lege of

The ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION Washington was established on the authority

of the State Col-

of the act passed

by the first Legislature of the State of Washington, March 28th, 1890, which established a "State Agricultural College and School of Science," and instructed

commission " to further the application of

the principles of physical science to industrial pursuits." The spirit of this act has been followed out for many years by the Engineering

which has carried on experimental investigations and published

The first adoption of a definite Engineering research, with an appropriation for its maintenance, was made 'by the Board of Regents, June 21st, 1911. This
the results in the form of bulletins.


was followed by later appropriations. In April, 1919, this department was officially designated, Engineering Experiment Station.

The scope
in engineering

of the

Engineering Experiment Station covers research

problems of general interest to the citizens of the

State of Washington.

The work

of the station is


available to

the public through technical reports, popular bulletins, and public




includes tests and analyses of coal, tests

and analyses

of road materials, testing of

commercial steam pipe

coverings, calibration of electrical instruments, testing of strength
of materials, efficiency studies in


plants, testing of hydraulic

machinery, testing of small engines and motors, consultation with re-

gard to theory and design of experimental apparatus, preliminary
advice to inventors,

Requests for copies of the engineering bulletins and inquiries

and industrial problems should be addressed to Director, The Engineering Experiment Station, State
for information on engineering

College of Washington, Pullman, Washington.

The Control

of the

Engineering Experiment Station


vested in

the Board of Regents of the State College of Washington.

Hon. Louis F. Hart, Governor of the State,


McCroskey Adam Duncan Dunn,
R. C.

Walla Walla
Mt. Vernon

Edwin A.




H. Hulbert,

E. O. Holland, Secretary Ex-Officio, President State College



Experimental Engineering,
Electrical Applications,
Electrical Standardizations,


H. V. Carpenter, B. J. Dana, B. S., M.




S., S.,

M. E.
E. E.

Philip S. Biegler, B.



F. Lickey, B. S.

Automotive Engineering

Aschel C. Abell, B.

Steam Engineering,
Mechanical Design,

A. R. Nottingham, M. M. E.
E. B. Parker, B. S.
G. Everett Thorton, B. S.

Engineering Materials,

Gas Power,

William A. Pearl, B.
Robert L. Rhoads, M.
Louis O. Howard, A.


Steam Power
Mining Engineering,
Metallurgical Engineering


M. E.

Chester G. Warfel, M. E.
Olaf P. Jenkins, A. B., A. M.

Economic Geology, Irrigation and Structures,
Municipal Engineering


L. Waller, Ph. B., Ph.


Morris K. Snyder,


Highway Engineering,
Topographical Engineering,
Architectural Engineering,


E. Phelps, B.

S., C. S., C.

E. E.

W. Welch,


Rudolph Weaver, B.
Brenton L. Steele, B.
Clare Chrisman Todd, B.

Agricultural Engineering,

L. J. Smith, B. S.

M. A.
Ph. D.

Chemical Engineering,







28 43



53 55




62 66




Fastening Knots

39. Sheepshank. 40. Sheepshank for free end rope. Over-hand knot. 41. Sheepshank with toggle. 2. Double knot. 42. Sheepshank ends whipped. 3. Figure 8 knot. 43. Bow Shortening. 4. Double Figure 8 knot. 5. Square knot. Splices 44. Short Splice. 6. Reef knot. 45. Eye Splice. 7. Sq. served or whipped knot. 46. Long Splice. 8. Slipped Square knot. 47. Chain Splice. 9. Open-hand knot. 48. Cut Splice. 10. Granny knot. 11. Fisherman's knot. Hitches 12. Ordinary knot. Half hitch. V 49. 13. Ordinary knot whipped. 50. Timber hitch. 51. Clove or Builder's hitch. 14. Weaver's knot. 15. Hawser knot, or Sheet Bend. 52. Rolling Hitch (A). 53. Rolling Hitch (B). 16. Double Sheet Bend. 54. Snubbing hitch. 17. Garrick Bend knot. 18. Half-hitch and whipping kno^., 55. Timber hitch and half-hitch. 19. Slip knot. 56. Chain hitch. 57. Twist hitch. 20. Bowline knot. 21. Running Bowline knot. 58. Twist and bow hitch. 59. Blackwall hitch. 22. Loop knot. 60. Lark's head with toggle. 23. Tom-fool knot. 61. Round turn and half-hitch. 24. Boat knot. 62. Fisherman's hitch. 25. Surgeon's knot. 63. Gat's paw hitch. 26. Bowline on the bight. 64. Slippery hitch. 27. Spanish Bowline. u~{>. Double Blackwall. 28. Flemish Bowline. 66. Slip knot and half-hich. 29. Hawser knot with toggle. 67. Fisherman's bend. Ending Knots. 68. Taut line hitch. 30. Whipping. 69. Jam hitch. 31. Single Crown Tucked. 70. Scaffold hitch. 32. Wall knot Tucked. 71. Studding sail bend. 33. Matthew Walker. 34 Double Wall or Crown knot. i^3-2. Midshipman's hitch. 73. Bale sling. 35. Stevedore. 74. Hamburger hitch. 36. Chain knot. 75. Sling a cask head up. Shortening "Knots. 76. Well pipe hitch. 37. Whipped Shortening. 77. Hackamore hitch. 38. Three fold shortening.

Double Burton (B). 98. Splicing Tools. Double Luff. 91. 85. Double Burton (D). Cable Splice. Two-man Diamond hitch. 119. 87. 104. Whip on Whip. Port Tackle. 105. 106. Single 96. Running Tackle. 84. 103. One-man Diamond hitch. Two-man Diamond hitch. 115. Cable Splice. 121. Two-man Diamond hitch.78. Spar and Transom lashing. 120. . 89. tie. Three Fold Purchase. Double Burton (E). 93. Double Burton (C). 116. 86. Luff on Luff. Gun Tackle (B). 11. 82. Harness 83. 79. 88. 110. 112. 90. Transmission Cables. Single Burton (A). Cable splice. Geared Chain Hoist. Splicing Tools. One-man Diamond hitch. Whip. Snatch Block on 92. 8 Manger hitch.4. Two-man Diamond hitch. 99. Hay Rope. 117. 111. Cable Splice. Double Burton (A). One-man Diamond hitch. Packer's knot. Tripod lashing. 122. 80. Tackle Sets and Hoists 95. tie. Halter tie. Clevis hitch. Chinese hoist or Capstan. Luff. Differential Chain hoist. 107. Manger Figure Tie. 97. Strap hitch or line. 101. Cable Splice. 118. 8-1. 123. Four Fold Purchase. 113. 94. Horse hitch or 102. Single Burton (B). 109. 100. Gun Tackle (A). 108.

Hyatt Verril. Engineer Field Manual.. New York. Courses. Rope Work. Wis. American Wire Rope. Columbia Knots and Splices. catalogs.. The Bruce Publishing Co. Story of Rope. John Wiley & Sons. of Saskatchewan. Engineer. . College Univ. Rope and Its Uses. New York. A. New York Howard W. Saskatoon. North Plymouth. F. Ithaca. Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Steel Arts. Problems in Physics. and Kent's Mechanical Engineers York. Hashuk Cassel & Co. Government Printing Office. C. American Boy Magazine July 1917. New York. Co. Washington. C. Hitches and Splices. No. Roehl. Knots. Frior Ag. of Agriculture. bulletins. New York. C. and Wire Company.. Riley.. L. MacGreggor Smith. O. Fifth Edition. Henly Pub. A. its Use on the Farm. Mass. Rope and Knots. The Rudder Pub. Sta. Norman W. Hand Book. Cornell Reading State College of Agriculture. J. D. Rope Knots and Hitches. Exp. New Encyclopedia Britannica. etc. 136. American Boy Scout Manual. Bui. Milwaukee. Washington.. War Department Committee on Education Special Training. AuOtmrn.SOURCES OF MATERIAL In the compilation of this bulletin free use was made of the material given in the following books. D. New York.. of Minn. and Rope Work. Plymouth Cordage Co. Splices. Knots. Univ. Canada. R. Columbia Rope Co. Paul M. Aldridge. T. Co. M. B. Knotting and Splicing Ropes and Cordage.

