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Inverting input

Output Invert Noninvert V-

Noninverting + input Symbol

NC V+ Output

Typical Package

OpampsarelinearICdeviceswithtwoinput O li ICd i itht i t terminals,andoneoutputterminal.Oneinputis inverting(),andtheotherisnoninverting(+). i ti ( ) dth th i i ti ( ) Standardsymbolusuallydoesnotshowdc supplyterminals.

Ideal op-amp characteristics: Zin = ; Av = ; bandwidth = ; Zout = 0 Practical op-amp characteristics:
Zin = very high (M); Av = very high (>100,000); Zout = very low (<100 ) bandwidth = few MHz range Vout and Iout have limitations

Viin + Zin

Vout Zo

Op-amp representation

+VCC RC1 Input 1 Q1 RE Circuit VEE Outputs 1 2 Q2 An op-amp typically consists of two or more differential amplifier stages. RC2 1 Inputs 2 Input 2 1 Outputs 2 Symbol

SingleEndedInputOperation Single EndedInputOperation

Vin 1 1 Vp 2 2 Vp 1 1 Vp 2 Viin 2 Vout2 Vout1 Vout2 Vp Vout1

2Vp Viin 1 1 Vout1 2Vp 2 2 Vout2 -Vin Differential or double-ended input has two out-of-phase signals at the inputs. f h i l h i Output has a peak that is doubled the peak (Vp) for single-ended operation single ended operation.

CommonModeInputOperation Common ModeInputOperation

Vin 1 1

0V 0V

2 Vin

Two signals with the same phase, frequency, and amplitude pp p p are applied to the inputs. Output is zero due to cancellations. Thus, unwanted signals (noise) appearing at both input lines are essentially cancelled by the diff-amp and do not appear at the outputs.

CommonModeRejectionRatio Common ModeRejectionRatio

Ideally,adiffampprovidesaveryhighgainfor desiredsignals(single endedordifferential),and desiredsignals(singleendedordifferential),and zerogainforcommonmodesignals. Commonmoderejectionratio(CMRR) Common moderejectionratio(CMRR) isa measureoftheamplifiersabilitytoreject commonmodesignalsandistheratioofthe common modesignalsandistheratioofthe differentialvoltagegain(Avd=|vo1/vin|)tothe commonmodegain(Acm =|vo1(cm)/vin(cm)|):
Avd Avd i dB CMRR = ; or 20 l log in Acm Acm

OpAmpParameters Op AmpParameters
InputOffsetVoltage,VOS isthedifferenceinthevoltage betweentheinputsthatisnecessarytomakeVout(error) = ( ) 0.Vout(error) iscausedbyaslightmismatchofVBE1 and VBE2.TypicalvaluesofVOS are2mV. InputOffsetVoltageDrift specifieshowVOS changes withtemperature.TypicallyafewV/oC. InputBiasCurrent isthedccurrentrequiredbythe C h d db h inputsoftheamplifiertoproperlyoperatethefirststage. Bydefinition,itistheaverageofthetwoinputbias Bydefinition itistheaverageofthetwoinputbias currents,IBIAS =(I1 +I2)/2.

OpAmpParameters(cont d) Op AmpParameters(contd)
DifferentialInputImpedance isthetotalresistance betweentheinvertingandnoninvertinginputs. CommonmodeInputImpedance istheresistance betweeneachinputandground. InputOffsetCurrent isthedifferenceoftheinputbias currents:IOS =|I1 I2|,andVOS =IOSRin(CM).TypicallyinnA range. OutputImpedance istheresistanceviewedfromthe outputterminals. t tt i l OpenLoopVoltageGain,Aol,isthegainoftheopamp withoutanyexternalfeedbackconnections. withoutanyexternalfeedbackconnections

OpAmpParameters(cont d) Op AmpParameters(contd)
CommonmodeRejectionRatio foropampisdefinedas CMRR=Aol/Acm or20log(Aol/Acm) indB. SlewRate isthemaximumrateofchangeoftheoutput voltageinresponsetoastepinputvoltage.Slewrate= vout/t,wherevout =+Vmax (Vmax).Theunitsforslew rateisV/s. FrequencyResponse isthechangeinamplifiergain h h lf versusfrequencyandislimitedbyinternaljunction capacitances. capacitances Otherfeaturesincludeshortcircuitprotection,nolatch up,andinputoffsetnulling. up andinputoffsetnulling

