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Mohamed Simad

B - 49

Hardware and Networking

Hardware
The physical component of a computer is known as hardware.

Screen Speaker

System Unit / Cabinet

Web cam

Printer Mouse Scanner Key board Joy stick Headphone / Microphone

Internal hardware devices • • • • Mother board Processor RAM & ROM Hard disk 1

Mohamed Simad SMPS (switch mode power supply) CD/DVD drive AGP card NIC card Sound card

B - 49

• • • • •

External hardware devises • • • • • • • • • Key board Mouse Monitor Scanner Printer Webcam Headphone & Microphone Joy stick Speaker

Q. List out any 10 input devises and 5 output devises.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Input devises Key board Mouse Scanner Microphone Joy stick Track ball Light pen Touch screen Web came Bar code reader 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Output devises Printer Monitor Speaker Projector Head phone Plotter

2

Mohamed Simad

B - 49

Network Topologies 1. What is Topologies? Topology is the shape of the network. 2. What are the types of Topologies? • Bus Topology • Star Topology • Ring Topology • Mesh Topology • Hybrid Topology 3. What is the first topology? Bus topology 4. What is the most common topology now? Star topology

Bus Topology • All the computer (servers, client computers) and other networking devices (Printers) are connected in a linear Backbone Cable. Printer Client 1 Client 3

Backbone cable (Coaxial cable)

‘T’ connector Terminator Terminator

Client 2 3

Server

The terminators at the both ends prevent the data from data loss and prevent the data signals to bounce back.49 • • • Both end of the back bone cable is terminated by the terminators.Mohamed Simad B . It is suitable only for small network. Star Topology Printer Client 1 Client 2 Switch Client 5 File server Database server Client 3 4 Client 4 . All the computers are connected with a backbone cable by using ‘T’ connectors. the entire network will fail. Advantages of Bus topology • • It is very cost effective (cheap to implement No need of switch and hubs Disadvantages of Bus topology • • • Scalability is very less If there is any problem in the backbone cable or connectors.

Ring Topology Client 1 Client 4 Client 2 Client 3 5 . If the centralized hub or switch fails due to power failure or hardware failure the entire network will fail. Advantages of star Topology • • • • Scalability is very high. Simplicity Disadvantages of star Topology • • The primary disadvantage of star Topology is the high dependence of the centralized hub or switch. Better performance. Isolation of devices.49 • • All the components and other networking devices are connected with the centralized hub or switch.Mohamed Simad B . Star topology is one of the most common computer network topology today.

Mohamed Simad B . Does not require network server to manage the connectivity between computers. source MAC address and Destination MAC address. 6 .49 Client 1 Ring Client 4 Client 2 Client 3 • • • • • • Computers are connected in a ring like fashion. Data flow in unidirectional in ring topology. Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load. it regenerates the signals (tokens) on its own. Each nod connected to exactly two other nodes forming a single continues pathway for signals to travel through each node. It works based on token – Ring standards. Data travels from node to node. Token contains the data. Advantages • • • • No data collision – Because data flow is unidirectional Every computer acts as a repeater.

Slower than an Ethernet network. Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 7 . Moves.Mohamed Simad Every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit.49 • Disadvantages • • • • If any one of the node fails or any problem in the cable can create problems for the entire network. B . adds and charges of devices can affect the entire network. Mesh Topology: • • All the computers are interconnected with every other computer in mesh topology. Dedicated connection. Network cards are expensive than Ethernet network cards.

Hybrid Topology • • It is the combination of two network topologies. etc. Mesh topology is suitable for wireless networks. BUS Terminator T-Connector Server SWITCH SWITCH Terminator STAR 1 STAR 2 8 . The resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e. Star. Disadvantages: • • It requires more cable segments and more network adaptors.Mohamed Simad B . Ring.49 Advantages: • • • High fault tolerance Mesh network is very reliable. It is highly impractical in wired networks.) Example: Star + Bus network = Hybrid topology.g.

49 Client 1 Server Client 2 Backbone cable (Coaxial cable) ‘T’ connector Terminator Switch Client 3 File server Database server Client 5 Client 4 Switch Client 6 Client 7 9 .Mohamed Simad B .

