James. This resource.). Allen Brizee. place of publication. Denver: MacMurray. Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title. 3rd edition (sec.] Burke. Year of Publication. Print.6. MLA Works Cited Page: Books When you are gathering book sources. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname.. be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: author name(s). [.If you have cited more than one work by a particular author. Book with One Author Gleick. Book with More Than One Author The first given name appears in last name. Kenneth. Jean. Henley. publisher. Print.. A Rhetoric of Motives. Firstname. 185211). [. Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard.] Contributors:Tony Russell.. Basic Format The first-give author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name. Steven. The medium of publication for all “hard copy” books is Print. ed. Simulacra and Simulations.. Heller. endnotes/footnotes. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design..] Boring Postcards USA. A Rhetoric of Motives. [. 5. Place of Publication: Publisher. and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first: Burke. The Hummingbird House. publication date. Medium of Publication.. [. subsequent author names appear in first name last name format. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Title of Book. In this case. and the Works Cited page. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Chaos: Making a New Science. book title. use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. 6. first name format. in-text citations. 1987. Patricia.

insert the original publication date before the publication information. Print. and Neal Lerner. and The. Allergies in Children."—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s). (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. Book with No Author List by title of the book.) Provide the author’s name in last name. et al. William J. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one. New York: Routledge. 1999. New York: Somerset. If there are more than three authors. Encyclopedia of Indiana. or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. Erdrich. An. Shaun and Forsythe. Wysocki. 1993. New York: Random. Anne Frances. 2004. Martin's. Cynthia L. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. a committee. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. and Geoffrey Sirc. 1988. Paula.Gillespie. different from the first or other editions of the book). 12 . Print. Print. Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. Love Medicine. Logan. use three hyphens and a period. Dickens and New Historicism. 2000. Butler. see An Edition of a Book below.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al. Logan. 1984. Richard Howard.”). Judith. Print. Johndan Johnson-Eilola. the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean. 2004. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Michel. Two or More Books by the Same Author List works alphabetically by title. ---. Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. 1997. Palmer. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. For more information see In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics. Louise. UT: Utah State UP.e. Boston: Allyn. New York: St. American Allergy Association. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Print. 1993. 1998. A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book. Print. Print. 1990. Foucault. UT: Utah State UP. Add "Trans. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that are new editions (i. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. Anne Frances. Jonathan. New York: Perennial-Harper. Gender Trouble. (Remember to ignore articles like A. or Wysocki. first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al. Selfe. Book by a Corporate Author or Organization A corporate author may include a commission. provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. Trans. For example. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. Print. Print. New York: Vintage-Random House. Print. which you can link to at the bottom of this page. or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page. 1993. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition.

Oxford: Oxford UP. 1999.g.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer. Print. Print. 2000. A Work in an Anthology. eds." Title of Collection. first name format. Charlotte. First name. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World. Sharon. Collection of Essays) To cite the entire anthology or collection. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname. Year. Tim. Gunnar. Portsmouth. Medium of Publication. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Barbara. for each individual essay from the collection." Rose and Weiser 131-40.. and Marguerite Helmers. 2004. Then. Portsmouth. Ed. Charles A. Editor's Name(s). Muriel. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would. but add the editor after the title. Nancy J. A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would. Print. 2004. 1998. list the author's name in last name. Bronte. Ed. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping. "eds" (for edited by). Jane Eyre. 1997.An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).. Anthology or Collection (e.. eds. New York: Pearson/Longman. Print. the title of the essay. but add the number of the edition after the title. or Collection below. Swanson. Hill. or a chapter of a book. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. "Title of Essay. list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed. Print. Reference. Print. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Mahwah. and Debra Hawhee. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." or. Peeples. Page range of entry. 24-34. see A Work in an Anthology. To do so. 13-24. Print. or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology. the editor's last name. NH: Heinemann. 13 . and the page range: L'Eplattenier. ed. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. and Irwin Weiser. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common). Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection. Reference. Peterson." Rose and Weiser 153-67. Print. Place of Publication: Publisher. Steven Heller. New York: Allworth Press. This sort of entry is somewhat rare. Ben Rafoth." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Ed. Print. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Some examples: Harris. 3rd ed. 1998. Crowley. for multiple editors. include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below: Rose. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers. Margaret Smith. MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. NH: Heinemann. Ed. Shirley K.

