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What is the least accurate approximation of a diode that can be represented by a simple switch? 3. The best conductors are the _________ element materials 4. Occurs when a conduction-band electron loses energy and falls back into a hole in the valence band 5. Refers to the fact that the region near the pn junction is depleted of charge carriers due to diffusion across the junction. 6. The condition that essentially prevents current through the diode 7. The absence of an electron in the valence band of an atom 8. The removal or addition of an electron from or to a neutral atom so that the resulting atom has a net positive or negative charge. 9. The resistance of a forward-biased diode is called the 10.One that has no impurities 11.Most good insulators are ________ rather than the singleelement materials 12.To increase the number of conduction-band electrons in intrinsic silicon, ___________ impurity atoms are added. 13.To increase the number of holes in intrinsic silicon, __________ impurity atoms are needed. 14.A ___________ material consists of silicon atom and trivalent impurity atoms such as boron 15.A silicon material that consists of silicon atoms and pentavalent impurity atoms such as antimony. 16.What is the value of the reverse current of practical diode model? 17.Semiconductor atoms bond together in a symmetrical pattern to form a solid material called ___________. Electric field The Ideal diode model Single Recombination Depletion Reverse bias Hole Ionization Dynamic or ac resistance Intrinsic crystal Compounds Pentavalent Trivalent p-type N- type 0 crystal
1. An open primary or secondary winding of a power supply transformer results in 2. The output frequency of a half-wave rectifier is _________to/of the input frequency 3. What is the average value of the half-wave rectified voltage given 25 V as its peak amplitude? 4. The PIV rating of the bridge diodes is __________to/than that required for the centertapped configuration. 5. Diode circuits used to clip off portions of signal voltages above or below certain levels, 6. The output frequency of a full-wave rectifier is ________ the input frequency 7. A transformer is generally specified based on _____________rather than the turns ratio, 8. The period of a full-wave rectified voltage is ____________ that of a half-wave rectified voltage 9. The indication of the effectiveness of the filter is called 10.Eliminates the fluctuations in the rectified voltage and produces a relatively smooth dc voltage 11.Circuit that maintains a constant dc voltage for variations in the input line voltage or in the load 12.A type of full-wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to the secondary of a center-tapped transformer 13.Use clamping action to increase peak rectified voltages without the necessity of increasing the transformer’s voltage rating 14.Maximum voltage appearing across the diode in reverse bias 15.Caused by the charging and discharging of the filter capacitor 16.A systematic process of isolating, identifying, and correcting a fault in a circuit or system 17.Allows unidirectional current through the load during the entire 360° of the input cycle 18.Allows current through the load only during onehalf of the cycle. 19.Generally used because of the surge current that initially occur s when power is first turned on 20.A figure of merit used to specify the performance of a voltage regulator SPECIAL- PURPOSE DIODES
0V Equal 7.95 V Less Clippers Twice Secondary voltage Half Ripple factor Filter Regulator Center-tapped rectifier Voltage multipliers PIV Ripple voltage Troubleshooting Full-wave rectifier Half-wave rectifier Slow-blow type fuse regulation
14. Increases a. 12. A device that operates in reverse bias 3.540.The varactor capacitance ratio is also known as Zener diode photodiode Voltage regulator Increases with an increase in temperature on decreases with decrease in temperature. 18. Tuning ratio . Laser Electrons. __________pass the pn junction and recombine with____________ in the _________material. 7.1. Organic LEDs and LEDs produce light through the process of __________ and ___________ respectively.When a PIN diode is forward-biased.Diode used in VHF and fast switching applications 16. The first visible red LEDs were produced using 8. green and blue LED peaks at __________________ (nm) respectively.The tunnel diode is only used at 19. it acts like a 17.If a tunnel diode is placed in series with the tank circuit and biased at the center of the negative-resistance portion of its characteristic curve.A diode that takes advantage of the variable forward resistance characteristic. and 460 Electrophophorescence and electroluminescence Reverse current Photodiode Schottky diode PIN diode Schottky diode Step.Recovery diode Current-controlled variable resistance Constant sinusoidal voltage VHF a. what happens to the capacitance if the reverse-bias voltage decreases? 20. A zener diode operating in breakdown acts as a 4. holes. Diodes that were designed to operate in reverse breakdown 2.No reverse leakage current 15. A diode that always operates in reversebias and is doped to maximize the inherent capacitance of the depletion region is 6. a _________ will result in the output. When the light-emitting diode (LED) is forward-biased.In a varactor diode. A positive temperature means that the zener voltage 5. The normalized output of the visible red.A diode that can be used as a variableresistance device controlled by light intensity.An increase in the amount of light intensity produces an increase in 11.A diode that operates only with majority carriers 13. 9. p-type GaAsp 660. yellow. 10.590.