Fax Machines..Mohamed Simad B . 4. Switch Printer File server Client 1 Client 3 Client 2 10 . etc. Scanner. shops. colleges. IP Telephone. Router. universities Networks at hospitals.) for the purpose of file sharing and resources sharing with a small geographical area such as Network within an office building Networks between two office building (near <2kms) Networks at schools. 3. 2. LAN MAN WAN PAN LAN (Local Area Network): Distance Limit: 0 – 2kms • Interconnection of computers (Server/Clients) and other networking devices (Printer.49 Types of networks: 1.

49 Distance Limit: 2 – 50kms Interconnection of computers (Server/Clients) and other networking devices (Printer.. Router Router SWITCH Server Printer Server SWITCH Printer Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client LAN 1 at Male’ LAN 2 at Villingili Power Hub Printer File server Client 1 Client 3 Client 2 11 . etc. IP Telephone. Fax Machines. Router. Scanner.Mohamed Simad MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): • • B .) for the purpose of file sharing and resources sharing between two buildings within the same metropolitan city or between two metro cities (not greater than 50kms).

To convert domain names in to Ip addresses and Ip address into domain name.Clients 23 To download or upload files to and from the file server.49 Protocol is set of rules that govern the information or data flow between computer within the network and between computer networks. together within a local area networking (LAN). Incoming mails – to receive mails. A hub is common connection point for networking devices in a network. 12 . routers. 2 443 Secured web browsing. (file transfer) Outgoing mail – To send mail from your computer.Mohamed Simad Protocol • • B . that joins multiple computers and other networking devices such as printers. To assign Ip address dynamically to all client computers in a network Text Based protocol Remote administraton 8 Hub • • • A hub is a small electronic devices. SL – No 1 Protocol HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol() HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secured) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) DNS (Domain Name System) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Telnet(Telephone Network) Port number 80 Uses Unsecured web browsing. There are number of protocols exist in computer networks. 3 4 5 6 7 20 – Data 21 – Control 25 110 53 67 – Server 68 . Hub receives signals from one device and broadcasts it to all other devices in the network. modems.

It regenerate or amplifies signals and passes them along. It doesn’t require external power supply Active Hub • • An active hub is a hub that includes a signal amplifier. it doesn’t contain amplifier to regenerate the signals.Mohamed Simad B . It requires external power supply. Passive Hub Passive Hub • • A passive hub passes signals along (or) broadcasts signals but has no addition capability ie. Active Hub 2. Active hub = Hub + repeater 13 .49 Power Hub Printer File server Client 1 Client 3 Client 2 Types of Hub 1.

It join multiple connectors and other networking devices within one local area network (LAN) Switch Printer File server Client 1 Client 3 Client 2 • • Switch works at data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model Switch are capable of inspecting data packets determining the source and destination devices of the packet and forwarding it appropriately.Mohamed Simad Switch • • B . Unmanaged switch 2.49 Switch is a common connection point in a network to connect multiple computers and other networking devices together. Managed switch Unmanaged switch • • • There is no configuration interface in unmanaged switches We can configure unmanaged switch We can’t create VLAN 14 . Types of switch 1.

In comparison with router switches are less sophisticated and less intelligent. Most of the switches do not require any prior configuration and are usually ready to use. A router works on the principal of IP address Routers have their own in built operating system and they need to be configured before used. FAT volume are recognized by all versions of windows O/S starting from win-98 up to win -7 NTFS New Technology File System NTFS cannot be converted to FAT32 volume NTFS support file compression & encryption NTFS provide high level security it supports share level. Routers are much more sophisticated and intelligent network device as compared to switches. It support share level security only. Switch works in the data link layer of the OSI model. NTFS volume are not recognized by windows 95/98/ME (Lower version of windows) 15 . Switch doesn’t share the band width Switch can understand the MAC address Switch maintains the MAC table Network traffic and data collision is very less Differences between switch and router Router Router is used to connect two different networks Router works in the network layer of the OSI model. A switch work on the principal of MAC address. A routers inbuilt hardware and software makes use of routing algorithms to compute the best possible path for routing data packets across different computer networks. It doesn’t support file level and folder level security. second time own wards it unicasts data packets. Switch Switch connects different computers within one network. It is a layer 3 devices. Hub always broadcasts data packets Hub shoes the band width Hub doesn’t understand the MAC address Hub doesn’t maintains the MAC table Network traffic and data collision is high B . Switch broadcasts data packets for the first time. It is a layer model.49 Switch Switch works in the data link layer of the OSI model. Different between FAT and NTFS FAT File Allocation Table FAT volume can be converted to NTFS volume FAT does not support file compression FAT provides very little security. A switch does not perform any such activity.Mohamed Simad Difference between hub and switch Hub Hub works in the physical layer of the OSI model. It is a layer 2 device. file level and folder level security. it is a layer 1 device.