Also. 1980. Print. cite the total number of volumes in the work. Foreword. Article in a Reference Book (e. Churchill. 154-69. as most are. Ed. and other reference works. Philip Smith. (See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. Preface. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. "Red. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. New Haven: Yale UP. Jamaica. or after the work's editor or translator. H. Trans. Angela. The Bible 14 . be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s). Thomas B." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work. which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Encyclopedias. Kincaid." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories. 1-13. 4 vols. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. Print." The American Heritage Dictionary. Walt. "Ideology. or Afterword When citing an introduction. 306-07. Tobias Wolff.) Quintilian. By Farrell. Print. A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work. dictionaries. The Age of Revolution. New York: Penguin. 3rd ed. H." Selected Poems. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. 1991. Also. Trans. 1995. Robert. Institutio Oratoria. you would write the entry as follows: Duncan. 1997.Poem or Short Story Examples: Burns. Ed. Print. 1995. Print. 1984. Carter. By Kenneth Burke. Print. cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. or an afterword. New York: Vintage. 1980. Hugh Dalziel. Dictionaries) For entries in encyclopedias. 1993. If the volume you are using has its own title. New York: Dover. Quintilian. Print." For example. Winston S. E. New York: Dover. If the specific literary work is part of the an author's own collection (all of the works have the same author). 26. write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. An Introduction. a preface. then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman. do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. Then give the name of the part being cited. a forward. New York: Dodd. Introduction. 12-19. Other Print/Book Sources Certain book sources are handled in a special way by MLA style. Introduction. 3rd ed. if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change. Vol. xiii-xliv. Red Rose. Institutio Oratoria. 1935. E." 100 Best-Loved Poems. Farrell. Butler. Print. then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By. include the volume number after the work's title. 1994. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work. "The Tiger's Bride. 2. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.g. 1957. Butler. "Girl. Print. Berkeley: U of California P. cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. "I Sing the Body Electric. Print. if the reference book is organized alphabetically.

Karl. Government Accountability Office.. If the work is not published. put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban. italicize the title and include the publication date. Print. (or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded. Cong. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions. Purdue University. AAT 3191701. committees. New York: Doubleday. which MLA abbreviates as GPO. Tarez Samra. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Diss. 2006. Ohio University. Washington: GPO. 1st sess. United States. 2007. Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office. Ann Arbor: UMI. Print. 2002. Sacramento. If the dissertation is published. put the name of the author (last name. Washington: GPO. 2002. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. Purdue University. 2004. Bile. Karen Lynn. Senate. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. Print. Ann Arbor: UMI. If the pamphlet you are citing has no author. Diss.) Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. CA: California Dept. Print. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible. (See Citing the Bible on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. Print. of Social Services. followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods. Stolley. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Jeffrey. any editor(s) associated with it. Summary: 15 . Print. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. Dissertations and Master's Theses Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. 2007. 2006." Diss. cite as directed below. Ed. 1985. Susan Jones. Feminism. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author. You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you choose: Bishop. start with the name of the national government. followed by the publication information. "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory. Purdue University. but include the designation Diss. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Ecology.) The New Jerusalem Bible. 2006. 110th Cong. 2005. United States. or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). Otherwise. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above. Contributors:Tony Russell. Print. For congressional documents. 2006. followed by an abbreviation of the book. be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. Cite the work as you would a book. first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. the chapter and verse(s). Allen Brizee.Give the name of the specific edition you are using. A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Print. Print." MA thesis.

