French I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Nouns, Articles and Demonstratives 5.

Useful Words and General Vocabulary 6. Subject Pronouns 7. To Be and to Have 8. Question Words 9. Numbers / Ordinals 10. Days of the Week 11. Months of the Year 12. Seasons 13. Directions 14. Color and Shapes 15. Weather 16. Time 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Prepositions and Contractions 24. Countries and Nationalities 25. Negative Sentences 26. To / In and From places 27. To Come and to Go 28. Conjugating Regular Verbs 29. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs 30. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 31. Past Indefinite Tense 32. Irregular Past Participles 33. Etre Verbs 34. Food and Meals 35. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 36. To Take, Eat or Drink 37. Quantities 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases French National Anthem Canadian National Anthem

French II 41. Imperfect Tense 42. Places 43. Transportation 44. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

45. House 46. Furniture 47. Comparative and Superlative 48. Irregular Forms 49. Clothing 50. To Wear 51. Future Tenses 52. Preceding and Plural Adjectives 53. Adjectives: Feminine 54. Adjectives: Plurals 55. More Adjectives 56. Rendre plus Adjective 57. C'est vs. Il est 58. Sports and Hobbies 59. Nature 60. To Live 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. Interrogative Pronouns 65. Forms of Lequel 66. Relative Pronouns 67. Demonstrative Pronouns 68. To Read, to Laugh, to Say 69. Disjunctive Pronouns 70. Y and En

To Drive . Shopping 84. il y a. Faire Causative 89. Adverbs 80.71. Plaire and Manquer 74. and pendant in past contexts 83. Forms of Tout 81. To Receive 86. To Follow 88. to Believe 72. Animals 73. Passive Voice 82. Conditional Tenses 92. Office / School Supplies 91. To Write. to See. Depuis. Indefinite Pronouns Déjeuner du matin Le corbeau et le renard French III 76. Pluperfect 75. More Useful Words 79. Colloquial Expressions 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 87. Post Office and Bank 85. False Cognates 78. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 93. Direct / Indirect Discourse 90.

In Space 103. Abbreviations / Slang 99. Cosmetics / Toiletries 97. Subjunctive Mood 104. Simple Past 106. Quebec French 1. Some Basic Phrases Bonsoir / Bonne nuit (bohn-swahr/bun nwee) Good evening / Good night (only said when going to bed) Bonjour (bohn-zhoor) Hello / Good day Au revoir! (ohr-vwah) Goodbye! Merci beaucoup (mair-see boh-koo) S'il vous plaît (seel voo pleh) Please Je vous en prie / de rien (In Canada: Bienvenu) (zhuh voo zawn pree/duh ree-ahn/bee-awn-vuh- . Travelling / Airport 95. Past Infinitive 100. Possessive Pronouns 105. Present participle 98. Make-Believe Stuff 107. Special Uses of Devoir 96.94. To Die 102. In the Ocean 101.

Vous avez quel âge? (voo za-vay kell ahzh) How old are you? (formal) J'ai ____ ans... (zhuh mah-pell) I am called. Miss Ça va? (sah vah) How are you? (informal) Ça va bien / mal / pas mal (sah vah bee-ahn/mahl/pah mahl) I'm good / bad / not bad Je suis malade (zhuh swee mah-lahd) I'm sick J'ai soif (zhay swahf) I'm thirsty Comment t'appelles-tu? (koh-mawn tah-pell tew) What's your name? (informal) Mon nom est.Thank you very much new) You're welcome.S.. / Canada. Parlez-vous français? Parles-tu anglais? . Tu es d'où? (tew ay doo) Where are you from? (informal) Où habites-tu? (ooh ah-beet tew) Where do you live? (informal) J'habite aux Etats-Unis / au Canada. Vous êtes d'où? (voo zet doo) Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous? (ooh ah-bee-tay voo) Where do you live? (formal) Je suis des Etats-Unis / du Canada. (zhah-beet oh zay-tahz-ew-nee/ oh kah-nah-dah) I live in the U. Mademoiselle (muh-syuh. Monsieur. mahd-mwah-zell) Mister. (zhay ____ awn) I am ____ years old.... mah-dahm. (mohn nohm ay) My name is. Misses.. Tu as quel âge? (tew ah kell ahzh) How old are you? (informal) Oui / non (wee/nohn) Yes / no Comment allez-vous? (koh-mawn tahl-ay voo) How are you? (formal) Je vais bien (zhuh vay bee-ahn) I'm fine Je suis fatigué(e) (zhuh swee fah-tee-gay) I'm tired J'ai faim (zhay fawn) I'm hungry Comment vous appelez-vous? (koh-mawn voo zah-play voo) What's your name? (formal) Je m'appelle. Madame.. (zhuh swee day zay-tahz-ew-nee/dew kah-nahdah) I am from the United States / Canada.

. o. Je (ne) comprends (pas) (zhuh nuh com-prawn pah) I (don't) understand Excusez-moi / Pardonnez-moi (eg-scew-zay mwah/par-dohn-ay mwah) Excuse me / Pardon me A tout à l'heure / A bientôt (ah too tah luhr/ah bee-ahn-toh) See you later / See you soon Je t'aime (zhuh tem) I love you (singular) (parl tew on-glay) Do you speak English? (informal) Russe. es-pahn-yol) Italian. o. Je (ne) sais (pas) (zhuhn say pah) I (don't) know Je regrette / Je suis désolé(e) (zhuh re-gret/zhuh swee day-zoh-lay) I'm sorry Salut (sah-lew) Hi / Bye Je vous aime (zhuh voo zem) I love you! (plural) 2. y) ç (before a. à. i. y o o ou oy. (zhuh parl) I speak.. u) g (before e.(par-lay voo frahn-say) Do you speak French? (formal) Italien. oi u u + vowel c (before e. (zhuh nuh parl pah) I don't speak. Chinese Je ne parle pas. i. and final er and ez ay . o) g (before a.. ê.. Espagnol (ee-tahl-ee-ahn.. shee-nwah) Russian. Japanese. et. u) gn English Sound ah eh ee oh shorter and more open than aw in bought oo wah ew wee s s k zh zh g nyuh é. Pronunciation French letter(s) a... zhah-po-neh. ai. â e. y) ge (before a. è. Japonais. Chinois (rooss. ais i. o.. ei. Allemand. German. ahll-uh-mawn. Spanish Je parle. u) c (before a.