win95 1 Computer hardware 16 .49 4 users 3 Application software (CorelDraw. Photoshop) 2 Operating system (XP.Mohamed Simad Operating System Common diagram for OS • • • • • Operating system is system software. we can’t operate the computer. Operating system provides an environment at which we can install all the applications. It acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware. Without OS we can’t boot the computer. Operating system controls and manages the entire activities and resources of a computer. B .

ground AT Motherboard ATX Motherboard o +12 Volt DC o -12 Volt DC -ground o +5 Volt DC -standby 17 . unnecessary application program from your computer. Various DC voltages we can get from an SMPS o +3. Execute disk defragment tool to consolidate the fragmented files across the hard disk.49 Over a certain period of time computer starts functioning slowly Troubleshooting steps • • • • • • • Execute disk clean up tools to delete unnecessary files. Managing your program and cleaning your registry can easily boost your computers performance speed up to 30% ( Registry-cleaner software) Increase virtual memory Scan the entire hard disk drive for viruses and other threats.3 Volt DC o +5 Volt DC o -5 Volt DC .Mohamed Simad B . Uninstall the unwanted. Differences between RAM and ROM RAM 1-Random Access memory 2-Read and write operation is possible 3-User can interact with RAM 4-Volatile Memory 5-RAM is temporary memory ROM 1-Read only memory 2-Only read operation is possible / write is not possible 3-User can’t interact with ROM 4-Non-volatile 5-ROM is permanent memory Computer Power Supply The computer’s components would not be able to operate without power The device in the computer that provides this power is the switch mode power supply (SMPS) SMPS converts 110 volt to 230 volt AC current into the various DC voltages that a computer needs to operate. Disable unnecessary startup items and programs in MS config.

o +5 V DC – carried on the red wire o +12 V DC – carried on the yellow wire Plus 2 black ground wires . . 1.Mohamed Simad B . uses the same wiring color larger code scheme as the floppy drive connector. 3.There are two 6 wire connectors.This type of connector is called a “Molex connector” . Each type is used for a specific purpose.Color Coding 2.Standard Peripheral power connectors eripheral Each has a different appearance and way of connecting to the device. labeled p8 and p9. 18 . DVD DVD-Drive except floppy drive.There are 4 wires going to the connector. AT System Power Connectors: Dual Power Connector .49 Power supply connectors SMPS use 4 types of power connectors to power the various devices within computer 1. Standard Peripheral Power Connector . Floppy drive power connector . CD Drive.Floppy drive pc is smaller and flatter These connectors also called as “berg connector connectors” . These wires carry the 2 voltages used by the motors and logic circuits. though larger than the floppy drive connector.ATX(Advanced Technology Extended) system power connector 4.AT(Advanced Technology) system power connector 3.This power connector.The standard peripheral power connector is generally used to power different types of internal disk drives – Hard disk.Floppy drive power connector 2.