How many could use the famous it Diamond hitch to fasten the pack on the horse's back so that fall off in transit? will not shift or The to be desirability of correct selection with reference to the is work done also true of tackle sets. rope trans- missions. It is not meant to be an advanced treatise for those who consider themselves already proficient in the use of lope and tackle but is designed as an aid and reference to those less skilled in the art. information from all The purpose of this bulletin is to collect the different sources possible and assemble people in it under one cover. etc. Some knots are suitable for small cords only. the use of hoists. year. select the right For these and other reasons. and others are adapted to large ship's hawsers. Some knots tie easily and are very secure but are not so easy to untie. One type of tackle will give great mechanical advantage. in the hope that it may be valuable to many different fields of activity. Nearly every individual at some time or other has gone camping. is ever increasing in extent and importance. select a remote or inaccessible mountain side for a r vacation he probably had one more pack animals to take in the supplies and camp outfit. others are easily and quickly tied- are secure and yet are not difficult to untie. but requires an excessive amount of rope or requires frequent overhauling to complete the job. tackle. while 8 . If he chanced to trip. A variety of knots and splices are shown with occasional sug- gestions as to their use and application. it is desirable to knot for the job in hand. Informa- tion on the selection and use of ropes and tackles and the tying of knots is very scattering and incomplete.INTRODUCTION Each created. old industries keep expanding and new ones are In many of these.

important that the proper sized sheave wheel be used with a rope of given diameter in order to secure the longest service from the transmission. How many is can a tow rope to a will be secure and yet easily untied after the car has been wa. splices.another type. KNOTS A knowledge and if of knots has saved to tie many a life in storm and wreck. Rope of is coming more and more into favor for the transmission It is power replacing gears and heavy leather belts. It is also important that speed be considered in the calculation for It is necessary strength to transmit a certain amount of power. or roping a trunk. using the same equipment. etc. will not give such great mechanical advantage but does not require overhauling so often . shown in this bulletin were found have more than one name. commonly used term was selected. evident from these two instances alone that it is desirable that the selection of a rope transmission should be governed by the use of complete sets of data on the subject.> hauled out of the mud? Or suppose a rope under strain holding a large timber in midair and a strand in the derrick guy rope shows 9 . everyone knew how a knot quickly and securely there would be fewer casualties knot in hotel and similar fires where a false in the fire escape rope has slipped at the critical moment and plunged the victim to the ground. or were called by different names by In such case only the most different authors. Some to of the knots. Many an accident has occurred through a knot or splice being improperly formed. few people tie a knot that is Even in tying secure and quickly tie made and car so it yet readily undone. during the progress of the load.

3.' 65% 60% 50% 45% V. out cutting or to attach a rope to another rope or object. but in all knots the rope is cramped or has a short bend. . weaker the knot. Full strength of dry rope Eye splice over an iron thimble 100% 90% 80 Short splice in rope % Timber hitch. weaver's knot. Desir- able features of knots are that they tied is may be quickly tied. as 1. looped or bent. Bowline. 2.signs of parting. The shorter the bend The approximate strength is of several types of knots in percent. to slip. The "bight" is the part curved. given an average of four tests. . The loose. or longest part of the rope. 4. Square knot. '* ' '10 t . clove hitch 6. How many is could attach a rope each side of the weak spot The to take the strain? principle of a knot that no two parts which if lie adjacent shall travel in the same direction the knot should as. sheet bend Flemish loop. such gether. . Strength of Knots. and the "end" in that part used forming the knot or hitch. of a rope should it be knotted or whipped to prevent from raveling while in use. A number "standing" part of is terms are commonly used in tying knots. to attach two rope ends to to shorten a rope with- form an enlarged end on a rope. easily un- and will not slip under a strain. Knots are employed for several purposes. . slip knot. round turn and half hitch . place. overhand knot . of full strength of a rope in the table below. The the principal portion. or free end. 5. If a knot or hitch of any kind is is tied in a rope it's failure under stress sure to oecur at that. while working or is handling the rope in making a knot. Each fiber in the straight part of the rope takes its proper share of the load. which throws an overload on is those fibers that are on the outside of the bend and one fiber after another breaks until the rope in the standing rope the torn apart. . 7. 1 . In a number of cases a toggle it used either to aid in making the knot or make easier to untie after a strain has been applied. . it.

Fastening Knots Fig. a blood knot. is is the simplest of all kn~ts to make. 5. then the right end over and under the left. 4. from its use on whip lashes by slave drivers. used as the basis The Double Figure Eight knot is made by forming a regular figure eight and then following around with the end of the other rope as shown. Take the ends square knot but is sure to slip under strain. strong and does not "become of the jammed when two ropes and pass the left end over and under the right end. 3. Fig. etc. etc. Fig. The Figure Eight knot It is is is similar to the over-hand knot except that the loose end of the rope passed through the loop from to prevent a rope It is also the opposite side. and hand knot. made by passing the lose end of the rope over the standing part and back through the Fig. The Square knot It is is probably the commonest and most useful of all knots. 2. 11 . Beware of the granny knot which is often mistaken for the being strained. The Double knot This made by passing the free end of the rope through the loop twice instead of but once as in making an over- is used for shortening or for a stop on a rope. It is 1. It is also known as is more easily untied than the over-hand knot. for ornamental knots. commonly used running through an eye or ring or tackle block. Fig. The overhand knot loop.

If the Square or reef knot is is used to join two ropes of unequal diameter. The Reef knot merely itself.Fig. This makes or loop. 7. the knot are whipped as shown. It consists of using the bight of the left or right a slight modification of the square end tied exactly as is the instead of the end and is square knot. is knot. the knot easy to untie by pulling the free end of the bight Fig. 6. apt to slip unless the ends of the ropp 12 .

a to untie. 14.Fig. is The Weaver's knot is used to join small lines or threads and made by forming a bight in one rope. ropes together and The Ordinary knot is used for fastening two heavy is made by forming a simple knot with the end of it. as shown. and its use should by strain is The Granny knot is often mistaken for a square knot all means be avoided as it is almost sure to slip applied. 11. unless the ends are whipped. passing the end 13 . is apt Fig. 13. The Fisherman's knot is a simple type of knot formed by two simple over-hand knots slipped over the standing parts of the two ropes. The Open-hand knot is made by It is tying an over-hand knot with two rope ends lying parallel. better than a square knot for joining two ropes of unequal diameter. one rope and then interlacing the other rope around Fig. 9. It is valuable for anglers as the two lines may be drawn 12. For large granny knot with ends whipped and is easy Fig. 10. will hold securely when a rope. and drawn tight. it Whipping the two ends of an Ordinary knot makes more secure. to slip A Square knot joining two ropes of unequal size with a result similar to that shown. this knot. apart by merely pulling on the loose ends of the rope. Grain binders use Fig. Fig. 8. Fig.

