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04/30/2013
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Windows Version 11.1
User Manual
© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984  2005
License and Copyright
Hydromax Program © 19852005 Formation Design Systems. Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for backup purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hydromax User Manual © 2005 Formation Design Systems. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems’ distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.
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.........................................................................................................................33 Setting Initial Conditions ............................................................................................................61 Analysis Types ......7 Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Contents License and Copyright......77 Floodable Length .......................................................................14 Longitudinal Strength Quickstart ........................ iii Contents......................................................................................................84 Tank Calibrations...............................................................65 Equilibrium Analysis ............90 Batch Analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................................................17 Getting Started ........56 Key Points (e...................... Down Flooding Points) .......10 Specified Condition Quickstart ................................................................62 Upright Hydrostatics...........................18 Starting Hydromax.................................20 Preparing a Design in Maxsurf ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33 Loadcase ......................................................................80 Longitudinal Strength ......................................................3 Chapter 2 Quickstart..53 Sounding Pipes .................................18 Hydromax Model .....................................68 Specified Conditions........................72 KN Values Analysis...12 Limiting KG Analysis Quickstart ............18 Installing Hydromax ......87 Starting and Stopping Analyses .......................................................................................11 KN Values Quickstart .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................g.....................................25 Hydromax Sections Forming ....................................................................................................................................................15 Tank Calibrations Quickstart ..........................9 Equilibrium Condition Quickstart...............................................................................................................................................91 Analysis Settings.......................................................58 Margin Line Points .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Checking the Hydromax model ......................................................................55 Damage Case Definition .....23 Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File .......................................................................................63 Large Angle Stability....................................................................................................................29 Analysis Input .........................................24 Updating the Hydromax Model .................................................................20 Opening a New Design ........................................16 Chapter 3 Using Hydromax..................................................13 Floodable Length Quickstart...............................................................................................................................................35 Modelling Compartments .............................50 Compartment Types...............................................................................1 Chapter 1 Introduction.....8 Large Angle Stability Quickstart ...............................................93 v .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v About this Manual .................................................................74 Limiting KG...............................................................................................................................................................................................60 Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments ..................61 Stability Criteria.........................40 Forming Compartments ..............................................................
..................................96 Permeability ................................................................................186 ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation....................................................127 Glossary ............................................................................110 Exporting ..........................................123 Importing and Saving Criteria Sets.............................................................................................................................................Note on unit conversion .....196 Report Window.............186 Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference ......................................................................99 Density .............................................................................................................................................................................117 Criteria Details................................178 Other criteria .................. ........................................................................................................................................................................95 Displacement .......................194 Graph Window.................................................................................190 View Window ........................................................127 Definitions of GZ curve features: .................................149 Heeling arms for specific criteria .........................................97 Analysis Environment Options .............................................................................................190 Loadcase Window..............100 Waveform .....................................................................155 Heeling arm criteria ......................................................................................................106 Select View from Analysis Data................................................................................................. combined criteria..............99 Fluids Analysis Methods ..Contents Heel....................192 Results Window.......................112 Chapter 4 Stability Criteria................................101 Grounding ........................................................................................................................94 Draft .................................107 Copying......................................................................................................................................132 Heeling arm definition ..........................................................................................................183 Specific stability criteria ..........................................161 Multiple heeling arm criteria .................................................................................................................................95 Specified Conditions..........................the Criteria Dialog ............115 Criteria Tree List.................................................................131 GZ Curve Criteria (nonheeling arm) ..........................................................................................191 Damage Window ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................113 Criteria Overview.....................................................................192 Input Window ..............................................................................131 Criteria at Equilibrium ...........114 Setting up Criteria ..............................................................96 Error Values..........................................................108 Saving the Hydromax Design ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................189 Windows ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................199 Toolbars .................................................................................................104 Stability Criteria........................................................................................................................................................174 Heeling arm..........................................................................................120 Criteria Help .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................105 Damage .......................................................................................................203 vi .................................................................102 Hog and Sag........................124 Nomenclature ............................................................130 Parent Stability Criteria............................................................................................................................................................................122 Criteria Results.........................................................................93 Trim ..............................................105 Analysis Output.....................................................
.................212 Window Menu ..........216 Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations .............................................................................................................235 vii ......................................................214 Help Menu ......................................................231 File Extension Reference Table ..............206 View Menu .......................................232 Analysis settings reference table ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................225 Appendix B Criteria file format ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Menus................................................209 Case Menu ......................................................................212 Display Menu.......233 Index....................223 Reference Designs ...........................224 Reference Calculations .............................205 Edit Menu .......................................................205 File Menu.............................................................216 Definition and calculation of form parameters ............................................................................................................................................207 Analysis Menu .........................................................214 Appendix A Calculation of Form Parameters .............................227 Appendix C Reference Tables......................................................................................
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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Explains how to use Hydromax' powerful floatation and hydrostatic analysis routines to best advantage. If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft Windows® interface.About this Manual About this Manual This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatic and stability analyses on you Maxsurf design. This will introduce you to commonly used terms and the basic techniques for using any computer program. Page 1 . Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Gives details of Hydromax' windows and each of Hydromax' menu commands. Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated with Hydromax. please read the owner's manual supplied with your computer. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hydromax functionality and its interface to Maxsurf Chapter 2 Quickstart Gives a quick walk through the analysis tools available in Hydromax.
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Page 3 . The following steps are followed when performing an analysis: • Input model • Analysis type selection • Analysis settings • Environment options • Criteria specification and selection • Run analysis • Output Hydromax operates in the same graphical environment as Maxsurf. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the effects of damage. A number of environmental setting options and modifiers add further analysis capabilities to Hydromax. the model can be displayed using hull contour lines. such as downflooding points. The loadcase allows static weights and tankfillings to be specified and calculates the corresponding weights and centres of gravity as well as the total weight and centre of gravity of the vessel under the specified loading condition. Hydromax’ analysis tools enable a wide range of hydrostatic and stability characteristics to be determined for your Maxsurf design. centre of gravity and free surface moment. Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. A number of loadcases can be created. which makes it easy to use. Hydromax adds extra information to the Maxsurf surface model. This includes: compartments and key points such as downflooding points and margin line.Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction Hydromax is a hydrostatics. Other input consists of: tank sounding pipes. This allows visual checking of compartments and shows the orientation of the vessel during analysis. rendering or transparent rendering. Input Model Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax. immersion and embarkation points. stability and longitudinal strength program specifically designed to work with Maxsurf. margin lines and section modulus. This direct transfer preserves the threedimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model. key points. Hydromax is designed in a logical manner. eliminating the need for timeconsuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets.
For example. For example: the upright hydrostatics analysis simply requires a range of drafts.Chapter 1 Introduction Analysis Types Hydromax contains the following analysis tools: • Upright hydrostatics • Large angle stability • Equilibrium analysis • Specified Condition analysis • KN values and cross curves of stability • Limiting KG analysis • Floodable Length analysis • Longitudinal Strength analysis • Tank Calibrations Although common analysis settings are used where possible. whereas the longitudinal strength analysis requires a detailed load distribution. Environment Options Environmental options are modifiers that may be applied to the model or its environment that will affect the results of the hydrostatic analysis. The following analysis settings are available: • Heel • Trim • Draft • Displacement • Permeability • Specified conditions The analysis settings are specified prior to running the analysis. different environmental options may be applied to the Hydromax: • Type of Fluid Simulation • Density (of fluids) • Wave forms • Grounding • Hogging and sagging • Intact and Damage condition Page 4 . or a range of heel angles for a large angle stability analysis. Settings that are not relevant to the selected analysis type are greyed out in the Analysis menu. Analysis Settings The analysis settings describe the condition of the vessel to be tested. Depending on the analysis being performed. different analyses may require different settings. a range of drafts in the case of upright hydrostatics. The analysis settings for each analysis type are explained in detail in the analysis synopsis below.
Page 5 . For a brief overview of the different analysis that Hydromax has available. either in tabular form. Hydromax has a generic set of parent criteria from which virtually any stability criterion can be customized. gravity and buoyancy are also displayed. The centres of flotation. or as graphs of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. which can be saved. complete with immersed sectional areas and actual waterlines. Limiting KG and Floodable length analyses also use stability criteria. copied and printed. These criteria are either derived from the properties of the stability curve calculated from a Large Angle Stability analysis or from the vessel’s orientation and stability properties calculated from an Equilibrium analysis. Heeled and trimmed hullforms and water plane shapes may be printed. Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time. All results are accumulated in the Report window. Output Views of the hull are shown for each stage of the analysis. The criteria checks are summarised in tables listing the status (pass/fail) of each criterion. The criterion settings and intermediate calculation data may also be displayed if required. In addition.Chapter 1 Introduction Stability Criteria Hydromax has the capability to calculate compliance with a wide range of stability criteria. Hydromax has an extensive range of stability criteria to determine compliance with a wide range of international stability regulations. continue reading Chapter 2 Quickstart.
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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax will describe each of the analysis types. Hydromax contains the following analysis types • Upright Hydrostatics • Large Angle Stability • Equilibrium Condition • Specified Condition • KN Values • Limiting KG Analysis • Floodable Length • Longitudinal Strength • Tank Calibrations Each analysis has different settings that may be applied • Heel • Trim • Draft • Displacement • Specified conditions • Permeability • Loadcase • Tank and compartment definition Hydromax offers different environment options that may be applied to the analyses • Fluid Densities • Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG • Wave form • Grounding • Hog and sag • Damage Hydromax offers an extensive range of stability criteria that are applicable to equilibrium.Chapter 2 Quickstart Chapter 2 Quickstart This chapter will briefly describe each analysis type and its output. settings and environment options in more detail. For each analysis type. large angle stability. a list of the required settings as well as the available environment options is given. limiting KG and Floodable length analysis. Page 7 .
trim is fixed at a user defined value and draft is varied in fixed steps.Chapter 2 Quickstart Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart For Upright Hydrostatics. curves of form and sectional area at each draft are available. heel is fixed at zero heel. Displacement and centre of buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during the analysis. Upright hydrostatics requirements • Range of drafts to be analysed • VCG (for calculation of some stability characteristics such as GMt and GMl only) • Trim Upright hydrostatic options • Fluid Densities • Wave form • Hog and sag • Damage • Compartment definition (in case of damage) The results are tabulated and graphs of the hydrostatic data. For more detailed information please see: Upright Hydrostatics on page 63. Page 8 .
Chapter 2 Quickstart Large Angle Stability Quickstart For the analysis of Large Angle Stability. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms a GZ curve. the centre of gravity against the centre of buoyancy such that the trimming moment is zero. the horizontal distance between the centres of gravity and buoyancy. These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria have been selected. If large angle stability criteria have been selected for analysis. Large angle stability requirements • Range of heel angles to be analysed • Trim (fixed or free) • Loadcase • Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Large angle stability options • Fluid Densities • Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG • Wave form • Hog and sag • Damage • Compartment definition (in case of damage) • Key points • Margin line and deck edge • Analysis of stability criteria The key output value is GZ (or righting lever). The sectional area curve at each of the heel angles tested may also be displayed. if the model is freetotrim. curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first downflooding point. A range of heel angles are specified and Hydromax calculates the righting lever and other hydrostatic data at each of these heel angles by balancing the loadcase displacement against the hull buoyancy and. For more detailed information please see: Large Angle Stability on page 65. Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve. Downflooding angles for any key points. these results will also be reported in the criteria results table and they may lead to additional curves being displayed on the GZ curve. including upright GM. margin line and deck edge will also be computed and tabulated. Page 9 . displacement and centre of gravity are specified in the loadcase.
heel and trim that satisfy equilibrium and reports the equilibrium hydrostatics and a cross sectional areas curve.Chapter 2 Quickstart Equilibrium Condition Quickstart Equilibrium Analysis uses the Loadcase. to calculate the displacement and the location of the centre of gravity. For more detailed information please see: Equilibrium Analysis on page 68. If a wave form has been specified there will be a number of columns. margin line and deck edge. Any equilibrium criteria will also be evaluated and their results reported. as is the freeboard to any defined key points. The sectional area curve is also calculated. Hydromax iterates to find the draft. Equilibrium analysis requirements • Loadcase • Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) • Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Equilibrium analysis options • Fluid Densities • Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG • Wave form • Hog and sag • Grounding • Damage • Compartment definition (in case of damage) • Key points • Margin line and deck edge • Analysis of equilibrium criteria Equilibrium analysis result table lists the hydrostatic properties of the model. Page 10 . each column contains the results for a different position of the vessel in the wave as given by the wave phase value.
Specified Condition Requirements • Specified Conditions Input Dialog If fixed trim is specified.Chapter 2 Quickstart Specified Condition Quickstart In the specified condition each of the three degrees of freedom. can be set. For more detailed information please see Specified Conditions on page 72. Specified Conditions Options • Fluid Densities • Wave form • Hog and sag • Grounding • Damage • Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) The output for the specified condition consists of a curve of cross sectional areas and hydrostatics of the vessel in the specified condition. you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts (these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog). Page 11 . for which the hydrostatic properties of the model are to be calculated.
The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula: GZ = KN . KN Values Analysis Requirements • Range of displacements to be analysed • Range of heel angles to be analysed • Trim (fixed or free) • Estimate of VCG (provides more accurate result if freetotrim) KN Values Analysis Options • Fluid Densities • Wave form • Hog and sag • Damage • Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Output is in the form of a table of KN values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability. and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's effective Vertical Centre of Gravity. this may be specified.Chapter 2 Quickstart KN Values Quickstart KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if its VCG is unknown. Page 12 . They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the height of the centre of gravity is known. For more detailed information please see KN Values Analysis on page 74.KG * sin(Heel) where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy and the Centre of Gravity. The computed KN results will then give a more accurate estimate of GZ for KG close to the estimated VCG since the effects of VCG on trim have been more accurately accounted for. If the analysis is performed freetotrim and an estimate of the VCG is known.
if the intact condition is used.e. however at least one large angle stability criterion is required. The selected stability criteria are evaluated. Some criteria. Limiting KG Analysis Requirements • Range of displacements to be analysed • Range of heel angles to be analysed • Trim (fixed or free) • Stability criteria for which limiting KG is to be found Limiting KG Analysis Options • Fluid Densities • Wave form • Hog and sag • Damage • Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) • Key points (if required for criteria) • Margin line and deck edge (if required for criteria) A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced as well as tabulated results indicating which stability criteria limited the VCG. if a damage case is chosen. For more detailed information see Limiting KG on page 77. are very insensitive to VCG and may prevent the analysis converging. i. Page 13 . Hydromax runs several Large Angle Stability analyses at different KGs.Chapter 2 Quickstart Limiting KG Analysis Quickstart The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the centre of gravity (maximum KG) for which the selected stability criteria are just passed. At each of the specified displacements. If the analysis is unable to converge for a certain displacement this will be noted and the next displacement tried. Only relevant criteria will be used. such as angle of maximum GZ. If limiting curves are required for each of the stability criteria individually. this may be done in the Batch Analysis mode. This may be done for a range of vessel displacements. only intact criteria will be evaluated. only damage criteria will be evaluated. the centre of gravity is increased until one of the criteria fails. A check will be made to ensure that any selected equilibrium criteria are passed.
The data is tabulated for each of the stations as defined in Maxsurf. For more detailed information please see Floodable Length on page 80.to. As well as the standard deck edge and margin line immersion criteria (one of which must be specified) the user can also add criteria for maximum trim angle and minimum required values of longitudinal and transverse metacentric height. The VCG is also required to ensure accurate balance of the CG against the CB at high angles of trim. the LCG may be specified directly or calculated from a specified initial trim. Floodable Length Analysis Requirements • Range of displacements to be analysed • VCG • Range of permeabilities to be analysed • Trim (free. In addition a range of permeabilities may be specified.trim to either initial trim or specified LCG) • Floodable length criteria to be tested • Margin line and deck edge (required for criteria) Floodable Length Analysis Options • Fluid Densities • Wave form • Hog and sag The output is in the form of tabulated Floodable Lengths for each displacement and permeability. Page 14 . Floodable Lengths may be computed for a range of displacements. The data is also presented graphically.Chapter 2 Quickstart Floodable Length Quickstart This analysis mode is used to compute the maximum compartment lengths based on userspecified equilibrium criteria.
graphs of allowable shear and bending moment are superimposed on the graph. Longitudinal Strength Analysis Requirements • Loadcase (including distributed loads if required) • Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) • Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Longitudinal Strength Analysis Options • Fluid Densities • Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation is always used for Longitudinal Strength analysis • Wave form • Hog and sag • Grounding • Damage • Compartment definition (in case of damage) • Allowable shear and bending moment The longitudinal strength graph and tables contain all information on weight and buoyancy distribution. If defined.Chapter 2 Quickstart Longitudinal Strength Quickstart Hydromax calculates the net load from the buoyancy and weight distribution of the model. For more detailed information please see Longitudinal Strength on page 84. Page 15 . That data is then used to calculate the bending moment and shear force on the vessel. the shear force and bending moment on the vessel.
soundings are measured from the bottom of the sounding pipe to the free surface. is calculated. Tank ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe and in a similar manner. Tank calibration analysis requirements • Tank definitions • Sounding pipe definition (if required) • Sounding intervals for calibration levels • Trim Tank calibration analysis options • Fluid Densities • Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation always selected • Hog and Sag • Damage: Intact case always selected For each tank. but the vessel's trim may be specified. These results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. volumes etc. a table of capacities. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily. taking into account the vessel trim. Hydromax uses its fluid simulation mode to calculate the actual position of the fluids in the tanks. For more detailed information please see Tank Calibrations on page 87. Page 16 . centre of gravity and free surface moment (FSM). Tank calibrations are for the upright (zero heel) vessel.Chapter 2 Quickstart Tank Calibrations Quickstart Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity.
installation and starting the program • Hydromax Model. opening and validating the Maxsurf model • Analysis Input • Analysis Types • Analysis Settings • Analysis Environment Options • Analysis Output Page 17 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This chapter describes • Getting Started.
please ensure that you install the software before plugging in the device into the USB port on your computer. these may be reset by holding down the shift key when activating them) • Density of fluids • Permeabilities for floodable length analysis • Location of files • Units for data input and results output • Convergence tolerance (Error values) Page 18 . doing this will reset all the preferences. click OK. Starting Hydromax After installation. If you have a USB copy protection device. You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences. Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu. Note: Before installing any program from the Maxsurf suite for the first time.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Getting Started This section contains everything you need to do to start using Hydromax • Installing Hydromax • Starting Hydromax Installing Hydromax Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program. Windows Registry Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. Simply select Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under the Programs menu in the Start menu. start the program with the Shift key depressed. or you may simply want to revert back to the default configuration. It is possible for this data to become corrupted. please read the purchase letter (also referred to as installation manual). The following preferences are stored in the registry: • Colour settings of contours and background • Fonts • Window size and location • Size of resizing dialogs (alternatively. then follow the instructions on screen. To clear the Hydromax preferences.
If you change computer you will have to set up the preferences on the new computer. Check the density of seawater after resetting your preferences. This is the fluid that the vessel will float in and all hydrostatic calculations are derived from. It is recommended to save your customized densities in a separate spreadsheet.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: The default density for the fluid labelled "Sea Water" is stored in the windows registry. Page 19 .
The perpendiculars define the longitudinal positions of the vessel’s draft marks and cannot be coincident. • Preparing a Design in Maxsurf • Opening a New Design • Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File • Updating the Hydromax Model • Hydromax Sections Forming • Checking the Hydromax model Preparing a Design in Maxsurf There are several important checks that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a design in Hydromax: • Zero Point • Frame of Reference • Surface Use • Plating Thickness • Outside Arrows • Trimming • Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Zero Point Ensure that the zero point is correctly setup in Maxsurf. The base line is the datum from which the drafts and KG are measured. By convention. the baseline and the datum waterline. In Hydromax you have the option of displaying longitudinal measurements such as LCB or LCF from the model zero point or amidships. Surface Use In Maxsurf you can choose between two types of surface use Hull Hull surfaces are used to define the watertight envelope of the hull. Page 20 . in the profile and plan views. The Frame of reference should not be changed in Hydromax. midships is automatically defined midway between the perpendiculars. The frame of reference defines the fore and aft perpendiculars. A consistent zero point and frame of reference should be used for the model throughout the Maxsurf suite of software. Frame of Reference It is vital that the Frame of Reference is correctly setup in Maxsurf before attempting to analyse the model in Hydromax. the vessel’s bow is on the right.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydromax Model This section describes how to open a Maxsurf model in Hydromax and provides some important information to ensure that your model is correctly interpreted by Hydromax.
The surface direction may then be flipped by clicking on the end of the arrow. Trimming Ensure that all surfaces are trimmed correctly. i. ensure that the thickness and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command from the Display menu to tell Maxsurf which direction points outwards (towards the seawater) for each surface.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Internal structure Internal structure surfaces are used for all other surfaces (any surfaces which do not make up the watertight envelope) and also surfaces which are to be used in Hydromax to define the boundaries of tanks and compartments that have complex shapes. Note Tank boundaries made from internal structures surfaces do not have plate thickness so the surface should be placed to model the inside of the tank if the tank wall has significant thickness. Plate thickness for hull surfaces will be treated so that the hull sections go to the outside of the plate whilst any tanks are trimmed to the inside of the plate. Plating Thickness Hull Shell Internal Structure If plate thickness is to be used in hydrostatic calculations. it is not included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax. Outside Arrows The surfaces’ outside arrows define the orientation of the surfaces.e. To activate plate thickness in Hydromax ensure that the “Include Plating Thickness” option is selected when reading the file or calculating the hull sections. internal surfaces will be ignored in the forming of hydrostatic sections. The following table describes the difference between each surface use in Hydromax: Included: Hydrostatic sections Selection of tank/compartment boundaries Skin thickness applied to the surface Verify that all surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are defined as Internal Structure. Page 21 . You should have completely closed transverse sections or sections with at most one opening. If a surface is defined as internal structure. Thickness can be specified differently for each hull surface.
a maximum of one gap in a transverse section through the hull. • Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off • Check surface use. Also see: Hydromax Sections Forming on page 26 Checking the Hydromax model on page 29 Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as the following requirements for the Maxsurf model are observed: • Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge. i.g. Correct section with one opening: this section will be closed across the top. trim away the excess regions of the surface. e. preferably by bonding the edges together • Where surfaces intersect. internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull sections in Hydromax Note: For internal structure surfaces that will be used to define tank (or compartment boundaries) the same requirements apply.e. Also see: Checking the Hydromax model on page 29. the part of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel • Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion. Page 22 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Correct Section with no opening.
avoiding any errors inherent in the integration of evenly spaced stations. Page 23 . then select Open Design from the File menu. Stations When calculating stations. For example.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Opening a New Design File opening in Hydromax is window specific. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in Maxsurf. ensure that the design view window is active. To open a design for analysis. Reducing the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy. the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be ticked.e. any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog may be included. conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to higher accuracy results. Choose a Maxsurf design file (. The following dialog will appear: Calculate Sections Choosing Calculate Sections will calculate the specified number of sections through the hull. This first option is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or bow thrusters that need to be accurately modelled and may need a locally denser station spacing to do so. i. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. It also allows designs with significant longitudinal discontinuities in their sectional areas to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity.msd). by specifying one station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this discontinuity can be modelled very accurately. Use Trimmed Surfaces If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces. if it was known that a design had a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships. Include Plating Thickness At this stage. Hydromax will automatically look for compartment definition files when you are in a Compartment Definition window and a loadcase in a Loadcase window. you may select how many stations should be used.