037mA Cutoff Saturation cutoff collector current and temperature Collector only Phototransistor Optocouplers Current transfer ratio CTR EHF General-purpose transistors Forward-reverse bias Base Through-hole and surface mount Amplification CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 . Nonconducting state of a transistor 6.A key parameter in optocouplers is the CTR. State of a BJT in which the collector current has reached maximum and is dependent of the base current 7.Devices used to electrically isolate circuits 12.The process of increasing the power. Neither the base-emitter nor the base-collector junctions are forward-biased 8. voltage. What transistor category/ies uses plastic or metal packages? 16. BE junction must be forward-biased and the BC junction must be reverse-biased.BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS 1.In a phototransistor.Converts light energy to electrical signal 11. or current by electronic means. The ratio of the dc collector current to the dc base current of the transistor is. Which is the least of the three transistor currents? 2. dc alpha=0. hFE varies with which transistor current/s? 10. CTR stands for 13. Determine the base current given dc beta=100 . This is called 17.Indication of how efficiently a signal is coupled from input to output 14.70mA 5. what transistor current/s is produced and controlled by light? 18.RF transistors are designed to operate at 15. Base dc beta/dc current gain dc alpha 0.85. 3.Two basic package types 19. and IC= 3. the ratio of the dc collector current to the dc emitter current 4. To operate as an amplifier. dc beta varies with 9.
If an emitter resistor is added to a base bias circuit.The base bias circuit arrangement has poor stability because its Q-point varies widely with 20. the emitter voltage 4. 10? 5.31mA 2. Innovations in technology would allow a doubling of the number of transistors in a given space every year and that the speed of those transistors would increase. What happens to the base voltage in no. 1kΩ.TRANSISTOR BIAS CIRCUITS 1. 10kohms.If the dc beta in the preceding drops half of its original value.Given a voltage-divider biased BJT. For collector-feedback bias. 6. determine IC given VCC.17% Linear region Stiff voltage divider Dc beta Q-point Feedback . 21. it can go ___________ when an input signal is applied. RC. and 470ohms respectively. what is the value of the emitter current given VCC. Collector-feedback bias provides good stability using negative feedback from 9.The purpose of biasing a circuit is to establish a proper stable ________.The process of returning a portion of a circuit’s output back to the input in such a way as to oppose or aid a change in the output Base bias Directly dependent on dc beta Increases Increases Reduces Collector voltage Up and down Collector to base Moore’s law Saturation or cutoff 5. 16. 14. if the collector current increases.A voltage divider for which loading effects can be neglected 19. R2.The region along the load line including all points between saturation and cutoff 18. In an emitter-feedback bias. the increase in base voltage _________ the base current. What biasing method is common in switching circuits? 2.7kohms. 12. and 180kΩ. A Base bias in linear region shows that it is 3. 11. Use βDC=100.16% 27. 470Ω.12 V 39. As temperature goes up in a collector-feedback circuit. Use βDC= 100. 8. 4. respectively. respectively. RE.What is the percent change in VCE? 17. 22 15. and RB as 10V. 1kohm.Calculate for VCE in no.What is the value of VCE in no. In an emitter-feedback. R1. βDC and VBE goes _______ and __________. find the percent change in IC. what provides the bias for the base-emitter junction? 7. This prediction is widely known as 10.32mA 5.If an amplifier is not biased with correct dc voltages on the input and output.19 V 3. RC. and RE which are 10V.20? 13.
BJT AMPLIFIERS CHAPTER 6 .