to Another method This of joining stiff is hawsers is to use the Half-hitch and whipping. Fig. Use this knot in tying a tow rope to a 14 . is The Double Sheet Bend same purposes. Weavers use this knot in tying broken threads. 17. When pulled tight. is It resembles the bowline. Fig. back over itself and through the bight. 16. is similar to the Hawser knot and is useful for the Fig. 19. a satisfactory method of making a joint to be used for a considerable time.of the second rope around the bight. used frequently by stockmen to It is a horse or cow so that they will not choke themselves. 15. The Garrick bend stiff commonly used bend easily. The Hawser knot or sheet bend is is used for joining stiff or heavy ropes and not to be confused with the weaver's knot. 18. The Slip knot as shown is is a knot with many uses. 20. The Bowline knot It is useful for forming a loop on the tie end of a rope. easily untied. for joining two heavy hawsers which are too Fig. both ends point backward. Fig. and do not catch when pulled thru the loom. easily untied. and Fig. always secure and car.

and easily untied. 23. but much more will always run freely on the standing part of the rope. 21. or slipping. 22.Fig. The Running Bowline is is used for the same purposes secure. It can be used for hold'ng hogs. except this case either standing part of the rope may be strained without Place the knot failing. 15 . Fig. It will pull tight under and is not easily untied. of a rope A Loop knot is useful for making fast to the middle strain. The Tom-fool knot is formed in the middle of a rope in and may be used for the same purpose as the loop knot. where the ends are not free. is It as the slip knot in Fig. 19. Fig.

of the double twist is to tlie holds very The object make the knot easy without holding with the end of 16 finger. 24. and stopping a ring on a taut line. The Surgeon's knot is a modified form of the square it knot. The Boat knot is formed by the aid is of a toggle on a rope whose ends are not free. and loop over the hog's snout and hold onto one rope. used for shortening or for Fig. pulling other rope. Release by Can also be used from the ground for releasing hoisting tackle which has been used on a flag pole or other tall object. to tie if used with smooth cord. . as in tying bundles. Fig. 25.

27.Fig. and gives two single loops that may be thrown over two separate posts or both is thrown over one. untied. The Spanish Bowline is a knot which may be made in the middle of a long rope or in a bight at the end. 26. Either loop will hold without slipping and easily 17 . Fig. Bowline on the bight is is easily made on the looped part desired which for of a rope which double. It is used where a loop is is will not pull tight or choke and easily untied. May be used casting harness for horses.

to be put will not permit of a knot on the end. The when The Hawser knot with formed exactly the same as the regular Hawser knot except toggle is jiH*titet that the toggle is inserted for the it purpose of making easy to loosen the knot after a strain has been -_^___^ ~~ applied. and serves to prevent the This gives a neat appearing end. 30. Some- times an ending knot Fig. except that is used for forming a loop on the end of a rope instead of joining two ropes. to which the rope Strong cord ping. as shown. After tucking them under the first strand. it Fig. 28.ipropes. is used for wh. loop or eye will not close up strained. is also used for its ornamental value. in that they prevent the rope A from unraveling.Fig. makes the rope end but slightly larger than the standing part. In is splicing the whipping splice removed before the considered com- may be plete The Single Crown. strands from unraveling. Fig. are those used for ending ropes. is loose ends A Whipping applied as shown from fraying or where the use is employed for keeping unraveling. Ending knots not only serve the purpose of giving a large end on the rope. 31. The Flemish loop is similar to the Fisherman's knot. halve each strand and tuck it again under the next strand of the standing part make 18 . To Fig. leave the ends long enought so they can be brought down and tucked under the strands of the standing part. tucked. 29. Ending Knots group of knots somewhat different from those already described. 11. but also take the place of whipping. this type of knot.

The single crown not tucked. each three inches. then gradually tighten the knot by drawing in a little at a time on each strand. is The Matthew Walker knot or Stopper knot similar Wall knot except the ends are inserted through two loops instead of one as in the Wall knot. very satisfactory where the rope does is not need to pass through a block or hole which but slightly larger than itself. giving a knot that will stand by itself. 32. and on larger ropes in proportion. to the is tightened. It can readily be made by loosely constructing the Wall knot as explained before and continuing as follows: pass the end number one through the loop with two. similar to the Crown and makes a very secure ending For small ropes unlay the strands back. Fig. Again with the right hand take strand number three and pass it under strand number two and up through the first loop formed.this until the ends are completely tucked the whole thus giving a gradual taper to the end of the rope and also length. 33. 19 . forming a loop and allowing the end to hang free. The Wall knot It is is frequently used as an ending knot to prevent unraveling. then take the rope. The Wall knot may be tucked for a rope. is and continue not a good ending for a rope. and number three through the loop with one. Hold strand number two and pass it under strand number one and hold it against the rope with the thumb of the left hand. Then draw each of the strands gradually until the knot Fig. With the right hand take the end of strand number one and bring it across the loose end in position with the thumb of the left hand. then end number two through the loop with three. Hold the rope in the left hand with the loose strands upward.

'but instead of trimming is or tucking the ends in. they are carried around a second time. same off as the Single The Double Wall or Crown knot is made exactly the Crown or Wall knot. following the lay of the first as shown. the Single Crown. or they may be trimmed off. the ends may be tucked in as was done tight.Fig. and then the knot pulled in When completed. 34. 20 .

36. also sometimes used merely for ornament. These are known as shortening knots. except that the end of the rope it served around the standing part two and half times before It is is tucked through the used where a knot is desired to keep the rope from run- ning through a block or hole. 1. 35. in Fig. The Stevedore knot is similar to the Over-hand knot is shown bight. is They are The Chain knot is frequently used for shortening and made by forming a running loop. and a second bight through the first and so on been shortened sufficiently. Shortening Knots A or third type of knots are those which are used where a rope is too long and where it is awkward where the ends are in have the free ends hanging loose use and the slack must be taken up in the to middle of the rope. The free end should 21 . then drawing a bight of the rope until the rope has through the loop.Fig. Fig.

It is used for shortening electric light cords. while adaptable to fairly Fig. necessary is the end of To undo this shortening is very simple as all that is remove the toggle from the last loop or remove the rope if it were used. It is made' in several forms but the first form shown. Three-fold Shortening is started by making an OverFig. and then pull on the free end to either until the knot is completely unraveled. The Sheep-shank or Dog-shank as it is sometimes one of the most widely used of all shortenings. called. 37. 39. 38. Sheep-shank for free end rope Sheep-shank except the free end of the rope is is similar to the plain passed through the 22 . 40. will not withstand much strain. Fig. of the a or Bend Shortening is one made and is well adapted to heavy ropes where shortening must be made quickly and where it is not to withstand Fig. and drawing tight. is stiff ropes.then be fastened by passing a toggle or the end of the rope through this last loop. hand knot and continuing to tuck the end through the loop three more times. The Whipped Shortening most easily a heavy strain.

and makes the shortening as secure as that shown in Fig. the ends of the rope are not free. It is also easily untied. A Sheep-shank with toggle. 23 . 38. it can not be used where Fig.n'a This makes a secure shortening. 41. is a plain Sheep-shank with the toggle inserted as shown. but loop.