note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) 3. je les ai) after a preceding adjective (bon ami. and soixante in liaisons... 4. quels) before or after a pronoun (vous avez. but it is never made after et. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. but sometimes it is difficult to hear the difference. round your lips as if to whistle. 2. The "slurring" that I mentioned is called liaison. de n(e) (zhuhn.h j qu. mon. duhn. pas d(e). (eel yahd. not soo luh bewr-oh) il a d(e) bons copains (eel ahd bohn ko-pahn. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. . petits enfants) after one syllable prepositions (en avion.. as in bed. However. intonation only rises for yes/no questions. if a word ends in C. trop fort.. not eel ee ah duh. or plew duh) je n(e). it goes down at the end of the sentence. and the forms of être. pahd. The short u does not exist in English though. plus. More about Pronunciation 1. The long u is pronounced oooh. skuh. F or L (except verbs that end in -r) you usually pronounce the final consonant.. and pronounced like eh. c(e) que (shtuh. except as s in six. . R. chez l(e) docteur (pronounced sool bewr-oh. To pronounce is correctly. The long and short e are relatively easy to pronounce. dix. not ra-peed-uh-mawn) sous l(e) bureau. les. not zhuh tuh or suh kuh . In general. pah duh. as in play. ces. and then say eee. Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. lent(e)ment. sauv(e)tage (pronounced ra-peed-mawn. bien) after est It is optional after pas. The French slur most words together in a sentence. des.. dans un livre) after some one syllable adverbs (très. plus d(e). It is always made: • • • • • • after a determiner (words like un. final q r s (between vowels) th x silent zh k rolled z t ekss. plewd. as in hoot. The long e is pronounced openly. like z Note: French pronunciation is tricky because it uses nasal sounds which we do not have in English and there are a lot of silent letters. . not eel ah duh bohn ko-pahn) il y a d(e). slur the two together as if it were one word. and all other times. Two sounds that are tricky to an American English speaker are the differences between the long and short u and e. not zhuh nuh or duh nuh) j(e) te. The short e is more closed. like ay. • • • • • • rapid(e)ment. Their vowels tend to be shorter as well.

Otherwise. -ence. aim. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. -té. un. ym. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. ein. um. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah beh seh deh uh eff zheh ahsh ee j k l m n o p q r zhee kah ell em en oh peh koo air s t u v w x y z ess teh ooh veh doo-blah-veh eeks ee-grek zed 4. as are nouns ending with a consonant. em. -ance. Here are the orthographical representations. For the most part. om In words beginning with in-. either masculine or feminine. Nouns. -sion. oin. aon. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. éen en. im. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. -tion. the inprefix is pronounce een before a vowel. oing. eim. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. oint.6. yn. am. Articles and Demonstrative Adjectives All nouns in French have a gender. These are what present the most problems for English speakers. Nasal means that you expel air through your nose while saying the words. you must memorize the gender. yen. an. ien. Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Before Vowel Plural . eng. and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. And of course. en. Nouns ending in -ure. and -ette are usually feminine. aen on. 3. and approximate pronunciations. My Representation ahn awn ohn Pronunciation an apple on the desk my own book Orthographical Representation in. the nasals. so don't actually pronounce the n fully. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. ain.

cette pomme this/that apple Plural ces gants these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. These.le lit the bed la pomme the apple l'oiseau the bird les gants the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. ce lit-ci is this bed. 5. Some) Masculine un lit a bed Feminine une pomme an apple Plural des gants some gloves Demonstrative Adjectives (This. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. That. An. Subject Pronouns Subject Pronouns . For example. Before Vowel cet oiseau this/that bird Fem. too again almost friend (fem) woman man girl boy voici toujours souvent d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie eel-ee-yah vwah-see too-zhoor soo-vawn dah-bee-tewd oh-see awn-kore awn-ruh-tar presk ew nah-mee ah-nah-mee ah-nohm feey gar-sohn There is/are voilà quelquefois kell-kuh-fwah comme ci. 6. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. while ce lit-là is that bed. Useful Words and General Vocabulary It's / That's and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat c'est et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat say vwah-lah ay may mahnt-nawn sir-too sohf bee-ahn sir pah mal leevr krah-yohn stee-loh pah-pyaya shee-ahn shah There is/are il y a Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. it means ago. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. comme ça kohm see kohm sah late friend (masc) un ami un homme une fille un garçon une femme ewn fawn Note: When il y a is followed by a number. Those) Masc. ce lit this/that bed Masc.

to be I was (being) j'étais zhay-teh ay-teh We were (being) You were (being) nous étions ay-tee-ohn vous étiez ay-tee-ay You were (being) tu étais He was (being) il était ay-teh She was (being) elle était ay-teh One was (being) on était ay-teh They were (being) ils étaient ay-teh They were (being) elles étaient ay-teh Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation.) Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns.to have (ah-vwahr) I have You have j'ai zhay We have as ah You have avons ah-vohn avez ah-vay . Present tense of avoir . Notice there are two ways to say you.) ell They (fem. 7. the people. On can be translated into English as one. Tu is used when speaking to children. or you. Future Tense of être . or close friends and relativs. animals. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way.to be (eh-truh) I am Je suis zhuh swee We are tew ay You are Nous sommes noo sohm Vous êtes voo zett eel sohn ell sohn You are Tu es He is She is One is Il est eel ay Elle est ell ay On est ohn ay They are Ils sont They are Elles sont Past tense of être .Je Tu Il Elle On zhuh I tew eel ell ohn Nous noo We You (informal) Vous voo You (formal and plural) He She One Ils Elles eel They (masc. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. To Be and To Have Present tense of être . and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. or to someone you don't know or who is older.to be I will be je serai suh-reh We will be You will be nous serons suh-rohn vous seriez suh-ree-ay You will be tu seras suh-rah He will be il sera suh-rah She will be elle sera suh-rah One will be on sera suh-rah They will be ils seront suh-rohn They will be elles seront suh-rohn Note: You must use the subject pronouns. they. we. but I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Ils ont chaud.to be wrong avoir faim .to be early être d'accord .to have I will have You will have j'aurai zhoh-reh auras oh-rah oh-rah We will have You will have aurons oh-rohn aurez oh-ray He/she will have aura They will have auront oh-rohn Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud . 8. Elle a de la chance! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. They are hot.to be late être en avance .to be thirsty avoir sommeil . You were right. They were afraid yesterday. You had a cold.to look like. être de retour .to be lucky J'ai froid. They were about to leave. Vouz aviez tort. I'm cold. You were wrong. We/you/they/the people are back. He will be tired tonight.to be hungry avoir soif . They will be (in the act of) studying. Elles avaient peur hier. Ils seront en train d'étudier.to be (a day) Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance. seem avoir envie de .to be in agreement être sur le point de .to be right avoir tort .to have a cold nous + être (un jour) . Nous sommes lundi.to be cold avoir peur .to be sleepy avoir honte . She will agree.He/she has a ah They have ont ohn Past tense of avoir . We will be hungry later. Elle sera d'accord.to be back être en retard .to be in the act of être enrhumée . Tu avais raison.to need avoir l'air de .to be ashamed avoir besoin de .to be afraid avoir raison . Il aura sommeil ce soir.to be hot avoir froid .to feel like avoir de la chance .to have I had You had j'avais zhah-veh avais ah-veh ah-veh We had You had avions ah-vee-ohn aviez ah-vee-ay He/she had avait They had avaient ah-veh Future tense of avoir . Elles étaient sur le point de partir. You were early.to be about to être en train de . Question Words Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) kee kwah poor-kwah kawn ooh kohn-mawn kohn-bee-ahn kehl . It is Monday. On est de retour. Vous étiez enrhumé.

