MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Given Positions, Find Velocity and Acceleration
Learning Goal: To understand how to graph position, velocity, and acceleration of an object starting with a table of positions vs. time. The table shows the x coordinate of a moving object. The position is tabulated at 1-s intervals. The x coordinate is indicated below each time. You should make the simplification that the acceleration of the object is bounded and contains no spikes. time (s) x (m) 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 24 6 32 7 40 8 46 9 48

Part A Which graph best represents the function x(t), describing the object's position vs. time? ANSWER: 1 2 3 4

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Which of the following graphs best represents the function v(t), describing the object's velocity as a function of time? Part B.1 Part not displayed Hint B.2 Hint not displayed Part B.3 Part not displayed Part B.4 Part not displayed ANSWER: Part C Which of the following graphs best represents the function a(t), describing the acceleration of this object? Part C.1 Part not displayed Part C.2 Part not displayed Hint C.3 Hint not displayed ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

A PSS is a problem solving strategy. They appear throughout the text. Pay serious attention to learning how to apply the strategy to all of your homework problems. In particular, get in the habit of using motion diagrams, and pictorial and graphical representations.

PSS 2.1: Can't Hit the Can!

and .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 2. Go back and forth between these three representations as needed. s s s Use or . A car is traveling at a constant velocity of magnitude when the driver notices a garbage can on the road in front of him. the driver applies the brakes and slows down at a constant rate before coming to a halt just before the garbage can. Make other appropriate simplifying assumptions. ASSESS: Is your result believable? Does it have appropriate units? Does it make sense? Start by making simplifying assumptions appropriate for the situation. . .1 for problems involving kinematics with constant acceleration. This helps you assess the information you are given and starts the process of translating that information into mathematical symbols. Recall that. What is the magnitude of the car's acceleration after the brakes are applied? MODEL: Use the particle model. VISUALIZE: Use different representations of the information in the problem. If necessary. the distance between the garbage can and the front of the car is . Use a graphical representation if appropriate for the problem. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the three kinematic equations . rather than the generic . At that moment. as appropriate to the problem. for uniform motion with constant velocity. Draw a pictorial representation. Part A . replace subscripts i and f with numerical subscripts defined in the pictorial representation. A time after noticing the garbage can. s s s s Draw a motion diagram. Motion diagrams are part of the physical representation.

Use your sketch to answer the following questions. You'll need to figure these out for yourself before you go on. indicate whether the acceleration of the car should be drawn as pointing to the right. Part C . or as having zero magnitude (and therefore no direction). as pointing to the left. Separate your two answers with a comma. Enter R for right. Part B Consider the incomplete pictorial representation shown here: . ANSWER: 0. L for left. a thin straight line.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View The car should be treated as ANSWER: a solid macroscopic object of certain shape and size. L The list of known and unknown quantities are also missing from the diagram. These arrows should appear below the symbols and . or 0 for each of the two accelerations. a pointlike particle. For each segment of the motion. including all the elements listed in the problem-solving strategy. Now draw a motion diagram and pictorial representation. Missing from this figure are the arrows representing the acceleration of the car for the two different segments of the motion.

The car is moving at constant speed. G. and acceleration of the moving car after the brakes are applied? ANSWER: Part D a b c d Diagram (a) in the previous part is incorrect because it leads to which of the following incorrect conclusions about the motion of the car? A. B. and C describe the errors in the diagram. The car is speeding up. D. ANSWER: BD Part E . The car is not moving in a straight line. The acceleration of the car is changing direction. C. The acceleration of the car is decreasing. B. The acceleration of the car is increasing. enter ABC. velocity. Do not use commas. F. List alphabetically the letters corresponding to the statements describing the incorrect implications of diagram (a). The direction of acceleration of the car does not agree with the velocity vectors.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Which diagram correctly shows position. if you think that statements A. For instance. E.

ANSWER: = When you work on a problem on your own. F.2 Hint not displayed Express the magnitude of the acceleration in terms of the variables given in the problem introduction: . E. D.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Of the following list of variables. quantity and you can assume that is a known Now use the information and the insights that you have accumulated to construct the necessary mathematical expressions and to derive the solution. B. only you can assess whether your answer seems right. Enter the letters of the correct answers in alphabetical order. Part F. The following questions will help you practice the skills necessary for such an assessment. Part F Find . and . C. the magnitude of the acceleration of the car.1 Part not displayed Hint F. ANSWER: BCDE Among the other variables in the pictorial representation provided in Part B. You may or may not use all of them. Do not use commas. which represent known quantities? A. . and . without the computer-provided feedback. Part G .