4. Which of the three amplifier configurations exhibit high voltage gain and high current gain? 6.the overall voltage gain of the common-emitter amplifier is the product of the voltage gain from base to collector and 13. Which of the amplifier configurations is the most appropriate for certain applications where sources tend to have low-resistance outputs? 9. Amplifiers designed to handle small __________ signals are referred to as small-signal amplifiers.the reduction in signal voltage as it passes through a circuit 12. 16. An amplifier configuration which provides high voltage gain with a maximum current gain of 1. How does this affect the amplifier? 14.The ac voltage gain is the ratio of 11. Which of the r parameters is the most important? 3. 22. 2. 23. npn and a pnp. In a common-emitter amplifier. The collectors of two transistors are connected and the emitter of the first drives the base of the second. 7.Without the bypass capacitor. Determine the ac emitter resistance that is operating with a dc emitter current of 5mA. a diff-amp provides a very high gain for single-ended or differential signals and _____________ gain for common-mode signals.BJT amplifier that produces output that are a function of the difference between two input voltages.Which of the amplifier configurations is/are useful at high frequencies when impedance matching is required? 20. If βac=hfe. αac=? 5. 17. any change in input signal voltage results in 10.1.___________ contains two transistors.The measure of how well an amplifier maintains its design values over changes in temperature. a high input resistance and current gain._____________ consists of two types of transistors. 18. 8.An amplifier configuration in which the input signal is capacitively coupled to the emitter and the output is capacitively coupled from the collector. the CE amplifier’s emitter is no longer at ac ground.0 Ω hfb Common-emitter Common-collector Common-base Common-base Opposite change in collector signal voltage ac output voltage at the collector to ac input voltage at the base attenuation reciprocal of the attenuation It decreases the ac voltage gain Stability ac emitter resistance Darlington pair Complementary Darlington Common-base Common-base Voltage gain Differential amplifier 0 Differential amplifier .The power gain of a common-base amplifier is approximately equal to 21. 19. 15.Input signals are out of phase ac only r’e 5.Swamping is a method used to minimize the effect of the ____________without reducing the voltage gain to its minimum value. An amplifier configuration which has a voltage gain of approximately 1.Ideally.
The ____________ of an amplifier is the ratio of the output signal power supplied to a load to the total power from the dc supply. The four classes of power amplifiers are classified based on the percentage of the ____________which the amplifier operates in its ________region 9. 5.When the Q-point is at the center of the ac load line.Product of the rms load current and the rms load voltage 11. Which amplifier operates in the linear region for 180 deg. Of the input cycle when biased in cutoff and is in cutoff for 180 deg? 4. 19. It is the ratio of the output power to the input power 10.Another term for complementary Darlington 14.POWER AMPLIFIERS 1. linear Power gain Output power Push-pull Class C amplifiers Sziklai pair Efficiency Cutoff Class A Power amplifers A 25% 1W CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 FIELD –EFFECT TRANSISTORS .Amplifiers that are generally used in Radio Frequency Applications.Amplifiers that have the objective of delivering power to a load 18. These amplifiers are biased to conduct for slightly more than 180 deg. An amplifier that is biased below cutoff and is normally operated with resonant circuit load 8.The Q-point is at _________ at class B operation 16. It is the product of Q-point current and voltage of a transistor with no signal input 2.An advantage of push-pull class B and class AB amplifiers over class A 15.A type of class B amplifier with two transistors in which one transistor conducts for one half-cycle and the other conducts for the other half-cycle 12. a maximum class ________ signal can be obtained.The maximum efficiency of capacitively coupled class A amplifier cannot be higher than 20.The low efficiency of class A amplifiers limits their usefulness to small power applications that require usually less than ________.Operates in the linear region where the output signal is an amplified replica of the input signal 17. 3. Power dissipation Efficiency Class B Class AB Class C Current mirror Class C Input cycle. An amplifier that is generally used in Radio Frequency applications 6. 13. Implemented with a laser diode 7.