in quotation marks for articles. SC] 29 Apr. Medium of publication. H.5. Rev. and films." Good Housekeeping Mar. 16 . Print. Krugman." Rev. by Author/Director/Artist." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette. "Fear of Eating. newspapers. Review Author. Buchman. 3rd edition (sec. Remember to abbreviate the month. Article in a Magazine Cite by listing the article's author. of Radiant City. Robert. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients. Print. and scholarly journals) that appear in print require the same medium of publication designator—Print—as books. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. putting the title of the article in quotations marks. 7th edition (sec. IN] 5 Dec. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call. Gary Burns and Jim Brown. Print. Print." Time 20 Nov. 136-48). ed. K." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. MLA Works Cited: Periodicals Periodicals (e. and the Works Cited page. include the city name and state in brackets after the title of the newspaper. consult “Citing Periodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Finally." Rev.. Trembacki. but note the different pagination in a newspaper.C. "Title of Review (if there is one). Dana. James. Rhetoric. 17 May 1987. Democrats. "Presidential Hopefuls Get Final Crack at Core of S. late ed. Linda K. Matt Zoller." Washington Post 24 May 2007: LZ01. If You Can Really Call It Living. Weiller. then the abbreviation "Rev. For more information on citing periodicals." New York Times 21 May 2007 late ed. identify the edition following the date (e. Choice Apr.MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.g. Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article. 2007: A11. The basic format is as follows: Author(s). provide performance and/or publication information. 2006: 143-48. Medium of publication. include the title of the review (if available). New York Times 30 May 2007 late ed. Brubaker. If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication. and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations. "A Special Education. 2007: 1377.g. 2000: 70-71. Print. Title of Periodical day month year: page.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Behre. in-text citations. 6. Poniewozik. plays. Bill.: A1. endnotes/footnotes. of Performance Title. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Seitz. Print.: E1. Print. dir. of Sport. Print. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Paul.). 5. 2000: 20. of" for Review of and provide the title of the work (in italics for books. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs. This resource." Post and Courier [Charleston. A Review To cite a review.4.). and short stories). Fuller. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Follow with the date of publication. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper). poems. and italicizing the periodical title. magazines. "Title of Article. but the MLA Style method for citing these materials and the items required for these entries are quite different from MLA book citations. 174-85). Andrew.

2010. Contributors:Tony Russell. 10 Feb. 17 . 2007: 7. and the Works Cited page. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." The Economist 26 May 2007: 82. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Print. when available. in italics.Issue (Year): pages. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 15. Hamer. This resource. "Business: Global Warming's Boom Town. Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare. John." Editorial.1 (1996): 41-50. “Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene. Medium of publication. Web. Case. Wall Street Journal east. 24 Oct.3 (1994): 127-53. in-text citations. Tourism in Greenland. Web entries should follow a similar format. 2006/Jan.” Literature and Society.An Editorial & Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a periodical. "Aging." Women's Health Weekly 10 May 2007: 18. Author(s). but include the designators "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is. Print. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. "Of Mines and Men. Sue-Ellen. American Journalism Review Dec. issue of Modern Fiction Studies 43. Letter. and end with a period. endnotes/footnotes. An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal When an article appears in a special issue of a journal. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. "Title of Article. Always provide issue numbers. issue of” and include the name of the journal. cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space. Alaknanda. Duvall.3 (1997): 631-650." Arizona Quarterly 50. Print. Print. Anthony. John N. “Eve's Apple. Print. issue of Journal of Contemporary History 2. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition (2009) eliminates this step. followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation. Print. Bagchi. 2003: A14. Allen Brizee." Title of Journal Volume. and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical. also in italics. Spec. MLA required that researchers determine whether or not a scholarly journal employed continuous pagination (page numbers began at page one in the first issue of the years and page numbers took up where they left off in subsequent ones) or non-continuous pagination (page numbers begin at page one in every subsequent issue) in order to determine whether or not to include issue numbers in bibliographic entries. ed. Burgess. or Women's Narrative Bytes. An Article in a Scholarly Journal In previous years. Print. Spec.” Technocriticism and Hypernarrative.). Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first.2 (1967): 93-99. Add the descriptor “Spec.

