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Trade Union Chris

Trade Union Chris

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University of Salford

MSc Human Resource Management and Development

Comparative Industrial Relations 29166 (Assignment)

Christopher Clarke

Roll Number: @00193776

Word Count: 2092

2006. representing 57% of those in employment. p179).reference. as distinguished from general workers or a union including all workers in an industry (dictionary. In the second half of the twentieth century. There are numerous examples of the decline in power and influence of trade unions across the world.Is Trade Unionism in Irreversible Decline? Discuss with Reference to Different Countries of your Choice. a trade union is defined as ‘A labour union of craftspeople or workers in related crafts. more concerted efforts by the Trade Union Congress (TUC) in Britain to rebrand itself to workers and to recruit members has resulted in more opportunity for a reversal in decline in Britain than in Japan. trade unionism in Britain suffered from a severe decline in both recognition and membership.’ The essay begins with a quick analysis of trade unionism within Britain and Japan. This essay examines whether trade unionism is in irreversible decline. However . During the 1980s and 1990s trade union membership fell by 5 million (Smith. The essay then moves onto discussing whether this decline is irreversible in either country before concluding that although there are certain similarities in the decline of trade unionism in both countries. Union membership peaked at just over 13. 2011). highlighting the actual decline in the second half of the twentieth century of the influence and recognition of trade unions within both countries.2 million members in 1979. Williams. For the purpose of this essay. focusing in particular on the United Kingdom and Japan.

It was in these older industries that trade unions generally had the bedrock of their support as they typically employed male. Paul Edwards (2003. Thornhill.8 million. However trade unionism was not merely weakened along political lines. a 40% decline. p243) has tried to explain the decline along a political viewpoint claiming that a ‘neo-liberal assault weakened trade unionism in terms of coverage and influence within the workplace.’ Whilst this argument has some merit. General industrial restructuring led to the closure of many mature or declining industries in the United Kingdom. Consequently militancy tactics. . Bamber and Landsbury (1998. However. p152). 2003.by 2000 membership had declined to 7. Saunders. it is too narrow an explanation to explain the increasing apathy towards unions. p154). Previously. failed and strikes collapsed. Certainly. manual workers who were significantly more likely to be a member of a union (Lewis. p55) have correctly suggested that intense privatization resulted in many firms abandoning policies of being a ‘good employer. Margaret Thatcher’s privatization policies hurt trade unionism in the United Kingdom during the second half of the twentieth century. Thornhill. who had few ties to trade unions fought back and resisted strikes. used by unions representing workers for example at British Leyland. Thatcher’s right-wing government. Saunders. left-wing Labour governments that trade unions supported were open to negotiation. resulting in the denting of trust in the power of trade unions to deliver workers protection (University of Salford lecture.’ Consequently different strategic goals and in particular a more profit orientated approach led to many employers resisting and marginalising unions. 9/7/11). and a representation of just 29% of the workforce (Lewis. full time. 2003.

Whilst the United Kingdom for example has a few trade unions.000 unions (University of Salford lecture. However. economic hardships within Japan in the last 30 years have meant that trade unions have faced an ongoing battle to keep the privileges that their workers had previously enjoyed. These guarantees included lifetime employment.With this power base diminishing the downward spiral of membership in Britain is easy to trace. Japan’s trade union membership is spread amongst around 71. 27/6/11). This has damaged the credibility of trade unions in Japan because many . trade unions have had to cede to employers about employment guarantees. As a result. Japan’s trade union system is unique in comparison to the rest of the world. the structure of the Japanese economy formed in the post World War II era was unique and based on systems of honour and guarantees to employees. Additionally. Similarly in Japan trade unions have struggled to cope with challenging economic and industrial restructuring in the last 30 years. 27/6/11). These privileges were awarded to Japanese workers through a boom period for Japanese industry between the mid 1950s and the mid 1980s where it was able to take advantage of its low military expenditure and the post-war rebuilding efforts of its competitors (University of Salford lecture. 27/6/11). where workers were guaranteed a job for life and seniority based wages where pay would be guaranteed to increase in conjunction with time spent at a company (University of Salford lecture. However it is the commitment to provide such privileges to workers that has presented Japanese trade unions with persistent problems.

Also. union membership stagnated as worker apathy increased and by the mid 1990s had declined to around 23%. In 1949 there were 6. their opportunities for future growth differ significantly in the United Kingdom in relation to Japan. trade unions have not been successful in coping with industrial changes in Japan in the last 30 years and protecting their workers from experiencing a loss of many of their privileges. giving itself a new mission and logo (Rose. 2000. the guarantee ends when there is a threat to the survival of the company. However after 1970. Consequently. This has given the body a new sense of purpose and a direction for future growth. lifetime employment was only available to full time staff (Eaton. as witnessed with Nissan. Additionally with the seniority based wages. 1998.6 million union members. Basic salary was low so guarantees of wage increases were irrelevant when the majority of the overall wage comes from bonuses (Eaton. Aided by a relatively strong governing body. unions have begun to focus a great deal more of their resources in advertising and recruitment (Blyton. For example. a peak density of 56%. In the United Kingdom there has been a concerted effort for trade unions to fight back into the workplace. p164). there was much conjecture in the promises too. The TUC has also taken on a wider rebranding of itself. 2000. Increase in wages was tied to climbing the ladder. p27). p253). This can be witnessed by attempts to reform its internal . (Bamber. So firms unsure about future demand developed a policy of only hiring temporary staff. p28). However although their decline is mirrored and beyond doubt. Landsbury. 2004. Thus.guarantees that workers have enjoyed turned out to be entirely superficial. 2008. the TUC. Turnbull. p178). In other words people were encouraged to compete. trade unions in both countries have struggled to remain relevant in modern industrial relations.