LDMOSFET has a lateral channel structure and is a type of 12. VGS varies quite a bit for JFET self-bias and voltagedivider bias but ID is much more stable with 10.In a MOSFET.____________ is sometimes called depletion/enhancement MOSFET.The ratio of change in drain current to a change in gate-to source voltage in a FET 19.Combines features from both the MOSFET and the BJT that make it useful in high-voltage and high-current switching applications. BJTs Depletion Transconductance Square-law device IGBT LDMOSFET .In terms of switching speed. What is the most common type of JFET bias? 6.A FET is called a ______________ because of the relationship of the drain current to the square of a term containing gate-to-source voltage 20. An n-channel universal transfer characteristic curve is also known as 4. FETs are preferred device in low-voltage switching applications. 17. 2. What type of JFET operates with a reverse-biased pn junction to control current in the channel? 3. 21.It is an example of the conventional E-MOSFET designed to achieve higher power capability 13. while______ transistor is generally used in high-voltage switching applications.Following are the three ways to bias a MOSFET except 14.1. collector. The change in drain current for a given change in gate-to-source voltage with the drain-to-source voltage constant 5. emitter MOSFETs. For increased Q-point stability. This sometimes called 9. It is a method for increasing the Q-point stability of a self-biased JFET by making the drain current essentially independent of gate-to-source voltage 7. __________ switch fastest and _____________ switch slowest. the value of RS in the self-bias circuit is increased and connected to a negative supply voltage. What JFET bias uses a BJT as a constant-current source? 8.The insulated-gate bipolar transistor combines which two transistors that make it useful in high-voltage and high-current switching applications? 15.Has a lateral channel structure and is a type of enhancement MOSFET designed for power applications.What are the three terminals of IGBT? 16. IGBT JFET Transconductance curve Forward transconductance Self-bias Current-source bias Current-source bias Dual-supply bias Voltage-divider bias D-MOSFET Enhancement MOSFET VMOSFET Current-source bias BJT and MOSFET Gate. 11. the process of removing or depleting the channel of charge carriers and thus decreasing the channel conductivity 18.
A nonlinear amplifier in which the transistors are operated as switches 10. In a class AB amplifier. The efficiency of a class D amplifier approaches 8. An amplifier that primarily uses only MOSFETs. It removes the modulating frequency and harmonics and passes only the original signal to the output. What is the relationship between the input resistance of a common-gate amplifier to its transconductance? 7.A class of amplifier that operates in the linear region for only a small part of the input cycle 17. if the VBE drops are not Class D PWM Low-Pass Filter Slightly less than 1 Voltage gain They are inversely proportional 100% Common-drain Class D Analog switch Analog multiplexer CMOS Class C Class A Class c Class C Thermal runaway matched to the diode drops or if the diodes are not in thermal equilibrium with the transistors. The input signal is applied to the gate and the output is taken from source 9.Used in low-power digital switching circuits 13. 3. The voltage gain of a common-drain amplifier is always 5.A device that switches an analog signal on and off 11.The least efficient amplifier 15. A process in which an input signal is converted to a series of pulses with widths that varies proportionally to the amplitude of the input signal.CHAPTER 9 FET AMPLIFIERS AND SWITCHING CIRCUITS 1. The load resistance connected to the drain of a common-source amplifier reduces ____________ 6.An amplifier that is biased below cutoff 16. 4. this can result in CHAPTER 10 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE .Consists of two or more analog switches that connect sample portions of their analog input signals to single output in a time sequence 12. 2.Amplifier commonly used as frequency multiplier 14.
what is the value of the dB gain? 13.The internal transistor capacitances affect the _________ frequency response: high or low 20. 7.A unit of logarithmic gain measurement and is commonly used to express amplifier response 17.If the voltage gain is less than one. A characteristic of an amplifier in which the product of the voltage gain and the bandwidth is always constant when the roll-off is -20 dB/ decade. The upper and lower dominant critical frequencies are sometimes called 6.7% 2 Internal transistor capacitances Midrange gain Roll-off measurement Negative Bode plot Lower break frequency Frequency response Decibel Step-response method Low High Frequency/amplitude and step Voltage gain Attenuation . At the critical frequencies the output voltage is 70. Which of the following has no effect on the lowfrequency response? 10.The lower and upper critical frequencies of an amplifier can be determined using the _____________ method by applying a voltage step to the input of the amplifier and measuring the rise and fall times of the resulting output voltage 18. What is the value of voltage gain in dB? 3. The frequency at which the output power drops to one-half of its midrange value 2.7% of its midrange value. 8.1.What is the gain that occurs for the range of frequencies between the lower and upper critical frequencies? 11. Critical frequencies are values of frequency at which the RC circuits reduce the voltage gain to ____________ of its midrange value.Which of the following is not a method in frequency response measurement? 12.The change in gain or phase shift over a specified range of input signal frequencies 16. What is the other term for lower critical frequency? 4.The coupling an bypass capacitors of an amplifier affect the _________ frequency response: high or low 19. it is usually called_______ Corner frequency -3 dB All of the above -3 dB point Half-power frequencies Gain-bandwidth product 70.When dB is negative. The condition where the gain is down 3 dB is logically called _________ of the amplifier response 5.A plot of dB voltage gain versus frequency on semilog graph paper 14.The critical frequency at which the curve “breaks” into a -20dB/decade drop 15.The Miller input and output capacitances for a BJT inverting amplifier depends on 22.Two frequency response measurement 21. An octave of frequency change is a ________ -times change 9.
