ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have done my industrial training at HMT limited, Pinjore (Tractor division). During this period of my training I went to training centre. This has greatly enhanced my knowledge about the vast field of engineering.

I am extremely thankful to the management of HMT, Pinjore for giving me an opportunity to pursue training in their plant.

I am also thankful to Mr V.K. Grover (DGM, Training centre, HMT limited, Pinjore). I am thankful to all the workers and staff members to provide their cooperation and guidance to me.

I am deeply indebted to the training and placement departments in my institute and all other faculty members of institute for their valuable contribution towards my training.

I wish to express my deep gratitude to all the concerned persons with whose cooperation & coordination, I have successfully completed the training in the organization.

H MT s Indi a

HMT FACTORIES IN INDIA I and II III IV V VI VII VIII BANGALORE PINJORE KALAMSERRY HYDERABAD AJMER AURANGABAD HYDERABAD MACHINE TOOLS DIES CASTING AND PLASTIC MOULDING MACHINES TRACTORS AND MACHINE TOOL MACHINE TOOLS AND PRINTING MACHINE MACHINE TOOLS AND LAMPS MACHINE TOOLS FOOD PROCESSING MACHINER HMT BEARINGS LIMITED WATCH FACTORIES I and II III IV BANGALORE SRINAGAR TUMKUR KARNATKA J&K KARNATKA .

Type Founded Key people Public Sector Undertaking 1953 A.V.T. Kamet Headquarters Bangalore. India .V RANIBAGH UTTAR-PRADESH MINIATURE BATTERY GUWAHATI ASSAM TRACTOR ASSEMBLING LINES PUNJAB HYDERABAD ANDHRA-PRADESH INTRODUCTION TO H.M.

Over the year’s Products Machine diversified into watches. CNC systems & bearings. machinery.hmtindia. The constituent subsidiaries are given below while the holding company retains the tractors business group. tractors. HMT Limited has 18 manufacturing units. which also manages the tractors business directly. Successful technology absorption in all product groups through collaborations with world renowned manufacturers and further strengthened by continuous inhouse R&D. Watches metal forming presses.com casting & plastic processing Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. die Website www. Tractors. printing machinery.Hindustan Machine Tools was incorporated in 1953 by the Government of India as a machine tool manufacturing Industry Engineering company. HMT is headquartered at Bangalore. . (Chairman and Managing Director) Today. HMT comprises six subsidiaries under the ambit of a holding company. Tools.

Ball screws etc. Over the years. . Foods processing machinery. Tractors. Today.LIMITED HMT Limited was established in 1953 in technical collaboration with M/s oerlikon of Switzerland. CNC systems. HMT’s diversified product range include in Machine Tools. Presses. It has had technical collaboration with over 30 leading international Engineering Companies for manufactures of various products. Watches. Die casting and Plastic Injection Moulding machines. many new products have been added to its manufacturing range. Printing machines. Source of qualified and experienced manpower. ranging from General purpose lathes to CNC turning / machining centres. HMT is a multi-product.H.T.M. multi-technology engineering complex with strengths comprising of: 16 Manufacturing units (22 Product Division) Assets worth over US $ 250 million Annual turnover of US $ 300 million ISO 9000 accreditation The widest range of machine tools.

HMT's Milestones YEAR 1953 1961 1962 1963 1965 1967 1971 1971 1972 1972 1973 1975 1975 1975 1978 1981 1981 1982 1982 1983 1985 1986 1991 UNITS / DIVISION Machine Tools I Machine Tools II Watch Factory I Machine Tools III Machine Tools IV Machine Tools V Tractor Division Die Casting Division Printing Machinery Division Watch Factory II Precision Machinery Division Machine Tools VI HMT (International) Ltd. Watch Factory III Watch Factory IV HMT Bearings Limited Quartz Analog Watches Watch Factory V Specialised Watch Case Division Stepper Motor Division Ball Screw Division CNC Systems Division Central Re-conditioning Division LOCATION Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore Pinjore Kalamassery Hyderabad Pinjore Bangalore Kalamassery Bangalore Bangalore Ajmer Bangalore Srinagar Tumkur Hyderabad Bangalore Ranibagh Bangalore Tumkur Bangalore Bangalore Bangalore STATE Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Haryana Kerala Andhra Pradesh Haryana Karnataka Kerala Karnataka Karnataka Rajasthan Karnataka Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka .

HMT(I)'s business portfolio includes trading in:  Machine  Watches  Tractors Tool and Industrial Machinery & Agricultural Implements  General Engineering Products  Industrial Commodities  Software and IT Services . Mauritius. Maldives and other countries. HMT(I) is headquartered at Bangalore and has a global network extending over 38 countries with 67 representations to service its clientele worldwide. HMT(I) also offers a comprehensive package of consultancy of technical and engineering services from concept to commissioning on turnkey basis. Tanzania. UAE. Malaysia.T.H. Its track record include prestigious projects in Algeria. was set up in 1974 as a wholly owned subsidiary of hmt Limited. to undertake exports of goods manufactured by HMT and other leading Indian manufacturers. HMT(I) has sold over 12.500 machines in more than 70 countries with efficient after sales service.M. (International) Limited HMT(INTERNATIONAL) Limited. Indonesia. Kenya.

which were considered to have economic cycles that are different from those of machine tools.. and was incorporated in 1953. 'To manufacture mother machines to build modern industrial India'. additional capacities for watch production were contemplated to provide a greater cushion against cyclical fluctuations in capital goods markets and also to meet the burgeoning demand for watches. Printing Machines. required for building an industrial edifice for the country. HMT began in a small way to meet a big commitment. In 1967. With a Watch Factory already established in 1961-62. Horological Machinery. the Company emerged from the recession: With the world's widest range of machine tools and associated services under a single corporate entity. the Company launched a bold plan of diversification and expansion which resulted in the duplication of the Bangalore Unit and the setting up of new units at Pinjore. . recession struck the Indian Engineering Industry and the consumption of machine tools dipped drastically. With action plans firmly launched for diversification into Tractors. namely. Kalamassery and Hyderabad. With these strengths at full play. Presses and Press Brakes. the urge to survive and the confidence to innovate. etc. The traumatic years of recession did indeed serve to bring to the fore two latent strengths of HMT. with the objective of producing a limited range of machine tools. Die Casting and Plastic Injection Moulding Machines. HMT was conceived by the Government of India in 1949. THE 1960's: With the success achieved in the initial years in absorbing the technology and in attaining production competence far ahead of the original plans.HMT Fast Forward It was in the early post-independence era that.

THE 1970's: The 70s witnessed the fructification of all the diversification plans as envisaged. a state owned unit as a subsidiary. one at Srinagar and one at Tumkur HMT took over Machine Tool Corporation at Ajmer as its sixth machine tool unit.. Also HMT took over Indo-Nippon Precision Bearings Ltd. Machine Tools. THE 1990's: The Company restructured itself into five Business Groups viz.With export markets of enormous potential under active development. Two more units for manufacture of Watches. Watches. HMT as a part of vertical integration efforts. which was renamed HMT-Bearings Ltd. launched units to manufacture Watches at Ranibagh Watch Cases at Bangalore Stepper Motors at Tumkur CNC Systems at Bangalore Ball screws for use on CNC machines at Bangalore etc. THE 1980's: In the 80s. .. HMT took over Praga Tools Ltd as another subsidiary. HMT setup HMT International Limited as a subsidiary company to channel HMT's products and technical services abroad..

To navigate through the challenges of the new millennium. Bangalore HMT Chinar Watches Limited. Bangalore HMT Watches Limited. HMT seeks strategic alliances from global leaders to synergise its own strengths with symbiotic inputs from the partners. HMT now comprises of six subsidiaries under the ambit of the Holding Company which also manages the Tractors business directly. HMT Machine Tools Limited. The New Millennium HMT is now restructured with addition of three more subsidiaries to those already existing. For us. Jammu HMT Bearings Limited. HMT TRACTORS LIMITED HMT TRACTORS – THE POWER Behind Farm Mechanisation Pioneers of Farm Mechanization in India . Bangalore The strategic plans of the HMT group is coordinated by the holding company at Bangalore. the whole world of opportunities is ahead to emerge as a global engineering conglomerate. Hyderabad HMT (International) Limited.Tractors. Industrial Machinery and Engineering Components as part of Business Reorganisation. Hyderabad Praga Tools Limited.

