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Contents

Speciﬁc Instructional / Teaching Objectives .................................................................................................................... iv Preface ................................................................................................................................................................................... xii Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Solutions to Quadratic Equations .................................................................................................................1 Indices and Standard Form ........................................................................................................................ 18 Linear Inequalities........................................................................................................................................ 33 Coordinate Geometry .................................................................................................................................. 47 Matrices ......................................................................................................................................................... 59 Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations ................................................................................ 65 Linear Graphs and their Applications ....................................................................................................... 76 Congruent and Similar Triangles............................................................................................................... 91 Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids ................................................................................... 109

Chapter 10: Trigonometrical Ratios .............................................................................................................................. 123 Chapter 11: Further Trigonometry ............................................................................................................................... 134 Chapter 12: Mensuration—Arc Length, Sector Area, Radian Measure ................................................................... 161 Chapter 13: Geometrical Properties of Circles ............................................................................................................ 173

Week Term 1

Topic Chapter 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Speciﬁc Instructional Objectives Solve quadratic equations by factorisation (revision). Form a quadratic equation when the roots are given Complete a given expression of the form (x2 + kx) to obtain a perfect square. Solve a quadratic equation by ‘completing the square’ method. –b ! b 2 – 4ac Solve a quadratic equation by using the formula x = 2a Solve a non-quadratic equation by reducing it to a quadratic equation. Solve problems involving quadratic equations. Use the Multiplication Law of Indices to simplify terms that involve positive indices. Use the Division Law of Indices to simplify terms that involve positive indices. Use the Power Law of Indices to simplify terms that involve positive indices. Use the various Laws of Indices to simplify terms that involve positive indices. State the Laws of Indices involving zero and negative indices, and use them to evaluate numerical expressions with zero and negative indices. State the Law of Indices involving fractional indices, and use it to evaluate and simplify expressions involving them. Solve equations involving indices. Use the standard form to express very large or very small numbers. Use a calculator to evaluate numbers involving the standard form and the power of a number. State the properties of inequalities: (1) if x > y and y > z, then x > z (2) if x > y, then x + z > y + z, and x – z > y – z x y (3) if x > y and z > 0, then xz > yz and z > z x y (4) if x > y and z < 0, then xz < yz and z > z , use them to solve simple inequalities. Distinguish the diﬀerence between < and ≤; use a number to represent them. Solve problems involving inequalities. Solve linear inequalities involving one variable. Locate the position of a coordinate point on a graph; ﬁnd the length of a line segment. Find the gradient of a line joining two given points. Find the equation of a straight line, given its gradient m and one point on the line. Find the equation of a straight line joining two given points. Solve related problems involving equations of straight lines.

Weeks Solutions to 1, 2, and 3 Quadratic Equations

Term 1 Weeks 4 and 6

Chapter 2 Indices and Standard Form

Term 1 Weeks 7 and 8

Chapter 3 Linear Inequalities

•

• • • Term 1 Weeks 9 and 10 Chapter 4 Coordinate Geometry • • • • •

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Pg 61 62 Example 6 Pg 63 Exercise 3c Q1 & Q2 Pg 70 Review Question 3 Q10 Textbook 3b 3c 3d 4a 4b 4c 4c 4c Ask pupils to Pg 79.Exercises 1a 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 2a 2b 2c 2c 2d 2e 2f 2g 2h 3a Maths Maths Investigation Communication Discuss why we have COE and ERP. 10 Refer to TG Resources Textbook Discuss the need Pg 33. Pg 57. for taxes. 84 Refer to TG Textbook v . Pg 32. 59. GSP: Pg 83. 41–42. and 44 how taxes are used in Singapore. Pg 22 43 Introduction Pg 49 Exercise 2h Q27 Pg 52 Review Question 2 Q6 Textbook Discuss and give Pg 55. and whether they are necessary and eﬀective. 36. 60. 85 cite examples of how coordinate geometry is used in everyday-life situations. 36. 39. Problem Solving Pg 5. 63 examples of how inequalities are used in everyday-life situations. 14 NE Pg 14 Example 14 Pg 17 Exercise 1f Q16 IT Pg 3.

Interpret and use tables and charts in solving problems. Draw graphs to represent practical problems. such as travel graphs and graphs in practical situations. Solve problems involving personal and household ﬁnances. Solve problems involving proﬁt and loss. Use diﬀerent problem-solving strategies to solve everyday-life problems. Equal.Week Term 2 Weeks 1 and 2 Topic Chapter 5 Matrices • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Speciﬁc Instructional Objectives State the properties and characteristics of Row. Interpret and use travel graphs. State the tests for similarity between two triangles. Multiply two matrices. Solve problems involving linear graphs. Multiply a matrix by a real number. Apply the congruency tests to solve given triangles. Solve problems involving hire purchase. Identify congruent triangles. State the order of a matrix. AAS. Identify similar triangles. Term 2 Weeks 3 and 4 Chapter 6 Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations Term 2 Weeks 5 and 6 Term 2 Weeks 7 and 8 Chapter 7 • • Linear Graphs • and their • Applications Chapter 8 Congruent and Similar Triangles • • • • • • Interpret and use conversion graphs. and RHS to test if two triangles are congruent. Solve everyday-life problems using matrices. vi . Add and subtract two matrices of the same order. SAS. Square. Use the rules for similarity between two triangles to solve problems involving similar triangles. Solve problems involving further examples of percentages. Column. Convert one currency to another. State and use the congruency tests: SSS. and Null Matrices. Solve problems involving simple interest. Calculate simple taxation problems. Solve problems involving compound interest.

219. Pg 176. power of 139–140. and how these programs are useful in our everyday lives. compound interest. 216. 209–210. 183 Textbook Pg 204–205. 8b 8c 8d 8e Discuss how congruent and similar ﬁgures are found. Ask why many people go bankrupt because of credit card debts. 137. 149. 110 idea of matrices is being used in spreadsheets. 217. 220–221 Pg 206. 220. 151 Pg 134 Exercise 6b Q8 & Q9 Pg 147 on taxation Pg 153 Exercise 6h Q12 & Q13 Textbook 7a 7b 7c 7d 8a 8a. Pg 171 Problem Solving Pg 95 NE IT Resources Textbook Pg 132.Exercises 5a 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 6g 6h 6i Maths Maths Investigation Communication Discuss how the Pg 109. Ask pupils to calculate the amount to pay if one owes money to a credit-card company where the interest is charged at 24% per annum and compounded monthly. 227 Textbook vii . Discuss the Pg 135. in everyday-life situations. and used.

Find the arc length and area of a sector. and a semicircle. with respect to an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Solve problems involving the angles and lengths of a right-angled triangle.Week Term 3 Topic Chapter 9 • • • • • • • • • • • Speciﬁc Instructional Objectives State that the ratio of the areas of any two similar ﬁgures is equal to the square of the ratio of any two corresponding lengths of the ﬁgures. a quadrant. Use the above rule to solve problems involving the areas and lengths of two similar ﬁgures. Find the area and circumference of a circle. and 3 Volume of Similar Figures and Solids Term 3 Chapter 10 Weeks Trigono4. with angles expressed in radians. and use it to solve the angles or sides of a triangle. Radian Term 4 Measure Week 1 • • • • viii . State the cosine rule a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A and use it to solve a triangle given two sides and an included angle. cuboid. Use the above rule to solve problems involving the volumes. State the formula for ﬁnding the area of a triangle: 1 1 1 Area of ΔABC = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ac sin B. State that the ratio of the volumes of any two similar solids is equal to the cube of the ratio of any two corresponding lengths of the solids. Find the value of a trigonometrical ratio using a calculator. or given three sides. Find the length of a side of a right-angled triangle using trigonometrical ratios. and 9 Trigonometry • • • • • • • • Term 3 Chapter 12 Weeks 10 MensurationArc Length. Find the value of trigonometrical ratios of an obtuse angle. Solve more complicated problems using trigonometry. and adjacent side. Find the angle of elevation and depression in simple 3D problems. right pyramid. Find the bearing of one point from another. areas. Solve practical everyday-life problems using trigonometrical ratios. opposite side. Deﬁne the three basic trigonometrical ratios in terms of the lengths of the hypotenuse side. 2. and Sector Area. and how to convert an angle in radian to degrees and vice versa. and lengths of two similar solids. 1 Use the formula s = r θ and A = 2 r 2θ to solve problems involving arcs and sectors. or one side and two angles. Deﬁne a radian. circular cone. Identify whether the ambiguous case occurs for a particular triangle and solve a triangle involving the ambiguous case. Solve simple problems involving 3-D ﬁgures in the form of a cube. a b c State the sine rule sin A = sin B = sin C and use it to solve a triangle given two sides and one non-included angle. and 6 metrical Ratios Term 3 Chapter 11 Weeks Further 7. use the sine and cosine rules to solve problems involving bearing. 5. and cylinder. Find the value of an angle of a right-angled triangle using trigonometrical ratios. Weeks Area and 1. 8.

340–341 Pg 341. 322 GSP: Pg 306. 278 Pg 262. 251 Pg 241.Textbook 307 Pg 261. 244.Textbook 266 11c 11c 11d 11e 11f 11g 12a 12b 12c 12d Pg 338. 308–309. 352 Textbook ix . 250 Problem Solving Pg 245. 273 Pg 272 GSP: Pg 265. 242. 343. 311 Pg 321.Exercises Maths Maths Investigation Communication Pg 242. 273. 251 NE IT Resources Textbook 9a 9b 10a 10b 10c 10d 10e 10f 10g 11a 11b Pg 304.

State the property that a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact.Week Term 4 Topic Chapter 13 • Speciﬁc Instructional Objectives State the symmetric properties of a circle: (i) a straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord. State the angle properties of a circle: (i) an angle at the centre of a circle is twice any angle at the circumference subtended by the same arc. State that angles in opposite segments of a circle are supplementary and use the property to solve problems involving angles of a quadrilateral on a circle and related problems on the property. (ii) equal chords are equidistant from the centre of a circle or centres of equal circles. and 4 Properties of Circles • • • • • x . 3. (iii) angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. (iii) the line joining the external point to the centre of the circle bisects the angle between the tangents. has a right angle at the circumference. and use the above properties to solve related problems. (ii) a triangle in a semicircle. (ii) tangents subtend equal angles at the centre. Calculate the perpendicular distance between the centre of a circle and a chord. and solve related problems. Use all the above properties to prove mathematical statements involving angle properties of circles. Use the above properties to solve problems involving tangents to a circle. with the diameter as one of its sides. State the properties regarding tangents drawn from an external point: (i) tangents drawn to a circle from an external point are equal in length. Weeks Geometrical 2.

Exercises 13a Maths Maths Investigation Communication Pg 371. 382 Problem Solving Pg 373 NE IT GSP: Pg 365–367 Resources Textbook 13a 13b 13c 13d 13e xi . 377–378.

The sixth edition of New Syllabus Mathematics retains the goals and objectives of the previous edition. by teachers. to prepare test papers Multiple-Choice Questions to stimulate quick thinking xii . The teachers must ensure that the objectives are attained at the end of a particular chapter Answers to all the enrichment activities present in the textbook General notes at the beginning of each chapter. identifying diﬃcult concepts that need to be dealt with tactfully Additional practice questions which can be used as reference. The explanations of concepts and principles are precise and written clearly and concisely with supportive illustrations and examples. The teachers’ resource manual has been especially designed to complement the textbook. but it has been revised to meet the needs of the users of the ﬁfth edition and to keep materials up to date as well as to give students a better understanding of the contents. All topics are comprehensively dealt with to provide students with a ﬁrm grounding in the subject. The manual contains the following features: • • • • • A list of Speciﬁc Instructional or Teaching Objectives for each chapter. 2 for 2009. The whole series covers the complete syllabus for Cambridge GCE O Level Mathematics 4024/1.Preface The New Syllabus Mathematics 6th Edition is a series of four textbooks and workbooks.

then Program. You can change these later. time taken = 2 minutes Take A and B across. ( ) Date: Time allowed: min 1 . Comparing.5? (You can do this by selecting “coord curso” from the tool bar and move the cursor to the point on the graph where x = 3. “Graph Paper” to select “Rectangular”. type y = 2x^2 – 7x and press Enter to see the graph. ( . ) What is the approximate value of y when x = 3.CHAPTER 1 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 1 Solutions to Quadratic Equations ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 5) Take A and B across. and Contrasting. time taken = 2 minutes Total time taken = 2 + 1 + 10 + 2 + 2 = 17 minutes XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 IT Worksheet Chapter 1 Solutions to Quadratic Equations Textbook Page 3 Thinking skills used: Inferring. on your own. time taken = 1 minute Take C and D across.5). Write down the coordinates of the point where the graph cuts the x-axis. time taken = 2 minutes Take A back. Select range from –5 to 5 for left and right. Step 1 Open from the icon on the screen OR from Start. ). go to “View” again to select “Grid Range”. and from 8 to –12 for top and bottom. to see the diﬀerent eﬀects. Step 3 • • For the curve y = 2x2 – 7x. ( . time taken = 10 minutes Take B back. then Graphmatica Step 2 Go to “View”.

Type y = 3x^2 – 5x – 8 for the curve y = 3x2 – 5x – 8 and press Enter to see the graph. The solutions of the equation 2x2 – 7x = 0 are x = Step 4 • • or . ). ) Sketch the graph in the space below. ( . ( .• Sketch the graph in the space below. 2 . Write down the coordinates of the point where the graph cuts the x-axis. The solutions of the equation 3x2 – 5x – 8 = 0 are x = or .

Write down the coordinates of the points where the two graphs intersect. ( . by selecting “View”. ). We can also solve the equation (2x – 1)(x – 2) = 5 by ﬁnding the points of intersection of the curve y = (2x – 1) (x – 2) and y = 5. “colors”. ). Type y=5 and press Enter to see the graph. ) The solution of the equation (2x – 1)(x – 2) = 5 are x = or . and selecting the desired colours for your graphs. ( . Conclusion We can ﬁnd the solution of the equation 3x2 – 5x – 8 = 0 by drawing the graph of y = 3x2 – 5x – 8 and ﬁnding the points of intersection of the graph and of the line y = 0. You can change the colour of the grid line.Step 5 • • Type y = 2x^2 – 5x – 3 and press Enter to see the graph. 3 . i. Step 6 • • • Type y=(2x – 1)(x – 2) and press Enter to see the graph. or the x and y-axes. ( . gridlines. Write down the coordinates of the point where the graph cuts the x-axis. ) Sketch the graph in the space below. and background etc. ( .e. The x-coordinates of the points of intersection of these two graphs will give the solutions of the equation. the x-axis. The solution of the equation 2x2 – 5x – 3 = 0 are x = or .

Step 3 • • • For the curve y = 3x2 – 5x – 7. Select range from –6 to 6 for left and right. Comparing. • 4 .XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Chapter 1 Book 3 IT Worksheet Solutions to Quadratic Equations Textbook Page 10 ( ) Date: Time allowed: min Thinking skills used: Inferring.] Sketch the graph in the space below.5. we have a = 3. Step 1 Open Graphmatica from the icon on the screen OR from Start. “Graph Paper” to select “Rectangular”. and Contrasting. then Program. then Graphmatica Step 2 Go to “View”. c = –7 What is the value of (b2 – 4ac)? Type y = 3x∧2 – 5x – 7 and press Enter to see the graph. go to “View” again to select “Grid Range”. b = –5. and from 20 to –20 for top and bottom. Clicking the mouse one more time will take you out of this function. The bottom of the screen shows the coordinates of where the cursor is placed.5? [You can do this by selecting “coord curso” from the tool bar and moving the cursor to the point on the graph where x = 3. At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = 3. You can change these later on to see the diﬀerent eﬀects.

we have a = 2. we have a = 9. b =–8. c = 4 What is the value of b2 – 4ac? Type y = 9x^2 – 12x + 4 and press Enter to see the graph. c = 9 What is the value of b2 – 4ac? Type y = 2x^2 – 8x + 9 and press Enter to see the graph. Step 5 • • • • For the curve y = 2x2 – 8x + 9. At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = 0. At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = 2? Sketch the graph in the space below.Step 4 • • • • For the curve y = 9x2 – 12x + 4. (Refer to Step 3 above).5? Sketch the graph in the space below. 5 . b = –2.

background etc. or the x and y-axes. At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = –0. Before you do the next few graphs. clear the screen by selecting “Clear” from the tool bar. and selecting the desired colours for your graphs. Step 7 • • • • For the curve y = –4x2 – 20 x – 25. At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = 2.5? Sketch the graph in the space below. “colors”. c = –2 What is the value of b2 – 4ac? Type y = –4x^2 + 13x – 2 and press Enter to see the graph. Step 6 • • • • For the curve y = –4x2 + 13 x – 2. we have a = –4. b = –20. we have a = –4. gridlines.8? Sketch the graph in the space below 6 . b = 13.You can change the colour of the grid line. by selecting “View”. c = –25 What is the value of b2 – 4ac ? Type y = –4x^2 – 20x – 25 and press Enter to see the graph.

7 . At how many points does the graph cut the x-axis? What is the approximate value of y when x = 2.4? Sketch the graph in the space below. You may explore further about the shapes of quadratic graphs. we have a = –6. c = –8 What is the value of b2 – 4ac? Type y = –6x^2+11x – 8 and press Enter to see the graph.Step 8 • • • • For the curve y = –6x2 + 11x – 8. b = 11. by creating and typing in equations of your own.

XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Chapter 1 Similarity Between y = 3x2 + 5x – 1 y = –3x2 + 2x + 3 Book 3 IT Worksheet Solutions to Quadratic Equations ( ) Date: Time allowed: min

Diﬀerences Between y = 3x2 + 5x – 1 y = –3x2 + 2x + 3

Conclusion:

Similarity Between y = x2 + 3x + 7 y = –x2 + 7x – 13

Diﬀerences Between y = x2 + 3x + 7 y = –x2 + 7x – 13

Conclusion:

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**Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 1 Solutions to Quadratic Equations
**

GENERAL NOTES Teachers should revise, with the pupils, the method of solving quadratic equations by factorisation. Although solving quadratic equations by ‘completing the square method’ will not be examined in the GCE ‘O’ level examinations, its procedure will greatly help pupils to conceptually understand the derivation of the formula. It will also help pupils doing Additional Mathematics to better understand the topic on quadratic functions. To stress the importance of the ‘completing the square’ method, the teacher may wish to set a question on it in the class test. To help pupils memorise the formula for solving quadratic equations, the teacher may wish to ask pupils to write down the formula for each question they do in Exercises 1d and 1e. The teacher may ﬁnd it useful to use the CD-ROM on quadratic equations, produced by CDIS. It will be a good and stimulating IT lesson, as the contents are relevant to our syllabus, and it is tailored for local use. To promote creative thinking, the teacher may ask pupils to set word problems that will lead to quadratic equations, pair oﬀ pupils to solve these equations in class, and encourage them to point out any ﬂaws or errors in the questions set. Common Errors It is very common for pupils to assign wrong values for a, b, and c in quadratic equations. Emphasise that the general form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0. For instance, in the equation x2 – 3x – 5 = 0, a = 1 (not 0), b = –3 (not 3) and c = –5 (not 5). For the equation 5x – 3x2 – 7 = 0, a = –3 (not 5), b = 5 (not 3 or –3) and c = –7. At the end of the chapter, the teacher could point out to the pupils that the easiest method to solve a quadratic equation, if the equation can be factorised easily is by factorisation. Otherwise, the use of formula is their choice. ‘Completing the square’ method is only used when a question speciﬁcally asks for its use. After learning the formula, some pupils may simply memorise its use, so missing equations can be solved by easier methods. For example, Question 14 of Exercise 1d will lead to 32x2 + 18 = 26 which can be solved easily when 1 1 expressed as x2 = 4 and x = ± 2 . But, some pupils may use the formula to solve this with a = 32, b = 0 and c = −8.

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XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 1 Solutions to Quadratic Equations 1. The roots of the equation x2 – 11x + 30 = 0 are (a) 5, –6 (b) 6, –5 (c) 5, 6 (d) –5, –6 (e) no real roots. ( ) ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 8

2. What must be added to 3x2 – 6xa to make it a perfect square? (a) a2 (b) 3a2 (c) 6a2 (d) 12a2 (e) 6 ( )

3. Solve the equation 5x2 – 2x + 1 = 0, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places where possible. (a) 0.69 or –0.29 (d) –0.69 or –0.29 (b) 0.29 or –0.69 (e) no real roots (c) 0.69 or 0.29 ( )

4. Solve the equation 3x2 – 3x – 5 = 0, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places where possible. (a) 1.88 or 0.88 (d) 1.88 or –0.88 (b) –1.88 or 0.88 (e) no real roots (c) –1.88 or –0.88 ( )

5. Solve the equation 7 – 5x – 6x2 = 0, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places where possible. (a) 0.74 or 1.57 (d) 1.57 or –0.74 (b) 0.74 or –1.57 (e) no real roots (c) –1.57 or –0.74 ( )

6. The roots of the equation 2 + 6x – x2 = 0 are (a) –3 + 11 (b) –3 ± 11 (c) ±3 + 11 (d) ±3 – 11 (e) 3 ± 11 ( )

7. Two pipes, P and Q, ﬁll a pool at a constant rate of 60 litres per minute and 40 litres per minute, respectively. The pool can be ﬁlled in 50 minutes, 75 minutes, or 30 minutes, depending on whether pipe P alone, pipe Q 1 alone, or both pipes P and Q are used. If the pool is ﬁlled using pipe P alone for 3 of the time and both pipes for the rest of the time, how many minutes does it take to ﬁll the pool? 1 (a) 30 min (b) 37 2 min (c) 35 min (d) 40 min (e) None of these ( ) 8. Thomas, John, and Larry each drives 150 km of a 450 km journey from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur at speeds of 80, 100, and 120 km/h, respectively. What fraction of the total time does Thomas drive? 15 4 15 3 5 (a) 74 (b) 15 (c) 37 (d) 5 (e) 4 ( )

Answers 1. c 8. c 2. b 3. e 4. d 5. b 6. e 7. e

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XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 1 Solutions to Quadratic Equations 1. Factorise completely: (a) ab – a – b + 1 (b) b (b + 1) − c (c + 1) (c) 54 – 6y2 2. Factorise each of the following completely: (a) x3y – 4xy3 (b) y2 – x2 + 6x – 9 3. (a) Factorise 4a2 – b2. (b) Factorise 3x2 – 2x – 1. 9v – 21 (c) Simplify 2 9v – 49 4. Solve the following equations: (a) (x + 2) (x – 2) = 5 (b) (4x + 1)2 = 9 (c) 4x2 + 4x – 63 = 0 5. Solve the equations: (a) 4x2 – 9x = 0 (b) 8x – 22 – x 2 2x – 14 [4] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [1] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min

6. Solve the following equations where possible: (a) 3x2 + 4x = 8 (b) 8x – 3 = x2 (c) 2x2 – 3x + 5 = 0 7. Factorise each of the following completely: (a) (b) (c) (d) (x – y + 3) (x – y) – 4 4x2 + 8x 6x2 + 7x – 5 3a3 – 12ab2 [2] [1] [2] [2] [3] [3] [3]

8. Factorise the following expressions completely: (a) 2x2 – 8x (b) 2x2 + xy – 3y2 (c) x2 – 2xy – 35y2 [1] [2] [2]

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[2] [2] [2] 15. Given that x + y = 8 and x2 – y2 = 20. 14. Solve the following equations. (b) Factorise 4a2 – (3b – c)2 completely. Solve the equation 2x2 + 9x – 17 = 0 by “completing the square” method. ﬁnd the value of 3x – 3y. Solve the equation x2 – 7x – 13 = 0 by “completing the square” method. (a) Simplify x 2 – 5x + 6 (x – 2) (3x + 4) (b) Solve the equations (i) x2 = 3x (ii) 3x2 + 13x = 10 (iii) x2 – x = 6 11. 19. In the diagram. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. [6] A R P B Q D S C [2] [3] [3] 16. ABCD is a rectangle in which AB = x cm and BC = 8 cm. Hence. (a) Factorise 2x3 – 32x completely. Given that 4x2 + 12x + k is a perfect square. [4] 12 . giving your answers correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures where necessary: (a) 12x2 – x = 20 (b) 2x2 – 7x = 7(5 – x) (c) 5x2 – 4x = 3(x – 7x2) [2] [2] [2] [2] [3] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] 12. [4] 20. [2] (b) Factorise x2 – 12x + 35. Solve the following equations. ﬁnd the value of 2x2 – 18y2. Find the length of PQ in terms of x. Solve this equation to ﬁnd the possible values of the length AB. ARSD and PQBR are squares. 18. solve the equation x4 – 12x2 + 35 = 0.9. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. ﬁnd the value of 4x – 4y. and the area of PQCS is 15 cm2. ﬁnd the value of k. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. and form a quadratic equation in x. or otherwise. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. 17. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places where necessary: (a) x2 – 10x = 24 (b) 3x2 – 2x = 7 (c) (x + 2) (x + 3) = x + 11 10. (a) Given that x + 3y = 5 and x – 3y = 2. [6] 13. Solve the equation t2 – 7t – 3 = 0. Given that x + y = 6 and x2 – y2 = 20.

its speed is decreased by 3 2 km/h. [1] (b) form an equation in x. [4] Solve the above equation to ﬁnd (d) the average speed of the car for the journey. [1] (ii) village B to village C. [1] (c) Given that the diﬀerence in time between the two journeys is 20 minutes. Solve the equation 3x + 9 = x . State the values of a. Factorise 2x2 + 8x + 6.21. [4] 2 (c) Solve the equation 5x – 14x – 17 = 0 by using the formula. giving your answer correct to the nearest minute. 25. and c. that from village B to village C is 9 km. giving your answer correct to 1 decimal place. (a) Write down an expression in terms of v for the time taken in hours. write down the time taken for the journey from Perth to Singapore. [3] (d) Solve the above equation. state the time taken for the boat to travel from village B to village C. Express y = 3x2 – 12x + 7 in the form y = a (x + b)2 + c. [1] The aircraft returned by the same route at an average speed of (v + 50) km/h. [3] [3] [4] [3] 26. [1] (c) If the average speed of the train is 55 km/h faster than the train. Given that the distance from village A to village B is 12 km. and when it sails against the current. The boat sails from village A to village B against the current and from village B to village C with the current on its way back. for the journey. (a) 2x (x – 3) = 3 (2x – 5) 17 (b) 2x – 3 = 3x – 1 5 24. [1] (b) the average speed of the train in km/h. (a) the average speed of the car in km/h. form an equation in x and show that it reduces to 11x2 + 44x – 312 = 0. giving your answer correct to two decimal places. Solve the following equations. giving your answer correct to the nearest minute. (b) Write down an expression in terms of v for the time taken. and show that it reduces to 20x2 – 336x = 413. When it sails with the current in a river. [4] (c) solve the above equation giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places. Hence. [3] 23. Write down. [3] (e) the time taken by the slow train to travel from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur. in x hours. its 1 1 speed is increased by 3 2 km/h. A car travels from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur. [2] (b) Solve the equation 3x2 – 6x – 13 = 0 by completing the square. [2] 27. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. [4] 13 . A motor boat can sail at a constant speed of x km/h in still water. and that the total time taken for the whole journey of 21 km is 75 minutes. Hence. giving your answer correct to the nearest minute. An aircraft ﬂew a distance of 3 800 km from Singapore to Perth in Australia at an average speed of v km/h. for the time taken by the boat to travel from (i) village A to village B. giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places where necessary. covering a distance of 390 km. in hours. in terms of x. form an equation in v and show that it reduces to v2 + 50v = 570 000. Give your answers correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. [4] 28. b. A slow train travels the same distance and it takes 4 hours more to reach the destination. for the return journey. write down the prime factors of 286. (a) Solve the equation 6x2 + x – 35 = 0 by factorisation. (a) write down expressions. [4] 22. in terms of x.

A piece of wire 48 cm long is bent to form the perimeter of a rectangle of area 72 cm2. the apprentice would have taken 6 days more than the craftsman.4 cm2. [4] 14 . The boat travels 18 km upstream. If the length of the rectangle is 3 cm longer than its width. If each works on the project individually. it would take the smaller pipe 5 minutes longer than it would take the larger pipe. [4] 37. is 164. and show that it reduces to x2 + 2x – 960 = 0. It is agreed that each member of the group would pay an equal share for the hire of the bus. A rectangle has a diagonal 15 cm long. A man bought a toy car for $x and sold it for $78. giving your answer correct to three signiﬁcant ﬁgures where necessary: (a) x2 – 10x + 9 = 0 (c) 2x2 – x – 10 = 0 (e) (g) (i) (k) x2 + 7x – 5 = 0 2x2 – 13x + 7 = 0 4x2 = 12x + 1 5x2 – 2x = 5x + 9 (b) 6x2 + x – 12 = 0 (d) 3x2 – 22x – 16 = 0 3 (f) x + 1 = 4 (1 – x) (h) 3x2 – 11x – 17 = 0 (j) 5x2 – 7x = 78 (l) 6xy + 8x – 9y = 12 [36] 31. and 40 km downstream. Find the length of the base. Find the lengths of the sides of the rectangle. The speed of a boat in still waters is 12 km/h. [4] 34. Solve the following equations. The area of a triangle is 15. [6] 33. Calculate the speed of the current of the river. Find the integers. A water tank can be ﬁlled by two pipes together in 6 minutes. The group initially consisted of x people.29. A community club chartered a bus for $1200 to take a group of people for a sightseeing-cum-shopping trip to Johor. Find the value of x. [4] 36. (a) Write down an expression. How long would it take for the apprentice to do the job alone? [6] 32. for what each member had to pay when the four members could not make the trip. [4] 35. (i) Write down an expression. [2] 30. There is a border of uniform width x cm around the photograph. A rectangular photograph is placed on a sheet of vanguard paper measuring 25 cm by 18 cm. and each of the remaining members had to pay an additional $5 in order to cover the cost of $1200. its height is 3.2 cm longer than its base. plus twice their sum. ﬁnd the length of the rectangle. A craftsman and his apprentice working together can complete a project in 4 days. in terms of x. The product of two consecutive even integers. for the amount of money each member of the group had to pay initially. [3] (iii) Solve the above equation to ﬁnd the actual amount each member paid for the trip. thus making a proﬁt of 12 x%. Find the time in which each pipe alone would ﬁll the tank. in a total time of 4 hours 40 minutes. four members of the group could not make it for the trip. If the total area of the border is 272 cm2. If the tank is ﬁlled by the pipes individually. [1] (ii) Form an equation in x. in terms of x. [4] 38. ﬁnd the value of x. [1] (b) On the day of departure. [4] 39. The club decided to contribute $30 from its fund.

[4] x y 41. ± 2. If a train had travelled 8 km/h faster. his average speed was 10 km/h more than that for the earlier part. (a) (2a + b) (2a – b) 4. form an equation in x and show that it reduces to 13x2 – 650x + 6000 = 0. ±2. (a) 3x + 4 (b) (i) 0 or 3 1 1 11. Find the length and width of the enclosure if the area enclosed is 600 m2. A man made a car journey from Johor Bahru to Segamat.5 or − 4. The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 22 cm.43 (b) (b – c) (b + c + 1) (b) (y + x – 3) (y – x + 3) (b) (3x + 1) (x – 1) (b) −1 or 0.90 or −1. (a) 2x (x – 4) 9.61 or 0. The fourth side is a straight hedge. Solve this equation and hence ﬁnd the average speed for the last 45 km. (a) 0 or 2 4 6.24. giving your answer correct to the nearest km/h. (a) (x – y – 1) (x – y + 4) (b) 4x (x + 2) (d) 3a (a + 2b) (a – 2b) 8. (a) 3 or −3 1 5.23 2 (ii) 3 or −5 (b) ±4. If the total time taken for the journey was 3 hours 15 minutes. Find the original speed of the train. (a) 12 or −2 x–3 10.39 (c) no real roots (c) (2x – 1) (3x + 5) (c) (x – 7y) (x + 5y) (c) 1 or −5 3 (c) 3v + 7 (c) 3. (a) 1. A farmer uses 80 m of fencing to make three sides of a rectangular enclosure. and the sum of the other two sides is 30 cm.5 (c) 6 (3 + y) (3 – y) 7. For the ﬁrst 150 km. (a) xy (x + 2y)(x – 2y) 3. Find the lengths of the other two sides. (a) 1 3 or −1 4 12. (a) (a – 1) (b – 1) 2. [7] Answers 1. (a) 2x (x + 4) (x – 4) (b) (2x + 3y) (x – y) (b) 1.269 (b) (x – 5) (x – 7). a distance of 195 km.5 (b) 2 or 4 (b) 7. [5] 42.65 15 . it would have taken 45 minutes less to travel 350 km.18 (iii) −2 or 3 (c) 0 or 0.40.10 or −2. his average speed was x km/h. for the last 45 km. [4] 43.

13. k = 9 14. (a) 20 (b) (2a – 3b + c) (2a + 3b – c)

15. x – 8, x2 – 24x + 143 = 0, AB = 11 or 13 1 16. 13 3 17. 7.41 or −0.41 1 18. 7 2 19. 1.43 or −5.93 20. 8.52 or −1.52 21. a = 3, b = −2, c = −5 1 1 22. (a) 2 3 or −2 2 23. (a) 4.22 or 1.78 24. 0.48 or −3.48 25. 2(x + 1) (x + 3); 2, 11, 13 26. (a) 390 x 390 (b) x + 4 9 1 x +32 3800 (b) v + 50 (ii) (d) 105.7 km/h (c) x = 17.95, 25 min (d) 730.4, 4h 52min (e) 7h 41min (b) 3.31 or −1.31 1 (b) 1.5 or 3 (c) 3.72 or −0.915

12 1 x – 32 3800 28. (a) v 27. (a) (i) 29. (a) 1200 x

1200 (b) (i) x – 4 30. (a) 1, 9 (e) 0.653, –7.65 (i) 3.08, –0.0811 31. 12 days 32. 10 min, 15 min

(ii)

1200 1170 x +5= x–4

(iii) x = 30; $45 1 (c) 2 2 , –2 (g) 5.91, 0.593 (k) 2.21, –0.813 2 (d) – 3 , 8 (h) 4.84, –1.17 1 1 (l) 1 2 , –1 3

1 1 (b) 1 3 , –1 2 1 1 (f) 2 , – 2 (j) 4.71, –3.31

16

33. 60 34. 12 cm 35. 10,12 36. 3 km/h 37. 4.37 cm 38. 3.51, 21.49 39. 3.85 40. 30, 10 41. 57 km/h 42. 19.1, 10.9 43. x = 49.3 or 0.72; 59.3 km/h

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**CHAPTER 2 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 2 Indices and Standard Form
**

ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES

Just For Fun (pg 32) –1 + 9 – 9 + 2 = 1 1×9–9+2=2 1+9–9+2=3 1+9÷9+2=4 1+ 9 + 9 –2=5 1+9÷ 9 +2=6 Thinking Time (pg 39) The rule a = b a is only applicable when a and b are positive integers. b 1+9÷ 9 ×2=7 19 – 9 – 2 = 8 1+ 9 + 9 +2=9 (1 + 9 ) × 9 – 2 = 10 1 × 9 × 9 + 2 = 11 1 + 9 × 9 + 2 = 12

GENERAL NOTES This will be the ﬁrst time that pupils will be studying indices, although they will have encountered indices with base 10 in Sec 2. Teachers can initiate a discussion regarding the convenience of using indices, and the application of this knowledge i.e. for very large or very small quantities. The mass of the Earth, and that of an atom, are two examples that students can comprehend easily. Other examples are the number of people on planet Earth, the number of air molecules in a typical classroom, etc. Teachers may also wish to introduce some of the terms found in the British and American systems of numbers, that are used to count extremely large and extremely small numbers. One common diﬀerence is the value of ‘billion’ which is diﬀerent in the British and American vocabulary, although the American version is now commonly adopted. You may wish to introduce this story of how a rich Chinese miser learned to count: The miser engaged a tutor to teach him how to write numerals. The tutor taught him how to write one, I, then the number two, II, which the miser learnt very quickly and then the number three, III. As the miser found this way too simple, he saw no need to study further or pay more, and so dismissed the tutor. One day, he wanted to write ten thousand. What a big and long piece of paper he needed! Index notation is a simple and short representation of the multiplication of the same number. Exploration on page 41 gives opportunities for students to practise looking for a pattern. Questions of this nature are common in mathematics competitions.