or issue numbers. Remember to use n. for example. collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: • • • • • • • • Author and/or editor names (if available) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) Title of the Website. use the abbreviation n. Also. to keep your own copies for future reference. include the additional information or otherwise modified information. Aristotle.d.net]. and information available on one date may no longer be available later. S. H. Name of Site. Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher (or sponsor) names and publishing dates. Take note of any page numbers (if available). MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available. including the publisher name and publishing date. Butcher. Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. or book in italics. to indicate that neither a publisher nor a sponsor name has been provided.mit. 2008. Publisher information. Medium of publication.p. MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web (e. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. Be sure to include the complete address for the site. pag. Date you accessed the material. 4 Nov. They may. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information. Web. which makes later reference easy. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or. if no publishing date is given. ‹http://classics. when the Web page does not provide a publication date. When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source (as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology). Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases) Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Thus. Because Web addresses are not static (i.e. including revisions. you might use the Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. Poetics. (Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names.com or . Break URLs only after slashes.g. 2007. using a program like Adobe Acrobat. when possible. Use n. Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print. Date of access. project. or for your own personal reference). Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated. volumes. author. The Internet Classics Archive. Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). 13 Sept. better. Version number.g. like domain names [e. 18 .p. or compiler name (if available). date of resource creation (if available). when including the medium of publication for electronic sources. on multiple databases).MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) MLA lists electronic sources as Web Publications.) Any version numbers available. URL (if required. Use n. However.edu/›. if no publisher name is available and n. list the medium as Web. Trans. posting dates. Editor. For instructors or editors that still wish to require the use of URLs. MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.d. .

22 May 2006. The Family of Charles IV. New York. provide the author(s) name(s). Paul. A List Apart Mag. pag. medium of publication. 10 May 2006.. if not publishing date is given. 1922. following the course title. Museum of Modern Art. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers. publisher name. the institution and city where the work is housed. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions. Web. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites.The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. all volume and issue numbers. 4 May 2009. Goya. and then follow the citation format for a website. 2008. "Great Horned Owl Family. Web. American Greetings. Madrid. if no publisher name is available and n. Survey of the Literature of England. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics. Museo Nacional del Prado. Course or Department Websites Give the instructor name.com. If the work is posted via a username. The Artchive. Remember to use n. brandychloe. Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. Felluga. English Department. 23 Apr." Photograph. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. Web. and the date of access. Remember to use n. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. 2009. the date of creation.2 (2008): n. Dolby. Remember to use n. Purdue U. the title of the publication in italics. use the abbreviation n. Mark. An Article in a Web Magazine Provide the author name.p. Museo National del Prado. Klee. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. An Image (Including a Painting. 14 May 2009. Web. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. and the year of publication. 2006.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6. Web.d. article name in quotation marks. publication date.e. Web. Twittering Machine. 2009. Dino. 1800. 5 Nov. Purdue U. use that username for the author. Dino. 2003. the medium of the work. if not publishing date is given. Web. 2009. or Photograph) Provide the artist's name. Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print 19 . eHow. the medium of publication. if no publishing date is given. if no publisher name is available and n. 22 May 2006." eHow. Francisco. and the date of access. Bernstein. Sculpture. title of the Web magazine in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well. Nadine. Purdue U. 20 May 2009. 28 Nov. Web. 20 Apr.d. 2002. 16 Aug.d. Web. then provide the name of the artist. to denote that there is no pagination for the publication. Felluga. the title of the work. followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. 2008. If the work is cited on the web only. Webshots. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals. list the author or alias if known.d. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i. pag. Aug. 31 May 2007. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili. n. the work of art italicized. the name of the article in quotation marks.p. 24 Feb. 22 May 2006. Web.

In addition to this information. MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources Several sources have multiple means for citation. published and unpublished interviews. Web. Allen Brizee. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. the medium of publication. place the author’s name in brackets. the Web site name in italics. Discussion Group. and the medium of publication. Science Online. followed by the subject line in quotation marks. 2009.). the date the message was sent. The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print. especially those that appear in varied formats: films. 8 Feb. 2005: 642-44. An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service) Cite articles from online databases (e. Neyhart.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. DVDs. “Nature's Rotary Electromotors.” Name of Site." Emerging Infectious Diseases 6. or Blog Posting Cite Web postings as you would a standard Web entry. Langhamer. Version number (if available). "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Junge. use the abbreviation n. Follow with the medium of publication and the date of access. and the date of access. This information is no longer required by MLA. the publisher." Message to Joe Barbato. Note: Previous editions of the MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). Claire. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Andrew. Web. periodical. 29 Sept. provide the title of the database italicized. 2009. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Wolfgang. and the posting date. 27 May 2009. Since these articles usually come from periodicals. and electronic sources sections. screen name. Web. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. ProQuest. 2000. LexisNexis. Editor. 2000. which you can access via its link at the bottom of this page.g. endnotes/footnotes. E-mail (including E-mail Interviews) Give the author of the message. If both names are known. and the Works Cited page. Wheelis. the title of the posting in quotation marks. 5 Mar. Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. Web. or compiler name (if available). Provide the medium of publication that you used (in this case. 1 Dec. in-text citations. Remember if the publisher of the site is unknown. including the page range of the article. David.Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print. This resource. “Posting Title. author. and Nathan Nelson. State to whom to message was sent." Message to the author. Web) and the date of access. 2008. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. interviews over email. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 5 Apr. 15 Nov. be sure to consult the appropriate sections of the Works Cited: Periodicals page.” Science 29 Apr. 20 . “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. videocassettes. "Re: Online Tutoring. ProQuest.p. E-mail. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. 2009. Provide the author of the work. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek. E-mail. Medium of publication. published and unpublished conference proceedings.” Historical Journal 50. BoardGameGeek. Contributors:Tony Russell. A Listserv. ScienceDirect) and other subscription services just as you would print sources. Date of access.6 (2000): 595-600.1 (2007): 17396. JSTOR. Mark. Kunka. "Re: Modernist Literature.

