Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of

Post Graduate Diploma In Information Technology


Submitted By: BRIJ MOHAN DAMMANI 200852200

Submitted to: Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning, Pune 411016, Maharashtra, India

A project like this takes quite a lot of time to do properly. As is often the case, this project owes its existence and certainly its quality to a number of people, whose name does not appear on the cover. Among them is one of the most extra ordinary programmers it has been my pleasure to work with Mr. Ankur Kaushik, who did more than just check the facts by offering thoughtful logic where needed to improve the project as a whole. We also thank to Mr. Sh. Hardayal Singh (H.O.D. -MCA Deptt. Engineering College Bikaner) who deserves credit for helping me done the project and taking care of all the details that most programmers really don’t think about. Errors and confusions are my responsibility, but the quality of the project is to their credit and we can only thank them. We are highly thankful and feel obliged to Milan Travels staff members for nice CoOperation and valuable suggestions in my project work. We owe my obligation to my friends and other colleagues in the computer field for their co-operation and support. We thank God for being on my side.

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Introduction Development model System Study Project Monitoring System System Analysis Operating Environment System Design System Testing System Implementation Conclusion Scope of the Project

In bus reservation system there has been a collection of buses, agent who are booking tickets for customer’s journey which give bus number and departure time of the bus. According to its name it manages the details of all agent, tickets, rental details, and timing details and so on. It also manages the updating of the objects. In the tour detail there is information about bus, who has been taking customers at their destination, it also contain the detailed information about the customer, who has been taken from which bus and at what are the number of members he or she is taking his/her journey. This section also contain the details of booking time of the seat(s) or collecting time of the tickets, this section also contain the booking date and the name of agent which is optional, by which the customer can reserve the seats for his journey In Bus no. category it contains the details of buses which are old/new. New buses are added with the details with bus no, from city to the city, type of the bus, rent of a single seat, if the bus has sleeper than the cost of sleeper, if the cabin has the facility for sitting than the cost of cabin seats, tour timings of the new bus has also been stored. How many buses are currently given and available in office? In seats specification, it gives the list of given issued and currently available seats and contain the information about seats like sleeper, cabin etc. The main objective of this project is to provide the better work efficiency, security, accuracy, reliability, feasibility. The error occurred could be reduced to nil and working conditions can be improved.

Development model Software Process Model Our project life cycle uses the waterfall model. Software requirements analysis Software requirements analysis involves requirements for both the system and the software to be document and reviewed with the customer. 2. also known as classic life cycle model or linear sequential model. System/information Engineering and Modeling System Engineering and Analysis encompass requirements gathering at the system level with a small amount of Top-level design and analysis. Information Engineering encompasses requirements gathering at the strategic business level and at the business area level. System/Information Design Analysis Engineering Code Test The Waterfall Model The waterfall model encompasses the following activities: 1. .

program testing begins. Design Software design is actually a multi-step process that focuses on for distinct attributes of a program: data structure. conducting test to uncover errors and ensure that define input will produce actual results that agree with required results. that is. 4. Change will occur because errors have been encountered. Support Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the customer. ensuring that all statement have been tested. software architecture. because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements. Testing Once code has been generated. interfaces representation and procedural detail. and on the functional externals. 5. Code Generation Code-Generation phase translates the design into a machine-readable form. The testing focuses on the logical internals of the software. System Study . The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be accessed for quality before coding begins.3. 6.

performance. the resource that will be required. These estimates are made within limited time frame at the beginning of a software project and should be updated regularly as the project progresses. and reliability. During making such a plan we visited site many more times. Software scope describes the data and control to be processed. and schedule.1 Project planning objectives The objective of software project planning is to provide a framework that enables the management to make reasonable estimates of resources. 3. .Before the project can begin. constraints. In addition. interfaces. and the time that will elapse from start to finish. function. estimates should attempt to define best case and worst case scenarios so that project outcomes can be bounded.2. cost. it becomes necessary to estimate the work to be done. we were very much worried that what we say will be misinterpreted.2 Software Scope The first activity in software project planning is the determination of software scope.1 Gathering Information Necessary for Scope The most commonly used technique to bridge communication gap between customer and the software developer to get the communication process started is to conduct a preliminary meeting or interview. 3. Neither of us knows what to ask or say. When I visited the site we have been introduced to the Manager of the center. there were two other persons out of one was the technical adviser and another one was the cost accountant. 3.

We started to asking context-free questions; that is, a set of questions that will lead to a basic understanding of the problem. The first set of context-free questions was like this: What do you want to be done? Who will use this solution? What is wrong with your existing working systems? Is there another source for the solution?

Can you show us (or describe) the environment in which the solution

will be used? After first round of above asked questions. We revisited the site and asked many more questions considering to final set of questions.

Are our questions relevant to the problem that you need to be Are we asking too many questions? Should we be asking you anything else?

• •

3.2.2 Feasibility
Not everything imaginable is feasible, not even in software. Software feasibility has four dimensions: Technology—is a project technically feasible? Is it within the state of the art? Finance – Is it financially feasible? Time—will the project be completed within specified time? Resources—does the organization have the resources needed to succeed? After taking into consideration of above said dimensions, we found it could be feasible for us to develop this project.

3.3 Software Project Estimation
Software cost and effort estimation will never be an exact science. Too may variables—human, technical, environmental, political—can affect the ultimate cost of software and effort applied to develop it. However, software project estimation can be transformed a black art to a series of systematic steps that provide estimates with acceptable risk. To achieve reliable cost and effort estimates, a number of options arise:

Delay estimation until late in the project (since, we can achieve 100% accurate estimates after the project is complete!)

2. Base estimates on similar projects that have already been completed. 3. Use relatively simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and effort estimates. 4. Use one or more empirical models for software cost and effort estimation.