Printing Machinery. latest styling giving value for money to its customers. Farm mechanization was growing at a rapid pace and called for more powerful and multi-role tractors. Metal . direct axle. Tractors. HMT – A PROFILE Incorporated in 1953 by the Government of India as a Machine Tool manufacturing company.HMT rolled out its first 25 HP tractor in collaboration with Motokov of erstwhile Czekoslovakia from its Pinjore plant in the state of Haryana. floor gears. saw the needs of the Indian farmer change. Over the years diversified into Watches. HMT stepped in by introducing tractors that met the specific needs of the agricultural sector. The successful of the 25 HP tractor in India conditions led HMT to indigenise the 25 HP in a short span of five years. fuel efficient engine meeting emission norms. these products and continuously upgrading its tractors with better technology. Keeping in tune with HMT’s philosophy of introducing innovative products and continuously upgrading its tractors with better technology. these models incorporate contemporary technology viz. And that was just the beginning……… The passing years. HMT manufactures a wide range from 25 HP to 75 HP. these products and continuously upgrading its tractors with better technology.

Die Casting & Plastic Processing Machinery.Forming Presses. Today. Successful technology absorption in all product groups through collaborations with world renowned manu. which also manages the Tractors Business directly.facturers & further strengthened by continuous inhouse R&D. CNC Systems & Bearings. Our Vision and Mission Our Corporate Vision Our Corporate Mission . HMT comprises five subsidiaries under the ambit of a Holding Company.

pleasant and productive working environment .To establish ourselves as one of the world’s premier companies in the engineering field having strong international competitiveness To achieve market leadership in India through ensuring customer satisfaction by supplying internationally competitive products and services To achieve sustained growth in the earnings of the group on behalf of shareholders Our Corporate Objectives & Goals      To encourage the modernisation of Indian Industry through the supply of engineering goods and services of world class excellence To maintain technological leadership through continuous efforts to update product technology and manufacturing methods To globalise our operations by developing a mix of international markets and businesses To ensure a satisfactory return on capital employed. to meet the growth needs and the aspirations of our stakeholders To present an active.

Our Corporate Strengths .

HMT's Products .

Holding Company HMT Limited.No. with a diverse range of products.Our Business Domain HMT Limited . The constituent subsidiaries of HMT Limited are as below while the holding company retains the Tractors Business Group. Name of Subsidiary 1 2 3 HMT Machine Tools Limited HMT Watches Limited HMT Chinar Watches Limited % Holding 100 100 100 . over 18 manufacturing units and a countrywide well established marketing network restructured its various businesses into different subsidiaries under the ambit of a holding company. Sl.

Interface with regulatory agencies. Creation and maintenance of data warehouse with suitable corporate informational data for the use of all subsidiaries.4 5 6 HMT International Limited HMT Bearings Limited Praga Tools Limited 100 97. . Development of brand equity.25 51. Provision of strategic planning inputs.00 The Holding Company with its Corporate Head Quarters at Bangalore forms the hub for the activities of the different subsidiaries. The Holding Company while ensuring good corporate governance also pursues strategies such as      Creation of strategic alliances.

It has an installed capacity of 18.60. HMT has produced and marketed over 3. The company achieved market leadership in tractors by enlarging its range to cover most of the applications for the farming community. Netherlands. Haryana State. It has a well equipped R&D Center duly recognized by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research . 11 Stockyards and over 300 Dealers spread across the country. Currently the company has three tractor manufacturing units in India located at Pinjore in Haryana. it has developed Tractors ranging from 25 HP to 75 HP. . It has qualified and experienced workforce. Over the years.HMT’s TRACTORS BUSINESS HMT’s Tractor business commenced its operations in 1971 in technical collaboration with M/s MOTOKOV. the Government of India.000 Tractors for manufacturing and assembly operations. HMT started the operation with the manufacture of 25 HP Tractor at the manufacturing plant established in Pinjore.Productivity Awards. Czechoslovakia Republic. It has also been certified for ISO-9001 by KEMA. It has an in-house marketing organization comprising 17 Area Offices. Mohali in Punjab and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. The Tractor Business Group of HMT has been a proud recipient of a number of National Level .000 Tractors since inception in India and abroad. Initially. HMT Tractors Group is ably supported by over 40 Ancillary Units.