Fig. Fig. 43. This makes the shortening as secure as those shown in Fig. 42. 39. and Fig. 24 . -fit same Sheep-shank with ends whipped is is the as in a plain Sheep-shank except the loop whipped to the standing part of the rope. Bow-shortening is an ordinary knot in the middle of It is a rope in which a double bend has previously been made.r /v'y. not adapted 10 heavy ropes nor will it stand a heavy strain successfully. 3$.

in Fig. Other applications of the former are made in the eye splice and the cut splicing wire rope The long splice is almost always used splice. The Short-splice is made as follows: the two ends is to whipped The end of each strand is also whipped temporarily to prevent unraveling. The strands may then be waxed if desired. they are unsightly. The strands from opposite sides are now in pairs. . where it is-neces way that the union is as in that strong as the rest of the rope and still not too large or irregular to pass through a hole or pulley block. be joined are untwisted for a few inches and the rope 25 . then temporarily to prevent further unwinding. sary to join two ends together in such a many times. There are two general types of rope splices known as the short splice and the long splice. occasion arises. 44. Knots are unsuitable they will not pass through a block. Similarly with a right hand knot tie together the strands forming each of the pairs B and 2 and C and 3. The two rope ends are then locked together or "married" so that the strands from one end pass alternately between those from the other end. which runs through a block or over a sheave. The method of joining ropes to meet the above requirements is called splicing. and usually are not as strong as the rest of the rope. Take two strands from opposite sides as strands A and 1 tie a simple over-hand knot in its right hand form. Draw the knots tight.SPLICES In the use of ropes.

best suited as does not cause an enlargement in the rope at the is point where the splice made. If it is desired to unite two rope ends so that the splices will pass through a pulley as readily and smoothly This is as the rope itself. it what is known as a Long it. knot the opposite one26 . Fig. 45.. After the splice has been completed by tucking the ends as above. 46. Repeat until leaving from half an inch the ends of the strands have been reached of ends hanging free so that when the rope is under repeated strain for the first few days. other. splice is used. with the Take one third out -of each strand. The appearance of the splice divided in half just before the last tuck off is improved if made. Then turn the rope over and lay hold of the two next strands that will come opposite their respective lays. remove whipping on strands and lay the splice on the floor and roll it under the foot. The ends are tucked under. strands of the standing part of the rope. or in the case of a large rope. pound it with a mallet to is make it round and is smooth. Interlace the strands as for the Short splice. the stretching of the put splice will not pull the ends from under the last strand under which to an inch and a half they were tucked. Unlay one. the Stretch well and cut off Long splice. coming out between two strands as at first. fill Unlay one strand and next to up the vacant space which it leaves with the strand it from the other rope end. An Eye-splice is so much smaller and neater than r knotted eye in the end of a rope that the latter. over and under. and one-half splice. the strands are cut while the other half also be is used to complete the This splice may made by simply laying the ropes together and then first tucking them as above without knots. it is much to be preferred to The Eye-splice is made similar to the short-splice except that the strands on the end of the rope are unlaid for the full length of the splice. in tying the simple Over-hand A skilled workman frequently dispenses with the whipping making a Fig. After a few days service the free ends may be safely trimmed even with the face of the rope.pass each strand of the rope over the strand adjacent to it and under the next. filling up the vacant space as before. etc. splice. the loose ends of the strands. To make unlay the ends of two ropes to the length of at least five and a half times the circumference of the rope.

47. in the splice as shown. A Chain splice is used for splicing a rope into a chain end which It is is required to travel through a block or small opening. Tuck all six ends once under adjacent strands and having stretched the the ends. sometimes used for making an ordinary eye in the end of Four or six strand rope lends itself more readily to this type 27 . also a rope. cut off The ending of successive pairs should occur at intervals splice. and not at the two ends as "in the Short Fig. splice well.thirds together and heave them well in place.

in the case of must be made considerably longer than hemp Fig. It is smooth eyes in steel cable. HITCHES The knots so far described are used mainly for fastening rope ends together or for ending a rope. however. to select two or three knots which would meet this is not true all But. This type of splice It frequently it used to hold the rings in rope ladders. and two strands in a four strand Bend the two parts together and tie an Over-hand knot so rope. since and since a knot suitable for a silken fish line will not be satisfactory for a ship's hawser. is can also be used where desired to attach a spar or rod to the middle of a line. When completely laid up. un- lay the strands more than for an eye splice. is we find a great variety of designed to meet some special requirements illustrations The following show a variety of the most typical and useful knots used on fiber or manila rope. is A quite different class of knots that used for fastening a rope to a stationary or solid object. each of which of service.of splice than does a three strand rope. is This type of knots known as hitches. without the use of clamps. first tucking. it If all ropes were the same size and stiffness would be possible requirements. In this case. should not slip under strains and should be easily untied. then unlay a little further one strand in a three strand rope. Hitches as well as other types of knots should be easily made. which will not pull out even if the ends of the strands are only whipespecially valuable in forming ped without the eye rope. that the divided strands will lay together again. 48. Continue to lay the eye has been the ends in by passing them through the eye. . ex- cept that the two rope ends are extended past each other and joined into the standing part of the ropes. knots. the remaining ends should be tucked in the standThis makes an eye ing part of the rope as in a very short splice. The Cut splice is formed similar to the Eye is splice. To make a chain splice.

51. 52. It is also used to make the scaffold hitch. is The Timber-hitch is very similar to the Half-hitch but Instead of the end being passed the standing part much more permanent and secure.Fig. The Half-hitch continuous. is good only for temporary fastenings where pull is It is usually used as part of a more elabo- rate hitch. is hold fast on a smooth timber and posts. wound around Fig. or Builder's-hitch. The Clove. it is under the standing part once three or four times as shown. used extensively by builders for fastening the staging to upright It will hold without slipping on wet timber. The Rolling-hitch is made by wrapping the rope three Fig. 50. 49. Fig. It will is more secure than either of the above hitches. or four times around the object to which it is to be fastened and 29 .

Timber-hitch and Half- hitch is a combination of the two separate hitches shown in Fig. The Snubbing-hitch it is is made by passing it. Figure 68. Fig. 53. This hitch is easily and quickly made and is very secure. 57. Fig. 49 I and Fig 50. 56. and it is suitable only The Twist-hitch is more secure than the Half-hitch where the strain is continuous. The Chain-hitch of is a combination the above hitch It and two or more half-hitches.then making two half-hitches around the standing part of the rope. _ Fig. etc. is used for hauling in a larger rope or cable with a tow line. the rope around the object to which is desired to fasten and then making what known as a Taut-line hitch. Fig. It is then drawn tight. 55. 54. Fig. This illustrates another type of Rolling-hitch very is similar to the above but which not as secure under a heavy strain. 30 . about the standing part of the rope. It is more secure than either used alone.

59. This hitch can be . Fig. greater the strain the the rope is The Blackwall -hitch is widely used as illustrated. The more securely it holds.Fig. but it is unreliable if used with chain as well as rope. 31 slack. 58. Twist-and bow-hitch is similar to the Simple Twist- hitch but is easier to untie.

64. Strain may It is easily is be taken on either or both ends. 61. to the standing part. improved by whipping the free end Fig. 62. 32 . Round-turn-and-half-hitch is Fig. less suitable for a more or permanent method of attaching a rope to a ring. 63.Fig. Fig. it Whipping the end to the standing part of the rope makes quite permanent. released. The Slippery-hitch easily that it draws very tight under strain. The Lark's-head with toggle it is easily made and is is used as a rule where easily is desired to have a type of hitch which and quickly released. 60. The Fisherman's is hitch is used for fastening large ropes or lines to rings and It is very simi-lar to the hitch shown in Fig. but has the objection it hard to untie. to the middle part of a rope The Cat's-paw-hitch is suitable for attaching a hook where the ends are not free. 61. making made. Fig.

where no slack is available for making any other hitch. It is not secure unless pulled very tight. 68. It is made by first tying a slip knot so that it will run on the short end of is the rope. Fig. The Slip Knot and Half Hitch constitute a combina- tion that used for the same purpose as the Flemish loop. Then complete by tying a half hitch with the short end* Fig.Fig. The Double Blackwall is similar to the Single Black- wall and is used for the same purpose. Fig. The Fisherman's-bend is similar to the Fisherman's- hitch except that the half hitches are replaced with whipping. 67. 65. 33 . A few threads of hemp or marlin served about the taut line for the knot to pull against will improve the hitch. as shown. 66. A Taut-line-hitch is used for attaching a rope to another rope already under strain.