Unfortunately, the first option, however attractive, is not practical. Cost estimates must be provided “Up front”. However, we should recognize that the longer we wait, the more we know, and the more we know, the less likely we are to make serious errors in our estimates. The second option can work reasonably well, if the current project is quite similar to past efforts and other project influences (e.g., the customer, business conditions, the SEE, deadlines) are equivalent. Unfortunately past experience has not always been a good indicator of future results. The remaining options are viable approaches the software project estimation. Ideally, the techniques noted for each option be applied in tandem; each used as cross check for the other. Decomposition techniques take a “divide and conquer” approach to software project estimation. By decomposing a project into major

functions and related software engineering activities, cost and effort estimation can be performed in the stepwise fashion. Empirical estimation models can be used to complement decomposition techniques and offer a potentially valuable estimation approach in their own right. A model based on experience (historical data) and takes the form D = f (vi) Where d is one of a number of estimated values (e.g., effort, cost, project duration and we are selected independent parameters (e.g., estimated LOC (line of code)). Each of the viable software cost estimation options is only as good as the historical data used to seed the estimate. If no historical data exist, costing rests on a very shaky foundation.

Project Monitoring System
4.1 PERT Chart:
Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) are two project scheduling methods that can be applied to software development. These techniques are driven by following information: • Estimates of Effort • A decomposition of the product function • The selection of the appropriate process model and task set • Decomposition of tasks PERT chart for this application software is illustrated in figure 3.1. The critical Path for this Project is Design, Code generation and Integration and testing.


Requirement Analysis May 17, 2010

Design May 24, 2010

Integration and test July 20, 2010

Coding June 10, 2010 Finish Aug 15, 2010 Documentation and Report Aug 1, 2010

Figure 4.1 PERT charts for “Bus Reservation System”.

1 Identify needs and benefits Meet with customers Identified needs and constraints Established Product Statement Wk1. Work tasks Planned Actual start start Planned complete Actual Complete Notes 1.d5 .d2 Wk1.d2 Wk1.4 Isolation software elements Coding Wk5. duration. completion date for each task.d3 Wk4.d3 1. Below in figure 4. 2010.d3 Wk3.d3 Wk1.2 Defined Desiredoutput/control/input (OCI) Scope modes of interacton Documented (OCI) FTR: reviewed OCI with customer Revised OCI as required Milestone: OCI defined 1.d1 Wk5.d2 Wk1.d1 Wk4. Start: May 17.4.d2 Wk2.d1 Wk5.d1 Wk3.2 Gantt Chart: Gantt chart which is also known as Timeline chart contains the information like effort.d1 Wk6. start date.d1 Wk2.d5 W7. All project tasks have been listed in the left-hand column.d5 is time consuming.d5 Wk4.d3 Wk1.d3 Wk1.d1 Wk1.d3 Analysis and design Wk2.d1 Wk1.d3 Wk1.d2 Wk1.d3 Wk2.d2 Wk1.d2 1. more Milestone: Product statement defined Wk1.2 we have shown the Gantt chart for the project.d3 Wk1.d3 Wk1.d2 Wk4.3 Defined the function/behavior Milestone: Data Modeling completed Wk5. A timeline chart can be developed for the entire project.d2 Wk1.

d3 Finish: Aug 15.5 Integration and Testing W9.Reports 1.d3 W8. d1—day1. 2010 Figure: 4. .d6 W9.d1 Wk7. Note: Wk1—week1.2 Gant chart for the Bus reservation System.d6 W11.

The behavior of the software (as a consequence of external events) must be represented. architectural interface. The 4. By applying these principles. Requirement analysis proves the software designer with a representation of information. we approach the problem systematically. The models that depict information function and behavior must be partitioned in a manner that uncovers detail in layered (or hierarchical) fashion. The functions that the software is to perform must be defined. and component -level designs.1 Analysis Principles Over the past two decades. refinement. function. 3. and behavior that can be translated to data. The information domain of a problem must be represented and understood. To perform the job properly we need to follow as set of underlying concepts and principles of Analysis. Models are used so that the characteristics of function and behavior can be communicated in a compact fashion. information domain is examined so that function may be understood more completely. modeling. Investigators have identified analysis problems and their caused and have developed a variety of modeling notations and corresponding sets of heuristics to overcome them. 5. 5. a large number of analysis modeling methods have been developed.System Analysis Software requirements analysis is a process of discovery. The analysis process should move from essential information toward implementation detail. Each analysis method has a unique point of view. Essential and . However. Partitioning is applied to reduce complexity. and specification. all analysis methods are related by a set of operational principles: 1. 2.

and produce output. and (3) Information structure. To fully understand the information domain. the data object. the content of a control object called System status might be defined by a string of bits. Software is built to process data. no of hour flying and so forth. manipulate it in some way. The information domain contains three different views of the data and control as each is processed by a computer program: (1) information contend and relationships (the data model) (2) information flow. Therefore. Status declare is a composite of a number of important pieces of data: the aircraft’s name. For example. Information content represents the individual data and control objects that constitute some larger collection of information transformed by the software. the content of Status declares is defined by the attributes that are needed to create it. ground run. Each bit represents a .1. Similarly. 5. the aircraft’s model.1 The Information Domain All software applications can be collectively called data processing.We have tried to takes above said principles to heart so that we could provide an excellent foundation for design. The first operational analysis principle requires an examination of the information domain and the creation of a data model.implementation vies of the software are necessary to accommodate the logical constraints imposed any processing requirements and the physical constraints imposed by other system elements. to accept input. to transform data from one form to another. each of these views should be considered. that is. This fundamental statement of objective is true whether we build batch software for a payroll system or realtime embedded software to control fuel flow to an automobile engine.