18

Common Errors Made By Students Students have learnt index notation in their primary school days and so should ﬁnd the ﬁrst two laws easy to comprehend. However, many students tend to confuse the rules as they do the exercises. Some of the common errors involving indices are: 1. a2 × a3 = a6 2. a10 ÷ a2 = a5 3. a3 + a2 = a5 4. a8 – a2 = a6 5. (34)2 = 98 6. (2x3)3 = 2x9 7. 2x-3 = 1 2x3

8.

3 a –4 = a4 3

9. 3 × 104 + 4 × 104 = 7 × 108 10. (2a + b)7 = 14a7 + b7

19

Solve the equation 32x = 16 1 (a) 2 5. (a) 510 (b) 520 (c) 610 (d) 620 (e) 6100 ( ) 7. Simplify (b) 6x24y24 (c) 8x11y10 (d) 8x24y24 (e) 8x11y24 ( ) (2x 2) 4 x2 2 ' 3xy 2y 3 4 16x9 (a) 3 x9y5 (b) 3y 5 (a) 3xy2 (b) 4xy2 16 (c) 3 x7y5 (c) 4x5y 32 (d) 5 x5y (d) 3x5y2 64 (e) 3 x5y (e) 8xy2 ( ) 3.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 14 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 2 Indices and Standard Form 1. Simplify 210 × 310. Simplify 4 (b) 5 1 (c) 1 4 1 (d) 4 (e) Cannot be solved ( ) (x –2 y3) 2 x 2 y –1 (a) x–2y7 (b) x–6y2 (c) x–6y6 (d) x–6y7 (e) x6y4 ( ) 6. Simplify (2xy)3 ÷ 2x2y ( ) 4. Solve the equation 8 3 = (24x) 2 1 (a) 6 1 (b) 2 ( ) 20 . Simplify (2xy2)3 (x2y)4 (a) 6x11y10 2. Evaluate − b 8 l (a) 4 (b) –4 2 1 1 (c) 4 2 (c) 3 1 (d) − 4 1 (d) 1 2 –1 (e) 2 3 (e) 1 4 ( ) 10. Simplify 4x + 2 × 82–x (a) 12 8. Simplify (a) xy 2 3xz3 (b) 122 10xy 4 30x 2 y 2 z3 (b) 2 3 (c) 1210 – x (d) 43 – x (e) 2x ( ) 2xy 2 3x 2 z 3 (c) y2 3xz3 2y 2 (d) 6xy (e) y2 3xz 2 ( ) –1 9.

c 8. c 6. 3x – y = 81 (a) x = 4. d 12. (x – 3) −3 is equal to (a) x –3 3 1 (b) x 9 2 1 (c) x (d) x0 (e) x−1 ( ) 1 3 13. y = −1 (e) x = 3. b 7.11. c 13. b 10. Simplify 22x ÷ 43x × 6464 2 x (a) 2x 1 1 (b) 2−x (c) 4x (d) 42x (e) 8x ( ) 12. b 5. Solve the simultaneous equations 4x + y = 16. d 3. Find the value of − b – 27 l (a) 9 (b) −9 1 (c) 9 (b) x = 4. y = −1 1 (d) − 9 1 (E) 3 (c) x = 3. y = 0 ( ) Answers 1. c 2. c 4. y = 0 (d) x = 3. e 21 . c 14. y = 1 ( ) 14. b 11. d 9.

Simplify: 23 (–x) 3 (a) (3x3) 2 (b) (2xy–2)3 ÷ (4x–2y3)2 7. Evaluate each of the following: (a) 42 × 4 × 40 1 –2 (b) b 4 l 2 –3 3 0 (c) b 3 l ' b 4 l 6. Simplify the following. Simplify and express your answer in terms of positive indices only: – (a) _ x –8 y 6 z 4i 2 (b) (a2b3)–3 ÷ a–4b–7 3 ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] [2] [2] 8. Evaluate each of the following: (a) (80)–14 + 2–1 2 –1 2 –2 5 (b) b 3 l × b 5 l ÷ 8 5. Simplify the following: (a) 2m4 × 3m–5 ÷ m–2 (2ab) 2 8ab 4 (b) ' 21a 4 b5 7a5 b3 [2] [2] 22 . expressing your answer in positive index form: x 3 y –2 (a) –1 3 x y (b) [1] [2] ]a –2 b3g4 ab –4 9. Simplify (–2x3y2)4 ÷ 8x2y–3 1 –2 3 0 5 2 3. Evaluate 23 + 32 – (1 3 )–1 2.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 2 Indices and Standard Form 2 1. (a) Find the value of b 2 l × b 4 l × b 6 l (b) Simplify the following and leave your answer in positive indices only: (2x–3y2)–2 (3x3y–2)2 4.

Given that a = 2 × 103 and b = 4 × 10–5.8 × 104 14. (a) Rewrite 84. The radius of a micro-organism is 0. [2] 18. Evaluate the following. Express 0. correct to the nearest thousand.8 × 10–5 and y = 7 × 103. (b) Express 8.0 × 10–6.74 × 105) + (8. ﬁnd (a) 5xy2 2y (b) x . (a) Express 0.000 045 23 cm in standard form.4 × 105) ÷ (20 × 10–3) 21.6 × 107 (b) (5. Express 0.10. [2] 19.2 × 10–2).42 × 108 – 9. Given that a = 6 × 108 and b = 4 × 106. giving your answers in standard form.0 × 10–15) 13.46 × 105 + 75. 12. (b) Evaluate (8 × 103) × (3. [4] [3] [4] [4] [6] [4] [4] 17. leaving your answers in standard form. giving your answers in standard form: (a) 7 (1. calculate the following leaving your answers in standard form: x (a) y 2 (b) x + y [4] [4] [4] 23 .000 045 23 cm in standard form correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.3674 × 104 in ordinary notation. the value of (a) 2pq p (b) 4q 20.6 × 104) (c) (6. Given that x = 2. expressing each answer in standard form. ﬁnd the value of each of the following in standard form: 3a (a) 2b (b) a – 3b 15. Evaluate the following. Leave your answers in standard form: (a) ab a (b) b 1 (c) a + b 11.84 × 10–4) ÷ (2. calculate.37 × 10-4 as a decimal.23 × 10–4) (b) 0.5 × 107 and q = 5. The population of Singapore is recorded as 3 947 000 in 2005. Given that p = 9.000 045 23 cm. Given that x = 6 × 103 and y = 5 × 10–4. correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Evaluate each of the following: (a) (4. 16.2 × 107) × (2.5 × 10–3) (b) (8. calculate the following. leaving your answers in standard form: (a) 3.005 724 in standard form.

eight hundred and eighty thousand. Simplify an + 1b3 ÷ 30.54 × 106 cm.374 × 109. Evaluate 28. (b) The total land area of Singapore is approximately 640 km2. [4] 26.142). [4] [4] [4] 25.2 km/min in cm/s 27. A rectangular ﬁeld measures 4. simplifying your answers as far as possible.6 × 102 m. giving your answers in standard form. Simplify the following: (a) (3a4b7) (5a–1b6) 72m –1 n3 (b) 288m3 n –4 34. Evaluate each of the following. 6xy 3 [2] [2] 32.4 × 107 and B = 0. giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places.A 22. 4 × 10 –5 (–2x3 y –4) 3 (xy –1) –2 (4x –2 y –3) 2 an + 4 a 2 b –5 [4] [3] [3] [2] [2] 29. The population of Singapore was recently estimated to be three million. Simplify 3 4 × 6 –5 × 5 –6 without using a calculator. ﬁnd the value of B – A . Evaluate: (a) 71 2 × 7 4 ' 71 4 4 –2 × 7 –1 × 4 (b) 7 –1 × 4 3 1 3 1 (–2x3 y) 2 giving your answer in positive indices. Calculate its (a) area.5 × 102 m by 3. (a) Write the number in standard form. 24. –5 2 o × e x y x2 y3 2 –3 [1] [2] [2] [1] [1] [3] 24 . giving your answers in standard form correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 23. If A = 3. (b) perimeter. Simplify 31. Express the following in standard form: (a) 324 kg in g (b) 1. (Take π = 3. giving your answers in standard form. 0 1 0 (a) (1997)1 + b 1997 l – ^ 1997 h 84 27 3 3 0 (b) b 5 l + c 4 m – c 3 m 2 9 42 × 57 × 37 (c) 15 7 33. (b) perimeter of the circle. Calculate the average number of people per square kilometre of the land area. ﬁnd the (a) radius. Simplify e x 2 y –3 x –3 y –1 o . giving your answer in postive indices. If the area of a circle is 2.

and solve the equation 72x + 1 – 4 (72x) = 1029 1 43. Given that 3x = 5 and 3y = 7. ﬁnd the value of 34x – 2y 39.1 35. Evaluate: 2 –2 (a) b 3 l 5 (b) 8 3 3 (c) 5 × 5 2 – 1 5 [1] [2] 2 0 + b3l [2] [3] 25 .22 45. Evaluate: (a) 23 + (32) 1 2 (b) 4 3 × 41 3 49. Find the value of x given that 4 × 32x – 1 = 108 42. Evaluate (0. (b) Use the result from (a) or otherwise.027) – 3 + 160. (a) Evaluate: 1 4 – 4 ÷ (0. Solve the equation 2x × 4x + 1 ÷ 83x – 4 = 32 44.001a ) 1 6 – 3 –4 1 256 l4 b2l (i) b 81 (ii) 3 (b) Solve the equation 27x = 9 [2] [1] 47. Solve the following equations: (a) 2x × 4x –1 = 16 1 x (b) b 3 l ÷ 9x = 81x + 2 41. Solve the equation 92x – 5 = 1 38.1)–2 × 0. Solve the equations: (a) 2x × 4x + 2 × 8x – 1 = 64 (b) 5x ÷ 25x – 1 = 125 40. Evaluate each of the following: (a) 6555 ÷ 645 1 1 1 (b) 2 2 × 2 2 × 2 2 48. (a) Evaluate (0.75 + d 1 0 1 n + (–3)–1 2 –1 [2] [2] [2] [3] [2] [2] [2] [3] [2] [1] [2] [3] [2] [2] [2] (b) Simplify (16a ) 46. Find the value of x when 6x × 362x – 5 = 1 37. (a) Simplify 72x + 1 –4(72x). Solve the equation 52x – 3 = 25 36.

(a) Given that 92x = 3 .: 1 0 (a) b 7 l (b) (0. Simplify each of the following: (a) (a 2 b 2) 4 × (a 2 b –4) – 4 1 (b) 3 125x9 ÷ (81x –4) 2 53. 60. ﬁnd the value of 3x6y – 9 52. giving your answer in positive indices only: (a) (c) (e) (g) x3 × x2 ÷ x–4 2a2 × 5a3 6a2 × (2a)3 ÷ 4a 2(pq–2)4 ÷ 4q–1 (b) (d) (f) (h) y2 ÷ y3 × y7 5a3 × 2a–3 ÷ a4 (2p–2q3) ÷ 4pq (a2)–3 × a4 ÷ a–1 1 [1] [2] [8] 26 . Simplify 12a –2 3 2 –2 58. ab 1 54.50. Evaluate each of the following. ﬁnd the value of x3 1 1 1 [1] [2] (c) 64 – 3 [3] [2] [2] [1] [1] [2] [2] 59. (a) Simplify 4x5 × 5x4 (b) Find the smallest integer value of x forwhich 3x > 10 2x – 3 5 x – 1 1 (c) Express 6 – 3 + 4 as a single fraction in its lowest terms. (a) Evaluate 16 4 + b 3 l (b) Given that x–3 = 4. –2 x –3 (b) Express x2 d 4 n with positive indices. Simplify each of the following. (a) Solve the equation 9x = 27 5 a 4 3 a4 (b) Simplify giving your answer with positive index. ﬁnd the value of x. Evaluate (a) 32 – 5 4 1 1 3 1 [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] 9 –1 2 1 0 (b) 2–3 × b 4 l × b7 2 l 56. a –3 55. y (a3 b –3) –2 (c) Simplify and express your answer with negative indices.14)2 3a 4 # 2a – 2 57. Simplify the following and leave your answer in positive indices: (a) (x –6) 2 2 (b) (x –12 y36) – 3 61. Simplify 45x 4 y3 15x3 y5 ' 4z 5 8x 2 z 3 [2] [2] 51. Given that x2y = 3.

Solve the following equations: (a) 5x4 = 405 70. Simplify the following. giving your answer in positive indices only: (3xy) 2 ' 4x 2 y 8a 3 b 2 × 4 a (a) (b) 3 (2ab) (2xy) 3 ' 8xy3 63. Simplify each of the following. Solve the following equations: (a) x = 36 –2 [12] 1 (b) 2x = 64 (d) x7 = –1 [4] [6] (b) 27x3 = 1 1 (c) 5x = 125 [6] (b) 2 × 8 = 0. Express each of the following as a fraction or an integer: 1 0 (a) 10–1 × 52 ÷ 6–2 (b) 4–3 ÷ (5)–2 ÷ b7 2 l (c) (3–2)2 ÷ (4–1)2 (d) (–2)3 ÷ (–3)–2 1 –4 (e) (2–3)4 ÷ (8–1)2 (f) 72 × 49 –3 ÷ b 7 l 68. Express each of the following as a fraction or an integer: (a) 2–3 × 52 (c) 4–2 × 8–1 ÷ 16–2 (b) 230 ÷ 3–3 × 2–1 1 –2 3 2 (d) b1 2 l × b 4 l ÷ (–2)–2 [4] [6] 67. Solve the following equations: (a) 3x = 243 (c) 23x = 1 69. Simplify each of the following. giving your answer with positive indices: –1 (xy 3) –1 a2 (a) c –2 m (b) –1 2 –3 b (x y ) 72. giving your answer in negative indices only: (–2xy) 2 ' 4x3 y 2 a 2 × (ab3) 6 (a) (b) 4 –1 –4 (2ab ) × 8a (4x 2 y) –2 × x5 y 6 66.25 3 x (c) 2 ÷ 4 = 2 10 x 71. giving your answer in negative indices only: (a) x × x ÷ x (c) (m4 ÷ m1)–2 –4 –5 –6 [4] [4] (b) a ÷ a × a (d) (2d–4)3 ÷ 4d–1 7 –2 –4 64. giving your answer with negative indices: p –4 q –5 p5 q6 a2 b abc –1 (a) –3 –1 × 2 3 (b) –2 2 × –1 –3 –2 (a b) pq (a c ) q p 73.62. giving your answer in negative indices only: (a) (7a4 × 2a3)2 ÷ 4a5 a3 b × (2ab 4) 4 (c) 4 a –1 b – 4 (b) (ab–4)5 ÷ a–1b–5 3a (2b) 3 ' 8ab (d) 2a3 × (3b) 3 [6] 65. Simplify each of the following. Simplify the following. Simplify each of the following. Simplify the following expressions: (a) (2x ) × (6x ) 1 4 (c) (2a−1)4 ÷ (8a – 2 ) 3 1 2 3 2 [4] [6] [4] –4 1 2 –1 1 4 (b) 5x ÷ 4x 2 (d) 3a−2 ÷ (27a) 3 27 .

65 × 10–8 × 4. Given that a = 4.76 × 10–3) 28 .125 1 – 2 76.674 × 107 3. If p–2 = 5q 3 .45 × 102 ÷ (3.12 × 104 + 2. expressing your answer in standard form: [4] (a) a + b (c) ab (b) a – b a (d) b [2] [4] 80.24 × 108 − 9.2 × 106. Given that (ab)–2 = x 2 .13 × 103 3. ﬁnd the value of x3 81. Evaluate the following: (a) 169 3 2 [3] (b) 100 1 – 2 (c) (–8) 2 3 75. evaluate [2] [3] 1 2 3 83. giving your answer in standard form correct to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures: [10] (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) 3.02 × 10–5 + 3. Use your calculator to evaluate each of the following.14 × 108 1. Solve the following equations: (a) 82x + 1 = 32 (b) 105x − 1 = 0.95 × 10–5 ÷ (3.18 × 104 × 6.86 × 107 36. calculate the value of (a) p when q = 125. giving your answer in standard form correct to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures: [10] (a) (c) (e) (g) (i) 3. Evaluate the following: 3 1 –1 (a) b3 8 l ÷ b 8 l 1 3 [6] 1 (b) b 64 l + (–3)–2 1 – 3 1 1 –1 (c) b1 – 2 l ÷ b2 4 l (c) 4x = 0.8 × 1018 − 485 × 1015 85.59 × 1010 + 16. 2 (b) q when p = 5 x + 10 4 1 82.2 × 105 and b = 8.27 × 108) 4.74.27 × 107) 5.91 × 109 + 6. ﬁnd the value of x when a = 5 and b = 3 4 84.149 × 107 × 3.34 × 105 + 183. without the use of a calculator.45 × 102 5.001 (c) 3x − 1 × 9x + 3 = 272x − 4 (b) 5 – 2 3 [5] ÷ 5 = 5x [6] 78.14 × 10–6) 32. Solve the following equations: (a) x7 = 70 77.86 × 107 8. Solve the following equations: (a) 42x −1 = 8x + 3 (b) 16 1 2x+3 [6] = 8x + 1 79.43 × 109 ÷ (3.48 × 10–8 – 76.4 × 104 (b) (d) (f) (h) (j) 4.58 × 10–10 ÷ (7. Evaluate each of the following.95 × 105 × 672.19 × 10–6 5.6 × 104 (b) (d) (f) (h) (j) 4.61 × 10–9) 6.6 × 102 7. Given that x-3 = 4.7 × 109 324 × 106 − 1.76 × 104 − 6.26 × 10–4 19.3 × 104.79 × 108 ÷ (39. Given that x = 1. ﬁnd the value of the following.59× 10–3 × 8.59 × 107 34.4 × 10–6 76.

(a) 1.05 × 105 21.2 × 107 22.000 843 17. 4. (a) 6m 10.46 × 108 13. 2x10y11 7 3.0 × 10–1 23. (a) 8.92 × 1011 (b) 8.9 × 106 18.62 × 105 m2 (b) 5 × 107 (b) 2. (a) 5. (a) 1.75 × 1012 (b) 9.86 × 103 16.61 × 10–4 14. (a) 7.62 × 103 m 29 . (a) 64 6. (a) 9.56 × 102 (b) 2.6 × 105 (b) 1. (a) 1 2 5. (a) –8 9x 3 x12 y9 z6 x4 y5 (b) 9x12 4y 8 (b) 15 (b) 16 (b) (b) (b) (b) x7 2y12 1 a2 b2 b12 a9 a2 6b 4 (c) 2.25 × 102 15 (a) 6. (a) 1.0 × 104 (c) 3. (a) 2.2 × 107 (b) 1. (a) 0.Answers 2 1.04 × 105 (b) 5. 16 5 2. (a) 8. 1. (a) 2.7 × 104 3 (c) 6 4 9.5 × 102 20. 3.52 × 10–5 19. (a) 8 × 103 11. (a) 2 9 1 4.88 × 108 (b) 5 × 108 (b) 84 000 (b) 4.724 × 10–3 12.

3 6 44.88 × 106 26.06 × 103 (b) 2. 2 2 37 38. 4 45.24 × 105 1 27. (a) 1 6 40. (a) 1997 33. (a) 8. (a) 3.65 × 103 cm (b) 6. x = 2 42. 29. 60 28.24. x29y2 1 35. (a) 15a3b13 34. 2 36. (a) 7 32.0 × 103 2x 5 30. 12 49 1 39. 2 1 37. 3y 31. (a) 2 41. (a) (i) 1 3 (b) 5 a3 1 (b) 3 (b) x = 1.5 (b) –1 1 (b) –1 7 1 (b) 12 4 (b) 230 (b) n7 4m 4 (c) 16 1 (ii) 5 16 30 . (a) 3(72x) 1 43. –x11 2y 4 1 ab 2 (b) 5. (a) 3. (a) 12 1 46.99 × 102 cm2 25.

(a) 3 8 67. (a) 16 56. (a) x9 (e) 12a4 62. (a) 10 4 59.47. (a) 6 1 48. (a) a – 8 b 2 2 1 53. (a) 1 1 3 57. (a) 14 a –9 1 a –13 b –22 (c) m–10 (c) 4 a b –21 –8 (d) 2d–11 (d) a –3 b –1 18 (b) 16x–2y–5 (b) 432 25 (b) 64 (f) 1 (c) 2 16 (c) 81 (d) 1 (d) –72 1 66. (a) 90 1 (e) 64 31 . (a) 9 2 1 49. 6x 3 z2 y2 (b) 8 (b) 16 (b) 32 (c) 25 51. (a) x–3 64. (a) 65. (a) 1 x3 1 (b) 4 (b) x = 3 (b) x8 y 24 (c) 10a5 p4 (g) 2q 7 10 a4 1 (h) a (d) (c) 1 – 16x 12 1 1 5 (b) 9 x5 (b) (xy)8 (b) a512 1 (b) 27 (b) 0. (a) 2 4 50. (a) – 4 1 55. 2 a1 4 1 58. 72 52. (a) 8 3 54.0196 1 (c) 4 7 (c) a –7 b –5 61. (a) 20x9 60. (a) 4a b (b) y6 2q 8 (f) p7 (b) (b) (b) 9y 4x 2 1 a –5 b –15 a –6 63.

661 × 102 (g) 1.704 × 10–2 (h) 1.351× 107 (b) –6 1 (b) 3 2 (b) –1 3 (b) (b) y3 x4 c –7 a –5 (c) 0 (c) –3 (c) 8 (d) –1 5 1 (b) 4 x –3 4 1 (b) 10 1 (b) 4 9 1 (b) −1 6 2 (b) − 5 (b) 9 (b) 3.1 × 103 16 83.147 × 104 (f) 1.486 × 1010 (d) 1.976 × 10–1 (b) 5 4 (b) 4. (a) 12x2 74. (a) 2.972 × 10–5 (j) 4. (a) 1 1 77. 4 1 81. (a) 5 82. (a) 73. (a) ±3 1 70 (a) ± 6 1 a2 b2 1 72.524 × 109 (g) –7.576 × 109 (i) 2.37 × 105 (c) a –3 3 (c) 4 (c) 3 1 (c) −1 2 2 (c) 5 3 1 1 1 (d) 3 a –1 3 (c) 3.026 × 1011 (j) 3.051 × 108 (e) 1.054 × 108 (d) 4.679 × 104 32 .632 × 1019 (b) 3. 81 84. (a) 2197 3 75. (a) − 12 78. (a) q –1 71.146 × 104 (e) 1.468 × 106 85.339 × 10–5 (i) 9.68. 1. (a) 16 76.977 × 1010 (c) 8.03 × 105 1 80. (a) 5 69. (a) 11 79.449 × 1013 (d) 2. (a) 5. (a) 3.635 × 10–5 (c) 1.981 × 105 (f) 1.254 × 108 (h) 3.

A = 1. + 68411 2904 71315 2. then we know that both caps in the bag must be black. D = 8. B = 4. If the cap taken is say. E = 5. Thus the ﬁrst traveller must be entitled to 7 gold coins and the second traveller to get 1 gold coin. Just For Fun (pg 62) 1+5+5+7=2+4+4+8 12 + 52 + 72 = 22 + 42 + 42 + 82 7 + 11 + 11 + 13 = 8 + 10 + 10 + 14 1 + 5 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 10 + 10 + 14 = 2 + 4 + 4 + 8 + 7 + 11 + 11 + 13 12 + 52 + 52 + 72 + 82 + 102 + 102 + 142 = 22 + 42 + 42 + 82 + 72 + 112 + 112 + 132 13 + 53 + 53 + 73 + 83 + 103 + 103 + 143 = 23 + 43 + 43 + 83 + 73 + 113 + 113 + 133 is correct. we can tell the contents of the bag labelled “white” to be the bag with one black and one white cap and the last bag containing white caps only. The ﬁrst traveller originally has 15 parts and the second traveller has 9 parts. Just For Fun (pg 60) The 8 buns can be divided into 24 parts. 33 . The two travellers each ate 8 parts and the Arab ate the other 8 parts.CHAPTER 3 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 3 Linear Inequalities ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 55) 1. thus the ﬁrst traveller had given the Arab 7 parts and the second traveller had only given 1 part. black. Thus ( 10 + Just For Fun (pg 59) Take a cap from the one labelled “black and white”. Now that we have identiﬁed one bag. F = 7 Just For Fun (pg 57) ( 10 + 29 )2 = 10 + 29 + 2 10 29 = 39 + 2 290 but 172 = 289 and 73 = 39 + 2 × 17 29 )2 > 73 and 10 + 29 > 73 ∴ 39 + 2 290 > 39 + 2 × 17. C = 2.

H. For example. multiplication. the pupils may be asked to have some practice on the use of the above where only multiplication and division of positive numbers are involved. then a > a where a is a positive number.e. x < –3 34 . It provides a refreshing change from solving equations. so that later on only multiplication and division by positive numbers are involved.e. If x > y. the inequality sign may be treated as an equal sign where a single term may be transferred from the L. Some are born physically stronger than others and others are more intellectually inclined than their friends. if x > y. we must change the inequality sign. There is inequality in every society. (Use the same technique to introduce subtraction.Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 3 Linear Inequalities GENERAL NOTES This chapter is moved from Secondary 2 to Secondary 3.H. by changing the sign of the term. After introducing the inequality signs. then xa > ya where a is a positive number. they tend to forget to change the inequality sign. One way of introducing inequalities is by using concrete examples to lead pupils to arrive at the desired result. then x – a > y – a where a is a positive number. if x > y. Common Errors Made By Students The most common error made by students is when an inequality is multiplied or divided by a negative number.S. Is 8 × (–2) > 4 × (–2)? Is –2 > –2 ? y x Thus. Some people are born with a silver spoon in their mouths while others are not so fortunate. to the R. Is 7 × 3 > 4 × 3? Thus if x > y. then x + a > y + a where a is a positive number. The teacher may like to discuss the various examples of inequality in real-life situations. Is 2 > 2 ? y x Thus. It will be new to the Secondary 3 pupils.) We know that 5 > 3. etc. We know that 5 > 3. From the above. teachers may like to ask the pupils to ﬁnd out from the library or the Internet as an extra exercise. may be done as follows: 3x – 5 > 6x + 4 3x – 5 > 6x + 4 3x – 6x > 4 + 5 –5 – 4 > 6x – 3x –3x > 9 –9 > 3x x < –3 i. we see that the inequality is still true when we add a positive number to both sides of an inequality. 8 4 We have 8 > 4. the person in history who ﬁrst introduced these signs. After introducing the above.S. The Students should be asked to work out some sums based on the above rules before the short–cut method is introduced. i. 8 4 We have 8 > 4. One way of overcoming the above is to ask the pupils to transfer the unknown terms to one side. It could develop into a lively scene if teachers encourage students to name and discuss the many inequalities and social injustices in life. Is 5 – 2 > 3 – 2? Thus if x > y. then x(a) < y(a) and a < a where a is negative. and division of positive numbers to an inequality. We know that 7 > 4. The teacher may now introduce the concept that when we multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a negative number. every family and every organization. Is 5 + 2 > 3 + 2? Students normally will be quick to respond with an aﬃrmative answer to which the teacher can proceed.

If 3x – 4 > 5x – 17. The smallest integral value of x satisfying the inequality 5x – 7 ≥ 2x – 21 is 2 (a) –4 3 (I) –3 > –2 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) –4 (e) –5 ( ) 8.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 16 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 3 Linear Inequalities 1. Solve the inequality: 2x + 3 > 5x – 7 (a) x < 3 1 (b) x < 3 3 1 (c) x > 3 3 (d) x > 3 (e) None of these ( ) 1 1 2. If 5 < x and x < 0. Solve the inequality 2x – 3 > 3x – 10 (a) x > 7 (b) x < 7 (c) x > –7 (d) x < –7 13 (e) x < 5 (e) 17 ( ) 5. If x + 6 > 3 and 2x – 3 < 7. The largest integral value of x satisfying the inequality 3x + 7 ≥ 7x – 54 is (a) 6 (b) 14 1 (c) 15 4 (d) 15 (e) 16 ( ) 7. then (a) 3 < x < 5 (b) −5 < x < −3 (c) −3 < x < 10 (d) −3 < x <2 (e) −3 < x < 5 ( ) 35 . one possible value which is a prime number is (a) 3 (b) 7 (c) 11 (d) 13 ( ) 6. Which of the following is/are true? (II) –2 > –3 (III) 0 < –2 I only II only III only II and III only I and III only ( ) 9. then 1 (a) 0 < x < 5 (b) –5 < x < 0 (c) 0 < x < 5 3. Simplify the inequality 2y – 5 > 2x + 4y + 3 (a) y – x > 4 (b) y – x < x (d) x < –5 1 (e) – 5 < x < 0 ( ) (c) y + x + 4 > 0 (d) y + x + 4 < 0 (e) y + x < 1 ( ) 4.

e 16. then the greatest value of y is 5 5 1 (a) − 4 (b) −4 (c) 2 (d) − 4 (e) Not possible to ﬁnd 14. c 2. Solve the inequality 3 – (a) x ≥ –5 (e) x ≥ 9 ( ) Answers 1. b 8. d 14. d 13.1 1 10. then (a) a > b (b) b > c (c) a >1 b (d) a <1 b (e) None of these ( ) x 13. b 11. b 3. d 5. e 6. b 15. d 10. e 7. c 4. If a > c and b > c. Given that 1 < x < 5 and − 4 < y < 2. b 9. which of the following is true? (a) a + b > 0 (b) a – b < 0 (c) a2 – b2 < 0 (d) a ÷ b < 0 (e) ab > 0 ( ) 12. c 36 . which of the following expressions will be the greatest? 3 (a) x + x2 + x3 (b) x (I) –π > –3 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (c) 3 x2 3 1 (d) x + 3x + x (e) x4 + x2 + 2 x ( ) ( ) 15. then 1 1 (a) 3 < x < 5 (b) x < 5 and x > 3 (d) −5 < x < − 3 (e) None of these 1 1 (c) 5 < x < 3 ( ) 11. a 12. Which of the following is/are true? (II) (–π)2 > (–3)2 (III) 22 > (–3)2 I only II only I and II only II and III only I and III only 2x –� 7 x + 1 3 (x + 4) 4 < 2 – 4 (b) x ≥ 29 (c) x ≤ 28 (d) x ≤ –5 ( ) 16. If a > 0 and b < 0. If x < 5 and x > 3. Given that 0 < x < 1.

Given that x is an integer. write down (a) the smallest integer value of k (b) the largest prime value of k (c) the largest rational value of k [1] [1] [1] 3. Given that 4 – 8 ≤ 3x – 9 2 . 3x 1 1 9. . . state the greatest possible value of x if x is (a) a rational number (b) a prime number 5. 4 < 5 ≤ 5 [2] [2] [1] [3] [4] 7. Given that 4x – 3 ≤ 3 (2x + 22). Solve the inequality 3 ( x – 7) > 6 – 2 x and show your answer on a number line. ﬁnd the largest and smallest possible values of x. Solve the inequality x – 2 3x + 1 15 – 2x and illustrate your solution with a number line. (a) Find the smallest integer x such that – 4 x < 3 (b) Find the largest prime number y such that 5y ≤ 45 + 2y 37 . Solve the inequality 5(2x – 3) ≥ 14 – x and state the smallest possible value of x if x is an integer. [3] 8. List all the possible integer values of x such that 2 ≤ x < 14 and 15 ≥ x > 8 6. ﬁnd the largest possible value of x which satisﬁes the following inequality: 2 6 – x ≥ 3 (x – 8) 1 4.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 3 Linear Inequalities 1. Given that x is an integer such that x + 3 < 15 < 4x – 3. Solve the inequality x–3 x–5 2 4 – 6 < 3 [3] [2] [1] [3] [3] [2] [2] 2 11. 1 12. [1] [1] [1] [1] ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min 2 1 2. . state the smallest value of x when (a) x is an integer (b) x is a prime number 10. Given that –4 3 ≤ 2k ≤ 17 3 . Fill in the blanks for each of following: (a) If –6 ≤ 2x ≤ 8 x (b) If –2 ≤ 2 ≤ 4 (c) If –9 ≤ –3x ≤ 15 x (d) If –1 ≤ – 2 ≤ 3 then then then then ≤x≤ ≤x≤ ≤x≤ ≤x≤ .

state the smallest possible value of x 1 21. illustrating each solution with a number line.13. Solve the following inequality: 9 – 2 x ≥ 12 20. Given that 3x + 2 ≤ 24 . 3x + 2 < 81 [3] 38 . Given that 17 – 4x ≤ x – 11. (a) 2x + 9 ≥ 5 (b) 2(3 + x) < 6x – 9 3 19. Solve the inequality 5(2x – 3) > 6(3x – 1). Solve the following inequalities. solve the inequality and state (a) the greatest integer value of x (b) the greatest prime number of x 16. Solve the following inequality and illustrate your answer with a number line 2x + 3 4x – 9 3 < 5 [2] [1] [1] [4] [3] [2] [1] [3] 27. state the greatest possible value of x if x is (a) a rational number (b) an integer (c) a prime number 25. where x is a prime number and satisﬁes both of the following inequalities: 2x > 19. Given that 5(8 – 3x) ≤ 1 2 . –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 [4] [2] [2] [2] [2] [2] [3] (b) If x is a prime number. ﬁnd (a) the least possible value of x (b) the smallest integer value of x 1 1 23. Solve the inequality x–3 x–5 4 – 7 >4 [3] [3] 2 5 14. 15. Solve the following inequality: 5(x + 2) < 3(x – 1) + x 18. List all the possible values of x. Given that 3(x + 4) ≥ 7(x – 1) – 2(x + 1). Solve the inequality 3 (x + 2) ≥ 6 and illustrate your answer on a number line. (a) Solve the inequality 5x – 2 –3 > 2 – 3x and indicate your answer on the number line given below. Find the largest prime number k for which 3k + 2 < 95 17. 26. State the largest possible value of x if x is an integer. ﬁnd the smallest possible value of x if (a) x is an integer (b) x is an odd number (c) x is a factor of 32 [1] [2] [1] [2] 22. Solve the inequality 2x – 1 2 ≥ 11 4 + 5x and write down the largest integer value of x 24.