Most computer use ASCII codes to represent text. ATX Power Connector . ASCII developed from telegraphic codes. Unicode 19 .Mohamed Simad B . Interface is the place where data arrives or departs from a computer.49 4.ATX Power connector provides power supply to ATX motherboard vides . with each letter assigned number from 0 to 127. which makes it possible to transfer data from codes one computer to another.It provides the six voltages required plus it delivers then all through one connector a single 20 pin connector Network interface card • • NIC connect a computer and other networking devices with a network Without NIC card a computer cannot participate in a network. ASCII (America Standard Code for In Information Interchange) • • • • ASCII is code for representing English character (alphabet) and special symbols as numbers. ASCII was developed under the auspices of committee of the American Standards Association. Name of port • 45 connect NIC has got 1 RJ-45 port to conne a computer with a network. Two types of NICs: • • Wireless NIC Wired NIC • • Now a day NIC is in built in the mother board. called the X3 committee.

49 • • • • Unicode provides a unique number for every chapter. Sun.Mohamed Simad B . Unix. Linux. Although it is widely used on large IBM computers.Trivial File Transfer Protocol • We use both FTP and TFTP protocol in a computer network to transfer file in between the computers TFTP TFTP uses UDP protocol TFTP doesn’t require secure username and password Unsecured protocol TFTP less commands TFTP unreliable but faster than FTP TFTP uses UDP port 69 FTP FTP uses TCP protocol FTP needs secure user name and password Secured protocol FTP more commands FTP reliable but slower than TFTP FTP uses TCP ports 20 & 21 20 . Microsoft software uses Unicode at its core. Unisys character set. no matter what the program. no matter what the O/S. The Unicode standard has been adopted by such industry leaders Apple. HP. EBCIDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) • • Extended Binary Coded Decimal interchange Code EBCIDIC is an IBM code for representing character as numbers. Major operating system windows. SAP. Microsoft. Sybase. support Unicode. Macintosh. no matter what the language. most other computers include PCs and Macintosh use ASCII codes.File Transfer Protocol TFTP . Difference between FTP and TFTP FTP . IBM. Oracle.

Memory Slots – to connect DIMM memory modules Power Connector – to connect SMPS 20pin power connector 21 . microphone. Webcam. projector Network Port (RJ45) – to connect network cable Game Port – to connect joystick Audio Ports – to connect external speakers. headphone PCI Slots – to connect NIC card. modem Parallel Port . VGA Card. MIDI card etc.Mohamed Simad B .to connect parallel printer USB Ports – to connect USB devices – Printer. Scanner etc VGA Port – to connect monitor .49 Motherboard layout Processor fan Processor slot connector DIM memory modules Chassis cooling fan connector Key board connector PS2 ports Mouse connector Serial port Parallel port Floppy drive connector USB port BIOS memory chip Mother board power connector VGA port Network port Game port Line in Line out Microphone PCI ports North Bridge Chipset IDE1 IDE0 IDE ports Graphics (AGP port) CMOS battery South Bridge Chipset Inbuilt speaker Ports and Slots on the motherboard 123456789101112Keyboard Connector – to connect keyboard Mouse Connector – to connect mouse Serial Port – to connect serial printer. Sound Card.

• In broadband IC. the data transfer rates are very high as compared to the dialup internet connection.IDE Ports – to connect disk storage devices (Hard disk. Broadband: • If any internet connection that support 512kbps or higher bandwidth will be considered as broadband internet connection.Mohamed Simad 13. • • The dialup internet connection is also known as ‘transient connection’. This is because the connection can be terminated by either the ISP or the other user Dialup connection supports up to 56kbps bandwidth. • Broadband means a wide range of frequencies used to transmit and receive data. Once the connection is established an activity called “handshaking” takes place between the modem and the remote server. internet. • Telephone remains busy while ac accessing the internet • A modem is used to connect the computer to the ISP. Dial-up: • The internet connection that is established by using telephones and telephone lines as a medium is known as dialup internet connection. CD/DVD drive) sk 3 types of Internet Connection B .49 1.AGP Port – to connect graphics card 14. • We can use telephone while accessing the int 22 . 2.

49 • There are various types of broadband internet connections. SDSL 3. Fiber optic broadband 3. 1. • Cable broadband Internet connection provides a speed ranging from 2mbps to 10 mbps • It is more poplar compared to the ADSL internet connection • The downloading and uploading speeds of cable & ADSL are the same 23 . Cable broadband 5. Wireless broadband 4. depending upon the cost .Mohamed Simad B . Satellite broadband 6. Cable Internet Connection: • Internet can be accessed via the cable TV connection • The cable TV is used by almost everybody and now the internet connection is also made available along with the cable TV channels. speed and availability. ADSL 2.