9. Numbers / Les numéros Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-diz Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-dix zay-roh ahn duh twah kat sahn seess set weet nuhf deess ohnz dooz trehz kah-tohrz kanz sez dee-set deez-weet deez-nuhf vahn vahn tay ahn vahn duh vahn twah trawnt trawnt ay uhn trawnt duh kuh-rawnt sank-awnt swah-ssawnt swah-ssawnt deez seh-tahnt swah-ssawnt ay ohnz swah-ssawnt dooz ka-truh vahn weet-ahnt ka-truh vahn tahn ka-truh vahn deez noh-nahnt (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante (Belgium & Switzerland) Huitante Quatre-vingt-deux ka-truh vahn duh (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante .

première deuxième troisième quatrième cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième trentième twenty-first vingt et unième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième.00 would be 1. Also. 6. 10. But if a number ends in an e.00 in English. And an f becomes a v before the -ième. 80.Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred Two Hundred Thousand Two Thousand Million Quatre-vingt-onze Cent Deux cents Mille Deux mille Un million ka-truh vahn ohnz sawnt sawnt ahn duh sawnt duh sawnt ahn meel duh meel ahn meel-ee-ohn Quatre-vingt-douze ka-truh vahn dooz One Hundred One Cent un Two Hundred One Deux cent un Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. you must add a u before the -ième. Belgian and Swiss French use septante. huitante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70. their final consonants are not pronounced. and 90. you must drop it before adding the -ième. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi lahn-dee mahr-dee mare-kruh-dee zhuh-dee vahn-druh-dee . 8. when the numbers 5. 1. After a q. Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth thirtieth premier. and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant.

" use en before the month as in "en mai. Also note that days of the weeks and months of the year are all masculine and not capitalized in French." With dates." (you would use le before the day. Directions / Les directions . such as "in May. such as "on Monday. the ordinal numbers are not used. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring l'automne l'hiver lay-tay loh-tohn lee-vair in the summer en été in the fall in the winter en automne en hiver awn ay-tay aw noh-tohn aw nee-vair le printemps luh prahn-tawn in the spring au printemps oh prahn-tawn 13.Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain sahm-dee dee-mahnsh luh zhoor lah suh-men oh-zhoor-dwee ee-air duh-mahn Note: Articles are not used before days. as in "le lundi") 11. 12. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'année January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Year janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois zhan-vee-ay fay-vree-ay marz ah-vril may-ee zhwahn zhwee-ay oot sep-tawm-bruh ahk-toh-bruh noh-vawm-bruh day-sawm-bruh luh mwah l'an / l'année lawn/law-nay Note: To express in a certain month. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin.

15. as well as colors that are modified with the words clair-light and foncé-dark) and most are placed after the noun. Almost all adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (except marron and orange. Ex: vert/e = vert is the masculine form of green. Colors and Shapes / Les couleurs et les formes Red rouge roozh oh-rahnzh zhohn vehr/t bluh poo-pruh vee-oh-leh/lett square circle triangle le carré le cercle le triangle kah-ray sair-kluh tree-awn-gluh Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray vert/e bleu/e pourpre violet/te rectangle le rectangle ruhk-tawn-gluh oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone une boîte loh-vahl kewb sfair see-lahn-druh kohn ok-toh-gohn bwaht blanc/he blawn/sh brun/e marron noir/e rose doré/e brahn/brewn mah-rohn nwahr roze doh-ray argenté/e ahr-zhawn-tay gris/e gree/z Note: In French. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux eel fay bohn moh-vay fray fwah shoh noo-ah-zhuh boh dooh oh-rah-zhuh . verte is the feminine form. nouns and adjectives have a gender. bad cool cold warm.North le nord luh nor South le sud luh sewd East l'est lest West l'ouest lwest 14. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy Il fait bon. Un carré brun would be a brown square and une boîte noire would be a black box. Weather / Le temps What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il? kell tawn fay-teel It's nice.

one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il? Il est. In Canada. 16. Family and Animals / La famille et les animaux Family Relatives Grand-parents Parents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law Dad la famille des parents les grands-parents les parents la mère. ma-ma bell-mehr pehr..sunny windy foggy snowing raining freezing Il fait (du) soleil Il fait du vent Il neige Il pleut Il gèle eel fay (dew) so-lay vawn eel nezh pluh zhell Il fait du brouillard broo-ee-yar Note: The du in "il fait (du) soleil" is optional. pa-pa .) 17. maman la belle-mère le père. Time / Le temps What time is it? It is. du is often not said. une heure deux heures midi minuit une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin du soir kell urr ay-teel eel ay oon urr duh zurr mee-dee meen-wee twa zurr ay car oon urr pray-sees ka-truh urr pray-sees meee-dee (meen-wee) ay duh-mee see zurr ay duh-mee sank urr vahn ohnz urr mwan dees doo mah-tahn duh lah-pray mih-dee doo swahr a quarter after three trois heures et quart sept heures moins le quart set urr mwahn luh car in the afternoon/PM de l'après-midi Note: Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. but in France it is common.... papa fah-mee pahr-awn grawn-pahr-awn pahr-awn mehr.

Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Girl Boy Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Distant Relatives Single Married Separated Divorced Widower / Widow Dog Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster le beau-père la fille le fils la sœur la demi-sœur la belle-sœur le frère le demi-frère le beau-frère le beau-fils les jumeaux les jumelles l'oncle la tante la grand-mère le grand-père la cousine le cousin la femme le mari la femme l'homme la fille le garçon la nièce le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) divorcé(e) veuf / veuve boh-pehr fee feess sir duh-mee-sir bell-sir bell-fee frehr duh-mee-frehr boh-frair boh-feess zhoo-moh zhoo-mell ohnk-luh tawnt grawn-mehr grawn-pehr koo-zeen koo-zahn fawn mah-ree fawn ohm fee gar-sohn nee-ess nuh-vuh puh-tee-zawn-fawn puh-teet fee puh-tee feez say-lee-bah-tair mah-ree-ay say-pah-ray dee-vor-say vuhf / vuhv Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-Law la belle-fille des parents éloignés pahr-awn zay-lwawn-yay le chien / la chienne shee-ahn / shee-enn le chat / la chatte le chiot le chaton le cochon le coq shah / shaht shee-oh shah-tohn koh-shohn kohk .

add nothing. They know how to swim. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. of course. Connaissez-vous Grenoble? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? Oui. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. .les cieux (skies). But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. you usually add an -s. 19. le ciel (sky) .Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le lapin la vache le cheval le canard la chèvre l'oie le mouton l'agneau l'âne la souris lah-pahn vahsh chuh-val kah-nahr shev-ruh lwah moo-tohn lon-yoh lon soo-ree 18. change it to -aux. bus boat horse knee Sing. savoir is used when you know facts. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. Formation of Plural Nouns To make a noun plural. nous connaissons Grenoble. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux There are. Yes. I know that your brother is named John. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. and un jeune homme (a young man) . Ils savent nager. some weird exceptions: un œil (eye) . Je connais ton frère.des jeunes gens (young men). I know your brother.des yeux (eyes). Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. You know where Grenoble is located. To Know People and Places connaître-to know people (koh-net-truh) connais koh-neh connaissons koh-nezz-ohn connais koh-neh connaissez koh-nezz-ay savoir-to know facts (sahv-wahr) sais sais sait say say say savons savez savent sah-vohn sav-ay sahv connaît koh-neh connaissent koh-nezz Note: Connaître is used when you know people or places. add an x.

His grandmother is a widow. C'est ma mère et mon père. Our brother is married. but our sister is single.to act deaf / innocent faire le (subject in school) .to do the dishes faire une promenade . When a feminine noun begins with a vowel.to run errands faire des achats . Possessive Adjectives Masc.to go shopping faire de l'exercice . isn't he? Leurs cousines sont hollandaises. mais notre sœur est célibataire.20. This is my mother and my father. n'est-ce pas? Your uncle is an architect. even though amie is feminine. Their cousins are Dutch. you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. My Your Our Your Their mon (mohn) ton Fem.to take a trip faire les courses .to play (a sport) faire le sourd / l'innocent . make (fair) fais fay faisons fezz-ohn fais fay faites fait fay font fett fohnt Faire is used in expressions of weather (il fait beau) and many other idiomatic expressions: faire de (a sport) . To Do or Make Faire-to do. My parents are divorced. Ton oncle est architecte.to stand in line . ta sa votre leur Plural tes ses nos (noh) vos leurs (luhr) ma (mah) mes (may) His/Her/Its son votre leur (luhr) notre (noh-truh) notre Note: Possessive pronouns go before the noun. Notre frère est marié.to do / study (subject) faire le ménage .to do laundry faire la vaisselle . 21.to pay attention faire la queue .to take a walk faire une voyage .to exercise faire attention .to do the cooking faire la lessive . Ce sont vos petits-enfants? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés.to do the housework faire la cuisine . Sa grand-mère est veuve.

22. Work and School Masculine architect accountant judge business peron baker hair dresser computer programmer secretary electrician mechanic cook salesperson fire fighter plumber librarian police officer reporter factory worker banker lawyer postal worker carpenter engineer doctor nurse pharmacist psychologist dentist veterinarian taxi driver writer teacher l'architecte le comptable le juge l'homme d'affaires le boulanger le coiffeur le programmeur le secrétaire l'électricien le mécanicien le cuisinier le vendeur le pompier le plombier le bibliothécaire l'agent de police le journaliste l'ouvrier le banquier l'avocat le facteur le charpentier l'ingénieur le médecin l'infirmier le pharmacien le psychologue le dentiste le vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivain l'instituteur lar-shee-tekt kohn-tahbl zhoozh lohn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur proh-grah-mur suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyahn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur Feminine l'architecte la comptable la juge la femme d'affaires la boulangère la coiffeuse lar-shee-tekt kohn-tabl zhoozh fahn dah-fehr boo-lawn-zhay kwah-fur la programmeuse proh-grah-mur la secrétaire l'électricien la mécanicienne la cuisinière la vendeuse le pompier le plombier la bibliothécaire l'agent de police la journaliste l'ouvrière la banquière l'avocate la factrice le charpentier l'ingénieure la médecine l'infirmière le pharmacienne la psychologue la dentiste la vétérinaire le chauffeur de taxi l'écrivaine l'institutrice suk-ray-tehr ay-lehk-tree-seeahn may-kah-neesyenn kwee-zee-nyay vawn-dur pohn-pyay plohn-byay bee-blee-oh-tehkehr lah-zhawnd pohleess zhoor-nah-leest loov-ree-ay bahn-kee-ay lah-voh-kah fah-tur shar-pawn-tyay lahn-zhay-nyur mayd-sawn lahn-feer-myay fahr-mah-see-ahn psee-koh-lohg dawn-teest vay-tay-ree-nehr shoh-furd tahksee lay-kree-vahn lahn-stee-tew-tur .

I study at the University of Toronto. (fem. unless they are preceded by an adjective. I go to the university of Michigan. I am a student (masc. Qu'est-ce que vous faites dans la vie? What do you do for a living? Je suis avocate.) Je suis professeur. Math Algebra Calculus Geometry Economics les mathématiques l'algèbre le calcul la géométrie maht-ee-mah-teek lal-zheb kahl-kool zhay-oh-may-tree les sciences économiques see-awns ay-kon-oh-meek lawn zay-trawn-zhair lahn-gee-steek lee-tay-rah-tur fee-loh-soh-fee p-see-kol-oh-zhee see-awns poh-lee-teek ees-twahr zhay-oh-grahf-ee fees-eek bee-ol-oh-zhee shee-mee zoh-ol-oh-zhee boh-tah-neek zahr mew-zeek dahns duh-sahn pahn-tur ahn-for-mah-teek teck-no-loh-zhee lay-dew-kah-see-ohn fee-zeek Foreign Languages les langues étrangères Linguistics Literature Philosophy Psychology Political Science History Geography Physics Biology Chemistry Zoology Botany Art Music Dance Drawing Painting la linguistique la littérature la philosophie la psychologie les sciences politiques l'histoire (f) la géographie la physique la biologie la chimie la zoologie la botanique les arts la musique la danse le dessin la peinture Computer Science l'informatique Technology la technologie Physical Education l'éducation physique (f) Notice that you do not use an indefinite article before professions. Je suis étudiant. even if the person is a woman. There are also words that are always feminine (such as la victime) even if the person is a man. I am a lawyer. I am a professor. Qu'est-ce que vous étudiez? What do you study? . Je fais mes études à l'université de Toronto.) Où est-ce que vous faites les études? Where do you study? Je vais à l'université de Michigan.professor student le professeur l'étudiant proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awn le professeur l'étudiante proh-fuh-sur lay-tew-dee-awnt Note: Notice that some professions are always masculine.