A fruit seller bought a case of 113 oranges for $22.50. The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is not more than 90 cm. [4] 1 30. ﬁnd (a) the greatest possible values of (b) the least possible values of (i) x – y (i) x + y (ii) x2 – y2 y (ii) x [2] [3] [1] [2] [2] [3] 35. what is the least number of oranges that he must sell in order to make a proﬁt of not less than $6? [3] 39. Given that 3x + 5 ≤ 3 (2 x + 48).28. Solve the following inequalities and illustrate your answers with a number line respectively. Write down an inequality that must be satisﬁed by x. Given that 2x + 5 3x + 2 4x – 3 3 ≥ 4 + 3 . solve the inequality and state (a) the greatest rational number of x (b) the greatest value of x if x is a perfect square [2] [1] [2] [2] 32. if x is a prime number 31. If x is an integer. If he sells each orange for 40 cents. state the smallest possible value of x. Two sides of a triangle are 10 cm and 6 cm and the third side has a length of x cm. [2] 38. If 0. Given that x and y are integers and 1 ≤ x ≤ 6 and –5 ≤ y ≤ 4. ﬁnd the greatest and least values of y (a) 2x – y (b) x [1] [1] [1] [1] [4] 37. ﬁnd (a) the greatest possible value of 2x – y 2x (b) the least possible value of y 34. (a) 5 – 2x ≥ 3x + 14 1 1 (b) – 3 (2x – 3) ≤ 3 (x + 7) [2] [3] 2 – 3x 1 29. Given that –5 ≤ x ≤ –1 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 4. Calculate (a) the greatest value of 2x – y (b) the least value of 2xy (c) the greatest value of x2+ y2 (d) the least value of 2x2 – y2 36. x and y are integers such that –5 ≤ x < 4 and –5 ≤ y ≤ 5.5 ≤ x ≤ 5 and –2 ≤ y ≤ 2 . What is the largest possible side of the triangle? [2] 39 . Solve the inequality 2 ≥ 3 2 – 2x and draw a number line to illustrate your answer. ﬁnd (a) the greatest rational value of x (b) the greatest value of x. Solve the following inequalities: (a) 5 – 3x ≤ 4x + 12 3 2 1 1 (b) 5 – 3 x > 1 4 x + 6 33.

calculate (a) the smallest value of x – y (b) the largest value of xy 45. Salman and Fozia went shopping.40. Given that –2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and –3 ≤ y ≤ –1. If the cost of the present was not more than $24. what was the greatest possible amount paid by Yousuf? [4] 41. Fozia spent $25 more than Salman. What change will she receive? [4] 42. 1 (a) 3 (x + 2) ≤ 3x + 2 (b) 7 + 3x < 5 – x ≤ 6 – 3x 1 51. Given that −5 ≤ 4x + 1 ≤ 2x + 9 and −6 ≤ 2y – 2 ≤ 8. Solve the following inequalities and illustrate your answer on a number line. Given that x is a rational number and that 2 ≤ x ≤ 39 4 . What is the maximum number of hamburgers she can buy with $22. Solve the inequality x+3 2 >2 [1] [2] [1] [2] [2] [3] [2] 48. Find the odd integer which satisﬁes the inequalities 2x + 1 ≥ 5 and 3x + 15 > 5x – 1 44. Each hamburger costs $1. Together they spent at least $120. Shahida wants to buy hamburgers for her friends. ﬁnd (a) the greatest value of x – y (b) the smallest value of (x + y) (x – y) 1 1 46. If 12 – 7x ≤ 5 – 2x. Given that –2 ≤ x ≤ 3 2 and 2 ≤ y ≤ 5 (a) list the integer values of x (b) write down the largest rational value of x (c) calculate the smallest possible value of (i) (x – y)2 (ii) x2 – y2 2x (iii) y [2] [2] [2] [2] [3] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] 40 . write down (a) the greatest value of x (b) the smallest value of x such that x is a prime number (c) the greatest integer value of x which is exactly divisible by 2 and 5 47.30. ﬁnd the least possible value of x 50. Solve the inequalities 2x x 5 (a) 3 − 2 ≥ 6 x + 1 x + 3 3x – 5 (b) 2 − 4 ≥ 8 49. During their shopping spree. What is the least amount spent by Fozia? [4] 43. Yousuf volunteered to pay $5 more than his brother. Yousuf and his brother wanted to buy a present for their father.

ﬁnd (a) the greatest possible value of x – y (b) the smallest possible value of x2 + y2 1 55. (a) (d) (g) (j) 2x – 3 > 4 4x + 1 > –3 3x + 24 ≥ 7x 7x – 13 > 3x – 5 x + 1 2x – 7 (m) 10 < 15 2x 6 x 2 (p) 35 + 7 > 5 – 5 (b) (e) (h) (k) 3x + 4 < 7 3x + 2 ≥ 11 5x – 12 ≥ 2x 6x – 9 ≤ 2x – 7 x–3 x–7 (n) 21 > 14 1 x – 1 2x 1 (q) 2 + 2 > 7 + 14 (c) (f) (i) (l) 7x – 12 < 9 5x – 4 ≤ 21 8x – 4 ≥ 3x + 16 15– 3x < x + 4 x 13 x 1 (o) 11 + 44 ≤ 5 – 11 x 1 13 13 – 5x (r) 3 – 5 > 30 – 10 [1] [2] [2] [2] [3] [36] 1 62. and (b) ﬁnd the largest number of x 54. A woman buys x oranges at 50 cents each and (2x + 1) pineapples at $1. Given that x ≥ 9 2 state the smallest possible value of x if (a) x is a prime number (b) x is a mixed number (c) x is an integer. Given that 3 ≤ x ≤ 5 and −1 ≤ y ≤ 3. Given that 3x ≤ 42 2 . (a) form an inequality in x. illustrating your answers with number lines. Solve each of the following inequalities. Solve the inequality 4 x − 3 (1 – x) < 7 22 60. state the largest possible value of x if (a) x is an integer (b) x is a prime number (c) x is a real number [1] [2] [2] [1] [1] [1] [1] [3] 56. [3] 41 . Given that 1 ≤ x ≤ 8 and −5 ≤ y ≤ 1. Find the smallest integer value of x that satisﬁes the inequality 2x – 3(1 – x) > 7 57. Find the integer values of x for which 21 < 3(x + 1) < 30 3 2 59.52. Given that −5 ≤ 4x – 1 ≤ 2x + 7 and −6 ≤ 3y ≤ 15.5 < 7 x2 < 143 61. ﬁnd (a) (b) (c) (d) the greatest possible value of x + y the smallest possible value of x – y the greatest possible value of x2 – y2 the smallest possible value of x2 + y2 [6] 53. Find the possible values of x for which x is a positive integer and 3.20 each. If she wishes to spend not more than $25 on these produce. ﬁnd (a) the largest value of 3x – y 1 1 (b) the smallest value of x + y 58.

49. She intends to buy 8 kg of beef costing $ 9. Given that − 7 < 2x ≤ 8.What is the minimum number of $10 notes he must have to make the purchase? [3] 66. List the integer values of x which satisfy 3x – 5 < 26 ≤ 4x – 5 72.80 per kg. ﬁnd (a) the greatest possible value of 2x – y (b) the greatest possible value of y – 4x y (c) the least possible value of x x (d) the least possible value of y 70. which satisﬁes both of the following inequalities: 2x > 14. where x is prime. A woman is organising a barbecue party for her friends.20 per kg and 17 kg of prawns at $15. List the integer values of x. A man wishes to buy 27 apples and 46 oranges. Find (a) the smallest integer x such that 7x > 18 3x (b) the largest prime number x such that 4 < 18 2 (c) the smallest mixed number x such that 5 x ≥ 13 1 2 (d) the largest rational number such that 3 x – 5 ≤ 14 – 5 x [4] [5] 65. A music shop is having a sale and each compact disc is priced at $12. Solve the following inequalities: (a) x + 5 < 5x – 9 2x x 4 (c) 3 − 2 ≤ 5 (e) x + 17 < 3(x + 5) < 45 (g) 4x – 4 > 3x > 4x – 6 (b) 2(3x – 1) ≤ (4 – x) x + 3 x – 1 3x + 8 (d) 2 − 4 ≤ 8 (f) 3x – 10 > 4x – 19 > x + 2 x – 1 2x + 2 (h) 3 < 5 ≤ 4 [16] 69.63. What is the minimum number of $50 notes she must have for all these purchases? [4] 67. ﬁnd the greatest possible value of x if (a) x is an integer (b) x is a rational number (c) x is a prime number 64. Given that −5 ≤ x ≤ − 1 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 6. Solve the inequality 3x + 5 ≤ 4x + 1 ≤ 3x + 8 74. write down (i) the greatest integer value of x (ii) the smallest integer value of x [4] [3] [3] [3] [3] [8] 42 .50 per kg. 3x – 2 < 67 71. An apple costs 45 cents while oranges are 35 cents each. 12 kg of mutton costing $12. Given that 4x – 3 ≤ 18. 16 kg of chicken wings costing $4.50 per kg. What is the maximum number of compact discs that he can buy? [3] 68. A man has $97 in his pocket. Find the integer x for which 3 < x – 3 < 7 and 11 < 2x + 3 < 20 73.

(a) 3 10 5. 29 17. x ≤ 4 4 . 12. Largest possible value of x = 11 Smallest possible value of x = 5 7 8. (a) x > 1 21. 2 43 . 8 (b) 7 (b) 7 (c) –5. (a) 5 5 1 23. 10. x ≥ – 4 15. (a) 3 3 22. (a) 0 2 13.Answers 1. 4 2. 3 2 (c) 8 3 (d) –6. x ≥ 2 11 . (a) 5 10. 9. x > 37 3 3 14. 3 9. –2 < x ≤ 2 5 7. (a) –2 1 4. (a) x ≥ –2 19. 11. x > 4 12. 13 4 6. (a) –3. x ≤ –2 20. (a) 7 16. x < –13 18. x < 7 11. 4 (b) 2 (b) 3 (b) 6 (c) 4 3 (b) x > 3 4 (b) 7 (b) 13 (b) 5 (b) –6.

4 < x < 16 38. $1.1 24. (a) –1 45.50 43. –2 26. (a) –3 34. 5. x > 1 (b) 10 (c) 7 1 (b) x ≥ –1 3 (b) 7 (b) 1 26 (b) x < 115 (b) –10 (ii) 36 (ii) –5 (b) –50 (b) 4. 16.50 41. –1 37. (a) 9 9 31. x < – 1 8 . 11. (a) (i) 11 (b) (i) –4 35. (a) 1 17 32. 5 30. (a) 12. (a) 10 2 1 25. (a) 13 36. 72 39. 30 cm 40. x ≥ 5. 13. 23 4 28. 17. 7 44. 3. (a) 6 1 46. (a) x ≥ – 1 33. –4 (c) 50 (d) 50 (b) 2 (b) –25 (b) 2 (c) 30 44 . (a) x ≤ – 1 5 29.20 42. 19. x > 21 27. $72. (a) 39 4 47. $14.

x < 5 17 60.48. (a) 16 58. (a) 14 56. 3. (a) 3 65. 6 1 61. (a) x ≥ 5 2 49. (a) x ≥ – 2 51. (a) 11 63. (a) 2. (a) x > 3 2 (e) x ≥ 3 (i) x ≥ 4 (m) x > 17 1 (q) x > 3 62. 3 57. 7. 3 (b) x ≤ 3 1 (b) x ≤ – 4 1 (b) 3 2 (c) (i) 0 (ii) –25 (iii) –2 (c) 16 (d) 0 52. 4. –1. (a) 13 55. 1 5 1 50. 2. (a) –2. 1. (a) 9 53. 5.9 x ≤ 23. (a) 5 64. 2. 8 7 59. 0.8 54. 3 (b) –6 (b) 8 (b) 1 (b) 13 1 (c) 14 6 4 (b) – 5 (b) x < 1 (f) x ≤ 5 (j) x > 2 (n) x < 15 (r) x < 4 1 (b) 9 2 1 (b) 5 4 (b) 23 (c) x < 3 (g) x ≤ 6 1 (k) x ≤ 2 13 (o) x ≥ 3 24 (d) x > –1 (h) x ≥ 4 3 (l) x > 2 4 4 (p) x < 8 5 (c) 10 (c) 5 1 (c) 32 2 10 (d) 25 11 45 .

10 72. (a) −3 70. (i) 4 (ii) − 4 (b) x ≤ 1 (f) 7 < x < 9 (b) 26 4 (c) x ≤ 4 5 (g) 4 < x < 6 (c) −6 (d) x ≥ 6 (h) −11 < x ≤ 9 (d) −5 46 . 13. 17. 11. 19 71. 7. 8. 9. 12 67. 8 73. (a) x > 3 2 (e) 1 < x < 10 69. 7 1 68.66. 7. 4 ≤ x ≤ 7 74.

To ﬁnd the equation of the line you need to use to draw a line(one with double arrow) and select Equation from Measure Menu. Using select line segment CD. 2). 2. Dragging the point B will change the scale of the axes.5) I: y = x + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ¤ E m + + ¤ D + + + + + + k + l ¤G + + + + + + + j + + + + + + ¤C + + ¤I + + + ¤ A B ¤ + + + + + + + + + + + + ¤F 1. 1). 1) and D(5. 3) and ending at the point (6. Select Create Axes and then Show Grid from the Graph Menu. 2. 3.00 G: (2.1 cm slope j = 1. A Grid showing two points A at (0.5. Select and drag the point A if you want to change the position of the axes. you can measure the Length and the Slope of the line segment from the Measure Menu. Use to draw a line starting from the point (1.00 k: y = –x + 5.CHAPTER 4 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 4 Coordinate Geometry IT Activities Geometer’s Sketchpad WS 3–4–1 using GSP—Page 83 j = 7. 4. 0) and B at (1. 0) will be shown. Use to draw a line segment joining the points C(1. 47 .

5. –3) F: (–1. Type O in the blank and click OK. 5) G: (1. 6. Do the same for the point F. Draw the line through F and G. 9. 48 .7x + 5. Use to select 2 points and label them D and E 4. Use to drag point C and observe the change in the coordinates of G. 6. Use to select line FG and Equation from the Measure Menu to ﬁnd its equation. 7. Use to drag the point D and see how the equation changes. Use to select line DE and choose Equation from the Measure Menu. 10. Re-label the origin as O with . Use (double arrowhead) to draw a line passing through the points D and E 5. To ﬁnd the point of intersection of the two lines. You can use to drag the point E and observe the change in the displayed equation. 3. Choose two more points by using 8. Use Graph Menu to select Create axes and then Show grid 2. 0) + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ¤E + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ¤ F + + + + + ¤ + + + + ¤O + + + D + + + + + + + ¤B + + ¤G + + + + + + + + + + + 1. Double click on point and a Re-label panel will appear. 3) D: (0.5x – 1. Repeat the dragging with other points and see the eﬀect for yourself. WS 3–4–2 using GSP—Page 84 DE: y = 0. 7. use to mark the point as G and choose Coordinates from the Measure Menu.0 FG: y = –1. Use to select D and E and choose Coordinates from the Measure Menu and label them F and G.5 E: (–3.

Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 4 Coordinate Geometry GENERAL NOTES Teachers should revise with pupils the naming of coordinate points on a graph. To facilitate easy understanding of a problem in coordinate geometry. Although the concept of parallel lines implying that the gradients are the same is not mentioned in the syllabus. Many pupils have diﬃculty distinguishing equations parallel to the x. teachers may insist that pupils draw a sketch of the points for every question they are attempting. 49 . The sub-topic on mid-point of two end points is moved to the additional mathematics syllabus. it is in the additional mathematics syllabus.and y. It is not uncommon to ﬁnd even Secondary 4 pupils being confused by the naming of coordinate points. Teachers can mention this fact to the students.axes. Constant revision over the year may help to correct this common mistake. Many incorrectly refer to the equation of the x-axis as x = 0 and the equation of the y-axis as y = 0. as many of them take additional mathematics nowadays.

−3) and B(−1. −5) and (−1. passing through the origin having a gradient of 15 having a y-intercept of 15 ( ) 6. −2) is (a) 3 2 (d) 58 (b) 10 (c) 5 2 ( ) (e) 2 13 5. 0). Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points A(0. (a) y = 3x – 3 1 (d) y = 3 – 3x (a) 2x – y – 2 = 0 (d) x – 2y + 2 = 0 (b) y = −3x – 3 (e) y = −x – 3 1 (c) y = − 3 x – 3 ( ) 2. The equation y + 15 = 0 represents a straight line (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) parallel to the x-axis parallel to the y-axis passing through the origin having a gradient of 15 having a gradient of −15 ( ) 50 . The length between points (2. The equation x = 15 represents a straight line (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) parallel to the x-axis parallel to the y-axi.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 9 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 4 Coordinate Geometry 1. 4). Which of the following lines is parallel to the line 4y = 6x + 5? (a) 2y + 3x = 5 (d) 4y + 6x = 13 (b) 2y – 3x = 57 (e) None of these (c) y = 6x + 5 ( ) 4. A straight line has a gradient of 2 and passes through the point (3. The equation of the straight line is: (b) 2x – y + 2 = 0 (e) 2x – y – 10 = 0 (c) x – 2y – 2 = 0 ( ) 3.

2) is 5 units. a 7. In the diagram. the line l has the equation 2y = mx + 2c. The equation of the line AB in the diagram is (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) x + 3y – 3 = 0 x – 3y – 3 = 0 3x + y – 3 = 0 3x – y – 3 = 0 x – 3y + 3 = 0 y O B(0. 5) and Q(−3. 0) x ( ) Answers 1. d 51 . b 3. a 9. The value of a must be (a) 1 (b) −7 (c) 7 (d) 1 or −7 (e) 7 or −1 ( ) 9. 1) A(3. d 2. b 4. The distance between the points P(a. b 8. b 6. The length of OA is: (a) 2 units (b) 1 unit (c) 2c units (d) c units y A B –2 x m (e) 2 units ( ) l O 2 8. a 5.7.

Using separate diagrams. 1). 4). 12). Find the value of k. 4). Q(9. k) lie on a straight line. 5) and (5. y x 8. −4). The point (−2.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 4 Coordinate Geometry 1. (−2. Q. (b) passing through the point (−2. 9) lies on l. 7) and parallel to the x-axis. respectively. Find the equation of the straight line l which passes through the points (0. and R(−5. ﬁnd the value of k. −2). 5) and (− 4. The points (3. Find the equation of the straight line which has a gradient of 2 and which passes through the point (2. Find (a) its gradient (b) its equation [1] [2] [4] ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min 3. ﬁnd k. 7) is a point on the line kx + 3y = 37. 13). (b) The line 5x + 7y = 15 is parallel to the line 2y = kx + 13. If the point (k. Find the value of t. The equation of the line l is 3 + 4 = 1 (a) Find its gradient. 9). Find the value of k. and R are P(8. 4) and is parallel to the line y = 2x + 5 [3] 10. −5) and parallel to the y-axis. (a) Given that the line 2x + 3y = k passes through the point (2. [1] [2] [2] 52 . 12. [1] [1] 5. 1) and (−2. 2. [3] 6. Calculate the distance of PM. [3] 7. Find the equation of the straight line (a) passing through the point (5. where k is a positive constant and x is not equal to zero in (b). (b) The line cuts the x-axis at A and the y-axis at B. [2] [1] [2] 9. M is the mid-point of QR. 5) and (2. Find the values of m and c. − 4). The coordinates of P. ﬁnd the value of k. Find the area of ΔOAB where O is the origin. If (3. [4] 4. A straight line passes through the points (0. A straight line with gradient m and y-intercept c passes through the points (2.[3] 11. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (−2. sketch the graphs of [2] (a) y = kx2 k (b) y = x . t) lies on the line 3y + 2x = 7.

y A [1] [1] [1] [2] C 0 D B x 20. 0) x B 53 . The line AC produced cuts the xaxis at B. Find the values of m and c. 1 2 ). The coordinates of the three points are A(0. Find the values of h and k. ﬁnd the value of k. The equation of a straight line is 2x + y = 8 (a) Find the gradient of the line. In the diagram. y [2] [2] A (0. (a) Find the gradient of the line 3 + 5 = 1 [2] 1 (b) The straight line y = mx + c is parallel to the line 3x + 2y = 13 and passes through the point (1. Write down (a) the gradient of the straight line 3x + 5y = 17 (b) the coordinates of the point on the line 4x – 5y = 13 which has y = −1 as its y coordinate. 2). (a) Find the equation of the line AB. 1). k) lies on the line. Calculate the area of ΔBCD. 4) lie on a straight line. The points (2. ﬁnd the value of k. 18. 0) and (−2. respectively. 3). B(k. ﬁnd the equation of the image of the line. [3] 15. [1] [2] 1 14. [3] y x 16. 4) and B is the point (3. Given that the three points A(0. [1] [1] [3] 19. (b) If the line AB is reﬂected in the y-axis. The diagram shows a line segment AB where A is the point (0. 6) and (5. 7) lie on the line kx + ky + 5 = 0. 2. the coordinates A and C are (0. (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the gradient of the line AC. and D is a point on the x-axis where CD is parallel to the y-axis. Find the equation of the line AB. t). 0) and C( 2 t. 0). If AB = 2AC. Find the coordinates of B. B(t.13.5) and C(2k. ﬁnd the possible values of t. (b) Given that the point (−3. [3] 17. 4) 0 (3.

1) are three vertices of the parallelogram ABCD. −5). B. 4) [3] [2] [2] [2] A(–4. and B of the parallelogram OABC are (0. (a) Calculate the lengths of AB. calculate the perpendicular distance from B to AC. k) and that A. The coordinates of the points O. and C(4. −2) and C(6. A.21. [2] 25. [2] (c) Find the equation of the line passing through C and parallel to the line 5x – 7y = 84 [3] 2 (d) Given that the area of ΔABC is 16 units . 8) and parallel to the line 2x – 3y + 5 = 0. B(5. [3] 26. 8) respectively. the area of the parallelogram OABC. (6. (b) Show that ΔABC is a right-angled triangle. [4] 54 . (c) Calculate the area of ΔABC. 7). 0). l is the line passing through the point (3. ﬁnd the value of k. 5) and B(7. [3] (b) Given that point E has coordinates E(5. Find (a) the gradient of the line. 0) x 23. 2). ﬁnd k. 3). Find the equation of the line l. y C(4. [1] (b) If the gradient of the straight line (2k – 1)y + (k + 1) x = 3 is parallel to the line y = 3x – 7. ﬁnd the value of k. 4). [1] (d) the equation of the line which is parallel to 2x + 5y = 20 and which passes through the point (−1. and AC. [2] (c) Find the equation of the line joining the points A(1. 3) and (10. ΔOBN and the trapezium ABNM. giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places. the areas of ΔOAM. Calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the mid-point of OB. [1] [1] 1 (c) the coordinates of the point at which the line intersects the line x = 2 2 . (a) Given that the points A(−2. (b) the coordinates of the point where the line crosses the y-axis. BC. y B C A x [1] [2] [4] [2] 0 M N 24. The coordinates of ΔABC are A(− 4. [2] 22. (d) Calculate the perpendicular length from C to AB. and E are collinear. 0). 2) 0 B(5. (a) If the straight line 3y = k – 2x passes through (−1. the coordinates of C. B(2. 2). ﬁnd the coordinates of the point D. The equation of a straight line is 2x + 5y = 20.

ﬁnd (a) the gradient of AB (b) the equation of AB [3] [4] 4 30. [4] 35. For all values of m. 9). Give your answer for the equation in the form y = mx + c (b) Find the equation of the line on which both the points (0. This line cuts the x-axis at P and the y-axis at Q. k). respectively. If the gradient of the line is 7 . Calculate the area of ∆AOB where O is the origin. 36. Find the area of ∆OPQ. Given that the coordinates of A and B are (1. −5). A line passes through the points (−2. 5). ﬁnd the value of h. The diagram shows part of the graph of y = x − 3 (a) A point P is on the curve with coordinates (−1. [6] 33. (a) A straight line passes through P(1. [1] (c) Another straight line l. where O is the origin. State the coordinates of K. (b) Find the equation of a straight line passing through the points A(4. Find the equation of the line l.2 27. the line 2y = mx + 6 passes through a ﬁxed point K. Find the value of m and of c. 7). Q(4. passes through the point Q. [2] [3] 37. −3) is 3 . 3) and (7. 3) and B(0. The straight line 3y = mx + c is parallel to the line 2y – 3x = 5 and passes through the point (1. [3] 55 . [3] 31. 3). [2] y 0 P Q x 2 28. Find the equation of the line parallel to 3x + 4y + 15 = 0 and passing through the point (3. 12). [1] (b) Given that the straight line y = 2x + h passes through P. Find the value of k. (a) Find the equation of a line which has gradient 3 and passes through the point (−2. [3] 34. The straight line y = x + 2 cuts the x-axis at point A and the y-axis at point B. ﬁnd the value of k. k) and (k. 29. 3) and (2. k) and (5. −1). Write down the gradient of the straight line 2x + 3y = 4 and ﬁnd the equation of the line which is parallel to 2x + 3y = 4 and which passes through the point (1. 7). parallel to y = 2x + h. Calculate the value of k. 1). Find the value of k. The gradient of the line joining the points (5. [4] 2 32. 5) lie. 1) and R(k.

4 (b) y = 4 x + 5 4. ﬁnd k. (c) RQ is produced to T so that RQ = 2QT. −2). (a) y = 7 (b) x = –2 56 . [3] 41. k) and (−3. Find the value(s) of k. Write down the coordinates of P and Q. [7] Answers 1. (a) If P. ﬁnd the ratio PQ : QR. 180 = 13. (b) With this value of k. [4] [2] 40. Find the coordinates of the fourth vertex D. Q. Write down the equation of the line AB. B(5. −8). Given that line 4 − 6 = 1. The curve x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y = 0. Three of the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD are A(−1. P. cuts the x-axis at points O and A and the y-axis at O and B. and R are collinear. ﬁnd (a) its gradient (b) the coordinates of the point at which it cuts the line x = 8 39. 3). [8] 42. ∆OAB is rotated through 90° clockwise about O to ∆OPQ. 5). A and B.y x 38. (6. and R are the points (8. (a) y (b) y x x 2. and C(6. Find the coordinates of T. (a) 4 3. The lines ky – 2x + 5 = 0 and 6y – (k + 1)x – 3 = 0 are parallel. (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the coordinates of O. Q. respectively. 1). Find the gradient of the line AB.

3y = 2x + 5 26. 0) (d) 2. k = – 5 3 2 1 6. (a) 85 .69 (c) 9. 68 (b) (2. (a) k = – 8 2 12. (a) – 5 20. k = –1 7 3 18. h = –2 2 . – 1) (b) 5y + 4x = 30 (b) 3y = 4x + 12 2 (b) 7 (c) 17 (b) (4. (a) –5 3 (b) k = –5 4 (b) –3 (c) 7y = 5 x – 23 (c) 3y = 6x – 4 (d) 3. (a) D(2. 17 .40. m = – 3 . c = 3 (b) k = 14 3 (b) k = –1 7 (b) 6 23. 2y + 3x = 2 . k = 3 2 16.5 units2 1 (b) m = –1 2 .5) (b) (0. (a) – 17 22. (a) 3y + 4x = 12 21. c = 6 3 4 7. y = 2x + 8 10. (a) –1 3 9.4) 2 24. (a) – 5 25. 22 1 (c) (2 2 . 3) (d) 18 (d) 2 x + 5y = 33 (c) (7.1 5. t = 3 3 13.5. y =2x – 3 11. k = –4 5 1 8. (a) – 5 4 19.88 units 57 . (a) (5. (a) –2 1 1 14. (a) –1 3 1 3 17. t = 4 2 or 1 2 15.6) 27. 4) (c) 2y + x = 11 (d) 3.

4y + 3x + 37 = 0 1 37. 3y + 2x = 23 35. (0. 5 2 ) (d) P (0. (6. 0). 3. 33 56 31. 0). −6). (0. (a) 1 2 39. 5 1 29. 6) (b) y = 7x – 5 (b) y = x + 3 (b) 3y + x = 10 58 . (a) 1 1 (b) −1 3 (b) 2 : 9 (c) 3y + 4x = 24 1 1 (c) (10 2 . k = 5. 3) 36. −4 40. Q (8. 0) (b) (8. (a) y = 3 x + 6 3 33. (0. (a) 7 2 1 32. − 3 . 8) 42. (a) (0. (a) − 3 1 30. 2) 41. m = 1 2 .1 28. 2 units2 2 34. c = 9 1 38.

59 . The topic of using matrices to solve practical problems is brought from the additional mathematics syllabus to the ‘O’ level mathematics syllabus. The sub-topic of using inverse matrix to solve a pair of simultaneous equations will be covered in the additional mathematics syllabus. It is worth emphasizing the importance of ﬁrst determining whether two matrices may be multiplied. only addition.CHAPTER 5 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 5 Matrices GENERAL NOTES In this syllabus. multiplication of two matrices will be involved. Pupils are normally weak at recognising the order of a matrix and this normally leads to the error of multiplying two incompatible matrices for matrix multiplication. subtraction.

–4 1 b 15 [2] [3] [4] [3] 3 0 k 0 6 0 9. write down the matrices A5 and A7. find the values of x. find the possible values of x and y. find the matrices X and Y such that 13 9 4 6 [5] [3] [4] [4] [3] ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min [4] 3. 4 c 4 4 2x 0 3 6 2x 0 5 10 o e o = e o and e oe o=e o . and z. Given that (1 4. y. c. 3 4 y 16 a –2 –3 7 o e o = e o . find the values of 4x – y. find 3 (a) AB (b) 2BA 2. b. 3 K3O L P J3N 4 t K O 9 o –1 = e o . find the value of a and of b. k. find the values of a. Given that e 6. Solve the following matrix equations: J1 N 1 3 2 K O 5 (a) e o K aO = e o 0 1 –2 K O b 2 L P 0 1 a –4 2 3 0 –3 (c) e oe o=e o+e o –2 0 b 0 1 0 6 2c x 2 1 2 3 (b) e o = e oe o+e o y 3 0 5 2 (d) 3 e 1 3 1 –2 2 3 a b o+e oe o=e o –1 2 3 2 3 0 c d 60 . find the value of s and t. find the values of h. find the value of x. find the matrices A2 and A3. Given that A = e –1 –1 o . 5 2 3 3h m 2h – 7 10. Given that x and y are positive integers and that (x 12. 3y –z 4 11 3y –z –15 –15 2 0 x 8 o e o = e o . Given that e 7. 4). 0 –1 K O s K2O L P x 0 a b oe o = e o (2 1). y 11. and x. Given that A = e (a) 3A – 2X = B (b) YB = A –6 –16 –1 – 5 o and B = e o . Given that e 2 –2 3 –1 JxN K O x 3) e o = (1 3 –1) K 2x O. Given that e o e o=e o . Given that e 8. Given that A = e o and B = (–1. 3 3 x y) e o = 13. Hence.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 5 Matrices 2 1. Given that e 5. and m.

If A = e [6] 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 and D = e o. B = e o.(e) e 1 7 2 0 a b 5 7 oe o = f 3p – e o 3 4 0 5 0 c 3 7 [10] 1 2 2 1 1 4 13. If A = e o . C = o . B. that is. Find the unknowns in each of the following matrix equations: 3 0 a b 1 15 (a) ^ p qh e (b) e o = ^ –3 6h oe o=e o –4 2 3 2a 4 11 (c) e (e) e x 2 4 –2 oe o=e o 2z 0 –1 8 1 0 x 3 4 y oe o=e o –1 4 1 x 0 1 3 x x y (d) e oe o=e o 5 0 x –10 (f) e x y x y x y oe o=e o 8 –4 8 –4 8 –4 [12] 18. C. B = e o . Find the value of each of the unknowns in the following: 3 2 7 5 b c 1 –1 3 a b c 6 –7 3 (a) e (b) e o + 3e o=e o o–e o=e o h k t 1 4 –1 a d 2a 2 –3 4 4 3 9 J 2 1 N J x yN J x 6 N J1N K O K O K O 4 a b K O –7 (c) K –4 –6O + K –1 4 O = K h 2k O (d) e o –2 = e o –1 a 2 K O –7 K –3 8 O K 9 2 O K 3t 14 O K3O L P L P L P L P 7 –2 p q 1 0 a –2 – 1 –11 (e) e (f) e oe o=e o oe o=e o –10 3 r s 0 1 –5 1 b 10 (g) e 3 –1 –2 c –2b 6 oe o=e o a b 4 –3 22 d (h) e 2 1 k t x –7 6 – 5 oe o=e o –3 h –1 2 –3 5 t 3k [16] 61 . Use the matrices A = e o. Solve the following matrix equations: 2 0 a 6 (a) e oe o=e o 2 1 b 25 (b) ^a bh e 5 6 o = ^10 55h 0 3 [6] [4] 17. and D. work out each of the following and express your answers in 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 (c) C2 (g) BC (d) D2 (h) CB terms of A. and C = e o to verify the distributive law of multiplication over 3 4 4 2 2 3 addition. (a) A2 (b) B2 (e) DB (f) BD [16] 2 1 1 3 4 1 15. B= e o and C = e o. A (B + C) = AB + AC (B + C) A = BA + CA 16. 3 4 3 4 3 2 (a) is A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C ? (b) is A × (B × C) = (A × B) × C ? (c) is A + B = B + A ? (d) is A × B = B × A ? (e) is A × (B + C) = (A × B) + (A × C) ? Can you give the name of this rule? (f) is A + (B × C) = (A + B) × (A + C) ? 14.