Lewis. showing that in fact. By 1998 this had fallen to 42% of workplaces. The coalition has already shown that it is willing to fight unions on issues such as pensions and pay cuts by facing strikes by unions such as UNISON this year. unions will struggle to make recruitment initiatives a success. represented by the Employment Relations Act of 1999 which introduced provisions for the statuary recognition of trade unions (Lewis. Recent government reforms however have given hope to trade unions aiming to increase their presence in the workplace. p182). In 1984 trade unions were recognized in 66% of workplaces. 2008. Additionally. Saunders. These sources still tend to be older male workers. Thornhill. On the political side. unions still face the problem of a high density of members from a few sources. in recognition terms at least. Saunders and Thornhill (2008. p155) agree with this contention suggesting that trade unions will continue to decline unless they . However although there are signs that trade unions in the United Kingdom are fighting back there are still areas that are impeding their progress. trade unions in Britain are not in irreversible decline. Saunders and Thornhill (2003. the recent election of the coalition government has brought new challenges to the trade union movement. 2008. offers a reverse to the evidence provided by Rose. Thus Lewis et al. p158).structure in order to facilitate easier external relations.’ Without a presence in the workplace. for example with employers. the government and other pressure groups (Rose. p154) who suggest ‘According to the WERS series trade union recognition had fallen significantly through the 1980s and 1990s. The recent reign of the Labour government from 1997 to 2010 saw a change in attitude for unions. The need for this more aggressive and militant approach is highlighted by Lewis.

p244) agrees with this assertion claiming that unions ‘have yet to shed the pattern of male dominance that continues to inform activity at all levels. Edwards (2003. Only when these issues are resolved will unions be able to extend further into the private sector in terms of union participation. Therefore it is evident that trade unionism in the United Kingdom is not in irreversible decline.8% in 1949.2% in 1945 to 55. However the social structure of Japan is currently affecting its economy and its trade unions. Blyton and Turnbull (2004.’ Rose (2008. 1998. p253). Although it is still too early to fully judge how the concerted efforts by the TUC have been in improving the standing of trade unions in the workplace it is clear through the progress already seen that opportunities for progression exist. ‘The issues facing the trade union movement in the new millennium is certainly considerable but not insurmountable.reach out to younger workers.’ However. p186) also highlights the fact that there have been important small increases amongst groups generally resistant to membership. and have failed to address the interests of young workers. Landsbury. there is evidence of small victories for the movement and progress into the workplace. shows just how popular trade unions had become to the Japanese workforce (Bamber. There is an aging labour force which means that . Membership continues to decline but unions continue to attract new members and most workers tend to hold positive views about unions. trade unions are in a much bigger state of flux. The increase in union density from 3. By contrast in Japan. p169) contend. Trade unions relied on a workforce that trusted their power to protect workplace guarantees such as lifetime employment and seniority based wages.

This essay has highlighted the decline and the potential opportunities in the United Kingdom and Japan. 27/6/11). p50) suggests that trade unions have been so successful in Japan. This has created a fracture at the heart of the system and individual employees now have the power as opposed to the trade unions. In fact Eaton 2000. Consequently as industry will be unwilling to cede to concessions. Whilst it is beyond doubt that both countries have seen a huge decline in the . 2000m p31). p271) highlight the importance of Japanese industry to eliminate their barriers to growth and invest in various innovations. 27/6/11). The idea of Japan as a model for economic policy has collapsed because of huge debt problems that have threatened Japanese banks and other financial institutions (Eaton. that employers have been given more incentive to make a concerted effort to rid them the workplace of union power. Many young people have now come into a position of power as a result and are demanding higher wages from their prospective employers. Until industry can form the ‘Gales of creative destruction’ and regain competitive advantage then it will not be able to provide its workers with the guarantees they previously held.under old Japanese seniority based wages. a significant proportion of the labour force is on high wages (University of Salford lecture. notions of collective bargaining have suffered as Japanese employees fight for the best package they can get as Japanese industry continues to restructure in the wake of increased foreign competition (University of Salford lecture. Bamber and Landsbury (1998. Therefore. significantly increasing wages for workers. Therefore. unlike in the United Kingdom there is no concerted effort by a main governing body to reverse the decline of trade union presence in the Japanese workplace. trade unions will struggle to remain relevant to workers.

Importantly there is recent evidence in the United Kingdom that many workers are willing to join unions if there is opportunity or incentive to be had (Blyton. Thornhill. from. Turnbull. This is certainly not evidence of trade unionism in irreversible decline. P. Comparative Employment Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan -Eaton.com/browse/trade+union -University of Salford Lecture: Industrial Relations in Japan: 27/6/11 -University of Salford Presentation Lecture: Trade Unions: 9/7/11 .ssex: Prentice Hall -Rose. (2003) Employee Relations. (2003).power and influence in their unions. M. 2004. Turnbull. (2004). J. P. Williams. P. (2006) Contemporary Employment Relations. P. Retrieved 26/7/11. Oxford: Oxford University Press -Bamber. London: Sage Publications -Blyton.reference. R. E. (2008). G. Oxford: Polity Press -Edwards. London: Pearson Education. D. Industrial Relations. Employment Relations. it is in the United Kingdom where the biggest potential for reinvigoration of the unions lies. Bibliography: -Adam-Smith. Landsbury. (1998) International and Comparative Employment Relations. The Dynamics of Employee Relations. -Trade Union Definition. Saunders. S. Without a concerted effort by unions to reach out to workers and regain their credibility they will continue to be increasingly marginalised in the Japanese workplace. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing -Lewis. p169). However the Japanese system of trade unionism is still suffering in the wake of a period of intense industrial and economic restructuring in the last 30 years. http://dictionary. A. (2000).

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