For example. Input Objects Transfor m #1 Intermediate data and control Transfo rm #2 Output Object(s) Data/Contro l Store ..1. Referring to figure 6. Information flow represents the manner in which date and control change as each moves through a system. a disk file or memory buffer). Along this transformation path. Figure 5. The transformations applied to the date are functions or sub functions that a program must perform.separate item of information that indicates whether or not a particular device is onor off-line. the date object Status declare has one or more relationships with the objects like total no of flying. input objects are transformed to intermediate information (data and / or control). additional information may be introduced from an existing date store ( e. Data and control that move between two transformations define the interface for each function. which is further transformed to output.g. period left for the maintenance of aircraft an others. Data and control objects can be related to other data and control objects.1 Information flow and transformation.

in our case the project will remain in the wait state until: • We click OK command button when first window appears • An external event like mouse click cause an interrupt and consequently main window appears by asking the username and password. and polling) that is changed only when some even occurs.5. This stimulus/response characteristic forms the basis of the behavioral model. and in order to accomplish this.g. For example. computing. The functional model begins with a single context level model (i.1. printing. the name of the software to be built). . it must perform at lease three generic functions: • Input • Processing • And output.an externally observable mode of behavior (e. Functional models. waiting.e. Over a series of iterations. Software transforms information. • This external system (providing password and username) signals the project to act in desired manner as per need. Most software responds to events from the outside world. more and more functional detail is gathered.2 Modeling The second and third operational analysis principles require that we build models of function and behavior. Behavioral models.. A computer program always exists in some state. until a through delineation of all system functionality is represented..

5. for this reason. To issulstate these partitioning approaches let us consider our project “Bus Reservation System”. Conceptually. partitioning decomposes problem intoits constituent parts. and behavioral domains of software can be partitioned. we establish a hierarchical representation of function or information and then partition and uppermost element by (1) (2) exposing increasing detail by moving vertically in the Functionally decomposing the problem my moving hierarchy or horizontally in the hierarchy. se tend to partition (divide) such problems into parts that can be easily under stood and establish interfaces between the part so that overall function can be accomplished. functional. The fourth operational analysis principle suggests that the information. In essence.1. Horizontal partitioning: Bus Reservation System .2 Partitioning (Divide) Problems are often too large and complex to be understood as a whole.A behavioral model creates a representation of the states of the software and the events that cause software to change state. Horizontal partitioning and vertical partitioning of Bus Reservation system is shown below.

the software (Bus Reservation System) used to program and configure the system. After this step only user can work in the environments (right cornor naming operation.System configuration Password acceptance Interact with user During installation. A master password is programmed for getting in to the software system. administration and maintenance) only. Vertical partitioning of Bus Reservation System function: Bus Reservation System Configure system Username and Password Acceptance Rejection Interact with user Fail Retry .

Traditional applications.NET Framework) The Internet revolution of the late 1990s represented a dramatic shift in the way individuals and organizations communicate with each other.1 Hardware Specification: Server Side: • Core 2 Due 2. FF 3. such as word processors and accounting packages.4GHz and Above • 2 GB of Random Access Memory and Above • 160 GB Hard Disk Client Side: • Pentium-IV 1.Operating Environment 6. Notepad ++ OS: Windows server 2003 R2.5MHs and Above • • 512 MB of Random Access Memory and Above 80 GB Hard Disk Software Specification: Environment: .5 Technologies: ASP.5 6. are modeled as stand-alone applications: they offer users the capability to perform tasks using data .2. Windows XP SP2 Browser: IE7.NET.NET Framework 3. IE8. C# Database: MS Access Software: Visual Studio 2008.1 Front-end Environment (.

also known as Blogs.NET Framework The . the basic role of software is changing from providing discrete functionality to providing services.NET Framework is the first platform designed from the ground up with the Internet in mind.NET Class Library contains hundreds of classes you can use for tasks such as the following: .NET Framework represents a unified. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.NET Framework offers a number of benefits to developers: • • • • A consistent programming model Direct support for security Simplified development efforts Easy application deployment and maintenance The . the . In fact. As a result. Most new software. Essentially.stored on the system the application resides and executes on. The . and individual expression (through Web logs. object-oriented set of services and libraries that embrace the changing role of new network-centric and networkaware software. Microsoft . in contrast. It has a large library of pre-coded solutions to common programming problems and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. and e-zines — Web based magazines). collaboration (through e-mail and instant messaging). is modeled based on a distributed computing model where applications collaborate to provide services and expose functionality to each other.NET Framework is a software component that is a part of several Microsoft Windows operating systems. The .NET Framework — it is sometimes referred to as the Base Class Library (BCL).NET Class Library is a key component of the . the primary role of most new software is changing into supporting information exchange (through Web servers and browsers). Benefits of the .

NET Framework The .NET Framework consists of three key elements as show in below diagram . Elements of the .NET Class Library provides is available to all . and standard Windows applications • Working with application security • Working with directory services The functionality that the .• Processing XML • Working with data from multiple data sources • Debugging your code and working with event logs • Working with data streams and files • Managing the run-time environment • Developing Web services. resulting in a consistent object model regardless of the programming language developer’s use.NET languages. components.

NET VC++.NET Class Library Unifying components 1.NET JSCRIPT.NET Framework Common Language Runtime . Common Language Runtime The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is a layer between an application and the .NET Common Language Runtime Common Type System Operating System Components of the .NET VC#.NET Web Server Web Form Window Forms System .NET ASP.NET Class Library Data I/O Visual Security Studio.VB.