MISSION.COMMITMENT OF TRACTOR DIVISION VISION: TO BE THE PRE-EMINENT CATALYST IN COUNTRY’S FARM MECHANIZATION EFFORTS BY PROVIDING PRODUCTS THAT IS FARMERS’ DELIGHT. MISSION: To establish ourselves as one of the world’s premier companies in the engineering field having strong international competitiveness .VISION.

To achieve market leadership in India through ensuring customer satisfaction by supplying internationally competitive products and services To achieve sustained growth in the earnings of the group on behalf of shareholders COMMITMENT: We shall       Strive continuously to assure you of highest standard of service Strive to attain international standards to become globally competitive. specifications stipulated in ISO9001-2000 Always maintain the highest ethical standards in all our endeavours. Acknowledge all correspondence from you within a reasonable time of its receipt with absolute integrity and dedication Adhere to the delivery schedules committed by us to you Strictly adhere to the standards. business and economic activities .

CONTENTS o TRAINING CRENTER o FOUNDRY o HEAVY MACHINE SHOP o ENGINE SHOP o ENGINE ASSY. AND TESTING o NEW ENGINE SHOP o TRACTOR ASSYMBLY o LIGHT MACHINE SHOP o TOOL ROOM o HEAT TREATMENT .

or drawing.TURNING: Turning is the process whereby a single point cutting tool is parallel to the surface. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight. a piece of material (wood. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe. or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Tapered turning . and can be of four different types such as straight turning. conical. considered to be the oldest machine tools. The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by other processes such as casting. extrusion. taper turning. forging. profiling or external grooving. plastic. That is. metal. When turning. Turning operations: Turning specific operations include: Turning This operation is one of the most basic machining processes. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. or grooved workpiece.[1] Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as internally (boring). the part is rotated while a single point cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation. curved.

It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating workpiece. lathe e) using a form tool e) by the offsetting of the tailstock . It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece. Grinding produces higher dimensional accuracy of roundness and cylindricity. Facing is part of the turning process. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces. Parting This process is used to create deep grooves which will remove a completed or partcomplete component from its parent stock.hence the phrase "ending up". However. Hard turning Hard turning is a turning done on materials with a Rockwell C hardness greater than 45. when applied for purely stock removal purposes.N. competes favourably with rough grinding. Grooving is like parting. except that grooves are cut to a specific depth by a form tool instead of severing a completed/part-complete component from the stock. and often the last.C. when it is applied for finishing where form and dimension are critical. as well as on the face of the part (face grooving or trepanning).this method more suited for shallow tapers. as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is typically performed after the workpiece is heat treated.a) from the compound slide b) from taper turning attachment c) using a hydraulic copy attachment d) using a C. . grinding is superior. Hard turning. The process is intended to replace or limit traditional grinding operations. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide. if one is fitted.

(Usually having a 60. multi start . Generally referred to as single-point threading.e. tapping of threaded nuts and holes a) using hand taps and tailstock centre b)using a tapping device with a slipping clutch to reduce risk of breakage of the tap threading operations include a)all types of external and internal thread forms using a single point tool also taper threads. or 55° nose angle) Either externally. the machining of internal cylindrical forms (generating) a) by mounting workpiece to the spindle via a chuck or faceplate b) by mounting workpiece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool into the chuck. double start threads. This process utilizes standard drill bits held stationary in the tail stock or tool turret of the lathe. or within a bore. Knurling The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as a hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool Reaming Threading both standard and non-standard screw threads can be turned on a lathe using an appropriate cutting tool.Non-specific operations include: Boring i. Drilling is used to remove material from the inside of a workpiece.

