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In humans. #2 isSubmandibular gland. Saliva is secreted in large amounts (1-1. #3 is Sublingual gland . digestion begins in the oral cavity where food is chewed.5 litres/day) by three pairs of exocrine salivary glands (parotid. submandibular. Salivary glands: #1 is Parotid gland. and is mixed with the chewed food by the tongue. and sublingual) in the oral cavity.
. and contains digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase.The saliva serves to clean the oral cavity and moisten the food. An additional enzyme. lingual lipase. hydrolyzes long-chain triglycerides into partial glycerides and free fatty acids. It also contains mucus. a glycoprotein which helps soften the food and form it into a bolus. which aids in the chemical breakdown of polysaccharides such as starch into disaccharides such as maltose.
Sublingual. Minor salivary and Von Ebner’s glands discharge their secretions into the oral cavity. .Submandibular.Salivary Glands: The Parotid.
The parotid gland secretes alpha-amylase which is the first step in the decomposition of starches during mastication. . They are each found wrapped around the mandibular ramus. to facilitate mastication and swallowing and to begin the digestion of starches. and secrete saliva through Stensen's ducts into the oral cavity.Parotid Glands The paired parotid glands are the largest of the salivary glands.4 bonds. It breaks down amylose (straight chain starch) and amylopectin (branched starch) by hydrolyzing alpha 1. The secretion produced is mainly serous in nature.
Submandibular Glands The submandibular (submaxillary) glands are a pair of glands located beneath the lower jaws. The secretion produced is a mixture of both serous fluid and mucus. The mucous cells are the most active and therefore the major product of the submandibular glands is saliva. the serous cells produce salivary amylase. which aids in the breakdown of starches in the mouth. Approximately 70% of saliva in the oral cavity is produced by the submandibular glands. . Mucous cells secrete mucin which aids in the lubrication of the food bolus as it travels through the esophagus. even though they are much smaller than the parotid glands. The secretory viscous cells of the submandibular gland have distinct functions. In particular. and enters the oral cavity via Wharton's ducts. superior to the digastric muscles.
and exit from 8-20 excretory ducts.Sublingual Gland The sublingual glands are a pair of glands located beneath the tongue. Approximately 5% of saliva entering the oral cavity come from these glands. Unlike the other two major glands. . however it is categorized as a mixed gland. the ductal system of the sublingual glands do not have striated ducts. The secretion produced is mainly mucous in nature. The sublingual gland consists mostly of Mucous acini capped with serous demilunes and is therefore categorized as a mucous gland. anterior to the submandibular glands.
. They are 1-2mm in diameter and unlike the other glands. they are not encapsulated by connective tissue only surrounded by it.Minor Salivary Glands There are over 600 minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity within the submucosa of the oral mucosa. Their secretion is mainly mucous in nature (except for Von Ebner's glands) and have many functions such as coating the oral cavity with saliva. A minor salivary gland may have a common excretory duct with another gland. or may have its own excretory duct. The gland is usually a number of acini connected in a tiny lobule. Problems with dentures are usually associated with minor salivary glands.
and they secrete lingual lipase. beginning the process of lipid hydrolysis in the mouth. . These glands empty their serous secretion into the base of the moats located around the foliate and circumvallate papillae. This secretion presumably flushes material from the moat to enable the taste buds to respond rapidly to changing stimuli.Von Ebner's Glands Von Ebner's glands (also called gustatory glands) are located around circumvallate and foliate papillae in the tongue.
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