Elle me remercie d'un sourire. Countries and Nationalities / Les pays and les nationalités . With: Avec vs. A vs. Il peut lire ce livre en une demi-heure. The man with the red hair is very tall. De vs. Prepositions and Contractions among at / to / in at the house of between for parmi par-mee à chez ah shay entre on-truh pour poohr duh dawn sir ah-veck sawn from / of / about de in on with without à + le = au de + le = du oh dans sur avec sans Prepositional Contractions at / to / in the at / to / in the (pl. Chez Avec implies doing something or going along with someone. Il marche. and chez is used to mean "as far as (person) is concerned. With this child. Je fais des mathématiques. Je vais en France avec ma sœur. I'm leaving in 15 minutes. I study/do math. everything is simple. 23. à is used when referring to someone's attributes. I study foreign languages and linguistics. Je pars dans quinze minutes. Ma spécialization est la biologie. He walks with his hands in his pockets.Quelles matières étudiez-vous? What subjects do you study? J'étudie les langues étrangères et la linguistique. I'm going to France with my sister. tout est simple. Chez cet enfant. 24. de is used in phrases of manner and in many idiomatic expressions. no extra word is used. les mains dans les poches. L'homme aux cheveux roux est très grand. My major is biology." To describe the way a person carries him/herself. while en shows the length of time an action takes. He can read this book in a half hour.) à + les = aux oh dew of / from / about the de + les = des day of / from / about the (pl. En Dans is used to show the time when an action will begin.) In: Dans vs. She thanks me with a smile.

Je suis du Canada. feminine. And the definite article is not used before a language when it follows the verb parler (to speak. I am French (feminine.) The extra ending shown above is added to signify a feminine subject. you use si and not oui. simply put ne and pas around the verb.) 25.France Switzerland Italy Germany Spain Belgium Netherlands China England Russia Poland Canada Mexico Japan Portugal Brazil Sweden Norway Finland Denmark Greece Austria Australia Africa India Ireland la France la Suisse l'Italie l'Allemagne l'Espagne la Belgique les Pays-Bas la Chine l'Angleterre la Russie la Pologne le Canada le Mexique le Japon le Portugal le Brésil la Suède la Norvège la Finlande le Danemark la Grèce l'Autriche l'Australie l'Afrique l'Inde l'Irlande frahns sweess lee-tah-lee lahl-mawn-yuh leh-spawn-yuh bell-zheek pay-ee-bah sheen lawn-gluh-tair roo-see poh-lohn-yuh kah-nah-dah meks-eek zhap-ohn pore-tew-gahl bray-zeel ay-tah-zew-nee soo-ed nor-vehzh feen-lahnd dahn-mark grehs loh-treesh loh-strah-lee lah-freek lahnd leer-lawnd français/e suisse italien/ne allemand/e espagnol/e belge chinois/e anglais/e russe polonais/e mexicain/e japonais/e portugais/e brésilien/ne américain/e suèdois/e finlandais/e danois/e frawn-say/sez sweess ee-tahl-ee-awn/enn ahl-mawn/d es-pan-yohl belzh sheen-wah/wez bree-tahn-eek an-glay/ez rewss poh-lon-ay/ez mek-see-kahn/enn zhah-poh-nay/nez por-tew-gay/gez bray-zeel-ee-awn/enn ah-may-ree-kahn/kenn soo-ed-wah/wez feen-lan-day/dez dahn-wah/wez hollandais/e oh-lawn-day/dehz Great Britain la Grande-Bretagne grahnd bruh-tawn-yuh britannique canadien/ne kah-nah-dee-awn/enn United States les États-Unis norvègien/ne nor-vehzh-ee-awn/enn grec/grecque grek autrichien/ne oh-trees-ee-awn/enn australien/ne oh-strahl-ee-awn/enn africain/e indien/ne irlandais/e ah-free-kahn/kenn ahn-dee-ahn/enn eer-lahn-day/dez Note: When the nationalities are used as adjectives. the ne is frequently omitted. In spoken French. To make them plural. but it cannot be omitted in written French. however.) The masculine forms of the nationalities are also used to signify the language. I am from Canada. and singular vs. (masculine or feminine) . I am not Swiss. then add nothing. Negative Sentences To make sentences negative. Je ne suis pas du Mexique.) Je ne suis pas suisse. plural. And when you are replying "yes" to a negative question. just add an -s (unless it already ends in an -s. Je suis française. they must agree with the subject of the verb (masculine vs. I am not from Mexico.

He is Australian. Elle n'est pas danoise. island. 26. nous sommes du Brésil. Elles sont des Etats-Unis. à la de la Vowel à l' de l' Plural aux des Cities à à à de de d' Countries au en en du de d' aux des aux des If the name of a country. To Come and to Go Venir-to come (vuh-neer) viens vee-ahn venons viens vee-ahn venez vuh-nohn vuh-nay Aller-to go (ah-lay) vais vay allons ah-lohn vas va vah allez vah vont ah-lay vohn vient vee-ahn viennent vee-enn Other verbs that are conjugated like venir: tenir . Some cities have an article as well. She is not Danish. They are not from Portugal. Pennsylvanie. such as La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans). we are from Brazil. . If it ends in anything else. obtenir . Je ne parle pas suèdois. Vous n'êtes pas du Brésil? You aren't from Brazil? Si.Il est australien. devenir . and countries Places Masc. Caroline du Nord / Sud. it is masculine. the gender is feminine. cities. le Zaïre and le Mozambique.to hold. w/ Vowel Masc.to get. le Mexique.to become. state or province ends with an e. and Virginie are the feminine states. Prepositions with American States To / In Feminine Islands Masc. Louisiane. The exceptions are le Cambodge.to come back. To / In and From places. I speak Chinese and Japanese. w/ Consonant en à dans le From de de / d' du en / dans l' d' / de l' Californie. Je parle chinois et japonais. Yes. au du Fem. le Maine. Géorgie. Floride. I don't speak Swedish. Ils ne sont pas du Portugal. continent. revenir . They are from the United States. The exception to the masculine beginning with a consonant rule is Texas: in / to Texas is au Texas. 27.