D. If he is still to stop just before hitting the can. It would be smaller. It would be greater. From the answer you derived. If he is still to stop just before hitting the can. ANSWER: ABDE Part H Imagine a situation exactly as given in the problem introduction except that the driver continues for a longer time between noticing the can and hitting the brakes. For instance. C. Do not use commas. List alphabetically the letters corresponding to all the expressions that have the correct dimensions. you can see that if increases.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Which of the following algebraic expressions have the dimensions of acceleration? A. how would the magnitude of his acceleration compare to that derived in the Solve step above? ANSWER: It would be the same. you can see that if acceleration will decrease. Of course. It would be greater. if you think that expressions A. B. E. enter ABC. and C have the correct dimensions. From the answer you derived. then the magnitude of the . increases. It would be smaller. how would the magnitude of his acceleration compare to that derived in the Solve step above? ANSWER: It would be the same. B. otherwise he will already have collided with the can. then the magnitude of the acceleration will increase. the driver cannot wait so long before hitting the brakes that . Part I Imagine a situation exactly as given in the problem introduction except that the driver notices the garbage can from farther away.

Part A What is the initial velocity of the particle. we will call the velocity and the acceleration. velocity and acceleration are vector quantities.2 Part not displayed Part B. Refer to this plot to answer the following questions. however.3 Part not displayed Part B.4 Part not displayed Express your answer in meters. ? Hint A.1 Hint not displayed Hint A.1 Hint not displayed Part B. In this graph. time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical axis. traveled by the particle? .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View What Velocity vs. even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of motion. in this problem. that is. the graph of (instantaneous) velocity as a function of time. respectively. Time Graphs Can Tell You A common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. Here is a plot of velocity versus time for a particle that travels along a straight line with a varying velocity.2 Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters per second. In straight-line motion.500 Part B What is the total distance Hint B. t graph. Thus. Note that by definition. these vectors have only a single nonzero component in the direction of motion. ANSWER: = 0.

can you think of another time interval in which the acceleration of the particle is constant? Now that you have reviewed how to plot variables as a function of time. the tangent line is the curve itself. Since in the last 10 seconds of motion. In the case at hand. while the vertical axis is used to indicate acceleration . that is.50×10 = −2 The average acceleration of a particle between two instants of time is the slope of the line connecting the two corresponding points in a v vs. Physically.20 -0. the curve is a straight line. time graph.1 Hint not displayed Hint D. This is true for any motion where velocity increases linearly with time.0 Part C What is the average acceleration Hint C. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point.2 Hint not displayed ANSWER: = The instantaneous acceleration of a particle at any point on a v vs. you can use the same technique and draw an acceleration vs.0 seconds? Hint not displayed Hint C.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View ANSWER: = 75. As usual in these types of graphs. between and . time is plotted on the horizontal axis. t graph.20 0. ANSWER: 7. 1 0. this means that the instantaneous acceleration of the particle is constant over that time interval.022 -0. Part D What is the instantaneous acceleration Hint D.022 of the particle at ? .1 of the particle over the first 20. the graph of (instantaneous) acceleration as a function of time.2 Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters per second per second.

graphs of velocity as a function of time are a useful representation of straight-line . time plot for the motion described in the previous parts? Hint E.1 Hint not displayed Part E.3 Part not displayed Part E.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part E Which of the graphs shown below is the correct acceleration vs.2 Part not displayed Part E.4 Part not displayed ANSWER: Graph A Graph B Graph C Graph D In conclusion.

they can provide you with all the information you need to study the motion. B. velocity is a __________ quantity. ANSWER: B Part B Unlike speed. I. acceleratio n. H. E. D. position. position direction displacement coordinates velocity acceleration distance magnitude vector scalar components Part A Velocity differs from speed in that velocity indicates a particle's __________ of motion. F. Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence. G. C. Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence. speed.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View motion. among them velocity. ANSWER: I Part C . K. and displacement. Kinematic Vocabulary One of the difficulties in studying mechanics is that many common words are used with highly specific technical meanings. The series of questions in this problem is designed to get you to try to think of these quantities like a physicist. If read correctly. J. Answer the questions in this problem using words from the following list: A.

unless you are interested in the position of an object or event relative to a specific origin. The __________ of the particle at point A differ(s) as expressed in one coordinate system compared to the other.1 Hint not displayed Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence. Note that the vector indicating a displacement from A to B is usually represented as . Hint E. Separate the letters with commas. but the __________ from A to B is/are the same as expressed in both coordinate systems.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View A vector has. Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence. by definition. ANSWER: H Part D Once you have selected a coordinate system. you can usually choose the coordinate system origin to be wherever is most convenient or intuitive. but there are several other quantities that are independent of the choice of origin for a coordinate system: in particular. C The coordinates of a point will depend on the coordinate system that is chosen. distance. and velocity. you can express a two-dimensional vector using a pair of quantities known collectively as __________. In working physics problems. This process is described from two coordinate systems that are identical except that they have different origins. ANSWER: G Part F Consider a physical situation in which a particle moves from point A to point B. direction. ANSWER: D Part E Speed differs from velocity in the same way that __________ differs from displacement. both __________ and direction. Type the letters from the list given in the problem introduction that best complete the sentence. displacement. ANSWER: A. Enter the letter from the list given in the problem introduction that best completes the sentence.