0 0 0 0 [4] [4] 62 . (a) Given that e 3 0 x 9 o e o = e o . find the value of x + y. Solve the following matrix equations: 2 1 3 5 (a) X + e o=e o 4 –3 7 –9 (c) Z + 2 e 3 1 6 –10 o=e o –4 5 12 3 1 2 5 4 7 –9 o=e o 4 –6 7 –13 12 21 2 2x x y 2x –y o–e o+e o 3 3y x –y 3y x J2 5 N J 5 2N K O K O (d) K 3 –4O + K 3 0O K 7 –5 O K – 1 4 O L P L P J1 7 N J 3 –2N K O K O (f) K 6 2 O – K –4 1 O K 3 –4O K 3 5 O L P L P (b) e (b) Y – e 2 –4 1 7 o=e o 9 3 –5 –6 1 –3 5 7 o = 2e o 4 –2 3 –4 –1 –3 –9 7 3 –5 o=e o 5 8 –10 8 –9 4 [12] (d) P – 3 e (e) Q + 3 e (f) R – 2 e [12] 21. find the value of k.19. Simplify each of the following: 3 5 2 3 3 5 (a) e o–e o+e o 8 4 1 –1 7 –9 (c) e (e) e 2 3 –1 3 1 –3 o –2 e o 32 5 41 5 2 –4 3 3 2 1 o+e o –5 7 –4 –1 –4 –5 20. Evaluate each of the following matrices where possible: 2 5 (a) e o ^4 1h (b) ^1 6h e o 3 3 23. Evaluate each of the following matrix products where it exists: 2 3 –1 2 1 3 –1 (a) e (b) e oe o oe o 1 4 5 5 3 2 –5 (c) e 7 9 o ^1 3h 3 –2 (d) e 2 –3 3 5 oe o 4 7 7 9 1 2 (e) e o e o 3 5 3 (g) e o ^2 4h 1 J1N K O (i) ^3 1 –2h K 3 O K –1O L P J2 N 1234 K O (k) e o 3 7895 K O K 1O L P J2 1N K O 2 1 (m) K 3 5O e o K 4 2O –1 3 L P 2 (f) ^1 5h e o 1 2 (h) ^1 2 3h e o 1 J2N K O (j) K 5 O^1 5 7h K –1O L P J1N 2 1 3 K O (l) e o 4 4 –1 2 K O K –1O L P J1 4N K O 1 2 4 (n) K –1 –3O e o K 4 2 O –3 –1 –2 L P [28] 22. 2 3 y 12 2 k 4 –8 (b) Given that the square of the matrix e o is e o .

a = 24. find the value of h and of k. 15 1 8. y = 2 12. A3 = e o . A7 = e o 6 6 12 12 48 48 192 192 11. 3 4 2 1 [4] [3] [2] 3 5 h 2 o e o = e o . (a) a = 0. –1 2 1 y 25. s = –8. b = 3 3 9. find the value of x when AB = BA. b = 12. Given that e 2 0 x 0 o and B = e o . t = 2 5. c = 3 2 (c) Yes (c) C (g) B (d) No (d) A (h) C 63 . b = 2. find the values of x and y. c = 8. distributive law 14. x = 36 7 7 6. b = – 4 (b) x = 12. x = 1. x = 2. c = 9. k = 2. a = –4 3 . (a) a = 3. (a) 2 e o 35 21 3. y = 3 or x = 3.J –4 N K O 24. c = –1 4 13. A2 = e –2 –2 –4 – 4 –16 –16 –64 –64 o . (a) e –2 8 o –3 12 (b) (20) (b) e 2 –1 o 3 4 1 –17 –43 2. b = 19 (b) Yes (f) No (b) B (f) B 1 (b) a = 2. (a) A (e) C 16. 4 8 k 0 Answers 1. b = 12. K5O L P 2 –3x x –8 (b) Given that e o e o = e o . y = 8 (d) a = – 1. (a) Evaluate ^ –2 3 1h K 6 O. Given that A = e 26. (a) Yes (e) Yes. A5 = e o . m = 16 10. d = 15 1 (e) a = –2. y = 13 . b = 14 3 1 (b) a = –3. 2 4. b = 0. z = 1 13 7. h = –1 4 .

d = –16 (h) h = 4. b = 5 (g) a = –1. b = 6. t = 8 2 (d) a = 0. h = 4. y = 1 3 . y = – 3 1 (b) a = 1. x = –1 4 7 19. q = 2. x = – 3 26. (a) e o 14 –4 J7 7 N K O (d) K 6 –4O K 6 –1O L P 1 4 20. (a) e o 3 –6 13 5 (d) e o 18 –14 13 21. c = 0. k = –6. s = 7 (f) a = 1. (a) (31) 1 25. (a) e o 19 (d) e (g) e –15 –17 o 61 83 6 12 o 2 4 (b) e (e) e (b) e (e) e (b) e 2+x 2x – 2y o 3 – x + 3y 4 y + x 5 –2 4 o –6 3 –9 3 3 o 4 –3 1 1 –24 o –25 30 0 8 –7 o 21 –20 –4 1 5 o –5 0 –5 J–2 9 N K O (f) K 10 1 O K 0 –9O L P (c) e (c) e 0 –12 o 20 –7 5 –3 –23 (f) e o 18 7 –16 (c) NA (f) (7) (i) (8) (l) e 3 o –2 (e) NA (h) NA (k) NA J–11 –2 –4N K O (n) K 8 1 2 O K 2 6 12 O L P (b) ^2 3h (b) –4 (b) x = 8. r = 10. k = –2 64 . k = –3. (a) a = –4. b = 3 2 1 (f) x = 5. h = –7. k = 3. z = 1 (d) x = y – 2 18.17. y = –2 2 (c) x = 0. (a) p = q = 3 1 (e) x = – 2 . c = 17. c = 1. (a) e o 12 3 23. d = –2 (b) a = –5. b = 24. t = –5 2 (c) x = –1. t = 2. y = –6 J 2 10 14 N K O (j) K 5 25 35 O K –1 –5 –7O L P J3 5 N K O (m) K 1 18O K 6 10O L P 8 2 22. b = 3 3 (e) p = 3. h = –2. (a) 5 24. b = 5.

money exchange. and interpretation of tables and charts. hire purchase. Money exchange is one topic that is relevent to many pupils as more and more Singaporeans travel abroad. (a) Compare the various home-loan packages oﬀered by six banks. You are to use your foresight and prediction so as to select the best currency/currencies so adding to the value of the original sum. Find out which of the banks oﬀer the best rate. (for a new car) (c) Compare the various car-loan packages oﬀered by six ﬁnancial institutions for a car loan of $50 000 to be paid over 7 years.CHAPTER 6 Chapter 6 Book 3 Mathematics Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 132) 1 11 9 % improvement Just For Fun (pg 151) 59 years old GENERAL NOTES Most of the topics in this chapter were formally in the Sec 1 syllabus. You can ask students to ascertain the various exchange rates oﬀered by the money changers or banks. taxation. Why is it that there is a diﬀerence between the selling and buying rate? Would it be better if the ASEAN countries adopted a common currency. The following are possible projects for them to work on. for a home loan of $300 000 to be repaid over 20 years. as the European countries have done? Will this work for the ASEAN countries? It is good to introduce students to some principles at this age. Money Exchange Each of you are to help invest $100 000 in foreign currencies over the next six months. (For a used car) (d) Suppose you have $50 000 to put into a ﬁxed deposit at one of the banks. The following is a worksheet for reference. This is due to the fact that many companies reported their proﬁt as a percentage of their revenue.e. for a car loan of $50 000 to be repaid over 7 years. (b) Compare the various car-loan packages oﬀered by six ﬁnancial institutions. (e) Ask the students to invest $100 000 in foreign currencies for six months. We can appoint a few group leaders to help the pupils calculate the transactions they make through the months whenever they want to switch their investment. One important change is that percentage proﬁt or loss must be qualiﬁed as to whether it is based on the cost price or the selling price. based on their sales. i. 65 . Other sub-topics that pupils will be introduced here are the simple and compound interests. and see who emerges as the winner.

5% interest.2030 0.013380 US dollar Sterling pound Australian dollar New Zealand $ Canadian dollar Malaysian RM Euro Chinese Reminbi Thai baht Japanese Yen You are to make careful investments based on the above information. AMOUNT INVESTED SING$ EQUIVALENT INTEREST EARNED AMOUNT AT 23/11/2006 SING$ EQUIVALENT CURRENCY You may modify the above table to take in the latest ﬁgures and to set your own conclusion e.04300 0.7 4.9980 0.2010 0.0570 1.4050 0. as compared to keeping their money in CPF earning 2. Interest Rate 5.7 5.4304 1. you can ask pupils to calculate the percentage of people who make money investing in the stock market.0340 1.3530 0.1960 1. Ask the students to calculate the amount due if $5000 is not repaid for 5 years. the investment can only be reviewed at the end of month etc.0570 1.04190 0.2 Currency Rate on 13 Oct.013196 Selling 1.4268 1.4273 2.04270 0. unit trusts etc. including a 0.g.2 5. They are to base their trade on the losing prices of the day by referring to the newspaper-quoted prices the next day. your investments based on the exchange rates quoted on (23/11/2006) and the interest rates given. with a leader to decide which stocks to invest in and to record the proﬁt or loss made in every transaction.2110 1.9910 1.1970 0.2 5.3690 0.7 0.The following are the rates of currencies for your reference.0220 0.9990 0.9260 1. 2006 Buying 1.5630 2.1970 1.5450 2.5740 2.3890 0.04220 0. Students should form groups of ﬁve students. (g) The interest rate charged by credit-card companies for outstanding amounts due to them is at an annual rate of 24%.8 6. into the following table. Enter. 66 .1990 0.4297 1.5920 2.2 7.9570 1. (h) As Singaporeans are allowed to invest their CPF money for shares and unit trusts etc.9760 0.1820 1.0340 1.013341 Rate on 23 Nov.013232 Selling 1. (f) We can also introduce pupils to the stock market by giving each of them $50 000 virtual money to invest in the Singapore stock market.9580 1.5 4. 2006 Buying 1.5 3.5% brokerage.

After the price of fuel went up by 10%. What is the rate of interest per annum? (a) 3. How much did Charles pay for it? (a) $456 (b) $504 (c) $684 (D) $750 (E) $756 ( ) 2. and grade B coﬀee costs $40 per kg. ﬁnd the percentage increase in proﬁt. Grade A coﬀee costs $20 per kg. y. Bob sold it to Charles and made a proﬁt of 5%.5% (b) 7% (c) 14% (d) 42% (e) 49% ( ) 5. If x.20 (c) $148 (d) $520 (e) $650 ( ) 6. The simple interest on $680 for 5 years is $119. (a) 10% (b) 15% (c) 21% (d) 30% (e) 40% ( ) 3. A man bought x balloons at y cents each. and z are all increased by 10%. He sold it to Bob at a loss of 20%. A dealer allows 30% discount on his listed prices and then makes a proﬁt of 25% on his cost price. A mixture of coﬀee is made of grade A and grade B coﬀee powder in equal parts by weight. What is the listed price of a camera on which he gains $91? (a) $76 (b) $109. Abel bought a mini hi-ﬁ set for $600. The number of students in a school increases by 15% each year.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 10 Chapter 6 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations 1. At what price per kg. a man reduced his fuel consumption by 10%. If there are 1058 students this year. What is the percentage change in his fuel bill? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) decreased by 1% increased by 1% increased by 9% decreased by 9% unchanged ( ) 4. He sold all of them at z cents each. must the mixture be sold to make a proﬁt of 10%? (a) $30 (b) $31 (c) $33 (d) $36 (e) $66 ( ) 7. what was the enrolment for the year before last? (a) 920 (b) 800 (c) 900 (d) 1 000 (e) 1 028 ( ) 67 .

(a) 40 000 000 (b) 350 000 (c) 400 000 (d) 4 000 000 (e) 320 000 ( ) Answers 1. A Filipino trader exported 7 908 692 pesos worth of goods to Singapore. c 7. What is the resulting percentage error in the volume? (a) 30 more (b) 30 less (c) 10 more (d) 8. and the height is measured 10% too small. a 10.8702 to 100 pesos. b 8. What will the value of the car be at the end of two years if its value at the beginning of the ﬁrst year. e 6. d 2. b 3. c 9. Each year a car depreciates by 22 2 % of its value at the beginning of the year.9 less ( ) 1 9.9 more (e) 8. c 4. If the exchange rate was S$4. is $80 000? (a) $62 000 (b) $48 050 (c) $40 000 (d) $18 000 (e) $40 500 ( ) 10. a 5. b 68 . estimate how much the importer in Singapore paid for the goods in S$.8. The length and breadth of a cube are measured 10% too big.

If 15 kg of rambutans cost $25.00. [3] 3.40. calculate (a) the cost of 24 kg of rambutans. 1 the profit made was 33 3 % of the cost of producing them. find (a) its value at the end of three years. electricity is charged at $0. Mrs Foong used 640 units of electricity. and by 5% of its value during each succeeding year. (a) A shopkeeper usually sells VCD players for $360 each. Calculate the selling price of the display set. he found that 8 pens were defective. The cost of administration was $2 100. and at $0. labour. He disposes of a display set by reducing the price 1 by 12 2 %. In this case. Labour and materials cost 15 cents per pen. and express the profit made as a percentage of this total cost. Peter bought some pens for $72. [3] 69 . He sold the remaining pens at 30% above the cost price. A shopkeeper bought an article for $400. he made a profit 1 of 22 2 % on the cost. and sold them in packets of 5 at $1. Calculate the total selling price. the shopkeeper makes a profit of 16 3 %. If its initial value was $125 000.20 for each subsequent unit. [2] (b) The cost of production consisted of expenditure on administration. and materials. [2] 5. Calculate the price paid by the shopkeeper. What was the corresponding percentage decrease in her bill? [3] 7. [2] 4. [2] [2] 2. (a) In June. Find the list price. Calculate the cost of producing the 45 000 pens.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Application of Mathematics in Practical Situations ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min Chapter 6 1. giving your answer correct to the nearest whole number. [2] 2 (b) When he sells the VCD player at the usual price of $360. [3] (b) the percentage value of the initial value at the end of three years. By selling it at a discount of 18% off the list price.00. (b) the quantity of rambutans (in kg) that can be bought for $30. In a city. (a) A manufacturer produced 18 000 pens. How many dozens of pens did he buy? [3] 6.60 per packet. On checking. [2] (c) Find the percentage profit the shopkeeper makes on the display set. What was her electricity bill for the month of June? [2] 1 (b) Her electricity consumption for the month of July was reduced by 22 2 %. Calculate the total cost of production.15 per unit for the first 440 units. A car depreciates in value by 12% during the first year. [4] (c) A further 45 000 pens were produced and sold at the same price of $1.60 per packet of 5 pens. and made a profit of $16.

the length of the shorter parallel side is increased by 30%.25% per annum for balances over $5 000. and Jane have altogether? [3] 11. approximately how many months will it take to pay off the cost of the television set? [2] (b) If the actual terms stated are a 10% deposit and 36 monthly payments of $67. [2] 10. and the sides are in the ratio 5 : 8 : 15 : 17. [2] (c) Madam Rosnah agreed to pay 45% of $6 400 as a deposit. and the salesman allowed her 27 2 % off the cost of the new machine. Calculate how much more Mrs Tay had to pay for her new photocopying machine. and the balance in equal monthly instalments over a period of two years. The amount of money Peter. are in the ratio of 3 : 5 : 7. Taking the speed of sound to be 330 metres per second. [3] 14. A 29-inch colour television set is advertised at $1 999 at full price or $67. Given that she paid $5 488 for her new photocopying machine. Find the difference between the prices Mr Koh and Mr Chow paid for their television sets.50 per month is the only amount to be paid. [2] (b) Mrs Chen paid for the new photocopying machine in cash and was given a discount.00 of his November account of $336. (a) The perimeter of a quadrilateral is 132 cm. How much money do Peter. and the length of the longer side is decreased by 30%. respectively. [2] (d) The salesman had hoped to sell each new photocopying machine for $6 400 so that he would make a profit of 28% on the cost price.8 seconds after it was fired.50 per month. A bicycle shop bought 20 bicycles for $4 000. the ratio of the amounts of money Paul and Jane have becomes 7 : 5. In a trapezium. If Jane gives Paul $198. [2] 9.5% per annum for minimum monthly balances up to $5 000. and Jane have. (a) If $67. Calculate the December interest John receives if the minimum monthly balances in the 6 months up to December were: $5 428. Given that each monthly instalment is $176. and was charged 12% more than the selling price. $4 269. the ratio of the lengths of the two parallel sides is 3 : 2. what interest charges will be added to his December account? [2] 15. and 3.50. What was the normal selling price of each bicycle if he made 35% profit on the whole transaction? [4] 12. [5] 16. [2] (b) John heard the sound of a gun 3. 1 (a) Mrs Tay offered her old machine in part exchange. calculate how much Madam Rosnah paid for her photocopying machine altogether. On checking. Paul. Mrs Chen.5% interest per month on amounts not paid in previous months. If Mr Lee pays off $145. and $5 967. A credit-card company charges 2. calculate the distance between John and the gun. Calcualate the cost price of each new machine. giving your answer in kilometres. Mrs Tay. What is the percentage increase or decrease in the area of the trapezium? [4] 13. Calculate how much longer the longest side is when compared to the shortest side. While keeping the height of the trapezium constant. $4 906. by instalments. and each of the slightly damaged 3 bicycles at 4 of the normal selling price. $4 946. John has a passbook account which earns him 2. $5 548.8.82. Paul. The selling price of a television set is $854. Mr Koh paid cash for a set. and Madam Rosnah each decided to buy a photocopying machine that was priced at $6400. the shopkeeper found that 5 of the bicycles were slightly damaged. and was given a 10% discount. Mr Chow bought a set from the same shop. calculate the percentage discount she received. what is the total cost of the television set? [3] (c) How much more than the full price will be paid to buy the telvision set on monthly payment terms? [1] 70 . He sold the remaining bicycles at the normal selling price.

the annual interest is raised to $140. and the new percentage rate of interest. [3] 24. A real-estate agent sells two properties. Peter has $30 000 for investment. When the rate of interest rises by 0. Coffee powder costing $9 per kg is mixed with coffee powder costing $13. Calculate the payroll tax due on the following payrolls: (a) $357 000 (b) $950 000 [2] 18. Payroll tax is due from companies paying wages. 2% on the next $450 000.50 for every $1000 invested per month. The mixture is sold at $12 per kg. A shopkeeper sold an article for $160. enter into a business together by contributing $50 000. He paid back the loan through monthly instalments for a period of 4 years. [4] 26. [5] 71 . He can choose to deposit the sum of money in the bank which pays a simple 1 interest of 7 2 % per annum or invest it in a building society which pays simple interest at a rate of $7. The net profit is shared among A. Find the difference in interests paid by the bank and the building society after 1 year. plus 0.17. How much must he sell the article for to make a profit of 20%? [2] 23. and $60 000 for periods of 10 months. In the first year. B. each monthly instalment was $1 000. Sugar costing $1 per kg is mixed with sugar costing $1. [5] 21. the gross profit is $100 000 and the expenses amount to 24% of the gross profit. Three persons. [4] (b) What was the total commission received from the sale of the two properties? [1] (c) If the agent gets 25% of the total commission received from the sales. Mr Kwan borrowed money from a fianance company to buy a second-hand car. A. B. Find the amount of money Mr Kwan paid for the car. Find the selling price per kg of the mixture. to make a 20% gain. Find the ratio in which the two types of coffee powder are mixed. and C. At the end of the year. the monthly instalment is reduced by 10% from the previous year. A man invests a sum of money at simple interest.20 per kg in the ratio 3 : 1. Calculate the sum of money invested. and 8 months. (a) Calculate the commision due on each property. For each subsequent year. and C in proportion to their contributions. The rate of commission on the sale of a house is 4% on the first $150 000. thereby making a profit of 20%. Each year he receives $128 interest on the amount invested. [4] 22. how much does the agent earn in June? [2] 20. Find the profit A receives. with values of $587 500 and $1 209 500.6% of the remaining amount. $45 000.75%. 12 months. [3] 25. Mortgage duty on money borrowed to purchase a property is calculated as follows: $75 on the first $150 000. respectively. 1 2 % on the next $400 000 and 1% thereafter.50 per kg. during the month of June. It is calculated as follows: 4% of payroll for amounts up to 1 $500 000 and 5 2 % of payroll for amounts greater than $500 000. Calculate the mortgage duty payable on the following loans: (a) $125 000 (b) $560 000 [3] 1 19.

[4] 29.27. and assuming that they were working at their own individual rates. find the ratio of the distance between B and C. earning 8. Given that the distance between A and C is 55 km. What is the ratio of the work rates of a man and a woman? [5] 30. and 5 men and 3 women do the same job in 15 days. [3] 28. [2] 32. at an average speed of 50 km/h. Raymond drives from Town A to Town B. Kevein received $900 when he had completed a piece of work and John received $540 when he had finished the same type of work. how much would each receive when the work was completed? [5] 36. The daily wages of a skilled worker. Working separately.80 per toy [3] During a month when Mrs Chua makes 242 toys. how many workers must to be deployed? [2] 31. John. Mrs Chua makes stuffed toys and is paid according to the following differential rates: 0–80 toys 81–150 toys 151–200 toys 201 (or over) toys $ 3. respectively so that by selling the mixture at $35 per litre. Find the weight of the zinc that must be added 1 to 600 kg of this alloy. (a) A train leaves Town A at 09:00 hours and is scheduled to reach Town B at 12:30 hours. An alloy of zinc and tin contains 33% of the zinc. If the remaining job needs to be completed in 2 days. During a sale. Find his average speed on the return journey if the round trip takes 5 hours and 24 minutes altogether.425).60 per toy $ 5. he is able to make a 25% profit on his outlay? [3] 38. If its average speed is 60 km/h for the rest of the journey.10 per toy $ 3. [3] 34. Calculate the interest earned.75 per toy $ 4. when does it arrive at Town B? [3] 35. (Take US$ 1 = S$ 1. respectively. the train travels at this speed for 2 hours and is then delayed for three-quarters of an hour. Mr Beaver travels from A to B on a bus at a speed of 40 km/h and then walks from B to C at a speed of 5 km/h. Simon places $3 684 in an investment account. Kevein and an apprentice. If they did the work together. a shopkeeper allows customers a discount of 0.25% per annum from May 28th to August 27th (including both days). if the final percentage of tin is to be 33 3 [4] 37. were $45 and $18. What profit per cent is made if 20% is taken off for cash? What is the greatest percentage that can be taken off without causing a loss to the shopkeeper? [5] 39. It takes 3 men and 5 women 17 days to complete a job. 120 km apart. A shopkeeper bought a watch for US$60 and sold it for $102. which cost him $24 and $36 per litre. It takes 40 workers to complete half of a certain job in 15 days. What must the customer now pay for goods which cost the shopkeeper $1 400? [3] 72 . Goods in a shop are marked at 35% above the cost price. how much does she earn? 33.60. and he takes 4 hours for the whole journey. by weight. What is its average speed if the distance is 273 kilometres? [2] (b) On a certain day.175 in the dollar on the marked price which originally gave him a profit of 40%. In what proportion must a chemist mix two solutions of a certain chemical. Find his percentage of profit.

he travels 996 km and receives a total income of $1 970. Find the number of bulbs he must produce in order to obtain 611 light bulbs that are not defective. (b) Mr Lin is entitled to a tax-free allowance of $13 000 and he pays tax at 14%.1 40. pays $272 in taxes per year and realises 8 2 % on his investments. (a) Find a man’s taxable income if he paid $1 567. Calculate (a) the amount of money he has borrowed. A man buys a flat for $100 000 and rents it out. correct to the nearest dollar. and a commission of 4% of the value of goods sold in excess of $4 500.57. (b) The next month. His advertised selling price is 25% higher. 15% on food. plus a car allowance of 60¢ per km. The manufacturing cost for the light bulbs is $586. (b) the amount he has to pay back altogether at the end of 5 years. the simple interest is 10 2 % per annum. Mr Chen borrows a sum of money for 5 years.50 in tax when the income tax was levied at 12 2 %. [4] 42. 21% on other expenses. A manufacturer knows that 6% of the light bulbs he makes are defective.56. What is the selling price of the book to schools? (b) A salesman receives a basic salary of $550. but he gives a discount of 12% to schools. [4] 43. A travelling salesman receives a basic salary of $800 a month. [4] 41. Find his income for a month in which he sells goods worth $18 000. 8% on income tax. Calculate the percentage increase in the value of goods sold. If a brand new car costs $56 000. [4] 3 1 47. He puts 14% of each month’s rent aside for repairs and 1 maintenance of the flat. If he sells the non-defective light bulbs at a profit of 25%. (b) If $1 = US$ 0. For the first 3 years. Find the selling price of the car if it is sold at a profit of 17 2 % on the cost price. find how many Malaysian ringgits can be exchanged for US$600? Give your answer correct to the nearest dollar. find its value at the end of 4 years. find his monthly income. 1 (b) The cost of manufacturing a car is $7 800. [3] 73 . a commission equal to 4% of the value of goods sold. the simple interest is 8% per annum and 1 amounts to $3 600. and he saves the rest.56 and S$1 = M$ 1. (a) A man buys a book for $12. [4] 46. (a) The interest on a man’s investment increases from 8 4 % to 11 4 % per annum. Given that he saves $1 292 a month. [5] 48. Find his income if he pays $4 060 in tax. He pays tax at the rate of 12% on his income above that figure. (b) The value of a car depreciates each year by 15% of its value at the beginning of the year. Calculate the monthly rent. [4] 44. (a) Find his income for a particular month when he sells goods worth $13 500 and travels 800 km. [4] 45. For the next 2 years. 12% on clothes. correct to the nearest 100 dollars. Find the value of his investment if his annual income from it increases by $75. (a) A man spends 10% of his monthly income on rent. Calculate how much he has to pay if his income is $ 38 000. (a) Mr Chen is entitled to a tax-free allowance of $16 000. find the selling price of each light bulb.

90 (b) 27.90 (b) $52 250 (b) $2 535 (b) $37 845 (c) $9 461. 8. $450 (b) $2 629. (a) 30 17. $1 485 11.31 16. $1 600. (a) $75 19. (a) 35. $23 095 20. 6% decrease 13. (a) $14 280 18.88 14. $578. $240 23.20 3. $4. 7 : 2 22. $1.80 15. (a) $315 5.75% 21. (a) $4 640 10. $288 12. (a) 106 7. 16.2% (b) $4 800.7% (b) 1. 12 6.Answers 1.25 (c) $630.26 24.254 km 1 (b) 14 4 % (c) $7 104 (d) $5 000 (c) $10 800 (b) 79% (b) $300 (c) 5% (b) 18 kg 74 . (a) $ 40 2.2 cm 9. (a) 99 275 4. $75. $187. (a) $5 760 8. (a) $14 # 750.

20% 28. (a) $3 800 44.25. 40 km/h 32. 606 kg 37.20 47. (a) $1 820 45. (a) $12 540 41.20 42. $984. $41 268 26.61 34. $1. $850 (b) $9 165 (b) 1 682 Malaysian ringgits (b) $1 090 (b) $21 750 (b) $29 200 (b) 6% (b) $42 000 (b) 13 42 75 . (a) $2 640 46. 8%. 50 31. $216 36.10 33. (a) $15 000 43. $540. (a) $13. $25 000 27. 5 : 3 30. $76.9% 39. 8 : 11 29. 650 light bulbs. 2 : 1 38. (a) 78 km/h 35. (a) $3 000 48. 25. $1 617 40.

there are 14 chickens and 18 rabbits. d d 3 d d 15 Then we have x – x + 1 = 60 and x – x + 6 = 60 . there are 28 ÷ 2 = 14 fewer rabbits. (A Venn diagram clariﬁes the problem.) 2 3 Then z = 3 x. the solution is d = 30 76 .CHAPTER 7 Chapter 7 Book 3 Mathematics Linear Graphs and their Applications ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 173) Suppose 32 rabbit heads were counted. We can assume that these extra legs belong to the chickens and therefore. z = 4 y and 1 000 – x – y + z = 120 giving x = 720 Taller than wife Heavier than wife Taller and heavier than wife Just For Fun (pg 183) Let the distance for the whole journey be d km and Chonglin’s speed be x km/h. Just For Fun (pg 176) Let x be the number of husbands who are taller than their wives. ∴ the number of chickens counted = 14 and the number of rabbits counted = 32 –14 = 18 Therefore. y be the number of husbands who are heavier than their wives. The number of legs would have been 32 × 4 = 128 This is 128 – 100 = 28 legs more than those counted. Hence. and z be the number of husbands who are taller and heavier than their wives.

The scale and names of the quantities (along the respective axes) should be clearly speciﬁed. with which most students should be familiar. Students must also be reminded about the following precautions when reading ﬁgures oﬀ a graph: • • • Check the scale Check the starting point of the respective axes Use a ruler 77 . 2. Emphasise the fact that when two quantities are related in any way. and concise. 4. A scale will be determined by the biggest and lowest values of a given variable. A conversion graph is also known as a “ready reckoner”. The latitude and longitude of a place on earth. Conversion graphs are something new for the students as. and in general to the relationship between the graphs of y = mx + c and y = mx. a salesman can quickly determine the cost of any length of copper piping. Draw their attention to the relationship between the graphs of y = x + c and y = x. The scale should be as large as possible. that a good graph must be neat.e.Chapter 7 Book 3 Mathematics Linear Graphs and their Applications GENERAL NOTES As an introduction to the topic. c units up or down parallel to the x–axis depending on whether c > 0 or c < 0. for various values of c are parallel and cut the y–axis at diﬀerent points corresponding to the diﬀerent values of c. Each card bearer is given a row and a column number for the coordinator to supervise. Before a mural is painted on a wall. Choice of scale is important in this chapter. teachers may ask students to suggest other types of everyday situations where conversion graphs may be useful. c units up or down parallel to the x–axis depending on whether c > 0 or c < 0. it is often useful to show the relationship by means of a graph. The graph of y = mx + c is the translation of the graph of y = mx. Stress. The purpose of a graph is to convey information visually and quickly. The display of ﬂashcards during the National Day celebrations. clear. Plotting or graphing should be done carefully and neatly. Using this graph. the teacher may spend a little bit of time introducing and discussing the many situations that make use of the idea of coordinate geometry. at primary level. Some of the examples not mentioned in the text are: 1. etc. a picture is normally drawn on a piece of grid paper and then transferred on the wall. they were exposed only to travel graphs. Besides the type of conversion graphs discussed in the textbook. i. The seating layout in cinemas. also. map work. as this allows space for more details. A “ready reckoner” relating the cost of a copper pipe to its length may be found on the chart of a building materials’ supplier. The Dynamic Mathematics Series on “The Business of GRAPHS” if your school does have these CDs. stadiums. will provide extra drill and practice for the students. 3. Thus. The graph of y = x + c is the translation of the graph of y = x. lead students to the conclusion that the graphs of y = mx + c.

Weight on the Moon (in kg) 20 15 10 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 Weight on Earth (in kg) [1] [1] 3. The diagram shows the various lengths of a spring when diﬀerent weights are attached to it. ﬁnd (a) the cost of printing (i) 100 cards. (iii) 300 cards. The graph shows the cost.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 7 Linear Graphs and their Applications 1. The graph shows the diﬀerent weights of an object on Earth and on the Moon. (b) on the Moon if its weight on Earth is 48 kg. of printing various numbers of name cards.4 cm from its original length. (a) What is the original length of the spring? (b) What is the length of the spring when the attached weight is 12 g? (c) Find the attached weight if the spring is extended by 2. From the graph. Length (in cm) 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 20 30 Weight (in g) [1] [1] [1] 2. Use the graph to ﬁnd the weight of an object (a) on Earth if it weighs 14 kg on the Moon. in dollars. (b) the number of cards that can be printed for (i) $100 (ii) $250 (iii) $300 [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] 78 . (ii) 150 cards.

350 The cost in dollars 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Number of cards 4. The table below displays the distance travelled by a car. How far has it travelled before the tank was empty? [1] (d) If the car travels at a uniform speed throughout. It is given that 1 kg of soya beans is required to produce 6 litres of soya-bean milk. the amount of soya-bean milk produced. (a) How far away does his teacher live? (b) What is the fastest speed at which he travelled? (c) How long did he rest altogether? [1] [1] [1] [2] [2] 79 .5 kg of soya beans (b) the weight of soya beans needed to produce (i) 12 litres of soya-bean milk (ii) 21 litres of soya-bean milk 6. and y. Distance travelled (in km) Amount of petrol left (in litres) 0 50 20 48 40 46 80 42 160 34 320 18 (a) Draw a graph to show the relationship between the distance covered and the amount of petrol in the tank. using suitable scales. [2] (b) When the car has travelled 50 km. and the amount of petrol remaining in the tank. how much petrol is left in the tank? [1] (c) The car starts with a full tank of 50 litres. [2] Use your graph to ﬁnd (a) the amount of soya-bean milk produced by (i) 4 kg of soya beans (ii) 6. draw a graph to illustrate the relationship between x and y. The distance-time graph shows the graph of Joshua’s journey when he goes to visit his teacher. what is the rate of consumption of petrol? [2] (e) How far has the car travelled when only 21 litres of petrol remain in the tank? [1] 5. If x denotes the weight of soya beans needed.

during the last 30 minutes. The amount is made up of a ﬁxed daily wage plus a variable amount. ﬁnd (a) the speed. Use the graph to ﬁnd (a) the ﬁxed daily wage (b) the amount of money he received the day he served 50 customers (c) the number of customers he served on the day he received $46 80 Amount ($) 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 n customers 80 Distance (km) [1] [1] [1] 80 . Using the graph. The graph illustrates the relationship between $A and n. (b) the average speed. for the whole journey. in km/h. It is given that US$10 was equivalent to S$15 in July 1997. which depends on the number of customers he serves. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (mins) [2] [2] 9. Use your graph to ﬁnd the conversion of the following: (a) American dollars into Singapore dollars (i) US$16 (ii) US$72 [2] (b) Singapore dollars into American dollars (i) S$30 (ii) S$96 [2] 8. in km/h. A restaurant owner pays a waiter an amount of $A per day. Draw a graph to show the relationship between American and Singapore dollars up to US$100. which is the number of customers he serves. The diagram shows the distance-time graph of a motorist after leaving home.Distance (in km) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0800 0900 1000 1200 Time 7.

draw a graph to convert the actual marks to percentage marks. (a) How far did he travel? (b) What is his speed for the ﬁrst hour? (c) Find his average speed for the whole journey. From your graph. The maximum number of marks in an examination is 60. Use your graph to ﬁnd (a) the temperature of the water in the tank after (i) 28 minutes (ii) 1 hour 24 minutes (b) the time taken for the temperature to reach (i) 32°C (ii) 76°C 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (min) 120 [1] [1] [2] [2] 12. The table below shows the relationship between the actual marks obtained by some candidates and their percentage marks.10. The graph shows the change in the temperature of the water in a hot-water tank after the heater is switched on. Actual Marks Petcentage Marks 0 0 30 50 60 100 Using suitable scales. The diagram shows the distance-time graph of Mr Chew. Distance (in km) Temperature (in °C) [1] [1] [2] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0730 0830 0930 1030 1130 Time 81 . ﬁnd (a) the percentage marks obtained by a candidate with (i) 15 marks (ii) 48 marks (b) the actual marks of a candidate whose percentage marks are (i) 35 (ii) 55 11.

13. The diagram shows the travel graph of a moving body after leaving a starting point. (b) 108 m/s to km/h. Given that 36 km/h is equal to 10 m/s. Using the graph. Distance (in km) [3] [1] [1] [3] [1] [1] 82 . and vice versa. (b) the duration during which the car stopped. The diagram shows the travel graph of a car. construct a graph to convert km/h in m/s. [1] [2] [3] 300 Distance in metres 200 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time in seconds 120 14. Use your graph to convert align (a) 66 pounds to kg. (c) the average speed of the car for the whole journey. 80 60 40 20 0 1000 1030 1100 1130 1200 Time [1] [1] [2] [1] 15. Given that 5 kg = 11 pounds. Use your graph to convert (a) 55 km/h to m/s. (d) the fastest speed of the car during the journey. construct a graph to convert pounds in kg. ﬁnd (a) the speed of the car for the ﬁrst part of the journey. (c) the average speed for the whole journey in km/h. 16. ﬁnd (a) the time interval during which the body is stationary. Using the graph. (b) the speed during the last minute. (b) 45 kg to pounds.

17.6 gallons Cost ($c) [4] 83 . Given that 10 gallons = 45 litres. and vice versa. Use the graph to ﬁnd (a) the cost of hiring a van to travel (i) 34 km. (a) (b) (c) (d) What is Peter’s average speed for the outward journey? For how many hours was Peter away from home? How far did Peter travel in total? What is Peter’s average speed for the entire journey? Distance (km) 40 20 0 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm Time Speed (km) [1] [1] [1] [1] 19. He left home at 5 p. The diagram shows the distance-time graph of a motorist. construct a graph to convert gallons to litres. (a) (b) (c) (d) How far did he travel in the ﬁrst hour? What was his average speed during the ﬁrst hour? What is his speed during the last leg of his journey? What is his average speed for the whole journey? 100 80 60 40 20 0 1200 1230 1300 1330 1400 Time [1] [1] [1] [1] 18. (ii) 68 km. from a rental company. The graph shows the cost ($c) of hiring a van. Use your graph to (a) convert into litres (i) 4 gallons (ii) 6 gallons (b) convert into gallons (i) 21. to travel D km. (b) the distance travelled if the cost of hiring a van is (i) $52 (ii) $32 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Distance Travelled (D km) [1] [1] [1] [1] 20. The graph shows Peter’s journey.6 litres (ii) 39.m.