completed by attaching the free end to the standing part with a bowline. 34 . and the like. The Jam Hitch will answer the requirements provided the cord is large enough and of not too hard a 'body nor too smooth a surface. The Jam Hitch is as bundles of lath. small boxes. rolls of paper. Plenty of slack in the Clove will make it possible to draw the bight of each end out to the edge of the scaffold as shown in the left of the figure. by making a Clove hitch with the two free ends of the rope below the scaffold.Fig. 69. The Studding-sail-bend frequently employed on ship- board for attaching a rope or line to a spar. 70. The it Scaffold-hitch is very useful for slinging a scafIt is started fold so that will not turn in the sling. resulting as shown in the illustration immediately This is to the left of the arrow. where the short end is joined to the other with a bowline. but will jam and hold against moving the other way and will be found exceedingly convenient. Pull the middle loop as end of shown by the arrow and fold it down over the the plank. Then draw each rope back on itself and up over opposite sides of the board. The two illustrations at the right of the figure show another method of making a Scaffold hitch. is Fig. 71. Wrap the rope around the scaffold plank so that it crosses the top of the plank three times. Fig. used in tying up light packages. Both hitches are equally good. such It is a hitch that will slide along a cord in one direction.

etc. kegs. The Hamburger hitch is is useful in connection with it is a bale sling which too long for the object carrying. resulting the Hamburger hitch. Draw up the loops as shown. head up. will not slip is under strain. Tie an ordinary knot over the barrel lengthwise. 73. . very useful where desired to hoist an open barrel of water or lime or other material. be used on bales. The Mid-shipinan's-hitch is somewhat similar little to the Snubbing hitch shown in Figure 54. 75. placed around the load as in Fig. square or Reef knot. but it Then with the loop end of the Where the two ropes cross start up or down the rope while Fig. This may be adjusted by running the knot slack. Fig. two ropes in the middle of 'barrel. but is perhaps a make if the rope is under a strain while being tied. sling The sling is to tie a in form a second loop as shown. to A Bale-sling as shown it is useful where it is necessary hoist an object to It which is difficult to attach the hoisting tackle. easier to Fig. 73. may 74. It is also used to balance the load where two slings are used. Then separate the the twisted part and drop them over the Fasten the two rope ends together above 35 head of the cask or the barrel as shown with a bowline. it is Sling for a cask. 72. sacks.Fig.

where no special pipe. in order to prevent slipping when the strain Fig. to be sure. The knot Proceed as in- dicated in the successive illustrations shown. it is may be used in some cases in place of the underhand bow-line knot. When is used for a halter about twenty feet will be required. Such a bridle is not suitable for continuous use. 76. and it may be used in carrying a jug or other vessel of similar shape. The Halter Tie secure and is a knot preferred by some persons If for use in hitching or in tying the halter rope in the stall. because if the tie is not set up correctly it forms a slip knot and its use might result in strangulation of the animal. is clamp available for attaching the hoisting tackle to the will pull tighter. halter. first applied. but it will be found useful in an emergency. The halter tie should never be used around a horse's neck. The Hackamore hitch sailors it is is commonly known and used as an emergency rope bridle or States. nose piece. In completing the tie draw the end through and set the knot by pulling first on the short end. The result will be a running turk's head. in the western part of the United Among known as a running turk's head. Fig. A is Weil Pipe Hitch is used in hoisting pipe. Pull up all slack possible in the coils when forming the hitch. This is important. started by forming a bight in the center of the rope. the harder the strain. head piece and reins.Fig. 77. The hitch shown and is also easy to untie. Draw together the two center ropes forming a bridle complete with bit. If the long 36 . pro- perly set. 78.

it are straightened out. 79. With the free end form another loop and serve around both the first loop and the standing part. This knot is easily it will pull tight. but under great strain Fig. tie a 'slip knot on the stand- ing part. Horse-hitch or stockmen to tie a horse or Tie an overhand knot in Tie another overhand knot or a Stevedore knot in the end of the Loop the rope around the animal's neck and insert the knotted end through the open Over-hand knot. the standing part of the rope and leave open. the tie forms a being simply two half hitches around the rope. to a bight or loop on the free end of the rope. The Figure Eight Manger Tie it is superior to the ordin- ary Manger Tie in that as would occur if under heavy strain such the animal became frightened and attempted to will not pull tight break away. Stick the free end of the rope through the loop or bow as shown. Form a bight or loop with the free end of the rope and hold the loop along the standing Complete the 37 tie part. tied. 81. animal The Manger tie is used for tying a horse or other manger or stanchion or hitching rack. Fig.rope is pulled first and the kinks in slip knot. 80. This hitch will not slip and choke the animal. The end of the halter rope is first passed through the hole in the manger with a Fig. tie is commonly used by farmers and cow with a rope. so it will not choke itself. by inserting the second loop . rope. making and quickly hard to untie. Pass the free end of the rope through the hole in the manger or around the hitching rack.

mended of a ro] as a permanent repair. Reach through between the two twisted parts and draw the opposite the loop without slipping. o3. following the arrow. Fig.. It may be employed as an e ergency tie for a broken line or strap but is not to be recom. 38 . The Harness hitch is a rope in such a way that strain may employed for forming a loop on be applied to both ends and to Start to tie an Over-hand knot as shown. This is easily untied by first withdrawing the free end from the loop and then pulling on same until knot is untied. 84. The Strap hilch or Line knot is used to join the free ends of iwo leather driving lines on a team. The completed har- ness hitch appears as shown.through the first loop and secure by inserting the free end of the rope through the second loop as shown. side of the loop through. The is hich Clevis hitch is used for forming a loop on the end both secure under strain and easily untied. Fi~. 82.

illustrations of the The following Other packers Diamond Hitch are shown only as types actually in use by different men The in the packing business. becoming unknown. and the As a consequence. the probability is that no two would tie the Diamond Hitch alike in every particular. some packers tie the Diamond Hitch so that the final knot is on top of the As an example. has served to crowd pack animal transportation back into the hills and into those few regions where rail and fast sail skill of the packer is fast be ng forThe skill of the experienced packer is little short of marvelgotten. and old trappers of the period of 1849. or what is known as an aparejo pronounced. Diamond Hitch rough country where there is frequent trouble with pack animals falling with their load. in animal's back where it can be easily reached and loosened with the Under more favorable conditions. but the more widely used was.The Diamond Hitch The present age of high speed transportation both on land and water. In fact. where he can catch a more or less wild pack animal and attach from 100 to 400 or 500 pounds of stuff to his back so securely that it have not yet penetrated. so that those interested it may making the hitch for themselves. may have different methods of tying cuts if the type of load they are handling. out of a group of old packers animal down. ous. from different localities. some form of the famous will ride all Diamond Hitch. and in the air as well. 39 . other packers use a Diamond Hitch in which the final tie is made on the side of the animal near the cinch hook. credited with introducing the The early trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company are Diamond Hitch among the Northwest it Indians. gave rise to different methods of binding on the load. follow in it more suited to shown represent the the cinch were cut under the animal's belly and the pack were flattened out and laid on the floor This method clearly shows in one pic- ture all the different parts of the hitch. ap-pa-ray-ho. pack trains are of course. but civilian packers often use the cross tree saddle. no doubt. Different types of freighting. Different packers have modified and used the to suit their needs. day without coming off. claim that the Mexicans used at that time. appearance of the Diamond Hitch with the ropes undisturbed. engaged in freight- ing to California. The Government uses a Spanish packsaddle.