Page 24 . For example: when opening OSV. Hydromax recognises this precision setting and will and set the Surface Precision button accordingly.msd).msd file. there are two options: • Double click on the . When Hydromax opens a . key points. Therefore it is recommended not to change the precision setting when opening the Maxsurf design file in Hydromax. Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File After saving the Maxsurf design file for the first time in Hydromax.hmd file is found.hmd) is created.hmd file with the same name as the . The Hydromax design file will consist of the hydrostatic sections and all input data such as compartment definitions.msd. Surface Precision The Surface Precision options has two functions: • Setting for calculating the hydrostatic sections • Setting used to form new compartments or tanks. a “Hydromax Design file” (. the OSV. The Calculate Sections dialog now has the option to read the sections from the file. Hydromax also allows saving of all input and output files into individual files.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The upper limit for the number of stations is 200. To open an existing design.msd file. The precision at which the design was saved in Maxsurf is included in the Maxsurf design file (. sounding pipes etc. it will look for a . Note: Maxsurf surface trimming information may vary for different precisions.msd file An existing Hydromax design consists of a number of files with different file extensions.hmd file from any Windows explorer window • Use the Hydromax Open command form the file menu and select the .
hmd file was saved. compartment definition etc remain part of the Hydromax design file. are not automatically incorporated. compartment definitions. it is necessary to: 1) save and close the model in Hydromax 2) save in Maxsurf 3) open in Hydromax. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 232. Page 25 . damage cases. key points etc. using “Read Sections from File” to make sure the loadcase.e. loadcases. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax • Ensure “Read sections from file” is selected and click OK. Note: Changes to the Maxsurf design are only recalculated after the new Maxsurf design has been reloaded into Hydromax. Updating the Hydromax Model To update the hydrostatic sections to the latest Maxsurf Design File. See: Updating the Hydromax Model on page 25 for more information. This contains hydrostatic sections information and all input information from last time the . This means that if the model is simultaneously being edited in Maxsurf and Hydromax.hmd file. Hydromax will now open the . This function can also be used to include/exclude surface thickness or change the number of sections and to change use/not use trimmed surfaces without reloading the Maxsurf Design File. The “Recalculate Hull Sections” command recalculates Hull surfaces as well as Tank Boundary surfaces (Internal Structure surfaces in Maxsurf). 4) use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” from the analysis menu. i. This means that changes to the hull shape in the Maxsurf Design file. Note: When selecting “read sections from file” the Maxsurf surface information is not recalculated. Any tanks and loadcases will also be updated with this command. select “Recalculate Hull sections” in the analysis menu after reloading the Maxsurf Design File.
e. or can be unambiguously closed. having both a gap at the centreline as well as an open deck). the section is made up of two line segments. This section outlines the section forming process in Hydromax and may be helpful whilst preparing a Maxsurf design for Hydromax. multiple openings per surface Single Surface Where a hull consists of an open shell (e. Hydromax will automatically close the section with a straight line connecting the opening ends. The following cases can occur: • Single surface • Multiple surface. an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments will be connected. Whilst it is always preferable to give Hydromax a completely closed model with no ambiguities.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydromax Sections Forming Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of cross sections taken through the Maxsurf model surfaces. “hydrostatic sections” or just “sections”. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed. a hull surface with no deck). This is not an acceptable shape. trimming etc • Multiple surface. (e. one opening per surface • Multiple surface. called “Hydromax sections”. Page 26 .g. If. Hydromax will try to resolve any problems with the model definition in the manner outlined in the following sections. however.g.g. compacted control points. small gaps within tolerance • Multiple surface. via bonded edges. Hydromax will automatically form these sections. closed section lines.
Multiple Surfaces. Small Gaps Within Tolerance Hydromax will link curve segments together if they are only separated by a small amount.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the example above. Note: Over compacted control points A common problem with compacted control points occurs when the number of compacted control points is equal to or exceeds (≥) the surface order (read: stiffness). because there are too many dependencies in the program. The maximum number of compacted control points is the surface order –1. bonded together or use compacted control points will not cause any problems when opened in Hydromax. if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf the design would cease to be ambiguous. The user cannot change these tolerances. Hydromax will form a closed section through multiple surfaces by linking the curve segments together. Page 27 . One Closed Section Multiple surfaces that are trimmed correctly. Multiple Surfaces.
Hydromax will have difficulties distinguishing the intended main deck.g. One Opening Per Surface Each surface will be closed by a straight line linking the ends of the opening. decks. or can be unambiguously closed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Multiple Surfaces. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed. The excess portions of the curve will be trimmed off to form a single continuous contour. Hydromax first closes the individual surfaces Hydromax closes the outside contour and trims remnants Multiple Surfaces. Multiple Openings Per Surface Same as for a single surface. Where surfaces intersect. each surface will be closed before being intersected with another. bulwarks) A common example of ambiguous sections is a model with multiple decks. Page 28 . Ambiguous Sections (e.
the left and right arrow cursor keys will enable you to step through the sections onebyone. Page 29 . In particular. checking your sections after opening the design in Hydromax is strongly recommended. This works the same as the Maxsurf body plan window and is an extremely powerful tool to validate your Hydromax model. This is done by selecting Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan view from the Display menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The example above has bulwarks. look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax has interpreted the shape correctly. You can then click in the inset box to view the sections. Show Single Hull Section In the body plan view. the bulwark’s volume has to be properly modelled in Maxsurf. The following tools are available to validate the Hydromax model. Therefore. Incorrect sections in the model will give incorrect results. generally these will be treated correctly by Hydromax and trimmed off. depending on the height of the bulwark relative to the rest of the section. For more information see the Maxsurf manual. you can step through the sections onebyone to verify that they have been correctly calculated. If the bulwark’s volume is expected to influence the hydrostatic calculations. These sections should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines. Checking the Hydromax model Before starting any analysis you should check whether Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your design. • Show Single Hull Section • Show Sections Only • Checking the Sectional Area Curve • Using Rendering to Check the Model Note: Sections that are not formed correctly cause the majority of problems with Hydromax models. To prevent ambiguities it is recommended to trim the bulwark in Maxsurf.
Rotating the model in the perspective view should enable you to determine whether the sections have been formed correctly: Page 30 .) View the model in the perspective and other views. tanks are always displayed. use the Display  Visibility dialog: (In Tank Calibration Analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Show Sections Only Checking all the sections at once can be done by just displaying the section contours.
which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of the model which have not been properly defined. Using Rendering to Check the Model The model may also be rendered. If this displays any unexpected spikes or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape. This Cross Sectional Area curve indicates there may be a problem with section forming from 12 m to 16 m. Select Render from the Display menu whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections: Page 31 . This is not a foolproof method since it does not necessarily highlight problems in the nonimmersed part of the hull.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Checking the Sectional Area Curve Another way of checking the Hydromax model is to perform a specified condition analysis at quite deep draught and look carefully at the sectional area curve in the graph window.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: In rare instances incorrect rendering may occur. This does not necessarily mean that the model is incorrect. the model is correct. As long as the sections are formed correctly. Page 32 .
• Setting Initial Conditions Depending on the analysis performed. the next step is to check the Hydromax settings and initial analysis conditions. Page 33 .g. Down Flooding Points) • Margin Line Points • Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments • Stability Criteria Setting Initial Conditions All Hydromax calculations are performed in the frame of reference of the model. Note: Before you run any analysis using Hydromax. Hydromax uses the APP and FPP together with the baseline and the zero point for all calculations and gives the results in the units specified in the display menu. it is important that you set up the required initial conditions for the design. you may need to set up the following additional model data: • Loadcase • Modelling Compartments • Forming Compartments • Compartment Types • Damage Case Definition • Sounding Pipes • Key Points (e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Input After checking the Hydromax model.
loadcase and other input values. See: Zero Point and Frame of Reference on page 20 in the “Preparing a Design in Maxsurf” section. Changing the zero point after you have started analysing the model in Hydromax is not recommended. Port side above the centreline From Starboard. This should be done in Maxsurf and not in Hydromax. looking fwd From above. Draft and trim are measured on the forward and aft perpendiculars. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Coordinate System Hydromax uses the Maxsurf coordinate system: +ve forward +ve starboard +ve up View window Body plan Plan Profile ve aft ve port ve down View direction From the stern. Page 34 . Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Units The units used may be specified using the Units command. units for force and speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to highspeed turn etc. Frame of Reference and Zero Point It is essential that a frame of reference be specified. Units may be changed at any time. bow to the right. some analysis results will be meaningless. Coefficients In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. Note: Changing the zero point in Maxsurf will not update the compartment definition. In addition to the length and weight (mass) units. If these are not in the correct positions. may also be set.
The default loadcase will contain a lightship entry and an entry for each tank (with a default filling of 50%). Static weights that make up the vessel lightship are specified here as well as tank filling levels. Naming a Loadcase A loadcase can be given any name by saving it to a separate file. Then select “New Load Case” from the File menu or press Ctrl+N. The tabs in the bottom of the window can be used to skip though the different loadcases in the design.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Other Initial Conditions See: Fluids Analysis Methods on page 99 Density on page 100 Loadcase Loadcases define the loading condition of the vessel. switch to the loadcase view by selecting Loadcase from the Loadcase submenu in the Window menu. A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase window. Page 35 . expressed as either a percentage of the full tank capacity or as a weight. The loadcase filename will be used as the loadcase name and displayed on the tab in the loadcase window. Creating a Loadcase To create a load case.
and the total weight of crew would be automatically calculated. you will only need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. simply click anywhere in the row you want to remove. For each item in the list you can specify a quantity. You can repeat this process for as many loads as you wish. A new load will be inserted into the table. You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. Number of Loadcases” from the Case menu. The weight of each item should be entered in the next column. This is used to calculate the total weight of that item. then select Delete Load. If you want to remove a load from the table. you could specify the quantity and unit weight. press enter and the LCG will be automatically recalculated and displayed in the bottom row of the table. If for some reason you wish to have an upward (negative) load. a sensible number is recommended. You may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require. Editing Loads Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load. Note: When loading a design that has more loadcases than the maximum you have currently set in Hydromax. for example "Lightship".Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Setting the Maximum Number of Loadcases The maximum number of loadcases (up to twentyfive) that can be loaded in Hydromax at any one time is set by selecting “Max. For example: if the item was “crew” with a weight per unit. click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to delete are selected. The weight must always be positive. In most cases. Adding and Deleting Loads To add an extra load to the loadcase. Page 36 . If you wish to delete several loads simultaneously. choose Add Load from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and restart Hydromax before you can load the design. you can do so by entering a negative quantity – this can be useful if you want to apply a pure moment to the model by applying equal magnitude. Each may be saved and loaded independently. you will receive a warning and the file will not be loaded. and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table (or simply click directly in the cell you wish to edit). After you type in this number. For convenience of use. Each loadcase can be selected and used for analysis. and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu (or highlight the complete row by clicking the grey cell to the left of the row and press the Delete key). but opposite sign loads to the vessel in the loadcase. effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require. Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for the item.
The “Long. Arm” column defines the longitudinal position of the centre of the load.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Levers. Adding Blank Lines A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a period (. Loadcase Formatting Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank. The aft limit and forward limit columns only appear when Longitudinal Strength analysis is selected and the distributed loads will only have an effect on the results in this analysis mode. Adding Component or Heading Lines Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a period (. To do this the item name field must commence with the word ‘total’. Grouping Similar Tanks Tanks are listed in the loadcase in the order they are defined in the Compartment Definition table. Longitudinally Distributed Loads Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the aft limit and forward limit cells.) character in the Item Name field. If the longitudinal arm is changed in the Loadcase window. the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft limits.) character. Adding Total Lines A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case. Page 37 . it is necessary to reorder them in the Compartment Definition table. the forward and aft limits will be moved by the same amount. For an evenly distributed load. heading or subtotal lines in the table. are measured from the Zero Point. See: Compartment and Tank Ordering on page 48. If you wish to change the order in which tanks appear in the loadcase. as with all other measurements in Hydromax. the fore and aft limits define the longitudinal extents of the load.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Evenly distributed loads. at these extrema. but within the middle third 1/3 of the centre. Red = green and divided in the centre. For trapezium shaped distributed loads the centre of gravity is not midway between the boundaries. the centre of gravity should lie within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. Page 38 . Note: Since the load is distributed as a trapezium. Tanks will be automatically treated as distributed loads for the longitudinal strength calculations. Trapezium shaped distributed load. Red = Green divided within middle 1/3 of centre. the load distribution becomes triangular.
thus the actual vessel CG is recalculated accounting exactly for the static shift of the fluids in slack tanks. For other shapes and fillings of tanks it will not correctly approximate the free surface moment. Actual Hydromax uses the free surface moment for the current fluid level of the tank in upright condition. This is because the calculation of each tank level is relatively slow. To update the loadcase for changes in tank loads. question marks will be displayed in the other and in the lever columns. boxshapedtank.(69) Ch 3. so it is only performed when you wish the values to be updated. select Update Loadcase from the Analysis menu or toolbar. no correction is made to the upright VCG. This method approximates the movement of fluid due to heeling and is based on the fluid shift in a 50% full rectangular. expressed as a percentage of the full capacity and a weight column. When either is changed.3 for the calculation of the free surface moment. The options available are Maximum Hydromax will use the maximum free surface moment of the tank in upright condition for all fluid levels. divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. making the tanks’ freesurface parallel to the sea surface. the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments. Tanks have a quantity value. Updating tank values in the loadcase Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition. Hydromax calculates the actual position of the fluid in the tanks taking into account heel and trim. IMO Hydromax uses IMO MSC75.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank Loads When you create tanks using the compartment definition. When the corrected VCG method is selected in the analysis menu. Page 39 . Instead. Also see: Update Loadcase on page 210 Free surface correction If the corrected VCG fluid option has been chosen. the Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the Loadcase information. it is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a Hydromax Loadcase. Tank level can be given as either a percentage of full capacity or a weight. at every step of the analysis. Fluid simulation If the Fluid simulation option is selected in the analysis menu. they will be automatically included in the loadcases.
'A Top'. This is done by finding the intersection of the tank bounding box and the hull. Select New Compartment Definition from the File menu. select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the Delete key may also be used to add and delete entries respectively. this will give you a new set of compartment definitions with one default tank. You will notice that aft columns contain the word "ditto". This is allowed by classification societies and is an approximation of reality since the tank is almost empty or full and the shift in fluid mass is negligible. and the port and starboard limits of the tank. Each value defines one of the six planes of the tank. resulting in a parallel tank. 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. Modelling Box Shape Tanks Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for Forward and Aft. When the “Update Loadcase” command from the Analysis menu is used. The boundary box is made up of the fore and aft extremities of the tank. except the user specified method. in other words the two ends of the compartment. This means that the value is identical at the aft end of the tank to the forward end. Hydromax will form the sections that define the tanks and compartments. The column headings in the Compartment Definition table include terms such as 'F Bottom. Thus it is not necessary to make the tanks fit the hull manually – this is done automatically by Hydromax. Note: All VCG correction methods.1% and ≥ 98%. this section contains a number of important sections that the user should be aware off when modelling tanks: • Number of Sections in Tanks on page 52 • Tank and Compartment Permeability on page 46 Adding and Deleting Compartments To start adding compartments. This box will be called the Boundary Box . the top and bottom. Besides a general explanation on how to model tanks using the compartment definition table. set the free surface moment to zero for fillings < 0. Modelling Compartments This section will describe in detail how to model different types of tanks and compartments. Compartments may be added or deleted by selecting Add or Delete Compartment from the Edit menu. or an analysis started. Page 40 . Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete will delete the currently selected compartment(s).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax User specified A user specified value is used for all levels and heel angles.
tapered tanks can be formed Page 41 . Tanks can be tapered or sloped in Plan or Profile views. it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the points defining the compartment ends. If you wish to define tapered compartments. See Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 52 for some recommendations regarding setting the boundary box. If a different value is entered in one of the “ditto” columns. Modelling Tapered Tanks The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. a tapered tank will result. Hydromax does not have a mechanism for creating a sloped tank boundary in the Body Plan view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Box shaped compartments can be formed from the numerical values in the compartment definition table. By changing the “ditto”input fields.
compartments or nonbuoyant volumes. the fluid in a linked tank or damaged compartment is always assumed to be able to flow freely between the linked volumes. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked tank row. Tapered tanks in Body Plan view have to be created using a boundary surface. Page 42 . This allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Tapering can be done in Plan and in Profile view. To link tanks. compartments and nonbuoyant volumes may be linked. However. Linked Tanks anks. first make them the same type as the parent and give them the same name. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type column. compartments and nonbuoyant volumes may have their boundaries defined by surfaces as well as being constrained to particular dimensions. they act as a single tank with a common free surface. Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces Tanks. This means that although they are defined as separate tanks. See Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 42. Linked tanks and compartments do not have to be physically linked in space.
Note that symmetrical surfaces appear twice as there will be a starboard and a port side copy of the surface. the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column is coloured blue.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Forming tanks using boundary surfaces The surfaces to be used to define the tank boundaries are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the middle of the Compartments Definition table. The Starboard surface is first in the list and the Port surface second. The port surface is also identified with the suffix (P) after the name. Page 43 . If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment. If a tank uses boundary surfaces. A dialog will appear that allows you to select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. tick next to the surface name in the Boundary Surface list.
it is normally possible to add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model. However. In some cases. e. The tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax. Page 44 .g. Also see: Forming Compartments on page 50 Number of Sections in Tanks on page 52 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 52 Modelling External Tanks External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax. waterjet ducts. Additional boxshaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks Modelling NonBuoyant Volumes Nonbuoyant volumes are effectively permanently flooded compartments. They can normally be modelled using trimmed hull surfaces. The picture below is a good example of when to use trimmed surfaces. Symmetrical surfaces are duplicated. After selecting the internal surfaces. the nonbuoyant volume can be calculated accurately from the hull sections. this is the only option. there are occasions where it is more convenient to use nonbuoyant volumes. trimmed surfaces should be used. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the Boundary Surface.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Only internal structure surfaces appear in the boundary surfaces list. it is necessary to type in the extents of the boundary box. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. which will enclose the external tanks. where the volume to be flooded forms sections within the hydrostatic section. The choice whether to use trimmed surfaces or nonbuoyant volumes is primarily determined by the length of the nonbuoyant volume relative to the length of the vessel. However. If possible. with the portside surface having “(P)” appended to the surface name. relative to the length of the model. Using trimmed hull surfaces When the length of the nonbuoyant volume. is large enough.
Page 45 . there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces Using tank type: Nonbuoyant volume In some cases using trimmed surfaces is just not possible. In this case you are better off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a nonbuoyant volume. A good example of this is a bow thruster on a long ship. Waterjet ducts modelled as nonbuoyant volumes Another occasion when nonbuoyant volumes should be used. If the vessel is very long. For example: in the image below the bow thruster volume is only calculated with one section. and the thruster duct is of small diameter. For example. when the sections of the nonbuoyant volume are entirely enclosed within the hull sections (as is the case for a water jet duct) the use of a nonbuoyant volume is the only way in which these features can be modelled. is when the length of the compartment relative to the length of the hull is too small to calculate its volume from the hull sections.
Page 46 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more information. Tank and Compartment Permeability Tanks may have two permeabilities. This is necessary for damage cases where the compartment is flooded and the volume of the tank should be treated completely separately from the compartment. (negative) compartment”. deleted or modified. which is used when the tank is intact. Hydromax will automatically deduct the volume of the tank from the compartment volume using a “linked neg. and hence also account for the thruster. The compartment permeability is applied when the compartment is flooded in a damage condition and the nonbuoyant volume permeability is applied at all times since it is always flooded. This means that linked negative compartments cannot be added. Linked negative compartments are deleted and recreated whenever a tank or compartment is added. deleted or modified. modelling the thruster duct as a nonbuoyant volume has the additional advantage of being able to specify a Tank and Compartment Permeability. Compartments and nonbuoyant volumes have only one permeability. one. Negatively linked compartments are displayed on the bottom of the Compartment Definition table solely for reference purposes and are not under direct user control. Tip: Besides increasing the number of sections through the bow thruster from 1 to 12. see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 52. thought it is listed in both columns. and the other when it is damaged. Bow thruster tube modelled as two nonbuoyant volumes Tanks within Compartments When a tank is defined within a compartment.
all entries for that fluid in the compartment definition are automatically updated. If a fluid type is entered. either as the name or as one of the single letter codes (when entering the name. the engines and equipment could also be modelled individually as empty tanks. so it is normally only necessary to type the first few letter of the name). For example an engine room with engines and auxiliaries at the tanktop could be divided up in a lower. Permeability of Compartments As opposed to tanks. 60% and the upper compartment a permeability of 95%. the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog. JFA MTBE Gasoil Slops Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Custom 5 Code S B W D F L C G U J M GO SL C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Page 47 . The lower compartment will have a permeability of. for example. Relative Density of Tank Fluids Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative Density column of the Compartment Definition table. auto complete is used. Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog. Fluid Name Sea Water Water Ballast Fresh Water Diesel Fuel Oil Lube Oil ANS Crude Gasoline leaded Unlead. the permeability fraction is also applied to the freesurfacemoment contribution of that tank or compartment. Gas. In case of large variations in permeability within a compartment it is recommended to model separate linked compartments with separate permeability to increase accuracy. Depending on the level of accuracy required. compartments typically have structure (other than plate stiffeners) and equipment inside.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the case of damaged tanks and compartments.and an upper engine room compartment. Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column.
Compartment and Tank Ordering Tanks defined in the Compartment Definition table appear in the loadcase in the same order as they are defined in the Compartment Definition table. it is often useful to check individual tanks. Compartment and Tank Visibility When creating complicated tank plans. Use this to quickly turn tanks on and off by changing their damage status. the tanks. You can make the damage case window quite small and tile it next to the perspective view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks and Surface Thickness If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness. To reorder the tanks: • Copy the tank definition data to Excel • Sort the rows in to the desired order • Paste the data from Excel back into the Compartment Definition table. Selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner: • Define a damage case • Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display. • Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar • Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the damage case window. compartments and nonbuoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness and its projection direction: the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell. turn off the display of intact tanks and compartments. Page 48 . hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the tank. • Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other properties). Take care if you have linked tanks – unlink them first. Note: Thickness of boundary surfaces are not taken into account.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Using a damage case to quickly change the tank and compartment visibility Page 49 .
Starting point: Hydromax Hull sections with an internal surface and a bounding box Also see: Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 42 and the Maxsurf manual on internal structure surfaces Page 50 . This section describes the internal tankforming process that Hydromax uses to form tanks. Hydromax uses three input items to form the compartment • Boundary surfaces (if defined) • Boundary box • Hydromax Hull sections Starting position The starboard tank margin plate is modelled using an Internal Structure surface from Maxsurf. StepbyStep Tank Forming Process As an example. First a stepbystep outline of the tank forming process is given. followed by the tank section insertion process. the starboard waterballast tank below will be created using boundary surfaces. Understanding these processes may assist you in rare situations where the tank forming does not work as expected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Forming Compartments Tanks and compartments are formed automatically by Hydromax (once the tank extents and any boundary surfaces have been defined) by selecting Recalculate Tanks and Compartments from the Analysis menu. An example of a port and starboard waterballast tank with a pipe tunnel at the centreline. The water ballast tanks have a margin plate on the side.
Hydromax uses the same method for forming the tank section from the boundary surfaces as for forming the hydrostatic sections through the hull. If you selected “use trimmed surfaces” while opening the Maxsurf model. Make sure that the boundary surfaces: • Form a closed section contour.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 1: Close Internal Structure Surface Hydromax will close the Internal Structure Surface contour by drawing a straight line between the ends of the opening. Often a tank is not formed as expected because only one side of the internal structure surface was selected for example the portside (p). the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. Hydromax will use the trimmed internal structure surface. The tank or compartment looks like this at this stage: Page 51 . The area inside the selected surfaces will define the tank contour. or • There is no more than one opening – the opening will be closed with a straight line Note: Hydromax will close the section contour of the selected boundary surfaces only. Usually the internal structure surfaces are best to be left untrimmed. Step 2: Clip to Boundary Surface Using the closed surface section contour Hydromax can now form a closed compartment section. As with the hull sections. Another common cause of unexpected results is trimming.
The following example illustrates why: Page 52 . Step 4: Clip to Boundary Box Finally the compartment section is clipped to the boundary box. If this results in a section spacing greater than the spacing for the hull spacing. Thus it is important to have a sufficiently large number of sections to accurately model the tank. The boundary box is formed from the numerical input in the Compartment definition table. Hydromax will normally place twelve sections between the forward and aft limits defining the tank.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 3: Clip to Hull Hydromax will clip the compartment section to the hull. Also see Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 52 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box For tanks near the ship’s extremities it is good practise to set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits in the compartment table to just inside the hull surface (say 1mm). Number of Sections in Tanks • The volume of a tank or compartments is calculated by integrating section properties along the length of the tank. additional sections will be inserted into the tank so that the tank section spacing match the hull section spacing.