Use the graph to ﬁnd (a) the amount of water in the container at ﬁrst. up to ¥800. It is given that HK$10 was equivalent to ¥160 in July 1997. Use your graph to convert into (a) Japanese yen (i) HK$25 (ii) HK$42 (c) Hong Kong dollars (i) ¥480 (ii) ¥640 24. Draw a graph to show the relationship between the Hong Kong dollar and Japanese yen. Use your graph to convert (a) into Malaysian ringgit (i) S$22 (ii) #S$45 (b) into Singapore dollars (i) M$60 (ii) M$82 [2] [2] 23.21. The graph shows the rate at which water is emptied from a container. up to 200 Thai baht.20 (b) Thai baht into Singapore dollars (i) 140 baht (ii) 88 baht [2] [2] 22. Draw a graph to show the relationship between the Singapore dollar and the Malaysian ringgit. up to M$100. [1] [1] [1] [1] [4] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (in seconds) Volume (in litres) 84 . It is given that S$55 was equivalent to M$100 in July 1997. (b) the time taken to empty the container. Draw a graph to show the relationship between the Singapore dollar and the Thai baht. (c) the volume of water in the container after 3 seconds. [2] Use your graph to ﬁnd the conversion of the following: (a) Singapore dollars into Thai baht (i) $5. 3 (d) the time taken to empty 4 of the tank.50 (ii) $8. It is given that S$1 was equivalent to 20 Thai baht in July 1997.

D [4] [1] [2] [1] Distance (in m) 200 150 100 50 0 A 1 2 3 Time (in min) B C 4 28. ﬁnd (a) the expenses when the number of players is (i) 12 (ii) 48 (b) the diﬀerence in the number of players. Use your graph to convert (a) into German marks (i) A$39 (ii) A$63 (b) into Australian dollars (i) DM60 (ii) DM80 27. (c) Paul’s speed throughout the journey. The diagram shows the travel graph of a moving body. From the graphs. when the expenses diﬀer by 100 dollars. (b) the distance between them at 12 noon. Distance (km) 300 200 100 Peter [1] [1] [1] [2] Paul 0 0800 1000 1200 1400 Time 26. The diagram shows Peter and Paul’s travel graphs. of the body for the entire journey. [2] [1] 85 . The diagram shows the relationship between the expenses of a basketball tournament and the number of players attending the tournament. It is given that A$75 was equivalent to 100 German marks (DM) in July 1997. (d) the diﬀerence between their average speeds for the entire journey. up to DM100. Draw a graph to show the relationship between the Australian dollars and German marks. in km/h. From your graph.25. ﬁnd (a) Peter’s speed in the ﬁrst two hours. (a) Which section would indicate that the body was resting? (b) Which section shows the body moving at its fastest speed? (c) Find the average speed.

(a) A motorist bought 5.50. use the graph to calculate the cost of 18 litres of milk. (b) Given that 1 gallon of milk costs $11.800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 No. draw a conversion graph using the following scales: Horizontal: km/h. Draw a graph to show the relationship between the Singapore dollars and the French francs. Given that 10 m/s is equivalent to 36 km/h.2 gallons of petrol.25. 50 40 Litres 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gallons 7 8 9 10 11 Expenses in dollars [4] [4] The diagram above shows the graph for converting gallons to litres. Use your graph to ﬁnd the conversion of the following: (a) Singapore dollars into French francs (i) S$8 (ii) S$18 (b) French francs into Singapore dollars (i) 25 francs (ii) 80 francs 30. [4] 86 . It is given that S$24 was equivalent to 100 French francs in July 1997. for up to 100 francs. Given that 1 litre of petrol costs $1. 0 to 150. 0 to 40. 2 cm to 10 m/s Use your graph to change to (a) m/s (i) 72 km/h (ii) 126 km/h (b) km/h (i) 15 m/s (ii) 40 m/s 31. use the conversion graph to calculate how much the motorist paid for petrol. of players 29. 1 cm to 10 km/h Vertical: m/s.

Train-1 travels a distance of 500 km from Town P to Town Q. 0 to 100. Draw a conversion graph to convert marks out of 65 in percentage marks. The formula connecting the cost. placed in the goal box. (d) the average speed of each train for the entire journey. 30 ≤ d ≤ 175 1 (a) Draw the graph of the equation p = – 5 d + 70. a rat was placed at distance d (in cm) from a goal box. The diagram below shows the distancetime graphs for the two trains. Given that 20 m/s is equivalent to 72 km/h. [7] 37.32. use your graph to ﬁnd the value of m. 0 to 30. draw a conversion graph using the following scales Horizontal: km/h. Use your graph to (a) change to Singapore dollars (i) US$30 (ii) US$48 (iii) US$69 (iv) US$150 (b) change to American dollars (i) S$21 (ii) S$85 (iii) S$112 (iv) S$270 [10] 35. the exchange rate for US$80 was S$130. using suitable scales. in producing n television sets is C = 96 000 + 80n (a) Draw the graph of this equation 0 ≤ n ≤ 1000 (b) Use your graph to ﬁnd the cost for producing (i) 50 (ii) 125 (iii) 650 (iv) 800 television sets. (c) when and where the two trains passed each other. arriving at Town P at 14 00. Train-2 leaves Town Q at 07:00. 1 The formula connecting p and d is p = – 5 d + 70. (c) Given that m television sets cost $132 000 to produce. 2 cm to 10 m/s Use your graph to change to (a) m/s (i) 36 km/h (ii) 55 km/h (iii) 75 km/h (b) km/h (i) 5 m/s (ii) 25m/s (iii) 14m/s [8] 33. [6] Town Q 500 Distance (km) 400 300 200 100 Town P 0 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Time Train 1 Train 2 87 . (b) the speed of each train before the ﬁrst stop. It leaves Town P at 07:00 and arrives at Town Q at 13:00. $ C. Draw a graph to convert American dollars into Singapore dollars. 1 cm to 10 km/h Vertical: m/s. Find (a) the distance travelled in the ﬁrst two hours by each train. In an experiment. 30 ≤ d ≤ 175 (b) Use your graph to ﬁnd the value of p when the value of d is (i) 35 (ii) 66 (iii) 125 (iv) 160 [7] 36. Use your graph to convert the following marks out of 65 to percentage marks: (a) 6 (b) 26 (c) 39 (d) 54 (e) 63 [8] 34. The pull p (in g) of the rat towards the food. On a certain day in 2006. was measured.

(a) (i) S$24 (b) (i) US$20 8. (a) (i) 24 litres (b) (i) 2 kg 6. 60 km away. (a) 70kg 3. [8] Answers 1. Town B 60 50 Distance (km) 40 30 20 10 Town A Harry Steven 0 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 Time Harry left Town A at 06:00 to travel to Town B. (a) 2cm 2. Steven overtook Harry. (a) (i) $150 (b) (i) 50 cards 4. Two hours later. Find (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) how long Steven took to reach Town B.2 cm (b) 9. and where. (a) 80 km/h 9. how far Harry had travelled after 1 hour.5 kg (b) 20 km/h (ii) S$108 (ii) US$64 (b) 51 3/7 km/h (b) $66 (c) 22 customers (c) 1 hour (iii) $350 (iii) 250 cards (d) 0. (b) 45 litres 5. (a) $30 (b) 3. Steven left Town A to travel to Town B too. how long Steven took to travel 45 km. when. The graph above shows the distance they had travelled in a given time. (a) 30 km 7.38. how far Harry had travelled when Steven reached his destination.1 litre per km (e) 290 km (c) 24g 88 . Harry’s average speed for the whole journey.5kg (ii) $200 (ii) 200 cards (c) 500 km (ii) 39 litres (ii) 3. and his speed for the journey.

(a) (i) 33 francs (b) (i) S$6 30.5 m/s (b) 1/2 hour (b) 30 km/h (b) 99 pounds (b) 40 km/h (b) 4 hours (ii) $60 (ii) 20 km (ii) 27 litres (ii) 8.6 seconds (d) 25 km/h (ii) A$60 (c) 120 km/h (c) 80 km (d) 50 km/h (d) 20 km/h (c) 15 km/h (c) 9 km/h (c) 70 km/h (d) 120 km/h 89 .10. (a) (i) ¥ 400 (b) (i) HK$ 30 24.8 gallons (ii) 164 baht (ii) S$4. (a) (i) $40 (b) (i) 54 km 20. (a) 13 1/3 19. (a) (i) $560 29. (a) (i) 20 m/s (b) (i) 54 km/h (ii) 80 (ii) 33 (ii) 60°C (ii) 112 minutes (b) 24 km/h (b) 2. (a) (i) 18 litres (b) (i) 4. (a) 80 litres 25. (a) 30 kg 17.40 (ii) M$82 (ii) S$45 (ii) ¥ 672 (ii) HK$ 40 (b) 10 seconds (b) 50 km (ii) DM 84 (b) CD (ii) $740 (ii) 75 francs (ii) S$ 19 (ii) 35 m/s (ii) 144 km/h (c) 56 litres (c) 75 km/h (b) (i) A$45 (d) 3 3/7 km/h (b) 20 (d) 7. (a) (i) 28°C (b) (i) 36 minutes 12. (a) (i) 110 baht (b) (i) S$7 22. (a) 20 seconds 14. (a) 93 1/3 km/h 15. (a) 60 km 13. (a) (i) M$40 (b) (i) S$33 23. (a) 40 km 18. (a) (i) DM 52 27.8 gallons 21. (a) BC 28. (a) 75 km/h 26. (a) 198 m/s 16. (a) (i) 25 (b) (i) 21 11.

40 km/h 08 42. (a) $36 32. 150 km (b) 80 km/h. 71 7 km/h 38. 27 km from Town A 10 km 35 km 1 hour 6 min 10 km/h 90 . (a) (i) 49 (b) (i) 13 35.31. (a) 100 km. (b) (i) 100 000 (c) 450 (b) $45 (ii) 15 (ii) 90 (b) 40 (ii) 78 (ii) 52 (ii) 57 (ii) 106 000 (iii) 21 (iii) 50 (c) 60 (iii) 112 (iii) 69 (iii) 45 (iii) 148 000 (d) 83 (iv) 244 (iv) 166 (iv) 38 (iv) 160 000 37. 270 km from Town P 1 3 (d) 83 3 km/h. 100 km/h (c) 10 18. (b) (i) 63 36. (a) 9 (e) 97 34. (a) (i) 10 (b) (i) 18 33. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1 hour 30 min.

some simple applications of congruent triangles. The geoboard ( shown below) can serve as an excellent aid in illustrating this idea. GENERAL NOTES In this chapter. lead up to the idea that two triangles are similar if they can be made congruent by enlargement or reduction. In each case. students should note whether the triangle formed. at the beginning of the chapter will help students grasp the concept of congruency. and the given triangle. 91 .) Many students enjoy ﬁeld activities in mathematics. (a) (b) 2. They can also try using the methods mentioned in Questions 10 and 11 (pg 233) to determine the height of a tree on the school grounds. here. switching from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional solutions. so creating 4 congruent triangles. In discussing the tests for similarity between two triangles. to reiterate the way the concept of congruency is used in everyday situations. This can be repeated by having them form a triangle so that the triangle formed. and exploration. Just For Fun (pg 216) Just For Fun (pg 219) 1. The puzzles. teachers can ask their students to form another triangle that has sides equal to the three sides of the triangle shown below. and the given triangle have two sides and the included angles equal. are discussed.CHAPTER 8 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 8 Congruent and Similar Triangles ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 206) The 6 toothpicks can be joined to form a tetrahedron. such as in the replacement of worn-out parts with the same part number. It may be useful. For example. are congruent or not. It can also be used to illustrate congruency tests. and similar triangles. (Teachers may ask their students to come up with some other applications. This encourages students to view a problem by using non-conventional methods.

We say that (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) triangles RSQ and POQ are similar. and S are points on the circumference of a circle. In the diagram. Triangles XMY and XNZ are congruent. Given that BC = 8 cm. In the diagram. and QC = CR. triangles SOP and PQO are similar. the length of SC in cm is: 2 1 (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 2 3 (D) 6 (E) 5 3 ( ) � � � � � � � 2. R. � � � � � � � � � ( ) 3. If XY = XZ. then (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ∆XYZ is equilateral. QR= 2 cm. and QS = 3 cm. Triangles XNZ and YMZ are similar. ∠XMY = ∠XNZ = 90°. In the diagram. O. PQ is parallel to BC. OQ = 6 cm. ∠XYZ = 90° YZ = YM = ZN � ( ) ( � � ) � � 92 . RP and SO intersect at right angles. PQ = 4 cm. AP = PB.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 9 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 8 Congruent and Similar Triangles 1. P. triangles SQP and RQO are congruent.

In the diagram. What is the length of XY? 1 1 1 (a) 87 cm (b) 87 2 cm (c) 88 cm (d) 88 2 cm (e) 89 2 cm M 25 20 O 70 N ( ) X Y 93 . BC = 5 cm. (a) 6cm only (b) 7cm only (c) 8cm only (d) 9cm only (e) 6cm or 8cm � � � � � ( ) � �� � 6. In the diagram. and YO = 70 cm. ABC = ACE = CDE = 90°. and DC = 3 cm. ∠ABC = ∠BDC = 90°. is 1 1 (a) 8 3 (b) 5 (c) 5 3 (d) 2 (e) 12 � � � � ( ) � � t t t 5. PQ // BC.t t 4. BD = 14 cm. AB = 6 cm. The length of AD. If PR = 6 cm and RC = PB = 14 cm. MO = 20 cm. and DE = 8 cm. Calculate BC. In the diagram MN // XY. MN = 25 cm. then AP is: 2 1 (a) 6cm (b) 32 3 cm (d) 14cm (d) 10 2 cm (e) 20cm A ( ) P 14 B 6 R Q 14 C 7. In the diagram. in cm.

Which of the following cases represents a pair of congruent triangles? (a) i only i �� ��� �� �� �� ��� (b) ii only ii (c) iii only �� ��� �� �� (d) i and ii only (e) i and iii only iii ��� ( ) �� ��� �� ��� ��� �� ��� t t t t 9. a 6. Find the length of QT. c 5. 1 2 (a) 3cm (b) 4 2 cm (c) 6 cm (d) 8 cm (e) 9 cm ( ) � � � � � � � � Answers 1. b 8. In the diagram PRQ = TSQ . b 94 . PR = 8 cm and PQ = ST = 6 cm. e 2. d 7. PQR = TQS = 90°. b 3.8. b 4. a 9.

Copy and complete the following: In ΔABC and ΔADC.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 8 Congruent and Similar Triangles 1. AB = BÂC = AC = ΔABC = ΔADC ( BC = and AĈB = 3. copy and complete the following: a= b= x= y= z= � ) � � � [3] y cm A 12 cm 8 cm 40° 2 cm b° a° x cm 9 cm 50° [3] 4. Given that ΔA ≡ ΔB. copy and complete the following: a= b= x= y= 2 cm 70° A a° b° 3 cm y cm 40° B 3 cm x cm [2] 95 . Given that ΔA ≡ ΔB. PQ = = TŜR QR = ∴ΔPQR ≡ ΔTSR ( ∴PR = and Qˆ = PR T R Q P ) S [3] 2. Copy and complete the following: In ΔPQR and ΔTSR.

In the diagram. Given that QB = 4 cm. In the diagram. ABCD is a rectangle and AE // FC. AB is parallel to PR. M is the mid-point of AC. Name a pair of congruent triangles and state the case for congruency. AMB =DMC. AĈB = BÂC = AB = ∴ΔABC ≡ ΔBAD ( ∴AC = and BC = � � ) � � [3] 6. [2] � � � � � 96 . In the ﬁgure.5. ˆ ADE = DÂE = AD = ΔADE = ΔCBF ( ) DE = and AE = � � � � � � [3] [4] 7. and the area of ΔPBR = 9a cm2. In the diagram. BR = 6 cm. PR = 15 cm. ﬁnd (a) the length of AB. [2] [2] � � � � � 9. Find the values of x and y. P x cm M 7 cm Q 16 cm 12 cm 7 cm N y cm R 8. Copy and complete the following: In ΔABC and ΔBAD. and MB=DM. (b the area of ΔPQR in terms of a. ΔPQR and ΔPMN are similar. Copy and complete the following: In ΔADE and ΔCBF.

Calculate the length of BC. all lengths are given in cm. ﬁnd the length of TR. � ���� � ������ ���� � � � 13. PQ // BC. Calculate the values of x and y. MD // BC. and AP = AQ. given that ΔPRS and ΔQRT are similar. [3] � � � ���� � ���� � 15. In the diagram.10. AP ⊥ BP. AD // MC. respectively. BQ ⊥ AQ. In the diagram. the radii of the two circles touching each other are 5 cm and 3 cm. Prove that ΔAMD ≡ ΔMBC by copying and completing the following: DÂM = ˆ AMD = AM = ΔAMD = ΔMBC ( � � ) � � � [4] 11. In the diagram. and M is the mid–point of AB. Find the length of the side marked with the letter x. In the diagram. Prove that ΔABP ≡ ΔABQ by copying and completing the following: � ˆ = APB = AP = AB = ΔABP ≡ ΔABQ ( � ) � � [4] [2] 12. In the diagram. 3 5 2 4 x [4] 97 . In the diagram shown. ���� � ���� � ���� � ���� � [4] ���� ���� � 14.

Find (a) the height of the building AB. standing at a distance from a 4. At 10:00 a.8m-tall pole (AB). (b) the ratio of the parameters of ΔABC and ΔDBE. of the child from the pole. ﬁnd the distance. If the boy’s height is 150 cm. 120 cm tall.5 m and 15 m.5 m. is 6 m tall and casts a shadow of 8 m.16. respectively. ﬁnd the height of the tree. BQ. If his/her shadow on the ground is 1. A C E [3] [3] 6m G 8m F D 5m 9m B 98 . [3] � � � � � 19. (b) the distance FD of the pole from the tree if the pole is 9 m tall. The diagram shows a building AB. DE // AC. an electrical pole CD and a tree EF in a row. A D 8 B E x y [3] [2] C 17. Find (a) the lengths of the sides marked with x and y.. a boy and a tree cast shadows of lengths 2. The tree. In the diagram.m. The diagram below shows a child (PQ). [3] 18. 5 m away from the building.

ﬁnd the length of MT. and WX = c cm. 5 m long. [3] P A 40 cm 5m Q B R 21. PW = WU = US = SQ and PX = XV = VT = TR. ﬁnd the value of a + b + c [4] P W c cm X U S Q b cm a cm 8 cm V T R 99 . and those in (b) are similar. In the diagram. If QR = 8 cm. UV = b cm. MS = 6 cm. Give a reason why the pair of triangles in (a) are not similar. RQ = 3 cm. Find the distance RQ from the foot of the ladder to the foot of the building. and MN = 12 cm. reaching the top of a building from ground level. In the diagram. [2] PT 23. If PT = 6 cm. TS // NP and SR // PQ. STP = QPR. QR = 14 cm.20. ﬁnd the length of QT. ST = a cm. [3] � ���� ���� � � � ���� � ����� � � 24. If MR = 5 cm. �� �� �� � �� � �� � �� �� �� �� [2] (a) � ���� � ���� � � ����� � (b) ˆ ˆ ˆ 22. A worker has climbed 4 5 of the ladder so that his horizontal distance from the building is 40 cm. The diagram shows a ladder. In the diagram Sˆ = PQR. and PS = 6 cm.

The diagram shows ST a 10 m tall ﬂagpole. PQ [3] � � ���� � � ���� � 26. Find his distance from the ﬂagpole. ABC is a right-angled triangle. [4] � � � � � � 100 . ON = NM. and PQ a 30 m tall building. In the diagram. Calculate the value of l1 + l2 10 [3] 24 26 l1 l2 5 ˆ ˆ 27. and ONP = L MN = 90 (a) Prove that ΔOPN = ΔNLM. The diagram shows two similar triangles. In the diagram. ﬁnd the area of the square LNBM. and LNBM is a square. PN = LM. ﬁnd OPN . � � [3] [1] � � � 1 28. t ˆ (b) If LNM = 32° . so that RŜT = Rˆ .25. Alvin stands between the pole and the building at the point R. If BC = 12 cm and AB = 7 5 cm.

ﬁnd the length of DF. Find the value of the ratio x : y. [1] [2] � � � � � � � � 30.5x units. and OQ = x + 2y units. Given that AQ = 5 cm. A 2 3x 5 B 2y E x D 7 C [3] 101 . calculate the length of (a) QB. and DE : GH : BC = 5 : 7 : 10 (a) If FH = 21 cm. In the diagram. and ABCD is a straight line. ﬁnd the length of FG. [3] A 5 cm Q 7 cm P 6 cm B 5 1 cm 2 R S C D 31. 1 PC = 6 cm. PS = 2. OR // PQ // ST. QP = 7 cm. PQRS is a parallelogram. 2. (c) express QT in terms of x and y. [1] (c) SD. [2] (b) CS. (b) ST in terms of y. (b) If GB = 12 cm. In the diagram. express (a) PQ in terms of y. In the diagram. and BR = 5 2 cm. Given that OP = x units. DE // GH // BC. OR = 4y units. In the diagram. ABC = CDE .29.5x P x + 2y O 4y R Q S T [2] [2] [2] t t 32.

AP = 8 units. In the diagram. AR = x cm. PR // BC. QS = 4 units. CP = 12 units. and AD = 12 cm. Find the value [4] of x. Find the value of x + y. QR // CD. AB // PQ. AP = 10 cm. BD = 7 units and [6] DQ = y units. In the diagram. In the diagram.33. and RC = 6 units. AB // CD // PQ. QC = 4 cm. PB = 3 cm. [6] A 8 P x B 16 C Q y 12 R 34. A x 10 R D 3 B P Q 4 C 102 . AC // PR. Calculate the value of x. AX = 16 units. PQ // BR. BQ = x units. SR = 5 units. XQ = x units. AC = 6 units. PR = 12 units. In the diagram PQ // BC. PB = x units. Calculate the value of the product xy. AR = 6 units and QR = y units. A B 16 X x 7 D y 6 C 12 P Q 36. BC = 16 units. A P B x Q 4 S 5 R 6 C 35.

right-angled at P. PS is the perpendicular from P to QR. In the diagram. (b) Given that QS = 36 cm and RS = 25 cm. PD = 5 PR and PA = 6 PQ. (a) Prove that ΔRSP and ΔPSQ are similar. QR // AD. Find the value of x. PQ = PR = 28 cm. R S [3] [2] Q P 41. AP = 10 cm. and 6 cm long. AC = PC = 20 cm. and QR = 14 cm. P [2] [3] A B C Q R 40.37. PQ // BC. [3] 103 . Find the lengths of the other sides of the second triangle. (a) Prove that ΔPQR and ΔACP are similar. The longest side of a similar triangle is 6 cm. ﬁnd the length of PS. AR and DQ meet at B and AQ // DC. Prove that 1 (a) DC = 6 PQ. AC // QR. and RC = 4 cm. 7 cm. PQR is a triangle. (b) ΔABQ and ΔDBC are congruent. (b) Calculate the length of AQ. The sides of a triangle are 9 cm. In the diagram. PB = 5 cm. In ΔAPR. DR = x cm. P [2] [3 A B C D Q R 39. In the diagram. [5] A 10 P 5 B Q x R 4 C D 4 5 38.

S P 3 A 1 Q B 2 C R 2 [4] 104 . In the diagram. [3] 44. calculate the length of GB. [5] T x S 3 P y R 4 Q 43. and RQ = 4cm. If EF = 10 cm and FG = 8 cm. cut out from the cone by a plane parallel to the base and 3 m away from it. Calculate the length of (a) PS. SR is parallel to PQ. Write down an equation connecting x and y. In the diagram. BC // PS. [4] E 10 D F 8 G C A B 46. Given that AD is perpendicular to BC. C D [4] A B 45. and BC = CS = 2cm. (b) RC. In the diagram. ABCD is a parallelogram. prove that AB × AD = BD × AC. SP = 3 cm. and EDA and EFGB are straight lines. A cone has a height of 12 m and a base radius of 5 m. AB // QR. TS = x cm. write down the values of x and y. ΔABC is right-angled at A. PA = 3 cm. Find the diameter of the circular section. AQ = 1 cm. TR = y cm.42. Given that PQ = 2SR.

[4] P 5 Q N R M A B C 50. Find the length of MN. Calculate the length of (a) AE. (b) DB. In the diagram. R 6 X P Y 3 Z S 7 Q [5] 105 . M is the mid-point of AC. DF is parallel to BC. and PC = 4PQ. In the diagram. (b) If XZ = 5RZ. BC = 6 cm. ﬁnd the length of YZ. DE = 2. Calculate the length of AC. AP = 5 cm. ACB = APQ. PR // YZ. PQ = 4 cm. EF is parallel to DC. In the diagram. and BC = 6 cm.4 cm. C Q 4 A 5 P B [3] 6 49. In the diagram. RS = 3 cm and SQ = 7 cm. (a) Calculate the length of SY. PR = 6 cm. (c) DF. A [6] 8 E 2. CF = 2 cm.47.4 D 6 B F 2 C 48. and AF = 8 cm. PA // NM // BC. PA = 5 cm.

4 cm 12 cm x [4] 6 cm 15 cm 52. P Y X Q M R Answers ˆ ˆ 1. ACD 3. SAS. XY is parallel to PQ. TR. AC. SAS. and XY is perpendicular to PQ. and PQ = 9 cm. QR = 10 cm. a = 90. (a) Prove that triangles OPQ and YXO are similar. z = 8 106 . x = 12. Find the value of x in the diagram. XY = OY = 16 cm. y = 9.51. B 10 y [4] 52 10 A 48 C 53. PM = 12 cm. STR ˆ 2. Given that 1 [4] PQ = 13 cm. DC. SR. ﬁnd the length of QY. AD. PM is perpendicular to QR. Find the value of y in the diagram. TS. (b) Calculate the length of XP. In the diagram PQR = PRQ . In the diagram. OP = OQ = 24 cm. b = 40. DÂC. O [5] X Y P Q t t 54. and XY = 2 2 cm. P QR .

BCF. BD. x = 21. AAS. 20 4 cm2 8 12 10 2 12 = 18 = 15 = 3 (b) 4 m (b) 7 : 5 (b) 15a cm2 107 . AQ. MBC. CF 1 7. AD 6. 4 cm 15.6 cm 16. SAS ˆ ˆ 10. BC. CBF. MB. ΔAMB ≡ ΔCMD. 1. 5 m 26. AB. 25 27. ABD.4. (a) 9 4 m 20. x = 2. 9 m 18. 11 4 cm 13. AQB.2. x = 4. AB. 8 cm 23. AAS. a = 40. C MB. y = 3 ˆ ˆ 5. 7. 12 25. 9 = 5 = 2 ! 12 22. y = 4 17.5 m 3 19. BF. 2 m 18 10 25 21. b = 70. 4. y = 2 3 8. y = 3. (b) 58° 1 28.2 14. (a) 6 cm 9. (a) x = 11. BDA.5 cm 24. 90°. AAS ˆ 11.2. RHS 1 12.

5: 8 33. (a) 2 2 cm 20 31. 18 cm 54. y = 4 1 43. (a) 4 5 cm 1 51. (b) 18 cm 40.8 35. 7 2 m 45.29. 9. (b) 30 cm 2 41. (a) 15 cm 1 30. 7 cm (b) 28 cm (b) 2 cm (b) 10y units (c) 4 cm 5 (c) 2 x +5y units 2 (b) 3 cm (b) 3 cm 3 (c) 9 5 cm 1 (b) 7 2 cm 108 . (a) 8 cm 47. 13 5 cm 3 52. 4 34. 8 39. 4 3 cm.2 37. (a) 7 y units 32. 9 13 53. 46 36. 4.6 cm 1 48. 4 cm 42. 12cm 46. 7 2 cm 1 50. 7 2 cm 1 49. 4x = 3y. (a) 9. x = 3.

The ability of their legs to support their weights depends on the cross-sectional area of their legs. but their surface area will be only 100 times larger. Do you notice that fat people have diﬃculty standing up for long? Have you noticed how thick the legs of an elephant are? 109 . The giants will be 1 000 times heavier than us.CHAPTER 9 Chapter 9 Book 3 Mathematics Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 241) Just For Fun (pg 241) Just For Fun (pg 242) (π–2) : 2 Just For Fun (pg 244) The diagonal joining the ends of the rectangle consists of two ﬁne lines. They will die easily due to dehydration and heat loss. As the cross-sectional area of their legs will be only 100 times as great. and will lose heat and water at 10 times our normal rate. they would be unlikely to support heavier weights. with a small gap in between forming an area of one square unit. to let them discover the solution. Just For Fun (pg 251) The dwarfs will have 10 times our body-surface area. Teachers can ask students to construct the ﬁgures. using graph paper.

such as mineral water. Teachers can also ask them whether they are aware of the fact that the bottles or containers for each product are similar (diﬀerent sizes but the same shape). and hair shampoo. Using the available scale factors. before the building is actually built. then the ratio of the area on the map. toothpaste. is 1 : n² 110 .Chapter 9 Book 3 Mathematics Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids GENERAL NOTES A scale model of a building is made. In addition. like: If the area of the windscreen of the model is x cm². Some students may have visited places like mini-Siam in Bangkok. and so on during their vacations. to the corresponding area on the ground. They can discuss the models they saw. very often. Some students may possess toy cars which are miniature models of real cars. Students can also calculate whether the price is proportional to the net volume of the product or not. they can bring any photographs to show to the class. Teachers can draw the students’ attention to commercial products that come in a range of sizes. mini-China in Taiwan. teachers may want students to answer some hypothetical questions. what will the area of the windscreen of the actual car be? If the capacity of the petrol tank of a real car is y litres. Teachers can also ask them if they know the scales that were used in making the models that they saw. what will the capacity of the petrol tank of the model be? Teachers may also want to relate the present topic to the scales and map problems. especially those with inscriptions of the scales used in making the models. Teachers can help students recall that if a map is drawn to a scale of 1 : n. They can bring them to class.

Given that M and N are the mid–points of PQ and QR Area of the 3 QMN respectively. In the diagram. O XD = 90° and the area of ∆BCD = 12 cm2. ﬁnd the ratio of the volume of Peter’s tent to Paul’s tent. If Peter uses 9 times the amount of canvas as Paul. the value of is: Area of PQRS (a) 1 4 (b) 1 6 (c) 1 8 1 (d) 10 1 (e) 12 R ( ) S N P M Q 3. In the diagram.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 12 Chapter 9 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids ˆ 1. ABCD is a parallelogram. The tents that Peter and Paul made are similar in shape. Given that OC = 4 cm. PQRS is a parallelogram. If the area of a face of a cube is increased by 44%. the length of DX in cm is: (a) 4 (b) 12 (c) 8 D (d) 3 (e) 48 C ( ) O X A B 2. then its volume will be increased by (a) 44% (b) 173% (c) 73% (d) 199% (e) 299% ( ) 4. (e) 1 : 27 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 3 : 1 (d) 9 : 1 (e) 27 : 1 ( ) 111 .

In the diagram. and the area of ∆PQR is 21 cm². If each edge of a cube is increased by 140%. PQRS is a trapezium in which SR is parallel to PQ. In the diagram. (a) a² : (a + b)² (b) ab : (a + b)² (c) ab : 2 (a + b)² (d) 2ab : (a + b)² (e) ab : (a² + b²) B A P Q ( R C ) 6. the area of ∆SQR is: (a) 15 cm² 3 (b) 8 4 cm² 2 (c) 12 1 cm² (d) 50 5 cm² (e) 36cm² 4 S 5 cm R 7 cm ( ) P 12 cm Q 112 .5. If YZ = 1 AB. what fraction of the area of ABCD is the area 2 of ∆XYZ? (a) 1 2 (b) 1 3 (c) 1 4 D Y (d) 1 5 Z (e) 1 6 C ( ) A X B 9. ABCD is a parallelogram. Find the ratio of the area of ∆PQR to the area of ∆ABC. QR is parallel to AB. In the diagram. then the volume is increased by a factor of (a) 3 (b) 9 (c) 15 (d) 21 (e) 27 ( ) 7. If a spherical balloon is inﬂated so that its diameter is tripled. PQ is parallel to BC. the percentage increase in the surface area is: (a) 176 (b) 276 (c) 376 (d) 476 (e) 576 ( ) 8. PQ = 12 cm. RQ = 7 cm. and BR : RC = a : b. Given that SR = 5 cm.

c 2. d 4. c 9. In the diagram. If the area of ∆PQR is 40 cm².10. e 11. d 8. CY = 6cm and the area of ∆XYZ is 54 cm². If XA = 2 cm. b 3. the area of ∆ABC is: (a) 80 cm² (b) 18 cm² (c) 8 cm² P A 6 cm 3 cm B C R (d) 10 cm² (e) 20 ( ) Q 12. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB : CD = 2 : 5. e 7. AC = 4 cm. In the diagram. In the diagram. b 6. a 12. and AB = 3cm. d 113 5. d . If the area of ∆CDE is 75 cm². then the area of the shaded region is: (a) 27 cm² (b) 18 cm² (c) 20 1 cm² (d) 12 cm² 4 X 2 A 4 C 6 Y Z D B (E) 24cm² ( ) 11. triangles ABC and PQR are similar. AB // CD // YZ. PQ = 6 cm. c 10. then the area of ABCD is: (a) 100 cm² (b) 147 cm² (c) 195 cm² A (d) 300 cm² B (e) 317 cm² ( ) E C D Answers 1.