85. Fig. or perhaps satisfy the interest of those heard of the Diamond Hitch but have never seen it tied. on the saddle preparatory to lashing it No attempt will be made to give com- plete instructions in packing. Then the cinch off off hook is The near packer throws a catches it it thrown under the animal's belly and caught by the 'bight over the pack and the in the cinch hook. making tight over the pack. loop first formed between the rope lying lengthwise and the part crossing the pack is lowered over the near side of the pack. The Two Man Diamond Hitch the head is started by laying the to tail with middle of the rope lengthwise over the pack from head the free end of the rope at of the animal. The two ropes over the pack are then twisted one and In this case the a half times and a loop pulled through as shown. packer. 86. The near packer pulls packer up on the rope. methods of placing the load fast with the Diamond Hitch. hope they will serve the prospective The hitches shown are given with the camper on his vacation to a re- treat in the hills. There are different It consists of backbone.a padded board resting on each side of the animal's These two padded boards are usually fastened together with two cross trees resembling a saw buck. 40 . who have The Two Man Diamond Hitch Fig.

This can be done by laying the middle of the rope lengthwise of the pack with the end to the rear instead of toward the front of the animal.. The one man Diamond Hitch is employed by one packer working alone and requires that he make two trips around the animal in tying it. two Diamond Hitches shown. and is easily untied by loosening the half hitches. The second half hitch is made with a 'bight instead of the end of the rope. the final tightening pull is taken toward the head of the animal. The One Man Diamond Hitch Fig. The packer's knot as shown consists of a clove hitch Fig. as shown. tight in making. if pulled .Fig.. without slipping. 88. will hold very securely. 89. hitch is The difference between the one-man hitch and the two-man In the that they finish up on different sides of the animal. made around a standing rope. One or more half hitches are then thrown over this loop to make it secure This knot. The hitch is then completed by the off packer. 87. Many packers tie the Diamond Hitch so that the final pull is taken to rearward of the animal. the near side of the animal at shoulder he 41 first lays the middle . The other end of the cinch carries a hook. and pulling on the free end of the rope. its Standing 01. The rope is braided into a ring on one end of the cinch.

is off side of is over both corners of the the pack. formed Then the loop drawn up between the two twisted ropes near side of the pack. Fig. Fig. The loop formed on the off side between the part crosswise of the pack and the part of the rope crossing lengthwise of the pack. 91. the two ropes over the pack crosswise are then twisted. one man Diamond Hitch. the animal should fall on either side. lifting the forward strand up and back and pulling the rear strand forward and under. The free end of 42 . pack from forward to back with the free end He then throws the cinch over the pack and catches the hook under the animal's belly.of the rope across the of the rope forward. 90. Two turns are made and then a loop of the rope lying forward and back over the top of the pack is drawn up between the two twisted ropes as shown. Proceeding with the hitch. A loop of the rope is then caught under the cinch hook and pulled tight. the knot is easily reached and untied. find it helps to hold the hitch tight if they take a double turn around the hook in making the first tightening. lowered over the corners of the The final strain is taken on the free end of the rope If passing along the neck of the animal and tied at the forward point of the diamond with a packer's knot. in using the Some packers.

93.the rope is tucked under some part of the hitch or looped over the pack or otherwise disposed of. and back behind the upright at the level of the bottom of the transom and above the clove hitch. Fig. The lashing is brought under the transom. LASHEVGS Fig. A couple of frapping turns are then 43 . up in front of it. at no time is the end of the rope pulled through anywhere. is The Diamond thrown by two packers. is tied so that the first loop off side of lowered over the rear corner only of the the two other hitches described above. down in front of the transom. the Hitch shown the pack. To lash a Transom to an upright Spar with the tran- som in front of the upright. In making the Diamond Hitch. the other. horizontally behind the upright. This makes it easy to take off without becoming snarled. The following Four turns or taken be- turns are kept outside the previous ones on one spar and inside on more are required. and finished with a knot on top. The Diamond Hitch as mentioned above is frequently tied so that the knot occurs on the side of the animal opposite the This hitch is cinch hook instead of on top. not riding over the turns already made. In first loop included both corners of the pack. A clove hitch is made around the upright a few inches below the transom. 92.

. Rest their tips on a skid and lay its the third spar between them with so that the butt in the opposite direction will be in line. around the lashing. spar the distance from the butt to the center of the of the spars parallel to each other with Lay two an interval a little greater than the diameter. 94. is This is called a square lashing. The final clove hitch should never be made around the spar on the side toward which the stress The lashing to come. To lash three spars together as for a Gin or Tripod. and the lashing is finished off either around one of the spars or any part of the lashing through which the rope can be passed. as shown in Figure 94. as it may jam and be difficult to remove. Mark on each lashing. must be well beaten with handspike or pick handle to tighten it up. marks on the three spars Make a clove hitch on one of the outer spars below the lashing and take eight or nine loose turns around the three.tween the spar and transom. Pass a sling over the lashing and the tripod 44 is ready for raising. couple of trapping turns Take a between each pair of spars in succession and finish with a clove hitch on the central spar above the lashing. Fig.

TACKLE SETS the user. 95 the would be 95% of that applied to the free end of Ibs. By a combination of lines and sheaves. the use of may be developed upward The other advantage is mechanical. 97. The ropes are assumed to pull to each other and the figures 95 represent the pounds resulting in dif- ferent parts of the set under those conditions. the lift on the armature would be 200 as shown. the rope or 95 In Fig. The user may stand on the most easy and natural way of the ground and pull downward exerting force. 96 the re- sultant force would be 100 + Ibs. But where there is gain in pounds force applied. The resulting force is (neglecting or disregarding friction) then shown in all parts of the set. also separated in the illustrations in order to show each part parallel . on the object of 200 (neglecting and pulley) but distance travelled by the o'bject. and in Fig. applied to the free end of the rope. there always a counteracting loss due to an increase in the distance required to apply the force compared with the distance the weight or Ibs. while the resulting forces as in the case of a hoist. user will be two feet to one foot travelled by the The illustrations are shown in each case with an arbitrary force of 100 Ibs. (10 0-5) = 195 Ibs. 185% instead of The ropes are clearly. The use of block and tackle affords at least two advantages to One is the advantage of position. load will travel. The illustrations show 45 . force applied For example in on the barrel Fig. as in Figure 96. a force of 100 of the rope will give a resultant loss by friction in rope on the free end Ibs. In actual practice the friction of the sheave and the resistance of the rope to bending of the gives rise to a loss of about 5 % force applied to the rope passing through each sheave. force applied by the many times before is user can be multiplied it is transferred to act upon the body.

Whip-on-whip multiplies the mechanical advantage by where applied as shown. 97. 98. The gun tackle B is is the same as gun tackle A except that 3 : its application different. age 2 Fig. Fig. 46 . This : gives a theoretical advantage of 2 Fig. In both cases two single blocks are used. commonly used on a crane or derrick or perhaps for hauling an object up to a wall or to the water's edge. Fig. giving a theoretical advantage of 1. Theoretical advantage 1 : 1. The Luff tackle has many it applications aside from the one shown. 96. cept that the object to be The Running tackle is similar to the Single Whip exmoved is attached at a different place. 100. to the load with the loop snubbed the mechanical advantage would Fig. be 4 : 1. of 4 : 1 in the case shown. 95. If inverted and the top block applied two. 1. The Gun tackle since the user stands on the A affords an advantage of position ground and pulls down and the resultant Theoretical advant- force is : applied to the object vertically upward. The Single Whip affords only advantage of position Fig.some cal of the most typical applications of block and tackle for mechani- advantage or advantage of position or both. 1. 99. Ordinarily consisting of one single and one double gives a theoretical mechanical advantage block and a single rope.