. G. Motion with a constant. position velocity displacement speed acceleration average velocity distance Type the letters of all the correct answers in alphabetical order. F. The kinematic equations for such motion can be written as . where the symbols are defined as follows: q q is the position of the particle. C. B. Falling (or thrown) objects and cars starting and stopping approximate this type of motion.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View . D. Part G Which of the following physical quantities are scalars? A. It is also the type of motion most frequently involved in introductory kinematics problems. nonzero acceleration is not uncommon in the world around us. E. ANSWER: DG The other quantities are vectors. is the initial position of the particle. For this question do not separate your answers with commas. One-Dimensional Kinematics with Constant Acceleration Learning Goal: To understand the meaning of the variables that appear in the equations for onedimensional kinematics with constant acceleration. .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View q q q is the velocity of the particle. is not constant). assume that the acceleration is constant and nonzero: Part A The quantity represented by ANSWER: true false is a function of time (i. Part B The quantity represented by ANSWER: true false is a function of time (i. The velocity Part E . not a variable. It refers to the position of an object at some initial moment. is a function of time (i.e.e. is not constant). is not constant). is the initial velocity of the particle.e. is not constant). Part C The quantity represented by ANSWER: true false is a function of time (i. is the acceleration of the particle... ..e. In anwering the following questions.. Recall that represents an initial value. Part D The quantity represented by ANSWER: true false always varies with time when the linear acceleration is nonzero.

where is the current time and is the time at which we start measuring the particle's . A and B. As you can now motion. the equations given at the beginning of this problem correspond to the case convenient choice if there is only one particle of interest. To illustrate the use of these more general equations. that is. Here is the time that has elapsed since the beginning of the particle's motion. That is. the equations of motion can be written as represents the particle's and . At time . respectively. The expression velocity at what instant in time? ANSWER: at time at the "initial" time when a time has passed since the particle's velocity was More generally. particle B has .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Which of the given equations is not an explicit function of know or don't need the time? ANSWER: and is therefore useful when you don't Part F A particle moves with constant acceleration . which is a see. consider the motion of two particles. The terms and are. twice the acceleration. the position and velocity at . particle A starts The position of particle A depends on time as moving at time with velocity . from . . . half the velocity. and the same position that particle A had at time .

.1 Part not displayed Part H.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part H At what time does the velocity of particle B equal that of particle A? Part H.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part G What is the equation describing the position of particle B? Hint G.2 Part not displayed ANSWER: The two particles never have the same velocity.

Refer to this graph to answer Parts A. ANSWER: = 30.600 The average velocity of a particle between two positions is equal to the slope of the line connecting the two corresponding points in an x vs.1 Hint not displayed Hint B. Then.2 Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters. t graph like this does not represent the path of the particle in space. choose an axis system in which time is plotted on the horizontal axis and position on the vertical axis. Note that an x vs.0 Part B What is the average velocity Hint B. To draw such a graph. t graph. and C. t graph. Part A What is the total distance the particle? Hint A.2 Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters per second. ANSWER: = 0. t Graphs Can Tell You To describe the motion of a particle along a straight line. it is often convenient to draw a graph representing the position of the particle at different times. this corresponds to plotting the variable as a function of . Part C of the particle over the time interval ? . Now let's study the graph shown in the figure in more detail.1 traveled by Hint not displayed Hint A.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View What x vs. An example of a graph of position as a function of time for a particle traveling along a straight line is shown below. Mathematically. This type of graph is usually referred to as an x vs. indicate the values of at various times . B.

This is true for any motion where distance increases linearly with time.1 of the particle at ? Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters per second. these vectors have only one nonzero component in the direction of motion. Physically. however. Note that by definition. t graph. t graph is the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point. velocity and acceleration are vector quantities. the graph of (instantaneous) velocity as a function of time. that is. Since in the case at hand the curve is a straight line.600 The instantaneous velocity of a particle at any point on its x vs. time is plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical axis.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View What is the instantaneous velocity Hint C. In this graph. Another common graphical representation of motion along a straight line is the v vs. this means that the instantaneous velocity of the particle is constant over the entire time interval of motion. t plot for the motion described in the previous parts? Hint D. we will call the velocity and the acceleration. Thus. Part D Which of the graphs shown is the correct v vs. ANSWER: = 0.1 Hint not displayed . even though they are really the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors in the direction of motion. the tangent line is the curve itself. In straight-line motion. in this problem.