• But if the boundary box is set just inside the forward limit of the bulbous bow: To recap – Near the ship’s extremities.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax • If the boundary box is set like this: The number of hull sections is dependent on the section spacing in the model. linked compartments and nonbuoyant volumes.tanks. Note that transversely and vertically there are no such restrictions. Also see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 52 Forming Compartments on page 50 Compartment Types Five compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition table . Page 53 . Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the boundary surface. For internal structure surfaces that are used as boundary surface. they should be set to just inside the extents of the hull surfaces to ensure that at least 12 sections are used to calculate the tank volumes. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. linked tanks. compartments. the longitudinal extents should not be set to extreme values.
This will automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type. etc. They do not have a separate entry in the loadcase. In addition. Linked Tanks Will have their volume added to the parent tank with the same tank name. and essentially behave as damaged compartments. Linked Compartments Work in the same way as linked tanks. Compartments Are only used to specify compartmentation for damage. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. NonBuoyant Volumes Are only used to specify compartments of the vessel which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks Will be included in the tank calibration output and are automatically added to the loadcase. moon pools. They are ideal for defining waterjet ducts. c or n) in the Type column of the Compartment Definition table and then press Enter. This allows you to damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together and damaging the parent compartment. In this case the tank linking simulates tanks with cross connections. type the first character of the tank type (t. any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged. they can be remote from one another. To change the type of a tank. Page 54 . Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. if a tank is damaged.
Page 55 . The default sounding pipe is placed at the longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. allowing inclined. One sounding pipe per tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe. any changes to the sounding pipe due to tank geometry changes will also have to be made manually. the bottom of the tank is flat either longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aftmost low point and as close to the centreline as possible. by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window. once the sounding pipe has been edited manually. If the lowest point of the tank is shared between several locations (e.g. shown below. Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when the tank is formed (either by running an analysis. However. you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input window. Automatically created sounding pipes will be recalculated if the tank geometry changes. You can activate this window by selecting from the Windows  Input  Sounding Pipes menu. or using one of the following commands: Analysis  Recalculate Tanks and Compartments. The top of the sounding pipe is taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is assumed to be straight and vertical. or Analysis  Update Loadcase. or by clicking on the icon in the window toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sounding Pipes Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. bent or curved sounding pipes to be modelled. Edit Sounding Pipes To customise a sounding pipe.
Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of the depth of the tank. select the intact case column. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog.e. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in the table and selecting Edit  Delete or by hitting the Delete key. then click on the first row of a particular sounding pipe and choose Edit  Add or use the Ctrl+A key combination. it is not acceptable to have Sbends in the sounding pipes. Hydromax is capable of including the effects of userdefined damage. Damage Case Definition In all but the floodable length and tank calibration analysis modes.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe. A new row will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position. Note Increments are measured along the sounding pipe. In this case the Sounding Pipes table will display “Auto” in the Calibration Increment column for the tank. Page 56 . offset and height of the vertex can be edited. to insert a damage case immediately after the intact case. soundings will step evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe. Calibration Increment Hydromax allows definable increments for tank soundings. make the Damage window active and select Add Damage Case from the Case menu. Each new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case. If no increment is entered. The new damage case is added after the currently selected damage case column. Hydromax allows the user to set up a number of damage cases. Several damage cases may be added in one go by selecting a number of columns. Volumes that are permanently flooded should be defined as nonbuoyant volumes. Add Damage Case To add a damage case. Note that each successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i. not along the vertical axis of the tank. If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles. This is done by specifying an increment for each tank in the second column of the Sounding Pipes Input window. make the sounding pipe type User Defined.
Note that carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the intact case to be selected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Delete Damage Case To delete damage cases. To perform analyses for the intact vessel. When tanks have been damaged. This is also the case for the Floodable Length analysis which effectively sets up its own longitudinal extent of damage. select Intact as the current damage case. their weights and levers are no longer displayed in the Loadcase window and the word ‘Damage’ is displayed in the quantity column. Selecting a Damage Case The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar. This is because Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. Note that it is not possible to delete the intact case. Page 57 . the current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar – see below. simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu. Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. Rename Damage Case The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case when the damage case window is active. The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage case.
g. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as flooded tanks or compartments. These colours can be specified in the View  Colour menu. The Loadcase Window displays damaged tanks and excludes them from any calculations. Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level. turning off all damage in all the damage cases (use the fill down command) and then pasting back in the original data from where it was stored in the spreadsheet. Page 58 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. Any tank fluids are treated as having been completely replaced by seawater up to the equilibrium waterline. Key Points (e. Hydromax assumes that all compartment definition has been done after the tanks have been defined. In the Loadcase Window damaged tanks are displayed with the label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column. The points may be displayed in the Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or not they are immersed. you should toggle the damage status of the damaged tanks. and all values set to zero. Down Flooding Points) Key points such as downflooding points and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the Key Points window. Display of Damage Cases When a damage case is selected. This is simply done by copying all the damage case data to a spread sheet. all damaged tanks and compartments will be displayed in damaged tank or damaged compartment colour respectively. If you have linked tanks or compartments or added tanks within compartments after the definition of a damage case.
Deleting Key Points To delete a Key point. which is used in criteria evaluation. select New Key Points from the File menu. A new point will be inserted below the currently selected row in the table. and the selected rows will be deleted. Editing Key Points Key points are defined by entering a name. Adding Key Points To start adding downflooding points go to the Key Points table. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you require. All points are entered relative to the zero point. click and drag over the rows you want deleted. You will be given a default point.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Key points may be placed asymmetrically. To delete more than one point at a time. and a height. To add additional key points to the table. a longitudinal position. There are several types of Key Points: • Down Flooding points • Potential Down flooding points • Embarkation points • Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. The type of Key Point may be selected from the combobox in the Type column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Page 59 . Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides must have both key points added to the table. The other types of points have their freeboard measured but are not used for the evaluation of the downflooding angle and are for information only. click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select Delete. a positive offset is to starboard and a negative offset is to port. Select Delete from the Edit menu. choose Add from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. a transverse offset from the centreline.
Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. If necessary. The downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis. This form of automatic flooding is not supported in Hydromax yet. These downflooding points will appear italicised and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point’s name in the DF Angles table of the Results window: The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window. immersion angles or freeboards (depending on the analysis) are also given for the margin line and deck edge. Immersed points are highlighted in red in the Freeboard column. Note: Linking a downflooding point to a tank does not mean that Hydromax will consider a tank damaged when the downflooding point is submerged. the freeboards after an Equilibrium or Specified Condition analysis. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). Select the tank or compartment from the combobox in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments. Page 60 . In addition to the Key Points results. which are damaged in the currently selected damage case. In the Name column the longitudinal position where immersion first takes place (or the lowest freeboard) is given.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Links to Tanks or Compartments Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments.
To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments. Please refer to Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 113 for information on defining and selecting criteria. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described in Adding Key Points and Deleting Key Points on page 59. bring the Modulus table to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus window frontmost. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be evaluated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and after an Equilibrium analysis. Once this has been done for all the points that need to be changed. selecting Snap Margin Line to Hull in the Analysis menu will project all of the points horizontally onto the hull surface. Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG and Floodable Length analysis. Asymmetric margin lines and deck edges are not supported. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the key points. The modulus value is not currently used as deflections are not calculated. One or more points can be entered in this window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax It is only necessary to modify the height value of the margin line points. Page 61 . These allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph. The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using Open and Save from the File menu. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable shear and/or moment. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shear forces and bending moments for each section. Allowable shear force and/or bending moment can be specified at each point.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Types After specifying the input values and checking the Hydromax model. Page 62 . In this section the different analysis types available in Hydromax will be described. some general information is given on: • Starting and Stopping Analyses • Batch Analysis The required analysis settings and environment options will be discussed separately and in more detail in the next two sections of this chapter. the analysis can be performed. The following analysis types are available in Hydromax: • Upright Hydrostatics • Large Angle Stability • Equilibrium Analysis • Specified Conditions • KN Values Analysis • Limiting KG • Floodable Length • Longitudinal Strength • Tank Calibrations Also.
Initial and final drafts can be entered. Choosing Upright Hydrostatics Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL. specify range of drafts for analysis • Trim from the Analysis menu. Upright Hydrostatic Analysis Settings The following analysis settings apply for Upright Hydrostatic Analysis: • Draft from the Analysis menu. at zero or other fixed trim. This is specified as KG. you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts command from the Analysis menu. Upright Hydrostatics Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the upright hydrostatics analysis: • Density from the Analysis menu • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Page 63 . together with the number of drafts to be used. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum. When a design is first opened.e. the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in Maxsurf. The Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Upright Hydrostatics Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of drafts. from the baseline. i.
Page 64 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Upright Hydrostatic Results Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 107.
the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen accordingly. Large Angle Stability Settings The following analysis settings apply for Large Angle Stability Analysis: • Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window • Heel from the Analysis menu. Note You can select positive heel direction (port or starboard). the results may be two angles of vanishing stability. Also see: Heel on page 93 in the Analysis Settings section. you can enter negative values and test full 360 degrees of stability if you wish. select range for analysis • Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu If criteria are being evaluated. However. Some criteria require calculations of GZ at negative heel. Choosing Large Angle Stability Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar. The criteria are only evaluated on the side of the graph that corresponds to positive heel angles. For example: when using a 180 to 180 heel range. Large Angle Stability Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the large angle stability analysis: • Fluid simulation of tank fluids centre of gravity • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and sag (if any) • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar • Stability Criteria Large Angle Stability Results Large Angle Stability Analysis results are: • Hydrostatic data table for each angle of heel • GZ curve • Stability Criteria evaluation • Downflooding angles to key points. to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Large Angle Stability Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of heel angles either with or without trim or freetotrim. deck edge and margin line • Curve of areas at each heel angle Page 65 . the one that would be reported in the criteria would be the one with a positive heel angle (even if the one at negative heel occurred at an angle closer to zero).
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window. For more information on how to customize the display of the criteria results. Page 66 . please refer to the Results Window on page 194 in the reference section. see: Heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 150. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria.
For the margin line and deck edge the longitudinal position at which immersion first occurred is provided.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Downflooding Angle After a Large Angle Stability analysis. Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 107. deck edge and defined Key Points. and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point’s name in the Key Point Data table of the Results window. the large angle stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. These downflooding points will appear italicised. Only the positive downflooding angles are displayed. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. hence if there is any asymmetry. A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero degrees of heel. the first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph. Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the currently selected damage case. In addition. Page 67 . the Key Points Data table lists the downflooding angles of the margin line.
deck edge and margin line • Criteria evaluation • Time stepping animation • Curve of areas Page 68 . The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a waveform. Equilibrium Analysis Settings • Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Also see: Frame of Reference on page 20 Equilibrium Analysis Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the Equilibrium analysis: • Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag (if any) • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar • Grounding (if any) • Criteria Equilibrium Results Equilibrium Results are: • Hydrostatic data • Freeboard of key points. Choosing Equilibrium Analysis Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Equilibrium Analysis Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft. heel and trim of the hull as a result of the loads applied in the table in the Loadcase window.
i. The freeboard is for the vessel condition currently displayed in the Design view and is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions analysis. The longitudinal positions at which the minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified. Freeboard of key points. The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free surface. Page 69 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydrostatic data Height/freeboard above free surface The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into account. where the Key Points are immersed are displayed in red. Negative freeboards.e. Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window.
and does not cover dynamic or inertial forces. one for each position of the wave crest. quasistatic simulation of the hull motion in waves (Display  Animate). Note: This simulation only includes static behaviour at each wave phase.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Equilibrium Animation in Waves If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves. Therefore it is recommend to check the value of GMt yourself after doing an equilibrium analysis or perform a Large Angle Stability analysis and look at the slope of the GZ curve through the equilibrium heel angle. This gives ten columns of results. Page 70 . This means that unstable equilibrium may be found instead of the stable equilibrium. You can distinguish equilibrium into two types: • Stable. when disturbed the object will not return to its equilibrium position Stable equilibrium Unstable equilibrium With ships. In real world a ship in unstable equilibrium will roll from the upright unstable equilibrium position to a position of stable equilibrium and assume an “angle of loll”. Since Hydromax starts the equilibrium analysis in upright position. an unstable equilibrium can exist when the KG > KM.e. Equilibrium Concept The definition of equilibrium is “Position or state where object will remain if undisturbed”. i. the Equilibrium analysis will automatically phasestep the waveform through a complete wavelength. This can be done using Seakeeper. If necessary the results of this phase stepping can be animated giving a simple. the centre of gravity is above the metacentre (negative GMt). when disturbed the object will return to its equilibrium position • Unstable. it has no way of determining whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable.
Note: It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. In practice. This will ensure that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position. This is most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when upright. Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero degrees of heel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Unstable equilibrium Stable equilibrium ”Angle of loll” The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with negative initial GMt. first ensure that the error values (Edit  Error value) are set as sensitive as possible. Page 71 . Then create a very small heeling moment by offsetting one of the weight items in the loadcase window TCG by just a fraction. The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely by a small amount. The equilibrium analysis will now find the stable equilibrium position. If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero. it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. To do this. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25 degrees.
Note: If the fluid simulation has been turned on in a previous analysis mode. Heel can be specified by either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. Specified Conditions Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the Specified Condition analysis: Page 72 . Hydromax will then solve for the vessel hydrostatics at the conditions specified. Trim can be specified by the actual trim measurement. the “Get Loadcase Values” button will return exactly the displacement and CG as displayed in the current loadcase window. Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button. or the LCG and VCG. Trim and Immersion. The specified condition analysis itself ignores tank fillings and does no correction to VCG. then the VCG obtained from the loadcase will not include the free surface correction. Also see: Frame of Reference on page 20 Specified Conditions on page 96 in the Analysis Settings section. Choosing Specified Conditions Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. labelled Heel. One choice must be made from each of these groups. Immersion can be specified by either the displacement or the draft. trim and immersion. Specified Conditions Settings The settings required for Specified Condition analysis are: • Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu Three Sets of variables are provided.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Specified Conditions Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the vessel by specifying the heel.
i. hydrostatic data and key points freeboard are calculated. Page 73 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag (if any) • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Specified Conditions Results The specified conditions results are the same as equilibrium analysis results except that criteria are not evaluated.e.
Also see KN Value Concepts on page 75 Page 74 . To set the range of angles. select range for analysis • Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu • Displacement from the Analysis menu. However if the analysis is being calculated freetotrim and an estimate of the VCG is known. KN calculations are calculated assuming the VCG at the baseline (K). Limiting KG and Floodable Length analyses on page 95. together with the number of displacements required. select Heel from the Analysis menu. Traditionally. A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement command from the Analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax KN Values Analysis KN Values Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of heel angles and displacements to produce the cross curves of stability diagram. select range for analysis and specify estimate of VCG if known The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and Limiting KG analyses. If a VCG estimate is specified. The VCG can also be entered (specified from the vertical zero datum). Initial and final displacements can be entered. Choosing KN Values Analysis Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. KN Values Analysis Settings The analysis settings required for KN Values analysis are: • Heel from the Analysis menu. the accuracy of the KN calculations (for VCGs in the vicinity of the estimated VCG) may be improved by calculating the GZ curve using the estimated VCG position – this will reduce the error in the trim balance due to the vertical separation of CG and CB because this vertical separation is specified more accurately than simply assuming the VCG at the baseline. the KN values are still presented in the normal manner with the KN values calculated as follows: KN(φ) = GZ(φ) + KG_estimated sin(φ) For information on Trim settings for KN Analysis. see: Trim for KN.
KG sin(φ) Page 75 . GZ. GZ = KN .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax KN Values Analysis Environment Options • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag (if any) • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar KN Values Analysis Results KN Value Concepts The righting lever. may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the desired displacement) for any specified KG using the following equation: .
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax M Z G B’ B N K Note: KN values can also be referred to as “Cross curves of stability”. Page 76 .
For information on Trim settings for Limiting KG Analysis. See Large Angle Stability on page 65 for further details. To set the range of angles. see: Trim for KN. the selected criteria are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered.) Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed. Choosing Limiting KG Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. notably angle of maximum GZ. select range for analysis • Heel from the Analysis menu. GZ curves are calculated for various KG values. Limiting KG Settings The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are: • Displacement from the Analysis menu. Note: Since Limiting KG can be quite a time consuming analysis. (However this will cause some loss of accuracy. it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the freetotrim options and CG are the same. select Heel from the Analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Limiting KG Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected stability criteria. you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability calculations. When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability analysis. are extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen. After each cycle. Limiting KG Environment Options • Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag (if any) • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar • Criteria Limiting KG Results Limiting KG analysis results are Page 77 . The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and KN analyses. Limiting KG and Floodable Length analyses on page 95. Some criteria. select range for calculation of GZ curves • Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN analysis.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax • Limiting KG values, for each displacement and the limiting criterion. • Limiting KG vs displacement graph
The Limiting KG value is measured from the baseline, which is not necessarily the same as the zero point. The Limiting KG analysis also checks that any selected equilibrium based criteria are passed at each VCG that it tries. However, you must still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. Criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve, so if there is any form of asymmetry, it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis).
After a Limiting KG analysis has completed, the results in the Criteria results table display “Not Analysed”, this is because they do not necessarily refer to the final KG and would be misleading. If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the displacements and the corresponding limiting KG, this can be done in the Batch Analysis.
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Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessel’s VCG. Where these values are explicit in the criterion’s definition in Hydromax, the correct values of displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. However, problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form – most commonly heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a moment. In this case, since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its definition within Hydromax, the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements (where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement. For example in the case where the heeling moment, rather than the heeling arm is constant). Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria see Heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 150. Also see: Convergence Error on page 97 in the Analysis Settings section.
Limiting KG Concepts
Hydromax will iterate to a KG value that just passes all criteria you have specified in the criteria dialog. Hydromax will start with a set start KG value (e.g. 1 meter), run a large angle stability analysis and check the selected criteria. If any of the criteria fail, Hydromax will lower the KG and try again. If the criteria pass, Hydromax will raise the KG value and try to make the criteria fail. Hydromax will continue doing this until the limiting KG value has been iterated to within 0.1mm. If this tolerance is not achieved in a certain number of iterations, Hydromax will move on to the next displacement. When performing a Limiting KG analysis, Hydromax will evaluate any equilibriumbased criteria that are selected for testing and act accordingly. However, at least one GZbased criterion must also be selected. This is because to perform a sensible search, Hydromax must have at least one criterion that will improve by reducing the VCG; Hydromax assumes that raising the VCG will make criteria more likely to fail and that reducing the VCG will make the criteria more likely to pass. This is not necessarily the case for equilibriumbased criteria such as freeboard requirements or for GZbased criteria such as Angle of maximum GZ; if only these types of criteria are selected, Hydromax may have difficulty in finding a true limiting KG and specify convergence errors.
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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Floodable Length
The Floodable Length analysis allows you to calculate the longitudinal distribution of maximum length of compartments that can be flooded with the vessel still passing specified equilibrium criteria. The results are presented as the maximum length of compartment plotted (or tabulated) against the longitudinal position of the compartment’s centre. Traditionally the criterion of margin line immersion is used to compute the Floodable Length curve. The Floodable Length may be computed for a range of displacements and compartment permeabilities.
Choosing Floodable Length
Select Floodable Length from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Floodable Length Analysis Settings
The initial conditions required for Floodable Length analysis are:
• Trim (freetotrim, either initial trim or specified LCG) • Displacement, select range and specify VCG • Permeability, select range
The analysis is always carried out freetotrim, but the centre of gravity can either be specified directly in the Trim dialog or it is computed from the specified initial trim. For information on Trim settings for Floodable Length Analysis, see: Trim for KN, Limiting KG and Floodable Length analyses on page 95. The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN and Limiting KG analyses. The VCG must also be specified since the Floodable length analysis is very sensitive to accurate trim calculations. This means that the vertical separation of CG and CB is accounted for in the trim balance. The permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis; the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel and is also applied to the freesurface when calculating the reduction of waterplane area and inertia.
This permeability is unrelated to the permeability when defining compartments and is only used for floodable length calculations.
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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Floodable Length Environment Options • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag (if any) • Damage: no damage case may be selected as this is automatically defined by the
analysis. The Intact condition is automatically selected and the Damage toolbar is disabled
• Criteria from the Analysis menu, select which criteria should be evaluated
Criteria must be specified from the analysis menu. These are used to compute the Floodable Lengths.
Note that internally, Hydromax will treat the vessel sinking or the trim exceeding +/89º as a criterion failure.
Floodable Length results
The results of the analysis are given in tabulated format at the stations defined in the Maxsurf grid spacing as well as graphical format. The tabulated data is linearly interpolated from the graphical data. (The raw graph data can be accessed by double clicking the graph.)
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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If the analysis is unable to find a condition where the vessel passes the selected criteria. The compartment is then moved progressively forward along the vessel. Page 82 . The length of this flooded compartment is increased sectionbysection until one of the criteria is failed. The vessel sinking or the criteria failing in the intact condition could cause this. with the centre of the compartment at a section under investigation. This process may be visualised by turning on the display of the Hydromax sections. the following dialog will be displayed. Floodable Length Concepts The analysis is performed by defining a flooded compartment.
it is recommended that a minimum of 100 sections be used for most situations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Speed versus Accuracy The analysis will be both considerably more accurate and slower with a larger number of sections in the Hydromax model. The speed of the analysis can be increased quite considerably by increasing the allowable error values in the Edit  Error values dialog. Page 83 .
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Longitudinal Strength Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window. buoyancy. If defined. Longitudinal Strength Settings The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are: • Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window • Distributed loads using the Loadcase window When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected. Longitudinal Strength Results The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of weight. See the Loadcase: “Distributed loads” section in the Analysis Input section in this chapter for more details. Choosing Longitudinal Strength Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Fluids Analysis Methods on page 99. These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load. shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull. Longitudinal Strength Environment Options • Density • Wave Form (if any) • Hog and Sag • Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar • Grounding (if any) • Criteria. two extra columns appear in the Loadcase window. net load. A trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of the load. allowable shears and moments from Input window Note that Hydromax will always use the fluid simulation method when performing a longitudinal strength analysis. Page 84 . For more information on how Hydromax can take fluids in tanks into account see. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a specified waveform. allowable shear forces and bending moments are overlayed on the graph.
This data is also displayed in the “Long.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Name of Curve Weight Buoyancy Net Load Shear Description Vessel mass / unit length Buoyancy distribution / unit length = immersed cross sectional area * density. Damaged tanks and compartments reduce the buoyancy. Page 85 . Strength” tab in the Results window. You can display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results submenu under the Window menu. Weight – Buoyancy Shear Force = AftSt ∫ NetLoad ( x)dx AftSt x Moment Bending Moment = − ∫ ShearForce( x)dx x Allowable shear and moment Allowable shear and bending moments as specified in the input Modulus table.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: For the purposes of strength calculations. Tanks are taken into account as distributed loads as well based on their mass distribution that is calculated from the tank sections. any point loads in the loadcase will be applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load. Page 86 .
at a range of capacities. Note: Note that permeability and relative density values can be changed after the tanks have been calibrated. fixed trim Tank Calibration Environment Options • Hog and Sag (if any) • Density Tank Calibration Results Page 87 . Also see: Relative Density of Tank Fluids on page 47 Tank Calibration Settings • Trim. Choosing Tank Calibrations Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank Calibrations Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in the Compartment window. the capacities and free surface moments will be updated automatically. Tank Calibration Input • Tank definitions and boundaries • Permeability • Fluid type All required Tank Calibration Analysis input can be specified in the Compartment Definition table.
nearfull tank Figure a shows a sounding pipe that extends the whole height of the tank. Page 88 . Here all tank filling levels will have a valid sounding. there are ranges of tank volumes that will show the same sounding/ullage. nearempty tank Figure c Trim by bow. which is effectively what is happening in the figures below). will exacerbate this phenomenon): Figure a Zero trim Figure b Trim by bow. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels which all show zero sounding. see below (increasing the trim. These points occur when the tank is near empty or near full.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the Window  Graphs menu each tank can be selected for display in the Graph window. For more information see Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels that all show maximum sounding. (The same effect can occur if the sounding pipe does not reach the lowest or highest point in the tank – remember that this can change as the vessel trims. but with the tank nearly full. Figure c shows the vessel with the same trim. with the vessel at zero trim. Figure b shows the vessel with (bow down) trim and a small amount of fluid in the tank. Sounding pipes and tank calibration results If the vessel is trimmed.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax These effects will be noted in the tank calibration results if they are extreme enough since Hydromax always adds calibrations at 1%.9% and 98% levels are given because it is at 98% that the free surface moment is made zero. These will start at a sounding of zero (rather than an ullage of zero). 98% and 100% full levels do not intersect the sounding pipe.0m but different capacities (the last but one calibration point is the fluid remaining in the tank when the sounding is 0.9%. it is possible to specify the calibration intervals that you require. if the sounding pipe extends above or below the maximum and minimum fluid levels. 97. see below. Note that in addition to the specified soundings. levels of 1%. you will get readings which have the same capacity but different soundings. the sounding pipe is in the middle of the tank and extends from the bottom to the top of the tank. User specified sounding intervals With the addition of user specified tank calibration intervals.0m). Page 89 . if the 1% level does not intersect the sounding pipe. 97. 98% and 100% full. sounding pipe does not cover full range of tank capacities.9%. In a similar way. the maximum sounding will be displayed. the last two results are below the bottom of the sounding pipe. giving soundings of 0. the sounding will be given as zero. The 97. 98% and 100% full will also be added if they have not already been included in the specified soundings. The profile view of the tank in the trimmed vessel is shown on the right. In the results out lined in red.9%. Tank calibrations for severely trimmed vessels. Similarly if the 97. there are four results which all have a sounding of 1. In the blue results.0m but different capacities – the fluid levels are all above the top of the sounding pipe.