Sender PC at india Receiver PC at USA Application Layer Application Layer Presentation Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Router at source ISP ISP Router at Destination Session Layer Transport Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Network Layer Network Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Physical Layer 0101010011010110101 0101010011010110101 24 . There are seven virtual layers in OSI model each layer performs a well defined function.Mohamed Simad B . it is not a physical model.49 OSI – Reference model OSI – Open System Inter Connection • • • • OSI model was designed by ISO – International Standard Organization. Without OSI (or) TCP/IP model data communication is not possible between computer in a local area network as well as in the internet. OSI model is logical model.

• Protocols in Transport layer(TCP/UDP) 5. Telnet. Network Layer • This layer is in charge of sub network ie. format. EGRP. Pop3 2. HTTPS. It binds logical addresses for distributable tasks. email. Presentation Layer This layer deals with the syntax and semantics of the transmitted data. • Protocols of the network layer: IP. remote login. This layers can covert. such as file transfer. Transport Layer Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 Segment 4 Segment 5 Network Layer IP IP IP IP IP Packets IP IP IP Data Link Layer Mac Mac Mac Mac Mac Mac Mac Mac address 010011010101110011110101010101010110110101011001 25 .Mohamed Simad B . split them in to smaller units (segments) and give them to the network layer. IPSEP. it processes the data so as to make it compatible between communicating tasks. it brings the basic network service to the user. Session Layer This layer sets up and synchronizes the exchange between distant processes. encrypt and compress the data 3. IGRP. SMTP. Application Layer This layer is point of contact between the user and the network therefore. • Protocols: HTTP. IGMP. Its main road is to take the messages of the session layer. • This layer can use one network connection to transport several messages at the same time using multiplexing unit. The information unit for this layer is the message or segment. Transport Layer • The layer is responsible for the good/reliable delivery of messages to the recipient / destination. OSPF. • This layer is also responsible for flow control. ICMP. RIP. The routing packets over the subnet work and the inter connection on the various sub networks. FTP. 4. • The information unit for this layer is the ip packets.49 1.

it splits input data of the sender in to frames since this frames in sequence and manages the acknowledgment frames send back by the receiver. Devices at physical layer: Physical layer has no additional functionality.Mohamed Simad B . • An important role of this layer consists in detecting and correcting errors that occurs in the physical error. remote login. but it depend on data link layer for all the function Devices working at physical layer: Hub. ARP. Application Layer • This layer is point of contact between the user and the network therefore. This layer must guarantee perfect transmission of the data. • The information unit of this layer is data frame. Data Link Layer • It has a role of binder.to – Network layer (or) link layer 1 1. such as file transfer. email. MAC. Physical Layer • • • • • This layer is in charge of the transmission of bits over a communication channel. L2TP. • This layer integrates also a flow control function to avoid the blocking of the receiver. • Protocol: PPTP. Cable. it brings the basic network service to the user. RARP.49 Physical Layer Binary Bits 6. token ring. Frame riley. ATM. connector such as RJ11. repeater. The information of this layer is the binary bits. Ethernet. 7. 26 . TCP / IP model Application Layer Transport Layer 4 3 Internet Layer 2 Host . RJ45.