add this information after the published proceedings title. Computers and Writing Conference. If the interview has a title. “Mimic and Moralist. Then. give the publisher name (or sponsor). If the interview appears as an independent title. italicize it. Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast) List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Kingsley. use n. FirstName.g. CA: Borgo. Mary. Pete. Print. and the date. Stein.p. Skewed & Reviewed. Keynote speech. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. 1984. Web. the location of the occasion. Print. 2000. Lecture. Keynote address. Guest Lecture). Place of publication: Publisher. if the publisher is not known. Follow with the name of the meeting and organization. or a film series. Place the name of the Website in italics. Print. place it in quotation marks. insert the abbreviation n. ed. The medium of publication is Print. For books. and the date of access.An Interview Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews. 2009. if the date is not known. Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e.d. Lectures. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title. Bob. Online-only Published Interviews List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. a television program. 2009. IN. include the author or editor name after the book title.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men. Craig. add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. Personal interview. Date of Publication. Gaitskill. similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document.d.p. Remember that if no publisher name is give. 21 . You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. the medium of publication (Web).g. Published Conference Proceedings Cite published conference proceedings like a book. Purdue University. the publication date. if the publisher is not known. Address. Remember to use the abbreviation n. Purdue. Reading. West Lafayette. Web. if the date is not known. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview. Mississippi Review 27. Determine the medium of publication (e. LastName. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content. print.p. give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title. Union Club Hotel. 15 Mar. San Bernardino. Skewed & Reviewed. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title. Place the title of the larger work in italics. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book. Zinkievich. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name.3 (1999): 129-50. Personal Interviews Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. although interviews may also appear in other. or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations) Provide the speaker’s name. 23 May 2003. use n. place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Speeches. DVD) and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium. Interview with Charles Bock. By Dale Salwak. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Amis. 1 Dec. Remember to use the abbreviation n.

Conference Date. For television episodes on Videocassette or DVD refer to the “Recorded Television Episodes” section below. Tansey and Fred S. By Richard G.). Museo del Prado. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears. figure. For photographic reproductions of artwork (e. to head the list. Videocassette) 22 . begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director. Print. Ed Wood." The X-Files. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. and the release year. Television. 1800. Dir. provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. see “Recorded Films and Movies” below. Print. Francisco. Radio). list performer names after the director’s name. FirstName. If the date of composition is unknown. List film as the medium of publication. George.g. 1994. Conference Location. Date of Publication. Sarah Jessica Parker. Lucas. Place of publication: Publisher. Broadcast Television or Radio Program Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Ed. and the release year. consult “An Image (Including a Painting. list performer names after the director’s name. End with the publication medium (e. DVD. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings. Conference Editor(s). Perf. followed by the appropriate abbreviation. Fox. ed. Film. Patricia Arquette. If relevant. 10th ed. Francisco. Stephen Baldwin. Goya. or Photograph Include the artist's name. place the abbreviation n. Print. Atlanta. Film. Touchstone. Recorded Television Episodes (e. Gabriel Byrne. Martin Landau. 1977. Recorded Films or Movies List films by their title.g. For artwork in an online format. To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings. Madrid. “Conference Paper Title.). Perf. Finally. Madrid. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.g. FirstName. to head the list. the film studio or distributor. 1995. in place of the date. The Family of Charles IV. Kleiner. call letters of the station followed by the city. and Benecio del Toro. WXIA.g. Place of publication: Publisher.d. To cite a DVD or other video recording. 939. Dir. Museo del Prado. Television. VHS. Chazz Palminteri. Date of Publication. Sculpture. Twentieth Century Fox. including page or reference numbers (plate. 1800. Bryan Singer. Provide the date of composition. DVD. Kevin Spacey. Give the title of the artwork in italics. images of artwork in a book). To emphasize specific performers (perf. dir. LastName. If relevant. Films or Movies List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title. Use the abbreviation perf. Tim Burton. Polygram.LastName. Include the name of the director. Johnny Depp. 19 Jul. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. "The Blessing Way. Use the abbreviation perf. Laser disc). and the date of broadcast.) or directors (dir. Include the name of the director.” Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. 1998. Also include the network name. the distributor. A Painting. The Usual Suspects. etc. DVD. End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication (e. The Family of Charles IV. or Photograph)” by following the link Works Cited: Electronic Sources at the bottom of this page. begin with the presenter’s name. Sculpture. Goya. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location.

Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. PDF file. Smith. In Your Honor. endnotes/footnotes.g. 2003. CD. Audiocassette. Sound Recordings List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers. Writ. perf. Hedberg. Videocassette. writ.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name. JPEGs) Determine the type of work to cite (e.. CD.). citations begin with the artist name. Strategic Grill Locations. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined. Generally. Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date.. RCA. Foo Fighters.g. Audiocassette). George. Otherwise. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace. Album names are italicized. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. performers. "Smells Like Teen Spirit. 2006. This resource. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Phyllis. sound recording) and cite appropriately. For MP3 recordings. producers between the title and the distributor name. Use the abbreviation for “recorded” (Rec. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Microsoft Word file. "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry. Bentley.Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above).. Ludwig van. in-text citations. MP3. Dir. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.g. list the title that would be help researchers locate the recording. Beethoven. Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors. and the medium of publication. Crownstar. Laser disc). Perf. Warner Brothers. DVD.4 (1968): 509-22. End with the medium of publication (e. 23 . “Yorkshire and the Novelist. dir. Nirvana. Geffen. Follow with the series name in italics.” The Kenyon Review 30. JSTOR. the name of the work. Beethoven. Mitch. include this information before the manufacturer name.) or performers (perf. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e. Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors (e. the date of creation. NBC Symphony Orchestra. Kevin Bright. If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation.d. Allen Brizee. Digital Files (PDFs.. Comedy Central. CD. MP3)..” 2005. LP.g. Ludwig van. if date is unknown). Cond. List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e.g. Arturo Toscanini. article. Moonlight Sonata. when needed. give the author’s name. Microsoft Word file. list composer and performer information after the album title. They might also be listed by composers (comp. Spoken-Word Albums Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums. image.g. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n. JPEG file. DVD. the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season). The 9 Symphonies. prod. RCA. CD. Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma." Nevermind. writers. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e. 2004.). MP3s. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution. and the Works Cited page. 2005.)." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. 1991. PDF. Contributors:Tony Russell. 2003. see the “Digital Files” section below.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.

unless referring to an internet suffix. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. White Lowercase Letter Abbreviations Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter. and Chapter 8 of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. .e. James.com.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. CD. This guide provides only a very small portion of the abbreviations suggested by MLA. advisor. J.. They're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. Tolkien. 3rd edition. 7th edition.. R. and the Works Cited page. D. For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing.m. esp. For extraordinary questions that aren't covered clearly in the style manual or haven't been answered by your teacher or advisor.gov (URL suffixes) Note: Degree names are a notable exception to the lowercase abbreviation rule.. Each section cross-references the appropriate sections and page numbers of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.g.. 24 . except in the case of proper names: US. Print Resources from the Modern Language Association MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd Edition (ISBN-13: 978-0-87352-297-7) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. or other campus resources for help.MLA Additional Resources It's always best to consult the current MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question. MLA Abbreviations There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA.. TA. HTML P. PhD. contact the Writing Lab for help at (765) 494-3723 or email us at this form. in-text citations. Eng.edu. 7th Edition (ISBN-13: 978-1-60329-024-1) Contributors:Tony Russell.). R. E. it's also a good idea to consult your professor. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. PsyD Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations: a. MA. Uppercase Letter Abbreviations Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters. Allen Brizee. conf. where the period should come before the abbreviation: assn. B. see Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. This resource. e. though there are always exceptions to these rules. EdD. . . Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. endnotes/footnotes. If you are using MLA style for a class assignment. i.