What bilateral thyristor functions basically like two parallel SCRs turned in opposite directions with a common gate terminal? 4.CHAPTER 11 THYRISTORS 1.A type of three-terminal thyristor that is triggered into conduction when the voltage at the anode exceeds the voltage at the gate. The value of gate current necessary to switch the SCR from the forward-blocking region to the forward-conduction region under specified conditions.The characteristic of a UJT that determines its turnon point 16. 5. It is a type of three-terminal thyristor that is triggered into conduction when the voltage at the anode exceeds the voltage at the gate.The region that corresponds to the on condition of the SCR where there is forward current from anode to cathode through the very low resistance of the SCR 18.The SCR can only be turned on using its _________ terminal SCR Average forward current Triac UJT UJT PUT Forward-blocking region Forced commutation Gate Trigger Current LASCR Diac Triac Silicon Controlled Device (SCS) Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT) Standoff-ratio Shockley diode Forward_ conduction region Gate . 3. 6. 12. 10. 15. It is like the four-layer diode but with the added gate connection 2. 7.layer diodes turned in opposite directions. This is the maximum continuous anode current that the device can withstand in the conduction state under specifies conditions. A region of forward bias in which the device has a very high forward resistance and is in the off state 8. It can be used a trigger device for SCRs and triacs.A four-layer semiconductor device that operates essentially as does the conventional SCR except that it can also be light-triggered.Functions basically like two parallel 4.The four-layer diode is also called 17. ____________ does not belong to the thyristor family because it does not have a four-layer type of construction.A four-terminal thyristor that has two gate terminals that are used t trigger the device on and off 14. 11. A method for turning-off the SCR that basically requires momentarily forcing current through the SCR in the direction opposite to the forward conduction 9.A diac with gate terminal 13.
Differential mode .19. power and ground noninverting input. It is the dc current required by the inputs of the amplifier to Input bias current properly operate the first stage. Common temperature coefficient for the offset current 0.The value of the frequency at which the gain steadily Unity-gain decreases to a point where it is equal to unity frequency Or unity gain bandwidth 12.Acts as the trigger source in the LASCRs 20.Two types of op-amp input operation. It is the resistance viewed from the output terminal of the Output impedance op-amp 5.A special case of the noninverting amplifier where all of the Voltage-follower output voltage is fed back to the inverting input by a configuration straight connection 11. 3. and output 15. Functions of negative feedback in an op-amp Stabilize gain and increase frequency response 9. Differential impedance is measured by determining the Bias current change in ___________ for a given change in differential input voltage.The _________ of an op-amp equals the upper critical Bandwidth frequency.The three terminals of the basic op-amp not including Inverting input. 4.Basic methods of for turning off an SCR Light 4-layer diode Anode current interruption and forced commutation CHAPTER 12 THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 1. The measure of an amplifier’s ability to reject commonCMRR mode signals 2. 17.It is always equal to the frequency at which the op-amp’s Gain-bandwidth open. The total resistance between the inverting and Differential input noninverting inputs impedance 6.It has the highest input impedance and the lowest output Voltage-follower impedance of the three amplifier configurations 16. It is the typical value of input offset voltage in the ideal 0V case. 14.The relative angular displacement of a time-varying Phase shift function relative to a reference. product 13. The voltage gain of an op-amp with external feedback Closed-loop voltage gain 10. 7.A thyristor that conducts when the voltage across its terminals exceeds the breakover potential 21.5nA/°C 8.loop gain is unity or 0 dB.