She's going to speak Russian. They are going to go to England. Vous venez de manger une pomme. these three English present tenses are all translated by the present indicative tense in French. aim. there are two other forms of the present tense in English: the progressive (I am writing.to leave pahr partons pahr partez pahr partent pahr-tohn pahr-tay pahrt fee-nee finissent fee-neess Regular verbs -er -re . use the stem and add the following endings. -er -e -ons -re -s -ons -s -ez -ent 1st -ir -is -issons -is -issez -it -issent 2nd -ir* -s -ons -s -ez -t -ent -es -ez -e -ent Sample Regular Verbs aimer -to like. or habitual activity. general state. We're going to Spain." Ils vont aller en Angleterre. I'm fine. You just ate an apple. Removing the last two letters leaves you with the stem (aimer is the infinitive.is the stem." Il vient d'aller à la Finlande. Elle va parler russe. I am running. Tu ne vas pas au Brésil cet été. I see). love j'aime zhem aimes em aime em aimons aimez aiment em-ohn em-ay em vendre . I run.Je viens des Etats-Unis. He just went to Finland. Nous allons en Espagne. I'm going to become a professor.to sell vends vawn vendons vawn-dohn vends vawn vendez vend vawn-day vawn vendent vawn finir . I do run. I come from the United States. etc. To conjugate verbs in the present tense.) and the emphatic (I do write.to finish finis finis finit fee-nee finissons fee-nee-sohn fee-nee finissez fee-nee-say pars pars part partir .) The present indicative tense indicates an ongoing action. The verb before it is conjugated is called the infinitive. Il tient un crayon. Conjugating Regular Verbs in the Present Indicative Tense Verbs in French end in -er. Aller + an infinitive means "going to do something. You're not going to Brazil this summer. -re. Aller is also used idiomatically when talking about health. 28. Besides the simple present tense (I write.) However. Venir de + an infinitive means "to have just done something. Comment vas-tu? How are you? Je vais bien. He's holding a pencil. etc. Je vais devenir professeur. or -ir.

etc. the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of the sentence. Pronominal (Reflexive) Verbs These verbs are conjugated like normal verbs. feel) and servir (to serve. Ex: Je réponds au téléphone. The pronouns are: me nous te vous se se Some Pronominal Verbs s'amuser se lever se laver se peigner s'habiller se marier to have fun to get up se reposer to rest se souvenir de to remember se coucher se brosser se maquiller se casser to go to bed to brush to put on makeup to break (arm. Other verbs like partir are sortir (to go out). love to sing to look for vendre attendre entendre perdre vawn-druh ah-tawn-druh awn-tawn-druh pair-druh to sell to wait for to listen to lose commencer koh-mawn-say to begin donner étudier fermer habiter jouer manger montrer parler penser travailler trouver dohn-nay to give répondre (à) ray-pohn-druh (ah) to answer descendre deh-sawn-druh 1st -ir bâtir finir choisir punir remplir obéir (à) réussir guérir bah-teer fee-neer shwa-zeer poo-neer rawn-pleer oh-bay-eer (ah) ray-oo-seer gay-reer to build to finish to choose to punish to fill to obey to succeed to cure. Je vais me coucher maintenant. heal to go down ay-too-dee-ay to study fehr-may ah-bee-tay zhoo-ay mawn-zhay mohn-tray par-lay pawn-say trah-vy-yay troo-vay to close to live to play to eat to show to speak to think to work to find Note: If a verb is followed by à (like répondre) you have to use the à and any contractions after the conjugated verb. . but they require an extra pronoun before the verb. dormir (to sleep). sentir (to smell.) to wash (oneself) s'entendre bien to get along well to comb to get dressed to get married se dépêcher to hurry Note: When used in the infinitive. I'm going to go to bed. * The 2nd -ir verbs are considered irregular sometimes because there are only a few verbs which follow that pattern. such as after another verb.) 29. mentir (to lie).aimer chanter chercher em-ay shahn-tay share-shay to like. Most indicate a reflexive action but some are idiomatic and can't be translated literally. leg.

découvrir-to discover and souffrir-to suffer. The e has to stay so the g can retain the soft sound. but mangeons. Verbs that add or change to an accent grave: Some verbs add or change to an accent grave (è) in all the forms except the nous and vous. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 1. nettoyer-to clean (nuh-twah-yay).to sit down je m'assieds mah-see-ay nous nous asseyons noo-zah-say-ohn tu t'assieds tah-see-ay vous vous asseyez il s'assied sah-see-ay ils s'asseyent vous-zah-say-yay sah-say-ee 30.Sample Irregular Pronominal Verb s'asseoir . acheter-to buy achètes ah-shet achète ah-shet achetez ahsh-tay espérer-to hope espères ess-pehr espère ess-pehr espérez ess-pay-ray j'achète zhah-shet achetons ahsh-tohn j'espère zhess-pehr espérons ess-pay-rohn achètent ah-shet espèrent ess-pehr 3. Examples: envoyer-to send (awn-vwah-yay). offrir-to offer j'offre zhaw-fruh offrons aw-frohn offres aw-fruh offre aw-fruh offrez aw-fray offrent aw-fruh 4. manger-to eat mange mawnzh mangeons mawnzhohn mawn-zhay mawnzh commence commences commence commencer-to begin kohmawnz kohmawnz kohmawnz commençons commencez koh-mawnsohn koh-mawnsay manges mawnzh mangez mange mawnzh mangent commencent koh-mawnz 2. give. but commençons. The nous form of commencer isn't commencons. essayer-to try (ess-ah-yay) envoyer-to send j'envoie zhawn-vwah envoyons awn-vwah-yohn envoies awn-vwah envoie awn-vwah envoyez awn-vwah-yay envoient awn-vwah . For example: offrir-to offer. Verbs that are conjugated as -er verbs: Some -ir verbs are conjugated with -er endings. The c must have the accent (called a cedilla) under it to make the c sound soft. couvrir-to cover. Verbs that end in -ger and -cer: The nous form of manger isn't mangons. Verbs that end in -yer: Change the y to an i in all forms except the nous and vous. ouvrir-to open.