Introduction (261-62) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Abbreviate country. or Section 8. Manchester. for compiler Fwd. 3rd edition.3. Sept. see Section 7.2. for circa Comp.Other notable exceptions: mph. For more information on time designations. ns For more on upper. Eng. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher.. 7th edition. Time Designations (235) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers: 25 . Publisher Names Shorten publisher's names as much as possible in book citations. Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations: Jan.. for anonymous C. Geographic Names (264-69) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. for variant Writ. Logan. or Section 8. Time Designations Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations. see Section 7. Scholarly Abbreviations List common scholarly abbreviations as they appear below: • • • • • • • • • • Anon. 7th edition. 3rd edition.1. Time Designations (262-63) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. for journal Lib. os. for series Var.1. or ca.3. Geographic Names (236-40) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. see Section 7. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (269-82) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (240-47) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. for section Ser. Introduction (234) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. or Section 8. or sect. 3rd edition. 7th edition. QC For more information on time designations. Geographic Names Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher's city is not well known or could be confused with another city. see Section 7.2. for library Sec. rpm..3. 7th edition.and lowercase letter abbreviation designations. or Section 8. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names. and state names. Nov. UT. for written by or writer For more information on scholarly abbreviations. province. for foreword Jour. 3rd edition. Sherbrooke.4. Abbreviations in Citations Condense citations as much as possible using abbreviations.

" Environmental Defense Fund. May 2007. 24 May 2009. Consult Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbook for a more complete list. 25 May 2009.) Little (Little. of An Inconvenient Truth. (Academy for Educational Development. & HarperCollins Publishers. Works Cited "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action. Interview by Andrew C. New York Times. McGraw for McGraw-Hill) Use standard abbreviations when possible (e. Allen Brizee. Web. or Section 8. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Press.com. “Clinton on Climate Change. House) Cite only the last name of a publisher with the name of one person (e. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet. Davis Guggenheim. Web. Publishers. Dev. Billy West. 3rd edition. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.g. 24 May 2009. Davis Guggenheim. Publishers. Inc.3. Contributors:Tony Russell. Norton for W.g.g. New York Times.) Harper (Harper and Row. endnotes/footnotes. W. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability.).g. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Web. Norton) and only the last name of the first listed for a publisher with multiple names (e. New York: Springer. 2005. ERIC. dir. This resource. Roger.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Al Gore. business abbreviations (like Corp. "An Inconvenient Truth. Paramount. Inc. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. MLA. or Inc.4.)." Rev. 25 May 2009.org." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14. Publishers’ Names (247-49) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers.” New York Times. 24 May 2009. or Soc. Dean. Inc. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. see Section 7. 2007. Clinton. Web. Assn. 2 June 2006.) MIT P (The MIT Press) NCTE (The National Council of Teachers of English) SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) UMI (University Microfilms International) For more information on publisher names. DVD. MLA Sample Works Cited Page This handout provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2009 format.) Gale (Gale Research. Dir.• • • • • Omit articles. Publishers’ Names (282-85) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 22 May 2007. • • • • • • • • Acad. GPO) Use only U and P when referring to university presses (e.) Use the acronym of the publisher if the company is commonly know by that abbreviation (e. John. Web. Leroux.1 (2007): 27-36. Brown and Company. 7th edition. Cooler Heads Coalition. Gowdy. Marcel. Inc. Environmental Defense Fund." New York Times. and the Works Cited page. Perf. Cornelia. Ebert. GlobalWarming. An Inconvenient Truth. Print. for Educ.g. in-text citations. Rogerebert. Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use. Bill.g. 26 . Inc. and descriptive words (e. 8 May 2007. Revkin. Print. 2006. Sun-Times News Group.