Does the gain of an op-amp decreases or increases as frequency increases above the critical frequency 25.The three basic op-amp configurations 23. noninverting.18. The difference between the UTP and the LTP 5.Devices such as the diode and the transistor which are separate devices that are individually packaged and interconnected in a circuit with other devices to form a complete. 20. When the output is at the maximum positive voltage and the input exceeds UTP. the output switches to the _________ negative voltage A/D conversion Flash Differentiator Hysteresis voltage Voltage comparator Maximum . and input impedance. Method of A/D conversion that uses parallel comparators to compare the linear input signal with various reference voltages developed by a voltage divider 3. bandwidth.The closed-loop voltage gain is _________ than the openloop voltage gain.What should be the output voltage of an op-amp when the differential input is zero 21.An ideal op-amp has ___________ value for voltage gain. 6.Datasheets often refer to the open-loop voltage gain as the ______________ and commonmode Ideal Infinite Zero Zero Inverting. functional unit. (more or less) 24. Produces an output that is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage 4. 26. 2. A common interfacing process often used when a linear analog system must provide inputs to a digital system. and voltage follower Less Decreases Discrete components 2 (positive and negative) Large-signal voltage gain CHAPTER 13 BASIC OP-AMP CIRCUITS 1. The ideal op-amp has __________ output impedance 22. 19.A ____________ differentiator uses a capacitor in series with the inverting input.Most op-amps operate with how many dc supply voltage? 27. Used to generate pulse waveform from the sine wave output of the audio generator.
Gives an op-amp noise immunity 9. 4. The exponent to which the base e must be raised in order to equal a given quantity. Isolation amplifier Transconductance Gain Schmitt trigger Logarithm Log amplifier Voltage-to-current converter Peak detector Natural logarithm . 9. Provides dc isolation between input and output Ratio of the output current to the input voltage Transconductance is __________ of an OTA A comparator with hysteresis where the input voltage is large enough to drive the device into its saturated states The ______________ of a number is the power to which the base must be raised to get that number.A good example of hysteresis 11.In a comparator with output bounding. Used in applications where it is necessary to have an output current that is controlled by an input voltage. Used to detect positive and negative voltages by connecting a fixed reference voltage source to the inverting input of a zerolevel detector. Uses a capacitor in the feedback path which is open to dc.Differentiation of a ramp input produces a step output with an amplitude proportional to the _________ 18.Necessary components for the design of a bounded comparator 15. The circuit used to detect the peak of the input voltage and store that peak voltage on a capacitor. 7. This implies that the gain at dc is the open-loop gain of the op-amp.Another term for flash 19. 10. what type of diode is used in the feedback loop? 14.A comparator with three trigger points 12. 6.Integration of a step input produces a ramp output with the slope proportional to the _________ Practical integrator Hysteresis Nonzero-Level detection Thermostat Schmitt Trigger Pulse waveform Zener Rectifier and zener diodes Nonzero-level detector Averaging and scaling amplifier Slope Simultaneous Amplitude CHAPTER 14 SPECIAL PURPOSE OP-AMP CIRCUITS 1. 2. An amplifier that produces an output that is proportional to the logarithm of the input.Variations of the basic summing amplifier 17. 8.Type of circuit that uses comparators 16. 8. 5.7.The output of Schmitt trigger is 13. 3.
transconductance varies with _________.An oscillator that can be either amplitude or pulse modulated by the signal from the input amplifier Bias current Log and antilog amplifiers CMRR Resistor Base-emitter small.The log amplifier may use the ___________ junction of a BJT in the feedback loop 15. 16. including the gain setting resistor. An active filter category that rejects the frequencies within a certain bandwidth and passes frequencies outside the bandwidth 3. 20. The ___________ of a band-pass filter is the ratio of the center frequency to the bandwidth. A filter response characteristic that provides a very flat amplitude response in the passband and a roll-off rate of -20dB/decade/pole 4. large Output current Nonlinear (logarithmic) Series Comparator Seven (7) High-frequency oscillator CHAPTER 15 ACTIVE FILTERS 1. including fiber optics.The ___________ of an OTA is the input voltage times the transconductance 17.10.The key characterisctic of an instrumentation amplifier 13. 12. Each additional filter in a cascaded arrangement adds _______dB Quality factor Band-stop filter Butterworth characteristic Stage or section Sallen-Key Three-pole filter -20 dB . Each filter in a cascaded arrangement is called ___________.Amplifiers that are often used in HF communication systems. 11. an op-amp is used as a __________ to charge a capacitor through a diode to the peak value of the input voltage. It is one of the most common configurations for two-pole filter.In an OTA. 21.The voltage gain of instrumentation amplifier is set by a 14. 6. It is also known as a voltage-controlled voltage source filter.A log amplifier has a pn junction in the feedback loop. 5. and an antilog amplifier has a pn junction in __________ with the input 19. This is done by cascading a two-pole Sallen-key low-pass filter and a single-pole low-pass filter 7.The main purpose of an instrumentation amplifier is to amplify _____ signals that are riding on _____ common-mode voltages.A basic instrumentation amplifier is formed by three op-amps and ________ resistors. 2.The operation of log and antilog amplifiers is based on the __________ characteristics of a pn junction 18.In a peak detector. for processing wide dynamic range signals. A filter required to get a third-order low-pass response.
