# INTEGRATION

Integration is the reverse of
differentiation

where a is constant Examples: 1. dx  x  c 2 2 .  -3 dx = -3x + c 1 1 4.1.  2 dx = 2x + c 3.  a dx = ax + c.  1 dx = x + c 2.

 2 dx  x dx  c x 2 1 1 x x 1  c  c   c  2 1 1 x . n  1 n 1 n Examples: 11 x 1 2 1. xdx  c  x c 11 2 2 1 x 1 3 2 2. x dx   c. x dx  c  x c 2 1 3 1 2 3. where n is an integer.n 1 x 2.

 2 xdx   c  x  c  x2  c 11 2 4 2 1 4 3 2. ax dx   c .  4 x dx   c   x c 2 1 3 2 3 3. where a is a constant and n n 1 is an integer.n 1 ax 3. n  1 n Examples: 2 x11 2 2 1. 3 dx  3x 3 dx x 3x 31 3x 2 3  c  c   2 c  3 1 2 2x .

 ax dx  c n 1 n . x n dx  c n 1 ax n 1 3.  a dx = ax + c n 1 x 2. (3x 4 x)dx 3 3 3 ( 3 x  4 x ) dx  3 x   dx   4xdx 3 x 31 4 x 11   c 3 1 11 3x 4 4x 2   c 4 2 3 4 2  x  2x  c 4 1.Integrals of algebraic expressions  [ f ( x)  g ( x)]dx   f ( x)dx   g ( x)dx Examples: 1.

 (3x  2) dx 2  (3x  2) dx   (3x  2)(3x  2)dx   (9 x  6 x  6 x  4)dx   (9 x  12x  4)dx   9 x dx  12xdx   4dx 2 2 2 2 9 x 2 1 12 x 11    4x  c 2 1 11 9 x 3 12 x 2    4x  c 3 2  3x  6 x  4 x  c 3 2 n 1 x 2. ax n dx  c n 1 .  a dx = ax + c 2.1. x n dx  c n 1 n 1 ax 3.

 x n dx  c n 1 n 1 ax 3.4  5x 2 3. ax n dx  c n 1 .  a dx = ax + c n 1 x 2. dx 3 4  5x 2 4 5x 2  3 dx   ( 3  3 )dx 4 5 2   dx  x dx 3 3 4 5 x 21  x ( )c 3 3 2 1 4 5 x3  x ( )c 3 3 3 4 5 3  x x c 3 9 1.

 a dx = ax + c n 1 x 2. ax n dx  c n 1 .2 x 3  5x 2 4. x n dx  c n 1 n 1 ax 3. dx 5 3x 2 x  5x 2 2 x 3 5x 2  x 5 dx   ( x 5  x 5 )dx 2 5   ( 2  3 )dx x x   (2 x 2  5x 3 )dx 2 1 31 2x 5x   c  2 1  3 1 2 x 1 5 x 2   c 1 2 2 5    2 c x 2x 1.

y = 3 3  13  2(12 )  2(1)  c c=2 . x dx  c n 1 Solution: n 1 ax 3. c 1.  a dx = ax + c dy 2 Given that  3x  4 x  2 and y = 3 when x = 1 x n 1 dx n 2.Finding the constant of integration. ax n dx  c n 1 dy  3x 2  4 x  2 dx y   (3x 2  4 x  2)dx y   3x dx   4 xdx   2dx 2 3x 21 4 x11 y   2x  c 2 1 11 3x 3 4x 2 y   2x  c 3 2 y  x3  2x 2  2x  c When x = 1.

n ( ax  b ) Integrals of expressions of the form n 1 ( ax  b ) n ( ax  b ) dx  c  a (n  1) 1. 4 ( 5 x  8 ) dx  (5 x  8) 4 1  c 5( 4  1) (5 x  8) 3  c  15 1  c 3 15 (5 x  8) . (2 x  7)5 dx 5 1 ( 2 x  7 ) 5 ( 2 x  7 ) dx  c  2(5  1) ( 2 x  7) 6  c 12 1 dx 4 (5 x  8) 1  (5 x  8) 4 dx  2.