14. Write down (a) the ratio of the total surface area of the small marker to that of the large marker. Find the volume of the clay needed in m3. [3] 9. (b) volumes. [1] (c) the area of ΔBCQ. Find the ratio of their (a) base diameters. [2] [2] [3] 6. 4. (b) the total surface area of the small marker if the total surface area of the large marker is 196 cm2. The lengths of the sides of three cubes are in the ratio 3:2:1 (a) If the total surface area of the smallest cube is 22 cm2. The area of two quadrilaterals are 49 cm and 64 cm. 5. Calculate the volume of the model. In the diagram. in litres. 2. ﬁnd the total surface area of the largest cube. if the capacity of the smaller bottle is 500 ml.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Area and Volume of Similar Figures and Solids [3] ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min Chapter 9 1. respectively. A bottle of height 8 cm has a volume of 120 cm3. A small traﬃc marker is geometrically similar to a large one. respectively.92. AC = 15 cm and the area of APQ = 16 cm2. Find the volume of a similar bottle of height 24 cm. [3] 8. ﬁnd the ratio of their (a) surface areas. (b) the capacity of the larger bottle.5 cm weighs 135 g. ﬁnd the weight in grams of a sphere with radius 2 cm. If the ratio of the radii of the two spheres is 2:3. (a) A cylindrical tower is 200 m high. John has two spheres. [2] (b) If the volume of the largest sphere is 81 cm3. and the diameters of the two markers are 12 cm. [3] P Q B C 114 . The ratio of the surface areas of two similar cones is 0. A small bottle is geometrically similar to a large one. giving your answer in standard form. [3] 7. Taking π = 3. in cubic metres. Find the ratio of their corresponding sides if they are similar. If a sphere of radius 1. Write down (a) the ratio of the volume of the smaller bottle to that of the larger bottle. ﬁnd its volume. The heights of the two bottles are 15 cm and 45 cm. (b) volumes. Given that AQ = 6 cm.72:3. [2] (b) the area of PBCQ. A model of a building is made to a scale of 1:300. [2] 3. [2] (b) Peter is making a clay model of the tower with a height of 20 cm. PQ is parallel to BC. [2] 11. ﬁnd A (a) the area of ΔABC. The building has a volume of 5 400 m3. [3] 10. ﬁnd the volume of the second largest cube. and 24 cm. and its diameter is 20 m.

similar ﬁgures one-tenth of the original height. (c) Find the numerical value of area of TPQR QR (i) SR (ii) area of TTSR (d) Given also that the area of ∆PQR is 24 cm2. A building is made up of a cylinder and a cone on its top. 14. Given that TX = 5 m.8 kg. ﬁnd. RX = 2 cm. taking π = 3. (a) If it costs $2.14. (a) Prove that ΔPQR and ΔSXY are similar. (b) the weight of the original statue. If the bigger container has a height of 96 cm and a volume of 5 184 cm3.50 to paint the model. (b) Find the length of PT given that QR = 4 cm. calculate the area of ∆TSR. The length of the actual boat is 18 m. P R Q [2] [2] [3] [3] [2] [1] X S Y T 15. [3] (b) the volume of the building. Given that a small ﬁgure is 30 cm tall and weighs 1. [1] [2] 13. [3] (c) the total surface area and the volume of a model of the building given that the diameter of the model is 120 cm.12 A statue was melted down and recast into smaller. what is the weight of the actual boat if it is made of the same material? [2] 115 . TS = 13 m and PQ = 10 m. ﬁnd (a) the height of the original statue. 2 (a) the total surface area of the building. [4] T P X S Q R 16. In the diagram. PQ // ST. what will it cost to paint the actual boat? [2] (b) If the weight of the model is 3 kg. The model of a boat is 150 cm in length. (b) the volume of the smaller container. XY // RT. and XY = 16 cm. XS = 12 m. calculate (a) the height of the smaller container. XS = 8 cm. The surface area of two containers is in the ratio 144:25.

[2] 21. [2] 18. ﬁnd the volume of the smaller pyramid.17. Find the circumference of the top of the larger container. TU // PQ. [2] 24. (b) Given that the volume of the larger pyramid is 275 cm3. [1] (c) Both containers are ﬁlled with paint. The cost of the paint in the larger container is $40. Two similar cones are such that the ratio of the areas of their circular bases is 36:4. [1] [2] 23. Find the ratio of their corresponding heights if they are similar. Two containers shown in the diagram are geometrically similar. The height of the smaller container is 8 cm and the height of the larger container is 12 cm.4 cm. The two containers shown are geometrically similar with respective heights of 8 cm and 10 cm. The larger sphere has a volume of 1 715 cm3. (a) The top of the smaller container has a circumference of 54 cm. The volumes of two pyramids are 125 cm3 and 216 cm3. [2] 22. [2] (b) Find the ratio of the area of the base of the smaller container to that of the larger container.4 cm. [1] [2] [2] [1] 20. [2] (c) the area of trapezium RSUT. ﬁnd the mass of the ﬂour in the smaller container. Calculate the volume of the smaller sphere. (a) The diameter of the base of the smaller container is 2. PU = 6 cm. (b) the ratio of the volumes of the cones. [3] 8 cm 10 cm 116 . SQ = 3 cm. (b) Given that the capacity of the larger glass is 625 ml. ﬁnd the capacity of the smaller glass. Given that the larger container holds 1. respectively. The areas of the bases of two similar pyramids are in the ratio 9:25 (a) Find the ratio of the heights of the pyramids. [2] (b) the area of ΔPQR. calculate (a) the length of TU. respectively. Two similar spheres have diameters of 20 cm and 28 cm. Given that the area of PRS is 32 cm2 and RT = 2. Calculate the diameter of the base of the larger container. 19.25 kg. respectively. In a diagram. Find (a) the ratio of the diameters of the circular bases.50. and US = 2 cm. The areas of the bases of the two similar glasses are in the ratio of 4:25 (a) Find the ratio of the circumferences of the tops of the glasses. Find the cost of the paint in the smaller container. [2] (b) The containers are completely ﬁlled with ﬂour. RQ = 9 cm.

The heights of the tins are 12 cm and 18 cm. How much can you save in the purchase of the larger tin? [4] 32. what was the length of the original ingot? [3] 117 . what will it cost to paint the hull of the boat using the same paint? [3] 31. [4] C Y A X B 26. ﬁnd the area of the trapezium FGED. If the length of each small ingot is 5. ABC is a triangle in which XY // BC.5 cm and EF = 4 cm. A certain brand of tea is sold in two sizes. similarly packed in tins of similar shape. A statue is made from 4 050 cm3 of metal. ﬁnd the area of the quadrilateral XYCB. A large ingot of metal is melted down and made into 125 small ingots. An accurate scale model of the statue is made from 150 cm3 of metal. A bucket with a height of 16 cm can hold 4 2 litres of liquid. How many litres would a similar bucket hold if it had a height of 32 cm? [2] 29. Calculate the height (in cm) of the model. [4] D C E F A B 27. The area of trapezium ABCD is 21 cm2. AB = 2. ﬁnd the area of ABFE. and the prices are $7. A model of a boat is made on the scale factor of 5 . Given that 5AX = 2XB and the area of AXY = 16 cm2.00. [4] A F D B G E C 1 28. The diagram shows a trapezium ABCD in which AB // DC. CD = 4.2 cm. The diagram consists of a right-angled ΔABC. (a) Given that the density of the metal is 4 g/cm3. respectively. Given that EF // AB. calculate the mass (in kg) of the statue. [2] 1 30.25. If it costs $1. Given that FG // DE // BC and the area of the triangle is 36 cm2. respectively. D is the mid-point of AB and F is the mid-point of AD. all similar in shape to the original ingot. [2] (b) The statue is 57 cm high.20 and $21.5 cm.60 to paint the hull of the model.

Find the capacity of a similar cylinder of circumference 36 cm.33. QR = 6 cm. ﬁnd the capacity of the larger container. what is the percentage increase in its volume? [3] 43. Find the surface area of a similar container which has a capacity of 15. ﬁnd the surface area of the larger solid. [3] 1 39. Given that MN = 4 cm. A container has a surface area of 2 000 cm2 and a capacity of 8. (b) Find the ratio of the total surface area of A to that of B. The ratio of the lengths of a pair of corresponding sides in T1 and T2 is 2 : 5. P M Q N R [3] 37. [3] 41. [3] 36. The diagram shows two similar cuboids. If the diameter of a soap bubble increases by 30%. ﬁnd the area of ΔPMN. The mass of the larger sphere is 81 kg. The ratio of the lengths of a pair of corresponding sides in T2 and T3 is 10 : 9. Find the mass of the smaller sphere. respectively. taking π to be 7 (b) If water is poured into the container. and T3 are all similar to one another. The diagram shows a container in the form of an inverted cone. and the depth of water is 7 cm. 22 (a) Find the capacity of the container. with a base radius of 12 cm and a height of 28 cm. [4] 42. Find the mass of the larger cone. T2. respectively. Two solid cones have curved surface areas of 8 m2 and 128 m2.12 litres. Three triangles T1. respectively. If the capacity of the smaller container is 297 cm3. Find the ratio of the areas of triangles T1 and T3. Two similar cylindrical containers have base radii of 9 cm and 12 cm. and the mass of the smaller one is 12 kg. [3] 40. Two solid spheres have surface areas of 6 cm2 and 54 cm2. ﬁnd the volume of the water. [3] 38.75 litres. (a) Find the volume of B if the volume of A is 128 cm3. [2] [1] A 12 cm 6 cm B 6 cm 34. A cylindrical container has a circumference of 45 cm and a capacity of 6 4 litres. and the area of MNRQ = 20 cm2. respectively. If the surface area of the smaller solid is 576 cm2. The masses of two similar solids are 32 kg and 108 kg. [5] 118 . [3] 35.

12 cm 28 cm 7 cm 44. and MN is parallel to LP. [7] (c) If the area of ΔABY is 72 cm2. ﬁnd the area of ΔABX. In the diagram. AB and CD are the parallel sides of a trapezium ABCD. [4] 46. The volume of a cube is 64 times that of another cube. (b) If the total surface area of the larger cube is 528 cm2. Find the area of a similar polygon in which the corresponding [3] side is 2 cm. ﬁnd the total surface area of the smaller cube. [3] Find the ratio of the area of ΔOQL to the area of quadrilateral OLRN. (a) If the side of the smaller cube is 5 cm. and Y is a point on BC = 5YC. L is a point on QR such that QR = 3QL. N is the mid-point of PR. Area of TABC ? (a) What is the value of the ratio Area of TABY (b) Find the ratio of the area of ΔABX and ΔABD. What is the volume of a similar prism whose height is 5 times the height of [3] the given prism? 48. ﬁnd the side of the larger cube. P N O Q L M R 119 . X is a point on AD such that AD = 5AX. A prism has a volume of 80 cm3. 47. One side of a polygon of area 72 cm2 is 6 cm. In the diagram below. D C Y X A B 45.

[3] 57. X. [3] 53. In the diagram. Two similar biscuit tins have volumes of 6 400 cm3 and 2 700 cm3. [4] 51. If the height of the second cup is 12 cm. what is the volume of the actual ship? [3] 1 58.49.00. (b) If it is given.00 and $26. ﬁnd the capacity of the larger glass. If the larger one is 60 cm high. ﬁnd the height of the ﬁrst cup. 3 240 cm 3 (b) 24 cm3 120 . respectively. [3] 56. (b) If the volume of the larger cone is V cm3. ﬁnd the slant height of the larger cone in terms of α. Two similar glasses have heights 9 cm and 12 cm respectively. (i) show that ΔPXY and ΔXYZ have equal areas. (ii) explain why XY is parallel to PR. (a) Given that ΔPQY and quadrilateral XQYZ have equal areas. Two cones have base radii 12 cm and 18 cm. (a) 198 cm2 3. Two similar cakes of diameters 15 cm and 20 cm are sold at $12. respectively. A model of a cargo ship is made on a scale of 1:30. how much water can it hold? [3] Answers 1. Two similar cones have diameter 15 cm and 12 cm. 320 g 2. [3] 55. express the volume of the smaller cone in terms of V. QR. that PX = 3 cm. Find out which cake is cheaper and by how much. (a) If the curved surface area of the smaller cone is απcm2. [6] R Z Y P 3 X 7 Q 50. ﬁnd the area of quadrilateral XQYZ. [3] 52. ﬁnd the height of the second tin. and the area of ΔPQR is 20 cm2. further. respectively. If the total surface area of the ﬁrst cone is 300 cm2. and RP of ΔPQR. If the capacity of the smaller glass is 360 cm2. to the nearest 10 cents. Two watering cans are of the same shape. A marble statue of height 3 m weighs 54 kg. If the volume of the model is 2 m3. Y. Two similar cups have volumes of 200 cm3 and 1 600 cm3. XQ = 7 cm. and vertical heights 22 cm and 33 cm. What is the weight of a similar marble statue if its height is 2 m? [3] 54. ﬁnd the total surface area of the second cone. The smaller one is 45 cm high and it can hold 4 2 litres of water. If the height of the ﬁrst tin is 14 cm. and Z are points on sides PQ.

36 litres (b) 640 g (b) 48 cm2 (b) 59. (a) 100 cm2 12. (a) 3:1 20.92 cm 15.23 m2 16.12 m3 (d) 150 cm2 (c) 60 cm2 121 . (a) 2:5 19. (a) 4:9 5. (a) 36 cm 18.56 m3 (b) 5 184 kg (b) 4:9 (b) 40 ml (b) 27:1 (c) $12 4 (ii) 25 (c) 17. (a) 4 2 cm 22. (b) 17. 14 8 cm2 27. (a) 1:27 9. 5:6 1 21. 7:8 11. 625 cm3 24. 180 cm2 5 26.5 litres (b) 49 cm2 10. (a) 40 cm 14.4.4 cm3 (c) 14 cm2 (b) 84 cm2 (b) 1 800 kg (b) 375 cm3 2 (c) (i) 5 (b) 5 278.92 m2.8 m3 (b) 13. (a) 1:4 (b) 8:27 (b) 27:343 (b) 62. 2 × 10–4 m3 7. (a) 3 cm 25. (a) 1 244. 9. (a) 3:7 6. (a) 3:5 23. (a) $4 320 17. 16. (a) 3 m 13.75 cm2 28. (a) 62 800 m3 8.

768 kg 41. 704 cm3 38. 16 cm2 37.29. 1 296 cm 2 1 39. 10 3 litres 122 . (b) 14cm2 3a 50. (a) 16 cm3 34. 853 3 cm3 53. and it is cheaper by $2. 26 cm 33. 129 cm2 1 52. 6 cm (b) 19 cm (b) 4:1 (b) 66 cm3 1 (b) 5 (b) 33 cm2 (c) 18 cm2 8 (b) 27 Vcm3 56. 3 5 litres 40.30 32. 16 kg 1 54. (a) 4 45. $200 31. 8 cm2 47. 4:9 42. 54 000 m3 2 58. 5 49. 2 880 cm2 36. 10 000 cm3 1 48. $3. (a) 4 224 cm3 5 44. (a) 16.7% 43. The second cake. (a) 44 cm 51. 10 2 cm 55. 3 kg 35. 119.40 57.2 kg 30. (a) 20 cm 46.

The monkey. which is busily looking ahead for a mate. especially for weaker students. adjacent. Suddenly he hears a noise in a tree in front of him. on the board or on a transparency. To help students memorise these trigonometrical ratios more easily. the picture of a monkey playing in a tree and a weary hunter with a gun. students must always be reminded to check that the mode is in ‘degree’. the angle of depression). with reference to a given angle as many students may ﬁnd these confusing at the initial stage. A mnemonic for the angle of elevation and the angle of depression is shown in the following story: Draw. He is elated by the sight of the monkey (hence. 123 . When using a calculator. teachers may wish to introduce the mnemonics. for many hours. and hypotenuse sides. For brighter students.CHAPTER 10 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 10 Trigonometrical Ratios ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 272) 5 2 1 3 4 6 GENERAL NOTES Teachers may wish to introduce one trigonometrical ratio at a time. the angle of elevation). that was straight initially. all three trigonometrical ratios can be introduced at the same time. His gaze. hears the click of the gun. Practice should be given to identify the opposite. The hunter has been looking for animals without much success. is now raised at an angle to spot the monkey. He looks down at an angle and is very depressed to see the hunter’s gun (hence. The Geometers’ Sketchpad (GSP) can be used to illustrate the various trigonometrical ratios.

5 7. If sin x = 17 and x is acute. (b) 3 cos x – sin x + tan x [3] [2] [2] [4] [4] 15 8. giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms. ﬁnd the values of (a) 2 sin θ (b) cos (90 – θ) [2] [1] 124 . giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms. ﬁnd the numerical values of (a) 2 cos θ (b) 3 tan θ 12 5. [4] 12 4. (a) tan x + 2 cos x (b) 3 cos x – 2 sin x [2] [2] 40 9. Given that ∠A is an acute angle such that cos A = 13 . ﬁnd the value of 2 cos θ + 3 tan (90 – θ).XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 10 Trigonometrical Ratios 12 1. ﬁnd the numerical value of 2 sin θ + 5 tan θ . ﬁnd the value of each of the following. ﬁnd the value of 2 cos θ + 3 tan (90 – θ). [3] 5 2. If sin θ = 25 where θ is acute. If sin θ = 41 where θ is acute. If tan θ = 2 5 where θ is acute. Given that sin θ = 13 and θ is an acute angle. construct ∠A and measure its value correct to the nearest degree. [4] 2 10. giving your answers as a fraction in its simplest form. If sin θ = 13 where θ is acute. Given that cos θ = 5 where θ is acute. Given that tan x = 12 where x is an acute angle. write down the values of (a) cos θ (b) tan (90 – θ) ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min [4] 3 3. Given that sin θ = 13 and that θ is an acute angle. ﬁnd the values of (a) 2 sin x. ﬁnd the values of (a) cos θ (b) tan (90 – θ) 7 6.

If cos x = 17 where x is acute. AB = 5 cm. In the ﬁgure. ﬁnd the value of each of the following. AB = (x – 2)cm. calculate (a) CD [2] (b) AC [1] [Given that sin 30° = 0. tan 60° = 1. The diagram shows a wheel of radius 20 cm. ∠ABC = 90° and ∠BAD = ∠CAD = 30°.5 = cos 60°. BC = (2x – 3)cm. and touching the vertical step at C. giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms.73] A 30o 30o 5 cm C D B 14. ∠ABC = 90°. (a) 2 tan x + 3 sin x (b) 3 sin x – 4 tan x [4] 13. where θ is acute and a and b are positive. sin 60° = cos 30° = 0. and AC = (3x – 7)cm. Calculate (a) the value of x.a 11.87. In the diagram.5.58 and tan 60° = 1. (b) ∠BAC x–2 A B 2x – 3 [3] [2] 3x – 7 C 125 .73] [2] [2] 0 60o 20 C A B 15. in contact with the horizontal ground at A. tan 30° = 0. If tan θ = . cos 60° = 0.87. Calculate (a) AB (b) BC [Given that sin 60° = 0. Using as much of the information below as possible. ﬁnd. the values of b (a) sin θ (b) cos θ [2] [2] 8 12. in terms of a and b.

How high is the cliﬀ? (Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.5 m from the base of a cliﬀ is 35. The angle of depression of a boat 58. Calculate the distance of the bus stop from the foot of the building. AB = 14. B [2] A C 21. ∠ADB = 90°. AB = AC. Calculate the length of a side of the rhombus.7°. (c) ∠CAD. A 48o 8.) [3] 18. The lengths of the two diagonals of a rhombus are 32 cm and 16 cm. Calculate the area of ΔABC.4 cm.16. Calculate (a) AD. (b) CD. In the ﬁgure. the angle of depression of a bus stop is 36. From a window 45 m high in a building. [3] 19.4 D [4] B C 22. [5] 20. giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places. and the length of the perpendicular from A to BC is 9.6°. Calculate (a) BD. ∠ACB= 48. D 4 C 13 A B [3] [2] [3] 12 126 . AB = BC = 15. Calculate the area of ΔABC. (b) ∠ACB. ∠BAC = 48°. and AD = 8. AC = 13 cm. AB = 12 cm.4 cm. In ΔABC. In ΔABC.4 cm and ∠ABC = 54°. and CD = 4 cm. ∠ABD = 90°. respectively. In the ﬁgure. [4] 17.9°.6 cm.

AC = 23 cm. B [2] [2] [2] [2] 11cm 6cm A D 3cm C 127 . ∠ABC = 90°. 25. ∠ADC = ∠ABD = 90°. giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places. AD = 6 cm. CD = 3 cm. (b) With the value of x. (c) Given that 2AK = 3KB. and ∠BCD = 32°. A 38 23 B 28o D [4] [3] [4] C 26. D [2] [3] [2] 6 A B 32o C 24. Calculate ∠BAC.23. (b) AC. In the diagram. (c) ∠ABC. and AD = 38 cm. Calculate (a) BD. The sides of a right-angled triangle are 2x cm. In the diagram. BC = 8 cm. ∠ABC = 90°. ﬁnd the perimeter and the area of the triangle. In the ﬁgure. (b) AC. Calculate (a) BD. In the diagram. and KB = 5 cm. AB = 11 cm. and BDC = 90°. and (3x + 1)cm. (a) Calculate the length of CK. (c) CD. (a) Form an equation in x. (3x – 1) cm. (b) Write down the numerical value of tan ∠CKB. BC = 6 cm. (d) the area of ΔABC. C [2] [1] [5] 8cm A K 5cm B 27. calculate the size of ∠CAB and the length of AC. and solve it to ﬁnd x. ∠ADB = 28°.

7cm. Calculate the length of CX. giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places. the angle of elevation of a ship from the top of a cliﬀ is 21°. [4] D 23. giving your answer correct to 1 decimal place. AD = 23. Calculate (a) CY.2 A 4 B 5 C [3] [3] 30. Y 6.4 X 6. AB = 4 cm.9 cm. AD = 6. and BC = 8.9 14. and XY = 6. the angle of elevation becomes 43°. Calculate the length of CD.8 cm.7 cm. and BC = 8. and X is the mid-point of AB.2 cm. BD = 14. ∠ABD = ∠BCD = 90°. [4] C 13. In the ﬁgure. Calculate ∠ABC. BC = 8. AX = 6. (b) ∠BCY.2 cm.8 8. In the ﬁgure. AC = 13.7 A X B 31.2 cm. At the point A. D 6. [6] T A 21o 200 B 43o C 128 .3 32. AB = 18. ∠BCD= ∠ADB = 90°. ∠ABX = 90°.2 A B C 8.4 cm. BC = 5 cm. In the ﬁgure.7 C A 18.3 cm.9 B 8. In the ﬁgure. suppose ∠ABC = 90°.28. Calculate the height of the cliﬀ.2 [4] 29. After sailing for 200 m towards the cliﬀ.9 cm.

Find the angle of elevation of the top of a mast that is 35 m high.4 A B 34.3 z y 7. AC = 8. he ﬁnds the angle of elevation of the top of the tree to be 36°. ∠ABC = ∠ACE = ∠CDE = 90°.2 6. When he walks 30 m away from the bank.5 (c) 7. from a point 28 m away from its foot on [3] level ground. E 9.2 x 13.2 cm. are 34° and 43°. [3] 36. A person. standing on the bank of a river.4 cm. If the top of the mast is 76 m above the water level. Find the diﬀerence in the heights of the two ﬂagpoles. [3] 37. What is the height of the building? [3] 35. Find the angle at which the ladder makes with the horizontal. is 9.7 m from the foot of the house. A 5. (b) DE. Find the unknown sides (in cm) and angles indicated in each of the following ﬁgures: (a) y x [12] (b) 17 y x 12 51o 26 7.3 104 o 40. observes that the angle of elevation of the top of a tree on the opposite bank 48°. The angle of depression of a small boat. [4] 39. (c) ∠AEC.8°. from the top of a mast of a cruise ship. is 16°. from the point where he is standing. The angle of elevation of the top of a building.33. CE = 9. Calculate (a) BC. ﬁnd the distance from the boat to the top of the mast.2 m long ladder rests against the side of a house such that its foot is 1. 129 . Find the height of the tree and the width of the river. and ∠BAC = 52°. [5] 38.8 x y z 4.2 C D [2] [3] [2] 8. from a point on the ground 220 m away from the foot of the building. In the ﬁgure. A boy standing in the middle of two ﬂagpoles 78 m apart ﬁnds that the angles of elevation of the tops of the ﬂagpoles.4 (d) 17.

Find the angle of elevation of the sun. and ∠PDC = 26°. ∠PAB = 48°. The angle subtended at the centre of a circle. 45. A tower 48 m high casts a shadow 55 m long. Calculate (a) the height of the cone. The slant height of a right-circular cone measures 9. BD = 4 cm.6 cm.4 cm. [3] 130 . ABCD is a rectangle in which AB = 25. h 9. In the ﬁgure. by a chord of length 18 cm.6 B 46. (c) area of ABCD. giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest terms: (a) 2 cos x + 3 sin x (b) 3 tan x – cos x (c) 5 sin x – 4 tan x (d) 2 sin x – cos x + tan x [5] 42. BC = 5 cm. D 126o [3] P C [7] A 48o 25. is 120. Find the distance between the chord and the centre.4cm [6] r 43. (b) the radius of the base. Calculate (a) PC. the angle of depression of a car 45 m from the foot of the ﬂats is 63°. ﬁnd the value of each of the following. In the ﬁgure. (b) PD. [5] B 12 cm 5 cm 4 cm A D C 47.12 41. and BDC = 90°. From the top of a block of ﬂats. Calculate the height of the ﬂat. [3] 44. Calculate at the length of AC and the angle ABC. If sin x = 13 . and the angle at the vertex is 68°. AB = 12 cm.

CD = 22 cm and ∠ABC = 65°.2 cm and 8. In the ﬁgure. [6] B 65o D 22 cm C A 50. [6] Answers 1. AC = BC.4 cm. From a point 20 m away from the foot of a building. Find the height of the ﬂagpole. [4] 52. calculate (a) AC. (a) 12/13 3. If the altitude of an isosceles triangle is 40 cm and the length of its base is 30 cm. Calculate the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle whose other sides are 6.48. 23° 2. Also calculate the values of the other two angles. (b) BD A C 39o 67o 15 cm D [5] B 53. Find the length of the wire supporting the pole in the given ﬁgure. the angles of elevation of the top and bottom of a ﬂagpole (which stands on the top of the building) are 44° and 36°. [6] 51. Calculate the perimeter and area of triangle ABC. 8 4/15 (b) 2 2/5 131 . ﬁnd the vertical angle and the perimeter. [3] wire pole 58o 4 cm 49. For the given ﬁgure. respectively.

(a) (2x)2 + (3x – 1)2 = (3x + 1)2 =. 95. (a) 29° 14. (a) 2 111/136 9. 60. 12 36/175 7. 39.1° 26.4° (b) 11. (a) 4 1/2 16.3° (c) 9. (a) 28.4° (b) 4.7cm (c) 32. (a) 6 27/68 13.6° (c) 91.84cm (d) 33cm2 132 .09cm (b) –4 29/34 (b) 240 thousand tonnes (b) 17. (a) 5. 80.15cm (b) 67.33cm 22. (a) a a2 + b2 (b) 7 1/5 (b) 5/12 (b) 2 125/156 (b) –6/17 (b) 12/13 (b) b a2 + b2 12. 24cm2 24.43cm 27.20cm (b) 1 3/5 (b) 12. (a) 9.89cm 17.4m 19.9cm2 21.9m 18. 17.60cm (b) 24cm.6o 27 = 5. (a) 10/13 5. (a) 10/13 8. 1 187/1 640 10. (a) 1 11/3 11.3cm (c) 14.8° (d) 14. x = 3 25. (a) 9. (a) 5/13 6.3cm (b) 67. (a) 10cm 15. (a) 15cm 23.55cm2 20. 81.4. 41.

1° 45.44 cm. 4.4 cm 52. y = 32.4°. (a) 7. (a) 11.2°.8 cm 133 . 70.64cm 32. 115.26 cm 64 (c) –4 65 56 (d) 3 65 (b) x = 26.9° 36. 10. 14. width of river = 56. 63.06 m 39.0 m.4o 47. 88. (a) x = 9. 446.8° (b) 7. (a) 12.2cm 31.48 cm.0 cm 40.5m 33.81 cm (b) 28. 41. y = 11. 5. 53. 36. z = 7.2 cm 48.4° 37.1o. Ht of tree = 63.8 m 38.3° 7 41.7 cm2 50.5 cm. 7.6o 51. (a) 3 13 42.4o.78 m (b) 13.5°.2cm 30. 225. 10.92 cm (c) x = 59.62cm 34.55 m 49. y = 18. 107.5 cm (c) 408 cm² 53 (b) 6 65 (b) 5. 41. 51.3 m 44. z = 11. 130.26 cm. (a) 10.5 cm 46.25cm (c) 42. y = 79.66 cm 53. 11.29. (a) 12.1° 35.3 cm. 69.1 cm. (a) 6.79 cm 43.5 m (b) 65.1° (d) x = 68.

we can prove that 2R = sin B = sin C B P 0 A A a C Just For Fun (pg 321) These 3 ﬁgures are impossible to construct in real life. the mid-point of BC.CHAPTER 11 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 11 Further Trigonometry ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Exploration (pg 308) Join B to O and C to O. sin A = OC = 2R = 2R a ∴2R = sin A b c Similarly. Consider ΔABC with sides a. hence 2s = a + b + c. by joining A to O and using the same reasoning. Exploration (pg 304) Heron’s Formula for the area of a triangle. 2 2 2 Applying the Cosine Rule. Join O to P. cos A = b +2cbc– a and using the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 ∴sin2 A = 1 – cos2 A A c b = (1 + cos A)(1 – cos A) Substituting for cos A. ∴PÔC = A and PC = 1 a 2 1 a PC a In ΔPOC. b. BÔC = 2A. and c. s is then known as the semi-perimeter of the triangle. Let R be the radius of the circle. 2 2 2 2 2 2 sin2 A = '1 + b +2cbc– a 1 '1 – b +2cbc– a 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 = ' 2bc + b + c – a 1 ' 2bc – b – c + a 1 B a C 2bc 2bc 2 2 – (b 2 – 2bc 2 + c 2) + a 2 1 + 2 = ' b + 2bcbc c – a 1 ' 2 2bc (b + c) 2 – a 2 1 ' – (b – c) 2 + a 2 1 =' 2bc 2bc (b + c + a) (b + c – a) 1 ' (a + b – c) (a – b + c) 1 =' 2bc 2bc 134 . Let 2s be the perimeter of ΔABC.

1 bc sin A = 2 But area of ΔABC = 1 bc sin A 2 ∴ Area of ΔABC = s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) 135 . we have sin2 A = ∴ 2s $ 2 (s – a) $ 2 (s – c) $ 2 (s – b) 4b 2 c 2 4s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) b2 c2 s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) s (s – a) (s – b) (s – c) sin A = ± 2 sin A = bc i.Now a + b + c = 2s (perimeter of ΔABC) Hence b + c – a = a + b + c – 2a = 2s – 2a a + b – c = a + b + c – 2c = 2s – 2c a – b + c = a + b + c – 2b = 2s – 2b Substituting into sin2 A.e.

So it will be helpful to draw separate 2-D diagrams showing the exact shapes of the triangles and angles where they are needed. wire models with strings or rods are useful tools to illustrate the triangles and angles involved. The availability of materials such as set-squares. Pointing out that the use of angles in radians will be covered in the next chapter. this topic can be taught concurrently. The triangles below may be used for this purpose. To help pupils have a better understanding of the concepts. e. One way to correct this mistake would be to insist that they write down the formula for each sum they do. especially during examinations. For pupils doing Additional Mathematics. (i) 7 40o 7. teachers should derive the formulas for the sine and cosine rule.g. Common Errors Pupils should be reminded to set the mode of their calculators to “Degree”. Pupils are also encouraged to use the Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP) to derive the sine rule using the Thinking Skill: Inferring.5 55o 58o (ii) (iii) 5 7 42o 8 To help pupils gain a better perspective of 3-D problems. pencils is helpful to pupils. and a vertical post BT standing at B. Pupils sometimes have diﬃculty in deciding whether to use the sine or cosine rule to solve a triangle. 2-D diagrams are unable to illustrate 3-D shapes eﬀectively. T long pencil B pencil long pencil or ruler A set square C The above diagram shows how a set square and a few pencils are used to show ∆ABC right-angled at B.Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 11 Further Trigonometry GENERAL NOTES The trigonometrical ratios of obtuse angles are important in this course. rulers. the square faces of a cube. covering angles from 0o to 360o. Many pupils also fail to remember the formula correctly at test or examination time. 136 . Plenty of practice should be given to them to help them to decide which rule would be most suitable to solve triangles. so that they can set up 3-D diagrams for better understanding.

and PQR = 60°. i. QR = 6 cm. PRQ = 57°. The length of the sides of a triangle are 8 cm. QR = 6. In ∆PQR. x > 60 (a) i only ii.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 18 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 11 Further Trigonometry 1. To ﬁnd the length of PQ. Find the area of the parallelogram in cm2. (a) 6 3 (b) 12 (c) 12 3 P 4 cm 60 Q 6 cm R (d) 20 (e) 24 S ( ) 2. we can use the (a) sine rule (b) cosine rule (c) Pythagoras’ Theorem (d) tangent ratio (e) area formula ( ) 137 . In the ﬁgure. 12 cm. y < x (b) ii only iii.2 cm and PR = 7. If x is acute and tan x = (a) 1 3 (b) 1 . and 15 cm. AB = AC and BC > AB. y > 60 (c) iii only (d) i and ii only (e) ii and iii only A xo B ( ) ( ) yo C 5. then the value of cos x is: 2 2 3 (c) (d) 3 3 2 (e) 1 5 ( ) ˆ 6. PQRS is a parallelogram where PQ = 4 cm. The triangle must be (a) isosceles (b) acute angled (c) right-angled (d) obtuse angled (e) equilateral 4. State which of the following is true. The value of PR2 in the diagram above is (a) 24 (b) 28 (c) 52 (d) 76 (e) 82 ( ) 3.8 cm.

and QR = 10 cm. BC = 10 cm. ABEF. Which of the following is/are true? (i) GÂC = 45° (ii) ACH = 60° (iii) HÂB = 90° (a) i only (b) ii only (e) ii and iii only (c) iii only (d) i and iii only H E F G ( ) D A B C 12. AC = 8 cm. The ﬁgure shows a cube. PQ = 8 cm. and CDFE are rectangles. ABC. which of the following is true? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) tan x < cos x < sin x cos x < tan x < sin x sin x < cos x < tan x cos x < sin x < tan x sin x < tan x < cos x ( ) 8. In the figure ABCD. CD = 6 cm. In the ﬁgure.5° (c) 101. Given that CDFE is perpendicular to ABCD. and AD = 5.5° (d) 120° D 5 cm A 4 cm 60o 10 cm 6 cm (e) 125° ( ) B C 11. and BC = 15 cm.7. calculate the length of AB. EÂC = 30° and EBC= 45°. The area of ∆ABC is (a) 15 cm2 (b) 30 cm2 (c) 68 cm2 (d) 120 cm2 (e) 60 cm2 ( ) ˆ 9. Find the value of ADC (a) 60° (b) 98. (a) 10 cm (b) 10 2 cm (c) 10 3 cm (d) 20 cm F D 30o A B (e) 20 2 cm E 10 C ( ) 138 . In ∆ABC.5 cm. AB = 17 cm. PQR = 30°. AB = 4 cm. = 60°. CE = 10 cm. In ∆PQR. If 45° < x < 90°. The area of ∆PQR is (a) 10 cm2 (b) 10 3 cm2 (c) 20 cm2 (d) 30 cm2 (e) 20 3 cm2 ( ) ˆ ˆ 10.

respectively. ABO = θ°. and CG = 5 cm. is 45°. Find the height of the building in metres. OBC is a right-angled triangle in a horizontal plane with BÔC = 90°. OA is vertical. The angle of elevation of the top of a tower. If P is due south. The length of AB is given by (a) 8 sin α sin θ 8 sin θ (b) sin α (c) 8 cos α tan α 8 tan α (d) cos θ A 0 θ B α C 8 tan θ (e) cos α ( ) ˆ 14.7° G C 17. The ﬁgure shows a cube. from a point A on the horizontal ground north of the building. ˆ BCA = α° and OC = 8 cm. BC = 6 cm. (a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 60° (d) 75° H E F (e) 90° G ( ) D A B C 15.ˆ 13. ﬁnd the distance in metres between P and Q. The value of GÂC is (a) 26. and Q is due east. of the building.6° (b) 29. the angles of depression of two cars P and Q are 30° and 45°. In the ﬁgure. Find AFH. The ﬁgure shows a rectangular cuboid with AB = 8 cm. From another point B. (a) 25 (b) 25 2 (c) 25 3 (d) 50 (e) 50 2 ( ) 139 . 50 m east of A. From the top of a building 100 m high. the angle of elevation becomes 30°. (a) 200 m (b) 158 m (c) 120 m (d) 115 m (e) 72 m ( ) 16.3° (e) 66.5° (c) 30° H E D A B F (d) 33.

a 3. d 5. d 10. b 4. b 12. d 7. b 6. a 2. c 140 . b 17. b 9. e 18. c 16. The ﬁgure shows a right pyramid with a square base ABCD of length 20 cm. ﬁnd VÂC correct to the nearest degree. d 14.18. If the length of a slant edge VA is 26 cm. b 13. (A) 29° (B) 30° (C) 33° (D) 57° V D C (E) 60° ( ) A B Answers 1. c 8. e 15. d 11.

and area of ΔAPC = 36 cm2. In the diagram. and AĈB = 65°. B. [2] (b) A circle is to be drawn so that it will pass through A. DC = 8 cm. BC = 5 cm. In the diagram. APB is a straight line. CD = 11 cm. Calculate (a) AĈD. [1] A 12 B C 5 4. BC = 5 cm. and C. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AD = 6 cm. ˆ (b) tan CPB. (b) cos α. D 11 19 [3] C 9 α ˆ 3. ABC = 90°. Write down the radius of the circle. C 17 ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min [1] [2] A 9 P B ˆ 2. In the ﬁgure. AC = 17 cm. AB = 12 cm. Calculate (a) BC. Give your answers as a fraction in its lowest terms. In the diagram. AC = 7 cm. A B [2] [2] 6cm 7cm 65o 5cm D 8cm C 141 . ABC = 90°.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 11 Further Trigonometry ˆ 1. BC = 9 cm. AB = 12 cm. Calculate the value of (a) sin θ. (b) the area of the triangle BCD. and ABC = 90° A θ 12 B (a) Find the value of sin BÂC. AP = 9 cm. and AD = 19 cm.