or diagrams with spreadsheet or publishing software.Milken. Reproduce distorted graphs. endnotes/footnotes.4 (2006): 63. Print. and Daniel Kahneman. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. and the second sample uses endnotes. Contributors:Tony Russell. Myron Scholes. print. Always represent the original source information faithfully and avoid unethical practices of false representation or manipulation. Often pixilation and distortion occurs when writers manipulate image sizes. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. in-text citations. 6 May 2007. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Economic Theory and Global Warming. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances. how it contributes to the purpose of the document and the reader's understanding. for documents that will be read electronically. and Examples The purpose of visual materials or other illustrations is to enhance the audience's understanding of information in the document and/or awareness of a topic. MLA Tables. Contributors:Tony Russell. but be sure to include all source information. MLA Sample Papers This resource contains two sample MLA papers that adhere to the 2009 updates. podcast). Web. or. Use illustrations sparingly. Consider the purpose of each illustration.. Allen Brizee. Print Nordhaus. Writers can embed several types of visuals using the most basic word processing software: diagrams. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Print. or distorted images for both print and electronic documents. To download these sample MLA papers. select the MLA 2009 Sample Papers PDF file in the Media box above. Use illustrations of the best quality. tables." Science 9 Nov. and the Works Cited page. ---. appreciation for the subject. Gary Becker.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. 2001: 1283-84. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 24 May 2009.g. Web. musical scores. Uzawa. US News & World Rept. Decide what items can best improve the document's ability to augment readers' understanding of the information. and whether or not the audience will be able to view and/or understand the illustration easily. Do not provide illustrations for illustrations' sake. Science Online. Figures.2 (2006): 31-34. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can be. Avoid blurry. 2003. 24 May 2009. General Guidelines • • • Collect sources. and the Works Cited page. Bret. Allen Brizee. Gather the source information required for MLA Documentation for the source medium of the illustration (e. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." New Perspectives Quarterly 23.). and/or illustration of the main points.). Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. pixilated. The first sample paper uses footnotes. "Global Warming Economics. Hirofumi. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA." American Economic Review 96. in-text citations. William D. • 27 . Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Keep images in their original sizes or use photo editing software to modify them.com. Determine what types of illustrations best suit your purpose. endnotes/footnotes. Shulte. This resource. web. This resource." Usnews. audio/video applications. "Putting a Price on Pollution. Michael. photographs.

a label. 5 Feb. and Construction Statistics had not appeared in the entry.• Do not use illustrations to boost page length. • • • The illustration label and number should always appear in two places: the document main text (e. Relevant page numbers follow the publication information. Even ifManufacturing. 2008. Examples . Source Information and Note Form For source information. Dept. authors do not need to list the source in the Works Cited list. of Commerce. and Census Bureau would have necessitated the use of a semicolon before and after the title and between ensuing sections to the end of the entry. In this example.) Each illustration must include. of Commerce. Captions provide titles or explanatory notes. These entries appear much like standard MLA bibliographic entries with a few exceptions: • • • • Author names are in First_Name Last_Name format. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations. Furthermore. 5 Feb. Source information documentation will always depend upon the medium of the source illustration. of Commerce. while illustrations enhance. a number. MLA lists sources in note form. except in the case of manuscripts that being prepared for publication.) The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition states that if the table or illustration caption provides complete citation information about the source and the source is not cited in the text. see Note on Manuscripts below. the multiple "author names" of United States. their inclusion here (US Dept. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. the publisher and date in a standard entry are separated by a comma and belong together. Mining. Remember that texts explain. 2008. 1). Publication information for books (location: publisher. Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits. instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the document. and Construction Statistics prompt the need for semicolons in order for the series information to be read easily.g. Commas are substituted for periods (except in the case of the period that ends the entry). table 1a. Print. 28 . In the case of student papers. the commas in Manufacturing.Documenting Source Information in "Note Form" Book Tom Shachtman. 23 Dec. 1) and near the illustration itself (Fig. Website (using semicolons to group like information together) United States. year) appears in parentheses. Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight of the document. Census Bureau. of Commerce. see fig. Dept. 2008) also necessitates the semicolons. Captions. (See examples below. and Construction Statistics. Labels. (For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication. and Source Information Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document. Web. Mining. 1999) 35. Manufacturing. Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult to ascertain as being like or separate. US Dept. Mining. a caption and/or source information. thus.

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