The start. Calculations may be interrupted at any time by selecting Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. Hydromax will redraw the contents of the windows to display the current hull position for each iteration. floating the hull to equilibrium conditions where required. you can resume calculation by selecting Resume Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar. Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified. Hydromax will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced. pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar: Page 90 . Hydromax will flash and beep to indicate that the analysis has been completed. If you have stopped the analysis. choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. You can also switch application by clicking in the window of any background program.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Starting and Stopping Analyses To start the analysis. The drawing of the vessel at each step of the analysis can be quite time consuming. Should the analysis take longer than about 45 seconds. There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is finished. If you are not interested in seeing the progress of the analysis. switch to a table window and maximise it to speed up the analysis.
Limiting KG and KN calculations can be made for each damage condition. see Heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 150. This is because time consuming redrawing of the design windows. are set in the normal way for each analysis type included in the Batch analysis. the Batch Analysis is started with the Start Batch Analysis command in the Analysis menu. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG. With a single command. Batch Analysis Environment Options Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of these are also output to the text file. Page 91 . Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. heel angles etc. There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to both port and starboard. Starting Batch Analysis Once the loadcases. Batch Analysis Results Before analysis starts. Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases. minimising Hydromax can reduce the time required to perform the calculations. criteria and analysis parameters for the required analyses have been set up.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Batch Analysis Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. graphs and tables is avoided. Once the analysis is complete. you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis. Further. For the Limiting KG analysis you may also check the Limiting KG for each criterion individually. damage cases. Note: Under most operating systems. Batch Analysis Settings Analysis parameters such as trim. this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further processing. key points.
i.: analysis parameters. Batch Analysis Concepts The aim of the batch processing function is to: • Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other. At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether the results of a batch analysis should go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file. For large batch analysis. file name etc. • Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs. especially where results for all individual criteria are required. The report is stored in memory and if you have insufficient memory. it is possible that your computer will become very slow to respond and under some circumstances with certain operating systems even cause Hydromax to crash. • Facilitate time consuming Limiting KG analyses. Warning: Sending the results to the Report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system resources. • Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation. only the results of the final analysis will be stored in Hydromax. • Enable Limiting KG and KN analyses to be performed automatically for all damage cases. Page 92 . it is not possible to go back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax.e. it is advisable not to include the results in the report. • Facilitate testing with heel to port and starboard for vessels with asymmetric loading and/or damage conditions (or hulls).
Combinations of both are also possible. For example: it can match a specified heel. Heel The Heel dialog from the analysis menu is used to specify the range of heel angles to be used for Large Angle Stability. KN and Limiting KG analyses. Heel and Draft. The various analysis types and settings can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a fixed value and deriving the others from the analysis. In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be specified. because vertical centre of gravity is also important and also because most of the variables are coupled. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore the required LCG and TCG) are calculated from the underwater hullshape at each draft. simply put 0 in the other steps. Hydromax matches the trim. In hydrostatic analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Settings In the previous sections opening and preparing a model in Hydromax was discussed together with descriptions of the different Analysis types. or it can match a specified displacement and centre of gravity by varying the heel. The heel steps must be positive. trim and draft by varying the displacement and centre of gravity. For an equilibrium analysis all degrees of freedom are derived from the centre of gravity and Displacement. Heel angles between 180° and +180° may be specified. Page 93 . The following table is a very simplified representation of the degrees of freedom and their weight counterpart: Degree of Freedom Draft Trim Heel Weight Displacement Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG) Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG) 1 2 3 In fact it is a rather more complicated situation than that suggested by the table above. This way the volume of the displaced hull matches the required mass and the centres of gravity and buoyancy lie one above the other in a vertical line. heel and draft with the vessel’s mass and centre of gravity or visa versa. trim and draft. there are three degrees of freedom: Trim. If only one set of steps is required. This section will describe the following analysis settings: • Heel • Trim • Draft • Displacement • Specified Conditions • Permeability Hydromax will allow specification of only those analysis settings that apply to the currently selected analysis type. For example: the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and stepping through a series of fixed drafts.
This is to allow roll back angle criteria to be evaluated correctly. Hydromax will not do any curve fitting and linear interpolation will be used. This can be a source of apparent differences in the results from the different analyses. key points. Hydromax will fit a cubic spline to the GZ curve and use this to interpolate for values between the tested heel angles. etc. It is possible that the GZ at zero heel may be very slightly positive (due to asymmetry or rounding error) for this reason. Note: The heel angles to be used are specified independently for each analysis mode. Specification of different trim options is dependent on the type of analysis currently selected. and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel direction. at say 5 degrees. it is advisable to test at least one negative heel angle. Select Trim in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog. Trim For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is freetotrim or has fixed trim.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape. it is essential that the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to port to find the most pessimistic condition. If any step is greater than 10 deg.. damage. to ensure that the equilibrium angle is identified. It is good practise to start the heel range at an angle of approximately 30°. If all the heel angle intervals are 10 deg or less. Page 94 . Note: For the angle of equilibrium to be found (when analysing criteria). loading.
Floodable Length and Tank Calibrations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics. a specified constant LCG is maintained for each displacement. Although considerably faster. Thus. Calculations at each heel angle of the large angle stability analysis are then done freetotrim using the derived LCG and VCG.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses always use a free trimming (and free heeling) analysis so that there is no trimming (or heeling) moment applied to the vessel at the final equilibrium. Draft The draft dialog is used to specify the range of drafts to be used for the Upright hydrostatics analysis. Freetotrim to a specified LCG value With this method. This LCG is then used to compute the freetotrim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed. and is specified in terms of KG – i. the vessel is not freetotrim as it heels. Displacement The displacement dialog is used to specify the range of displacements to be used for the KN. the upright. Limiting KG and Floodable Length analyses Fixed trim (KN and Limiting KG analyses only). for each displacement. for each displacement. The analysis is carried out with the specified fixed trim. Thus. the trim may be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog. this analysis will tend to overestimate ship stability properties such as GZ. Trim for KN. but the LCG will be different. Limiting KG and Floodable Length calculations. the LCG will be the same. The LCG is calculated using this value and the VCG. Page 95 . but the upright vessel trim will be different. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum. KN Analysis Limiting KG. the LCB of the intact vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed.e. Large Angle Stability. The VCG specified in the draft dialog is used for the calculation of upright stability characteristics such as GMt only. from the baseline. for each displacement. Freetotrim using a specified initial trim value Using this method. (For the Specified Condition analysis. intact vessel trim will be the same.
which are always calculated freetotrim. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel. in this case it is measured from the vertical zero datum. the actual VCG is used and the VCG input field will state “not applicable”. Page 96 . the VCG is needed to provide an accurate balance of the trimming moment. The Permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. (As the trim angle increases the longitudinal movement of the centre of gravity due to its vertical position becomes more important. because the analysis is very sensitive to trim. The permeabilities may be sorted by double clicking on the permeability column heading. See Specified Conditions on page 72. Also. The last set of permeabilities used will be recalled from the registry when Hydromax is started. the VCG will be used to calculate the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. For Floodable Length calculations. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or delete rows from the table. For KN analysis. It will also be used to improve the accuracy of the KN results.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The VCG may also be specified. It will be used to determine the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. Specified Conditions The specified conditions analysis setting is only available for the specified condition analysis. Permeability The Permeabilities are set in a table in the Permeability dialog. the VCG will only have an effect if the analysis is freetotrim.) In the case of the Limiting KG analysis.
tank and nonbuoyant volume permeabilities are used when calculating the effects of damage. Individual Permeability of Tanks and Compartments The individual permeability of each compartment (or tank) is specified in the Compartment definition table. Hydromax will display a warning. and/or calculating the weights of fluids in tanks in the loadcase. This defines the error values that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish iteration during • Large Angle Stability • Equilibrium analysis • Specified conditions • KN calculations • Floodable Length • Longitudinal Strength Ideal Error values can range between 0.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). calculation error values can be set. Acceptable Error values should always be greater than Ideal Error values. If convergence to within the acceptable error has not been achieved.0%.001% to 1. Convergence Error Hydromax will attempt to solve most analysis to within the ideal error value. but the acceptable error has been achieved. Hydromax will continue. Also see: Modelling Compartments on page 40 Error Values In the edit menu of Hydromax. If this is not achieved within a certain number of iterations. The compartment. tank or nonbuoyant volume permeability and is only used for floodable length calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This permeability is unrelated to compartment. Page 97 . Acceptable Error values can range from 0.00001% and 0.
Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely. but will allow you the option of continuing the search. draft plot. instead the warning is written in the batch file. which appears not to be due to sinking. Note: There are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the maximum allowable number of iterations. The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current iteration are provided for information. you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing the analysis. this limit is increased to +/89º. then the following dialog will be displayed. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog will be displayed. heel angle curve. If you choose to continue.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax One of the most common causes of nonconvergence is if the specified displacement exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. trim angle curve or moment to heel vs. Also convergence may be poor if the trim angle approaches ±90°. Page 98 . Other causes of nonconvergence can be nonlinear moment to trim vs. Note This warning is not displayed during batch analysis. producing a highly nonlinear waterplane area vs. This problem can sometimes occur if the specified displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom. All analyses other than Floodable Length will fail if the trim exceeds +/45º. in the case of the Floodable Length analysis. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give you a warning. If there is a convergence problem. The analysis will also fail to converge if the trim becomes excessive. If the search is unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time.
the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells for corrected fluid VCG. The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free surface is calculated by summing the free surface moment of all the tanks filled to less than 98% capacity and dividing by the total vessel displacement (the free surface moment to be applied is specified in the loadcase). There are several FSM types available. For more information. Although the computational potential is available. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim. as it corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification societies worldwide. authorities have not adopted this more accurate calculation of the shift in centre of gravity due to fluid movement. Note Most documented stability criteria assume that the corrected VCG method has been used. Fluid analysis method: Use corrected VCG Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the upright hull (zero trim and zero heel). In this case. Page 99 . Selecting Fluids in the Analysis menu opens the Fluids Analysis dialog. calculated in the upright condition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Environment Options The analysis can be performed in different environments. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum free surface moments of the tanks. this section describes the analysis environment options available in Hydromax in more detail: • Fluids Analysis Methods • Density • Waveform • Grounding • Hog and Sag • Stability Criteria Fluids Analysis Methods Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of simulating any fluids contained in tanks or compartments. This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design. see the Loadcase window section in the Reference chapter of the Hydromax manual.
When selected. Relative density is calculated relative to a fluid having a density of 1000. When fluid simulation is used in one of these analyses. VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in the calculation of GZ. Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the specified capacity. Conversions are performed automatically. density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of volume. i.e. Page 100 . the actual fluid level in the tank.e. Large Angle Stability. Density Where necessary. or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly different from the upright case (i. filled to the volume specified in the loadcase. It is particularly useful at high angles of heel or trim. KG. fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a loadcase. or wide shallow tanks). The new LCG. the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog. or nondimensional relative density (specific gravity). Otherwise the complete tank will be shown. Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength (the Longitudinal Strength analysis always uses fluid simulation).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluid analysis method: Simulate fluid movement This method is a faithful simulation of the static movement of the centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are not applicable and are not displayed in the loadcase. This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. Density using the current units. When fluid simulation method is selected. Alternatively. may be specified. however the results are significantly more accurate. The penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer.0 kg/m3. The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the analysis. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle being analysed. and GM. will be displayed in the View window. tall narrow tanks.
0 kg/m3. select the Waveform command from the Analysis menu: Page 101 . If the vessel is to float in a different fluid. This is the first fluid in the list printed in bold font.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax By assigning a code to the fluid you can easily apply the fluid type in the Compartment Definitions table. it is necessary to change the density of this fluid. if you wanted to carry out an analysis for a vessel in fresh water. Also see: Windows Registry on page 18 Waveform Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as well as for a level water plane. Tank calibrations results and loading conditions will also be updated. Note that only the custom fluids may have their names changed. Thus. To specify a waveform. Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated automatically when the density of the fluid is changed in the Density dialog. you would change the density of "Sea Water" to 1000. Note The vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming the vessel is floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water".
Page 102 . Grounding Grounding is an additional analysis environment option for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal Strength analysis. the wavelength. a phase offset of 0. The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the DWL. will give a single wave crest at amidships. For example. equivalent to: Once a wavelength has been set. this will be reflected in the results: The displacement column will show the total grounding reaction force in brackets. as a proportion of the wavelength. both of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL. The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL. If the vessel touches one or both grounding points. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable length. the wave height can be modified to give a nonstandard height. Damage can be specified concurrently with grounding.5. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1. the sum of the buoyancy and the grounding reactions equals the loadcase displacement. or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform. If a waveform is specified. The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull accordingly. with a wavelength equal to the waterline length. wave height and phase offset can be specified.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The water plane can be specified as flat. If the wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a standard metric wave.
e. When two grounding points are entered. The vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The effective centre of gravity will be modified by the grounding reactions – a mass is effectively being removed from the vessel. Remember that KG is measured in the upright vessel reference frame (normal to the baseline). the first point (edit boxes on the left) must refer to the forward grounding point. whilst GMt and GMl are the actual vertical separation of the metacentres above the centre of gravity in the trimmed reference frame normal to the sea surface. Note: Grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull and therefore constrain the heel to zero. Page 103 . Note: Fixed zero heel during grounding analysis The equilibrium analysis will only consider the longitudinal balance of moments. GMt and GMl are all calculated to the effective centre of gravity. i. this will bring the effective centres of gravity and the centre of buoyancy in line vertically. the vessel will not be balanced in heel and the vessel will remain upright (zero heel) even if the transverse metacentric height is less than zero. The length of the grounding points is only used when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis and not to determine the pivot point. The value of KG. the second grounding point is the aft grounding point.
This is called the “centre of deflection”. Hog or sag is distributed in a parabolic curve centred at either the amidships location. or a specified longitudinal position relative to the zero point. When sag is specified the centre of deflection and frame of reference at that location remain stationary and the ends of the hull are deflected upwards. When hog is specified the centre of deflection and frame of reference at that location remain stationary and the ends of the hull are deflected downward. which will vary slightly with changes in hog and sag. Page 104 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hog and Sag Hydromax has the option to apply hog or sag during the calculations. Note: Hog and sag apply to all analysis modes including tank calibrations.
Also see: • Damage Case Definition on page 56 • Analysis Toolbar on page 203 Page 105 . Damage You can specify whether the model is to be analysed in intact or damaged condition using the analysis toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be seen as the “environment of authorities” that the ship will be deployed in. For more information see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 113.
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Output Hydromax will produce the following output data: • Hydromax model visualisation • Result data tables per analysis • Graphs per analysis • Report This section describes the various output options available in Hydromax • Data transfer • Copying data • Copying hull views • Copying graphs • Printing • Saving A range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as spreadsheets and word processors is provided through copy and paste functions.g. copying and pasting data to and from Excel spreadsheets allows you to use the full spreadsheet capabilities of Excel on your Hydromax model. Page 106 . Note: This data transfer works both ways: e.
see Graph type on page 197. For example: the angle of downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Stability table in the results window. The Select View from Data can also be used to display the Curve of Areas graph for each intermediate analysis stage. selecting the column at the required heel angle and select “Select View From Data” in the Display menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select View from Analysis Data For most analyses. This can also be done for Upright Hydrostatics and the different wave phase calculations for an Equilibrium analysis in a waveform. each step from the analysis can be visualised when the analysis has completed. Page 107 . In the View window the hull will be displayed in the selected position.
range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command or Ctrl+C. This does not work for Word version later than Office 2000. Note When the graph is pasted in Microsoft Word®. row. will also copy the column headings. additionally. A dialog appears after selecting the Copy command that will allow you to set the scale of the copied picture. Page 108 . the graph can be edited by right clicking on the graph and selecting “edit picture”. The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work. To copy a simple bitmap image of the view at the current resolution. Copying Graphs You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the Copy command or Ctrl+C.  Also see: Graph data on page 198 for information on how to get graph data exported to programs such as Excel for further processing. These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report window. use Ctrl+I. a bitmap of the current image may be saved by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I Copying Tables Tables may be copied to the clipboard.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Copying Copying Hull Views Pictures of the hull in the View windows may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy command from the Edit menu. column. Simply select a cell. Note: Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed. Note that the picture is placed in the clipboard as a metafile which can be resized in Word or Excel.
the inserted tables will be automatically formatted to fit the current page set up. Views of the hull in the View window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf. Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before any analyses have been made. However. Simply bring the window you wish to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu. To print the page click the Print button. The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Printing Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed. their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print set up. Page 109 . Print Preview The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. once the tables have been placed into the report. Choose the Colours button and select the options required. The printing may be forced to be black and white. Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes. You may also export a bitmap of the rendered perspective view with the File  Export  Bitmap Image command. Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page Setup command from the File menu. otherwise click the Cancel button. Note that in the report. but the selection will be reflected in the printout.
Note Although all Hydromax model data is saved in the . compartment definition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Saving the Hydromax Design Hydromax design data may be saved • Saving in a Hydromax Design File • Saving Input Files separately Saving in a Hydromax Design File To save the design in one file. bring the Input window to the front and choose the compartment definition table.hmd file automatically every time you press Save from any of the design windows.g. select Save Compartment Definition from the File menu. The Hydromax data is saved in a . Page 110 . please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 232. you can save it in a file on disk. it is recommended to also save the Hydromax input files separately. ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File menu. Saving Loadcases to a File Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet. bring the Input window to the front and choose the required input table. key points etc. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. Saving Damage Cases to a File Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage Cases As from the file menu. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. E. select Save from the File menu. To save the loadcase table. ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and choose Save Load Case from the File Menu. for comparing the characteristics of vessels which have only minor differences in hull shape and identical tank layouts and loadcases. This gives the option of loading common data into different design files. damage cases. Saving Input Window Tables To save a input window table to a file.. may also be saved separately. Selecting this option saves all the loads displayed in the current tab in the Loadcase window.hmd file with the same name as the design. This allows the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or with any other hull. Saving Input Files separately In addition to saving all the data together. Saving Compartment Definitions to a File To save a compartment definition to a file. the data in the individual tables such as loadcases.
To save the data. Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window. Page 111 . The Results files are saved as tab delimited text.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Saving Results to a File Once you have performed an analysis. Excel or other programs. the data generated may be saved as a text file. This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be done in Word. meaning that they can be read directly into spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells. ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the table containing the data you wish to save. Select Save or Save As from the File Menu.
In addition.0 can be exported using the File  Export menu so that it is compatible with Hydromax version 8. Page 112 . Data export dialog in Hydromax.0All key points will become downflooding points in the version 8 file and any tank sounding pipe information will be lost. please see the “Output of Data” section in the Maxsurf manual. Hydromax models created in versions greater than version 8. For more information on data export of DXF and IGES. each tank. Note: The layer name is the same as the compartment name.0 After Hydromax version 8. Exporting the Model to Hydromax Version 8. DXF export Contains all lines displayed in the active design window as closed polylines. a major change to the Hydromax file structure was made. This export function is particularly useful to export tank arrangement drawings. so it is important to have unique compartment names. compartment and nonbuoyant volume is exported on a separate layer. Some Hydromaxspecific export features are described below.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Exporting The data export function in Hydromax is similar to Maxsurf.
Stability criteria are evaluated for Large Angle Stability.the Criteria Dialog • Criteria Results • Nomenclature • Parent Stability Criteria • Specific stability criteria Page 113 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Chapter 4 Stability Criteria This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. A fixed subset of criteria is used for the Floodable length analysis and these criteria are accessed in their own. The following sections will be discussed: • Criteria Overview • Setting up Criteria . Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations. simplified dialog.
and after a Large Angle Stability analysis only GZ based criteria are added to the report. This makes it quick and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria parameters. i. In the criteria results table. much more data relating to the intermediate calculations is available. Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the dialog. similarly for the damage cases. However.e. uses its own set of criteria that can be accessed through the Analysis  Criteria menu when Floodable Length is selected Page 114 . It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria by selecting from a wide range of standard criteria types.: if the intact case is being computed. only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are displayed in the Results table). i. Although all criteria are displayed in the criteria table. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added. called parent criteria. Users may save. only criteria that are applicable are added to the report.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Overview Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria (other than the Floodable Length analysis criteria). This ensures that the correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. only the criteria that are selected for evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report. Note: Floodable Length Analysis.e. Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. import and edit their criteria sets.
the Criteria Dialog The criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and have their parameters changed in the Criteria dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Setting up Criteria . Select Criteria from the Analysis menu: or use the Criteria button. . in the analysis toolbar: The criteria dialog is shown below: Page 115 .
the dialog size can be reset by holding down the “Shift” key when you open the dialog. Also in this section: • Criteria Tree List • Criteria Details • Criteria Help Page 116 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Resizing and adjusting the dialog’s layout The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. in the unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog. Note that if.
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Tree List The lefthand pane displays the list criteria that are available. This is because the parent criteria are intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. delete or add criteria to the Parent Criteria group. To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria. This is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the “My custom criteria” group or any other group you create. they are displayed in bold text in the Criteria list. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation. these are the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived. The list allows you to manage your stability criteria. Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename. freeboard measurements. etc. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved. trim angle. Page 117 . metacentric height. they will always revert to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. Types of criteria There are two fundamental types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. The criteria tree list Parent Criteria The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in Hydromax. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon.
Note that there is some crossover between the criteria types. Page 118 . These criteria are evaluated only after an equilibrium analysis has been performed. The equilibrium heel angle is also a fundamental output of the Equilibrium analysis. The different types of criteria and their icons are described below: Folder icon. STIX. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve including a heeling arm.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. You will notice that different icons are used to differentiate between different types of criteria. e. Moving Criteria Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the leftmousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the rightclick context menu (see above). This is because it is only this type of criteria that is more likely to pass as VCG is reduced. e. Combined GZ heeling arm criterion. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. For example. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. GZ criterion.g. area under GZ curve between specified limits. in some criteria sets some criteria are included twice. All folders must have unique names (even if the parent folders have different names). This can be measured from the GZ curve by looking for an upcrossing of the GZ=0 axis. notably angle of equilibrium heel. Weather criterion. These icons are derived from the parent criterion type. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve. angle of maximum GZ. Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be made and the original will not be deleted. GZ area criterion GZ criterion with heeling arm GZ area criterion with heeling arm GZ criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations GZ area criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations Combined GZ criterion. but they cannot be included directly in the search algorithm. A check is also made to ensure that any selected Equilibrium criteria are passed. The same also applies for GMt. Equilibrium criterion. etc. it must be a LAS criterion. For a criterion to be used in the search for maximum VCG in the Limiting KG analysis.g. create separate folders to store related criteria. These criteria make measurements from the GZ curved obtained from a Large Angle Stability analysis. For this reason. once in the form of an Equilibrium criterion and again as a Large Angle Stability criterion.
then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results. These options may either be set using the rightclick menu or by ticking the appropriate boxes in the bottom of the dialog: Page 119 . Damage and Intact Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). in which case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not). click again on the on the item’s name to edit its name Some shortcut keys for the tree list: Tree control smart keys Alt+Keypad * Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad + Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad Up Arrow Down Arrow Space Selecting the Criteria for Analysis Function Recursively expands the current group completely Expands the current group Collapses the current group Move one item up tree Move one item down tree Include criterion for analysis Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion. To select an entire group. It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names. • Click on an item’s name or icon to select it • Once selected. As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. • Click on the “” sign to collapse the group (or double click on it). rightclick on the group and choose Include for Analysis from the menu.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Defining new Custom Criteria and Groups New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group. Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated. By holding down the Ctrl button a copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion. If duplicate group names exit. Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on your mouse. Using the Criteria Tree List The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer: • Click on the “+” sign to expand the folder (or double click on it). Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the rightclick context menu (see above). Intact criteria are only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments or tanks in the damage case). If there are groups with the same name. all criteria that should be in a group of that name will end up in the first one and none in the second.
this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. If a criterion is locked. Paste: Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location Rename: Renames the criterion or group.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Intact and Damage tickboxes. Add Group: Add a new criterion group. Criteria Tree Rightclick Context Menu Several options are available by rightclicking on a criterion or criterion group: Criterion rightclick menu Include for Analysis: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated. Locking is used for criteria belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed. Copy: Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. Lock: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked. Intact: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for intact conditions. then clicking again in the label. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. Criteria Details The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the topright of the dialog: Page 120 . Cut: Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. This may also be done by selecting the label. Damage: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for damaged conditions. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. Delete: Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and subgroups within the group.