its x vs. t curve selected in the previous part. t curve is a horizontal line.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View ANSWER: Graph A Graph B Graph C Graph D Whenever a particle moves with constant nonzero velocity. t graph is a straight line with a nonzero slope. Part E Shown in the figure is the v vs. and its v vs. What is the area shaded region under the curve? of the .

and the vertical length of your window is . .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Hint E. t curve equals the total distance traveled by the particle. a flower pot suddenly falls past. the area of the region under the v vs. Take down to be the positive direction. The pot is visible for a time .2 Part not displayed Hint A. ANSWER: = 30. so that downward velocities are positive and the acceleration due to gravity is the positive quantity . This is true for any velocity curve and any time interval: The area of the region that extends over a time interval under the v vs.0 Compare this result with what you found in Part A. t curve is always equal to the distance traveled in . and .3 Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . A Flower Pot Falling Past a Window As you look out of your dorm window.1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in meters. Assume that the flower pot was dropped by someone on the floor above you (rather than thrown downward).1 Hint not displayed Part A. As you can see. Part A From what height Hint A. above the bottom of your window was the flower pot dropped? .

A woman stands at the edge of a cliff. . For the following questions neglect air resistance.. Hint B. velocity).2 Part not displayed Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = . . also with speed . and to review qualitatively one-dimensional kinematics.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View ANSWER: = Part B If the bottom of your window is a height above the ground. Part A .g. . defined by .g. and . the speed at the bottom of the window. Take upward to be the positive direction. she throws one ball straight up with speed and the other straight down. speed) or quantities that can have either sign (e. holding one ball in each hand. Tossing Balls off a Cliff Learning Goal: To clarify the distinction between speed and velocity.. Pay particular attention to whether the answer involves "absolute" quantities that have only magnitude (e. At time . what is the velocity of the pot as it hits the ground? You may introduce the new variable .1 Hint not displayed Part B.

Part D Which ball has the greater average speed during the 1-s interval after release (assuming neither hits the ground during that time)? Hint D.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: the ball thrown upward the ball thrown downward Neither. . the speeds are the same. Part C Which ball has the greater speed at the instant of release? Hint C.e. what is the relationship between and .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View If the ball that is thrown downward has an acceleration of magnitude at the instant of its release (i. the accelerations of both balls are the same. the average speeds of both balls are the same.. when there is no longer any force on the ball due to the woman's hand).1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: the ball thrown upward the ball thrown downward Neither. the magnitude of the acceleration of gravity? ANSWER: Part B Which ball has the greater acceleration at the instant of release? ANSWER: the ball thrown upward the ball thrown downward Neither.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part E Which ball hits the ground with greater speed? ANSWER: the ball thrown upward the ball thrown downward Neither. the balls hit the ground with the same speed. The cars’ motions are represented by the position versus time graph shown in the figure. Analyzing Position versus Time Graphs: Conceptual Question Two cars travel on the parallel lanes of a two-lane road. Answer the questions using the times from the graph indicated by letters. Part A At which of the times do the two cars pass? Hint A.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part B Are the two cars traveling in the same direction when they pass? ANSWER: Part C yes no D .

does car #1 momentarily stop? Hint C. if any. does car #2 momentarily stop? Hint D.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part D At which of the lettered times. if any.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: A C none Velocity from Graphs of Position versus Time An object moves along the x axis during four separate trials. Graphs of position versus time for each trial are shown in the figure.1 Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part E At which of the lettered times are the cars moving at approximately the same velocity? Hint E.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View At which of the lettered times. .

ANSWER: B The graph of the motion during Trail B has a changing slope and therefore is not constant.1 Hint not displayed Enter the letters of the correct statement(s) in alphabetical order. if A and C are correct. Part B During which trial or trials does the object have the greatest average velocity? A.1 Hint not displayed Hint A. B. if A and C are correct. Trial A Trial B Trial C Trial D Hint B. enter AC. For example. For example. enter AC. ANSWER: B . C. The other trials all have graphs with constant slope and thus correspond to motion with constant velocity. Trial A Trial B Trial C Trial D Hint A. D. D.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part A During which trial or trials is the object's velocity not constant? A. C.2 Hint not displayed Enter the letters of the correct statement (s) in alphabetical order. B.

During Trial A the object has a positive average velocity but its magnitude is less than that in Trial B.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View You recognized that although the magnitudes of the average velocity in Trial B and Trial D are equal. . so it has an average velocity of zero. their directions are opposite. The object does not move during Trial C. This makes the average velocity in Trial D less than the average velocity in Trial B.

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