Secondary namespaces reside within the System namespace. and Console. because the . and it contains core classes and data types.NET Framework: Microsoft Intermediate Language. The root namespace of the .operating system it executes on. This means that a program written in Visual Basic . Instead of producing a binary representation of your code.NET languages have the same compiled representation. To make the .IO: Contains classes for working with the Event Log Makes it easy to work with data from multiple data sources Contains classes for working with files and data streams The benefits of using the . Object. When your code executes for the first time.NET can perform as well as the same program written in Visual C++ .NET Class Library easier to work with and understand.Data: System.NET Class Library is called System. as traditional compilers do. The CLR is also responsible for compiling code just before it executes. Array.NET.NET compilers produce a representation of your code in a language common to the . component lifetime management. The CLR simplifies an application's design and reduces the amount of code developers need to write because it provides a variety of execution services that include memory management.NET Class Library containing hundreds of classes that model the system and services it provides. Because all .NET Framework. Examples of nested namespaces include the following: System.NET Class Library include a consistent set of services available to all .NET languages and simplified deployment.NET Class Library The . 2 . thread management. the CLR invokes a special compiler called a Just In Time (JIT) compiler.NET Class Library is available on all implementations of the . often referred to as IL.Diagnostics:  System. such as Int32. . and default error handling. . they all have similar performance characteristics. it's divided into namespaces.

NET After the release of Internet Information Services 4. Unifying components Until this point. you need to be aware of the load that users might place on the server. this chapter has covered the low-level components of the . figuring out how to validate the e-mail address on a form. ASP.NET Framework. Not all browsers expose exactly the same representation of the document to programmatic interfaces.3. for example. Deciding which kind of script to use is complicated by the fact that each approach has its benefits and drawbacks. are the means by which you can access the services the . . The unifying components. Web Forms Developers not familiar with Web development can spend a great deal of time. If you validate the form on the client by using client-side JScript code. some of which aren't apparent unless you've done substantial design work.NET ASP. If you validate the form on the server.NET Framework provides: ASP.0 in 1997. you need to take into consideration the browser that your users may use to access the form. Web Forms simplify Web development to the point that it becomes as easy as . 1. listed next. Microsoft began researching possibilities for a new web application model that would solve common complaints about ASP. The server has to validate the data and send the result back to the client. You can validate the information on a form by using a client-side script or a server-side script.NET Windows Visual Forms Studio .NET introduces two major features: Web Forms and Web Services.

a rich toolbox.NET offers make it more than just the next version of ASP.NET runtime. Introducing ASP. and a fully integrated debugger. Unlike the ASP runtime.NET.NET applications is much simpler. creating ASP. The CLR allows the objects. However. Clients can simply call a method on your Web Service as if they are calling a method on a component installed on their system — and have the weather information available in an easy-to-use format that they can integrate into their own applications or Web sites with no trouble.NET is integrated with Visual Studio .dragging and dropping controls onto a designer (the surface that you use to edit a page) to design interactive Web applications that span from client to server. ASP. the advantages that ASP.NET uses the Common Language Runtime (CLR) provided by the . This allows the development of applications in a What You See is What You Get (WYSIWYG) manner. which manages the execution of code. The enterprise-class Web applications are accessible on a global basis.NET. which provides a GUI designer.NET Framework. Web Services A Web service is an application that exposes a programmatic interface through standard access methods.NET ASP. 2. the next version of ASP. The CLR is the . leading to efficient information management. Therefore. which are created in different . For example. Web Services are designed to be used by other applications and components and are not intended to be useful directly to human end users. Web Services make it easy to build applications that integrate features from remote sources. ASP. you can write a Web Service that provides weather information for subscribers of your service instead of having subscribers link to a page or parse through a file they download from your site. is a programming framework that is used to create enterprise-class Web applications.

the . Improved performance: The ASP. Only the portions of the code that are actually needed will be compiled into native code.languages.NET Framework. at the execution time.NET applications. This format makes it easy to apply new settings to applications without the aid of any local administration tools. CLR thus makes Web application development more efficient.NET CLR offers many advantages. to interact with each other and hence removes the language barrier.NET class library can be accessed by ASP. Configuration settings:  The application-level configuration settings are stored in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. because ASP. You can use the language that best applies to the type of functionality you want to implement. These features lead to an overall improved performance of ASP. The XML format is a hierarchical text format. Flexibility:  The entire . In addition to simplifying the designing of Web applications. Then.NET applications. Here. Some of these advantages are listed as follows. The CLR provides just-in-time compilation. Security:  .NET code is a compiled CLR code instead of an interpreted code. and caching. the code is compiled into the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL). native optimization. the MSIL is compiled into native code. This is called Just In Time compilation.NET is language independent. which is easy to read and write. it is important to note that compilation is a two-stage process in the . First.

known officially as "web forms". you can modify these schemes according to the security needs of an application.NET applications are secure and use a set of default authorization and authentication schemes. You can create an ASP. Web forms are contained in files with an ASPX . You can also create your own virtual directory and add the file to it.NET framework makes it easy to migrate from ASP applications. you use the IDE of Visual Studio . If the IIS server is installed on some other machine on the network. Then. you need to add the file to a virtual directory in the Default WebSite directory on the IIS server.NET. the ASP.NET IDE:  In this method.NET to create a Web page in a WYSIWYG manner. Also. and save the code as an ASPX file. such as Notepad.NET Web application in one of the following ways: Use a text editor:  In this method. you can create your first ASP. the application is automatically created on a Web server (IIS server). Creating an ASP. you can write the code in a text editor. Characteristics Pages ASP. You do not need to create a separate virtual directory on the IIS server. replace"localhost" with the name of the server.NET Application After you've set up the development environment for ASP. However. are the main building block for application development.NET pages.NET Web application. when you create a Web application. you simply need to type http://localhost/<filename>. In addition to this list of advantages. to display the output of the Web page in Internet Explorer.ASP. You can save the ASPX file in the directory C:\inetpub\wwwroot. If you save the file in some other directory.aspx in the Address box. Use the VS.