threads. up to 2" diameter threads but it is possible to find larger boxes than this. Some smaller ones are bench mounted and semi-portable. A trained operator can accomplish more machining jobs with the engine lathe than with any other machine tool. The larger lathes are floor mounted and may require special transportation if they must be moved. and special purpose lathes. Field and maintenance shops generally use a lathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too large to be moved from one work site to another. leadscrew with single or multistart threads. or other materials by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. Turret lathes and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or job shops for mass production or specialized parts. wood. The engine lathe is ideally suited for this purpose. while basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of lathe work. Lathes LATHE A lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping pieces of metal. turret lathe. Lathes can be divided into three types for easy identification: engine lathe. worms as used in worm wheel reduction boxes. Types of Lathes: o Centre Lathe Production Lathe  Capstan Lathe  Turret Lathe o o Special Lathe . b) by the use of threading boxes fitted with 4 form tools.

Parts of Lathe Machine: .

for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. especially (and originally) tillage but nowadays a great variety of tasks.TRACTOR A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds. Most commonly. the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks. PARTS OF TRACTOR: .

Power Steering & ROPS Low height and width for orchard .o o o o o o o o o Engine MT Housing Steering Radiator Oil Tank Hydraulic Lift Oil Filter Altinater Exhaust Pipe HP 25 30 o o o o o o o o o Gear Box Wheel Brakes Fan Oil Pump P.T.O Battery Starter Measuring Meter Main Feature AVL fuel efficient engine & New Style Fuel efficient engine (HMT’s Design) New Style Bonne Tractor Model 2522 Bonnet 3022 3522 35 AVL adapted fuel efficient engine & New Style Bonnet 4511 5911 7511 2522 OS 45 58 75 25 HMT Design Heavy Duty Tractor (Czech’s Design) HMT’s Design.

applications 3522 CS 3522 DX 4511 CS 4922 EDI 35 35 45 49 Wetland cultivation Direct Axle Drive Wetland cultivation AVL adapted fuel efficient engine & New Style Bonnet OS = Orchard Special . DX = Direct Axle . CS = Coastal Special .

O.T. System  Trem III System use to control the environment Pollution  Less Wear Tear  Less Cost needs for working .Facility of HMT Tractor:  Power Steering  Hydraulic Lift & Hydraulic Brakes  Reverse P.

which can create a variety of features on a part by cutting away the unwanted material. & power source. material is cut away from this workpiece in the form of small chips to create the desired shape. The milling process requires a milling machine. which itself is attached to a platform inside the milling machine. The cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth that is also secured in the milling machine and rotates at high speeds. fixture. a material removal process. and cutter. purpose.MILLING Milling is the most common form of machining. workpiece. size. . By feeding the workpiece into the rotating cutter. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture. Classification:  Face Milling  Peripheral Milling  Saddle Milling Milling Machine Classified as:  Vertical Milling Machine  Horizontal Milling Machine There are alternate classification according to method of control.

moving the knee up and down require considerable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped). described below. However. turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small. Milling Vertical milling machine. As machine size increases. Therefore. .Vertical mill In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. There slide 7: knee 8: base are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill. allowing plunge cuts and drilling. The most common example of this type is the Bridgeport. the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis. and by moving the knee. larger milling machines are usually of the bed type. while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. In the bed mill.  Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the two designs. 1: milling cutter 2: spindle cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. column 5: table 6: Y-axis giving the same effect).  A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. This type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill. however. The spindle 3: top slide or overarm 4: can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered.