Sincetheopenloopgainoftheopampisvery high,anextremelysmallinputvoltage(suchas VOS)woulddrivetheopampintosaturation. Byfeedingaportionoftheoutputvoltagetothe invertinginputoftheopamp(negative feedback),theclosedloopvoltagegain(A feedback) theclosed loopvoltagegain(Acl) can bereducedandcontrolled(i.e.stable)forlinear operations. operations Negativefeedbackalsoprovidesforcontrolof Zin,Zout,andtheamplifiersbandwidth. Z dth lifi b d idth

InvertingAmplifier I ti A lifi
Virtual Ground Ri Vin 0V + Rf


AssumingZin betweenveand+ve b d terminalsisinfinite, currentintove i terminaliszero. Therefore,Iin =Vin/Ri isequaltoIf =Vout/Rf Rearranging,

Acl ( I )

Rf Vout = = Vin Ri

Noninverting Amplifier
Rf Vf Ri Feedback voltage, Vf = BVout, where
B= Ri Ri + R f

Aol + Vin

Vout = Aol (Vin - Vf) Rearranging, g g Since BAol>>1,

Acl ( NI ) Rf Vout 1 = = 1+ Vin B Ri
Vout Aol = Vin 1 + BAol

VoltageFollower V lt F ll
VFisaspecialcaseof thenoninverting h i i amplifier. SinceB=1,Acl(VF)=1 IthasaveryhighZin, y g , andaverylowZout Idealasabuffer amplifier.

+ Vin


Inverting Amplifier: Zin(I) Ri ; Zout(I) Zout Noninverting Amplifier: Zin(NI) = (1 + BAol)Zin
Z out ( NI ) Z out = 1 + BAol

Voltage Follower: Zin(VF) = (1 + Aol)Zin

Z out (VF ) Z out = 1 + Aol

Rf = Rs Vin Rs Rf Ri Viin

Vout Voltage Follower

+ Rc = Ri//Rf Vout


Ri + Rc = Ri//Rf Vin Noninverting Amplifier

Inverting Amplifier

7 +V Offset null Invert Noninvert V1 741 8 2 NC V+ Output Offset null

741 + 1 4 5 10 k

8 pin 8-pin DIP or SMT Package

-V With no input, the potentiometer is adjusted until the output voltage is 0V.

BodePlotofOpenLoopGain BodePlotofOpen LoopGain

Aol(dB) 100 75 50 25 0 1 10 Critical frequency (fc(ol)) ( l) 100 1k 10k 100k Unity-gain frequency (fT) 1M 10M f(Hz) 3 dB open-loop bandwidth: BWol = fc(ol) Midrange

OpAmpRepresentation Op AmpRepresentation
R Vout

Aol =

Aol ( mid ) f 1+ f c ( ol )


Aol(mid) + C Op-amp O

Phase shift:

f = tan f c

-45o -90o

ClosedLoopvsOpenloop Closed LoopvsOpen loop Gain A



Open-loop gain

Closed-loop gain Acl(mid)



OpAmpBandwidth Op AmpBandwidth
Openloopbandwidth:BWol =fc(ol) Closedloopcriticalfrequency: Closed loopcriticalfrequency: fc(cl) =fc(ol)(1+BAol(mid)) Sincef Si fc(cl) =BWcl,theclosedloopbandwidthis: BW th l d l b d idthi BWcl =BWol(1+BAol(mid)) GainBandwidthProduct isaconstantaslongas therolloffrateisfixed: Aclfc(cl) =Aolfc(ol) =unitygainbandwidth

Positivefeedback,wheretheoutputsignalbeingfed backisinphasetotheinput,willcausetheamplifierto b k h h ll h lf oscillatewhentheloopgain,AolB=1. Phasemargin,pm ,istheamountofadditionalphase shiftrequiredtomakethetotalphaseshiftaroundthe feedbackloop360o. Toensurestabilityforallmidrangefrequencies,anop y g q , p ampmustbeoperatedwithanAcl suchthattherolloff ratebeginningatfc is= 20dB/decade. g g / Gainmarginistheamountofadditionalgainrequired tomakethetotalgainaroundthefeedbackloopequals 1whenthephaseshiftis360o.UsuallygivenindB.

Aol Uncompensated Aol With some compensation With more compensation ti




Compensationisusedtoeithereliminateopen looproll offratesgreaterthan 20dB/decor looprolloffratesgreaterthan20dB/decor extendthe20dB/decratetoalowergain. TwobasicmethodsofcompensationforICop TwobasicmethodsofcompensationforICop amps:internalandexternal. IneithercaseanRCseriescircuitisaddedsothat I ith RC i i iti dd d th t itscriticalfrequencyislessthanthedominant (i.e.lowest)fc oftheinternallagcircuitsofthe (i l t)f fth i t ll i it fth opamp.