org/1999/xhtml"> <head runat="server"> <title>Sample page</title> </head> <body> <form id="form1" runat="server"> <div> The current time is: <asp:Label runat="server" id="Label1" /> </div> </form> </body> </html> .w3.dtd"> <script runat="server"> protected void Page_Load(object sender. these files typically contain static (X)HTML markup.ToLongDateString(). Additionally. as well as markup defining server-side Web Controls and User Controls where the developers place all the required static and dynamic content for the web page.%> which is similar to other web development technologies such as PHP.Now.Text = DateTime. Note that this sample uses code "inline". and ASP. } </script> <html xmlns="http://www. EventArgs e) { Label1. dynamic code which runs on the server can be placed in a page within a block <% -.w3.extension. <%@ Page Language="C#" %> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.dynamic code -. JSP. as opposed to code behind.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www. but this practice is generally discouraged except for the purposes of data binding since it requires more calls when rendering the page. in programming jargon.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.

to focus on the design markup with less potential for disturbing the programming code that drives it. then SampleCodeBehind.aspx.cs or . In theory.SampleCodeBehind" AutoEventWireup="true" %> The above tag is placed at the beginning of the ASPX file. which places this code in a separate file or in a specially designated script tag. Example <%@ Page Language="C#" CodeFile="SampleCodeBehind.Code-behind model It is recommended by Microsoft for dealing with dynamic program code to use the code-behind model. rather than a procedural walk through the document. the developer writes code to respond to different events.NET's code-behind model marks a departure from Classic ASP in that it encourages developers to build applications with separation of presentation and content in mind. When using this style of programming.aspx. The CodeFile property of the @ Page directive specifies the file (.cs or MyPage. this would allow a web designer. In this example.aspx. This is similar to the separation of the controller from the view in modelview-controller frameworks.cs" Inherits="Website.cs acts as the code-behind for this page: using System. for example. . Code-behind files typically have names like MyPage. or a control being clicked.vb based on the ASPX file name (this practice is automatic in Microsoft Visual Studio and other IDEs). like the page being loaded. ASP. the @ Page directive is included in SamplePage.aspx.aspx.vb) acting as the code-behind while the Inherits property specifies the Class the Page derives from.

Programmers can add their own properties.Page { protected override void Page_Load(EventArgs e) { base. } } } In this case. ASP. except that such controls are derived from the System. write methods .Page".NET framework is object-oriented and allows for inheritance. and event handlers. Like ASPX files. as well as markup defining web control and other User Controls.NET lacked a template engine.Web. The programmer can implement event handlers at several stages of the page execution process to perform processing. User controls ASP. methods.Web.namespace Website { public partial class SampleCodeBehind : System.UserControl class.UI. many developers would define a new base class that inherits from "System. A User Control follows the same structure as a Web Form. Because the .NET supports creating reusable components through the creation of User Controls. the Page_Load () method is called every time the ASPX page is requested. Template engine When first released.UI. The code-behind model can be used.Web. a ASCX contains static HTML or XHTML markup.UI.OnLoad(e). An event bubbling mechanism provides the ability to pass an event fired by a user control up to its containing page. and are stored in ASCX files.

which must be mapped to the place-holder of the master page that the content page is populating.NET merges the output of the content page with the output of the master page. Furthermore. If the master page exposes public properties or methods (e. When a request is made for a content page.not while designing it. Other developers have used include files and other tricks to avoid having to implement the same navigation and other elements in every page.g.0 introduced the concept of "master pages". and sends the output to the user. which can be nested. While this allows for common elements to be reused across a site. this method can only be visually tested by running the application . configure caching etc. ASP. Child pages use those ContentPlaceHolder controls. much like a mail merge in a word processor. This means that the content page may still manipulate headers. Master templates have place-holder controls.NET 2.NET aims for performance benefits over other script-based technologies (including Classic ASP) by compiling the server-side code to one or more DLL files on the web server. All markup and server controls in the content page must be placed within the ContentPlaceHolder control. as well as HTML and JavaScript shared across child pages. A web application can have one or more master pages. change title. ASP. which allow for templatebased page development.here that render HTML. The rest of the page is defined by the shared parts of the master page. The master page remains fully accessible to the content page. for setting copyright notices) the content page can use these as well. This compilation happens automatically the first time a . called ContentPlaceHolders to denote where the dynamic content goes. it adds complexity and mixes source code with markup. Performance ASP. and then make the pages in their application inherit from this new class.

eliminating the need for just-in-time compilation in a production environment. This feature provides the ease of development offered by scripting languages with the performance benefits of a compiled binary. the standard SELECT query is considered separate from SQL DML. The ASPX and other resource files are placed in a virtual host on an Internet Information Services server (or other compatible ASP. SELECT retrieves data from a specified table. If the compilation delay is causing problems.NET assembly and sends the response. subsequent requests are served from the DLL files. While often grouped with Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements.page is requested (which means the developer need not perform a separate compilation step for pages).NET framework parses and compiles the file(s) into a . such as the SELECT INTO syntax that exists in some databases. . see Other Implementations. Note that there are some platform-specific variations of SELECT that can persist their effects in a database. as it has no persistent effects on the data stored in a database. but it is left to the devices of the database management system (DBMS) to plan. below).NET will compile the entire site in batches of 1000 files upon first request. which is performed with the declarative SELECT keyword. the . By default ASP. The first time a client requests a page. However.NET servers. Database Queries The most common operation in SQL databases is the query. the compilation might cause a noticeable but short delay to the web user when the newly-edited page is first requested from the web server. or multiple related tables. in a database. the batch size or the compilation strategy may be tweaked. but won't again unless the page requested is updated further. Developers can also choose to pre-compile their code before deployment. SQL queries allow the user to specify a description of the desired result set.