Tu as habité ici? Nous avons fini le projet. Irregular Past Participles avoir to have eu (ew) connu cru had known believed ouvrir offrir pouvoir to open to offer ouvert (oovehr) offert opened offered was connaître to know croire to believe to be able to pu . Il n'a pas répondu. put the ne and pas around the conjugated form of avoir. You lived here? We finished (or have finished) the project. is happening. All you need to learn are the past participles of the verbs. or has happened. Regular Verbs: Formation of the Past Participle -er -é -re -u -ir -i Then conjugate avoir and add the past participle: J'ai aimé le concert. Elles ont rempli les tasses. Je n'ai pas aimé le concert. but if you want to say something happened. a specified number of times or during a specified period of time. which expresses what happens. Il a répondu au téléphone. I liked the concert. I didn't like the concert. They didn't fill (or haven't filled) the glasses. or does happen now. appeler-to call j'appelle zhah-pell appelons ahp-lohn appelles ah-pell appelle ah-pell appelez ahp-lay appellent ah-pell 31. and as a result or consequence of another action. and jeter-to throw double the consonant in all forms except the nous and vous. Elles n'ont pas rempli les tasses. Verbs that double the consonant: Some verbs. 32. They filled (or have filled) the cups. The passé composé is used for actions that happened only once. such as appeler-to call (ahp-lay). To make it negative. He didn't answer (or hasn't answered) . you have to use the passé composé.(zheh-tay) 5. The Past Indefinite Tense or Passé Composé You have learned the present indicative so far. He answered (or has answered) the telephone.

devenir-devenu. Etre Verbs Sixteen "house" verbs and all pronominal verbs are conjugated with être. She returned the book to the library. mourirmort. sortir. And five of these verbs. and passer can sometimes be conjugated with avoir if they are used with a direct object. Conjugation of a Pronominal Verb Je me suis amusé(e) Nous nous sommes amusé(e)s Tu t'es amusé(e) Il s'est amusé Elle s'est amusée Vous vous êtes amusé(e)(s) Ils se sont amusés Elles se sont amusées . and naître-né. descendre. rentrer. except venir-venu.able to devoir dire écrire être faire lire mettre to have to dû to tell to write to be to do. Conjugation of an être verb Je suis resté(e) Nous sommes resté(e)s Tu es resté(e) Il est resté Vous êtes resté(e)(s) Ils sont restés Elle est restée Elles sont restées You add the e for feminine and s for plural. monter. make to read to put dit écrit été fait lu mis (me) permis had to said written been made read put permitted promised prendre apprendre comprendre surprendre recevoir rire savoir voir vouloir to take to learn to understand to surprise to receive to laugh to know to see to want pris (pree) appris compris surpris reçu (rehsew) ri su vu voulu (voolew) taken learned understood surprised received laughed known seen wanted permettre to permit promettre to promise promis 33. Elle a rentré le livre à la bibliothèque. Vous can have any of the endings. The house verbs are: aller-to go arriver-to arrive entrer-to enter sortir-to go out partir-to leave tomber-to fall venir-to come devenir-to become revenir-to come back mourir-to die monter-to go up rester-to stay rentrer-to return home naître-to be born passer-to go by (pass) descendre-to go down Most have regular past participles. revenir-revenu. and they must agree in gender and number with the subject.

Ils se sont téléphoné. such as se parler. When the pronominal verb is followed by a direct object.There are only two cases with pronominal verbs where the past participle does not agree: 1. se sourire. Food and Meals / La Nourriture et Les Repas Breakfast Lunch Dinner Cup Slice Bowl Glass Fork Spoon Knife Plate Napkin Ice cream Juice Fruit Cheese Chicken Egg Cake Pie Milk Coffee Butter Water Ham Fish Tea Salad Jam Meat French fries Beer Wine le petit déjeuner puh-tee day-zhew-nay le déjeuner le dîner la tasse la tranche le bol le verre la fourchette la cuillère le couteau l'assiette (f) la serviette la glace le jus le fruit le fromage le poulet l'œuf (m) le gâteau la tarte le lait le café le beurre l'eau le jambon le poisson le thé la salade la confiture la viande les frites (f) la bière le vin day-zhew-nay dee-nay tahss trawnsh bohl verr foor-shett kwee-yehr koo-toh ah-syett ser-vyett glahss zhew fwee froh-mawzh poo-lay luff gah-toh tart leh kah-fay burr loh zham-bohn pwah-sohn tay sah-lahd kon-fee-chur vee-awnd freet bee-ehr vahn Salt and Pepper le sel et le poivre luh sell ay luh pwahv-ruh . 2. and se téléphoner. but elles se sont lavé les mains. 34. se dire. Compare: Elles se sont lavées. With verbs where the reflexive pronoun is an indirect object. s'écrire. se demander.

Sugar Soup le sucre le potage soo-kruh poh-tawzh 35. Fruits. Vegetables and Meat fruit apple apricot banana blueberry cherry coconut date fig grape grapefruit lemon lime melon olive orange peach pear pineapple plum prune raisin raspberry un fruit une pomme un abricot une banane une myrtille une cerise une noix de coco une date une figue un raisin un pamplemousse un citron un limon un melon une olive une orange une pêche une poire un ananas une prune un pruneau un raisin sec une framboise fwee pohm ah-bree-koh bah-nahn meer-tee suh-reez corn cucumber eggplant lettuce mushroom onion le maïs un concombre une aubergine la laitue un champignon un oignon les pois un piment une citrouille le riz des épinards une courge une tomate un navet des courgettes une viande du lard. bah-kohn beef-teck poo-lay kah-nar shev-ruh zhahm-bohn awn-yoh fwah boo-lett duh veeawnd kote-lett duh pork lah-pahn kote duh buf so-seess dahnd voh shuv-ruh-ee nwah duh kohpeas koh daht feeg reh-zahn pahm-pluhmoos see-trohn lee-mohn mel-ohn oh-leev oh-ranzh pesh pwahr ah-nah-nah prewn proo-noh reh-zahn sek frez pah-stek leh-goom ar-tee-sho ahs-pehrzh bett-rahv broh-coh-lee shoo cah-roht shoo-flir pepper potato pumpkin rice spinach squash tomato turnip zucchini meat bacon beef chicken duck goat lamb liver meatballs pork chop rabbit T-bone steak sausage turkey veal venison une pomme de terre pohm duh tehr frwahm-bwahz ham strawberry une fraise watermelon une pastèque vegetable artichoke une légume un artichaut asparagus des asperges beet broccoli cabbage carrot une betterave le brocoli un chou une carotte cauliflower un chou-fleur . du bacon le bifteck un poulet un canard une chèvre le jambon l'agneau le foie des boulettes de viande une côtelette de porc un lapin une côte de bœuf la saucisse une dinde le veau un chevreuil mah-eez cohn-cohn-bruh oh-behr-zheen leh-tew shahm-peenyohn wawn-yohn pwah pee-mawn see-troo-ee reez ay-pee-nar koorzh to-maht nah-vay koor-zhett vee-awnd lar.