5% 48 of the force on the rope passing . consisting of Single Whip and a Luff when the level of operations changes from time is undesirable to apply the amount of rope necessary also to make the Luff part of the set long enough to serve for all levels. but a greater mechanical advantage. gives a 1 and and an actual advant: age of 5. Single Spanish Burton (A) using two single blocks and one rope gives a greater mechanical advantage than the same equipment used as shifting cargo. the Gun Tackle.Fig. assuming a loss of over each sheave. 105. Fig.03:1. in Figure 81. tackle may be applied it to time and The Port tackle. This is useful in where the distance hoisted Single Spanish Burton in not great. 103. is A bale sling shown in use. theoretical mechanical advantage of 6 Three Fold Purchase using a six part line. etc. gives the same hoisting range as the Type A Burton. 102. Fig. A (B) using three single blocks and two ropes. A A Double Luff tackle has a four part a three part line as in the Single Luff. 104. 101. line instead of Fig. Fig.

49 .

Fig. 50 . Fig. gives a limited hoisting range which desirable in shifting heavy weights when it is necessary to lift them but a small distance. The illustration also shows a box sling in use. shows the large differences in mechanical advantage 'between different methods of threading up the set. 109. where the larger sizes are not available. while using exactly the same equipment as is used in Fig. 108. The illustration shows the possibility of using four two-sheave blocks. Fig. commonly used Four Fold purchase using two four-sheave blocks. is a further application of the prin- ciple of the Spanish Burton. using two ropes. is in derricks and hoists. The Double Burton A.Fig. for one rope and two single is blocks and one double block. 91. 106. 107. The Double Burton B. Double Burton C.

Hi .

111. Another Double also illustrates Burton which the possibility of combining two blocks in place of one. 52 . Fig. with the required number of sheaves. It will readily be rec- ognized that the major tackle must be four times the other set if as strong as both are to be used anywhere near to capacity. Fig. using but one rope. it illustrates the possiblity using to greater mechanical advantage than would be possible in a fold purchase.Fig. trates a Luff on Luff illus- common application of tackle to secure mechanical ad- vantage. six However. 110. Double of Burton D. 112. in this is case the hoisting range less than would be possible in a six fold purchase.

The These are built to apparatus referred to known as a chain hoist. A Geared-chain-hoist showing a 1-ton hoist manu- factured by the Wright Mfg. Chain for various capacities. 114. A Differential Chain hoist using a single continuous 53 chain running through a pulley at the bottom and over two different . 113. using two chains. the other pulley As the small pulley winds up the raise the thus raising the lower end of the chain loop. made and can foe built to load any desired distance. merely by supplying chain long enough. use chain instead of rope and are designed to operate slowly.Fig. of a special device for hoisting machine shops and other heavy machine parts. first cost. some being merely a train of gears attached to a sheave wheel and driven by a worm gear. Fig.. Co. but with great mechanical advantage. one for lifting and the other for operating. unwinds one end other end faster hoists are of the chain slowly. Others employ the differential principle in which the hoisting chain is double. of Different types embody different design movements. one end run- ning over a small pulley and the other end running in the opposite direction over a larger pulley on the same shaft. 112 CHAIX HOISTS Frequent use is made is in garages. A chain-hoist attached to a travelling crane for a shop makes a very satisfactory where heavy parts are to be lifted and transequipment ferred and should be used wherever there is enough such work to warrant the greater Fig. of Lisbon. Ohio. places.

A Chinese hoist or Chinese capstan. 115. Hoisting hay from a loaded wagon to the track of located barn. car* I cal The necessary frequently t 54 materials be found around almost any farm or construction camp. has the merit of being cheap and easy to construct and very efficient HK in developing a large mechaniadvantage. As one unwinds the other winds up and the difference in diameter causes one to wind up faster than the other unwinds.sized wheels fastened on the same shaft at the top. Fig. Fig. A Snatch Block is used frequently in connection with hay handling equipment on the farm. in which the is dif- ferential principle used. 116. in the peak the requires much . The illustration shows the possibility of It quickly applying the principle to the hoisting of a well-casing.

transmission rope. a certain size of rope is "being used on a rope drive.more force than is required to move the load along the track. strength of a rope is decreased by age. on the old sheave wheel Following are tables of strength for a few different kinds and sizes of ropes. which require an intimate knowledge of their strength and life in service. a certain kind and size of rope is suitable for guy lines but would not be able to compete with a different type of rope in service on a rapid hoist. Four-strand rope has about 16% more strength than threestrand rope. Haulage. hoisting and the transmission of power are three of the most modern applications to which ropes and cables have been put. but rather to give a general conception of the strength to be expected of different kinds and sizes of ropes in more common of ropes. The object is to utilize the direct pull of the team while elevating the is load and increase the speed of the load and decrease the distance travelled by the team after the load has been elevated and to be transferred. Tarring rope decreases the strength by about 25% be- cause the high temperature of the tar injures the fibers. Those interested in more complete information on this subject should refer to the catalogs put out by manufacturers No accurate rule can be given for calculating the strength of rope and any table giving the strength will only be approximately correct. in order to secure satisfactory service. From then on. For instance. Similarly. exposure and wear. the snatch block pulls away from the knot causing the load to travel on the carrier track twice as fast as the team. the sheaves are not increased in diameter suitable to the increased size of rope. It is not the purpose to make these tables complete and exhaustive in scope. 55 The . the acute bending of the larger rope will shorten its life materially. TRANSMISSION CABLES Hemp and Manila Ropes and cables have many uses and applications both in industry and pleasure. but the power load it is increasing to such a point If is necessary to increase the size of. use.

Calculation of Strength For new manila rope the breaking strength in pounds may be found approximately by the following rule: Square the diameter. in Do not let it the ends become untwisted but the rope is fix them some way to prevent as soon as obtained. This will of course of the tar or other preservative. and flexible A stiff and hard rope may be made very soft by boiling for a time in pure water. The The usually regarded as 1-6 of the breaking strength. the rope will come out of the coil with very few kinks or snarls. measured in inches. Uncoiling Rope 1. remove some Cowboys treat their lasso ropes in this way.The breaking strength of a rope is the weight or pull that will it. Start with the end found in the center of the coil. The safe load must be very much less than break the breaking strength. The found by dividing the breaking strength 'by 6 as we did for the manila rope. If it pull this side. uncoils in the wrong direction. 2. 4. The safe load can be found by dividing the breaking strength by 6. 3. Keep rope in a Care of Rope dry place. and multiply this product by 7200. and safe load for all ropes must be largely a matter breaking strength of good judgment and experience. 56 . Pull this end out and the rope should uncoil in a direction opposite to the direction of motion of the hands of a clock. Hemp in rope is approximately % a s strong as manila so that we use the following rule for pounds is is safe load it: The breaking strength of hemp rope 5400 times the square of the diameter in inches. do not leave it it out in the rain. The safe load is the weight you may put on a rope without danger of breaking it. turn the coil over and same end through the center of the coil and out on the other If these directions are followed. If a rope gets wet. Result obtained from this rule may vary as much as 15% from actual tests. stretch out straight to dry. in order that life and property may not be endangered safe load is when heavy objects are to be moved or lifted.


CAST STEEL ROPE Composed Diameter Inches in of 6 strands and a hemp center. 7 wires to the strand .