and perform the physical operations necessary to produce that result set in as efficient a manner as possible. aggregate functions can be used in the HAVING clause predicate. including: The FROM clause which indicates the source table or tables from which the data is to be retrieved. with several optional keywords and clauses. The GROUP BY clause is used to combine. The ORDER BY clause is used to identify which columns are used to sort the resulting data. An asterisk ("*") can also be used as a "wildcard" indicator to specify that all available columns of a table (or multiple tables) are to be returned. rows with related values into elements of a smaller set of rows. The FROM clause can include optional JOIN clauses to join related tables to one another based on user-specified criteria. An SQL query includes a list of columns to be included in the final result immediately following the SELECT keyword.optimize. SELECT is the most complex statement in SQL. . and in which order they should be sorted (options are ascending or descending). The WHERE clause eliminates all rows from the result set where the comparison predicate does not evaluate to True. Because it acts on the results of the GROUP BY clause. The HAVING clause includes a comparison predicate used to eliminate rows after the GROUP BY clause is applied to the result set. The WHERE clause is applied before the GROUP BY clause. The order of rows returned by an SQL query is never guaranteed unless an ORDER BY clause is specified. which is used to restrict the number of rows returned by the query. The WHERE clause includes a comparison predicate. or group. GROUP BY is often used in conjunction with SQL aggregate functions or to eliminate duplicate rows from a result set.

00 ORDER BY title. The asterisk (*) in the select list indicates that all columns of the Book table should be included in the result set.00. The result is sorted in ascending order by title.isbn GROUP BY Book.title. SELECT * FROM Book WHERE price > 100.title. SELECT Book.The following is an example of a SELECT query that returns a list of expensive books. The query retrieves all rows from the Book table in which the price column contains a value greater than 100. by returning a list of books and the number of authors associated with each book. grouping.isbn = Book_author. and aggregation in an SQL query. count (*) AS Authors FROM Book JOIN Book_author ON Book.------SQL Examples and Guide The Joy of SQL 1 3 . Example output might resemble the following: Title Authors ---------------------. The example below demonstrates the use of multiple tables in a join.

or when the data needs to be expressed in a form that is different from how it's stored. price. SQL allows the use of expressions in the select list to project data. or it requires certain column naming conventions. count (*) AS Authors FROM Book NATURAL JOIN Book_author GROUP BY title. as in the following example which returns a list of books that cost more than 100. Data retrieval is very often combined with data projection when the user is looking for calculated values and not just the verbatim data stored in primitive data types. price * 0. it is less common in practice.) Under the precondition that isbn is the only common column name of the two tables and that a column named title only exists in the Books table. Thus. many vendors either do not support this approach.00 with an additional sales_tax column containing a sales tax figure calculated at 6% of the price.How to use Wikipedia Pitfalls of SQL 1 2 How SQL Saved my Dog 1 (The underscore character "_" is often used as part of table and column names to separate descriptive words because other punctuation tends to conflict with SQL syntax. For example. the above query could be rewritten in the following form: SELECT title. a dash "-" would be interpreted as a minus sign. However. title. SELECT isbn.06 AS sales_tax .

Some modern day SQL queries may include extra WHERE statements that are conditional to each other.00 AND (date = '16042004' OR date = '16042005') ORDER BY title.FROM Book WHERE price > 100. date FROM Book WHERE price > 100. . They may look like this example: SELECT isbn. title. price.00 ORDER BY title.

Chapter 7 System Design .



agent_shop_address. agent_name.STARBUS AGENTBASICINFO FEEDBACK PASSANGERIFNO STATIS TIMELIST In our table AGENT_BASIC_INFO we have following field such as agent_id. AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS AGENT_SHOP_CITY AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_PHON_NUMBER AGENT_MOBIL_NUMBER AGENT_CURRENT_BAL . agent_phon_number etc. agent_fname. agent_shop_name. AGENT_FNAME AGENT_NAME AGENT_ID agent_shop_city. agent_name.

Subject. Phon. Comment. Email. and User_type.In our FEEDBACK table we have fields like name. .

c_time. c_to.Email Name Phone FEEDBACK Comment User_typ e Subject In our table PASSANGER_INFO we have filed like bill_no. Agent_id and Status. Ttalseat. c_from. c_phone. Seatnumber. Amount. . c_name.

Time.C_name Bill_no C_phon C_to Status PASSANGER _INFO C_from Agent_id C_time Amount Seat_no Total_seat In the table of TIME_LIST we have fields such as Sno. Reach_time and Bus_number. . Satation_name. Rate_per_seat.

Sno Station_nam e Rate_perSeat TIME_LIST Bus_numbe r Reach_time Time PROCESS LOGIC: .

As the privatization of buses is increasing thus the need of its smooth management is also increasing the more we could facilitate the customers.the above tables and modules facilitates many logics like:  Number of buses in one unit  Number of computers in particular department  Number of users in a department  Which bus has what tour on which day  What are time table for different buses of different department  What are the schedule for buses  Schedule of a particular bus  How many buses are there  Each bus has how many seats  How many seats are occupied  Advance booking for seat  How much money is collected in a particular day  Bills for different customers  Which seat has booked by agent . the more they are comfortable with us. the more customers we have visiting our reservation unit .

Index page This webpage is the starting page of the Website. FAQ. .  Display advantage of the StarBus  Links for Agent list and seat status.  Links for Feedback. Terms and Conditions. It gives the followings:  TollFree number of the other city.1.