Its purpose is to produce very fine finish and very precise dimensions. Grinding: It is an abrasive machinery process that uses grinding wheels as the cutting tool. 1: base 2: table.Horizontal mill A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table. These are used to mill grooves and slots. While endmills and the other types of tools integral) 6: overarm 7: available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill. Types:  Surface Grinding  Cylindrical Grinding  Internal Grinding . but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling) across the Horizontal milling machine. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table that allows milling at various angles. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill. which have a cross section rather like a circular saw. but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. called side and face spindle) mills. quite heavy cuts can be taken enabling rapid material removal rates. their arbor (attached to real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters. this feature is called a column 3: knee 4 & 5: table (x-axis slide is universal table.

other metals. steel. and zinc. The most common metals processed are aluminium and cast iron. copper. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid. pouring the metal in a mould. We perform these processes under foundry:  MELTING  FURNACE  DEGASSING  MOULD MAKING  POURING  SHAKE-OUT . are also used to produce castings in foundries. Centre less Grinding  Ultra High Speed Grinding FOUNDRY A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. magnesium. such as bronze. tin. and removing the mould material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. However.

 DEGATING  SURFACE CLEANING HEAVY SHOP: MACHINE All the heavy parts of tractor are machined.  Gear box housing .

 Main transmission housing  Hydraulic lift ENGINE SHOP: .

TRACTOR ASSEMBLY .

such as glass.HEAT : TREATMENT(T) Heat treatment is metalworking processes used to alter the physical. tempering and quenching.650 to 1. Depending on the amount of time and temperature.740 °F)) which liberates carbon as it decomposes. case hardening. Heat treatment techniques include annealing. the . COMMONLY USED TERMS & OPERATIONS: CARBURIZING Carburizing is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel is heated in the presence of another material (in the range of 900 to 950 °C (1. to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling. The most common application is metallurgical. properties of a material. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials. heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. normally to extreme temperatures. precipitation strengthening. and sometimes chemical. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally.

. alloys and glass. while the core remains soft and tough as a ferritic and/or pearlite microstructure. the higher carbon content on the outer surface becomes hard via the transformation from austenite to martensite. it produces a hard workpiece surface. workpiece cores largely retain their toughness and ductility.4 mm). In steels. When the iron or steel is cooled rapidly by quenching.25 inches (6. workpieces are in contact with a high-carbon gas. and it produces case hardness depths of up to 0.affected area can vary in carbon content. liquid or solid. Longer carburizing times and higher temperatures lead to greater carbon diffusion into the part as well as increased depth of carbon diffusion. tempering is done to "toughen" the metal by transforming brittle martensite or bainite into a combination of ferrite and cementite or sometimes Tempered martensite. Change in material properties Work material properties Mechanical Effects of carburizing  Increased surface hardness  Increased wear resistance  Increased fatigue/tensile strengths   Physical Grain Growth may occur Change in volume may occur Chemical  Increased surface carbon content TEMPERING Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals.[1] This manufacturing process can be characterized by the following key points: It is applied to low-carbon workpieces.

After the carbon diffuses. This refines the grain size and improves the uniformity of microstructure and properties of hot rolled steel. NORMALISING Normalizing Is a heat treatment process (predominantly used on Steels) It makes the material softer but does not produce the uniform material properties of annealing. the result is nearly pure ferrite with body-centred structure. INDUCTION HARDENING . The process is less expensive than annealing.Precipitation hardening alloys. Carbon atoms were trapped in the austenite when it was rapidly cooled. forming the martensite. The brittle martensite becomes tough and ductile after it is tempered. Normalizing is used in some in the production of large forgings such as: railroad wheels and axles and on some bar products. the microstructure can rearrange and the carbon atoms can diffuse out of the distorted body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) structure. Precise control of time and temperature during the tempering process are critical to achieve a metal with well balanced mechanical properties. like many grades of aluminum and superalloys. This delicate balance highlights many of the subtleties inherent to the tempering process. A material is normalized by heating it to a specific temperature and then letting the material cool to room temperature outside of the oven. The martensite becomes strong after being tempered because when reheated. are tempered to precipitate intermetallic particles which strengthen the metal. In metallurgy. there is always a trade-off between strength and ductility. Tempering is accomplished by a controlled reheating of the work piece to a temperature below its lower critical temperature. typically by oil or water quenching.

which have proved to be very effective in extending the component fatigue life and wear resistance. Many mechanical parts. QUENCHING . The passage of current through this coil generates a very intense and rapidly changing magnetic field in the space within the work coil. in order to improve wear behavior. gears. The workpiece to be heated is placed within this intense alternating magnetic field where eddy currents are generated within the workpiece and resistance leads to Joule heating of the metal. increasing the hardness and brittleness of the part. The quenched metal undergoes a martensitic transformation. Among these treatments. before the delivering.45% are most suitable for this process.Induction hardening is a form of heat treatment in which a metal part is heated by induction heating and then quenched. are subjected to surface treatments. Wear resistance behavior of induction hardened parts depends on hardening depth and the magnitude and distribution of residual compressive stress in the surface layer. The effectiveness of these treatments depends both on surface materials properties modification and on the introduction of residual stress. This operation is most commonly used in steel alloys. A widely used process for the surface hardening of steel. whilst the hardness of the case can be within the range 37/58 HRC. It determines in the work-piece a tough core with tensile residual stresses and a hard surface layer with compressive stress. induction hardening is one of the most widely employed to improve component durability. The core of the component remains unaffected by the treatment and its physical properties are those of the bar from which it was machined. The components are heated by means of an alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by immediate quenching.40/0. and springs.[1] A source of high frequency electricity is used to drive a large alternating current through a coil. Carbon and alloy steels with an equivalent carbon content in the range 0. such as shafts. Induction hardening is used to selectively harden areas of a part or assembly without affecting the properties of the part as a whole.[3] Induction surface hardened low alloyed medium carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications which require high wear resistance.

oxides & paint. For instance. quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece to obtain certain material properties.In materials science. sand or shot are propelled with compressed air on to the substrate to remove millscale. from occurring by only providing a narrow window of time in which the reaction is both thermodynamically favorable and kinetically accessible. oil. the temperature at which austenite becomes unstable. This allows quenching to start at a lower temperature. resulting in amorphous metal or "metallic glass". SAND BLASTING Sand blasting is a process where in abrasives such as grit. such as phase transformations.As per the IS and BS standards. In metallurgy. It prevents low-temperature processes. In steel alloyed with metals such as nickel and manganese. it can reduce crystallinity and thereby increase toughness of both alloys and plastics (produced through polymerization). the eutectoid temperature becomes much lower. the place will be covered by tarpaulin because of dust particle should not spreaded other places. in which case the steel must be rapidly cooled through its eutectoid point. dirt. Extremely rapid cooling can prevent the formation of all crystal structure. High speed steel also has added tungsten. rust. making the process much easier. it is most commonly used to harden steel by introducing martensite. HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS PARAMETER o Carburising Preheat at 300 to 400 degree Celsius . grease. Even cooling such alloys slowly in air has most of the desired effects of quenching. but the kinetic barriers to phase transformation remain the same. which serves to raise kinetic barriers and give the illusion that the material has been cooled more rapidly than it really has. Surface preparation is the most popular method for any protective coating adhere. while doing this process.

Carburise at 900-930 degree Celsius for 8-10 hrs o Annealing Salt bath (barium chloride) at 650-670 degree Celsius Soaking time is 2-5 hrs o Case hardening Salt bath (Sodium cynide+ Barium chloride) at 760-830 degree Celsius & soaking for 10-12 min Quenching at 160-180 degree Celsius (nirite+ nitrate) for 510 min Tempring is done at 170-210 degree Celsius for one hour It may be noted that carbon percentage to be maintained is .9-1. .1%.

hrs ○ Annealing Carburise at 900-930 degree Celsius for 8-10 Salt bath (barium chloride) at 650-670 degree Celsius Soaking time is 2-5 hrs ○ Case hardening Salt bath (Sodium cynide+ Barium chloride) at 760-830 degree Celsius & soaking for 10-12 min Quenching at 160-180 degree Celsius (nirite+ nitrate) for 5-10 min Tempring is done at 170-210 degree Celsius for one hour It may be noted that carbon percentage to be maintained is .1%.9-1. .

& TESTING LIGHT MACHINE SHOP HEAT TREATMENT (T) TOOL ROOM (T) .TRAINING CENTER FOUNDRY HEAVY MACHINE SHOP NEW ENGINE SHOP ENGINE SHOP TRACTOR ASSY. ENGINE ASSY.

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