37 wires to the strand Approximate C.CAST STEEL ROPE Composed Diameter lnches in of 6 strands and a hemp center.rcumference .

two 3 O J3 u c o *l CC^OOIMOO^OO . O.V.LO i?q O C O 2>H O O LO CO OO CO T I rt< LO tO CO CO il tr.LO LO-<fCO<M<M<MrH mi LO CO t.OO CO 10 wo 10 J * O^ fc M - ^ g Eg o v.LO IO LO LO LO LO C<1 IO 1C t.O' 10 O30O 010101010 COlOOOrHlO IO rt< . a .: P-'3 o.

! 13 10 CO U3 tO fr- II u gUc^ OO t^ C<l T-( > M t> M rH i-l E .r ^J OCJ T3 to 10 10 10 10 oo c<i ca os as &I .2 fi -2 -g B .^to i-t c<jto^oocoooc<ioo''i<r-iooeo-*coe<ic<iT-i T-i *-3 .o OS CO O i I C<1 r-t r-1 t- e> oo -^ r1 C<I C<l 000 Wo s'S CO <*< CO 4O II It ^ Cfl o O> co eo t^ CO * IO OO T-> O e o e SZB c rv ~ ooeotoooxo - 2 > O > O O t-oscr.

in ordering. is is accessible. If wrap around and untwist the will be a bench vise the. "The tools required are a small marlin-spike. and to the length proportionately longer for larger sizes. for 117. used up in making the An allowance of not less than 16 feet for ^ inch rope. it found very convenient for holding "In splicing a rope. is The length : of splice relation to the 1. The additional length recommended sizes of wire rope is as follows: making a splice in different Diam." diameter of the rope approximately 50 is This extra length equal to the distance EE' in Fig. a certain length splice. nipping and either clamps or a small hemp rope sling with which to rope. For this purpose a long splice invariably used.SPLICING TRANSMISSION CABLES Wherever wire rope transmissions are used splice the rope or cable so that it it is necessary to will run smoothly over the sheave is wheels. (Taken from "American Wire Rope" published by American Steel and Wire Company). cutters. of must be added an endless rope.rope. of Rope in Inches .

to direction. e. the straight end of unlaid strand A on one-half inch rope equal 16 inches for 16 foot splice. Fig. 119. the strand belonging to the other end of the rope. 119.. until there remains a length of stand equal in inches to the length of splice EE' in feet. lay in its place the corr^>- 63 . lay into the seam or groove opposite it opens. and following it the unlay closely. Unlay the adjacent strand in the opposite and following the unlay closely. Then cut the other strand about the same length from the point of meeting. Third.Fig. Second. Unlay a strand from one end. g. as shown at A.

and cutting the ends as All the strands are now laid in their proper places with their respective ends passing each other. Pursue the same course with the remaining four pairs of opposite strands. tie be well after laying each pair of strands to them tem- porarily at the points Fig. hand clamp at a point and by a hand clamp applied near the 64 . 119. A and B. A and B into five equal parts. their variety consists in the Fig.spending opposite strand. as shown in Fig. cutting the ends as described before at B. 119). will A few days' use make Th it difficult to discover at all. method of securing the ends. stopping each pair of strands so as to divide the space between before. splice with ends secured results in a The completed cable with scarcely any enlargement at that point. The four strands are now with eight remaining at It will laid in place terminating at A and B. M and M'. 121. All methods of rope splicing are identical up to this point. 120. final part of the splice is made as follows: "Clamp the rope to the left of either in a vise or with a A (Fig.

B'. it. if rope spliced as above will be nearly as strong as the original and smooth everywhere. Fig. 121. Cut the hemp core where the strand ends. and the splice is complete. A rope. as shown in Fig. well made. the splice. cannot be pointed out except by the close examination of an expert. let your assistant draw it out slowly. If a clamp and vice are not obtainable. separate the strands in making a splice in steel cable.. Remove out the the clamps Draw hemp core in the opposite direction and lay the other strand in the center of the Repeat the operation at the five remainand hammer the rope lightly at the points where the ends ing points. A marlin spike is absolutely necessary in order to Fig. and push the end of hemp back into and let the rope close together around rope in the same manner. and seizing it with nippers. After running a few days. its place. etc. rotate the marlin spike so as to run the strand into the up the rope by untwisting sufficiently to cut the hemp core at A. Then insert a marlin spike under the two nearest strands to right of A vacant by the pen up the rope and starting the loose strand into the space left hemp center. . pass each other at A'. 122. with small wooden mallets. 123. two rope slings and short wooden levers may "be used to untwist and open up the rope.

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Dana. By M. Steele. 7. K. Commercial Pipe By H. J. Waller. Dana and W. K. Waller and M. Jan. Well and Spring Protection. Dana. A. July 1916. drainage and dragging. (Iii 68 . Dana. 1914. By 6. Sewage Disposal for the Country Home. Fuel Tables. Aug. By L. pumps. L. J. 1916 (out of print). Snyder . Snyder and H. 1917. Water Sources. Oct. Grades and grading. K. storage tanks and -cost By M. (In preparation) for the Country Water Purification Home. By M. How to Measure Water. 12. 9. 1915. O. Construction of weirs and tables for same. By H. filters. By O. with efficency. K. Snyder. 3. V. Method of Thawing and list of equipment needed. Oct. By B. April 1916. heating equipment and care of same. Mar. By H. 1922. and Economic Efficiency preparation). 4. tables of equipment and operation of same. J. 10. Mar. 2. Cost of Cost of Pumping for Irrigation. 1916 (out of print). Snyder. L. Septic tanks and underground distribution systems. 11. Waller. L. data. Fuel Economy in Domestic Heating and Cooking. 5. Water Supply for the Country Home. By M. 8. 1921. J. Construction and Maintenance of Earth Roads. K. L. Snyder. The Use of Ropes and Tackle. (In preparation). By O. (In preparation) Farm Water Systems. Pearl. Illustrations of application to different jobs. Thawing Frozen Water Pipes Electrically. Edwards.ENGINEERING BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE STATE COLLEGE OF WASHINGTON ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION. Dec. of Commercial Coverings. 1.


Home Economics. College of Sciences and Arts Chemistry. Plant Pathology. from which young men and can. and domestic economy. The College Year Begins Monday. Economic Science and History. September Address all 1922. Forestry. is in charge of the demonstration and correspondence work in Agriculture. Boys and Girls Club Work. Poultry Husbandry. Home Economics. Dairy Husbandry. supplies lectures and educational motion picture films. Soils. Extension Service. School of Pharmacy The Graduate School Department of Military Science and Tactics Department of Physical Education and Athletics The Summer Session (six weeks) Short Courses from one to twelve weeks. College of English. Electrical Engineering. College of Mechanic Arts and Engineering Architecture. Civil Engineering. mechanic and industrial arts. Gas Tractors. Mathematics. Pullman. under the Smith-Lever Act. Address : Director. are offered in Farming. if they desire. MANY DEPARTMENTS PUBLISH SPECIAL BOOKLETS . be admitted to the Freshman class of 18. and County Work. beginning early in January. Dramatic Art. The Division of General College Extension gives correspondence courses. Horticulture. Automobiles. Physics. Chemical Engineering. Oral Expression. the College. Foreign Languages. horticulture. Landscape Gardening. HydroElectrical Engineering. women commerce.The State College of Washington Founded and Maintained by the National Government and the State of Washington College of Agriculture and Experiment Station Farm Crops. Metallography. Metallurgy. inquiries to: THE REGISTRAR. Mining. Botany. The Department of Elementary Science offers three-year vocational courses in agriculture. and Mining. Mechanical Engineering. organizes extension classes. Agricultural Engineering. Animal Husbandry. Address: The Director. Fine Arts. Wash. Home Economics College of Veterinary Science School of Mines and Geology Geology. Farm Management. School of Education School of Music and Fine Arts Music. Zoology.




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