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John’s Senior Secondary School and Junior College Mandaveli Chennai – 600028

A CHEMISTRY PROJECT “STUDY OF THE OXALATE ION CONTENT IN GUAVA FRUIT” Submitted in the partial Fulfilment of the requirement for AISSCE 2010-2011

By Abdud Dayan Adeeb Of Class XII C

John’s Senior Secondary School and Junior College Mandaveli Chennai – 600028 A CHEMISTRY PROJECT “STUDY OF THE OXALATE ION CONTENT IN GUAVA FRUIT” Submitted in the partial Fulfilment of the requirement for AISSCE 2010-2011 By Jagadeesh Sekar Of Class XII C .St.

CONTENTS            INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT REQUIREMENTS THEORY CHEMICAL EQUATIONS PROCEDURE PRECAUTIONS OBSERVATIONS CALCULATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY .

off-white ("white" guavas) to deep pink ("red" guavas). The fruit is rich in vitamin C and minerals. Guava fruit. When ripe it acquires yellow colour and has penetrating strong scent. or green when ripe. with the seeds in the central pulp of variable number and hardness. It is a rich source of oxalate and its content in the fruit varies during different stages of ripening. Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical fragrance. similar to lemon rind but less sharp. but becomes yellow. It is cultivated in all parts of India. again depending on species 1|Page . are round or oval depending on the species. Guava pulp may be sweet or sour. often with a bitter taste. usually 4 to 12 cm long. The outer skin may be rough. is usually green before maturity. the skin can be any thickness. maroon. or soft and sweet.STUDY OF OXALATE ION CONTENT IN GUAVA FRUIT INTRODUCTION Guava is sweet. juicy and light or dark green coloured fruit. Varying between species.

External sources like the foods we eat also contribute to the accumulation of oxalate in our body. Read more on what causes kidney stones.WHAT IS OXALATE? Oxalate is an organic acid. 2|Page . animals and humans. The oxalate present in the body is excreted in our urine as a waste. It is not an essential molecule and is excreted from our body in an unchanged form. OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT In this project. Diet is looked upon as a preventive measure in addition to medicines to treat kidney stones. primarily found in plants. we will learn to test for the presence of oxalate ions in the guava fruit and how its amount varies during different stages of ripening. Too much of oxalate in our urine. commonly referred to as kidney stones. results in a medical condition called as hyperoxaluria. Our body either produces oxalate on its own or it converts other molecules like vitamin C to oxalate.

REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS REQUIRED 100 ml Measuring Flask Pestle and Mortar Beaker Titration Flask 3|Page .

Funnel Burette Pipette Weight-Box 4|Page .

Filter Paper Guava fruit at different stages of ripening CHEMICALS REQUIRED Dilute H2SO4 KMnO4 solution 5|Page .

THEORY Oxalate ions are extracted from the fruit by boiling pulp with dil. Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant. as determined by an indicator (see below). and often when the solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink of phenolphthalein indicator. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete. 6|Page . This is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point—the volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte. the endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to 7. In the classic strong acid-strong base titration. Because volume measurements play a key role in titration. or some multiple thereof (as in polyprotic acids). A reagent. Then oxalate ions are estimated volumetrically by titrating the solution with standard KMnO4 solution. it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. it is also known as volumetric analysis. whose concentration is not known. H2SO4. Using a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant. called the titrant or titrator. of a known concentration (a standard solution) and volume is used to react with a solution of the analyte or titrand.

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Molecular Equations 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 HOOC-COOH.+ 16H+ + 5C2O42- 2Mn2+ +8H2O + 10CO2 7|Page .2H2O +[O] K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 2H2O + 4[O]     60  70 o C 2CO2 + 2H2O x 5 3KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 +5 HOOC-COOH.+16H+ + 5eC2 O 4 Mn2+ + 4H2O 2CO2 + 2ex 2 x 5 2MnO4.2H2O K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 18H2O + 10CO2 Ionic Equations MnO4.

Transfer the crushed pulp to beaker and add about 50 ml dil. H2SO4 to it 8|Page . Weigh 50.PROCEDURE 1. 2.0g of fresh guava and crush it to a fine pulp using pestlemortar.

Make the volume upto 100 ml by adding distilled water. 4.3. Cool and filter the contents in a 100 ml measuring flask. Boil the contents for about 10 minutes. 9|Page .