In the triangle ABC.6°. the bearing of B from A is 072°. In the diagram. triangle PQS has a right angle at P. ﬁnd the bearing of (a) A from B. and PQ = PR. Given that the area of ΔABK = 9 cm2 ˆ A and sin ABC = 0. ﬁnd the distance of QR. and the bearing of C from B is 146°. (b) A from C. Find the length of BC and the area of ABC. K is a point on BC such that BK = 3. A ship. Q. (c) the length of PQ given that QR = 20 m. the bearing of Q from P is 205°. (b) the length of AB.4 cm. and R is a point on PS such that PRQ =30°.5. and QS = 13 cm. [2] (b) ﬁnd the length of SR. locates a lighthouse. AB = 6. Given that PQ = 5 cm. In the diagram.77.3 cm. tan 40° = 0. In ΔABC. N 72o A B 146o [2] [2] N C 142 . and PR = 12 km. [Given sin 40° = 0. R. calculate (a) the area of ΔAKC. giving your answer in the form a + b 3 cm.84] N P 125o [1] [1] [2] Q R ˆ 6. [5] 8.6 K 4. cos 40° = 0. AC = 8. and R are such that the bearing of R from P is 125°. Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place. B 3. [3] 10. and another lighthouse.6 cm and CK = 4. Three points P.8 cm. on a bearing of 300°. If AB = BC. If PQ = 16 km. P.5.64. Calculate (a) the bearing of P from R.8 C [1] [2] 9. on a bearing of 030°. and BÂC = 42. [3] Q 13cm 30o 5cm P R S 7. Q. ˆ (a) ﬁnd sin PQS. (b) the bearing of P from Q.

[2] R (c) Calculate the shortest distance from Q to the line joining P and R. [1] N N 30o o L 110 P 138o 28 Q 14. and then 30 km on a bearing of 015° from port Q to the port R. QR = 7 cm. L. Given that P is 28 km from Q. In the diagram.11. and the area of ΔAPQ = 10 cm2. [3] (b) the bearing of L from Q. In the diagram. P. PB = 8 cm. on a bearing of 050° to point. ˆ (ii) tan PRQ. QC = 3 cm. P [1] [1] [1] [1] 24 25 Q 7 R S 13. are 030° and 110°. PQ = 24 cm. from a lighthouse. P and Q. 4 P 8 A 6 Q 3 B C [2] [2] 12. ﬁnd (a) the distance of Q from L. (b) Express each of the following as a fraction and write down the value of ˆ (i) sin QPR. A ship steams 30 km from a port. [2] N 30 N 15o Q 50 P o 30 143 . (b) the area of the quadrilateral BPQC. Q. AQ = 6 cm. and that the bearing of Q from P is 138°. In the diagram. (a) Find the bearing of port R from port P. ˆ (iii) cos PRS. ˆ (a) Explain why PQR = 90°. QRS is a straight line. AP = 4 cm. [2] (b) Calculate the distance of PR. and PR = 25 cm. respectively. the bearings of two ships. Calculate (a) sin PÂQ.

C. Calculate (a) AĈB. t (b) cos ADC . Find (a) the bearing of C from A. [1] (c) the length of CD.8 cm.15. (c) sin ADT T A 40o D 6. [3] (b) the bearing of C from B. the points A. [2] (d) the shortest distance from B to the line ACD. A 10 B 52o C [2] [3] [3] 16. The points A. D (c) the length of AD. t . D. The points C and D are both 6 km from B and the bearing of C from A is 036. (b) the bearing of C from B.3o D E 17. and E all lie on a straight line. AC = 6. In the diagram. [2] N B 9 km 6 km 6 km C 36. BÂC = 40°.2 [2] [2] [2] B 144 . AB = BC = BD = 10 cm and BĈD = 52°.3°. and C form an equilateral triangle. and CD = 8. In the ﬁgure. (b) the length of CD. and the bearing of B from A is 042°. which lies 9 km south of point B.2 cm. N B A [1] [2] 42o A C ˆ 18. ABC = AĈD = 90°. Calculate (a) AB. In the diagram. The ﬁgure shows a point. B. A.8 C 8. Calculate ˆ (a) A DB.

calculate (i)the distance QR.7 74o Q 140o 7.8 km from P to Q. BC = 7 cm. S N 42o [1] [2] [3] [3] [3] R 6. the bearing of Q from R.6 D 145 . A ship sails 7.7 km from Q to R. which is due north of Q. Given that PQR = 140°. In the ﬁgure. The ship ﬁnally sails from R to a t t t point S. (a) Given that the distance PQ = 250 m. A [2] [2] [2] [3] 42.6 cm. calculate (d) the length of CK. (c) the length of BD. Calculate t (a) BDC . calculate the angle of elevation of X from P. the distance of PR.8 P 20. It then sails another 6. the bearing of R from P is 018° and the bearing of R from Q is 063°.7°. X 32m Q 250m P 18 o [3] [3] [2] N o 63 R t t 21. the distance of RS. the shortest distance from Q to the ship as it sails from P to R. The points P. (b) Given that the vertical post XQ is 32 m high. and CD = 9. RQN = 74° and RSQ = 42°. (b) the length of AC. BÂC = 42. Given that K is a point on BD such that CK is perpendicular to BD. ABC = BCD = 90°. (ii)the bearing of P from R. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the bearing of P from Q. and R are on level ground such that Q is due north of P.19.7o B 7 C 9. Q.

[5] 23. (c) BC.2 m. the bearing of two ships. [2] (b) Calculate the length of AC. ABD = BDC = 90°. BÂD = 42°. From a lighthouse. Given that BÔC = 124°. [5] B A 34. BD = 5.22. OC = 70 m. (iii) the area of sector BOC. B.8 24. [7] (b) Three points A.5o O 124o 6.8 cm. Given that X is a point on AD such that AX = 5. and C lie on level ground. and CD = 3. Calculate (a) AD. BÂO = 34. AÔB = 90°. respectively. (ii) AB. B and C. If AB = 458 m and AC = 625 m. Calculate the length of AP. (a) In the ﬁgure.8 m. calculate (i) AO.8 B 146 . are 046° and 320°. If BC = 84 m and AB = 65 m. OA = OB = 80 m. [3] (c) A man walks from A to C until he reaches a point P where OP is a minimum. In the diagram. ﬁnd the bearing of B from C. A.5 m. the bearing of A and B from O are 052° and 144°. respectively.5 A 42o 5. The bearing of B from A is 057° and the bearing of C from A is 126°. and OC = 6. t (b) CBD . D 3. [3] A N C 70O 52o 36o 80 B 80 C t t 25.5°. calculate the distance of BC and the bearing of B from C. O is the centre of the sector BOC. (d) calculate the area of ΔABX.2 C [6] X 5. (a) Calculate the bearing of B from A. In the diagram.

26. and hence ﬁnd the value of x. [3] (iii) Find the area of ΔABD. form an equation in x. AD = (y + 2) cm. [3] 2x–3 3x–7 y+2 B y–1 A D C x–2 t t t 27. [3] (b) In the diagram. and PS = 19. AB = (y – 1) cm. PR = 14 cm. CD = (2x – 3) cm. KB = 9 cm. and DH = 5 cm. BC = (x – 2) cm. H and K are points on DC and AB. QSP = 43. (a) Solve the equation 5x2 + 2x = 9. (c) QS. where L is a point on BC such that LC = 8 cm. (i) Using the right-angled triangle BCD. Calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) AH. QPS = PRS = 90°. ABCD is a parallelogram in which BC = 13 cm. the area of ΔKBL.2 cm. [3] t (ii) If BD = AD. (b) PQ. BD = (3x – 7) cm t and BCD = 90°.7°. and hence ﬁnd ADB . t ABC . Calculate t (a) QSR .2 cm 43.7o S 28. giving your answer correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. A 12 K 9 B [1] [2] [3] [1] 13 D 5 H C 147 . In the diagram. Q [2] [2] [2] R 14 cm P 19. use your result in (i) to ﬁnd y. such that AK = 12 cm. the ratio of the area of ΔADH to the area of ΔACK.

(b) AB. a truck Q. calculate (a) CQ. the distance of P from X. ABC = 35°. At the same time. and D lie in a straight line. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the time at which the car passes X. A. Given that the car. C. and the truck. AB and CD are two roads which meet at X. CÂB = 115°. The ﬁgure shows the positions A. is travelling at 75 km/h. AB runs in a north-south direction and makes an angle of 38° with CD. which is heading south towards B. giving your answer correct to the nearest degree. ABCD is a rectangle. C. (b) the distance of BD. PB = 8 cm.29. A supply ship S sets sail from C to B in a straight line. Given that t AD = AB = 60 km. t (c) ADQ . (c) Find the distance the ship. and the distance of Q from X. is travelling at 60 km/h. travelling along CD. the bearing of Q from P at 15:57. Given that BC = 15 cm. P. a car P. calculate (a) the distance of CB. In the diagram. Q. and DQ is perpendicular to CP. A P 5 28 D 8 Q B 15 [6] C 30. D [3] [3] [3] 60 115o C A 60 35o B 148 . is 200 km N 38°E of X. at 15:57. must be closest to A. the distance between P and Q at 09:45. and DQ = 28 cm. is 315 km north of the point X. N C Q 38o X 200 [2] [3] [3] [4] A P 315 D B 31. PQ = 5 cm. and B is due east of C. At 09:45. S. B. and D of four oil rigs.

BCD = 90°. Find the length of CD. AB = 12 cm. R. the area of the minor segment PTQ. In the ﬁgure. the area of ΔPQS. BÂD = 37°. Q. P. BC = 7. The radius of the semicircle is t 8. (b) the length of AD. T. [2] [2] [4] E 2 X yo D 3 A x o 3 B 2 C t t 33.2 cm. AD = 5 cm. BAD = 90°. (b) the length of CD. the perpendicular distance from Q to PS. In the diagram. In the diagram.5 cm. and DBC = 70°. (c) the values of x and y. and BC = DE = 2 cm. (c) the area of ΔDBC. Q T 8 P O R 34o S [1] [2] [2] [2] [2] [3] t t 35.32. D [5] A 45o 37o 20 B C 149 . and AB = 20 m. the chord PQ is 8 cm and QSR = 34°. Calculate (a) the length of BD. Calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) QÔR. the length of the chord QS. AB = CD = 3 cm. QPO. C D 5 70o A 12 B 7.2 [2] [4] [3] 34. and S are points on the semicircle with centre O and PS diameter. DBC = 45°. Calculate (a) the length of BE.

and the vertex V is 12 cm vertically above X. BQ. The mid-point of BC is M. Given that AB = 8 m. and CQ = 3 m. The ﬁgure shows a pyramid with a horizontal rectangular base ABCD where AB = 8 cm. The diagram shows a rectangular vertical billboard being supported by straight wires AP. The faces ABCD and PQCD are rectangular. [2] C D 12 [Given that 10 = 3. (b) write down the numerical value of t (i) tan BPC . [2] (b) tan VÂX. the ends of the legs form an equilateral triangle of sides 40 cm. (b) write down the numerical value of t (i) cos CBQ . BC = 4 m. with ABCD on the horizontal and PQCD vertical. 153 = 12. (a) ﬁnd the length of AQ. and PB. and CQ = 6 m. (a) calculate the length of PC. AD = 6 cm. P [2] Q 3m [1] [1] D A 12 m 4m B C 37. The legs of a camera tripod are each 60 cm long. Calculate U (a) the length of VM.46] 6 X A B –M 8 39. When it stands on horizontal ground. Given that AB = 12 m.36. A 8 B [1] [1] [1] 4 D C 6 P Q 38. 12 = 3. (ii) sin CÂQ. [1] t (c) sin AVX . t (ii) sin DPC . Find (a) the height of the vertex V above the ground. (b) the angle made by each leg with the ground.37. BC = 4 m. The ﬁgure shows a section of a wall.16. 60 60 A 40 B 40 C V [3] [2] 60 150 .

Calculate (a) PR.e. (b) OM. the length of BC. S O [2] [2] [2] R M P 10 cm Q 41. the angle of elevation of T from B is 40°. OP = OQ = OR = OS = 16 cm. the area of ΔABC. giving your answer correct to 1 decimal place. (b) Find the angle that AQ makes with the horizontal i. t (c) Find PCA . and C are three points on level ground. T 15 A 65o 55o C [2] [2] [2] [3] 40o B 42.40. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the length of AB. and PQ = 10 cm. B. the length of AC. AT is a vertical pole of height 15 m. A. (c) PÔR. If BÂC = 65°. and the angle of elevation of T from C is 55°. (a) Calculate the length of AR. QÂB. R [3] [2] [3] C S 18 D 15 A Q B P 25 151 . In the diagram. The ﬁgure shows a rectangular box of dimension 25 cm × 15 cm × 18 cm. The ﬁgure shows a pyramid with a square base PQRS and vertex O. The diagonals of the base intersect at M.

Given that AÔB = 58° and X is the mid-point of AB. and C are on horizontal ground where AB = 75 m. calculate (a) the length of BD and BQ. B is the foot of a vertical pole BT. (b) the value of x. t ABC . The ﬁgure shows a horizontal ring with centre O and radius T cm being suspended from a point T by three strings TA. Given that AB = 28 cm. the angle of elevation of T from C. t (b) the angle that the line BP makes with the horizontal. B. BC = 22 cm. the shortest distance from A to BC . T A 15o 75 112 C B [2] [2] [2] [2] 45.e. the length of OX. In the diagram. B. Given that the angle of elevation of T from A is 15°. C A B 14 18 8 X Xo D [3] [3] [2] Xo 46.e. BC = 112 m.43. giving your answer correct to 1 decimal place. The diagram represents a solid in which the horizontal base ABCD and the vertical face PQDC are rectangles. i. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the height of the pole. i. t (c) the angle that the line of greatest slope BQ makes with the horizontal. and TC. the angle of elevation of T from A. PBC . each of length 12 cm. t ATB . In the diagram. C. and BÂC = 90°. Calculate (a) the length of AD. T 12 12 C O 7 58o A X B [2] [2] [2] [2] [4] 152 . and PC = 15 cm. Q P 15 D 22 A 28 B C [3] [2] [2] 44. DBQ . A. and D are four corners of a rectangular block of dimension 18 cm by 8 cm by 14 cm t t and X is a point on BC such that AXB = CXD = x°. (c) the length of BX. the angle of elevation of T from X. ﬁnd (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the length of TO. A. TB.

and T is a point vertically above X. with a vertical mast AT standing at A. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the height of the mast correct to 2 decimal places. C. The angle of elevation of T t from B is 25°. (b) the length of TC.2 m turning through 40° from position ABCD to APQD. the angle of elevation of T from D. Calculate (a) the length of PB. (b) the angle of elevation of C from P. the length of CT. B. ABC = 38° and BÂC = 80°. t (c) PDB . (c) the angle of elevation of T from C. and ABC = 65°. T [2] [3] [3] [3] A 80o 25o 38o 28 C B 153 . BC = 18 m. D 40o C Q [3] [3] [3] A 40o B P 48. A.2 m by 1. the length of AC. The ﬁgure shows three points A. Given that AB = 16 m. Given that AB = 28 m. X is the mid-point of AB. If TX = 15 m. Given that t t BC = 18 m.47. the angle of elevation of T from B. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) CX. and D are four points on the corners of a rectangle. T 35m 34o A [4] [3] [2] B 65o 18m C 49. and C. the angle of elevation of T from C. In the diagram. The diagram shows a door of dimensions 2. B. calculate (a) the length of AC. T is a pole vertically above B. BAT = 34°. AT = 35 m. [2] [2] [2] [2] T D C X 16m 18m B 15 A 50. the length of BC. The diagram shows a triangle ABC lying in a horizontal plane.

and Z are on level ground.2 P 3. and AĈB = 42°. the greatest angle of elevation of T from a point on BC.2 80o A Q 8. ﬁnd the value of (a) cos θ (b) tan θ [3] 154 . Given that sin θ = 3 and 90° < θ < 180°. The angles of depression of B and C from the top of the tower are 35° and 18°. calculate the height of the ﬂag pole. [3] T X 30 m Y Z 1 54.51. Three points X. and C are three points on level ground such that BC = 8.5 m. XT is a vertical ﬂagpole and XY = 30 m. BÂC = 80°. [2] (b) The bearing of Z from Y is 042°. Calculate the distance he must walk to a point. AT is a vertical tower. respectively. A. Y. In the diagram. the length AC. [3] (d) A man walks from Y to Z. on YZ so that the angle of elevation of T from K will be the greatest.5 B 3. [4] (c) Calculate the angle of elevation of T from Z. A. BCDE represents a vertical rectangular billboard of height 3. and C are three points on the horizontal plane. (a) Calculate the lengths of AP and CP. K. In the diagram. (a) Given that the angle of elevation of T from Y is 28°. Find the largest possible angle of elevation of the cat from P. Calculate the distance of XZ and YZ. P is a point on AB and Q is a point on AC such that BP = PQ = 3. B. giving your answer correct to one decimal place.8 m. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the height of the tower. [3] E D 3.2 m. the area of ΔABC. T A 34 B C [2] [2] [2] [3] [3] 52. B. Given that AB = 34 m and BÂC = 56°. the length of BC. Y is due south of X and Z is due east of X. [3] (c) A cat walks along the top edge of the billboard from E to D.8 42o C 53. [5] t (b) Calculate the size of PQC .

2 cm. 56. In the diagram. Given that AB = 225 m and AC = 186 m. ﬁnd the value of x and of y. BÂC = 26°. AB = 7. CD = 9. ABC = 57°. Calculate (a) the length of BC. BC = 6 cm and AC = 8 cm. giving your answer correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. [5] 62. Given that RQS = 50°. N 50o A 42o C [3] [3] B 70o [4] 58. ﬁnd x.5 cm.8 cm. [3] t 59. QS and ST are perpendicular to PR and PQ. Calculate (a) BC. leaving your answer as a fraction in its lowest term. AB = 7 cm.55. PQ = 7. Find the bearing of (a) B from A. ﬁnd x.8 cm. B and C. ABC = 61° and AC = 10 cm. (b) AC. (a) In ΔABC. Given that cos x° = sin y° = sin 25°. [3] t t 60. [3] t (b) In ΔPQR. T 60o o Q 50 [5] S R 155 . calculate (a) BC. In the diagram. [4] 63. [5] t t 64. (b) the bearing of C from B. PR = 8. Two ships leave a port at the same time. (d) A from C. In ΔABC. and PQ = 8 cm. and the other at 18 km/h on a bearing of 148°. A 7cm 57o B C 108o 9. (a) If sin x° = sin 23° and 90 < x < 180. and that x is acute and y is obtuse. AC = 8.2°. Calculate the length of QR and the value of t cos PQR . AB = 7 cm. Find the value of cos BÂC. The bearing of a point B from A is 023. [7] D 61. calculate the length of P (a) RS. In ΔABC. (b) If cos x° = −sin 60° and 0 < x < 180. and BÂC = 132°. (b) the area of ΔABC.8 cm and QPR = 72°. and ACD = 108°. One sails at 22 km/h on a bearing of 047°. (c) C from B. 57. (b) PT. (b) C from A. The diagram shows the positions of A. PQS = 60°. respectively. Calculate the perimeter of ΔABC.8cm (c) the area of ΔABD. Find the distance between the ships after 3 hours. and the bearing of C from A is 264°.

t . t sin VBN . V is a point vertically above P. (a) (b) (c) (d) Write down the sine of the angle between PR and VR. and AD = 20 cm. and R are three points on level ground. AVC t BVD . and VR = 24 m.65. tangent of PÂE. Calculate PR. If VN = 20 cm. The diagram shows a rectangular cuboid where AB = 12 cm. BC = 8 cm. The diagram shows a rectangular pyramid TABCD where TDC is vertical. AE = 4 cm. V 12 P 9 Q 24 R [10] 156 . PV = 12 m. tan VÂN. Write down the tangent of the angle between PQ and VQ. [6] 13 D 8 A 5 B C 68. (b) TBD . calculate t T (a) TÂD. t Given that PQR = 120°. and P is a point on EF such that EP = 3 cm. P. t PBF . Find (a) (b) (c) (d) the length of AP. V D C [10] N A 16 B 67. H D 20 G C E P 4 3 A 12 F B [8] 66. and V is vertically above the centre of the base N. Q. calculate t (i) PRQ (ii) the length QR. The diagram shows a pyramid with a rectangular base ABCD. Given that AB = 5 cm. BC = 12 cm. PQ = 9 m. and TC = 13 cm. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the length of VA. t ABD . It is given that AB = 16 cm.

calculate (a) the height of the pole. T is a point vertically above B. TB = 28 m. on level ground. o T [8] A o 40 115 28 B 65 C 72. standing at the corner A. Given that AB = 44 m. and C. BC = 35 cm. The ﬁgure represents a solid with a horizontal rectangular base ABCD and the vertical rectangular face PQDC Given that AB = 45 cm. and the angle of elevation of T from B is 40°. giving your answer as a fraction in its lowest term. The ﬁgure shows a horizontal plot of ground ABC with a vertical pole. (b) the angle of elevation Q from B.69. T. B. The ﬁgure shows a cube with edges 4 cm long. ABCD is horizontal. t (c) AXE . BC = 65 m. The diagram shows 3 points A. (b) BC. AC = 57 m. calculate t (a) TÂB. H E D A B F G X C [6] 71. (b) the angle of elevation of X from B. Calculate (a) sin XÂC. calculate (a) the angle of elevation of Q from A. and BÂC = 40°. [7] T 28 B 44 40 A o C 57 70. (c) TCB . AB = 28 m. (b) the length of AC. and PC = 25 cm. (c) the length of QB. and X is the mid-point of the vertical edge CG. (c) the length of TC. Given that BÂC = 115°. Q P 25 [8] D 35 A 45 B C 157 .

(a) 38° 16.2 km (b) 12.6 cm2 (b) 025° (b) 12 −5 3 cm (c) 15.9 m (iii) 50 cm2 (c) 76.46 km 20. (a) 5 5 3. (a) 117.1° 22.5° 15.21 19.5 cm (b) 18. (a) (i) 9. (a) 252° 5 11.89 cm 24.63 cm.6 km (b) 7.3° (b) 289° (b) 35 cm2 24 (ii) 7 (b) 290° (b) 57. (a) 8 3 2. (a) 6 7 12.6° 5.770 (b 106° (ii) 198° (b) 10. (a) 27. (a) 5. (a) 13 7.02 km (c) 15.Answers 1.66 cm (d) 5.52 km (d) 5. (a) 102° km 18. (a) 13 4.33 km 7 (iii) − 25 (b) 10 cm 1 (b) 1 3 1 (b) − 22 (b) 6.25 m 21.3° (c) 11.0 cm (b) 141. (a) 146° (e) 2. (b) (i) 25 13.7° (b) 162° (b) 0. (a) 46.3 km (b) 153.3 cm (c) 0. (a) 188° (ii) 12.04 km 14.6 m 158 . (a) (i) 109. (a) 12 cm2 9.8 km (c) 5. 102.9 cm (d) 5. (a) 36. 17. (a) 032.638 (c) 13. (a) 305° 12 6. 20 km 10.4° 23.98 cm2 8.6 m . 5.22 m (b) 352.4° 17.31 km (c) 9. 748.

(a) 68° (e) 64.39 cm 33.3 cm (b) 67. (a) 12.8 cm2 (c) 66.4° (b) 14. (a) 13 m 37.0° (b) 50.9° 47.1° 28. 38.8 km 32.47 m 159 . (a) 55.6 cm (c) 20.5° (c) 85. (a) 26.3° (b) 48.6 m 3 (ii) 13 4 (ii) 5 5 (c) 13 (c) 52.4° (b) 30.96 cm2 5 (d) 12 (d) 278° 1 (d) 7 17 cm 4 (b) (i) 5 2 (b) (i) 5 2 (b) 2 5 (b) 67. (a) 34.5 . (a) 0.0. 172 km (c) 59.64 cm 44.1 m 45. y = 37. 150 km Q.64 cm 39.7° (b) 54.2° (c) 26.83 cm (b) 12.156 27.6 km (c) x = 40.9° (c) 34.75 m (e) 32. (a) 8.15 m 36.2° (d) 16. (a) 13 57 31. (a) 1.9° (b) (i) 4.5 cm (b) 15 cm (f) 3. (a) 12 cm 30.67 m 26. (a) 10 m 38. (a) 5. (a) 9.35 cm (b) 10.88 m 42. (a) 13 cm 34.8° (c) P. (a) 108. (a) 35. 31.3° (b) 69.7 m 6 (c) 6 11 cm (c) 6.25. (a) 3.4 cm 40.82 m 48.85 m2 (iii) 10.2 (c) 44 cm2 (c) 60 cm2 (d) 11.8° (c) 55.46 cm (b) 199.61 cm. (a) 14.8° 35.9 m (b) 28.8 km (b) 64.1 m2 (c) 31. (a) 24. (a) 12 29.50 m (b) 35.94 cm2 (c) 6.14 cm 41.3 cm 43.1° (d) 57.2 cm 46.62 m (ii) 4. (a) 17.5 (b) 18.7° (c) 27.5° (b) 26. 61.5 km (b) 5.9° (d) 10.8° (b) 34.12 m (c) 18. (a) 20.

60 m 53.894 (d) 59. (a) 19. (a) 13.5 m 72.3 m 55.0° (d) 53.0° (c) 0.8 m (b) 36.52 m (b) 73.23 m (d) 63.9 m (c) 62. (a) 157 57.4° (c) 38.5° 1 70. (a) 24.06 m 51.0 m.6 m (b) 26. 92. (a) –2 2 3 (b) 37. (a) 3 71.6° (d) 24.12 m (d) 22.9° (c) 33.9° (c) 41.1° (b) 9. (a) 16. (a) 5.6° (b) 48 m (b) 23.78 m.1° 52.1 m2 (c) 52.8° (c) 723.0 m 54. (a) 56.7 m 50. (a) 32. (a) 355 m 64.5° (b) 230. (a) 4. 0. x = 65.17 cm (b) 23. (a) 20.2° (c) 30. (a) 23. (a) 2.72 cm 61.2 m 4 (c) 3 (c) 66.2 cm 66. (a) 26. (a) 2 (d) (i) 22° 69. (a) 14.3° (b) 19. (a) 050° 11 58. 7.5 (e) 53. 40.9 km 63.8 m (d) 31.496 (b) 6.6 cm2 (b) 150 (b) 118° (c) 160° (d) 298° 160 . (a) 35.77 cm 65.7° (c) 37.4 cm 60.84 cm. (a) 23.8 m (ii) 14.4 m 2 (b) – 4 (c) 61.4° (b) 6 cm 3 (b) 20 (b) 2 (b) 51. 16 59.3° 1 68.2° (b) 27.6 cm 62.1° 67.3 m (b) 121. y = 155 56.8° (b) 20.49.8 m (e) 46.5 cm2 (c) 45.

This activity is useful for them to discover the formula.CHAPTER 12 Chapter 12 Book 3 Mathematics Mensuration—Arc Length. The arc length AB is given by 60c 1 B × 2π(10) cm = 3 3 π cm. it would be useful to give an example. 1 This is also an easier way to derive the formulas for arc length and area of sectors. to show that what they are learning now is exactly the same as what they learnt in Secondary Two. Derive the relationship between the radian measure and the degree measure using the direct variation approach. As the students have learnt length of arc formula and the area of sector formula. ∴ the arc length AB = rθ π = 10 × 3 cm 1 = 3 3 π cm 1 and the area of the sector AOB = 2 r2θ 1 π = 2 (102) 3 2 = 16 3 π cm2 A B π 3 0 10 A 161 . (c) 1 15 6 12 14 5 3 13 2 16 10 8 11 GENERAL NOTES The Exploration on page 340 will lead students to derive the formula for the arc length and the area of a sector. S = rθ and A = 2 r 2θ. radius 10 cm. Radian Measure ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Just For Fun (pg 341) 4 colours Just For Fun (pg 352) 9 4 7 Just For Fun (pg 343) (a). Sector Area. t The diagram shows a circle with centre O. with AOB = 600. 360c The area of the sector AOB = 60c 2 × 2π(102) = 16 3 π cm2 360c O 60O 10 π Now the angle 600 is equal to 3 radian.

2 cm.6rad 10m C 2m B P 12 cm 0. Radian Measure 1. Sector Area. (a) Show that angle NOQ is 1. The diagram shows a rectangle OLNQ of side 5 cm and 12 cm in a quarter of a circle with centre O. (c) Calculate the area of the shaded region. ﬁnd (a) the perimeter of the shaded region. (b) Find the radius of the circle. ﬁnd (a) the perimeter of the shaded region. (b) the area of the shaded region.2 radians. In the diagram. PQR is a tangent to the circle centre O. Given that OP = OR. (i) (ii) [8] 0 2m A D 10m 1.4rad 0 0.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min Chapter 12 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Mensuration—Arc Length. P Q N [3] O L M 162 .8rad 12 cm 0. touching the circle at Q. [6] 0 P Q R 3. In each of the following diagrams. and angle POQ = 1. (b) the area of the shaded region. radius 10.4rad Q S R 2.176 radians to three decimal places.

the length of MN. the radii OP and OQ are 8.9 radian. calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) the length of arc LM.4 cm. OLM is a sector of a circle. Calculate (a) the length of arc ABC. In the diagram. The quadrilateral PQRS is a trapezium with PQ // SR. calculate (a) angle POQ in radians. A 17m B 30m 17m C O [5] 5 Given that OQR is a sector of a circle with angle QOR = θ radians. centre O and radius 14 m. The diagram shows a circle of radius 17 m. Given that the diameter SR = 14 cm. In the diagram. and OR = a units.9rad N 5m L [8] 7. (b) the area of the shaded region.6. Given that angle LOM = 0. show that the area of the 1 shaded region is given by 2 a2(θ – sin θ cos θ) Find the area of the shaded region when a = 8 and θ = 0. and a chord AC of length 30 m. Given that the value of θ is 0.4.[6] R a O 0 P Q 6.6. N lies on OL such that LN = 5m. the perimeter of the shaded region. and PS = QR = 5 cm. O is the centre of the semicircle PQRS. = S P » Q = [7] » O R 163 . ﬁnd (a) the length of arc PQ. (b) the length of arc PS. and angle PVQ is θ radians. M 14m O 0. V θ O Q [6] P 8. (c) the area of the shaded segment. the area of the shaded region. (b) the area of the shaded region.

The radii OP and OQ are produced to R and S. OAB is a sector of a circle centre O and radius 12 cm. respectively. F X 8cm (b) the perimeter of the shaded region. In the diagram. such that OC = OD = 7 cm. In the diagram. CD is a straight line. radius 12 cm is drawn from R to S.9. the radius of the sector OPQ is 12 cm and angle POQ = 3 . radius 4 cm. calculate (a) the length of arc AXB. B D 7cm O 7cm A 5cm C [5] π 12. An arc of a circle. Given that the length of arc AB is 15 cm. [7] 4cm O 4cm Q 8cm S 11. If triangle AOB is equilateral. centre O. (b) the area of the minor segment AXB. (b) the area of the shaded region. In the diagram. The points C and D are on OA and OB respectively. calculate (a) angle AOB in radians. If the 4 area of the sector ORS is 5 of the area of the circle PXQ. (c) the area of the shaded region. Calculate (a) the radius of the inscribed circle. Y A X B [7] O 10. P (c) the area of the shaded region. calculate (a) angle POQ in radians. (b) the area of the shaded region. so that PR = QS = 8 cm. AYB is a semicircle with AB as diameter. Q 12cm π 3 [6] R O S P 164 . centre O. AXB is an arc of a circle centre O and radius 10 cm. The diagram shows a circle PXQ.

Find the area swept by the minute hand in 40 minutes. A paper fan has the shape of a sector as shown in the diagram. respectively. The corresponding sector has an area of 96 cm2.) [3] 17. (b) the angle subtended at the centre of the circle by the arc. 15. Find the area of a circular path 2 m wide surrounding a circular pond of radius 10 m. Given that the perimeter of sector OPQ is 24. and QR is perpendicular to OQ. Find the area of the shaded region to the nearest cm2. ﬁnd (a) the radius of the circle. In the diagram. A wheel of radius 14 cm is turning at a rate of 6 revolutions per minute.3 cm. [3] 165 . centre O and radius 9 cm. (b) the angle subtended at the centre by the major arc. ﬁnd the area of the shaded region. Find the distance which the tip of the minute hand moves in 38 minutes. The length of the minute hand of a clock is 20cm. [4] P 16cm 35o O Q 19. Calculate. The lengths of the minor and major arcs of a circle are 51 3 cm and 80 3 cm.14 and correct your answer to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. The arc length of a circle is 16 cm. Taking π = 7 . The minute hand of a clock is 10cm long. (b) the distance moved by a point on the rim in 5 seconds.22 13. (a) the angle through which the wheel turns in 1 second. [3] 18. [4] P R O 9cm Q 21. O is the centre of a circle with arc PQ = 16cm and ∠POQ = 35°. taking π = 7 . Find the radius of the circle correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. [2] [2] 1 2 22 14. Find (a) the radius of the circle. [3] 150o 8cm 16cm 20. [3] [2] [2] [2] 16. The diagram shows an arc PQ of a circle. (Take π = 3.