you never use partitives. I'm drinking some wine.to learn. but no fruit. So "je prends de la bière" literally means "I am having some beer" even though in English we would usually only say I am having beer. Manger is a regular verb meaning "to eat. many plus de a glass of un bouquet de Note: With quantities and negatives." but manger is used in a general sense. I drink wine all the time. The construction is always de or d' + noun. I eat chicken every Saturday. We are having some rice and broccoli.celery un céléri say-lay-ree 36. Boire is literally the verb to drink and is also used in a general sense only. Commands . or les and the proper contractions (called partitives) because in French you must also express some. Il prend de la viande. Je voudrais prendre du fromage. mais pas de fruit. la. Note: When you want to say "I am having wine. Est-ce que je peux prendre un verre de vin? May I have a glass of wine? Je prends du vin. Je bois du vin tout le temps. Eat or Drink Prendre-to take. l'.to understand and surprendre .to surprise. Je ne prends pas de vin. I am not drinking any wine." You must use de and le. Je voudrais un morceau de tarte. eat or drink (prawn-druh) prends prends prend prawn prawn prawn prenons prenez prennent pruh-nohn pru-nay prenn Boire-to drink (bwahr) bois bwah buvons bew-vohn bois bwah buvez bew-vay boit bwah boivent bwahv Other verbs that are conjugated like prendre: apprendre . I would like one piece of pie. 37. comprendre . Quantities assez de une assiette de beaucoup de une boîte de enough (of) un morceau de a piece of a plate of a lot of a box of un peu de une tasse de a little (bit) of a cup of une douzaine de a dozen of un paquet de un panier de une poignée de a packet of a basket of a handful of more a bunch of une tranche de a slice of trop de un verre de une bouteille de a bottle of un kilo de a kilo of too much. Il y a trop de lait dans la tasse. To Take. 38. Nous prenons du riz et du brocoli. I would like to have some cheese." the French translation is "Je prends du vin. There is too much milk in the cup. such as Je mange le poulet tous les samedis. He is eating some meat.

... and ne..rien Ne comes before auxiliary verb...plus. Vous form Tu form Polite and Plural Same as verb form Familiar Restez! Stay! Same as verb form.Use the vous..... ne. but que in ne. Note: With using pronominal verbs as commands. but Regarde! Watch! drop -s for -er verbs Same as verb form Allons! Let's go! Nous form Let's. the pronoun precedes the verb.) Negatives with Passé Composé 1... but Je n'aime ni les chats ni les chiens.....jamais ne. Aucun(e) by definition is singular..pas..aucun(e) not a single one ne. We did nothing.nor ne.ni no longer never nothing only neither..ni... ... as in Ne nous reposons pas.plus ne.nulle part nowhere The negatives are used exactly like ne. Il n'aime plus travailler. Rien and personne may be used as subjects: Personne n'est ici. so the verb and nouns must also be changed to the singular. tu and nous forms for commands. Vous ne vous êtes pas ennuyés.que ne.. all articles are dropped except definite articles.... (Or: She doesn't hate anyone. and the other part is between auxiliary and past participle.ni.. Nous n'avons rien fait... Tu te dépêches becomes Dépêche-toi! And in negative commands. She hates no one.rien ne. ne. We want to go shopping only on Monday..pas. With ni. the pronoun is placed after the verb connected by a hyphen.personne nobody ne...jamais. Ne.. Elle ne déteste personne. Irregular Command Forms être (be) tu sois swah tu avoir (have) aie ay tu savoir (know) sache sahsh nous soyons swah-yohn nous ayons ay-yohn nous sachons sah-shohn vous soyez swah-yay vous ayez ay-yay vous sachez sah-shay Ne sois pas méchant à ta sœur! Don't be mean to your sister! N'ayez pas peur! Don't be afraid! Sachez les mots pour l'examen demain! Know the words for the exam tomorrow! 39.que is placed directly before the noun it limits. Je n'ai ni caméra ni caméscope.. He no longer likes to work. More Negatives ne. (Or: He doesn't like to work anymore) Nous ne voulons faire des achats que lundi. You were not bored..

. Que tes ennemis expirants Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire! Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. Il n'a fait aucune faute. Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras égorger vos fils. . L'étendard sanglant est levé. Indefinite: J'ai un chien.) Partitive: Je prends du pain et du beurre. Le jour de gloire est arrivé. and ne.. Negative: Je n'ai pas de chien. He made not a single mistake. Negative: Je ne prends pas de pain ou de beurre.. soutiens nos bras vengeurs.. It's not a brown cat. 40. Conduis. then nothing changes.nulle part.. ne. de la tyrannie.2. que Ne comes before the auxiliary verb. He listened to no one. the partitives and indefinite articles become de before the noun (unless the verb is être.ni... Ne. Contre nous. Liberté. ne.. l'étendard sanglant est levé. Verb is être: C'est une chatte brune.. Negative: Ce n'est pas une chatte brune. I don't have a dog. * Use of ne . Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces farouches soldats. Marchons... que la victoire Accoure à tes mâles accents. vos compagnes. I am not having any bread or butter. Il n'a écouté personne. I'm having some bread and butter. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons.ni.. Marchons. Aux armes citoyens! Formez vos bataillons. pas de: In negative sentences. Amour sacré de la Patrie. Holiday Phrases Merry Christmas Happy New Year Happy Thanksgiving Happy Easter Happy Halloween Happy Birthday Joyeux Noël Bonne Année Joyeuses Pâques Bonne Halloween Bon Anniversaire zhoy-uh no-ell bun ah-nay zhoy-uhss pawk bun ah-loh-ween bun sahnt-val-awn-tahn bohn ahn-nee-vair-sair Bonne Action de grâces bun ak-see-ohn de grahss Happy Valentine's Day Bonne Saint-Valentin The French National Anthem: La Marseillaise by Claude-Joseph Rouget de L'isle Allons enfants de la Patrie... ne. but the other part is after the past participle. I have a dog. marchons! Qu'un sang impur Abreuve nos sillons.personne. liberté chérie. It's a brown cat. Combats avec tes défenseurs.aucun. Sous nos drapeaux.

Translation by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1st verse) and Mary Elizabeth Shaw (2nd verse) (This is not a literal translation. O Canada. what myriads bid you rise: Your children. awake to glory. The True North strong and free! From far and wide. wives and grandsires hoary. amazed. we stand on guard for thee. Car ton bras sait porter l'épée. terre de nos aïeux. de foi trempée. Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. Behold their tears and hear their cries.Ye sons of France.) The Canadian National Anthem: O Canada O Canada. To arms. O sacred love of france. Protégera nos foyers et nos droits. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. With glowing hearts we see thee rise. ye brave! Th'avenging sword unsheathe! March on! March on! All hearts resolved on victory or death. Fight with Freedom on their side. great and glorious. O Canada. Et ta valeur. We stand on guard for thee. see their tears and hear their cries! Shall hateful tyrants mischief breeding with hireling hosts. to arms. death defying. Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux. a ruffian band Affright and desolate the land. Shall behold thy triumph. hark. Th'avenging arm uphold and guide Thy defenders. Hark. . to arms. we stand on guard for thee. while peace and liberty lie bleeding? To arms. And thy dying enemies. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. Il sait porter la croix. Soon thy sons shall be victorious When the banner high is raised. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada. undying.

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