Four categories of active filters 11. 10.The center frequency of a state variable resistor is set by the _______ circuits in both integrators.Produces a constant amplitude output signal whose frequency increases linearly between two preset limits.A pole is simply a circuit with how many resistor or capacitor? 20. below or above the critical frequencies of a filter. Technology that enables the tracking and/or identification of objects. band-pass. 3.Another type of tag that is a paper labelled with printing with the RF circuitry and antenna embedded in it. CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 1.Tiny. The rate of decrease in gain.The damping factor affects the filter response by negative feedback action.to the roll-off rate 8. Characterized by the condition wherein a portion of the output Oscillator Relaxation oscillators Positive signal . True/false 21.Low-pass bandwidth is equal to 12. 25.How many poles does a Sallen-Key high pass filter have? 26. The tag is inactive until powered by the energy from the electromagnetic field of an RFID reader 16. and band-stop Cutoff frequency Pulse Multiple-feedback and state-variable RFID tags Passive RFID tag Active RFID tag Smart label Selectivity 1 True True Universal active filter Discrete point measurement and swept frequency measurement Swept frequency generator 2 RC 24. 9. 18.Another term for state-variable filter 23. A circuit that produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the dc supply voltage as an input 2.This type of tag is powered by a battery and is capable of communicating up to 100ft. 14.Two common types of band-stop filters. the faster its roll-off rate is 22. 17. highpass.This type of tag does not require batteries.Two methods measurement of determining a filter’s response by Roll-off Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Low-pass. very thin microchips with memory and a coil antenna 15.The property of selecting signals with certain selected frequencies while rejecting signals with other frequencies. 19.The more poles a filter has .Filters with the Bessel characteristic are used for filtering ________ waveforms 13. Or more from the RFID reader. The two major classifications for oscillators are feedback oscillators and _______________.
A two-state device whose output can be at either a high voltage or a low voltage level 21. Armstrong.The feedback signal in an Armstrong oscillator is derived by ________ coupling 23. 8.A type of RC feedback oscillator which used two T-type RC filters used in the feedback loop. Hartley. and twin-T 12. A relaxation oscillator whose frequency can be changed by a variable dc control voltage 10.For higher frequencies. one has a low-pass response and the other has high-pass response 24. It is sometimes called a “tickler” oscillator Devices that produce more than one output function 100 Wien-bridge Piezolelectric effect Armstrong Oscillator Function generators Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) Sinusoidal LC Sinusoidal RC Colpitts Oscillator Clapp Oscillator Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley Hartley oscillator Crystal Fundamental frequency Overtone mode Square-Wave oscillator Flip-flop 1 (one) Transformer Twin-T oscillator Oscillation 9. 6. voltage of an amplifier is fed back to the input with no net phase shift resulting in a reinforcement of the output signal An amplifier gain of greater than ________ will cause the oscillator to limit both peaks of the waveform The most widely used type of RC feedback oscillator for frequencies up to about 1 MHz Quarts is one type of crystalline substance found in nature that exhibits a property called ________ This type of LC feedback oscillator uses transformer coupling to feed back a portion of the signal voltage.4. a mathematical analysis method .The most stable and accurate type of feedback oscillator uses a piezoelectric _________ in the feedback loop to control frequency. 17. 5.This type of oscillator used an LC circuit in the feedback loop to provide the necessary phase shift and to act as a resonant filter that passes only the desired frequency of oscillation 13.A type of relaxation oscillator because its operation is based on the charging and discharging of a capacitor 20. the crystal must be operated in this mode 19.___________ oscillators include the Wien-bridge. the voltage gain around the feedback loop must be greater that 22.A loop is created in which the signal sustains itself and a .For initial start-up. Clapp. 18.He invented the Hartley oscillator and the Hartley transform. 7. phase-shift.The lowest frequency at which a crystal is naturally resonant.___________ oscillators include the Colpitts. and crystal-controlled 11.Similar to Colpitts except that the feedback circuit consists of two series inductors and a parallel capacitor 16. which contributed to the foundations of information theory 15.It is a variation of the Colpitts but with an additional capacitor in series with the inductor in the resonant feedback circuit 14.