OpAmpCompensation Op AmpCompensation
Someopamps(e.g.741)arefullycompensated internally,i.e.,their 20dB/decslopeisextended internally,i.e.,their20dB/decslopeisextended allthewaydowntounitygain.Hence,theyare unconditionallystable. Adisadvantageoffullycompensatedopampsis thatthebandwidthandslewratearereduced. thatthebandwidthandslewratearereduced Manyopamps(e.g.LM101A)haveprovisionsfor externalcompensationwithasmallcapacitor. t l ti ith ll it Thisallowsforoptimumperformance.

ZeroLevelDetector Zero LevelDetector

+ Vin +Vsat Vout Vout 0 -Vsat Vin 0 t t

Because of the high open-loop voltage gain, a very small gain difference voltage between the + and - inputs drives the amplifier output into either +Vsat or -Vsat. p p

NonzeroLevelDetector Nonzero LevelDetector

+V R1 R2 Vref +Vsat

+ Vin

Vout 0 Vout -Vsat Vref Vin 0

Vref can also be set by other means, e.g. a battery or a zener diode.

ComparatorWithHysteresis (SchmittTrigger)

+Vsat Vout R1 R2 0 -Vsat VUT Vin 0 VLT Hysteresis is achieved by positive i i hi d b ii feedback and makes the comparator less sensitive to noise on the input. input t t


R2 Vsat VUT = R1 + R2 VLT = R2 (Vsat ) R1 + R2

OutputBoundingWithOne Zener
D Vin R +VZ Vout 0 Vout Vin 0 -0.7 t

A single zener diode can be used to limit the output voltage to the zener voltage in one direction and to the forward diode on the other.

OutputBoundingWithtwo Zeners D D
1 2


+VZ +0.7 Vout 0 Vout -VZ -0.7 Vin 0 t

Two zener diodes would limit the output voltage to the zener voltage plus the forward voltage drop (0.7V) of the forward-biased zener . g p( )

VU Vin VL _ + _ + R Vout 0 t D1 D2 VU Vin VL 0 Vout

The window comparator detects when an input voltage is between two limits, an upper and a lower, called a window.

ComparatorApplication#1 C t A li ti #1
+V R1 R Wheatstone bridge R1 isathermistor. Attemperaturesbelowset value,R1 >R2;opampoutput gg isVsat anddoesnottrigger alarmcircuit. Whentemperaturerisesand p exceedscriticalvalue,R1 <R2; opampoutputturnsto+Vsat whichturnsonalarmor hi h l initiateanappropriate response. response

+ R2 R

To alarm circuit

Over-temperature sensing circuit

Vref Vin (analog) R R R R + _ + _ + _ The simultaneous or fl h analog-toflash l digital converter (ADC) uses parallel D1 Binary comparators to p D0 output compare the linear input signal with various reference lt d l d voltages developed by a voltage divider. Enable input p

Priorit encod ty der

WhenVin exceedsVref foragivencomparator,its outputbecomeshigh. Thepriorityencoderproducesabinarynumber representingthehighestvalueinput. representingthehighestvalueinput Theencodersamplesitsinputonlywhen enabled. bl d Thehigherthesamplingratethebetterthe accuracy. 2n 1comparatorsarerequiredforconversionto p q anndigitbinarynumber.

Vin1 Vin2 R1 R2 Rf By making R1 = R2 = = RN = R:




Vout =

Rf R

(Vin1 + Vin 2 + . . . + VinN )

N-input summing amplifier

If Rf = R, it is a unity-gain summing amplifier. If Rf = R/N, it is an averaging amplifier. i lifi

OpAmpIntegrator Op AmpIntegrator
C Ri Vin Vin

Vout 0 0

t t

Vin S ope o Slope of Vout = integrator: t Ri C


OpAmpDifferentiator Op AmpDifferentiator
Rf C Vin Vin

Vout 0 Vo t out


Viin = R f C t

Vin1 +Vcm

BasicInstrumentation Amplifier p
+ R3 1 R5


RG is an external gain-setting resistor. i i i

R1 R2

+ R4 3

Vout = Acl(Vin2 - Vin1) For R1 = R2 = R, and R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 ,