FTP. Transport Layer • The layer is responsible for the good/reliable delivery of messages to the recipient / destination. • This layer is responsible for the inter connection of the remote networks without establishing a physical connection. 27 . 3. SMTP.to – network layer • This layer seems to cover both physical and data link layer of the OSI model. repeater.49 • • 2. Pop3 B . • Its role is to split up the message to be transmitted into a form the internet layer can handle. The information unit for this layer is the message or segment. IGRP. Ethernet. split them in to smaller units (segments) and give them to the network layer. ICMP. Protocols: HTTP. • There is no protocols • Devices working at physical layer: Hub. • This layer has not been really specified the only constrain of this layer is to allow a host to send a IP packets of a network. IPSEP. OSPF.Mohamed Simad This layer is immediately bound to the transport layer simply because the session and presentation layers in TCP/IP model are useless. • The information unit for this layer is the ip packets. ATM. Its main road is to take the messages of the session layer. • Protocols of the network layer: IP. EGRP. IGMP. Internet layer • This layer is in charge of sub network ie. Its role is to inject packets in to any network and deliver to the destination independently to one another. The routing packets over the subnet work and the inter connection on the various sub networks. 4. • This layer is also responsible for flow control. • This layer can use one network connection to transport several messages at the same time using multiplexing unit. Telnet. HTTPS. Host. RJ45. token ring. RIP. • Protocols in Transport layer(TCP/UDP) • It has the same role as the transport layer of the original model. connector such as RJ11. Cable. Frame riley.

Mohamed Simad B .49 Packet format Application Layer Raw data – HTTP packet Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Segment – TCP packet Network Layer Packet – IP packet Data Link Layer Frames – Ethernet frames • A TCP packets resides within IP packet • An IP packet resides within an Ethernet packet • A HTTP packets resides within a TCP – packet TCP Packet Sender port number Receiver port number Data • TCP packet contains only port numbers not the IP address or MAC address IP Packet Sender IP address Receiver IP address Data • IP packet contain only IP addresses not the MAC address Ethernet frame packet 28 .

modem Similar devices Cross over cable Dissimilar devices Straight through cable 29 . Compare and contrast OSI model with TCP/IP model Similarities: • • • • They share similar architecture both of them are constructed with layers They share a common application layer Both models have comparable transport and network layers Both models assume that packets are switched.Mohamed Simad B . Differences OSI reference model Defined before advent of internet OSI model came into existence way before TCP/IP model was created ISO created OSI model Service. Router switch DCE (data communication equipment): Switch. interface and protocols are not clearly distinguished TCP / IP support internetworking Loosely layered Less credible 8 4 layers PC Cross over cable PC PC DTE (data terminal equipment): PC. interface and protocols are clearly distinguished Inter.49 Sender MAC address Receiver MAC address Data • Ethernet frames packet contains only MAC address not the IP address. basically this means that individual packets may take different path in order to reach the same destination.networking not supported Strict layering Less credible 8 7 layers TCP/IP reference model Defined after advent of internet TCP / IP model came into existence after OSI model DARPA created TCP / IP model Service.

6. 5. 2. which are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. B . TV. 4. 30 . 2. 7.49 The distance involved may be 1. It covers greater distance. Short distance WC – a few meters as in Television remote control. No need of cables and connectors. broadcasting ) Wireless NIC Wireless NIC Source Pc Wireless Router or WAP Destination PC Example of Wireless communication devices 1. Mobile phone (or) cellular phones Cordless telephones PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) Wireless computer networking Wireless mouse and keyboard TV remote control Satellite TV & Radio Advantages of Wireless network • • • Wireless communications permit services such as long distance communications. Long distance WC – thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications (Radio.Mohamed Simad Configuration cable Roll over cable Wireless communication Techniques • Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or wires. 3.

The heat that we feel from sunlight.Mohamed Simad Energy we use to transfer data wirelessly. with a short range based on low – cost transceiver microchips in each devices. which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 400 htz. Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth but with higher power. a fire. Bluetooth is a standard and a communication protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. resulting a stronger connection. Wi-Fi is sometimes called “Wireless Ethernet” Wi-Fi is less expensive and nearing he speeds of standard Ethernet and other common wirebased LAN technologies. PDAs. Bluetooth makes it possible for these devices to communicate each other when they are in range. better ranges from the base station . and better security than Bluetooth. a radiator is infrared. Wi-Fi enables a faster connection. Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Wi-Fi is a wireless LAN technology that enables laptops.49 Bluetooth • • • Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distance (using short length radio waves) from fixed and mobile devices. Infrared • • • • Infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation with the wave length between 07 and 300 micro meters. 31 . they do not have to be in line of sight of each other. Its wave length is longer when the frequency is lower Its wave length is Shorter when the frequency is higher Shorter Shorter infrared waves are not hot at all in fact you cannot even feel them. • • • • • • Radio frequency (RF) Infra red light or wave Laser light Visible light Sound energy Microwaves (or) electromagnetic wave B . Far infrared waves: we experience this type of infrared radiation everyday in the form of heat. and other devices to connect easily to the internet. because the devices use radio waves. These shorter wave lengths are the ones used by your TV’s remote control.