Please note that the criteria are updated as you change their data and that there is no “Cancel” function for this dialog. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion: In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually exclusive. where the items are mutually exclusive. the check boxes act as radio buttons and only one may be selected. The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background. or click the dialog’s Close button. at least one must be selected. use the File  Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before making any changes in the Criteria dialog. However. those which cannot be edited. have a grey background. If in doubt. click on the criterion’s name in the tree and the criterion’s parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. This occurs. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a criterion parameter. The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold. Check Boxes in Criteria Properties Section of Criteria Dialog There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on their context. Edit the parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree. with the “Value of GMt at” criterion: Page 121 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criterion details table To edit the parameters for a specific criterion. In other cases. for example.
whereas another may state “Shall not be less than…”. For example one criterion may state “Shall be greater than…”. Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting the required comparison from a combobox in the criterion row of the details table: Description Shall be greater than Shall not be less than Shall be less than Shall not be greater than Symbol > ≥ < ≤ Logical test Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Criteria Help A brief description of the criterion is displayed in the lower righthand pane of the criteria dialog. for example. Page 122 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included. GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria: Criterion Pass/Fail Test There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria.
Chose the Display  Data Format command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed: Stability criteria results window: compact format Page 123 . have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. Criteria can also be reevaluated without having to redo the analysis when “Close and Recalculate” is selected in the criteria dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Results After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. After calculation the relevant criteria are also added to the Report. criteria are evaluated and the results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window. This is normally due to an insufficient range of heel angle having been used. This allows you to edit criteria parameters or selected criteria and reevaluate using the existing analysis results.: angle of vanishing stability. Criteria Results Table The tested criteria are listed one above the other.. Intermediate values are displayed. Values that could not be calculated. The format for the results table and the report are specified separately. Results may be displayed in “Verbose” or “Compact” format (see above).g. angle of equilibrium. e. etc.
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Stability criteria results window: verbose format
Report and Batch Processing
As noted earlier, only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch file. Criteria that are not relevant, e.g. damage criteria during intact analysis or Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis, are not added to the Report (although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table).
Importing and Saving Criteria Sets
It is possible to load and save the criteria. The parent criteria, built into Hydromax are not saved, only the criteria that you create or import will be saved.
Default Criteria Library File
When starting, Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called: “Hydromax Criteria Library.hcr” from the directory in which the Hydromax program resides. By default this is c:\program files\Maxsurf\ Hydromax Criteria Library.hcr. If this file cannot be found, you will be prompted to locate a criteria file: You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the default criteria, which consists of the Parent criteria and a “My Custom Criteria” group. The default criteria library will be automatically updated every time the criteria dialog is closed. Even if you loaded an alternative file, updates will be saved in the default criteria library, either overwriting the existing one or creating a new one.
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Note It is good practise to save the criteria file with the project in the project folder. That way, when at a later stage you need to reanalyse the project, all criteria are still available. See Saving Criteria below.
Saving Criteria
It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file. This can be useful when you are defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining criteria sets for different vessels. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. This will simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file. Further updates will, however, continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that was opened when Hydromax was first started, so if you want to save any further changes you will have to resave as described above.
Importing Criteria and Specific Criteria Files
New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them – choose Import Criteria from the File menu. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing criteria:
If you choose “Yes” your existing criteria will be kept, if you choose “No”, all existing criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you are opening. The default criteria library will be overwritten with the new criteria so if you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria library, you must save them in a new file first. Note that when keeping your existing criteria, it is important to ensure that the group names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. If this does occur, the imported criteria will be found in the original groups, not in the new groups. A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. You can import several criteria files in one go using Shift, or Ctrl select to select multiple files in the Open Hydromax Criteria dialog.
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Criteria File Format
The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension .hcr. The file is a normal PC text file, which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. The typical format of the file is given in the following file: c:\Program Files\Maxsurf\\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp.html. Editing this file will also allow you to add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your criteria.
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Nomenclature
This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria. There are two distinct types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests, freeboard measurements, trim angle, metacentric height, etc. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. For example, area under GZ curve between specified limits, angle of maximum GZ, etc. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. Note: The metacentre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed directly from the vessel’s hydrostatic properties (i.e. waterplane inertia and immersed volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. This gives an accurate result that is not dependent on the heel angles and intervals tested during the analysis.
Definitions of GZ curve features:
Some typical GZ curves are shown below, the third graph shows the GZ curve with a heeling arm overlayed.
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Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Typical GZ curve Unusual GZ curve with double peak Page 128 .
The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve where the GZHeel Arm curve has positive slope. The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at which a downflooding point becomes immersed. The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve and where the GZHeel Arm curve has negative slope. this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight cabin. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed GZ Definitions The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve: Angle of vanishing stability Angle of vanishing stability with heeling arm curve Downflooding angle Equilibrium angle Equilibrium angle with heeling arm curve First peak in GZ curve The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with negative slope. Page 129 . the GZ curve may have multiple peaks. In some cases.
flat deck at the resultant vessel heel and trim. etc. passenger crowding.e. 1998 CODATA recommended value for standard acceleration of gravity A negative heel angle change. If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero. rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle.heel arm) is a maximum Maximum GZ Maximum GZ above heeling arm curve Glossary The table below describes some commonly used terms: φ Deck Slope / maximum slope Gust Ratio g = 9.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GML or GMT GZ Curve Heeling arm curve Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse metacentre and centre of gravity. The location of the metacentre is computed from the waterplane inertia. which are applied to the vessel. the resulting heel angle after the roll back has been applied is more negative than the original. if the cos function goes negative. This is typically used to assess the effects of external heeling moments. centripetal effects of tuning. the heeling arm is made zero. the Gust Ratio is the ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the steady wind heeling arm. The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative. Note that the centre of gravity used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright condition. the heeling arm curves will have different shapes. i. The maximum slope of an initially horizontal. combined effect of heel and trim. Page 130 . If a criterion uses a roll back angle. These include the effects of wind. the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater than 90° and less than 90°. Used for some wind heeling criteria. Often a roll back angle is measured from some equilibrium position. The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against vessel heel angle A curve of heeling lever. not the slope of the GZ curve. Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum Positive angle at which the value of (GZ .80665ms2 Roll back angle Angle of heel measured from upright. it is often necessary to calculate the GZ curve for negative angles of heel. Depending on the moment that they represent. Commonly used in wind and weather criteria to account for the action of waves rolling the vessel into the wind. which is superimposed on the GZ curve.
Trim or Slope at Equilibrium This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel. The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the report if you run an equilibrium analysis. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive autocompletion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length Maximum Freeboard at Equilibrium Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. Option The angle of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive autocompletion is used): Heel Pitch MaxSlope Permissible value Units deg Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than deg Minimum Freeboard at Equilibrium Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value. combined criteria • Other criteria Criteria at Equilibrium These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium position of the vessel after the analysis. Maximum value of Heel. This could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion. Pitch or Maximum Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck).Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Parent Stability Criteria The parent criteria are divided up into different categories: • Criteria at Equilibrium • GZ Curve Criteria (nonheeling arm) • Heeling arm criteria • Multiple heeling arm criteria • Heeling arm. Page 131 . This could be used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline.
use a combination of both forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria. GMt is computed from waterplane inertia and immersed volume. Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of GZ at Description Value of GMt at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg length Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive autocompletion is used): GMtransverse GMlongitudinal) Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length GZ Curve Criteria (nonheeling arm) These criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option The value of Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Choose from the following (case insensitive autocompletion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length length To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range. calculated from the GZ curve. first peak in GZ curve. are calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax. Value of GMt at Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. Page 132 . The criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater then the required value. Value of GMT or GML at Equilibrium This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a specified minimum value. angle of maximum GZ or the downflooding angle.
If all the upper limit values are less than the lower limit. then the criterion will also fail. the greater of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit for heel angle range. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value. If any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg length Page 133 . Option in the range from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Value of maximum GZ Lower limit for heel angle range. they will be ignored when selecting the lowest.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of Maximum GZ Description Value of GZ at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg length Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. If you want to check the value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle. This functionality is to allow criteria such as “The maximum GZ at 30deg or greater”.
Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is calculated. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs. the value of GZ at the specified angle is calculated. This is GZ (φ 0 ) Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to the location of the first peak in the GZ curve Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to first downflooding angle Units deg required value of GZ at this angle is limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle length deg deg Page 134 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Value of Maximum GZ Value of GZ at Specified Angle or Maximum GZ below Specified Angle If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value. the required value of GZ is constant and is taken at this specified angle. see graph below. Option heel angle at which required GZ is constant Description If the angle of maximum GZ is greater than or equal to this value. This is φ 0 Required value of GZ at the heel angle specified above. Otherwise the required value of maximum GZ varies as a hyperbolic function with the angle of maximum GZ.
max is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ Value of RM at Specified Angle or Maximum RM Below Specified Angle As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle) except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less then the required value. constant value. max If φ GZ < φ 0 then GZ max must be greater than max φ0 φ GZ max GZ (φ 0 ) where: φ 0 is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant φ GZ GZ (φ 0 ) is the GZ value at φ 0 and GZ max is the maximum value of GZ.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Permissible value Units length If φ GZ ≥ φ 0 then GZ (φ 0 ) must be greater than the specified. Page 135 .80665m/s2 g GZ is the righting lever Ratio of GZ Values at Phi1 and Phi2 Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles. measured and compared. The righting moment RM is given by: RM = ∇ρgGZ where: is the vessel volume of displacement ∇ is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in ρ is acceleration due to gravity = 9.
first heel angle. second heel angle. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 Page 136 . the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Phi2.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio = Option GZ (φ1 ) GZ (φ 2 ) Description Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 First heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Second heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units Phi1.
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of Maximum GZ Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value. immersion point). The user may choose the type of Key point to define the downflooding angle (downflooding point. potential downflooding point. then the criterion is passed. Option spec. e. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. embarkation point.g. Using a ratio gives more flexibility. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of equilibrium Permissible value Units deg Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of The equilibrium angle and the lesser of the selected angles are compared. heel angle angle of margin line immersion angle of deck edge immersion first flooding angle of the angle of first GZ peak angle of max. GZ Description Ratio of equilibrium angle to the lesser of: Specified heel angle Angle of first immersion of the margin line Angle of first immersion of the deck edge Smallest immersion angle of the specified type of Key Point Angle of first local peak in GZ curve Angle at which maximum GZ occurs Units deg deg deg deg deg deg Page 137 .: it is possible to check that the equilibrium angle does not exceed half (or any other fraction) the downflooding angle. heel angle can be limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle. Option limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Angle of Equilibrium Description Angle of maximum GZ The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first GZ peak occurs The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first downflooding occurs Permissible value Units deg deg deg Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. If the ratio is less than the required value. the user is advised that the vessel should be heeled in the opposite direction and the criterion is failed. If the equilibrium angle is negative. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.
Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Angle of Vanishing Stability Description Angle of deck edge immersion Permissible value Units deg Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the required value. The actual criterion is passed if either of the individual criteria is passed. This type of criterion is used to formulate criteria such as: The maximum allowable angle of equilibrium is 15 degrees in the damage condition. Angle of Downflooding Finds the angle of first downflooding. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of downflooding Permissible value Units deg Angle of Margin Line Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of margin line immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Deck Edge Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value. but this can be allowed to increase to 17 degrees if the deck edge is not immersed. Option Description Angle of vanishing stability Units Page 138 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria angle of vanishing stability Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Angle of vanishing stabiliy Permissible value deg % Equilibrium heel angle satisfies either This criterion is nothing more than two “Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of” criteria.
from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.angle Page 139 .standard The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected limits and compared with a minimum required value. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 1 . from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.standard Lower limit for integration. The criterion is passed if the computed range is greater then the required value. Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Range of positive stability Lower limit User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of the range See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg GZ Area between Limits type 1 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Range of Positive Stability Permissible value deg The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed. The criterion is passed if the area under the graph is greater than the required value. Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.
if the lower angle was 15° and the required area at this angle was 0. and A2 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle φ 2 .2. The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.2 and IMO A.1.rad. The required area is defined as follows: If φ max ≥ φ 2 : required area = A2 .standard GZ area between limits type 2. If φ1 < φ max Where: A − A2 A2 + 1 φ − φ (φ 2 − φ max ) < φ 2 : required area = 2 1 .36(63) §2. For example. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle φ1 . However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit.rad and the upper angle was 30° and the required area at this angle was 0.055 A = 0.055m.HSC monohull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater then the required value.6.07 − 0.55 + (30 − φ max ) 30 − 15 . φ max is the upper integration limit.3.749(18) §4.07m.3.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ area between limits type 1 . If φ max ≤ φ1 : required area = A1 . then the required area would be given by: or simplifying: Page 140 0.5.
.001 (30 − φ max ) Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.angle deg length.HSC monohull type Lower limit for integration..angle Page 141 . from smallest angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Minimum angle that requires a GZ area greater than. Until this angle the required GZ area is constant Value of GZ area that is required until the lower heel angle Angle from which the required GZ area remains constant onwards Value of GZ area that is required from the higher heel angle onwards Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg required GZ area at lower heel angle higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle length. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria A = 0. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability lower heel angle Description GZ area between limits type 2.55 + 0.
rad. required area = A1 (φ1 / φ max ) .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Permissible value Units length.36 (63) Annex 7 §1. then the required area would be given by: A = 0. The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.055m.055(30 / φ max ) Page 142 . For example. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit ( φ max ).HSC multihull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle φ1 .angle GZ area between limits type 2 .1. Where: φ max is the upper integration limit. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required value.HSC monohull type GZ area between limits type 3 . if the specified angle ( φ1 ) was 30° and the required area at this angle ( A1 ) was 0.
from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Heel angle at which required GZ area is specified Value of GZ area that is required until the higher heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.angle Page 143 .HSC multihull type Lower limit for integration. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 3 .angle length.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.
where “abs” means the absolute value of. φ3 User specified heel angle Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg . φ1 User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit. φ2 Area 1 Ratio = = abs(Area 2) ∫ GZ (φ )dφ φ 1 φ4 abs ∫ GZ (φ )dφ φ 3 . Option Area 1 from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Area 1 to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 from the lesser of specified heel angle Page 144 Description Ratio of GZ area between limits Area 1 lower integration limit.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ area between limits type 3 . φ 2 User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 2 lower integration limit.HSC multihull type Ratio of GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0 axis.
Typically. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged. Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 1 In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding angle. GZ areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not considered positive. respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and 180 deg. Page 145 . In the example below. Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg. see graph below. φ4 User specified heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg % This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only. the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium and vanishing stability.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 to specified heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit.
Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 3 Page 146 . the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the downflooding angle.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 2 In the final example. Note that Area 2 is now A1 – A2.
where the value of GZ > 0. Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Area 1 is positive. Area 2 is negative. Area 1 is positive. Option Description Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits User specified lower limit heel angle User specified upper limit heel angle Permissible value Units in the heel angle range from to Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than deg deg % Ratio = Area 1 . If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis in the given heel angle range. Page 147 . Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ < 0. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ < 0. Area 2 is negative. abs(Area 2) where “abs” means the absolute value of. where the value of GZ > 0. upper limit = 180deg. And the areas are defined as follows: If both heel angle limits are ≥ zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.
and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Area 1 is positive. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0. Area 2 is negative. If the lower heel angle limit < zero. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 0deg. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Page 148 . where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Negative heel: lower limit = 180deg.
Page 149 . cos n describes the shape of the curve. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. • General heeling arm • General cos+sin heeling arm • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to lifting of weights • Heeling due to towing or bollardpull • Heeling due to wind • Gust ratio • Areas and levers General heeling arm The general form of the heeling arm is given below: H (φ ) = A cos n (φ ) where: φ is the heel angle. Heeling arm definition There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria. Positive and negative heel: lower limit = 180deg.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. upper limit = 180deg. They are defined below.
Calculate the worstcase lever based on the displacement and VCG that result in the worst lever and see if the criterion is actually a limiting one for KG. care has to be taken to make sure any change in displacement is taken into account. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. General cos+sin heeling arm Some criteria. This means that the heeling arm will vary with the displacement. Calculate limiting KG at single displacements and change the heeling arm for each displacement. For Limiting KG and Batch analysis. For large angle stability this means that every loadcase will have its own set of criteria. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. the value “A” in: H (φ ) = A cos n (φ ) . 2. However. where M = heeling moment ∆ = displacement. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. Heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Some heeling arm criteria are dependent on the displacement of the vessel for the calculation of the Heeling Arm. there are two options: 1. For example.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. the same heeling arm form may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form: H (φ ) = k ( A cos(φ + δ ) + B sin(φ + δ ) ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. some criteria. When evaluating these criteria that are dependent on displacement. notably lifting of weights. in this case n=0 should be used. require a heeling arm with both a sine and cosine component: H (φ ) = k A cos n (φ ) + B sin m (φ ) ( ) It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H (φ ) = k (C cos(φ ) + D sin(φ ) ) where: Page 150 . Hydromax will not take the change in displacement into account. is manually calculated from: A= M ∆ .
defines shape mass length none The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal force acting on the vessel during a highspeed turn and the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria R2 B C= 1 + tan 2 (α − δ ) . The heeling arm is obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight. D = C tan(α − δ ) . The heeling arm is thus given by: H t (φ ) = a v2 h cos n (φ ) Rg where (in consistent units): a is a constant. R 2 = A 2 + B 2 and tan α = A Heeling due to passenger crowding The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H pc (φ ) = where: n pas MD ∆ cos n (φ ) n pas is the number of passengers M is the average mass of a single passenger D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline ∆ is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option number of passengers: nPass passenger mass: M distance from centreline: D cosine power: n Heeling due to turning Description Number of passengers Units none Average mass of one passenger Average distance of the passengers from the centreline Cosine power for curve . theoretically unity v is the vessel velocity R is the radius of the turn h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option constant: a vessel speed: v turn radius: R Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm. normally unity Vessel speed in turn Turn radius may be specified directly Units none length/time length Page 151 .
u'water area cosine power: n Or. Horizontal separation of suspension point from weight’s original stowage position on the vessel This value is positive if the horizontal shift of the weight should produce a positive heeling moment. R. as percentage of LWL There are four options for specifying h (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified h is taken as KG .position of G above baseline in upright condition h is taken as KG less half the mean draft.vert. This value is positive if the suspension position is above the original stowage position. centre of projected lat. Cosine power for curve . The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H lw (φ ) = where: M is the mass of the weight being lifted h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position ∆ is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option Mass being lifted: M vertical separation of suspension from stowage position: v Description Mass of weight being lifted Vertical separation of suspension point from weight’s original stowage position on the vessel. Units mass length M [h cos(φ ) + v sin(φ )] ∆ horizontal separation of suspension from stowage position: h length Heeling due to towing or bollardpull The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H tow (φ ) = T v cos n (φ + τ ) + h sin(φ + τ ) g∆ [ ] Page 152 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria turn radius. as percentage of LWL Vertical lever: h h = KG h = KG . as some criteria require.defines shape % length length length length none Heeling due to lifting of weights This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position. h is taken as the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and underwater lateral projected area.mean draft / 2 h = KG .
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria where: T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust. Horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline. It is assumed that the towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the vessel is heeled. This value is positive if the towline is above the thrust centre. The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option tension or thrust: T vertical separation of propeller centre and tow attachment: v horizontal offset of tow attachment: h Description Tension in towline or vessel thrust Vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel’s vertical centre of thrust. the wind heeling arm is given by: H w (φ ) = a v 2 A(h − H ) n cos (φ ) g∆ where: a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area multiplied by the air density and has units of density v is the wind speed. expressed as a force. h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel’s vertical centre of thrust ∆ is the vessel mass n is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the heeling arm curve τ is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. This value is positive if the offset is in the direction of the tow. Page 153 . theoretically unity A is the windage area at height h ∆ is the vessel mass P is the wind pressure H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force In the case of the wind velocity based formulation. the wind heeling arm is given by: H w (φ ) = a PA(h − H ) n cos (φ ) g∆ where: a is a constant. And the other parameters are described as above.defines shape Units force length length angle of tow above horizontal: tau cosine power: n Heeling due to wind angle none In the case of the wind pressure based formulation. Angle of tow above the horizontal Cosine power for curve .
depends on wind model mass/(time2 length) or length/ time length length2 length2 area centroid height: h total area: A additional area: A height of lateral resistance: H H = mean draft / 2 H = vert. H is taken as the waterline Cosine power for curve . H is taken as the vertical centre of underwater lateral projected area. positive upwards. mass/length 3 for velocity based formulation wind model wind pressure or velocity Pressure or Velocity (type “P” or “V”) Actual velocity of pressure . u'water area H = waterline cosine power: n Gust ratio Height of user defined total or additional windage area User may specify either a total windage area Or. i. an area to be added to the windage area computed by Hydromax based on the hull sections There are four options for specifying H (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified H is taken as half the mean draft.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option constant: a Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm.e.defines shape length length length length none Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the Maxsurf/Hydromax coordinate system. GustRatio = H gust H steady Areas and levers Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and their vertical centroids. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids or the total areas and vertical centroids. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. where ρair is the density of air and CD is an average drag coefficient for the windage area Units none for pressure based formulation . Page 154 .: from the model’s vertical datum. centre of projected lat. normally unity for pressure based formulation or 0.5 ρair CD for the velocity formulation.
1..“Structure” surfaces are ignored.184m. even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical bottom of the vessel.. m/s.Note on unit conversion There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling arms. Thus 1 knot = 1852/3600 = 0. H R = 1000 M R / ∆g [m]. Heeling arms for specific criteria . is given by: Page 155 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Centroids of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero trim and heel) at the mean draft. Monaco.196 Where: V02 d ∆ tonne KG − L 2 [kNm] MR = heeling moment in tonne. is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the Frame of Reference dialog). Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or “moments” in mass.. K.2. and in the case of “moments” in mass.length. the conversions for some common criteria have been explained. thus. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is generating the heeling moment. it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g∆ ). The vertical position of the keel.6 .) In the following section. further.. giving a conversion multiplier for knots to m/s of 0. Hydromax uses an internal conversion of knots to m/s based on the International Nautical mile which is defined as exactly 1852m (International Hydrographic Conference.75(69) 3.51477333.749(18) amended to MSC. increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation.length. only “Hull” surfaces are included in the calculation .m = service speed in m/s = length of ship at waterline in m V0 L ∆ tonne = displacement in tonne d = mean draft m KG = height of centre of gravity above keel in m Hence the heeling arm.5144444. All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is ultimately plotted on the GZ curve. it is necessary to divide by vessel mass. The areas are calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax.Heeling due to turning Heeling moment defined by: M R = 0. 1929). To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment. (Note that the UK nautical mile is 6080ft = 1853. IMO Code on Intact Stability A.