[4] A 0 12 cm B P 166 . [3] 1´ 1´ 1´ 24. In the diagram.38 radians. The diagram shows three semicircles with radii r. calculate the area of the shaded region.22. respectively. If APB = 1. centre O and radius 12 cm. [4] A 8 cm 5 cm O 30˚ C 2 cm B t 25. 2r. and C is a point on OB such that CB = 2 cm. Find the ratio of the area of the shaded part to that of the unshaded part. OAB is a sector of a circle of radius 8 cm. and 3r. (All dimensions are in cm and all curves are circular. Find the area of the shaded region given that A is 5 cm vertically above OB. AÔB = 30°. PA and PB are tangents to the circle.) [12] (a) 2 2 (b) 5 5 8 5 5 5 5 20 5 5 (c) 20 20 (d) 8 8 23. Find the areas of the shaded regions in the following diagrams. In the diagram.

Give your answers to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. radius OP. calculate (a) the length of OL. (b) the angle LOM in radians. centre O. the circle centre Q touches the circle centre O internally at R. OLQM is a sector of a circle centre O. In the diagram. ﬁnd (a) angle ROS and angle RQT in radians. In the diagram. ABC is an isosceles triangle with BA = BC and AC = 10 cm. PSR is an arc of a circle. OP = OR = PR = 12 cm. R L Q [6] P M 0 167 . (b) Calculate the area of (i) the sector OPSR. and PÔR = θ radians. PQR is a semicircle with PR as diameter. (a) State the value of θ. Given that LM = 36 cm and MP = 12 cm. OS is the tangent to the smaller circle at T. The segment LQM is enclosed in a rectangle LMPR. In the diagram. O P S T Q R [7] 29.26. The diagram shows a circle of radius 13 cm and centre O. (b) the length of the minor arc RS. R 0 ø S Q [8] P 28. (b) the area of the shaded region (give your answers correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures). Find t (a) ABC in radians. (c) the area of the shaded region. [6] B 0 10 cm A C 27. (iii) the shaded region. (ii) the segment PSR. If the radius of the smaller circle is 4 cm and OP = PR. (c) the area of the shaded region.

13 cm O 1. Find (a) angle APB in radians. circles with centres at P and Q and of radii 7 cm and 5 cm. Given that angle AOB = 1. (b) the area of the shaded region. OAB is a sector of a circle. (c) the shaded area. (b) the area of the shaded region.7 cm.7 cm A B [5] 31. (a) the perimeter of the shaded region. 9. ﬁnd. respectively.7 cm 0 0. (b) angle AQB in radians.5 rad. of radius 9. (b) the area of the shaded region. centre O. Given that AB = 8 cm.7 cm Q R P [7] 32. The diagram shows a pair of intersecting. Calculate (a) the length of the perimeter of the shaded region. centre O and radius 13 cm. The diagram shows part of a circle. AB is the common chord and is of length 8 cm. P Q [6] C A B 168 . The area of a sector is 44 cm2 and its perimeter is 30 cm.84 radians. correct to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. ﬁnd (a) the length of arc AB. and the angle POB is 0.7 cm. C lies on OB such that BC = 3. ABP and ABQ are two identical quadrants of a circle. A 7 cm P 5 cm Q [7] B 33.5 rad C 3.30.84 rad 9. [4] 34. Find all the possible radii of the circle. The tangents at the points P and Q on the circumference of the circle meet at the point R. In the diagram.

and that the distance between the sun and Earth is 1. The arc PTQ is drawn with R as the centre. the area of triangle PQR and the area of the shaded region. R is a point on the circumference of the circle such that PR = QR. with centre O and radius r cm. [3] [3] [2] r S θ r O 36.46 x 108 km Sun P Earth [2] [2] 169 . Find (a) the angle subtended at the centre.08 × 105 km/hour. (a) Express θ in terms of r. (c) Find the maximum area and the corresponding central angle. The diagram shows that the earth moves from P to Q in 5 days.46 × 108 km.35. giving your answer in radians correct to 1 decimal place. What can you say about the two areas? Are they equal? [8] area of segment PTQ (b) Find the value of the ratio [4] area of segment QSR P T O R S Q 37. (b) Find the value of r such that the area of the sector is maximum. with a uniform speed of 1. in terms of r. Assume that Earth revolves around the sun in a circular orbit. (b) the area of the shaded sector. (a) Find. In the ﬁgure. Q 1. PQ is the diameter of a circle. a wire 4 metres long is bent into a sector of radius r and arc length s.

ﬁnd the perimeter and the area of the shaded region. (b) the area of the sector OQRSP. correct to two decimal places. [6] 16 cm 9 cm 39. ST is a diameter. R [3] [3] S 40˚ O Q P 18 cm 40.38. ﬁnd (a) the radius of the circle. Given that the radii of the cross sections are 9 cm and 16 cm. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. The ﬁgure shows the cross sections of two cylindrical logs resting against each other on a level ground. (b) the area of the segment PQS. Q P [4] [3] S O T 170 . and the length of arc PQ = 18 cm. Given that angle PSQ = 40°. Find (a) the area of the segment BDC. In the diagram. and point P is on the circumference such that the chord SP = 12 cm and chord TP = 5 cm. The ﬁgure shows a semicircle with centre O. Calculate. in radians. B. (a) the values of angles PST and POT. O is the centre of the circle. The ﬁgure shows a circle with centre O and radius 5 cm. A. and C are three points on the circumference of the circle such that triangle ABC is isosceles and BC = 8 cm. length of arc AB (b) the value of the ratio length of chord AB A [4] [3] O B D C 41.

(a) the radius of the inscribed circle PQR. the radius of the sector AOB is 16 cm.08 cm 8.56 rad 11. P O 50˚ R A [3] [9] Q 16 cm B Answers 1.2cm (b) 11. (a) 1.68 rad 9.7 m 5. (a) 10.4° (c) 16.45 cm2 (b) 5.4cm2 18.1 cm (b) 9.0 m (b) 9. (a) (i) 39.372 cm2 (b) 766.8 cm 3. (a) 10. and angle AOB = 50°.7 cm2 (c) 28. (a) 36° 14.3 m2 (b) (i) 36. 26. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.5 cm 10.1 cm2 (b) 24.9 cm (b 66. (a) 21 cm 15. 209. (b) the area of the shaded region. (a) 16.8 cm2 (c) 30.7 cm2 (b) 14.6 m 7. (a) 12 cm 16.2 cm (ii) 37.3 units2 6. (b) 13 cm 4. (a) 4 cm 13.6 cm 17. (a) 1.42.3 cm2 171 . In the ﬁgure. 4.25 radians 12.2 cm2 (b) 44 cm (b) 220° (b) 76.2 cm2 (c) 35. 79.2 m 2.8 cm2 (c) 69. (a) 112.2 m2 (b) 142. Find.9 m2 (ii) 35. (a) 0.6 m (d) 38. (a) 12.

76 cm2 25. (a) 1.14 cm2 39. (a) r2.238 (b) 18.395 rad 27.0 cm2 (iii) 43. (a) RÔS = 0. 47.29 cm2 (d) 32 cm2 t 28.89 cm 40.316 rad 42. (a 3.64 cm2 26. (a) 19.8cm2 21.57 cm 4 35.8 cm 32.09 rad 38.6 cm2 (b) 1. 1. 60.5 cm 30.4 cm2 (ii) 13. equal area 37. RQT = 1.59 × 1014 km2 (c) 1 m2. (a) r –2 36. (a) 20.59 cm2 29. (a) 0. 138.22 rad 33.45 cm2 (c) 114.0 cm2 (c) 119. 1:2 24 1.0 cm2 (b) (i) 75.29 cm. (a) 1. (a) 4. (a) 12.85 rad (c) 18.5 cm 31.9 cm2 (b) 10.5 cm2 (b) 1.34 rad.352 rad (b) 66.96 cm2 (b) 1 m (b) 2 (b) 9.44 cm (c) 5.45 cm2 (b) 2.75 cm (b) 406. (a) 0.2 m2 22.125 cm2 41. 4cm or 11 cm 34. 5.05 rad (b) 60. 61.5 cm2 (b) 209. 67cm2 20. (a) 19.12 cm2 (b) 17. (a) 1 142 cm2 23. (a) 16.19. 2 rad (b) 2. (a) 0.91 rad (b) 5.83 cm2 172 .395 rad.

APO = BPO . such as the ‘angle at the centre is equal to twice the angle at the circumference’ and ‘angles in the same segment are equal’. like those in Q. To illustrate the properties of tangents from an external point. 173 .g. when construction lines need to be drawn or when knowledge of angle properties of triangles is required. a satay stick) as a secant. ∆OAP and ∆OBP are congruent. To illustrate the tangent to a circle on a transparency. ∴AP = BP. However. the teacher could suggest that the pupils turn the diagrams around so that they are more apparent from another angle. so that they can be moved about to show equal angles.1 of Ex 13b. reflect ∆OAP. most students have no difficulty in recognising the properties of circles. angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. with angles cut out. Where diagrams are not drawn in an obvious manner. Since reflection preserves shape t t and size. and the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. to ∆OBP. and then move it away from the centre of the circle. Referring to Figure 13.CHAPTER 13 Book 3 Mathematics Chapter 13 Geometrical Properties of Circle ANSWERS FOR ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES Exploration (pg 382) 4 cameras (a) 6 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 2 GENERAL NOTES When the diagrams given are straightforward. use a thin stick (e. and AÔP = BÔP. with OP as the line of reflection. the method of using reflection may be a more easily understood method for the pupils.18. Teachers may find it useful to have transparencies. The teacher may find the Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP) a useful tool to allow pupils to verify the results that (a) (b) (c) (d) the angle at the centre is equal to twice the angle at the circumference subtended by the same arc. they may find it difficult when the diagrams given are not obvious. the angle subtended by the diameter of a semicircle is a right angle.

Calculate the value of x + y. STP = 25°. Find x. O is the centre of the circle and PQR = 70°. and RKQ = y°. (a) 80° (b) 160° (c) 100° (d) 120° (e) 200° ( ) R 80˚ O X˚ T P Q t t t t 2. TPR = 80° and QÔR = x°. Calculate the value of x. TPR = 135°. O is the centre of the circle. (a) 140° (b) 210° (c) 290° (d) 110° Q 70˚ X˚ 0 P R (e) 220° ( ) 174 . In the figure. In the figure. (a) 75° (b) 55° (c) 85° (d) 70° (e) 80° R S T 25˚ 135˚ P Q K y˚ X˚ ( ) t 3.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: ( ) Date: Time allowed: 35 min Marks: 16 Book 3 Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 13 Geometrical Properties of Circles t 1. In the figure. SRP = x°.

In the figure. It lies on the circumference of the big circle. Calculate the size of TSR . In the figure. O is the centre of the figure. and PRQ = x°. d = 2c III. SPR = 25°. (a) 180° − 2x (b) 90° − x (c) 180° − x (d) 90° + x P 2x˚ K (E) 180° − 4x ( ) T O Q A t t t 7. t Given that PKQ = 2x°. Which of the following is/are true? I. b + d = 180° II. QR is the diameter of the semicircle. Calculate the value of x. whose centre is A. SPT = 100°. PQS = 40°. (a) 85° (b) 90° (c) 95° (d) 125° S T 25˚ Q 30˚ R (e) 105° ( ) p 175 . and STR = 30°. In the figure. O is the centre of the small circle. and PR is a diameter. a = c (a) I and II only (d) II only (b) II and III only (e) all of them T S b d a P O c Q R (c) I and III only ( ) t 6. PKQ. PTQ . express PTQ in terms of x. (a) 30° (b) 40° (c) 50° (d) 60° Q 40˚ T P 100˚ X˚ (e) 80° ( ) R S 5. In the figure.t t t 4.

Find x. Given that PRQ = 65°. calculate PTQ . TRQ = 28°. In the figure. (a) 37° (b) 90° (c) 93° K (d) 87° P 65˚ (e) None of these ( ) T Q 28˚ x° R 176 . KP and TR are tangents to the circle. and PQR = x°.8. In the diagram. TP and TQ are tangents to the circle. and PÔR = 130°. O is the centre of the circle. In the figure. t Given that AÔB = 110° and BÔC = 130°. find APC . AO is produced to meet the circle at P. Calculate PQR . In the figure. (a) 55° (b) 60° (c) 65° (d) 120° A (e) None of these ( ) B 110˚ 0 130˚ C P t t 9. (a) 60° (b) 65° (c) 115° (d) 130° (e) None of these ( ) O 130˚ P Q R t t t 11. KPQ = 65°. O is the centre of the circumscribed circle of ΔABC. (a) 50° (b) 65° (c) 115° (d) 130° P (e) None of these ( ) T 65˚ R Q t 10.

Given that PR = QR. calculate PTQ (a) 30° (b) 40° (c) 50° (d) 60° P 70˚ Q (e) 70° T ( ) R t 14. find the value of BÂC. and TA is a tangent to the circle. If TPA = 30°.12. and RPQ = 70°. (a) 28° (b) 30° (c) 32° (d) 34° P A 62˚ (e) 38° ( ) T C B 177 . PT is a tangent to the circle. In the diagram. TA and TB are tangents to the circle whose centre is O. PTQ = 56°. In the diagram. (a) 112° (b) 118° (c) 124° (d) 136° P (e) Cannot be found ( ) T 56˚ R x˚ Q t t 13. (a) 20° (b) 25° (c) 30° (d) 35° B (e) 60° P 30˚ C ( ) T O A t 15. If PÂB = 62°. calculate ATC . BC is the diameter. TP and TQ are tangents to the circle. and PRQ = x°. In the diagram. Calculate x. In the figure.

c 4. If PQ = PR. (a) 28° (b) 36° (c) 48° (d) 64° P (e) 72° ( ) A C 36˚ Q E R Answers 1. c 178 . a 7. d 5. d 11. b 3. e 10. and PQR = 36°. PQ. calculate APC . c 14. a 16. are tangents to the circle. d 2. c 9.t t 16. PR and QR. b 13. b 15. b 6. b 12. b 8. In the diagram.

[1] Q R O 65˚ P S t t 3. PR is the diameter of a circle. Q 34˚ R 38˚ [2] [1] P S 179 . In the diagram. (b) y. with centre O.XYZ SECONDARY SCHOOL Name: Class: Book 3 Mathematics Test Chapter 13 Geometrical Properties of Circles 1. y˚ 110˚ O x˚ ( ) Date: Time allowed: Marks: min [1] [1] 2. Calculate the values of (a) x. [1] t (ii) PRS . O is the centre of the circle. Calculate t (a) RPS . QP = QR. In the diagram. t (a) Write down the value of PSR . The points Q and S lie on the circumference of the circle such t that PQ = RQ and QPS = 65°. [1] (b) Calculate t (i) QPR . PQS = 34°. t (b) QSR . and PRQ = 38°.

calculate the following.t 4. Given that AÔC = 112°. Given that PQ = 15 cm and PR = 12 cm. calculate t (a) ATB . Find t (a) ATD . O is the centre of the circle. BÂD = 92° and ABC = 79°. t . t (a) ADC . (c) TÂB. t (b) TCB . [4] T O 40˚ 14˚ B A P 180 . C D T A 92˚ 79˚ B [2] [1] 5. PQ is a diameter of the circle. with centre O. In the diagram. In the diagram. (b) AÔP. Given that APO = 14° and OBA = 40°. PAB and POT are straight lines. (b) ABC D [1] [2] O A 112˚ C B 6. calculate the area of triangle PQR. O is the centre of the circle. [3] P O 15cm 12 cm R Q t 7. In the diagram.

ABC = 53°. Given that BÂC = 52° and APB = 26°. Find the value of DCE . Y [4] S R 79˚ P 53˚ Q X t t t 10. B 54˚ A O D C [3] E 181 . In the diagram. In the figure. O is the centre of the circle and ABE = 54°. Find the angles of SYR and QXR . A H 32˚ 53˚ B K [3] 26˚ C t t 11. HBA = 32°. AC is the diameter of the circle. SPQ = 53° and PQR = 79°. In the figure. In the figure.t 8. Calculate t (a) HKC . HK is parallel to BC. and BCH = 26°. (b) BÔA. (b) BÂC. calculate t (a) PBC . B [3] A 52˚ O C 26˚ P t t t t 9.

[3] C B X D A O t 15. In the diagram. In the diagram. If AÔB = 54° and OBC = 52°. Given that BTC = 74°. Find the value of AXD . find the value of CÂD. AÔD is the diameter of the circle. In the diagram. B 48˚ A [3] 52˚ O C t 13. and t AB = BC = CD. and OBC = 48°. O is the centre of the circle. with centre O. and TAOD and TBC are straight lines. O is the centre of the circle. t find ACD . AC and BD intersect at the point X. C O 54˚ 52˚ B A [3] 182 . AB is parallel to DC.t t 12. OABCD is a quadrant of a circle. [3] C B 20˚ A T 46˚ O D 14. AÔB = 52°. find the value of OÂC. In the diagram. Calculate the value of OAC . Given that ATC = t 20° and BDC = 46°. [3] D A T 74˚ C B t 16. and chords AC and BD meet at the point T. In the diagram.

t t 17. t (b) ABC . O is the centre of the circle. Express b in terms of a and c. In the diagram. C 78˚ D [2] [2] T A B 183 . In the diagram. and BCD = 78°. (b) tan θ. In the diagram. find the numerical values of (a) sin θ.5 cm. TA = AD. AOB is the diameter of the circle with centre O. C O 6. If AB = 5 cm and OBA = θ. O is the centre of the circle with a radius of 6. Find t (a) ATD . [3] D 46˚ O x˚ C A B t 20. Given that AB || DC. DÂC = 46°. OÂB = a. find x. and t ABD = x°. [4] C c O a A B b t 18.5 B ø 5 A [3] [1] 19. TAB is a straight line. In the diagram. ABC = b and OCB = c.

E A 18˚ B C D O 56˚ [1] [1] [2] t 22. In the diagram. PRQ = 24°. Given that ONM = 46° and t = 24°. If PQ = 12 cm and RS = 9. [5] t t 25.5 cm. Find the values of t (a) ACD . t (b) ACD . (c) BÔC. and ADC = 56°.t 21. O is the centre of the circle. [2] T t . t . t . In the diagram. Calculate t R (a) SRP . t . In the diagram. (c) MTN [2] O 24˚ 46˚ L M N t t 23. calculate OLM t (a) LOM . PR is a diameter of the circle. (b) CAD D E 116˚ A 112˚ B [2] [2] C 184 . and ABD = 62°. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which ADC = 79°. (b) QSR 24˚ t (c) POQ . AEOD and ABC are straight lines. O is the centre of the circle.8 cm. In the diagram. Find C t (a) BDC . [1] t (b) TMN . LOT and LMN are straight lines. If BÂO = 18°. PQ and RS are two parallel chords in a circle with a radius of 7. calculate the possible distance between the chords PQ and RS. O S 38˚ T P Q [2] [2] [2] t 26. and PTR = 38°. In the diagram. calculate (a) CÊD. with centre O. (b) BCA D 79˚ 62˚ 82˚ A B [5] 24. ABC = 112° and AÊD = 116°. BÂD = 82°.

t (c) DBC . TAD and TBC are straight lines where A. AOB = 84° and TÂD = 74°. Calculate the value of OÂB. DÂC = 78° and ATB = 56°. TAB is a straight line. Given that t AB = AT. C 48˚ O 92˚ B [1] [2] [2] D A 29. C. t (b) ADB . In the diagram. [1] t . O is the centre of the circle. In the diagram. calculate (a) BÂC. and OCB = 30°. AÔC = 96°. In the diagram. O is the centre of the circle. D 78˚ A 56˚ B T [2] [2] [1] C t 30. Find the value of t (a) ACB . [2] C D 74˚ A O 84˚ T B t 28. AÔB = 92° and ACD = 48°. O is the centre of the circle. t (c) DAO . and D are points on the circle. t (b) DAB . (b) ACD [2] t (c) OAD . B [3] O 96˚ A 30˚ C 185 . B.t 27. Find t (a) ACB . In the diagram.

ADB = 27°. [3] O A 124 B C 186 . [2] t (c) BXC . Given that AOD = 86° t and BAC = 24°. [2] O A B 52 C t 33. C [2] [2] B 96˚ O 27˚ D A t 32. calculate. AB is parallel to OC. In the diagram. t (a) BAC . [3] t (b) BCA . In the diagram. O is the centre of the circle. Given that OBC = 52°. Calculate (a) BÂC. calculate t (a) ABX . O is the centre of the circle and ABC = 124°. [1] t (b) ODX . In the diagram.t 31. [2] D X 86° O 24° A B C t t 34. and CÔD = 96°. AC is the diameter which meets BD at X. In the diagram. t (b) ABC . O is the centre of the circle. Find the value of OCA . where O is the centre of the circle.

Given that ACB = 48° and ACD = 68°. t (b) ABD . find the value of t C (a) OBA . ADQ. In the diagram. AOC is the diameter of the circle with centre O. Given that CDQ = 52° and CQD = a°. find ACB . 48 B O [2] [2] A 36. PAB. t when BPC = (a + 26)°. find t (a) TCA . and TAB is a straight line. find t (a) BCP in terms of a. In the diagram. Given that t t BTC = 30° and ACB = 50°. B [3] T 32° O C A 187 . In the diagram. O is the centre of the circle. t (b) BAD P A B [2] [3] D 52° a° Q C t t 38. and BCQ are straight lines. D t 68 (b) DAO . D 30° O C 50° [3] [2] T A B t t 37.t t 35. TA and TB are tangents to the circle with centre O. In the diagram. Given that ATO = 32°.

Given that PAC = 66° and BAT = 37°. to the circle. BOC is the diameter of the circle. Given that APC = 20° t = 42°. t and CAQ [3] C Q 42° A O B 20° P 40. [3] C B 66° P A 37° T t 42. Given that OAB = 34° t t and OBC = 24°. In the diagram. In the diagram. TAP is a tangent. O is the centre of the circle. at A. In the diagram. BOCP is a straight t t line and APC = 28°. calculate ATB . In the figure.t 39. O is the centre of the circle. [3] B O C T A 28° P t t t 41. BC. and PAQ is a tangent to the circle at A. [3] 24° O B C 34° A 188 . find the value of BCA . AC. and AB are tangents to the circle. Calculate TAB . TAP is the tangent to the circle at the point A. calculate BCP .

Given that AHO = 26°. In the diagram. [1] t . calculate TPB . (b) BAH [1] (c) the area of the minor segment AQH [3] (Take π = 3. calculate t (a) PBC . The figure shows a circle with centre O and radius 8 cm. TA is the tangent to the circle at A. In the diagram. [1] P C B O T 54° A Q 45. AQB is a chord of the circle ABC. TA and TB are tangents to the circle whose centre is at O. If ATP = 22° and TQB = 137°. Given that ATB = 58°.t 43. Given that ATB = 54°. respectively. [1] t (c) BAQ . the tangent to the circle at B meets TQ t t produced to P. The diameter HK is produced to P and PAB is a t tangent to the circle at A. calculate APB [3] A T 58° P B t 44. calculate t (a) APK . [1] t (b) BCA . [3] B C 137° 22° Q P T A 46. t .14) H 26° O Q B A K P 189 . TA and TB are tangents to the circle at A and B.

47. In the figure, AB is the diameter of the circle, and TC is a tangent to the circle at C. TC meets AB produced to t T. If TAC = 28°, calculate t (a) ABC , t (b) ATC . [3]

C T B 28° A

t 48. In the diagram, TA and TB are tangents to the circle whose centre is O. Given that APB = 116°, find t (a) AQB , t . (b) ATB

B Q O

[1] [3]

T

P

A

49. In the figure, PA and PB are tangents to the circle at A and B, respectively. Given that O is the centre of the circle, OA = 2.8 cm, and AP = 4.4 cm, calculate (a) PQ, t (b) APB .

A 2.8cm O 4.4cm Q P

[4]

B

t t 50. In the diagram, TC and TA are tangents to the circle with centre O. Given that PAB = 58°, and ATC = 38°, find t (a) OBC , [2] t . (b) OAC [2]

C B O 58° P A 38°

T

190

51. In the diagram, PQ, PS, RQ, and RS are tangents to the circle at B, A, C, and D, respectively. Given that t t POA = 56° and SRO = 26°, where O is the centre of the circle, calculate t (a) SPO , [2] t (b) PQR . [2]

B Q C

P

0 A D

R

S

52. In the diagram, ACT is a tangent to the circle at C. Given that COQ is the diameter, AROP is a straight line t and BQC = 26°, calculate t (a) RPC , [2] Q t , (b) PAT [2] t P (c) PCT [1] 26°

O R A B C T

53. In the diagram, O is the centre of the circle, and TA is a tangent to the circle at A. The diameter BD, and AC t meet at X. Given that BDC = 26° and DÂO = 36°, calculate (a) (b) (c) (d) BÂT, t OBA , t ABC , t . BXC

C 26° O 36° T A X B

D

[2] [1] [1] [2]

t 54. In the diagram, AB, BC, and AC are tangents to the circle at P, Q, and R, respectively. If ABC = 44° and t = 48°, calculate QPR (a) BÂC, t (b) PQR .

C

[3] [2]

R 0 48° A P

Q

44° B

191

55. In the diagram, TAP and TBQ are tangents to the circle at A and B, respectively. Given that TAP is parallel to t BC and ATB = 50°, calculate (a) PÂC, (b) BÂC.

B

Q C

[3] [2]

T

50°

A

P

56. In the figure, PAQ and QBR are tangents to the circle at A and B, respectively, Given that PÂC = 70° and t RBC = 52°, calculate t (a) AQB , [2] t . (b) ACB [2]

R 52° C 70° P B Q

A

57. In the diagram, AB and AC are tangents to the circle at B and C, respectively. Given that BÂC = x°, express t BPC in terms of x. [4]

C

A

x P

B

t 58. In the diagram, O is the centre of the circle and HK is a tangent to the circle at A. Given that ADB = 10y°, t t t ABD = 2x°, CDB = x°, and DBC = 14y°, calculate, in degrees, (a) CÔB, t (b) ACD , (c) KÂB.

x° 10y°

C

[3] [1] [1]

D

14y° 2x°

B

H

A

K

192

59. In the diagram, PAT is a tangent to the circle at A, AC is the diameter, BED is a straight line, and BE = BC. t Given that CBE = 2x°, find in terms of x (a) AÔD, (b) BÂT, (c) PÂD.

C

2x° O E D P A

B

[2] [2] [2]

T

60. In the figure, PQR is a triangle inscribed in the circle. AB, BC, and AC are tangents to the circle. Given that t t QPR = 63° and PRQ = 48°, calculate B t (a) ABC , [2] (b) BÂC, [2] t (c) ACB . [1]

P Q 63° 48° A R C

61. PA and PB are tangents to a circle with centre O, touching the circle at A and B respectively. BOC is a diameter and CÂO = 48°, Calculate (a) AÔC, t (b) ABO , t (c) APB .

C 48° O A

[6]

B

P

62. In the figure, PAB is a tangent to the circle at A, and PQS is a straight line. Given that AQ = QR, BÂS = 62° t and APQ = 32°, calculate (a) QÂP, t (b) QRS , t . (c) RSA

R

[5]

S

Q 32° 62° A B

P

193

t (ii) CTA . [2] (b) the area of ΔOAC. [2] t (d) CDA . TA is a tangent to the circle. Calculate 22 (a) the area of the sector OABC. and t ADC = 62°. [2] (c) the area of the minor segment ABC. and BC = CD. In the diagram. (a) Give a brief reason why TÂO = 90° (b) Name a pair of congruent triangles and give a brief reason to substantiate your claim. (iii)BÔC. AB is parallel to the diameter DOC. In the diagram. O is the centre of the circle. CT is a tangent to a circle with centre O and radius 6 cm. [1] [2] [1] [1] [1] T D O 62° A B C 64. OBA = 48°. Calculate the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) OÂB t ABC t BCD t ADC D [8] O C A 48° B 194 . (c) Calculate the value of (i)TÂD. [2] D A 0 70° B T C t 65.63. CODT is a straight line. taking π to be 7 . DOC and DAT are straight lines and AÔC = 70°. AD is the diameter. [2] (e) the length of the tangent CT.

and BÂC = y° (a) Express AÔD in terms of x. calculate the following: (a) AÊB (b) AÊD (c) CÔD [6] A E O B C D 69. O is the centre of the circle. Given that AB = BC = CD. and t ABC = 130°. OAD = x°. calculate the following: t P T (a) PTR Q t 52° (b) SOT [4] O S R 68. ABCDE. AOC is the diameter. In the diagram. O is the centre of the circle. and CD is parallel to BE. Given that t AÔB = 88° and ACE = 24°. In the diagram. Given that PQR = 52°. The diagram shows a pentagon. inscribed in a circle with centre O. (c) Show that x = y. calculate the following: (a) BÊC t (b) BCD (c) CÊD [6] D E O A 88° 24° C B 195 . The chords AC and BD are perpendicular. and PQRS is a parallelogram.66. D t (b) Express ACD in terms of y. O is the centre of the circle. [6] A x° y° O C B t 67. In the figure.

70. An equilateral triangle of sides 12 cm is drawn in a circle, with its edges touching the circumference. Calculate the radius of the circle.

[4]

71. An isosceles triangle of sides 6 cm, 6 cm, and 8 cm long is inscribed in a circle. Find the radius of the circle. [4] 72. In a circle of diameter 12 cm, PQ and HK are two parallel chords of lengths 8 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Calculate the distance between the chords if they are on (a) the same side of the centre, (b) opposite sides of the centre. [4]

t 73. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If BÂO = 35° and BCO = 29°, calculate AÔC as indicated in the diagram. [3]

B

O 35˚ A

29˚ C

t 74. In the figure, AC is the diameter of the circle whose centre is O. If AD = BD, and CBD = 18°, calculate the following angles: t (a) ADB t (b) BCD (c) CÂD [6]

B 18˚ A O C

D

t 75. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. AÔE = 68° and OBD = 44°. Calculate the following angles:

**(a) BÊD t (b) OCB t (c) OTE
**

E

D A 68˚ O 44˚ B C T

[6]

196

t 76. In the diagram, PT and QT are the tangents to the circle, and PTQ = 60°. If the radius of the circle is 14 cm, 22 find the length of the minor arc PQ. (Take π = 7 ) [3]

P 14 cm 60˚ T

Q

t 77. In the diagram. PA and PB are tangents to a circle with centre O. If ACB = 58°, and AO = 10 cm, find the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) AÔB OÂB t APB the length of AP

A 10 cm C

58˚

O

P

[8]

B

t 78. In the diagram, TAP is a tangent to the circle at A, TAP is parallel to QCD, AQC = 44°, and PÂD = 62°, calculate t A (a) BCD , P T t 62° (b) ADB , t (c) BDC . [6]

B 44° Q C

D

t 79. In the diagram, TAP is a tangent to the circle at A. Given that AXE = 57° and TÂE = 34°, if AD is the diameter, find (a) BÂX, t (b) ABC , (c) DÊX.

D C X B

[6]

57° E T 34°

A

P

197

80. In the diagram, TC and TAP are tangents to the circle, with centre O. Given that CÂO = 21°, calculate t (a) APB , t (b) ATC , C (c) PÂB.

O B P

[6]

21° T A

81. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. TAP and TBQ are tangents to the circle at A and B, respectively. t t Given that ATB = 54° and BCD = 116°, calculate (a) PÂD, t (b) ABO .

A T 54° P

[4]

O

D B Q

116°

C

82. In the diagram, PA and PB are tangents to the circle at A and B, respectively. The chords AC and BD meet at t X. Given that DÂT = 35°, PÂB = 57°, and CBQ = 62°, calculate the following: t (a) APB t (b) ABC t (c) BXC [6]

Q

62° B C X D T 35° 57° A P

83. In the diagram, AQ and CP are tangents to the circle at A and C, respectively. Given that BÂQ = 48° and t t [3] ABC = 67°, calculate BCP .

C P

67°

B

48° A Q

198

t 84. In the diagram, AQ and DP are tangents to the circle at A and D, respectively. Given that PDC = 30°, QÂB = 60°, and BÂC = 36°, calculate the following: t (a) ABC t (b) ACD [5]

D 30° C P

A

36° 60° Q

B

Answers 1. (a) 55 2. (a) 90° 3. (a) 70° 4. (a) 13° 5. (a) 56° 6. 54 cm2 7. (a) 50° 8. (a) 12° 9. 48° ; 26° 10. (a) 122° 11. 36° 12. 54° 13. 32° 14. 150° 15. 37° 16. 25° 17. b = a + c (b) 69° (b) 26° (b) 76° (c) 27° (b) 125 (b) (i) 45° (b) 38° (b) 88° (b) 124° (ii) 70°

199

(a) 13 19. (a) 22° 23. (a) 42° 36. 64° 12 (b) 5 (b) 51° (b) 106° (b) 35° (b) 98° (c) 80° (c) 44° (c) 36° (b) 66° (b) 48° (b) 32° (b) 86° (b) 22° (c) 48° (c) 58° (c) 42° (c) 78° (b) 111° (b) 14° (b) 19° (c) 67° (b) 22° (b) 10° (b) 103° 200 . (a) 34° 30. (a) 64° 27. 26° 40. (a) 43° 34. (a) 43° 24. 22° 20.18 cm 25. (a) 10° 37. 58° 39. (a) 42° 28. (a) 51° 21. (a) 34° 22. (a) 28° 26. 34° 35. (a) 42° 32. 29° 42. 18° 31. (a) 46° 29.12 18. (a) (52 + a)° 38.18 cm or 10. (a) 38° 33. 59° 41. 1.

(a) 30° (b) 40° (b) 90° – x° (b) 42° (b) 42° (b) 92° (c) 50° (c) 90° – 2x° (c) 54° (c) 84° (c) 60° (b) 64° (b) 34° (b) 52° (b) 64.4 cm2 65.1 cm2 (c) 132° (d) 35° (d) 66° 201 . (a) 22 cm2 (e) 8. (a) 180° – 2x (b) 16. (a) 180° – 4x° 60. (a) 2. (a) 26° 53.9° (b) 19° (b) 120° (b) 38° (b) 54° (b) 64° (b) 50° (b) 58° (c) 64° (c) 118° (d) 80° (c) 46. (a) 39° 51. (a) 34° 52. (a) 84° 61. 72° 46. (a) 48° 66. (a) 64° 49. (a) 52° 55. (a) 84° 62. (a) 40° 59. ΔOBC .2 cm2 (b) 63° (c) 117° 63.43. (90 + 2 )° 58. SAS (c) (i) 28° (ii) 34° 64.9 cm2 (b) 114° (b) 90° – y (iii) 56° (c) 5. (a) 65° 56. (a) 62° 48. (a) 27° 45. (a) radius is perpendicular to tangent (b) ΔOAD. (a) 144° 54. (a) 64° x 57. (a) 38° 47. 119° 44.42 cm 50.

98 cm 73. (a) 48° 81. (a) 116° 78. (a) 36° 75.02 cm 72. 4. (a) 106° 79. 113° 84. (a) 46° 70. 6. 128° 74.93 cm 71. 29 3 cm 77. (a) 67° 80.93 cm (b) 108° (b) 62° (c) 18° (c) 22° (b) 32° (b) 44° (b) 113° (b) 42° (b) 27° (b) 63° (c) 64° (c) 18° (c) 23° (c) 21° (d) 16 cm (c) 95° (b) 54° 202 . (a) 53° 82. (a) 84° (b) 104° (b) 75° (b) 114° (c) 50° (c) 20° (b) 9. (a) 52° 68. (a) 0. (a) 55° 83.67. (a) 46° 1 76. (a) 25° 69.

NOTES .

NOTES .

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