As in the above image the Status webpage is displaying:  Accessed by anyone.2. . Status.  Information about the booking which seat is booked and which is empty.

Agent name.3. .  Contains information about name. address and phone number of the agent. As in the above image the Agent name webpage is displaying:  Accessed by anyone.

4. Feedback As in the above image Feedback webpage is displaying:  This page is access by any user  Anyone can give feedback related to the site or services.  Links for Terms and Condition’s and Policy and Privacy. .

Such as how many agent office are there and what is the mode Of the pament. FAQ As in the above image FAQ webpage is displaying:  This page is access by any user  Contain information about tour and services of web site. .5.

age. . Privacy Policy: As in the above image the Privacy and Policy webpage is displaying:  This page is access by any user  This page say that when customer using our services.6. route and email so that we can inform them to there email also. we required information about customer his/her name.

 Useful for customer  Contain information when to reach the starting point and what should do. in case when our ticket is lost. As in the above image the Terms and Conditions webpage is displaying:  Accessed by anyone. . Terms and Conditions.7.

As in the above image Identify Confirmation for user webpage is displaying: . Identity Confirmation. 10.  And also provide link for administration and other.  Agent entered its user name and password and click on login. 9.  Contain link for Forget Password. Forget Password Page As in the image Forget Password webpage is displaying:  It required user name who forget its password and then click on Next button. Login page As in the image Login webpage is displaying:  Accessed by the agent.8.

You will get your password on the show password webpage. Ticket Booking page.  After click on Next button. The Question you have select at the time of registration.  You need to enter the answer for that question. departure date and time.  Select the destination. . As in the above image the ticket booking page is displaying:  Only accessed by the agent. 11.

 Red seat indicates booked seat. . It will be converted into green seat. You can choose rest of the seat.11. Select Seat page As in the above image the Select Seat page is displaying:  Only accessed by the agent.

 Click on Go button for printing the ticket. Customer Information page As in the above image the Customer Information webpage is displaying:  After selecting the seat.  Agent enters the name and phnumber of the customer. .12.

 This contain customer information such as name.  These also reduce the agent balance. Ticket Print page As in the above image the Ticket print webpage is displaying:  This page prints the Customer ticket.13. destination. . Number of seat.

 Using PNR number. . As in the above image the Ticket Search webpage is displaying:  Only accessed by the Agent and Administration.14. Agent can search the ticket. Search Ticket.

15. Ticket Cancellation As in the above image the Ticket cancellation webpage is displaying—  Only accessed by the Agent and Administration  Using PNR number. . Agent can see the status ticket.

Create Agent: .16. Change Password As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying:  Only accessed by the Agent  Agent can change password by entering the old and new password Administrator Section: 17.

 Security Answer.  New agents are added by this page  Required following information: Username  Password  Email  Security Question.As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying:  Only accessed by the Administrator. .  After click on Create user button it will send you on Agent Basic Information webpage.

18. Agent List page . Agent Basic Information page As in the above image the agent’s Basic information web page is displaying:  Agents Basic Information are added by this page  Required following information are : Name  Father’s Name  Shop Name  Shop City  Shop phone number  Mobile Number  Deposit amount 19.

Agent Deposit Amount Page .  Displaying Agent information such as:     Agent ID Name Shop Name Shop City Current Balance  Mobile Number 20.As in the above image the agent’s List web page is displaying:  Only accessed by the Administrator.

Search Agent Page .As in the above image the agent’s Deposit Amount web page is displaying:  Only accessed by the Administrator. 21.  Requires agent name and amount he wants to deposit.

Bus List: Feedback List: .


Chapter 8 System Testing .

.System Testing Once source code has been generated. 8. (2) Software requirements are exercised using “block box” test case design techniques. software must be tested to uncover (and correct) as many errors as possible before delivery to customer. 8. Our goal is to design a series of test cases that have a high likelihood of finding errors. Software is tested from two different perspectives: (1) Internal program logic is exercised using “White box” test case design techniques.2 Strategies A strategy for software testing must accommodate low-level tests that are necessary to verify that a small source code segment has been correctly implemented as well as high-level tests that validate major system functions against customer requirements. In both cases. the intent is to find the maximum number of errors with the minimum amount of effort and time. behavior and performance. and (2) Exercise the input and output domains of the program to uncover errors in program function. progress must be measurable and problems must surface as earl as possible. To uncover the errors software techniques are used. A strategy must provide guidance for the practitioner and a set of milestones for the manager. Because the steps of the test strategy occur at a time when deadline pressure begins to rise.1 Steps. These techniques provide systematic guidance for designing test that (1) Exercise the internal logic of software components.

Boundary conditions are tested to ensure that the module operated properly at boundaries established to limit or restrict processing.1 Unit testing: Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design.2. 8. . The objective of this test is to take unit tested components and build a program structure that has been dictated by design.2. interfacing errors have been uncovered and corrected. but a simple definition is that validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. The module interface is tested to ensure that information properly flows into and of the program unit under test the local data structure has been examined to ensure that data stored temporarily maintains its integrity during all steps in an algorithm’s execution.Following testing techniques are well known and the same strategy is adopted during this project testing.3 Validation testing: At the culmination of integration testing. All independent paths through the control structure are exercised to ensure that all statements in a module haven executed at least once. Below we have described the two types of testing which have been taken for this project.the software component or module. software is completely assembled as a package. 8.2. 8. 8.2 Integration testing: Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. and a final series of software tests—validation testing-may begin.4 System testing: System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer-based system. The unit test is white-box oriented.2. Validation can be defined in many ways.