Users can read and write via computers connected to the internet. Scanners.Install Antivirus software (AVG. How can we protect small office or home office or computer network? 1. invented by ARPA. External) 3-Printers. E-scan.The term is often mistakenly as a synonym for the internet itself.Lee Internet 1-Global Network 2-Internet is not a service 3-ARPNET was the first internet. it will automatically install device driver and automatically configure the device settings 2-After connecting the device. Hot Swapping • • The ability to add and remove devices to a computer while the computer is running and have the operating system automatically recognize the change Two external bus standards 1.Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2. NIC Card.The world wide web was invented in 1989 by the English physicist Tim Berners – Lee World Wide Web 1-Global Information medium 2-www is a service that operates over the internet 3-www was invented in 1989 by the English physicist Tim Berners .Mohamed Simad B .DVD Drives. Hard disks(Internal.IEEE 1394 – Support hot plugging Differences between World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet 1. AGP Card etc.49 Difference between plug & play and Non plug & Play. 2. CD.Install or implement basic hardware firewall at the gateway 2. use the strongest security technique such as WPA or WPA2 6. Plug and Play 1-No need to install device driver software.Assign Static IP Address to all client computers 5. Plotter.The World Wide Web (www) or simply the web is global information medium. USB Keyboard. Symantec etc) 3.When using a wireless connection. but the web is a service that operates over the internet. Web Cam.Install a fairly strong hardware firewall 32 .Use username & password for all user accounts 4. as e-mail does -> the World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hyper text documents accessed via the internet. 3. it is ready to use Non Plug and Play 1-We must install device driver software for all non plug and play devices manually 2-After connecting the device we can’t use the device until we install device driver 3-Pendrives. McAfee. Mouse etc Sound Card.

Internal storage area in the computer. 4. B . the term memory indentifies data storage that comes in form of chips and the word storage is used for memory that exists on disk or tapes. 2. ROM ROM PROM EPROM EEPROM SRAM DRAM SDRAM RDRAM DDR I DDR II DDR III RAM Cache memory Virtual memory Secondary memory Main memory Characteristics of Main Memory • • • Main memory is volatile memory CPU can directly access main memory (RAM) Storage capacity of main memory is very less compared to secondary storage devices. Primary memory. Main memory has arrays of boxes each of which can hold a single byte of information. 9.Mohamed Simad 7. memory.For authentication. Storage capacity is huge compared to main memory. 3. 33 . use strong password and change it on weekly base.49 Various Memory 1. Secondary memory (or) storage Characteristics of Secondary memory (or) storage • • • • Secondary storage devices are non volatile memory Permanent memory CPU access secondary storage devices through input / Output channels. Main Memory • • • Main memory is also known as internal memory.Install antivirus server and update it regularly. 8.Install a proxy server to keep unwanted people out.

Pen Drive Virtual Memory Virtual memory is a computer system technique which use an application program the impression that it has contagious working memory. Internal Hard Disk. Eg.) CPU contains cache memory. While in fact it may be physically fragmented and may even over flower on to disk storage. CD/DVD. Cache memory is the fastest memory among all. Data is kept for a longer time on secondary storage devices. (Speed of cache memory is the equal to the speed of processor.49 • • • • Secondary storage devices are used to store huge amount of data permanently for future use. Magnetic Tape. External Hard Disk. Floppy Disk. 800 MB 512 MB RAM Program Size Main memory 300MB 512 + 300 = 812 MB 800MB 9.7 GB Hard disk Cache memory • • • • Cache memory is the smallest memory among all.Mohamed Simad B . Secondary storage does not loss the data when the device is power down. A cache memory is used by the processor (CPU) to reduce the average time to access the main memory (RAM) Processor Cache memory 34 Main memory .