Vin2 +Vcm + 2


2R Acl = 1+ RG

NotesonInstrumentation Amplifier p
Themainpurposeofaninstrumentation amplifieristoamplifysmallsignalsthatare ridingonlargecommonmodevoltages. Commonlyusedinenvironmentswithhigh commonmodenoise,e.g.,remotetemperature orpressuresensingoveralongtransmissionline. orpressuresensingoveralongtransmissionline Itsmaincharacteristicsare:highZin,highCMRR, lowoutputoffset,andlowZ l t t ff t dl Zout AtypicalICinstrumentationamplifier:AD521

OperationalTransconductance Amplifiers
TheOTAisprimarilyavoltagetocurrent amplifierwhereIout =gmVin. ThevoltagetocurrentgainofanOTAisthe transconductance,gm =KIBIASwhereKis t d t KI h Ki dependentontheinternalcircuitdesign.
_ Inputs + IBIAS Output

BasicOTACircuit B i OTACi it
+V RBIAS Vout RL -V Inverting amp with fixed voltage gain



_ OTA +


Thevoltagegainof theamp.,|AV| mRL h |A |=g Forvariablegain, RBIAS IfRBIAS isconnected toaseparatebias p voltage:VBIAS + V 0.7 +

+V V MOD R1 RBIAS Vout RL -V Vout VMOD Vin


_ OTA +



VMOD + V 0.7 = RBIAS

Thebasiclogamplifierproducesanoutput voltageasafunctionofthelogarithmofthe inputvoltage;i.e.,Vout =Kln(Vin),whereKisa constant. Recallthattheadiodehasanexponential characteristicuptoaforwardvoltageof approximately0.7V. Hence,thesemiconductorpnjunctioninthe H th i d t j ti i th formofadiodeorthebaseemitterjunctionofa BJTcanbeusedtoprovidealogarithm BJT b dt id l ith characteristic.

Vin R1 _ Vout + + Vin R1 _ Vout


Vin V 0.025 ln I R R 1


Vin V 0.025 ln I R EBO 1

IR = reverse leakage current

IEBO = emitter-to-base leakage current

BasicAntilogAmplifier B i A til A lifi

Vin _ Vout + Rf


Vin R f I EBO anti l ti ln 0.025

Atransistorora diodecanbeusedas di d b d theinputelement. Theoperationofthe circuitisbasedonthe factthatVout =RfIC, andIC =IEBOeVin/K whereK 0.025V

SignalCompressionWithLog Si lC i WithL Amp.

Logarithmic signal compression

Whenasignalwithalargedynamicrangeis compressedwithalogarithmicamplifier,the highervoltagesarereducedbyagreater percentagethanthelowervoltages,thus keepingthelowersignalsfrombeinglostin noise.

ConstantCurrentSource C t t C tS

Forthebasic constantcurrent circuit,theopamp hasaveryhighZin, h hi hZ thus,IL =Ii. IfRLchanges,IL remainsconstantas longasVIN andRi are heldconstant.


_ +


VIN I L = Ii = Ri

CurrenttoVoltageConverter C t t V lt C t
Rf Sincetheinverting Ii If terminalisatvirtual Vin i li i l _ ground, Voutt Vout =IfRf =IiRf + Astheamountof lightchanges,the Circuit for sensing light level currentthroughthe g and converting it to a d i i photocellchanges; proportional output voltage thus Vout =|Ii|Rf

VoltagetoCurrentConverter V lt t C tC t
NeglectingVIO,the() V in and(+)terminalsare d( ) i l atthesamevoltage, Vin.Therefore,VR1 = Th f V Vin. SinceI=0, IL =I1 =Vin/R1

+ _ I=0



PeakDetector P kD t t
Whenapositive voltageisapplied,the l i li d h outputchargesthe Vin capacitoruntilVC = i ilV Vin(max). Ifagreaterinput peakoccurs,the capacitorchargesto thenewpeak.

Ri + _ Vout Rf C

TriangularWaveOscillator Triangular WaveOscillator

C VA +Vsat -Vsat Vout VUT VLT Integrator
VUT R3 R3 = +Vsat ; VLT = Vsat R R 2 2


R1 R2 R3

1 R2 f = 4R1C R3

SquareWaveOscillator Square WaveOscillator

R1 C VC _ Vf + R2 R3 Relaxation oscillator VC VUT

Vout VLT +Vsat V Vout -Vsat V

1 If R3 = 0.859R2, then: f = 2 R1C