196 and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and R constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. the choice of a ratio of 5.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: HR = a Where: V2 Rg h [m].81∆ tonne [m] = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 Where: l w1 P A Page 156 . we obtain: R = 510% L and a = 0.196 V02 d KG − 2 Lg Equating similar terms: d h = KG − 2 V = V0 and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5. V R h a = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.1:1.196 × 510% = 0.196 Where: V02 ∆ d 1000 V2 d = 0.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria H R = 0.9996 L Note that it suffices that a = 0.Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) Heeling arm defined by: lw1 = PAZ 1000 g 9.1:1 merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.2 .196 0 KG − KG − 2 [m] L 1000 2 ∆g Lg g ∆ = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9. 3. we obtain: a V2 Rg h = 0.
Heeling moment due to wind pressure Heeling moment defined by: M v = 0.81 = 9.1.001PAZ Where: 1000 PAZ = ∆g ∆g [m] g ∆ = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration .81 IMO HSC Code MSC.4 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Z = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m ∆ tonne = displacement in tonne g9. we obtain: a PA(h − H ) PAZ = g∆ 1000 g 9. is given by: H R = 0.81∆ tonne Equating similar terms: h−H = Z and a= g g 9.36(63) Annex 6 1.81m/s2 The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw = a Where: PA(h − H ) g∆ [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9. H v = 1000 M v / ∆g [m].80665 = 0.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg Page 157 .99966 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) g ∆ h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.9.001PAZ [kNm] Where: Mv P A Z = heeling moment in kNm = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m Hence the heeling arm.
we obtain: Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.Heeling due to wind Heeling arm defined by: HL1 = Where: PAZ 9800∆ tonne [m] = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draft in m HL1 P A Z ∆ tonne = displacement in tonne The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw = a Where: PA(h − H ) g∆ [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9. we obtain: a PA(h − H ) PAZ = g∆ g∆ Equating similar terms: and h−H = Z a = 1 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw = a Where: PA(h − H ) g∆ [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) g ∆ h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. Page 158 .3 .0 Annex 7 1.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of half the lightest service draft in m = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) g ∆ h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.
4 . the factor a should be multiplied by the gust factor – typically 1.000102 PA(h − H ) 1000 ∆ [m] The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H =a Where: PA(h − H ) g∆ [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.000102 PA(h − H ) [tonne.1.80665 = 1. Hence.m] Where: h H P A = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 Thus the heeling arm is given by: H = 0.1.000102 PA(h − H ) ∆ g∆ simplifying and rearranging: a = 0.80665∆ = = 1.3 .102 × 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) g ∆ a Thus equating: H =a 1000 PA(h − H ) = 0.Heeling moment due to turning USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: Page 159 .0002783 USL C. a becomes 1.1.Wind heeling moment USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M = 0.000102 × 1000.00068 9800∆ tonne 9.0 × g = 0.5.8∆ Where the effect of wind plus gust is required. in the case of wind plus gust.1.50102 USL code (Australia) USL C.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Equating similar terms: and h−H = Z a= g∆ 9.
5144 1000.0 L ∆ simplifying and rearranging: a = 5. = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = nondimensional constant (theoretically unity) V R h a Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. with g = 9.0053 × 1000.m] v kts = vessel speed in knots ∆ tonne = displacement in tonne h = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m L = waterline length of vessel in m Thus the heeling arm is given by: 2 v kts ∆ tonnes h 1 H = 0.3g 2 1 1 R v kts ∆ tonnes R = 5.196424 × 509% = 0.0 L ∆ [m] Where: ∆ = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H =a Where: V2 Rg h [m]. we obtain: a V2 Rg h = 0.196424 R L R = 509% Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length. L gives a value for a: a = 0.0 ∆ finally.999798 Page 160 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria M = 0.3 g 2 2 LV L 0.80665 [ms2]: a = 0.0053 2 v kts ∆ tonnes h 1 × 1000.0053 Where: 2 v kts ∆ tonnes h L [tonne.
general heeling arm Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. a R = 0. the choice of a ratio of 509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length Heeling arm criteria These criteria are derived from the GZ curve calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax in conjunction with user defined heeling arms.196424 L .general heeling arm Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. and in some cases. Uses the general heel arm as described in §General heeling arm. the same criteria are given with a specific. The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value. Uses the general heel arm as described in §General heeling arm Page 161 . Value of GMT at equilibrium . The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value. heeling arm due to wind pressure.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Note that it suffices that and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the equilibrium heel angle. passenger crowding or vessel turning. Value of GZ at equilibrium . In all cases there is a generic form of the criterion with the general form of the heeling arm.
GZ (φ1 ) Ratio = GZ (φ 2 ) Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .general heeling arm Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Value of GZ at equilibrium . The criterion is passed if the value of (GZ .general heeling arm Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling arm is greatest (GZ .general heeling arm Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm . Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm .heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle.heel arm) is greater then the required value.general heeling arm Finds the maximum value of (GZ . positive).heel arm) is maximum. The first downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.Heel Arm is maximum.general heeling arm Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve. Page 162 . The heel arm is used to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ .
The equilibrium angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and the GZ curve has positive slope. Page 163 . The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .general heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with a General heeling arm applied.
The heeling arm is calculated from the number. see §Heeling due to passenger crowding. selectable angle.passenger crowding heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding applied.general heeling arm. The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in §Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with a General heeling arm applied) to another.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium ratio . Page 164 . Ratio = φ equilibrium φ specified The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following: Required angle for ratio calculation Auto complete text Marginline immersion angle MarginlineImmersionAngle Deck edge immersion angle DeckEdgeImmersionAngle Angle of first GZ peak DownfloodingAngle Angle of maximum GZ MaximumGZAngle First downflooding angle FirstGZPeakAngle Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle Angle of equilibrium . weight and location of the passengers.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of equilibrium .
Angle of vanishing stability .general heeling arm Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where the slope of the GZ curve is negative. The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius. Page 165 .general heeling arm Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm. vessel speed and height of the vessel’s centre of gravity.highspeed turn heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning applied. [Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] – [Angle of equilibrium] The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value. see §Heeling due to turning. Angle of vanishing stability .general heeling arm Range of positive stability .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of equilibrium . This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive stability. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.
general heeling arm This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the value of GZ at a certain heel angle.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Range of positive stability . A= GZ φ α cos n φ Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) Specified heel angle Value of GZ at specified heel angle Required ratio = GZ φ / HAφ where: φ A n GZ φ α Page 166 . and is then compared with a minimum required value.general heeling arm GZ derived heeling arm . The GZ value used to define the heeling arm is the GZ at one of the following heel angles: • specified angle of heel • angle of first peak in GZ curve • angle at which maximum GZ occurs • angle of first downflooding • immersion angle of margin line or deck edge The heeling arm is then calculated as described by the equation below.
The amplitude of the heeling. Lower integration limit. GZ • first downflooding angle • angle of vanishing stability Upper integration limit.general heeling arm This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the area under the GZ curve between specified limits. A heeling arm of prescribed shape is found such that the specified area ratio is met. φ 2 : It is also possible to specify a minimum heel angle for the upper integration limit. Any negative areas (due to negative GZ) up to this minimum upper integration heel angle will be deducted from the total area under the GZ curve. The roll back may be specified as either: Page 167 . With the wind pressure acting on it. see below. heel angle • spec. which satisfies the equation below arm is then found and compared with a minimum required value. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. ∫φ φ φ2 1 A cos n φ ∫φ dφ = φ2 1 GZ dφ α A n α GZ Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) heel angle GZ curve Required ratio GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) . The rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the wind heeling arm. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward under the action of waves and then roll to leeward. angle above equilibrium • angle of first GZ peak • angle of max. The amplitude of the heeling arm is then compared with a required minimum value.general heeling arm This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves. φ1 : • specified angle of heel • angle of equilibrium • spec. The area under both the GZ and heeling arm curves is integrated between the same specified limits.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ area derived heeling arm .
should be large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than ….Chapter 4 Stability Criteria • a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the wind heel arm. The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio. For more information see: §Heel. angle of the first GZ peak. This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle.e. if the angle of steady heel is greater than the angle.derived wind heeling arm The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to wind pressure exceeds a certain value. The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of specified ratio. Area 1 = ∫φ (GZ (φ ) − heel arm(φ ))dφ 1 φ2 Area 2 = ∫φ (heel arm(φ ) − GZ (φ ))dφ 1 φ2 Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) .general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . • roll back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope). angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. or • roll back to a specified heel angle. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Page 168 . The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a specified heel angle. first peak in GZ curve.
The specified heeling arm is specified by an amplitude and cosine power. Page 169 . The derived heeling arm is chosen such that the areas. The second equilibrium angle. the same cosine power is used for both the specified and the derived heeling arms. There are several options which can be used to define the upper and lower ranges for the area integrations. are in the specified ratio. The first equilibrium angle. is the angle of equilibrium with a specified heeling arm.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of equilibrium . is the angle of equilibrium with a derived heeling arm.derived wind heeling arm Ratio of equilibrium angles .derived heeling arm This criterion is used to compare the equilibrium angles with two different heeling arms. φ1. A1 and A2. φ2.
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of equilibrium angles . then the ratio φ2 : φ1 must be less than unity. Thus if it is required that φ2 be less than φ1.derived heeling arm Area 1 = ∫φ (GZ (φ ) − heel arm(φ ))dφ 1 φ2 Area 2 = ∫φ (heel arm(φ ) − GZ (φ ))dφ 1 φ2 Area 1 Ratio of areas = Area 2 φ1 = Angle of equilibrium with heeling arm derived from required area ratio (purple heeling arm) φ2 = Angle of equilibrium with specified heeling arm (orange heeling arm) The criterion is passed if the ratio φ2 : φ1 is less than the required value. Option A n required area ratio Area1 / Area2 options Page 170 Description Magnitude of specified heeling arm Cosine power to describe shape of both specified and derived heelning arms The required area ratio used to find the derived heeling arm magnitude Specify lower integration limit for Area1 Units length deg .
GZ area between limits .general heeling arm Page 171 . Area = ∫φ (GZ (φ ) − heel arm(φ ))dφ 1 φ2 GZ area between limits . For more information see: §Heel. The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value. the upper integration limit is always the angle of equilibrium with derived heel arm Specifies the maximum allowable ratio of equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm to the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm (phi2 / phi1). indicating that the equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm must be less than the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm deg deg Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. This value is normally less than or equal to 100%.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria options options required value Specify upper integration limit for Area1 Specify lower integration limit for Area2.general heeling arm Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the specified heel angles.
Page 172 .general heeling arm. This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies’ turning and passenger crowding criteria. 3 φ4 Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 1 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of areas type 1 . This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is used by several Navies. In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine and a cosine component. the only difference being the shape of the heel arm.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 . Type 1 stands for which areas are being integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph).general cos+sin heeling arm This is a very similar criterion to § Ratio of areas type 1 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. (GZ (φ ) − heel arm(φ ) )dφ . Area 1 = ∫φ 1 φ2 GZ (φ )dφ Area 2 = ∫φ .general heeling arm The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed.
(GZ (φ ) − heel arm(φ ) )dφ Area 1 = ∫φ GZ (φ )dφ Area 2 = ∫φ 3 φ4 . but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium with the gust wind heeling arm. Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 2 . Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. Area 1 = Area 2 = ∫φ (GZ (φ ) − gust heel arm(φ ))dφ 1 φ2 ∫φ (gust heel arm(φ ) − GZ (φ ))dφ 1 φ2 Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Page 173 .: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).0 is used.e. The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The modified form of the heeling arm is given below. for further information also see §General cos+sin heeling arm H (φ ) = k A cos n (φ ) + B sin m (φ ) φ2 1 ( ) . Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the steady wind heeling arm. If a gust ratio of greater than 1.general wind heeling arm This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward (under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it. For more information see: §Heel. then roll to leeward under a gust.
Page 174 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of areas type 2 .general wind heeling arm Multiple heeling arm criteria These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of three heeling arms: • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to wind The combined heeling arms are computed by adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle.
multiple heeling arms Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm and uses the following specific heeling arms: • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to wind Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .multiple heeling arms Checks the ratio of GZ values as per §Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .general heeling arm and uses the following specific heeling arms: • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to wind Page 175 .multiple heeling arms Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per §Angle of equilibrium .
general heeling arm and uses the following specific heeling arms: • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to wind Page 176 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Angle of equilibrium .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits .
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ area between limits .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §Ratio of areas type 1 .general heeling arm and uses the following specific heeling arms: • Heeling due to passenger crowding • Heeling due to turning • Heeling due to wind Page 177 .multiple heeling arms Ratio of areas type 1 .
The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single criteria. 2.general heeling arm.general heeling arm This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met. These are: 1. Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual components. Note: At least one of the individual criteria has to be selected. Page 178 .multiple heeling arms Heeling arm. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. The area ratio is evaluated as per § Ratio of areas type 1 . The Angle of steady heel is obtained as per §Angle of equilibrium .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Ratio of areas type 1 .general heeling arm 3. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . combined criteria Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components.
highspeed turn This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . however the heel arm is the specific passenger crowding form.general heeling arm.general heeling arm. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Page 179 .passenger crowding This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . however the heel arm is the specific highspeed turning form.general heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
however the heel arm is the specific lifting of a heavy weight form.general heeling arm. however the heel arm is the specific towing form. 2.general wind heeling arm. Optionally.general cos+sin heeling arm. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. Page 180 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) – cos+sin heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . a gust wind can be applied.general wind heeling arm This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . 1. The area ratio is evaluated as per Ratio of areas type 2 .lifting weight This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . For more information see: §Heel. The heeling arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power.general cos+sin heeling arm. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. 3. The angle of steady heel is obtained as per Angle of equilibrium . Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value.towing This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Area definition If required. If this is done. all calculations are done using a reduced GZ’ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows: GZ ' (φ ) = GZ (φ ) − B cos m (φ ) This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many others of similar format): Page 181 . a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied.
2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria • RAN A015866: §4. • Royal Navy NES 109: §1.3.4.2. Page 182 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria • US Navy DDS0791: §0791c(9) 1.general wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity).3. §0791c(9) 4.wind heeling arm This criterion is exactly the same as §Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .749(18) Code on intact stability: §3.5.2. §1.9.2 • IMO MSC.4. §4.3.8. §1. §4.1 • ISO/FDIS 122171:2002(E) Small NonSailing Boats §6.4. projected area and area lever information.5 • IMO A.36(63) Highspeed craft code §2.2.3.
Page 183 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Area definition Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. are found here. which do not easily fall into the categories above. For more information see: §Heel. Other criteria Other criteria.
either 0 or 5. has reserve buoyancy and positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90º . Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. Option delta Description Adjustment to STIX rating. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. Height of sail area centre of effort from model’s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. this is not the same as the STIX variable hCE which is measured from the waterline. sail area ISO 8666 length2 height of centroid of AS length LH. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. Note that no additional windage areas are calculated by Hydromax for this criterion. Hull length as defined by ISO 8666. Units AS. δ = 0 in all other cases. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. The required input parameters are described below.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Other criteria . the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used.STIX The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E) for exact definitions of parameters and how they should be calculated. Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. if the analysis is carried out freetotrim. when fully flooded with water. length length BH. Hull waterline length in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. zero trim condition. zero trim condition. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. beam of hull length LWL. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. positive up). length waterline length Page 184 . δ = 5 if the vessel. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright.
This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and Downflooding factors. may be specified or calculated by Hydromax. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. beam waterline height of immersed profile area centroid Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Hull waterline beam in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Units length length Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E). this is not the same as the STIX variable hLP ). Hence.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Option BWL. Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index. if the analysis is carried out freetotrim. if the analysis is carried out freetotrim. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. or defined downflooding points do not immerse within the selected heel angle range. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Page 185 . if no downflooding points are defined. Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating value rather than the STIX design category. Height of centre of the lateral projected immersed area of the hull from model’s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. Hydromax calculates this parameter at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. the angle of downflooding is taken to be the largest heel angle tested.
42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.1.4: Heel due to wind action Page 186 . there is no option for placing the height. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder.2). 6.3. 2. one to check that the righting moment is sufficient and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient. those that are not locked require your ship design data to be input. ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation. the default value is set at 1. 6. This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in Hydromax.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3 (Section 6.3: Resistance to waves This criterion comprises two parts. In Hydromax. H. Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium. see Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6. of the centre of lateral resistance at the bottom of the vessel. An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum permissible value. which depends on the category and length of vessel being tested. 6.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. positive upwards).7 6.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Specific stability criteria A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax.2) and entered into the required value field. The default value is set to 49. so this must be specified manually (it is measured from the model zero point.1. 6.1. 6. Most specific criteria are locked. Also determine the required wind speed and rollback angle (depending on the design category) and enter these values.3. 6. In most cases the default required value would exceed the worst case. Part 1: Nonsailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria.2: Offsetload test There are several ways of evaluating this criterion: 1.1.3: Resistance to wind and waves Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the criterion. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium analysis.
4: Stability index (STIX) Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category.5: Knockdownrecovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. Convert this to a heeling lever.2.2) and entered into the required value field. see Table 5 (Section 6.2: Downfloodingheight tests Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading condition.3: Angle of vanishing stability Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category and vessel displacement.7).3). If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle. it should self right.2.2) and entered into the required value field.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. If desired you can specify the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you. Determine the limiting heel angle from Table 4 (Sections 6.2.6. The default value is 130.3: Offsetload test This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with the required offset loading condition Sailing Boats: 7. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis. see Tables 3 (Sections 6.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.9). Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion. Section 6. Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading condition. 6.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. 6. the default value is set at 1.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6.2.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6. Page 187 .3. The default value is set to 40 6. but note the different wind speeds to be used. NonSailing Boats: 6.2.4.2.6. 6. 6.6. the default value is set at 1. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm. 6.2) Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m 6.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per 6.
6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6. Page 188 . Section 6.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm. it should self right. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria 7.5: Knockdownrecovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. Convert this to a heeling lever.7).6.6.6. 7.
Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference This chapter contains brief descriptions of the tools available in Hydromax: • Windows • Toolbars • Menus Page 189 .
After an analysis. Shrink. If a Perspective view is shown. compartments and nonbuoyant volumes can be toggled between an outline view and a view of the sections. immersed sections of the hull and any compartments. Page 190 . and the centroids of gravity. one is used for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank calibration analysis is selected. you may also use the Pitch. the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window. If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out. tabular. The Zoom. graph and report windows. • View Window • Loadcase Window • Damage Window • Input Window • Results Window • Graph Window • Report Window View Window The View window displays the hull. The view of the tanks. buoyancy. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained. Perspective view In the perspective view. the model may be rendered.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Windows Hydromax uses a range of graphical. You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility command from the Display menu. frame of reference. and flotation. Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions. Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. These positions are represented by: cb cg cf K centre of buoyancy centre of gravity centre of flotation location of keel (K) for KN during KN analysis You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or the View toolbar. it will display the hull shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current step of the analysis.
For fastest performance. it is best to turn off sections.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised. You may then turn them on again after the analysis has completed. with further lighting options in the Render toolbar. For this reason. Page 191 .g. The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu. e. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual for more information on the different rendering options available in perspective view. minimise the Hydromax window so that no redrawing occurs. when running in Batch mode. and especially waterlines. Loadcase Window In the Loadcase window a spreadsheet table of all loads and tanks is displayed. especially when the hull shell is made transparent. when performing an analysis. Note: Fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that is required from Hydromax.
For more information see Loadcase on page 35. Damage Window The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in each damage case. Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Using the tabs on the bottom of the window allow you to quickly browse through the different loadcases. Input Window The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered. There is always an Intact case. heading or subtotal lines in the table. this is the default condition. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be defined as nonbuoyant volumes. which cannot be edited. The tables in the Input window contain the: Page 192 .
Key Points There are several types of Key Points: • Down Flooding points • Potential Down flooding points • Embarkation points • Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. Compartment Definition This table can be used to define the tanks and compartments in the Hydromax models. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. For more information see Modelling Compartments on page 40 in the Analysis Input section. Modulus Points This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment during the longitudinal strength calculations.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference • Compartment Definition • Sounding Pipes • Key Points • Margin Line Points • Modulus Points The input window contains tabs on the bottom that allow you to quickly browse through the different input tables. If necessary. Sounding Pipes This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). Default values are provided but these may be edited if necessary. which is used in criteria evaluation. Page 193 .
Items that are not selected are still calculated during the analysis cycle. Note that results are never invalidated if analysis options are modified – it is up to the user to ensure that the results are recalculated as necessary. A dialog similar to the one above will appear. For example. When switching mode.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Results Window The Results window contains ten tables. but are not displayed. Data Format It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are displayed. or so that each draft is on a separate row. Data Layout Most analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the printed page. Items that are selected with a tick will be displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. with Upright Hydrostatics. Page 194 . You may change the display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations. the currently selected results table will change to reflect the current analysis mode. one for each of the different analysis types plus criteria results and key points results tables. To do this. select Data Format from the Display menu and click on either the From Amidships or the From Zero Pt items. The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the specified Zero Point or from the Amidships location. choose Data Format from the Display menu. the data can be formatted so that each draft has a column of results. To choose either format.
they will be evaluated during Large Angle Stability. select Data Format from the Display menu. The results may be displayed in compact format: Page 195 . The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to Equilibrium or Specified condition. The results of the criteria evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses. Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference To change the format. Key Points Data Result Window Key points data is calculated for Large Angle Stability. Criteria results are not displayed in this table after a Limiting KG analysis. Stability Criteria Result Window If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu. and select either the horizontal or vertical layout button. Equilibrium and Specified condition Analysis.
Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Alternatively. Only the graphs that are applicable to the current analysis can be displayed. the results can be displayed in verbose format. which show the results of the current analysis. where all the intermediate calculations are shown. Alternatively you can select a specific graph using the Windows  Graphs menu item. by selecting the desired format in the Display  Data format dialog. Page 196 . Graph Window The Graph window displays graphs. Hydromax will automatically display the graph that displays the result of the current analysis when you select Graph from the Windows menu or press the toolbar button.
These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics. These can all be displayed via the Graphs item in the Windows menu. Floodable Length and Tank Capacities. Hydromax will ignore the exact position you click on the curve to allow reading all related interpolated values along the black dashed line. The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the curve name and coordinates of the mouse on the curve. Note: In case multiple curves are plotted in the same graph you can switch between the curves by clicking on them. Area and corresponding heel angle can be measured by using the slider. Tip: You can use the Select View from Analysis Data option (see page 107) to see the Curve of Areas for each heel angle and/or intermediate stage during the analysis. GZ Graph The GZ value. Righting Lever (GZ curve). Longitudinal Strength. Curves of Form. use the mouse to click anywhere on the curve. Click anywhere on the dashed line and drag it with the mouse. Page 197 . as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be displayed. Curve of Areas. the slider data is displayed at the bottom of the Graph window. The area is integrated from zero heel angle to the location of the graph slider. Interpolating Graph Data To display an interpolated value from one of the curves.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Graph type Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being performed.
Note The lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium angle).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note: Because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees. Graph data The graphed data can be obtained by double clicking on the graph. a parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at the specified heel angles. Especially in the case of the sectional area curve. you must subtract the area at the lower limit from the area at the higher limit. If this is the case. This can sometimes be useful if you expect a discontinuity in the GZ curve. Also see: Copying Tables on page 108. Curve fitting for GZ graph A curve fit will be performed if all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10˚. Thus if you require the area between two limits. Page 198 . Since the graph data contains more data points than most tables in the results window.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of length. where there is no tabular data available. this double click can be extremely helpful to export the analysis data to for example Excel fro further processing.radians. add a heel angle interval of greater than 10˚ as the final step. If you wish to prevent this curve fitting. the area is always given in units of length. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the calculated GZ points.
). • choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this paper size. Report files are loaded and saved in Rich Text Format (RTF). fonts etc. Formatting can be done in the Report window. printed. However.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Report Window Hydromax contains a Report window. The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view. do the same for the graph widow. This report can be edited via Cut. Copy and Paste. Underneath all of this you have your actual editing area. both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split. Changing the page layout after data has been inserted will not reformat the tables etc. allowing you to load them directly into your favourite word processor for further editing. • copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word. so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables from being split). saved to and recalled from a disk file. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set up. instead of from the Report window. orientation and margins before starting any analyses. Use the Format  Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for the different levels of heading in the document. it is generally recommended that you only use the Report window to accumulate results and that you do not attempt any formatting of the report within Hydromax. However it is recommended that the report window be used only to accumulate the results. these should be saved and opened in a word processor such as Microsoft Word for formatting: • set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses the same column widths. This way Hydromax will make best use of the page when inserting tables. It is usually more convenient to copy and paste tables and graphs into Word and Excel directly from the Result and Graph windows. Note that it is best to set up the desired page size. Page 199 . indentation and margin widths. Since Microsoft Office programs such as Word and Excel are more powerful formatting programs. Once all the results have been gathered in the report window. This window is used to create a progressive summary of the analyses that have been carried out. this will facilitate generating a table of contents and also allows you to reformat the various styles (or import a custom set of styles using the style organiser in Word). as well as a ruler showing you tab stops. Once you have completed the analysis simply copy and paste the contents of the Report window into Microsoft Word and proceed with the formatting there. graphs and text.
right. The toolbar contains the following items: Font combo box Font Size combo box Bold Italic Underline Right/Left Justify Centre Justify Double Line Spacing Indent Margin Left Indent Margin Right Hanging Indent Use this to change the current font Use this to change the current font size Use this to toggle the Bold style Use this to toggle the Italic style Use this to toggle the Underline style Use this to toggle Left/Right Justification Use this to toggle Centre Justification Use this to toggle Single/Double Line Spacing Indent the Left Margin Indent the Right Margin Indent the Hanging Indent The Ruler comes in two formats. annotation and editing. but it is strongly recommended not to use any of the formatting commands in the Report window. centre.the format you have displayed on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the Display menu to change this). or the section of text that is currently highlighted. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab positions. Page 200 . The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings. The format shown below is metric. The Ruler allows you to set left. in metric and in inches . and decimal tab stops. The tab stops are very useful for creating columns and tables.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The information below is provided for reference. Simply use the Report window to accumulate the results then export or copy and paste into a Word processor for final formatting.
click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command. click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. perform the analyses. To create a centre tab stop. simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler. Page 201 . (Load in the old report. This is very easily done. by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it into the report at the desired location. The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. These are listed below for convenience: Ctrl+B Toggle Bold on/off Ctrl+U Toggle Underline on/off Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+Enter Position at the top of the report Position at the bottom of the report Insert a page break Opening and Saving the Report The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu commands with the report window highlighted. simply click the left mouse button on the tab symbol on the ruler. hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. To create a right tab stop. While the mouse button is depressed. drag the tab to the desired location and release the mouse button. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the left. To create a left tab stop. Normally. The left tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right. there are also several useful keystrokes that are available while editing the report. However. it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. To create a decimal tab stop. the tab command is then applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text. Pasting images into the report Sometimes. Keyboard Support For Reports In addition to menu support. the new results will be appended to the end of the report which may then be resaved). The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow. The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab marker.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. Ensure that the colors selected will be easily visible in the white background of the report view. To clear a tab position. To move a tab position using the mouse. This is useful if you wish to append an analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow.
For example. MS hatch 3 Tank 3 cg AP Baseline FP Image copied at 1:250 (Word image displayed at 100%) Page 202 . paste the image into Microsoft Word first. then copy it from Word back into the Hydromax report window. Remember that you can change the font size in the design window.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98). MS hatch 3 Baseline FP Image copied at 1:500 (Word image displayed at 200%) hatch 1 hatch 2 cf cg Tank Tank 1 2 Tank 4 cg cg cb cg zero pt. Changing the scale will affect the size of the image. copying the image at 1:100 instead of 1:50 will effectively double the thickness of the lines if you make the images the same size in the report. hatch 1 Tank 3 cg AP hatch 2 cf Tank 1 cg Tank 2 Tank 4 cg cb cg cg zero pt. and hence the thickness of the lines. the image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square. To overcome this problem.
Print Edit Toolbar The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Add Row .Current Damage Case The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands: Criteria (dialog)  Start Analysis .Current Loadcase . Page 203 .Pause Analysis .Home View Analysis Toolbar The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis.Open . loadcase and damage case: Analysis Type .Delete Row View Toolbar The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Zoom .Resume Analysis  Update Tank Values in Loadcase The “Update Tank Values in Loadcase” is exactly the same as the menu command for “Recalculate Tanks and Compartments on page 211. You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a popup tip of what the icon does.Cut .Shrink .Copy . File Toolbar The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: New .Pan .Save .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Toolbars Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used functions.Paste .
& NBV*s – Tank/Compart.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Window Toolbar Allows quick switching between commonly used windows: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan  Loadcase – Damage Case  Compartment – Downflooding – Margin Line – Modulus  Results for Current Analysis – Criteria Results – Key Point Results  Graph – Report Visibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Sections – Datum Waterline – Waterlines  Key Points – Margin Line  Tanks – Damaged Tanks – Compartments & NBVs – Damaged Compart./NBV Names – Tank/Compart./NBV Sections * NBV = Non Buoyant Volume Render Toolbar Render – Render transparent – Toggle custom light 1 – Toggle custom light 2 – Toggle custom light 3 – Toggle custom light 4 – Customise light settings Page 204 .
If a design is already open. selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list of available Maxsurf designs. New Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost. click the Open button.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Menus The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax program. Hydromax will ask whether you wish to save any changes. e. the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to the frontmost input window. When the Compartment Definition table is frontmost. Close The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window.g: when the Loadcase Condition is the frontmost window. Open When no design is open. Save As Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new filename preventing the original file from being overwritten. • File Menu • Edit Menu • View Menu • Analysis Menu • Case Menu • Display Menu • Window Menu • Help Menu File Menu The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing. Select the design you wish to open. Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current Maxsurf design. The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax. Page 205 . the New command will create a new loading condition. New creates a new compartment definition. Save Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk.
compartment and nonbuoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the layer name being the same as the compartment name. Import Criteria Imports criteria from the selected criteria files. Exit Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows. Paste Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables. In addition. Page Setup The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing. which have not been saved to disk. Save Criteria As Exports the current criteria set to the specified file. input tables. Paste cannot be used in the View. or the Report window. If you have any data or results. Edit Menu The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables. including the design view.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Export Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file formats such as DXF or IGES. Export Bitmap Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified resolution. so it is important to have unique compartment names) Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of Hydromax. Print The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the screen. DXF exports sections as closed polylines. Cut Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data windows. Graph or Results windows. Page 206 . results tables and graph window. Copy The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows. but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing windows or data windows. Undo Undo may be used with desk accessories. each tank. Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them before quitting. Current criteria may be kept or discarded.
Cell Border Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report. Insert New Table Create a new table in the Report. Table Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window. View Menu The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows. columns or rows in the Report. Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. Insert Row Insert a new row into the current table in the Report. Delete Cells Delete current cell. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. Fill Down Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet. Merge Cells Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report. Cell Shading Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report. Add The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables. otherwise all selected rows will be deleted. Split Cell Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report. Delete The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables. Page 207 . Row Positioning Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Select All Selects the entire Report. Show Grid Toggle table grid lines in the Report. Error Values See Error Values on page 97. column or row or a range of cells. the last row in the window will be deleted. If no rows are selected.
labels. Set Home View Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. Graph. It is very easy to get carried away with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with. then select Set Home View from the View menu. Home View Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size. To set the Home View. Shrink Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows by a factor of two. Page 208 . and graphs. Shrink. To change the colour click in the box and select a new colour from the palette. and Results windows. Curve of Areas. In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues. Colour The Colour function allows you to set the colour of lines. From the scrollable list. and Pan to arrange the view. The item’s current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog. The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report. select the item whose colour you wish to change. Font Font command allows you to set the size and style of text. Remember to always be careful when using colour. Pan Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window. Loadcase.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Zoom The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen. use Zoom.
Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Toolbar Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off. Analysis Menu The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. This can be fixed trim. freetotrim specifying initial trim value and freetotrim specifying LCG position. Trim Allows the specification of the trimming mode to be used for the analysis. Heel Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish Hydromax to step through. KG for the upright hydrostatics is also specified in this dialog. Status Bar Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen. Page 209 . KN and Limiting KG analyses. Separate ranges are used for Large Angle Stability. Note: It is good practice when preparing to run analysis to work down the Analysis menu starting at the top and checking all of the settings and environment options. Draft The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this command. It also contains commands to set the input data and analysis settings and environment options required for the current analysis. freetotrim to loadcase.
the criteria command will bring up a Floodable Length Criteria dialog with criteria that only apply to floodable length analysis. Trim. Grounding Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length for use with the Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses. Waveform The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Displacement The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values. Limiting KG and Floodable Length can be set using this command. Density This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis. Permeability The range of permeabilities used for the Floodable Length analysis are set using this command. Displacement and Draft for the Specified Condition analysis. Specified Condition Allows you to specify Heel. Fluids Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid Movement method when treating the fluid contained in slack tanks. Update Loadcase Checks for changed tanks and makes sure that any tanks and compartments that have not been formed are correctly calculated. When the floodable length analysis is selected. Also see: Free surface correction on page 39. Also see: Tank Loads on page 39 Analysis Toolbar on page 203 Page 210 . This allows you to specify which criteria will be checked during the analysis. Hog and Sag Allows you to define the amount of hog or sag to be applied to the hull when calculating the vessel’s hydrostatics. See Criteria Overview on page 114. CG. It then updates the loadcase with the correct capacities and free surface moments for the tanks. Criteria The criteria menu item will bring up the criteria dialog. The vertical centre of gravity to be used for KN and Floodable Length analyses is specified here.
Save the model in Maxsurf . Follow this procedure to retain all Hydromax data and update the section lines: .Save the model in Hydromax . Note that the analysis may not have been completed and in the case of large angle stability. remain part of the Hydromax design file. The analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Recalculate Tanks and Compartments Forces all tanks and compartments to be reformed from their initial definition. This ensures that the Loadcases. Note: To be able to update the Hydromax model to changes made in Maxsurf. If any of the tank boundaries are made up from boundary surfaces. also.Press Ok See Updating the Hydromax Model on page 25. This command also updates the loadcase. any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect. Start Analysis Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis. compartment definition etc. Stop Analysis This command halts the analysis at the current iteration. it is better to use “Recalculate Hull Sections” after reopening the Maxsurf model to make sure the latest internal structure surfaces are being used as well. . tank and compartment sections and recalculates them from the hull surface data and compartment definition. Page 211 . This is particularly useful if the underlying Maxsurf model has been modified. if you wish to recalculate at a different precision.Open the model in Hydromax.Close the model in Hydromax . ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. Recalculate Hull Sections Deletes all existing hull. the Maxsurf model first has to be reloaded into Hydromax. Resume Analysis If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis. using “Read sections from file”. Set Analysis Type Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the submenu. Resume Analysis may be used to restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted.Specify the calculation options in the Section Calculations Options dialog . Snap Margin Line to Hull Project all of the margin line points horizontally onto the hull surface. equilibrium condition and KN values.Use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” command from the analysis menu . Also see: Margin Line Points on page 60. or if you wish to modify whether skin thickness or trimming options are applied.
Coefficients In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. Case Menu The case menu is used to add. units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to highspeed turn etc. Display Menu The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data. hull contours. Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Units The units used may be specified using the Units command. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. Frame of Reference Access to the Frame of Reference is intended for information only. which are displayed in the graphics and other windows. Data Format Data Format allows you to choose which stability data are tabulated. the new damage case will be added to the end of the list.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Start Batch Analysis Hydromax will run the selected analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases using the batch processing command. in the Damage Case window. delete and rename damage cases. You are not expected to change the Frame of Reference in Hydromax. Results are written to a tab delimited text file which may be specified by the user at the start of the analysis. In addition to the length and mass units classes. and other items in the design view may be set by using this dialog. compartments. Visibility The visibility of tanks. Add Damage Case Adds a damage case before the currently selected damage case. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. Delete Damage Case Deletes the current damage case(s) in the Damage Case window. Edit Damage Case Allows the name of the selected damage case. to be edited. other than the intact case. Page 212 . A dialog box allows you to choose from a range of stability variables. may also be set. Number of Loadcases Allows the user to set the number of loadcases that can be defined. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. labels. If either the intact case or none is selected. A maximum of 25 loadcases may be specified. Max.
Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those defined in the Maxsurf model, they may be changed using the Frame of Reference command. It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. This will ensure that a consistent frame of reference is used in all the programs. See: Frame of Reference on page 20.
Zero Point
Access to the Zero Point is intended for information only. You are not expected to change the Zero Point in Hydromax. This function sets the longitudinal and vertical reference point for all measurements, including the centre of gravity. It is highly recommended that the correct zero point be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. This will ensure that a consistent zero point is used in all the programs.
Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan
Selecting the Show Single Hull Section item from the Display menu will change the display in the Body Plan window to show only one section through the hull, as well as a control box, similar to the one in Maxsurf, in the top right corner of the window. The section being displayed can be chosen by clicking on the section indicators at the top of the control box. Alternatively, the section chosen can be changed by pressing the left or right cursor keys on your keyboard. This allows you to rapidly step through the hull sections from bow to stern. Also see: Show Single Hull Section on page 29
Select View from Data
This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with one of the sets of data in Results window. The view may be set from any of the results from Upright Hydrostatics, Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. Simply highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and select “Select View From Data”; the Design View will change to match the condition in the selected row or column in the Results window.
Render
When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may be toggled on and off to render the surfaces.
Render Transparent
When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent option may be toggled on and off. Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the model semi transparent so that the rendered tanks and compartments within the model may be viewed.
Animate
Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window, through the range of heel angles specified. You may set the initial viewing position in the Perspective View window using the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators. When Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving the mouse from side to side. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation.
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Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves, the animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases, giving a simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through the wave.
Window Menu
For the items in this menu, each represents a Hydromax window. Selecting the item brings the appropriate window to the front.
Cascade
Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows.
Tile Horizontal
Layout all visible windows across the screen.
Tile Vertical
Layout all visible windows down the screen.
Arrange Icons
Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Maxsurf program window.
View Direction
Select the desired view direction from the submenu. The selected design window will then be brought to the front.
Loadcase
Brings the Loadcase window to the front. The Loadcase window allows you to enter a series of component weights, together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from the zero point. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of Gravity for Stability, KN and Equilibrium analysis.
Input
Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display the Compartment Definition, Key Points, Margin Line Points or Modulus table.
Results
Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and display the desired table.
Graph
Brings the selected Graph window to the front. The Graph window displays a number of different graphs, depending on which analysis mode is currently active.
Help Menu
Provides access to Hydromax Help.
Hydromax Help
Invokes Hydromax Help.
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Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference About Hydromax
Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using.
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Appendix A
Appendix A Calculation of Form Parameters
This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB, CP, AM, etc.) is achieved in Hydromax, and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur.
Definition and calculation of form parameters
Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in Hydromax.
Measurement Reference Frames
Results in Hydromax are given from the vessel’s zero point. However, because Hydromax treats trim exactly (the hull is rotated not sheared when trim occurs), there are two frames of reference: Ship or upright frame of reference The “ship” or “upright” reference frame is that of the upright vessel with zerotrim. Here the baseline is horizontal and the perpendiculars are vertical. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the baseline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the baseline. World or trimmed frame of reference The “world” or “trimmed” reference frame is that of the trimmed vessel. Here the baseline is no longer horizontal and neither are the perpendiculars vertical. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the horizontal, static waterline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the waterline
Rotated reference frame (red) and measurements in the two reference frames: Measurements in the upright vessel reference frame (green) and trimmed reference frame (blue)
The majority of measurements are given in the “ship” frame of reference. These include longitudinal centres of gravity, floatation and buoyancy (LCG, LCF, LCB); and measurements from the keel such as KB and KG. Measurements such as GM are measured in the “world” frame of reference, i.e. GM is the true vertical separation of the metacentre and the centre of gravity with the vessel inclined. It is for this reason the LCG and LCB values in the “ship” frame of reference are not the same if there is any vertical separation between the CG and CB even though the vessel is in equilibrium; it is the LCG and LCB in the “world” reference frame that are the same.
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features such as bulbous bows and overhangs can make the LBP. particularly for resistance prediction purposes. measured normal to the baseline. Longitudinal Centre of Floatation. it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline length at that draft (L). parallel to baseline. Length of design waterline Length between perpendiculars length of waterline under investigation Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest point on the design) Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under investigation The datum/design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to float under normal circumstances. Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of gravity. measured normal to the baseline. In some cases. measured in upright reference frame. parallel to baseline. measured in the trimmed reference frame Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of buoyancy. measured in upright reference frame. In addition. Length overall Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy. will also be different from the LOA (overall length). LWL and LOA quite different. Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars. it may be more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the position of the rudder post. parallel to baseline. Page 217 . Longitudinal Centre of Gravity. or possibly the transom.Appendix A Nomenclature Amax AWP BOA BWL B b GM KB KG LOA LCB LCF LCG LWL LBP L T0 T t ∇ Length Maximum immersed crosssectional area to waterline under investigation Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below waterline) Maximum waterline beam at design waterline Maximum beam of waterline under investigation Waterline beam of station under investigation Metacentric height: vertical distance from centre of gravity to metacentre. for calculations at drafts other than the DWL. The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the intersection of the DWL with the bow. measured in upright reference frame. this may be different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general.
there may be times when it is appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e. B2 and B3. Vessel with tumblehome Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. the beam used would be the sum of B1. submarine. However. the beam of the individual hulls may be required. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam (remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the same as that of a single demihull). and this may be of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. In some cases the overall beam is of importance. vessel with tumblehome or blisters).Appendix A Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel. For the section shown below. Page 218 . For the case of a monohull this will be the normal waterline beam.g. Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Beam It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients. in others. For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and draft of the section in question. In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients.
perpendicular to the heeled waterline (see figure below).Appendix A Multihull beams Draft The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. the immersed depth of the section in question is used. Essentially the draft is measured along the heeled and trimmed perpendiculars on the centreline. there are also occasions when the immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft. the draft becomes very large. the datum may be elsewhere. Draft measured along the inclined perpendicular lines Page 219 . Both depths are measured in upright position. Draft measurements Draft measurement at heel angle When the vessel is heeled. Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form coefficients. However. For calculations of block coefficient. In Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line. for calculations of section area coefficients. the greatest immersed section depth is used. It is for this reason that as the heel approaches 90degrees. the draft is measured through the intersection of the upright waterline and the centreline. However. Normally this datum is the lowest part of the upright hull. this is often the case when form parameters are calculated. for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts.
for sections that have significant tumblehome or blisters below the waterline. L. b. CM = Amax b⋅t Prismatic Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as: "The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of the ship and whose crosssection equals the midship section area. The beam may be at amidships or the maximum moulded beam of the waterline. beam and draft used vary between authorities. Hydromax uses the length of the waterline under investigation. The midship section coefficient used by Hydromax. For vessels with no parallel midbody. however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. or may be defined according to another standard – this may be important for hulls with significant tumblehome or blisters below the waterline. and the draft is the immersed depth of the station." Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used. and the maximum immersed crosssection area Amax. breadth and depth equal to the length. Page 220 . Block Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as: "the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume of a rectangular prism with length." However. Length may be LBP. t. The draft is the depth below the waterline of the deepest section. CB = ∇ L ⋅ B ⋅T Midship Section Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as: "The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships. Hydromax uses the length of the waterline under consideration. When comparing form coefficients such as CP and CM. Note that B and T need not occur at the same longitudinal station." It should be noted that. the section with greatest crosssectional area may also be of particular interest. remember that Hydromax uses the station with the maximum immersed crosssectional area at the waterline under consideration. LWL or some effective length. the maximum waterline beam of that waterline. the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity. B. The beam used is the waterline beam at this station. T.Appendix A Midship Section It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars. L. the actual definitions of the length. breadth and mean draft of the ship at that waterline. is calculated at the station with maximum crosssectional area.
and the maximum beam of the waterline. see Measurement Reference Frames on page 216. L. Therefore a difference between the LCG and the LCB value will occur when the vessel is trimmed." Hydromax uses the length of the waterline. the LCG and LCB will be at the same longitudinal position in the global coordinate system. This is explained in the figure below: Page 221 . The LCG and LCB are calculated in the “ship” or “upright” frame of reference. but not in the frame of reference. This can be set in the Data Format dialog in the Display  Data format menu. When the vessel is freetotrim. B.Appendix A CP = ∇ L ⋅ Amax Waterplane Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as: "The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle. CWP = AWP L⋅B LCG and LCB The LCG and LCG are calculated from either the Zero point or Amidships.
This is the same for differences in TCG and TCB values due to heeling. Maximum deck inclination The inclination angle is a combination of heel and trim angle. Hydromax calculates the steepest slope of the deck when the ship is trimmed and/or heeled. For example: Page 222 . Tf are the aft and forward drafts at the corresponding perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars. Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account. Ta .Appendix A Effect of vertical separation of CG and CB on LCG and LCB measured in the Ship reference frame Note: LCG and LCB are calculated in the vessels’ frame of reference and therefore will have different longitudinal positions when the vessel is trimmed then for when it is upright. Trim angle The trim angle as defined by: θ = tan −1 Ta − T f L pp where: θ is the trim angle.
Immersion The weight required to sink the model one unitlength below its current waterline. calculated by RM = Displ * GMt * sin(1) Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of immersed shapes. The 0. and occur in both hand calculations. In general. and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. These mainly occur from the integration method used. However. agreement of hand calculations to within 2% is considered good). differences for basic parameters such as displacement etc. That can be either cm or inch depending on your unit settings. Both methods use numerical integration techniques.Appendix A The Max deck inclination is the maximum slope of the deck when combining the trim and heel angle of the vessel. may be attributed to a number of causes: Page 223 . These effects are noted from comparing the results of different hydrostatics packages on the same hullform. hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand calculations. which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the Trapezium rule. this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used – see discussion above. Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable variation. As with all numerical integration schemes. The unitlength can be either in cm or inch depending on your unit settings. in general. it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 35 significant figures.5% (note that. MTc or MTi The required moment to make the vessel trim one unitlength.5% error discrepancy noted above. are under 0. due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be carried out. RM at 1 deg The righting Moment at 1 degree heel angle. with computer calculations. it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more with 10s of significant figures. With hand calculations. assuming the deck inclination is zero when the vessel is in upright position. the accuracy increases as the step size is reduced.
will be subject to the error described above. • Differences in the hull definition.Appendix A • Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity. Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions. it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the station girth along the length of the hull. Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialogue in Maxsurf are the most accurate. note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile between two sections. Where there are large changes in shape. the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less. Reference Designs A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface. or higher order methods. The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere. However. which use a number of vertical stations to define the hull. If the surface is exported as DXF polylines then the precision used and the number of straightline sections used to make up the polyline are important. • The integration method used: trapezium. Further. in a similar way that one might integrate the station crosssectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. and there is a error factor of π 2 . or approximately 57%. These designs are of simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax. Simpson. such as near the bow and stern. Integration of wetted surface area At first glance. Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages. the stations should be more closely spaced. and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over the complete surface. The only accurate numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric surface. and their distribution. This is given analytically by: A = 2πR 2 . However. It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is given by: A = 2πR 2 . this is not the case. Page 224 . where R is the radius of the circle. and number of interpolation points used to define each section. due to the greatly reduced longitudinal curvature. • Different number of integration stations used.
105 WP Area m^2 78.121 2. comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values sphere 10m diam at 5m draft Volume m^3 261.118 0 0 0 0 Trans.333333 833.39% 1. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.522 389.79% 0.122 2.00% 0.333 833. I 490.874 0 1. at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 392.00% 0.991 392. I m^4 Long.00% Page 225 .18% 0.873852 490.33333 0.34279 261.333 0.699 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 391.991 391.564741 488.875 0 1. I % error 0.761 0.381 78.874 WP Area m^2 100 100 100 100 100 VCB LCB m m 2.87385 % error % error % error 488.122 0 2.00% 0.25% 0.341 77.121 2.874 0 1.333333 833.14247 0.333 833.00% 0. I m^4 Long.20% 0.00% 833.23% 0.04% 2.00% 0.333 0.72% 0. I % error 0.56% 0.6807269 489.875 0 1.357 78.18% 0.57% Long.88% 1.10% 0.871 0 Trans.4998 260.50% 0.191 480.00% 0.57 485.93873 0.45% 488.Appendix A Reference Calculations Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs.00% 833. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.00% 0. I 833.79939 260.333333 833.33333 % error % error % error 833.33333 0.89 1.35% 0.03% Analytically derived Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 10m Cylinder 10m diam.532 257.00% 833.06% 483.00% Long.47% 490.849 VCB LCB m m 1.53982 78.05% 0.