0 g of 1. 6. Heat the mixture to about 60oC and titrate it against KMnO4 solution taken in a burette. 10 | P a g e . 2 and 3 days old guava fruit. Take 20 ml of the solution from the measuring flask into a titration flask and add 30 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. The end point is appearance of permanent light-pink colour.5. Repeat the above experiment with 50. 7.

the scale of the burette is out of scope in regard to the concentration of the oxalate ion. 7. 5. 4. If the titration is carried with concentrated filtrate. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO4 attacks rubber. appears. Add about an equal volume of dil. After estimating the end from the diluted solution. the original concentration of the concentrated filtrate can be calculated by multiplying the concentration the estimated filtrate with the factor by which it was diluted. KMnO4 solution is always taken in the burette. The concentration of oxalate ion obtained from the filtrate is unfavourably high. So diluting the concentrated filtrate to an appropriate proportion and titrating it with KMnO4 and estimating the end point will make it favourable. 6. throw away the solution and titrate again. 3. When it becomes unbearable to touch. Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading with KMnO4 solution. H2SO4 to the guava extract to be titrated (say a full test tube) before adding KMnO4 . 2. In such a case. this shows that either H2SO4 has not been added or has been added in insufficient amount. 11 | P a g e . In order to get some idea about the temperature of the solution touch the flask to the back side of your hand. In case.PRECAUTIONS 1. on addition of KMnO4 a brown ppt. the required temperature is reached.

0 ml Normality of KMnO4 solution = N Guava extract From Fresh Guava Initial reading of the burette Final reading of the burette Volume of the N/20 KMnO4 solution (ml) Strength of Oxalate One Day Old Guava 12 | P a g e .OBSERVATIONS Weight of guava fruit taken each time = 50.0 g Volume of guava extract taken in each titration = 20.

2 and 3 days old guava extract and interpret the result. mass of oxalate ion = x 44 g/litre of the diluted extract Similarly. N1 = x = N2V2 (KMnO4 solution) x 10 = Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = Normality x Eq. calculate the strength of oxalate in 1.CALCULATIONS For fresh guava N1V1 (guava extract) N1 Normality of oxalate. For One day old guava N1V1 (guava extract) N1 Normality of oxalate. mass of oxalate ion = x 44 g/litre of the diluted extract Similarly. N1 = x = N2V2 (KMnO4 solution) x 10 = Strength of oxalate in one day guava extract = Normality x Eq. calculate the strength of oxalate in 1. 2 and 3 days old guava extract and interpret the result. 13 | P a g e .

CONCLUSION The concentration of the oxalate ion increases with increase with ripening 14 | P a g e .

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF APPLIED SCIENCE: http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.org 3. www.wikipedia. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Class XII 15 | P a g e .in/currsci/aug102001/248.ac.pdf 2.ias.

the scale of the burette is out of scope in regard to the concentration of the oxalate ion. the original concentration of the concentrated filtrate can be calculated by multiplying the concentration the estimated filtrate with the factor by which it was diluted. throw away the solution and titrate again. So diluting the concentrated filtrate to an appropriate proportion and titrating it with KMnO4 and estimating the end point will make it favourable. After estimating the end from the diluted solution. In such a case. If the titration is carried with concentrated filtrate. Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading with KMnO4 solution. on addition of KMnO4 a brown ppt. this shows that either H2SO4 has not been added or has been added in insufficient amount. OBSERVATIONS Weight of guava fruit taken each time = 50. 7. The concentration of oxalate ion obtained from the filtrate is unfavourably high.5. In case.0 g 1|Page . appears. 6.

0 ml Normality of KMnO4 solution = 120 N CALCULATIONS Guava extract From Fresh Guava One Day Old Guava Initial reading of the burette Final reading of the burette Volume of the N/20 KMnO4 solution (ml) Strength of Oxalate For fresh guava N 1 V1 N2 V2 (guava extract) (KMnO4 solution) 1|Page = .Volume of guava extract taken in each titration = 20.

2 and 3 days old guava extract and interpret the result. x200 x 44 g/litre of CONCLUSION 1|Page . For One day old guava N 1 V1 N2 V2 (guava extract) (KMnO4 solution) N1 x x200 x 44 g/litre of = x 10 = 120 x Normality of oxalate. mass of oxalate ion = the diluted extract Similarly. calculate the strength of oxalate in 1. N1 = x200 Strength of oxalate in one day guava extract = Normality x Eq.N1 Normality of oxalate. N1 = x x200 10 = 120 x x Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = Normality x Eq. calculate the strength of oxalate in 1. 2 and 3 days old guava extract and interpret the result. mass of oxalate ion = the diluted extract Similarly.

The concentration of the oxalate ion increases with increase with ripening BIBLIOGRAPHY 3|Page .

ias.in/currsci/aug102001/248. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Class XII 3|Page .org 3. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF APPLIED SCIENCE: http://www.1.pdf 2.wikipedia. www.ac.

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