Colpitts Dc Line regulation Load regulation Thermal Overload Regulator 79XX LM317 LM337 78S40 Switching regulator Series and shunt Series Parallel True Three-terminal regulator Multiplication FSK . step-down. Typical of three-terminal IC regulators that provide a fixed negative output voltage.is one method used to overcome the bandwidth limitation of the telephone system so that digital data can be sent over the phone lines. 15.continuous sinusoidal output is produces 25. 0° 1 (unity) Voltage gain Edwin H. The percentage change in output voltage for a given change in load current 3. 27. Occurs when the internal power dissipation becomes excessive and the temperature of the device exceeds a certain value 4. and inverting operation 9.The voltage gain around the closed feedback loop must be equal to _________ to sustain state of oscillation.A change in input voltage does not significantly affect the output voltage of a regulator. A voltage regulator in which the control element operate as a switch 10. 13. 7. the control element is a transistor in _______ with the load 12.The phase shift around the feedback loop must be effectively ________ degrees to sustain the state of oscillation 26. The percentage change in the output voltage for a given change in the input voltage 2. 6.In linear shunt regulator. Negative output counterpart of the LM317 8.Two basic types of linear regulators are 11. Can be used as a current source when an application requires that a constant current be supplied to a variable load.The frequency in a VCO can be varied with a _______ controlled voltage CHAPTER 17 VOLTAGE REGULATORS 1.He was involved in the development of oscillators and vacuum tube push-pull amplifiers at Western Electric in the early 1900 29. A universal device that can be used with external components to provide step-up. (true/false) 14.In linear series regulator.Amplitude modulation is a ____________________process 16. An electronic circuit that maintains an essentially constant output voltage with a changing input voltage or load current 5. An example of a three-terminal positive regulator with an adjustable output voltage. the control element is a transistor in _______ with the load.The product of the amplifier gain and the attenuation of the feedback circuit 28.
14.Independent of the bandwidth of the low-pass filter because when the PLL is in lock. 3. 11.Uses light pulses to transmit information through fiber-optic cables.A device for down-converting frequencies in a receiver system 12. Picks up all the radiated signals and feeds them into the RF amplifier. It brings the high frequency audio signals back to the proper amplitude relationship with the lower frequencies 5. Detector Antenna Automatic Gain Control (AGC) De-emphasis Network Limiter PLL Capture range Critical Angle Four-quadrant Multiplier Index of refraction Mixer Gang tuning Squaring circuit Demodulation Modulation Variable reactance Lock range or tracking range Hold-in range Fiber optics Multimode step index . 2.The RF amplifier.Reverse modulation 15.The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock 18. The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an incoming signal 8. mixer. 19. 9. The circuit that recovers the modulating signal form 455 kHz intermediate frequency. Provides a dc level out of the detector that is proportional to the strength of the received signal 4.7 MHz intermediate frequency 6. 20. and local oscillator are tuned simultaneously so that the LO frequency is always 455 kHz above the incoming RF signal frequency. A linear device that produces an output voltage proportional to the product of two input voltages 10. The angle that defines whether a light ray will be reflected or refracted as it strikes a surface. 13. A feedback circuit consisting of a phase detector. the difference in frequency is zero or a very low instantaneous value the falls well within the bandwidth. and a VCO 7.An optical characteristic of a material that determines the critical angle. 16.Fiber optic cable in which the diameter of the core is fairly large relative to the diameter of the cladding.Most VCOs employed in PLLs operate in the principle of ____________ using the varactor diode as a voltage-variable capacitor.The process of varying a parameter of a carrier signal with an information signal.CHAPTER 18 COMMUNICATIONS 1. a low pass filter. Removes any unwanted variations in the amplitude of the FM signal as it comes out of the IF amplifier and produces a constant amplitude FM output at the 10. 17.A special case of the multiplier that is realized by simply applying the same voltage to both inputs by connecting the inputs together.
22.A linear multiplier can be used as a _________ detector 24.Fiber optic cable in which the diameter core is very small relative to the diameter of the cladding.A form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is suppressed 27.21.Fiber optic cable in which the diameter of the core is fairly large relative to the diameter of the cladding.The IF in a standard AM receiver is 26. 23.Another term for balanced modulation Single-mode step index Multimode graded index Phase Product 455 kHz Balanced modulation Suppresses-carrier modulation .The output of a linear multiplier is the ________ of the inputs and a scale factor 25.
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