00% 0.26% 0.00% Long.18% 1.00% 0. I m^4 Long.00% 0.667 0.667 0.67% Page 226 .5 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.00% 0.00% 0.5 2.39% 0.621 0.352 0 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 9.351 0 Trans.6667 % error % error % error 1666.5 2.03% 0.00% 0.78% 0.372 9.13% 0.666666 6666.352 0 0.91 167.12% 0.00% 0.927 168.98 14.22% 0.07% 0.5 2.01% 0.63 0.D=0. I % error 0.375 15 0.92875 168.92418 168.364 9.351 0 0.Appendix A Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 1000 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 1000 1000 1000 1000 WP Area m^2 200 200 200 200 200 VCB m 2.6667 0.942 0.00% 1666.352 0 0.00% 1666.00% 1666.9375 Volume WP Area VCB LCB m^3 m^2 m m Analytically derived 9.24% 1. I m^4 Long.667 6666.4685 0.B=1. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.10% 0.75 % error % error % error 1.92527 168. I % error 0.97% Long.666666 6666.5 2. LWL=15m.666666 6666.667 6666.00% Parabolic Wigley type Hull. I 1666.985 14. I 1.351 9. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.00% 0.09% 1.00% 0.6667 0.999 14.302 14.00% 0.00% 0.5m.3773 0.17% 0.
hcr. The file is a normal PC text file.html for a full list of all the parameters for all the different criteria types. The typical format of the file is given below: Please refer to the file C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. Hydromax Criteria File [units] LengthUnits = m MassUnits = tonne SpeedUnits = kts AngleUnits = deg GZAreaGMAngleUnits = deg [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = Specific Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = My Custom Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = STIX input data ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare UseLoHeel UseEquilibrium UseHiHeel UseFirstPeak UseMaxGZ UseFirstDF UseVanishingStab LoHeel HiHeel = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits STIX input data GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or… Area under GZ curve between specified heel… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan false true false false false true true 0.Appendix B Appendix B Criteria file format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension .0 30.0 Page 227 .
0 The file must have “Hydromax Criteria File” in the first row. If Locked is set to true. it is not possible to edit the criterion’s parameters in Hydromax The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type.000 = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab STIX input data Angle of vanishing stability Calculates the angle of vanishing stability… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp. The common parameters for all criteria are as follows: Type Describes the type of criterion RuleName Text which specifies the rule to which the criterion belongs CritName Text which specifies the criterion’s name CritInfo Verbose description of the criterion Locked Whether the criterion may be edited in Hydromax or not. The first section of the file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file. The available criterion types are as follows: Criteria at equilibrium CTStdEquiAngle Angle of equilibrium CTStdEquiFreeboard Freeboard at equilibrium CTStdEquiGM GM at equilibrium GZ curve criteria CTStdValueOfGMAt Value of GM at specified heel angle CTStdValueOfGZAt Value of GZ at specified heel angle. range of stability GZAreaGMAngleUnits Specifies the angle units used for area under GZ graph and for GM. CTStdAngleOfEquilibrium Angle of equilibrium.Appendix B RequiredValue [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare RequiredValue [end] = 0. CTStdAngleOfMaxGZ Angle at which maximum GZ occurs.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan 0. e. CTStdValueOfMaxGZ Maximum value of GZ in specified range CTStdRatioOfGZValues Ratio of two GZ values at specified heel angles. Page 228 . The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included. There are two angular units: AngleUnits Specifies the units for angular measurements.g.
Turning heeling arm Derived wind heeling Angle of vanishing stability with specified heel arm. CTStdHighSpeedTurnAngleOfEquilibrium CTStdDerivedHeelArmAngleOfEquilibrium CTStdHeelAngleOfVanishingStab CTStdHeelRangeOfStability CTStdHeelAreaBetweenGZAndHABetweenLimits CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas1Turning CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas1Lifting CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas2 Multiple heeling arm criteria CTStdMultiHeelRatioOfGZValues Angle of equilibrium with specified heel arm. Area under GZ curve Area under GZ curve – required area depends on upper limit. GZ ratio for combined heeling arms CTStdMultiHeelAngleOfEquilibrium Angle of equilibrium for combined heeling arms CTStdMultiHeelAreaBetweenGZAndHABetweenLimits Area between GZ curve and heeling arm. for Page 229 . Angle of vanishing stability. Range of stability with generic wind heeling arm Area between GZ curve and heeling arm Area ratio. Generic heeling arm Angle of equilibrium with specified heel arm. Range of positive stability.Appendix B CTStdAngleOfDownflooding CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab CTStdRangeOfStability CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits CTStdHSCMonoAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits CTStdHSCMultiAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits Heeling arm criteria CTStdHeelValueOfGMAtEquilibrium CTStdHeelValueOfGZAtEquilibrium CTStdHeelValueOfMaxGZAboveHA CTStdHeelRatioOfGZValues CTStdHeelAngleOfMaxGZAboveHA CTStdHeelAngleOfEquilibrium CTStdPassengerCrowdingAngleOfEquilibrium Angle at which first down flooding point is immersed. exponential Value of GM at angle of equilibrium with specified heel arm. Passenger crowding heeling arm Angle of equilibrium with specified heel arm. linear Area under GZ curve – required area depends on upper limit. method 1 using sin+cos heeling arm Ratio of areas based on US Navy wind heeling criterion. method 1 using generic heeling arm Area ratio. Value of GZ at angle of equilibrium with specified heel arm.
Uses wind heeling arm CTStdHeelWindHeeling Page 230 . ratio of GZ values and ratio of areas criteria for specified heeling arm. combined criteria CTStdHeelGenericTurning CTStdHeelGenericLifting CTStdHeelGenericWindHeeling combined heeling arms Ratio of areas method 1 for combined heeling arms Combined criteria for turning Combined criteria for lifting of heavy weights Combined angle of equilibrium. based on US Navy wind heeling criterion.Appendix B CTStdMultiHeelRatioOfAreas1Turning Heeling arm. based on US Navy wind heeling criterion. Uses generic heeling arm Combined angle of equilibrium. ratio of GZ values and ratio of areas criteria for specified heeling arm.
Appendix C Appendix C Reference Tables This appendix contains the following reference tables: • File Extension Reference Table • Analysis settings reference table Page 231 .
Appendix C
File Extension Reference Table
The following table lists files that are used in Hydromax. The .hmd file contains all the additional information that defines the Hydromax model and you need only save this file when working in Hydromax. However, if you wish to transfer loadcases or compartment definitions from one model to another, this can be done by going to the appropriate window and saving it to a separate file. File Maxsurf Design Extension .msd Description Contains control point and surface information. E.g. precision, flexibility, thickness, outside arrows, trimming, colour When opening a .msd file Hydromax looks for a .hmd file with the same name. Contains hydrostatic sections information and all Input information that may also be stored separately in the files below The .hmd file does not contain:  Maxsurf surface information  Links to or information on the Stability Criteria Library  Links to or information on the Results tables  Links to or information on the Report Separate Input files Loadcase Compartments Damage cases All Input window tables Extension .hml .htk .dcs .txt Description Each loadcase can be saved separately The compartment definition can be saved separately The damage case definition can be saved separately All tables in the input window can be saved as text files. Downflooding/embarkation points, margin lines, sounding pipes and modulus Description Result tables can be saved separately Results tables can not be opened in Hydromax The report can be saved separately Description The library is not related to the Hydromax Design File, i.e. is not model related. The library is loaded when the program starts, not when the model is opened. For more information see the section on criteria.
Hydromax Design
.hmd
Output files All Result Window tables
Extension .txt
Report Library Hydromax Criteria Library
.rtf Extension .hcr
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Appendix C
Analysis settings reference table
The following table can be used as a reference to the various analysis settings for each analyses type. Analysis Settings Analyses Trim Heel Draft Displace LCG TCG VCG type ment Upright stability Large Angle Stability Equilibriu m Specified Condition KN values Limiting KG Floodable Length Tank Calibration X X/ FTTLC Upright R For GM etc. LC
R

LC
LC
LC


LC
LC
LC
LC
X X/ FTT X/ FTT FTT
X
X
X / LC
X / LC X/ FTT X/ FTT X/ FTT n/a
X / LC
X / LC
R

R
TCG=0*
X1
R

R
TCG=0*
2
Upright

R
Upright
X3
X
Upright
n/a
n/a
Where,
n/a
n/a
Cannot be specified – they are calculated Specific (fixed) value to be set by user Varied within range specified by user Calculates values from loadcase – specifies displacement and COG only Freetotrim to loadcase CG Freetotrim to LCG calculated from a specific initial trim angle or specified LCG (and VCG) 1 The VCG is used in two ways in the KN analysis. a) The VCG only has an effect on the results if the analysis is freetotrim. b) The GZ curve is calculated for the specified VCG and then the normalised KN curve is calculated as KN = GZ + VCG*SIN(heel).
X R LC FTTLC FTT
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Appendix C
The VCG is not required for the Limiting KG analysis. When calculating the LCG from a specified trim and displacement, the current VCG is used.
3
2
The VCG is required for the floodable length analysis because of its effect on trim. During the floodable length analysis, the trim can be substantial and the vertical separation of CG and CB needs to be taken into account. TCG = 0* Hydromax assumes TCG = 0 for upright vessels. For asymmetric vessels, this means that the KN value at zero heel will not be equal to zero.
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Index
Index
A About Hydromax ....................................... 215 Add Load ..................................................... 36 Add Surface Areas ..................................... 207 Allowable shears and moments.................... 61 Analysis Input ......................................................... 33 Menu ...................................................... 209 Output .................................................... 106 Settings................................................... 233 Toolbar................................................... 203 Analysis in waves ........................................ 70 Analysis type Equilibrium .............................................. 68 Floodable Length ..................................... 80 KN Values Analysis................................. 74 Large Angle Stability ............................... 65 Limiting KG............................................. 77 Longitudinal Strength .............................. 84 Specified Conditions................................ 72 Tank Calibrations..................................... 87 Upright Hydrostatics ................................ 63 Animate...................................................... 213 Arrange Icons............................................. 214 B Batch Analysis ............................................. 91 Beam .......................................................... 218 Block Coefficient ....................................... 220 Boundary Box .............................................. 40 C Calibration Increment .................................. 56 Cascade ...................................................... 214 Case Menu ................................................. 212 Cell Border................................................. 207 Cell Shading............................................... 207 Centre of buoyancy .................................... 190 Centre of flotation ...................................... 190 Centre of gravity ........................................ 190 Coefficients, calculation of.......................................... 212 Hydrostatic............................................... 34 Colour ........................................................ 208 Compartment Definition ...................... 40, 193 New .......................................................... 40 Saving .................................................... 110 Compartment types ...................................... 53 Compartments .......................................... 54 Linked ...................................................... 54 Linked Tanks ........................................... 54 NonBuoyant Volumes ............................ 54 Tanks........................................................ 54 Compartments, add, delete ................................................ 40 Forming.................................................... 50 Convergence Error ....................................... 97 Coordinate system........................................ 34 Copy................................................... 108, 206 Copying Graphs ......................................... 108 Copying Tables .......................................... 108 Corrected VCG ............................................ 99 Criteria ....................................................... 210 Criteria File Format ................................... 126 Criteria, Import..................................................... 206 Save As .................................................. 206 Cut.............................................................. 206 D Damage ................................................ 56, 105 Damage Case Add................................................... 56, 212 Delete ............................................... 57, 212 Display ..................................................... 58 Edit......................................................... 212 Rename .................................................... 57 saving ..................................................... 110 Select........................................................ 57 Damage Window ....................................... 192 Data Format ....................................... 194, 212 Data layout................................................. 194 Delete Cells................................................ 207 Density ............................................... 100, 210 Design Preparation....................................... 20 Design, coherence ................................................. 22 Saving .................................................... 110 Displacement ....................................... 95, 210 Display Menu............................................. 212 Distributed Loads......................................... 37 Downflooding Angles.................................. 67 Downflooding points ........................... 58, 193 Linking to tanks or compartments ........... 60 Draft ........................................63, 95, 209, 219 DWL ............................................................ 63 DXF export ................................................ 112
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. 59 Data.............................. 35 saving .................. 67 Initial Conditions .................. 198 get data .... 36 Hull Sections..... 214 Hog and Sag................................................................................................................... 210 GZ ................. 34.............. 35........................................................................................... LCG................................................... 77 Linked negative compartments ........... 37 Headings lines..... 10........ 190........................................................ 12.......................................... 18 K Key points ......................................................... 210 Font ............................ 39. 15..............................................................................................Index E Edit Menu ............................................................................................... 209 Help Menu .. 207 Equilibrium .............................................................. 39............. 203 File.................................................................. 100 Fluids ................................................................... Close ................................. 211 I Immersion ...................................... 195 KN Values...................................... 97...................................................................... 23.................................................. 102.......... 223 Immersion Angles............................................. 110 Tank loads..... 58 Fluid analysis method .......................... 112 New ......... 210 Flooding .............................................. 217 Limiting KG...................... 99 Free Surface Moment................................................... 193 adding......... 9............................. 74 L Large Angle Stability.......... 205 Save As . 197 double click..................... 214 Adding and Deleting loads.................. 208 Form parameters .................................... 36 Distributed loads ...... 207 Insert Row...... 205 Open......................... 39 maximum number .................... 65 LCB.............. 207 Installing Hydromax .......................... 37 Editing loads .. 39 Freeboard .............. 232 File Menu ............... 191 Longitudinal Strength .............................. 39 Loadcase Formatting................. 197 Data interpolation............................ 69 G Graph ................. 212 Free Surface Moment............................................................................................................... 197 Graph Window...................... 37 Grouping tanks...................... 197 Grounding ..............................................................0.. 37 Loadcase Window... 36 Free surface correction................................................................................................. Recalculate ........ 203 Edit................................................ 37 Blank lines ............................... 58....... 104................................................................ 214 Input Tables......................................................................................................... 216 Frame of Reference......................... 207 Floodable Length ............................... saving ...... 207 Delete ........ 214 Curve of Areas ......................... 205 File Toolbar..................................................................................... 93............................................................................................................................ 33 Input ............................................................. 10 Error Values .................................. 13............................................................................................... 37 Total lines ............................. 84 Page 236 ................. 36........................................... 46 Loadcase ... 59 editing ..... 9 H Heel.................. 205 Fill Down .............................................................................................. 192 Insert New Table................................................................................................................ 59 Results........................................................................................................ 67 deleting................................. 212 Naming.......... 198 Righting Lever (GZ) ......... 221 Length .......................................................... 112 F File Extension Table ................................... 197 Curves of Form .................... 14 Floodable Length Criteria dialog ....... 99 Fluid VCG....................................................... options ..... 197 Type ................................................... 68 Equilibrium Condition ................ 206 Exporting ....................................... 206 Hydromax Version 8..... 196 Graphs ............. 206 Edit Toolbar ........ 205 Save................................................................................................ 207 Export..................................................... 110 Input Window ........... 205 Exit................... 206 Export Bitmap.................................................................... 208 Horizontal lever ........................... Add........ 39 Update........... 20...................... 210 Home View ..............................
.... 61 Stability Criteria Results ......... saving ........................................................ 211 Maximum deck inclination .................. 207 Stability booklet .............................. 138 Stability criteria......... 190....................................... 165 Stability criteria........ 195 Stability criteria..... 223 Row Positioning.............. 213 Set Analysis Type ........ Areas and levers .... 208 Paste ..... 96 Split Cell ..... 18 Print......... 90.................... Angle of vanishing stability ........ 31 Sections............... 111 Section....... 121 Stability criteria................... Angle of margin line immersion ..................................................... 18 Show Grid ................. 211 Righting Moment ...................................general cos+sin heeling arm ....... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ................................ 29 Shrink....... 210 Perspective view .......................................................................................................... Forming .............................................. 190 Plating thickness ..................................... 179 Stability criteria.. 207 Select View from Data.................................... 26 Select All. 193 Calibration Increment ..... 96...........................................................................................11.... 206 Permeability ........................................................ 164 Stability criteria..........14............................... 99 Stability criteria..............general heeling arm 162 Stability criteria........................ 61 Moment to trim . Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .. 21 P Page Setup.............................................. 111 Resume Analysis... 47.......... 107...... 100 Specified Condition .............. surface ..................... 213 Render Transparent.............................................................. Angle of equilibrium .......................................... 168 Stability criteria.. 138 Stability criteria............................................................. 213 Sectional Area Curve ............... 225 Reference Designs ............... 55 Specific Gravity ..................... 224 Relative Density.................. 47..... 165 Stability criteria.................... 220 R Ratio of equilibrium angles ............... 193 Margin Line............. Angle of downflooding .................................................. show single............... 220 Modulus points........................ 213 Report Window............................................................................................................... Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm................................. 60............................................................................... Angle of equilibrium ................ 190.... 201 Results................................... 223 N NonBuoyant Volume Definition........... 24 Preferences........................................................ 138 Stability criteria................. 206 Print Preview.. 214 Results Window ....highspeed turn heeling arm .............. 109 Prismatic Coefficient ......................................... 137 Stability criteria............ 207 Midship Section .............. Snap to hull ... 220 Midship Section Coefficient .......... 206 Pan .... 40 O Outside arrows .... check boxes .................................................................................................. Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms..................................................... 216 Menus....................... 222 Maximum shears and moments .......................... 207 S Save........................................................................................ 207 Show single hull section ................. 100 Sounding Pipes ............ 138 Stability criteria....................................................................................... 210 Specified Conditions............................................................................................ 61 Measurement reference frames ................ 137 Stability criteria.... 205 Merge Cells............. 164 Stability criteria......... Angle of maximum GZ ............................................................ 109 Printing. 46.................................................................... 194 Results.............. 100 Render .............. dialog...... Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm....................... 208 Shift Key ........ 211 Set Home View ....... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ............................ 21 Precision......................... 72............................... 55. 178 Page 237 ................. 56 Edit... 199 Keystrokes............................................................... 163............Index M Margin Line points... Angle of deck edge immersion ............................ Angle of equilibrium derived wind heeling arm............... 175 Stability criteria. Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm................... 154 Stability criteria................general heeling arm ........... 169 Reference Calculations ......... 208 Simulate fluid movement........................derived heeling arm .................................................................................. 193 Modulus Window............
......... 139 Stability criteria.. pass/fail test......... 152 Stability criteria. GZ derived heeling arm general heeling arm................... 150 Stability criteria..................... Ratio of GZ area between limits ...... 180 Stability criteria...... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .......... 162 Stability criteria................ resizing dialog ........... 139 Stability criteria............ GZ area between limits type 3 ......Index Stability criteria....36(63 .. 167 Stability criteria............... heeling arm dependency on displacement ..................STIX ..................... 152 Page 238 Stability criteria.......... defining custom criteria.... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .. list............................ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ........... equilibrium .. 175 Stability criteria. GZ area between limits multiple heeling arms.... results ...................... 147 Stability criteria.................................. IMO HSC Code MSC............... 125 Stability criteria..... 155 Stability criteria....................wind heeling arm.............................................towing........... selecting for analysis . 157 Stability criteria....... Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits ............. 120 Stability criteria. 117.. 119 Stability criteria........ 132 .......... 117 Stability criteria..... Heeling due to passenger crowding ........... 142 Stability criteria....................... 179 Stability criteria...lifting weight ... 119 Stability criteria....... GZ area between limits type 2.................... heeling arm definition ............passenger crowding ... 118 Stability criteria... 122 Stability criteria........highspeed turn............................................. GZ....standard... 119 Stability criteria... 172 Stability criteria..... 154 Stability criteria...... 153 Stability criteria...... 151 Stability criteria..... 167 Stability criteria.......... 165 Stability criteria.......... 131 Stability criteria................ 179 Stability criteria............................. 144 Stability criteria.............. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ..... saving ....... 124..general heeling arm .......... Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms.HSC multihull type...... General heeling arm ..... glossary . 125 Stability criteria.... report and batch processing ...... Value of GMt at . 131 Stability criteria... 132 Stability criteria...........749(18)........... 116 Stability criteria..... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ... damage and intact settings ............... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ...... Maximum value of heel....................... 150 Stability criteria. 155 Stability criteria.................. Heeling due to towing .... Gust ratio....... 172 Stability criteria...................... 124 Stability criteria....................................... 130 Stability criteria... Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium........... 166 Stability criteria............... parent criteria .................................. General cos+sin heeling arm ......... Range of positive stability general heeling arm.... GZ curve features... criteria library file ... Heeling due to turning.......... 182 Stability criteria............................ 135 Stability criteria....... details .... setting up for analysis.......................................... 115 Stability criteria. overview......... 129 Stability criteria...................general heeling arm ....................................... 173 Stability criteria..........HSC monohull type . 180 Stability criteria.................................. Other criteria ......................... USL code.......... 114 Stability criteria..... ISO 12217 ....... pitch or slope at equilibrium ............... 119 Stability criteria.. 159 Stability criteria............... 140 Stability criteria........................... Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm. Ratio of areas type 2 general wind heeling arm............. 127 Stability criteria....... 176 Stability criteria.. 184 Stability criteria....... importing...multiple heeling arms......................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .... Range of positive stability .................... Heeling due to lifting of weights crowding ...........general heeling arm..... GZ area between limits general heeling arm........... nonhealing arm ................. tree list.............. Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium.... moving criteria ...... 151 Stability criteria... 152 Stability criteria.............. GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) ................... 123 Stability criteria.... 149 Stability criteria..................... 131 Stability criteria.........general wind heeling arm 180 Stability criteria...... GZ definitions ....... heeling arm units ....................................................................... Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm...... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2. Heeling due to wind ........... 131 Stability criteria.................................................... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 ............................................ 131 Stability criteria...................... GZ area between limits type 1 ........ 177 Stability criteria............. IMO Code on Intact Stability A.... 186 Stability criteria......... 171 Stability criteria.............. GZ area derived heeling arm . 124 Stability criteria.................... Heeling due to bollardpull .......... 149 Stability criteria..............
213 Zoom....... 203. 95 Freetotrim to a specified LCG value . Value of GZ at..... 102 Wavelength ........................ integration of ...................................................................................... 212 Update Loadcase............................................. 134 Stability criteria......general heeling arm .................. 214 Toolbars ....... 44 Recalculate.................. 133 Stability criteria...................................................... 207 View Toolbar ......................... 26 Trim .............. boundary surfaces ................................ 44 linked .......... 222 Trimmed surfaces........................ 190........... 47 Ordering .................................. 18 Status Bar ...................... 29 View Direction.................20............................................................................................ 110 Surface Thickness .............................................................. 48 Tank Calibrations... 102 Wetted surface area................................................................................................. 34............................................. 135 Start Analysis .................................. 161 Stability criteria...................................... 210 Upright Hydrostatics............. 214 Tile Vertical ... 204 W Waterplane Area Coefficient ...................................... 46 Saving ............... 95 Trim angle......................................................... 212 Starting Hydromax... 40 tapered... 90................. 102 Waveform .......... 161 Stability criteria... 8............ Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle................ 34..... 42 simple........................... 211 Surface Use ............. Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle...................... 132 Stability criteria................................... 20 T Table ................... 209 Trapezoidal integration ........... 63 V Validate Hydromax model.............................................................................................. 16.................... deleting...................... 21 U Undo........ Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm .......................................... 212 Visibility Toolbar.................................................... 87 Tank Type external........... Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm................. 221 Wave definition....................................................................................................................................................... 90..........................general heeling arm 162 Stability criteria.................................. 41 Tanks within Compartments ............................................ 40 Fluids .. Value of GMt at equilibrium .. Value of maximum GZ ................... checking ........................................ 37........................................... 203................... 214 Window Toolbar ................. 207 Tank adding.......................... 132 Stability criteria.............................................. 210 sinusoidal ......................................................................................... 42 NonBuoyant Areas . 46 Tanks.................................................................................. 208 Page 239 .................................................................. 206 Units... 18 Z Zero Point ........................... 214 View Menu ............................................... 95 Freetotrim using a specified initial trim value...... 209 Stop Analysis ....... Value of GMt or GMl at equilibrium................ 224 Window Menu .. 102 trochoidal ............................................................................................................................................... 190 Visibility .....Index Stability criteria. 203 View Window ................................................................. 204 Windows Registry........................................................... 42 complex................................................. 48 Permeability ..................... 211 Tile Horizontal ........... 101 Wave height ...... 211 Start Batch Analysis............. 209 Fixed ........................................................................................................... 48 Visibility ........ 94......................
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