If IP address is not assigned to a computer that particular device cannot participate in the network. Any participating network device including routers. Type of IP address IP V4 32bits IP V6 128bits • • Classification of IP addresses Private IP address Public IP address 35 . modems. router. switches. printer. and some IP telephones can have it own IP address that is unique within the scope of the specific network. 2008) most include both wins and DNS servers. Win-NT. placed in network. 2000. vista. internet fax machines. Win-me) and other computers that use domain names (win-XP. modem. client and server computers. If you are using NetBIOS over TCP / IP you will need to have Wins server running so that each computer can find the correct IP address of the other to communicate. The server which provides DNS services to t he client computers is known as DNS servers. The server which provides wins services to the client computers is called as wins server. If you are using Domain names over TCP / IP you will need to have DNS server running so that each computer can find the correct IP address of the other to communicate. An IP address (internet Protocol address) will allow the host to communicate with other host in a network. • • • • What is an IP address? • • • • An IP address is a unique numeric identifier for a host. IP addresses are created and managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authorities (IANA).49 1000 times faster than Main memory SRAM DRAM WINS & DNS WINS –Windows Internet Name Service DNS –Domain Name Service • • WINS & DNS are both name resolution service for TCP / IP networks. Environments that include some computers that use NetBIOS names (win-98.Mohamed Simad B . 7. network printers. 2003. Networking devices will be assigned IP addresses in order to identify and communicate with each other in a network utilizing the internet protocol.

0 Class C: 192.255.255.0.255.255. Routable IP address 2.255 Network part 8 |Host part 24 Subnet mask: 255. Un-Registered IP address 3.255..0.255 . No need to pay for private IP address 4.255.31.255 128.0.0 to 172.0.49 Private IP address ranges Class A: 10.255.0 to 191.168.0. Intranet purposes Public IP 1.255.0.0 Public IP address range Class A: 1-126 8/24 Subnet mask:255.255 Network part 16|Host part 16 Subnet mask: 255.0.255 Network part 24|Host part 8 Subnet mask: 255.0 Class B: 172. Need to pay for public IP address 4.0.255.0 to 126.0.0.0 Class B: 128-191 16/16 Subnet mask:255.0. Internet Purposes B .255.0 Class C: 192-223 Full Form 1.0 to 192.0 to 10.255 192.255.0. Non routable IP address 2.255. Registered IP address in the internet 3.255.255.0.168.Mohamed Simad Private IP 1.0.0.16.0 to 36 223.0.

0.255 240.0. 3. multicast and anycast it doesn’t support broadcast.255.0.0.255.0.255.255 Loopback IP address 255.255.0.255 IPV6 128 bits A6C2:884F:C849:f 864:AC29:C375:Df1E (0-9. 5.loop back IP address.protocol implementation.0 to 255.Mohamed Simad 24/8 Subnet mask:255.255 Special Purposes IP addresses 1.255.0.0 255.255.0 to 255.097.152 28-2=254 37 . Special purpose IP address IP address class Total # of bits for networking id / Host id First octect of IP address Class A Class B Class C 8/24 16/16 24/8 0XXX XXXX 10XX XXXX 110X XXXX # Of network ID bits used to identify class 1 2 3 Usable # of networking ID bits Number of possible network # Of host ID per Network ID 8-1=7 16-2=14 24-3=3 27 -2=126 2242=16.24 214=16384 216-2=65.255 Limited IP address Class D: Multicast Class E: Reserved for future use (or) research & development Types of IP addresses IPV4 32 bits 192.0 Class D: 224-239 (not defined) Subnet mask: (not defined) Class E: 240-255 (not defined) Subnet mask: (not defined) B .0.255.E It supports unicast broadcast and multicast 0.1.255.0. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 . 4.0.0 to 239.49 224.777.A-F) No classes in IPV4 It support unicast.0 to 127.0.0.534 21 2 =2.255.0.0 to 0.C.1 We use classes in IPV4 class A.255 default network address 127. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 .D.255. 2.0.0 127. 0.255.255.168.255.255.B.

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