8.2 Performance Testing Performance testing is designed to test the run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system.1 Security testing Any computer-based system that manages sensitive information causes actions that can improperly harm (or benefit) individuals is a target for improper or illegal penetration.4. but relative to a theoretically sound and experimentally validated statistical model.” . Even at the unit level. 8.995. When programs first load it check for correct username and password. As much time we run our project that is still sort of testing as Musa and Ackerman said. we have done sufficient testing to say with 95 percent confidence that the probability of 1000 CPU hours of failure free operation in a probabilistically defined environment is at least 0. For security purposes. dishonest individuals who attempt to penetrate for illicit personal gain. when anyone who is not authorized user cannot penetrate this system. Performance testing occurs throughout all steps in the testing process.4. we cannot be absolutely certain that the software will never fail.2. the program is being tested. Penetration spans a broad range of activities: hackers who attempt to penetrate system for sport. If any fails to act according will be simply ignored by the system. Criteria for Completion of Testing Every time the customer/user executes a compute program. disgruntled employees who attempt to penetrate for revenge.3. This sobering fact underlines the importance of other software quality assurance activities.2. the performance of an individual module may be assessed as white-box tests are conducted. They have suggested a response that is based on statistical criteria: “No. 8.

When you try to input wrong data. In the very beginning of the project when user wishes to enter into the project. you won’t get the entry.4 Validation Checks Software testing is one element of broader topic that is often referred to as verification and validation. similarly if you data for trainee code in text (string) format it will be simply abandoned. Your entry will be automatically abandoned. If you supply the number (digits) for name text box. he has to supply the password. A validation check facilitates us to work in a greater way. Let us elaborate what I mean. When you try to edit the record for the trainee in Operation division you will find the validation checks. Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. . till user won’t supply correct word of string for password he cannot succeed.8. In this project while entering the data to many text box you will find the use of validation checks. Boehm state this another way: Verification: “Are we building the product right?” Validation: “Are we building the right product?” Validation checks are useful when we specify the nature of data input. This password is validated to certain string. It become necessary for certain Applications like this. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.

Chapter 9 System Implementation .

. may be viewed as a representation process.Specification. 6. Recognize that “the specifications must be tolerant of incompleteness and augmentable. 2. Develop a model of the desired behavior of a system that encompasses date and the functional responses of a system to various stimuli from the environment. However. 4. Requirements are represented in manner that ultimately leads to successful software implementation. principles must be translated into realization. 3. Create a cognitive model rather than a design or implementation model.1 Specification principles A number of specification principles. 5. Establish the content and structure of a specification in a way that will enable it to be amenable to change. The cognitive model describes a system as perceived by its user community. adapted from the work of balzer and Goodman can be proposed: 1. Define the environment in which the system operates. Establish the context in which software operates by specifying the manner in which other system components interact with software.” 7. regardless of the mode through which we accomplish it. This list of basic specification principles provides a basis for representing software requirements. Separate functionality from implementation. 9.

It is sometimes worthwhile to present the same information at different levels of abstraction to aid in understanding. Similar guidelines are adhered for my project. Representations should reveal layers of information so that a reader can move to the level of detail required. for our automation system we used different symbology. However. the representation forms contained within the specification are likely to vary with the application area. However. if requirements are committed to paper a simple set of guidelines is well worth following: Representation format and content should be relevant to the problem.1. .2 Representation As we know software requirement may be specified in a variety of ways. Information contained within the specification should be nested. A general outline for the contents of a Software Requirements Specification can be developed.9. For example. diagrams. Paragraph and diagram numbering schemes should indicate the level of detail that is being presented.

It overcomes the many limitations . Project Grid works like a component which can access all the databases and picks up different functions.Chapter 10 Conclusion To conclude.

the main among them are: Simple editing Insertion of individual images on each cell Insertion of individual colors on each cell Flicker free scrolling Drop-down grid effect Placing of any type of control anywhere in the grid • • • • • • .NET Framework.incorporated in the . Among the many features availed by the project.

Chapter 11 Scope of the Project Future scope of the project: - .

 Automatic calculation and generation of correct and precise Bills thus reducing much of the workload on the accounting staff and the errors arising due to manual calculations. With the proposed software of Web Space Manager ready and fully functional the client is now able to manage and hence run the entire work in a much better.  Faster processing of information as compared to the current system with high accuracy and reliability.  Automatic and error free report generation as per the specified format with ease. as it is very flexible in terms of expansion. the company is bound to experience high turnover. Project can be updated in near future as and when requirement for the same arises. The project can be implemented on internet in future. lesser staff. The following are the future scope for the project:  The number of levels that the software is handling can be made unlimited in future from the current status of handling up to N levels as currently laid down by the software.The project has a very vast scope in future. Efficiency can be further enhanced and boosted up to a great extent by normalizing and de-normalizing the database tables used in the project as well as taking the kind of the alternative set of data structures and advanced calculation algorithms available. In case there be any additions or deletion of the services. better space utilization and peaceful work environment.  With a fully automated solution. addition or deletion of any reseller in any type of modification in future . A future application of this system lies in the fact that the proposed system would remain relevant in the future.  We can in future generalize the application from its current customized status wherein other vendors developing and working on similar applications can utilize this software and make changes to it according to their business needs. accurate and error free manner.

hence. more and more business for the company that will scale the company business to new heights in the forthcoming future. . All these result in high client-satisfaction.can be implemented easily. The data collected by the system will be useful for some other purposes also.

References .

NET Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel .Deitel & Deitel www.com http://en.Pressman Software Engineering – Hudson MSDN help provided by Microsoft .wikipedia.org The principles of Software Engineering – Roger S.References: • • • • • • • • Complete Reference of C# Programming in C# .w3schools.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful