This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Second Edition

·RACTURE MECHANICS

Solutions Manual for

Solutions Manual for

FRACTURE MECHANCS

Second Edition

T.l. Anderson, Ph.D.

Structural Reliability Technology Boulder, Colorado

Fundamentals and Applications

CRCPress

Boca Raton Boston London New York WasbingtoD, D.C.

Library

of Congress

Catatogtng-in-Pubhcauon

Data of Congress.

Catalog record is available from the Library

This book contains informauon obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission. and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data 3I\d inforrnation. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of a.11materials or for the consequences of their USc. Neither trus book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in :my form or by any means.

electronic or mecbanieal.

including photocopying, microfilming. and recording, cr by any information storage C~ retrieval s ystern, without prior permission in writing from the publisher,

The consent of eRe Press LLC does not extend to copying fer general distribution. for promotion. fer creating new works. or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from eRe ~S5 LLC for such copying. Direc: al. inquiries !O CRe Press LLC. 2000 Corporate Blvd .. N.W" Boca Raton. Florida

33':3

Tndemar~

lIRe 3.:>:

:.:.se::: or,,::-

~otice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered fo~ Identification and explanation. without intent (0 infringe.

trademarks.

tt 1995:::.CR: P=

LLC

So da.::r.-. I~ Q:l~r..:J L".S. Government works Intern ..J-::~n"; Su;.:..!."": BOOK ~umber 0-8493-9482-1 Pnnted :.:: L",e ;_-~.::~:: Seues of America 34 S67890 Pnnted or. =;-~ ?.:.;:>e:

NOTE TO INSTRUCTORS

This volume contains solutions to the problems in Chapter 13 of Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. The problem statement is given in each case and is surrounded by a single line border. All problems involving numerical quantities are solved in 51 units. Space limitations preclude listing computer codes. When a problem requires the use of a computer, only the final results are given, usually in the form of a graph. Some of the problems attempt to test the students' engineering judgement, and do not have a single "correct" answer. For example, Problem 7.2, which asks the student to design a KIC experiment, has a range of acceptable answers. I realize that this makes life more difficult for graders, but I believe that it provides a better learning experience for the students. Some problems, especially those corresponding to Chapters 9 to 11, require numerical approximations (e.g., numerical differencing and integration). Thus the students' answers may differ slightly from those in this manual, depending on the numerical techniques employed. Most of the problems have been class tested, so the solutions should be fairly reliable. However, since nobodys perfect, the possibility for mistakes always exists: If you discover any errors in the solution manual or the text, I would be very grateful if you would bring them to my attention. Ted L. Anderson Dept. of Mech. Engrg. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 Tel: (409) 845·5810

Fax: (409) 84S.3081

1

. = (50 MPa = 12. Therefore.. neglecting aerodynamic drag. Your decide to infer a relationship for time of flight of a falling object by experimentation. but you cannot remember the appropriate equation from your undergraduate physics course.4 Suppose that you plan to drop a bomb out of an airplane and that you are interested in the time of flight before it hits the ground.2 CHAPTER 1 1. must depend on the height above the ground. where m is the mass and g is the gravitational acceleration.6 nun Total crack length 1. Does the time of flight depend en the mass of the object? . Vat A flat plate with a through-thickness crack (Fig. 1.0796 m = 79. assuming material is linear elastic. h .0121 MFa mm = 12. g) Apply dimensional analysis to this equation and determine how many experiments would be required to determine f to a reasonable approximation. the time of flight is given by the following function: t = f(h. = 100 MPa ~ ac = 0.000 MFa (30. 1.8) is subject to a 100 MPa (14.1 207. You reason that the time of flight.. KIC = KI = o ~ 50 MPa.5 ksi) tensile stress and has a fracture toughness (KIC) of 50. and the weight of the object. . m. Determine the critical crack length for this plate. assuming you know the numerical value of g.000 MPa rm) = 0. t. mg.rr.0 MPa thE Ans: At fracture.5 ksi~). Therefore.000 ksi).1 kPa m kJlm2 Note that energy release rate has units of energy /area.3 Compute the critical = 2ac = 159 mm rate (gc) of the material in the previous energy release problem for E = 207.2 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (45.

1 According to Eq.f - ~(d.25).2 Derive Eq. VVhy is the factor of 2 in this equation necessary? Ans: The factor of 2 stems from the difference between crack area and surface area.. the material resistance to crack extension 2 Wf. CHAPTER 2 Note that ex =.Solutions Manual 3 Ans: Since h has units of length and g has units of (length)(time)-2. constant.2B da)p = dC 2B da p2 .27)and (2.28).(d(C.30) for both load control and displacement control by substituting Eq. )l P . w]. Thus dimensional analysis implies the following functional relationship: t=a~ where ex is a dimensionless required to estimate 0. divide both sides of the above equation by ~: t let us = f(h. m.29) into Eqs. a_ '. according to Newton's laws of motion. which implies that the time of flight cannot depend on the mass of the object. (2. The former is defined as the projected area of the crack The surface area is twice the crack area because the formation of a crack results in the creation of MO surfaces. g) ~ ~ The left side of this equation is now dimensionless. = 2. Therefore. (2. Ans~ (a) Load control. the right side must also be dimensionless..J2 be 2. Only one experiment trials at various heights would be might but several advisable to obtain a reliable estimate of this constant. respectively. the energy required to increase the crack area a unit amount is equal to twice the fracture work per unit surface area.61 2B da)p _~. (2. (2. . Consequently.

0' = P/2BW in this problem. were specified. assume that Cm represents the compliance of the uncracked plate and C is the additional compliance that results from the presence of the crack.10 illustrates that the driving force is linear for a through-thickness crack in an infinite plate when the stress is fixed. (2.e.. rather than stress.24). Would the driving force curves be altered? Explain. em »c.3 Figure 2.12.0. E.P) in terms of the plate dimensions and elastic modulus. C (= .4 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (b) Displacement control.4 A plate 2W wide contains a centrally located crack 2a long and is subject to a tensile load. s dC ::: . P. Thus a fixed remote displacement implies a fixed load. If the crack were to grow at at fixed dT. crack extension at a fixed remote displacement would not effect the load. Consider the spring in series analog in Fig. When the crack is small compared to the plate dimensions. Ans: In a cracked plate where 2a « the plate width. (Hint: see Section 2.5.) . The stress in Eq. For the present problem.o. thus load would also remain fixed. Suppose that a remote displacement (rather than load) were fixed in this configuration. only C would change. the expression you derive is only approximate for a finite width plate. 2. The driving force curves would not be altered if remote displacement. and load control and displacement control are equivalent in this case.2B (da ddP) .24) is the nominal value. The load and remote displacement are related as follows: where C is the "local" compliance and Cm is the system compliance. Beginning with Eq. 2. y ::: .3). (Note: Eq. (2. since the crack comprises a negligible portion of the cross section.C2da (il/c)2 dC Cj = 2B da = p2 dC 2B cia 2.. derive an expression for the elastic compliance. (2. i.24) only applies when a « W.

Solutions

Manual

5

Ans: The through-thickness crack has two tips; an increment of crack growth causes the crack area to increase by 28 da. The compliance relationship for energy release rate must be modified accordingly:

Ii

=

p2 dC

28 d(2a)

=

p2 dC

48 da

Equating the above expression with Eq. (2.24) gives

"rj

=--y- -

02

7ta

p2

7t a

p2

de

da

4B2 W2 E =48

Solving for compliance leads to

C=

f

de

=]3;2 fa

E

da = B7tE

(~J

em

+ constant plate.

The constant corresponds to the compliance of the uncracked Assuming a gage length L, the total compliance is given by 7t Ctot = B E W) where

(a.y

L (1 - v2) + 2B W E

=C+

the compliance of the uncracked plate and C is the additional compliance due to the crack. When a« W or a « L, the first term in the above expression is negligible. Recall the previous problem, where it was argued that displacement control is equivalent to load control in an infinite plate because C « Cm.

2.5 A material exhibits the following crack growth resistance behavior: R = 6.95 (a - ao)O.5 where ao is the initial crack size. R has units of kJ/m2 and crack size is in AI tematively,

em represents

millimeters.

.~----~

.. -

6

Fracture

Mechanics:

Fundamentals

and Applications

where R has units of in-lb/in2

and crack size is in inches.

The elastic

modulus of

this material", 207,000 MPa (3D,OOO ksi). Consider a wide plate with a through crack (a « W) that is made from this material.

(a) If this plate fractures at 138 MPa (20.0 ksi), compute the following: (i) The half crack size at failure (ad. (ii) The amount of stable crack growth (at each crack tip) that precedes failure (ac - ao). (b) If this plate has an initial crack length (2ao) of 50.8 nun (2.0 in) and the plate is loaded to failure, compute the following: (i) The stress at failure. (ii) The half crack size at failure. (iii) The stable crack growth at each crack tip.

Ans: At instability, {}= R and d{}/da = dR/da.

Therefore,

(1)

and

(2)

**Thus we have two equations to relate one of these quantities.
**

(a)

0

0,

ac and ao, and we must specify

= 138 MPa

From Eq. (1) above,

1[

(138,000 kPa)2

**2.07 x 108 kPa ac - ao = 145 mm Substituting into (2) gives
**

1t

(138,000 kPap ac 2.07 x 108 kPa

=

6.95 (145 rnm)O.5

Thus (i) ac = 290 mrn

Solutions

Manual

7

(ii) ac - ao = 145 mm (iii) ao = 145 mm (b) ao

=

25.4 mm

Dividing Eq. (1) by Eq. (2) leads to

**Therefore, if ao= 25.4 mrn, ac = 50.8 mm and (ac - aD) = 25..4 mm. We can solve for critical stress by substituting these results into Eq. (1):
**

1t 02

(0.0508 rn) 2.07 x 108 kPa

= 6.95 (25.4 mm)O.5

Thus (i)

= 213,000 kPa = 213 MPa (ii) ac = 50.8 mm (iii) ac - aD 25.4 mm

0

=

2.6

Suppose that a double cantilever beam specimen (Fig. 2.9) is fabricated from the same material considered in Problem 2.5. Calculate the load at failure and the amount of stable crack growth. The specimen dimensions are as follows:

B = 25.4 nun (1 in)

h = 12.7 nun (O.S in)

ao = 1S2 mm (6 in)

Ans: At instability,

'I

I

q = Rand d q/ da

= dR/

da. Hence,

(1)

(2)

Dividing

(1) by (2) gives

Thus

8

Fracture

Mechanics:

Fundamentals

and Applications

4 ac ::: 3 ao::: 203 mm

**and 12 P c2 (0.203 m)2 Yc::: (0.025 m)2 (0.0127 m)) 2.07 x 108 kPa ::: 6.95 (203 - 152)°·5 Pc::;;; 5.16 kN
**

2.7 Consider a nominally linear elastic material with a rising R curve (e.g., Problems 2.5 and 2.6). Suppose that one test is performed CIl. wide plate with a through crack (Fig. 2.3) and a second test on the same material is performed CI1 a DeB specimen (Fig. 2.9). If both tests are conducted in load control, would the {lc values at instability be the same? If not, which geometry would result in a higher {lc? Explain.

Ans The driving force curve for the through crack is linear, while tj varies with a2 for the DCB specimen. Therefore, the two geometries would have different points of tangency on the R curve, as Fig. Sl illustrates. The Ycvalue for the through crack would be higher, and this geometry would experience more stable crack growth prior to failure.

q,R

§e(1)

go.

a

,/

R-

(k(2)

DeB --

CRACK SIZE

**FIGURE Sl Effect of specimen geometry on instability (Problem 2.7)
**

2.8 Example 2.3 showed that the energy release rate, q, of the double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen increases with crack growth when the specimen is held at a constant load. Describe (qualitatively) how you could alter the design of the DCB specimen such tha t a growing crack in load control would experience a constant q.

51. recall that the moment of inertia of the cross section is proportional to Bh3. In order for (j to remain constant with crack growth. dJ1 For the penny-shaped crack. the thickness can be tapered. (2.8).9 Beginning with Eq. have been used successfully in laboratory experiments. compliance varies with a3.Solutions Manual 9 In a conventional DeB specimen.t and = 2n "is a2 = 2ys . S2 illustrates. One way to accomplish this is to taper the specimen width. Ws dWs d.20).t = aw. where y is relatively constant over a range of crack lengths. Specimens such as illustrated in Fig. Assume that a « plate dimensions. and energy release is proportional to a2 when load is fixed. compliance must vary linearly with crack length. Alternatively. ~ At fracture. 2. derive an expression for the potential energy of a plate subject to a tensile stress a with a penny-shaped flaw of radius a. dTI . The latter method is not as effective as the former because compliance is less sensitive to the thickness dimension. FIGURE 52 Tapered DeB specimen (Problem 2. as Fig.d.

(Your KI expression should be identical to Eq. 8cr2 a2 (1. Beginning with Eq. It is more convenient.10 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Combining the above results with Eq. Thus 4(1 . (2.10 802 a3 (1 .v2) 3E no is the potential energy of the uncracked solid. however.20). (2. to perform the integration with the crack radius.20) gives 2ys = ----4(1 . (2. (2. derive expressions for the energy release rate and Mode I stress intensity factor of a penny-shaped flaw subjectto a remote tensile stress.v2) a 02 q= 1t E Invoking the relationship between KI and q (Eq.20) leads to tj:: ~ = 2ys. a.y2) a crf2 nE The above equation must be integrated with respect to crack area to infer the potential energy. Rearranging Eq.y2) == - E and n = no where 2. dJt = 2n a da and dId dYl = 2n ada Therefore. (2.56)) gives .44).) Ans: At fracture in an ideally brittle material.

Each of the five specimens in Table 2.) .4 gives f(a/W) = 4.23 have been fabricated from this material. The strain parallel to the crack front is zero because the crack is axisymmetric. In each case. B = 25. Which specimen has the highest failure load? Which has the lowest? = = = Ans: Failure load is inversely proportional to the geometry correction factor.J. 2. B = 25 mm (1.050 m = 29. f(a/W): Pcrit = Krc f(a/W) Brw Thus it is obvious from Fig..8 ksi. W 50. and a /W 05.1 . bar containing an edge crack loaded in three point = 50.0 kN (7870 lb). The calculated failure loads are tabulated below.400kParm = 29. (2.4 MPa rm 2.12 Consider a material where KIC 35 MPaVrn (31.Solu tions Manual 11 which agrees with Eq. 5 = Ans: The KJ solutions in Table 2.0 in).4 into the appropriate polynomial In Table 2.23 that the CCT and DENT geometries have the highest failure load and the SENB geometry the lowest (for fixed B. Thus KI = (35 kN)(4.2. and a).8 mm (2 in).025 m "0. 2.44)..4 rrm (1 in).. W. P = 35.4 have the following form: Inserting a/W = 0.11 Calculate KJ for a rectangular bending.70.2 and 5 = 0. Estimate the failure load for each specimen. W 203 mm (8.0 in). 2. Note that the plane strain KI-g relationship is appropriate in this case.70) 0.0 in).8 mm (2. 'I &.4 and Fig. a/W = 0.

• .76 18.) . The vessel and is oriented such that the plane.5) results in the following stress intensity solution for this case: KI = As (0' + p) \j Q f(CP) _/.57 1.Jm = 2 (345 MPa) ~ rt ac = 12.ny- . KJ = KIC.051 1. 2.543 10.S) 3. (40 ksi to a stress of 345 MPa (50 ksi).659 Perit. determine the critical radius Ans: At fracture. in Fig. (2. Calculate KI if the local hoop pressure = 20 MPa (2900 psi).8 mm 2.14 A semicircular surface crack in a pressure crack is 00. of the second edition) "-s.n.13 A large block of steel is loaded toughness is 44 MPa ~ shaped crack.-- --- --- --- 12 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Geometry SENT SENB CCT DENT Com_pact f(o. Assume ERRATA (from the first printing The surface correction.049 9.19 should read: ~ Applying the principle of superposition (see Example 2. If the fracture of a pe.85 18. Substituting the above data into Eq.394 in) deep.Ji.65 1.04 2.. vessel is 10 mm (0.44) gives 44 MPa.80 2. the inner wall of the pressure hoop stress is perpendicular to the crack stress = 200 MPa (29.. kN 5.0 ksi) and the internal that the wall thickness » 10 mm..

60°.62 D c 2.20 1.16 Consider a plate subject to biaxial tension with a through crack of length 2a.57 in).10 1.943 1.00 nun (0.01 m) 2. 2.: We can apply the principle of superposition separately to KI and Kn: ~.ru.464 = 28. 90°. . 2. As.19.14) (220 MPa) 1t (0. in Fig. Derive expressions for KI and Kn for this configuration.12 1.. m.632 0. What happens to each K expression when 0"1 == 0"2? d. = 150 MPa (21.09 £($) 0.00 As 1..008 m) r Q f(¢l) [ C "" I II $. MPaVrn 15.' .15 Calculate 0" K] for a sernielliptical surface flaw at !1l = 0°. Degrees 0. KI = As (150 MPa) n(0.-------- Solutions Manual 13 = (1.00 90.315 in)..8 ksi): a = 8.74 18.4MParm 2. 30°.08 21. 2c:o 40 nun (1. oriented at an angle P from the 0"2 axis (Fig. 13.000 KI..-------------------------------------- ------ -.19 should read: Ans: From Fig. of the second edition) ERRATA (from the first printing The surface correction.00 60.1).36 22.780 0.00 30.

(50.59 11. 2a. 2a = . Using the weight function derived in Example 2.(2) + 02 cos(90+~) sin(90+~) ~ cos(~)sin(~) -i. A wide flat plate with a through-thickness crack experiences a nonuniform normal stress which can be represented by the following crack face traction: where Po = 300 l\IIPa and f3 = 25 rom The origin (x = 0) is at the left crack tip. 2.8 ksi).14 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications KIJ = 01 cos(~) sin(~) ~ = (01.08 2.ett [ Vtrr: sec· a 250 MPa (36.0 in). 50. 28. as illustrated in Fig. mm 25 50 100 KIf MPa". 2.3 ksi): 50. (xaeff)] 2W . Values for three crack lengths are tabulated below. KJ = Ol~ and Ku = o. A.ns: Figure 53 is a plot of KJ versus crack length for the through crack with the exponential stress distribution given above.17 01 = 02.20(b». and 100 rom You will need to integrate the weight function numerically.18 Calculate Keff (Irwin correction) for a through crack in a plate of width 2W (Fig. 1/2 . when 2.80 21..0 in).8 nun (2.. calulate KI at each crack tip for 2a = 25. Assume plane stress conditions and the following stress intensity rel a tionshi p: Keff = 0" _1l:d. 2W = ayS = 350 MPa = 203mm (8.6.27.

'.8 91.. Iteration 1 2 3 4 Keff.- E 15 10 5 0 0 0.04 0. Manual 15 This calculation is performed iteratively. which is used to determine a new Keff. (2. a first-order estimate of ry is inferred from Eq.06 0.59).- 0. The table below lists Keff estimates for six iterations. MParm 73.Solutions Ans. Next.5 85. ::..5 91.7 25 20 -.2 89.3 5 6 30 90. Solution to Problem2. m FIGURE 53. and the resulting aeff is used to obtain a second-order estimate of Keff. .08 0.17.02 fU Q. This process is repeated until the Keff estimates converge. A first-order estimate of Keff is obtained by inserting the physical crack size into the above relationship.t.1 CRACK LENGTH.. A second-order ry estimate is then obtained.

0 in) long. Irwin.508 m (20. W) required to perform material.5) 150 (21. w ~ 0. Assume CTYS:.5 46.0) 225 (32.1) 250 (36.6) 249 (36.. Ans: Applying Eqs.3 68..3) LEFM 7.(2.8) 200 (29. compute and tabulate Kef{ v. .16 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 2.3 70. 110 MParm). Comment on the feasibility Vm v.8 68.. A very large test machine would he required..0 in) Testing such a large specimen would impractical because: • • Machining costs would be very high.65).254m (10. a.0 in) Therefore. 250 MPa (36.41).3 46.2 29.9 86..3 ksi). stress using the three methods indicated below.5 63.08 14.63) 50 (7.25) 100 (14.19 For an infinite plate with a through crack 50. and strip yield methods respectively: Ken.and (2.6 2.08 14.6 70..9 v. (2.8 mm (2. Strip Yield Model 7.).06 14.5 82. Stress. of testing a specimen Ans: From Eq.4 99.2 42. strain linear Determine the minimum a valid Krc test 00 this of this size. B.76)to the values above results in the following stress intensity factors for the LEFM.5 ( 345 MFa ) = 0..82). a. (W~a) ~ 2.3 29. MPa (ksi) 25 (3.20 A material has a yield strength of 345 MPa (50 ksi) and a plane elastic fracture toughness of 110 MPa (100 ksi specimen dimensions (B.1 99.4 MP a.rm or ksi Irwin Correction 7. (2.6 143 00 56.1 28.

dimensionless geometry correction factor. You have been given a set of fracture mechanics test specimens. a is crack length. its metallurgical properties would not be representative of a thinner plate of the same material. f(a/W) BVW where P is load.:. B is thickness.21 Describe a set of experiments you could perform to determine f(a/W) for this specimen configuration.Solutions Manual 17 • Materials are usually not available in such large section thicknesses. but the quantity (B E' C) is dimensionless. . Even if a section of sufficient size could be produced. The stress intensity of this specimen configuration can be expressed as follows: P KI = _r. and inserting the result into the above expression. Hint: you may want to take advantage of the relationship between KI and energy release rate for linear elastic materials. W is width. and f(a/W) is a 2. and depends only on a/W. Solving for f(a/W) gives BE' de 2d(a/W) Thus f(a/W) for the geometry of interest can be inferred by measuring the elastic compliance as a function of crack length. These specimens have been fatigue precracked to various crack lengths. all of the same size and geometry.Jt == Bda. Note that the absolute compliance depends on specimen size and material properties. such that d. Ans: The stress intensity factor can be inferred measurements as follows: K2 E' from compliance = q p2 de == 2B da == assuming the specimen contains an edge crack. evaluating dC/d(a/W).

16».2)is given by for plane stress loading. (2. The incremental closure work done at a point is as follows: dfl = 2" 1 ·20 ulx) B dx Thus the decrease in potential energy due to the formation of the crack is given by 40 B -r J "a2 2 a n . " + [ sin (1t (a2W z*»)112 ~ sin 2W (~J~ U 2 Let us now perform a series expansion about z" = the left side of the denominator: a on the sin2 term on .. intensity subject to Ans: Substituting z* == z + a into Eq. (2. The crack opening displacement at a distance x from the center of the crack (assuming the coordinate system in Fig. Hint: solve for the work required to dose the crack faces. (" (a + z.22 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Derive the Griffith-Inglis result for the potential energy of a through crack in an infinite plate subject to a remote tensile stress (Eq.43) gives the crack opening displacement for this configuration.16).21). 2.no = - x2 dx ~ 1t 02 o a2 B E which agrees with Eq. Eq.23 Using the Westergaard stress function approach. derive the stress factor relationship for an infinite array of collinear cracks in a plate biaxial tension (Fig.18 2. (A2.) 2W _ [.39)and re-arranging gives o sin Z(z*) = . 2. 13. (A2.

That is.1 Repeat the derivation of Eqs. the displacement the tip is given by of the crack face a distance ry behind uy = 4(1-v2) E KI ~r 21t Substituting Eq.v2) E KJ KJ2 4 KI2 (1 . Substituting this result into the stress function and taking a limit leads to z· -+ 0 lim [Z(z*)] :::: Solving for stress intensity gives 2W --tan 1ta which agrees with Eq.. (1taJI~2 + sin 2 W .-J3 1t ays A CTOD test is performed on a three point bend specimen. (2..2 = 2uy :::: 8(1 . CHAPTER 3 3.(1ta) cos 2 W W (1taJ1tz* + . Figure 13.sin (1t(a+z*)J~2~ :::: sin 2 W U [. the displacements shown are the plastic components.63) into the above expression leads to o 3. (3.45).3 shows the deformed specimen after it has been unloaded.1) to (3. (2.Solutions Manual 19 2W [.3) for the plane strain case. . (1ta) -2W Ans: In plane strain.v2) ayS __ 4_£ E .

p. Vp and specimen dimensions. ... but that the plastic rotational factor. is unknown. - ._--------------------------_ . Derive an expression for fp in terms of .6.36) and (3. assuming the angle of rotation is small. (3. Ans: (a) By similar triangles. .a) Thus (b) Compare alternative equations for op: rp(W-a)Vp rp (W -a) + a = Ip (W .a) dp W Solving for rp leads to rp 3.37) (a11c) b aM G' = G' (M) b1 ]02 ' 2 = b2 (dOc) b aM . - .8p -a ) Fill in the missing steps between Eqs.3 = W-a 1 0:P W l.rp (W .p are measured en the same specimen. (b) Suppose that Vp andt. rp. ~ 2W Op/2 . 20 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (a) Derive an expression for plastic CIOD (op) in terms of 6p and specimen dimensions.

a a "I f• t where ~nc is the load line displacement of an uncracked beam and ~c is the additional load line displacement due to the crack. Which of these two displacement measurements is more appropriate for inferring the J integral? Explain.Solutions Manual 21 (aab ) M dnc Oc = -T aM 2M (d11cJ b = (:)b dM (assuming b is fixed) Substituting the last two expressions into Eg. b. J=~JMdOc o 3.4 Derive an expression for the J integral for a deeply notched three-point bend specimen.36) by replacing M with PS and Or with ~cS: ~= sf~J . (3. We use load line displacement to quantify J because work is defined as the the dot product of the force vector with the displacement vector.c + ~ . Let us modify the dimensional analysis of Eq. in terms of the area under the load-displacement curve and ligament length. loaded over a span 5.. (3.3 illustrates two displacement measurements on a bend specimen: the load line displacement (~) and the crack mouth opening displacement (V). the load line displacement represents the component of displacement in the loading direction. Figure 13.35) gives n. Ans: The energy absorbed by the specimen can be expressed as loading in three-point bending ~nc U= J p d~nc J P dD.

(~. that the energy release rate is the derivative of potential energy with respect to crack area rather than . where the notch depth is sufficient to confine plastic deformation to the ligament.3: J. 3.3). 13.22 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications The remainder of the derivation is similar to Problem 3.) dP (assuming b is fixed) We must obtain the above result because the two definitions based on M-Qc and P-dc. Ans: This derivation is very similar to the double edge notched tension case (pp. Recall. - J (aa~C)p o p dP (OL\c) p ob Thus = -"b cW b 2P (OL\c) b <lAo . however. Derive an expression for the J integral for an axisymmetrically notched bar in tension (Fig.5 of work. 133-135). are equivalent.

21t r dr.)l r2 r r r(~J iJp P J = -21t\J[~p.Solutions Manual 23 crack length. dYt = .21tr 1 J(~I ar)p dP o Assuming plastic deformation dimensional analysis gives IS confined to the ligament. Thus Eq.2PeJ~p)JIP o Llp = _1_1 3fPdAp 21t r2 _ P~p o 3. where r is the ligament radius.(!. For the present geometry. (3.29) must be modified accordingly: P .6 Derive an expression for the J integral in a deeply notched three-point bend specimen in terms of the area under the load-crack mouth opening displacement . ~p = Thus r~£J r ~J (ap h' = = h.

According to Fig. Assume n = 10 and the J-Q locus for this material is given by Fig. Ans: Based on a similar triangles construction: ~::: 2W . That is. Jcrit/Jo .a + rp b where b ::: (W . What do your results say about the validity of single-parameter fracture mechanics for this geometry? Ans: From Fig. Q = -0. Begin with the corresponding formula for the P-d curve (given below). 2W dAp = a + rp b dVp Thus Vp J = E' K2 + 4W 2 a b + rp b J o P dVp Ie 3.35. The corresponding Kcrit value is elevated by a factor of = 1.34. Llp J = F + b P d~p K2 2 J o for a specimen with unit thickness.3 and n ::: 10.275 for T 10"0 = -0. Thus the single-parameter assumption is dubious in this geometry. = 1 for this geometry.8 for this Q value. The biaxiality ratio. and assume rotation about a plastic hinge (Fig.39 with r = 1.000 MPa ::: 0. 3. . 13. 3. Estimate the elevation in toughness (fcritIJo) resulting from constraint loss.a).213 MJ/m2 A wide plate with a through thickness crack fails at 30% of yield.2).32) 207.24 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications curve.1 Vp a + rp b __ 2_W_V~p p . 3.1.7 = (220 MParm)2 (1 . the critical J value is elevated by 80% due to the loss in triaxiality in this geometry.0. -fli. /3. At a fixed crack length.39.

.32 in). = P (10.8 mm (2..62) 0.0254 rn "0.Solutions CHAPTER 4 4.500 £t/sec). 2t-r = 54 (0. The propagates 8. Unstable fracture initiates in a steel specimen and arrests after Ans: Distance traveled by the leading stress wave == 44mm.52 x 10-6 s) In order for a stress wave to interfere with the propagating crack.2(c). B = W 12. reflected stress waves did not influence crack propagation in this case. KId = 10. t't. q = 5940 m/sec (19.1 Manual 25 A high rate fracture toughness test is to be performed en a high with KId = 110 MPa (100 ksi . f(a/W) a/W = 0.62 x 10 s -4 From the polynomial relationship m Table 12.5. and span = 4W. Thus :=::. The total propagation time was 7. A three-point bend specimen will be used.. Also. Based on finite element analysis of the standard three-point bend specimen t-rC} IW 27..0 in).52 x 10initial ligament length in the specimen was 30.0 mm (0.ji. Vm strength steel Ans: The maximum loading rate at which the quasistatic formulae can be applied can be estimated by dividing the load at failure by twice the transition time. = (5940 m/s)(7.j. Therefore. a/W = 0..Aa = 52 mm.50.0508 m) 5940 m/s = 4.62 for = 100 MPa.2 the crack 6 sec. the wave must travel 2bo . Estimate the maximum loading rate at which the quasistatic formula for estimating KId is approximately valid.).0 mm (1.0508 m P = 53.500 it/sec) for steel. . Determine whether or not reflected stress waves influenced the propagating crack.18 in) and C1for steel = 5940 m/sec (19.8 kN Loading rate == P 12tt = 116 MN I s 4. with W::: 50.

0 m (78. <i C2 cr 5940m/sec 19.4 to 2.26 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 4. The elastic wave speeds for steel are given below.4 in).7 in) wide steel plate and rapidly propagates through the material.18)) for the driving force.V f) (v12 where KIA = 55 MPa ~ (50 ksi~) and V f= 1500 m/ sec (4920 ftl sec) Use the Ro e approximation (Eqs. The dynamic fracture toughness of the material is given by KIA KID = 1.500 ft/sec 10.17) and (4. The stress in the plate is fixed at 300 MPa (435 ksi). The crack speed at a given crack length corresponds to the intersection between the driving force and KID curves. Plot the crack speed versus crack size for crack lengths ranging from 10 to 60 nun (or 0. Figure S5 is a plot of the crack speed versus crack length. (4. .600 ft/ sec 9780 ft/sec 3220m/sec 2980m/sec Ans: Figure 54 compares dynamic toughness and driving force curves for various crack lengths.3 Fracture initiates at an edge crack in a 2.

__ . mm FIGURE 55 Computed crack speed versus crack length (Problem 4.Solutions 150 Manual 27 / ~D / ~--- /craCk / I Length: -. 1000 200 o 10 20 30 40 50 60 CRACK LENGTH.. 1500 Driving Force Curves o o 500 1000 CRACK SPEED.3). 40mm -20 mm ._ __"_ /.__ -.:-~~' __ ~'._ -10 mm -'--. _~ -. mls FIGURE 54 Comparison of dynamic toughness and driving force (Problem 4. -.. ~ --'._.__ /../_... .3) . 60 mm SO mm 30mm ". _ .

(3.0 1.0 x 10-6 1.and construct a log-log plot of crack velocity versus C.m/s 1. and crack velocity are tabulated below. a/W.79 3.0 for the material. The displacement rate is increased in steps as the test progresses.2..9 19.28 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 4.37 1..65 x 10-9 x to-8 x 10-8 x 10-7 x 10-7 x 10-6 • io. The creep exponent = 5.0 x 5. See Section 3..The specimen thickness and width are 25 mm and 50 mm..4 Derive an expression for C" in a double edge notched tension panel in terms of specimen dimensions.32): Ll Cit 1 . creep exponent. load line displacement rate.4 24.67 1.m/s 3. Ans: By analogy with Eq.0 20. • 2Bb 2J Pd~ o • PLl Assuming the viscous creep zone is confined to the ligament..71 3.0 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-5 5.49 1.8 14.60 0.54 0. and displacement rate.56 0.65 a ..5 A three-point bend specimen is tested in displacement control at an elevated temperature.58 0.s 13. where displacement rate is proportional to pn: For n • n+1PLl Thus C" . n-1 PLl • ~.. Compute C"'.5 for the corresponding J expression..52 0... load. respectively. kN a/W 0.0 x 10-5' 10-6 . power-law creep. + 12B b n 4.. The load.0 x 10-7 • Load.

11) on page 491. 4. 4. and specimen dimensions.39) gives the relationship between C*. load.Solutions Manual 29 Equation (4.. Assume that the load is related to the pseudo elastic displacement by a power law: P Consider a fracture toughness test en a nonlinear = M (t1e)N . 10. the pseudo elastic displacement physical displacement are related through a hereditary integral: In a linear Ile = and the IE dA} Simplify this expression for the case of a constant displacement rate. (~.8 0- • 10. w 10. Figure 54 is a log-log plot of crack velocity versus C*.10) and (8. - • • • • - >~ u U 10.6 viscoelastic material.7 viscoelastic material at a constant displacement rate.5 'I 1 'I 'I l >~ u ~ i- 10. W/m2 1000 10 4 105 FIGURE 56 Log-log plot of crack velocity as a function of CIt(Problem 4.0 for the three-point bend specimen. displacement rate. 11 '= 2.6 • - • -: 0 7 .9 10 100 C".5)... Ans: See Eqs.

[r dependence.75). Hint: begin with Eqs. Why is the curve nonlinear? Does the stress intensity factor characterize the crack tip conditions in this case? Explain. which states that the stress fields in a viscoelastic body are identical to the reference elastic state when the tractions at the boundaries are the same in both cases. The size of these particles can be controlled through thermal treatment.. Also.7).71). Discuss the anticipated effect of particle size CIl. the result from the previous problem may be useful. Despite the nonlinearity in the load displacement relationship.17) and (4. What is the relationship between J and KI for a linear viscoelastic material? Hint: refer to the second equation in the previous problem. Yielding is restricted to a very small region near the crack tip.14) to (8. Ans: See Eqs. Equation (4. and Kj uniquely characterizes the crack tip conditions. Derive an expression for q.1 A body-centered cubic (BCC) material contains second phase particles. Show that viscoelastic J integral and the conventional J integral are related as follows: Jv = J $(t) where <II is a function of time. the stresses near the crack tip still exhibit a 1/.(t).30 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications the where M and N are constants that do not vary with time.23) on pp. (4. (8. (3. Ans: The load-displacement curve is nonlinear in this case because the elastic modulus is time dependent. This follows from the correspondence principle in Eq. For a constant rate test. 4. assuming the volume fraction of the second phase remains constant. the material' 5 resistance to both cleavage fracture and microvoid coalescence. 492-494. the compliance of the specimen increases with time. .77) gives the relationship between Iv and KI.8 A fracture toughness test en a linear viscoelastic material results in a nonlinear load-displacement curve in a constant rate test. the conventional J integral is related to K as follows: J = where 4>(t)is a dimensionless function of time (see Problem 4. CHAPTERS 5.

i. (b) Microvoid coalescence The effect of particle size on toughness depends on whether fracture is controlled by void nucleation or void growth. 55.e.. However. -) In ( R. in which case void coalescence would be easier. If the voids grow according to Eq.5. voids must grow to a large size before coalescence is possible. SInce the local fracture stress IS proportional to l/~particle size (Eq. implying an increase in toughness with particle refinement. the nominal strain to failure would tend to increase with increasing particle spacing if fracture were controlled by void growth. (5.283 ex{ cre·) f o 1. with crvs replaced by (Je. refining the particles would also decrease the average particle spacing. Assume the triaxiality ratio remains constant during deformation of a given sample. (5.. The resistance to cleavage fracture would be enhanced by fine particles. When the microstructure contains a few coarse particles.5 am Eeq d"'q Ans: The results are plotted on Fig.18)) . Nucleation tends to be more difficult at smaller particles." ~ R 0. .11). plot the equivalent plastic strain (Eeq) at failure versus O'm/O'e for O'm/O'e ranging from 0 to 2.Solutions Manual 31 Ans: (a) Cleavage. 5.2 An aluminum alloy fails by microvoid coalescence when the average void size reaches ten times the initial value.

5 1 l.14 describes the stress distribution ahead of the macroscopic crack.32 10 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 8 L.000 MPa. where Yp = 14 J/m2. = feature for cleavage initiation in a steel sample is a carbide. 5.J 6 <: t£.I. ~ i' 4 2 o o 0. Repeat this calculation for the case where the critical particle is 0.. where 00 = 350 MPa. Assuming Fig. and v = 0.4 mm ahead of the crack tip.18»).3). failure occurs when this particle forms a that satisfies the Griffith criterion (Eq.67 urn diameter spherical microcrack E 207. !d:.30 for the material.3 The critical microstructural 6.l Q::. rn the crack plane.5 0" m 2 2. ..1 mm ahead of the crack tip. ~ . plastic strain at failure 5. (5.5 /0 e as a function of stress triaxiaJity FIGURE 57 Equivalent (Problem 5. estimate the critical J value of the sample if the particle is located 0.

and 5.0.0. 'Yp' is 14 J/m2 and the fracture energy required for propagation across grain boundaries.Q5 K0.95 . assuming Eq. 'Ygb is 50 J/m2.1).0 urn diameter spherical particles. <Xl the relative scatter? What is the physical Significance of 8K in this case? KO.7 k] 1m2 when r = 0.ID 5.0. (5.14. The fracture energy on a single grain.000 MPa)(14 x 10-6 MJ/m2) (1 .50.9 kJ/m2 when r = 0. Jc = 18. Compute the confidence band width for Ko/8K = 0.18) equal to Eq.1 mm Jc = 75.7 IJ.85.24) describes the toughness distribution. 05.50 .4 Cleavage initiates in a ferritic steel at 3.Ko.Solutions Manual 33 O'f = 1t (207. 5. According to Fig. Ko.0 J.1m = 10.4 mm 5.5 Compute the relative size of the 90% confidence band of KIC data (as in Example 5.67 x 10-6 m) = 1225 MPa at! ao Thus = 1225/350 = 3. What is the effect of the threshold toughness. 1. r ao/Je = 1. At what grain size does propagation across grain boundaries become the controlling step for cleavage fracture? f Ans: Setting Eq. 2.20) leads to Thus d 50 J/m2 = 14 J 1m2 3. (5.0.32)(6. (5.

6K 0 90% confidence band ratio 0.0012 0.288 0.0 5.Ko. What is the effect of the threshold toughness..0. 13. 6K is the 63rd percentile toughness when Ko = O.5 1.0426 0. 1.0.50 [In(O. KOI on the relative scatter? Ans: KO. - x.5 1.e.0 The relative scatter decreases with increasing KoleK. assuming Eq.439 0. the scatter) decreases markedly with increasing KoleK.26) describes the toughness distribution.142 0.OS)] 6K 1/4 - x.6 CHAPTER 6 .795 0. (5.9S . The size of the confidence band (i.6 Compute the relative size of the 90% confidence band of KIC data (as in Example 5.0 5.920 0.5.05 KO.34 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications The results are tabulated below.OS)] 1/4 _ [InCO.OS)] 1/4 Ko + [In(O. 2.0. The parameter 6K corresponds to the 63rd percentile K value for initiation of cleavage.1). 6K 0 90% confidence band ratio 0. Compute the confidence band width for Ko/eK = 0.0 2.0 2.3S2 0.595 0. 0.0 5.920 0. and 5.

' In a stress relaxation experiment with the Maxwell model.6) derive an expression for the relaxation modulus. Ans: It is convenient to divide the model into three elements: (1) Spring 1 (2) the Voigt element. the strain is fixed at Eo and the stress is given by Eq. 6.10). Ans.1 Manual 35 For the Maxwell spring and dashpot model (Fig. The relaxation modulus is defined as E(t) Thus a(t) E(t) = Eo exp -t/tR of the spring. (6.2 Fill in the missing steps in the derivation of Eq. consisting of Spring 2 and Dashpot (3) Dashpot 1. The strains in these three elements are additive: 2 For a constant stress creep test: £1 =E (Jo TIl The strains additive: in Spring 2 and Dashpot 2 are equal.Solutions 6.14). and the stresses are . (6. where Eo is the modulus 6.

Ans: From the Dugdale-Barenblatt strip yield model (Eq. Stress whitening is indicative of crazing. where the stress state is triaxial tension. calculate the crazing stress in this material.m. but crazing occurs at the tip of a crack. 6.39 MPa Thus '2(3. tensile specimens of polycarbonate show 60'>.5 When a macroscopic crack grows in a ceramic specimen. while thick compact specimens used in fracture toughness testing show stress whitening at the crack tip. lead to Eq. This material apparently exhibits shear yielding when stressed unaxially. (2.72)): o Oc = 2 Cos-1( a 1t a+p 1t J = -9. .059 in) long craze at each crack tip. a process zone 0.5 nun (0.3 At room temperature.36 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Solving for strain leads to The three strain components. If the applied stress is 3. (6. when added. Explain these observations.5 MPa (50B psi). mm 6.5 MPa) Oc (OS- lG.59 in) long through crack with a 1. Estimate the increase in toughness due to the release of strain energy by these microcracks. Polycarbonate is an amorphous glassy polymer at room temperature. Ans: Different stress states in the two specimens lead to different yielding mechanisms.14).0 elongation and no stress whitening. The surface energy of the material = 25J/m2. This process zone contains 10. Crazing involves void formation which requires hydrostatic tensile stress (See pp. 6. 372-374).2 rrm wide forms.4 A wide and thin specimen of p~ has a 15 mm (0.S0 mm) 9 .000 penny-shaped microcracks /mmf with an average radius of 10)J.

4 mm (1.545. 2h where 2h is the total width of the process zone.0 x 10-4 m) yc(total) = 31.5 MParm Validity checks: 82.0508 m = 82.8 nun (2.09 in) PQ = 42.0 in).5 ( .545. fl(jc = = 10 cracks] (10 m · mm 3 ( mm3 31. Calculate KQ and determine whether or not KQ = KIC B = 25.10-oJ .1 A fracture toughness test is perfonned on a compact specimen.Yc == [Volurne .4 J 1m2 + 2(25 J 1m2) == 81 J 1m2 CHAPTER 7 7.5 mm .09 < 1.0 in).0254 m) "0.5 MParmJ 759 MPa 2 (a) 2.4J/m2 4 9 3 ] [21t (10 x 10-6 m)2] (25 J/m2) (2. CfYS= 759 MPa (110 ksi) = 50.Solutions Manual 37 (. W kN (9.2a).45 and 0.3 Ans: For a/W == 0.7 mm X (b) (c) a/W = 0.55 -oJ Pmax/PQ = 1. Thus KQ = (0. = 0.4 mm and a = 27. Pmax = 46. Energy ~ t:.0423 MN) (11.7 mm (1. since B = 25.4 kip). which is between the limits of 0. f(a/W) = 11.52 kip).fails.0296 m = 29. a = 27.17) (0.3 kN (10.17 (Table 12.

0. Specify the following quantities: (a) specimen dimensions.50. KIC in Design an experiment to measure this material using a compact specimen.8 mm.0.(0.40.). a.0189 m ~ Use IT compact specimen with B = 25.1 kN If R= 0.18 8.50 f(a/W) 7.0254 m) ~0. W .45 0.a = 60 MParmJ2 2.:: 1. The toughness and 60 MPa Vm.2 You have been asked to perform a KIC test en a material with cryS = 690 MPa (100 ksi). ~ Assume machined notch with ao/W Nondimensional KI (Table 12. W = 50.52 (i) Initial Kmax can be 0. 7.8 KIC: 0.8(40MParm) = 32 MParm Pmax (7.18) .38 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications ..1.4 mm.Vm. Pmin = 2.40 0..6 KIC) .'. and (c) required load capacity of the test machine. 2 2 9.5·( 690 MPa = 0.51 kN. a/W ::. (b) Use lower KIC estimate to establish fatigue loads. of this material is expected to lie between 40 MPa . (b) precracking loads. KQ ::p KIC since all validity criteria are not met. (ii) Final precracking loads (Kmax :5. (1 ksi Vm . A ns: (a) Use upper estimate of KIC to establish specimen dimensions: B. precrack to a/W = 0.5.2a): = 0.10 MPa Vm.0508 m Pmax = 25. a/W 0.

.5 ( 807 MPa) KIC(max) = 64.44 kN the test: (O.3 A titanium alloy is supplied in 15.625 in) thick plate.Solutions Manual 39 0. 0. 7.4 Thus KIC ~2 MParm .9 nun (0.0159 m = 2..0508 m Pmax = 46... Ans: The size of the specimen is limited to the plate thickness.45 (minimum allowable allowable value) 66 MParm Pmax (8.52) --.6(40 MParm) = 24 MParm Pmax = Proax (9.. calculate the maximum valid KIC that can be measured in this material...0 kN Thus a test machine with a 50 kN load capacity should be adequate...0254 m) "0.0..4 kN Prom = (c) Assume worst case to determine Prnax during • KQ = 60 MParm (maximum expected value) • Prnax - 1..22) .0508 m = 14.0254m) "0....10 PQ (maximum allowable value) • a/W . If CJYS= 807 MPa (117 ksi).__._=== 1.(0..

52) (0.5..30 MN A 25. the highest temperature valid test can be performed is IDce.254 m) ".) .4 Recall Problem 2.1 curve is due to crack growth.= 2..4 mm (1 in) thick steel plate has material properties which are tabulated below. Suppose tha t a compact specimen of the appropriate dimensions has been fabricated.2a) PQ (9. Estimate the required load capacity of the test machine for such a test.20. where a material with KIC = 110 MFa (100 ksi {.S (KIcj O"YS Yield Strength. Compute the K-R curve from the load-displacement data tabulated below. f(a/W) 110 MPaVrn PQ _C = . Assume that all nonlinearity in the P-.0 mm and B = 5 mm (the sheet thickness).m 5.0 in) thick specimen for a valid KIC test.0 52. Determine the highest temperature at which it is possible to perform a valid Krc test. The specimen width (W) = 50.52 (Table 12.10 PQI Pmax = 2. -10 ac «: MPa~ 34 36 42 50 62 Bmin. Bmin=2.6 at which a A fracture toughness test is performed on a compact specimen fabricated from a 5 mm thick sheet aluminum alloy..00 6.4 mm thick.0 mm.= 9. The initial crack length is 26.6 25. Vrn Ans: Assume a/W = 0.000 MPa.0508 rn .6 100 289 -5 a 5 10 15 20 25 85 110 175 Since the plate IS 25. Young's modulus = 70.16 9.5 = 1.09MN If Pmax 7. (See Chapter 12 for the appropriate compliance and stress intensity relationships.26 14.) required a 254 nun (10.40 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 7. 7. MPa 760 725 690 655 620 586 550 515 Temperature.

087 1.Solutions Manual 41 Load Line Load.850 2.2(a).4113 0.4191 0.3971 0.457 1 MPa Ans: The procedure 1 kN :. (Note the error in the forth term.3392 25.1270 0.652 2.4355 0.3698 0.2552 0.699 0 0. 224.0635 0.3860 0.161 2. as discussed above.4443 0 0.553 2.4.5433 1. Figure 58 shows the resulting state value. kN Displacement.4274 0.749 2.145 ksi for determining each point on the R curve is as follows: in Table from the (a) Compute the crack length from the compliance expression 12. R curve.630 2.3096 0.361 2.. rrm 0.8 lb = 0.2817 0.4 Il1Il1 = 1 in 2. Note that KR reaches a steady- .903 2.851 2. IlTI\ Displacement.1906 0.) (b) Compute polynomial KR (for the load and crack length of interest) expression in Table 12.913 2.541 2. kN Load Line Load.

B = 25 rnm.30 0.40 0. mm FIGURE 58 Crack growth resistance curve inferred from the load-displacement Problem 7. Jrc A number of fracture toughness specimens have been loaded to various points and avs = 350 !vIPa. if possible. IIn1 Specimen 1 2 3 4 J.60 1.7 then unloaded. Crack Extension.71 in-lb/in2 . data in 7.80 1.5 4 CRACK EXTENSION. bo = 22 mm.145 ksi 5 6 25.6. Values of J and crack growth were measured in each specimen and are tabulated below. 1":1: E 20 ::( c2 15 10 5 0 0 0.4 mm 0.5 1 1.42 35 30 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 25 =» ~i ~. <TfS = 450 Mra.5 2 2.5 3 3. Plot the R curve for this material and determine JQ and.kJ/m2 100 175 185 225 250 300 1 MPa = 0.20 1.70 = 1 in 1 kJ/m2 = 5.

JQ Validity checks: (a) = 165 kJ/m2. where a material with KIC 110 MPa (100 ksi~) and O)'S = 345 MFa (50 ksi) required a specimen 254 mm (10 in) thick for a valid KIC Vm test. From the above graph. .20.10. v = 0.::: 0. errs = 483 MPa (70 ksi).5 1.8 J values) "'-l = 165 k/m2 = Recall Problem 2.0. N 300 250 200 ~ ~ .6. Estimate the thickness required for a valid Jrc test on this material. mm 1 2 FIGURE S9 J-R curve for Problem 7. 2 (b) Jmax- _ 0.::: JIC 7.3. Z 150 100 50 0 0 0.Solutions 400 350 Manual 43 f-! ~..022 m (400 MPa) 15 ... JQ.0103 m .000 MPa (30.3 mm < bo. B ~ _ . _I 25 (0.587 MJ/m (> all measured .J" o ~ -.5 CRACK EXTENSION. E:= 207.165 MJ 1m2) 400 MPa .000 ksi).

020 0.0 mm.025 0. (a) Compute and plot the (b) Determine J resistance curve according to ASTM E 1152-87.3 O'yS = 345 MPa (50 ksi).17 4.0532 MJ/m2 cry = - 414 MPa B. An unloading compliance test has been performed en a 3-point bend specimen.21 mm K]C which is smaller than the 7.6 30.67 5.6 49. ors = 483 MPa (70 ksi) LOAD.0032 0.kN 54.74 2.0 to ASlM E 813-87.6 56.7 47.183 0.20 8.4 40.091 0.54 15.4 41.6 53.020 0.071 0. W nun.128 0.349 0.777 1.044 0.7 52.63 2.44 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Ans: JIC = (110 MPaVrn)2 (1 .7 56. E = 210.3 56.5 Plastic Displacement.70 8.023 0.43 10.9 requirement by a factor of 79. The data obtained at each unloading point is tabulated below.036 0.2 35.0532 MJ 1m2) 414 MPa = 3.29 .37 13.96 4.146 0.321 0.228 0. v = 0.525 0.723 0.66 3.0 36.1 mm. ao = 26.32 2. JIe according = 50.08 2.056 0.013 0.8 55.8 31.5 55.51 5.9 26.13 6.48 3.4 37.1 44. b = 25 (0.092 0.928 1.v2) 414 MPa 345 MPa + 483 MPa 2 = 0.81 6.13 1.6 43.5 50.011 0. B = 25.23 9.031 0.19 rmn 0.000 MPa.9 51.41 1. rmn Crack Extension. 0 0.09 11.055 0.7 53.7 45.25 3.8 20.

. k / .... m 2 Figure 511 shows the E 813 construction lines on the R curve. . Also.10 (23.. o o o 495 kJ 1m2 ~amax = 2. 500 o o Jmax= . . (b) Jrnax = 0.... there are insufficient data within the construction lines to perform a regression analysis.. together with the validity limits.. o o o o o o :i' ~. ... 6amax 0.2 --' 495 J m Figure SID shows the J-R curve. It is not possible to obtain a valid JIC value from this test.R CURVE 2000 N -. kJ/. JQ ~ 500 k] 1m2.9 mm) ~ 2.87J . E . which exceeds the size limits.1'1500 o - ~ 1000 -.39 m ttl 4 6 8 o o 2 10 CRACK EXTENSION.Solutions Manual 45 Ans: (a) J-R curve according to ASTM E 1152. mm FIGURE 510 J-R curve plotted according to ASTM E 1152 (Problem 7. 2500 ASTM E 1152.8).0239 m (414 MPa) 15 == 657.39 mm = _ 0.0239 m (414 MPa) Imax 20 _ .

2(400 MPa) (207..14) _C Kr (0. v = 0. was 12.53 kip). Examination of the fracture surface revealed that the specimen failed by cleavage with no prior stable crack growth. or om). Be sure to use the appropriate notation (i.3 mm Oc = 0.6 kN (5.5 ::::61.5 2 2.4 mm .0413 in).32) Oe .3 nun (0.12. Peri tical ksi).484 f(a/W) = 10.0254 m)l. OYS = 400 = 24.000 MPa) = 2.44 (25.0 in). :1'' '" Jmn 600 = 657 kl/mz ~ ~ c 400 J = 1>0 ayl25 0 = 396 kJ/m2 0.8 A CTOD test was performed CI1 a three point bend specimen with B W = 25.12.9 J.§ :i' .Ou.05 mm - .. E = 207.351 mm "'P - x.000 MPa (58.484 in).330 mm 0.2 mm offset line 200 o 0. Ans: a/W = 0.5 1 1.6 MParm)2 (1 .5 3 CRACK EXTENSION. The crack depth.3.000 MFa (30.R curve in Problem 7. Vp = = 1.3 mrn) 1. a.14 0.4 mm .05 mm (0.44(25. mm FIGURE 511 ASTM E 813 construction lines on the 7.. OJ. _ 0.. eSc. Compute the critical CTOD in this test.e..46 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 1000 ASTM E 813·87 J·R CURVE 800 0 0 .4 nun (1.3 mm) + 12.6 MPavrn (61.0.0246MN (10..09 X 10-5 m 0.0 ksi).

15 W " 62.J133 "0.150 Ka - 207.63 f(x) = 0.206 Ko - 207.82 x 10-4 m) (0.62.0 mm (2.aa = 38 mm > 0.9 x + x2) "1 9. The corrected clip gage displacements at initiation and arrest are Vo = 0.0MPaVrn Validity checks (Eq.6MPaVrn Arrest: a/W = 0.206).47 x 10-4 m) (0.0229 in) and Va = 0. The side-grooved compact crack arrest specimen has the following dimensions: W = lOOmm (3.Solutions Manual 47 7. B = 25.000 ksi) and oYS(static) = 483 MPa (70 ksi).25 ( 483 + 205 MPa (b) )2 = 10.0 in). Calculate the stress intensity at initiation.4 mm (1.547 (0.J133 .582 mn (0.1 mm (0.0.150) .000 MPa (5.81 in) and the crack length at arrest = 63. where x = a/W -x f(x) = 2.0 MPaVrn 1.0. E = 207.48 in)..aa -v _I .24 (1.10 A crack arrest test has been performed in accordance with ASTM E 1221.100 m .75 in).25)): (a) W . Ko.100 m . (7.90.46 f(x) = 0.72 .000 MPa (5. and the arrest toughness.0 mm (1. Determine whether or not this test satisfies the validity criteria in Eq. The initial crack length = 46.000 MPa (30.17 x + 11 x2 Ans: Initiation: a/W = 0. respectively.85 . and BN = 19.94 in).0. (7. The stress intensity solution for the compact crack arrest specimen is given below.0215 in). Ka.25).15 mm < W .

3 mm a/W:. (5 MPaVrn Bntin.70 ksi).8 mm.0.1PQ and a/W f(a/W)= 8. MPaVrn 0 1. = 5. Ans: 0.5 with B = 25.2.22(Table 12. amin = 2. 0.0483 + 20S·MPa .4mm. ao _ 1 " :. W = 50.48 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (c) (d) ..0. 2 = 2.25 ksi).. (62..::(8=.0159 m ..5 MPaVrn = 0.9 mm (0.45: To estimate load capacity.0 MPaVrn· CHAPTERS 8.1 A 25.83 kN 8.0254 m ".5 ksi {b~) Design an experiment to measure KIC of a compact specimen machined from this material.2 A 15.Use a IT compact specimen J2 = 17. 62.4 mm (1. The anticipated fracture toughness (KIC) of this material is 5 MPa (4.62 mm < aa .625 in) thick plastic plate has a yield strength of 50 MPa (7. = KIa = 62.::: 0. .12 mm < B _I 'J 2._ Ans: .2=2)=.5 ( SOMPa KIC )2 .0 in) thick plate of PVC has a yield strength of 60lVIPa (8. K. y.0508 m P max = 3.ax_-. _P_m_. W.2a) = __. 2rc paVrn) 483MPa M.. Determine the appropriate specimen dimensions (8... ( )2 = 8. assume Pmax = 1. a) and estimate the required load capacity of the test machine.5 60 MPa . Determine the largest valid KIC value that can be measured on this material.

417 + 0.417 [0.955 t = 118 - - s Thus when the duration of the test is 2 min or greater (with this material).: 3.e..417 + 0.0037 tD. i.. estimate the test duration (i. where ~e is the pseudo elastic displacement.35] -1 = 0. - = E(t) _ 0. we shall make the following approximation: E(t) ::.35] -1 relaxation where E is in GPa and t is in seconds.0037 to. Since the time average modulus does not have a closed form solution. the observed nonlinearity in the load-displacement curve is .Solutions Manual KIC . (8.99 MPaVrn 49 8.5% deviation in linearity. From Egs. Ans: The viscoelasticity results in a 4..10) and (8.11). the time to reach PQ) at which 90% of the nonlinearity in the load-displacement curve at PQ is due to viscoelastic effects.955 ER where E(t) is the time average modulus and ER (in this case) is the modulus at t = O. Asswning PQ is determined from a 5% secant construction. which equals ~ at short times. E(t) which implies 0.3 A KIC test is to be performed C1l a polymer with a time-dependent modulus which has been fit to the following equation: E(t) = [0. Does the 5% secant load give an appropriate indication of material toughness in this case? Explain.e.

repeat the calculations with this correction to assess its effect on the computed failure times.(~J. (As a first approximation. For an optional exercise. in a constant displacement rate test en a viscoelastic material for which Eqs.1 kPa 1 in = 25. Jt da ER N+ 1 N Comparing the above result with Eq (8.) Vm Vm. The crack velocity in this material is given by where K is in kPa and ~ is in mm/sec (1 psi {.d (aM] /). The 5% secant load has no relevance to fracture in such cases.10) and (8. It. Conunent m the sensitivity of the time to failure on the applied stress. 8. .4 mm) Calculate the time to failure in this plate asswning remote tensile stresses of 5 MPa and 10 MPa (1 ksi = 6.50 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications due primarily to viscoelastic effects rather than yielding or crack growth. (8.5 A 500 mm wide plastic plate contains a through-thickness center crack that is initially 50 mm long.15) describe the load-displacement behavior. N1 + Jt is given by -. N Since only M depends on crack length.15)) at a fixed dN+1 t = constant = MN + 1 (E(t)] E R.897 MPa).4 Derive a relationship between the conventional J integral and the isochronous J integral. (8. = 1. neglect the finite width correction en K. Ans: Integrating the load-displacement time gives relationship (Eq.20) leads to where Jt = J f(t) 8.

091 x 10 _----0'10 46 where 0' is in kPa. 8.9 years For 0' = 10. t = 2. crack growth rate should be expressed in terms of m/s: da dt = 10-43 KID By neglecting the finite width correction on K.0 in). h = 2. a 25. E = 124.14 For o x 109 s = 67.6 A composite double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen is loaded to 445 N (100 lb) at which time crack growth begins.54 mm (0. B= .000 kPa. == 5000 kPa. = 76. the effect on estimated life is negligible because the overwhelming majority of the life is consumed when the the crack is small compared to the width.4 mm (1. t = 2.2 mm (3. When the finite width correction is incorporated.0 in). a closed-form expression for life can be obtained: W t= 10-43 1 I KID da W 10-430'101[5 1 fa-s da ao 2.Solutions Manual 51 In order to avoid problems with units.10 in).000 ksi).000 MPa (18.09 x 106 s = 24.2 days Thus the life is highly sensitive to stress. Calculate @e for this material assuming linear beam theory.

and f(a/W) is defined in Table 12.25 to 0.3 and Zm = Cm BE'. For shallow cracks. results in the equation in the problem statement.2. as Fig.5 and a/W = 0.5 kJ/m2 One of the problems with testing brittle materials is that crack growth tends to be unstable in conventional test specimens and test machines.52 Ans: From Example 2.75.4 illustrates. this specimen exhibits a rising . Figure 512 is a plot of nondimensional KI versus a/W for a range of machine compliances. when substituted into the standard KJ expression for test specimens (Table 12. for example.JW ~t E' f(a/W) .2.. Develop a family of these curves for a range of machine compliance. The influence of the test machine can be represented by a spring in series. This expression can be made dimensionless: ~t (C + em) P KJ. C is the specimen compliance. Cm is the machine compliance. Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications YIc 8. Show that the stress intensity factor for this spec~ imen can be expressed as a function of crosshead displacement and compliance as follows: tit f(a/W) KI=-----(C + Cm) B.) What is the effect of machine compliance on the relative stability of the specimen? At what machine compliance would a growing crack experience a relatively constant KI between a/W = 0..00254 m)3 (124 x 109 Pa) 10.z(a/W) + Zm where z(a/W) is defined in Table 12.0762 m)2 (0. (You will have to express em in an appropriate nondirnensional form.0254 m)2 (0.jW where At is the crosshead displacement. 13.2). Consider. Construct a nondimensional plot of KI versus crack size for a fixed crosshead displacement and a/W ranging from 0. a single edge notched bend (SENB) specimen loaded in three point bending.6? Ans: .7 12 (445 N)2 (0.1t or p= C+Cm which.

1 Develop a computer program or spreadsheet macro to calculate stress intensity factors for semielliptical surface flaws in flat plates subject to linear stress distributions (Table 12. CHAPTER 9 9.2 0.8 1 a/W FIGURE 512 Nondimensional stress intensity factors for a three-point bend specimen in crosshead control as a function of aIW and machine compliance (Problem 8.0. where ttl = 90° and c «w. the driving force is reasonably constant in the range 0. Ans: Figures 513 and 514 are plots of F and H. 0.0. and 1.4 ::.22).004.7).8. When Zm = 10.Solutions Manual 53 driving force curve irrespective of the system compliance. Plot a family of curves for F and H as a function of alt for ale = 0.2.0.0.6 0. respectively.a/W < 0.4 0.15 0.6.050 o 0. .10 0.6.

q.8 ale: 0 F 1.6 ale: 0.2 0.54 Fracture 2 Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 1./ / / I 0.4 0.8 1. = 90° and c« alt 0.6 0.2 0. .2 0.6 O.4 FIGURE S14.4 o 0.6 1.6 1.4 / / .1).0 1 o 0. Bending multiplier for a surface flaw.8 1 W (Problem 9. H O.S 0.S 1 aIt FIGURE S13 Surface flaw correction factor for 1 <f> = 90° and c « W (Problem 9.1).2 o o 0.

672 G2 = 0.20.31.7 MPaVrn (b) Table 12. Upon start-up.3 A nuclear reactor pressure vessel operates at an internal pressure of 17.00 F = 1. The parameter S in Tables S=a/2c aft ERRATA 12. As a worst. the temperature and pressure must be increased in tandem in order to avoid brittle fracture. Ri = 2. Ri = 1.00 m: t/R] = 0.4 Nfl'aVrn 9.6 nun (8. (9. and tha t the fracture toughness is given by the KIR curve (Eq.50. alc = 0. (b) As the reactor operates over a period of several . has an RTNDT of 100°C (212°P).2 MPa (2500 psi). assume the vessel contains an internal axial surface flaw with aft = 0. 1. Estimate the RTNDT at which it is no longer safe to start up the reactor. Ans: (a) Eq.::.16 m (85.34 Go = 1. t :. aft = 0. and the RTNDT increases with time.17b». the steel becomes embrittled due to radiation damage. the full design pressure is not applied when the reactor is cold.Solutions 9.25 KJ = 51. 9. = 90°) of an axial p= 17. rangmg from ambient to the design temperature.0 in).2 MPa (2500 psi) and a temperature of 200°C (392°P).10) and Table 12.25 and a/e = 0.323 Inserting these results into Eq. Consequently. and thus is relatively brittle at room temperature. The steel in this pressure vessel.2 Manual 55 Calculate the stress intensity factor at the deepest point ($ flaw in a pressure vessel using both Eq. case.523 G3 = 0.441 Q = 1.50 in) 2 years.31 ~ ::::. Assume linear elastic conditions. (9.10. (a) Determine the maximum allowable pressure-temperature curve. This error has been corrected in the second printing of the second edition.10) gives KI = 45. 1.31 should be defined as 2c =7'" The solution below is based en the corrected equation. The vessel dimensions are given below. (9.072 Gl = 0.30 and 12.10 and Table 12.40.

7 ksi). DC FIGURE 515. Figure 515 shows the resulting pressure-temperature limit for RINDT = lOOoe. I .. . .. .. I 6 160 200 TEMPERATURE.l .56 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (c) The pressure vessel is made from A 533 Grade B steel... . 18 .2 MPa pressure if the RINDT> 149°C. .Pa (66.. _-" 40 80 . . . _... .J.. Thus the linear elastic assumption appears to be valid in this case.. 9. S15. ~ . (c) The maximum hoop stress at the design pressure = 181 MPa. which corresponds to 39% of yield. The curve is truncated when the allowable pressure reaches the design pressure.. which has a yield strength of 460 M..... I (b) A limiting condition arises when the design pressure exceeds the At the design pressure.66 P where p is the pressure in MPa and Kr is in MPaVrn.. Thus the structure cannot be operated at 200°C and 17.2MPaVrn which corresponds to T .l I. Was the assumption of linear elastic conditions acceptable in this case? Ans: (a) Based on the Kj solution in Table 12..3 ... . .. . . .I < 10 < . allowable pressure at the service temperature. -120 .....31: Kr == 4.. Pressure-temperature curves for the vessel in Prob...RINDT = + 51°C on the KIR curve.. II) ~ ~ ~ ~ l'1li 16 14 12 RTNDT = 100°C -----RTNDT'" 149°C tI'I IoIol Q. The pressure temperature limit for RTNDT = 149°C is shown on Fig.l 0 8 ~ = ...... . The pressuretemperature limits can then be inferred by setting Kr = KIR and solving for pressure over a range of temperatures. Kr = 80. . .. .

002) (10 mm) 0. Is this structure safe.00362 .22 and flaw sizes.00193) 0. Estimate the critical flaw size for failure. E = 207. (9.25 it a 9.75 crvS. <J'TS = 448 MPa (65 ksi).OOO MPa = 0. with Pm = 200 MPa and Ph = 150 MPa. 9.23 mrn ey = 400 MPa/207.000 MPa (30. Oerit = 0.000 ksi).002 = 1. . Strain gages indicate an applied normal strain of 0.19 . according to the CTOD design curve.18) and (9.15 rom. (9. The structure is made of a steel with t:y = 0.15 mm 21t (0.3.4 in) wide which contains loaded in uniaxial tension to 0.4 Manual 57 A structure contains a through-thickness crack 20 mm long.OOO MPa = 0.0 m (39.0042 0.6 = 11.Solutions 9.19)).) (See Tables ays = 345 MPa KIC = 110 MPa Vrn (100 ksi Vrn) (50 ksi).85 This structure is unsafe.00362 0. The structure is in the as-welded condition.0. Assuming plot Kr and Sr values <Xl = surface flaw is constant 0. E = 207.5 A welded structure is loaded in combined bending and tension. r according to the 1980 version of the PD 6493 ovs = 400 MPa. the precise residual stress distribution in the weldment is unknown.0020 and Ocrit = 0. Determine the maximum allowable flaw size.023 mm 21t (0.0042 when the structure is loaded to its design limit. = a strip yield failure diagram for various 12.00193 . 12.00193 ei = (200 MPa + 150 MPa + 400 MPa)/207.25 = 1.28 for K] and limit load solutions.7mm a semi-elliptical the ratio a/2e assessment A flat plate 1.18b): 0.000 MFa.0. a approach (Eqs.0. according to the CTOD design curve? Ans: Apply Eq.

. together with a locus of points that correspond to the stress plate of interest.t::::1:::::1:::::I:::::f::::i::::!::::l::::: ::::t::::l::::!:"'r::::.~ .65 P .'...•.000 ksi) (a) Plot the applied J versus internal pressure. . which occurs at a = 29.25... ~. -.~--- 0.. .-.31): KJ = 2.~.--~---..~.r···· .".. ..~ ...:::~:··:f.r--. . .·-t·... ..~ -~...... ·t·. .--. The material flow properties have been fit to a Ramberg-Osgood equation: 0'0 .. determine the pressure (b) If lIe for this material is 300 kJ/m2 (1..' ..10 m (43.-...72 = E == 207.---. ·:···+···~····!··· ..::::~::::I:-:·i:···~::···j::::·~:::· . -~-..-~-..7 A pipe with 1.! .... ~..~ ".• ...394 in) deep..:: 450 MPa (65......:---.:••:ii~Ii.:. ---:~ '~-----~---_.~ : .~..3 in) outside diameter and 50 mm (1.2 Sr FIGURE S14 Failure assessment diagram for Problem 9..8 .. ··'1--.7 mm.. ..~ --.6 0...• T ••.~-..: : : : :.... -.. t-···~ . ~. ex 1.2 0.000 MPa (30. ..97 in) thick wall contains a long internal axial flaw 10 mm (0.l.U. j ..~_.: .j···-+···+····~..: . --: "'.. . .... .": -~.. required to initiate ductile crack growth..... Eo._ ..---~--...-~-:-'....71 in-kip/in2)... -'-...~ .~. ----~-. K r 1 . .---~ ----~ .6 --1..2 . ·t -r-----~---' ~..... .:.'1. Failure is predicted where the two curves cross. ---!.-r ----T 0.l~[:fJ!~lT~Il~!j~r~·l..~-----..~---. .--.8 1.... ~-~.:: oo/E.of u..) .~ T' .7"'-~" _.4 0... '.~.:~::::l:::: o 0.: . ••• L ::l:::::!:::::f:::J::::f::::l:::::i:::::r::::[::::f::::i·:::l..:::::!:::::: :J::.3 ksi). ... 9. .J ._ -. (Disregard the Irwin plastic zone correction for all calculations.. ~T-..) Ans: (a) Elastic term (Table 12.. - ·..---~ -. .--'1"' ..l:::... :::~:rliii:l~j::!::::fi::i:I:::-:I:-I::::i::"~r:I::i::::i::::i':rr:i:I:: o ::::J:::::I·::::I:: .:-::l:::: o •• .··t···+· STRUCrURE ~--·-·i··. .~ :.. '.. n = 9..6. .~ ..---~ ---.58 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications Ans: Figure 516 is a plot of the strip yield failure assessment diagram..~... ........•... 1. ~--..

517.04) 40.2 MPa for Ire = 300 kJ/rn2. Jel = 3. .01 m) ( P ) 10.04 (2-D linear interpolation) Po = 40.75 MPa = 4. hj = 8.099 x 10-2 p2 where Jel is in kJ 1m2 and p is in MPa. (b) Perit = 45.309 x 10-16 pIO.75 MPa Jpl = 0.00217) (450.25 (0.000 kPa) 0.04 rn (0.05 m (8.72 where Jel is in kJ 1m2 and p is in MPa. Plastic term: From Table 12.099 x 10-2 p2 + 4.Solutions Manual 59 where p is in MPa and KI is in MPaVrn.72 The above equation is plotted in Fig.309 x 10-16 p10.72 1. Jtot = 3.39.

_ . .--. 20 30 40 50 PRESSURE.Lt_:::t:ir:" +: -~_ 1 :t::::::t:::: 100 h!::t:j:l:j:}j::':::..• :...-!---. --.. . -. both with and without the Irwin plastic (b) Calculate the load line displacement over a 5 m gage length.•••..IJI'lt : ----:.. _. ~. :::::t::::t::::r::::r::::[::::::[:::::.~ •••.6 + 1. ~- If!'tLjiri:LT:fitFj.j- .::::::t:::::I::::t::::t::::::[::::::t:::::L:''. _ .~.' •••• .:. ::·.• L:.• ~: i: t: .... ~ ~.... (a) Calculate the applied zone correction.--_! .--.:.8 k] 1m2 Plastic zone correction: m Jel(aeff) == 128..7)..•. -----~:' ~ ..:: .. •.486 x 10-8 (5 MN)l1 = 114._ ~~ ~. (c) Calculate the load line displacement over a 50 mm gage length.. L:j --.214 = 115.-... .:::::1::j:"f::-:::r:::r::jh o J versus 10 o .-.: i: •••••• ~---~..•• ~ •••..-..60 500 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 400 :::r::rji!IJii::t!!frrr:i{:.r:rt'i L[TfIL!I~t'I:L]I:.....----~ 'f ~ :_:.~ •• ~ ••• ~ ~ •••••• ~ •••••• : •••• . MPa FIGURE 517 9.-....2 kJ/m2 (110/0difference) aeff = 0...~. __ .-.S internal pressure in an axially flawed cylinder (Problem 9. •• -..._~__ : .'----..584 (5 MN)2 + 2.--~-~.L_ . :.~ _. Ans: (a) Without the plastic zone correction: J = 4. :.: ~•••..... ~ .::::::r:::t:::::L::::[:::::L:::.:~••.• ~' ••.~ --.:. .. --i--_' .3 is subject to a 5 MN tensile load.2 and 9..-•• L • L j --~ ..~.~ . .:Ll:l:"LII:! .--~ ..--:-. ~..-----. --~ ~. .1 kJ 1m2 Jtot == 129.:: 200 _.._. :~. ~. _.~•• ~•••• -: ••• . J integral.::::::.• . Suppose the edge cracked plate in Examples 9. ---.~. ••••• ..~ .136 .------~-.

estimate the following: (a) dJ / da for fixed load (5 MN) (b) dJ/da for fixed displacement mm.98) ( 8.0 rn) (207.3 contain both the crack and no-crack components.9 For the plate in the previous problem.:4.3) X = 6.:1.0.11 x 10-5 m Total displacement: L = 0.05 m: ~tot ::: 0.40 X 10-3 m ZLL(c)(a/W) Llc(el) = 0.12Sm) (5.: .123 mm L= 5 m: ~tot :::.1nc(pl) is negligible. Assuming v = 0.48 x 10-3 m 9. The elastic compliance solutions in Table 12.8.82 10-5 m From Table 12.: .3/ the elastic displacements are given by ~nc(el) 5 MN (1 .32) L 4 = (l.05 m: ~nc(el) :::.00217) (O.000 MPa) (0.1tot = ~c(el) + ..L 7 L= 0. 9 x 10.98. 5 ~c(pl) = 1.) at 5 m gage length. h3 :::.Solutions Manual 61 (b) & (c) The plastic zone correction is ignored in this case .025 m) .25 (0.) (P =' .42 MN 5 MN )10 :::.1nc(el) + ~c(pl) + ~nc(pl) In this problem/ .13.:: 4. mm. (P = 5 MN when a = 225 5 'MN when a = 225 (c) dJ/da for fixed displacement at 50 nun gage length.07045 (Table 12.40 x 10-5 m 4 L = 5 m: ~nc(el) .

62 Ans: Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications For the sake of simplicity..69 x 10-5 m (elastic + plastic) (d~J da p ------~~~--------2Jel + 11Jpl p - 8.0 kJ/m2 (no plastic zone correction) (b) & (c) Fixed remote displacement.406 MPa (L = 50 mm) (:t = + 1.49) gives the general expression for dJ/da. A forward difference scheme was used to evaluate the other two derivatives.155 MPa (L = 5 rnrn) T . For a = 130 mm..93 x 10-5 m = 1. a + em - .005 m = 4. and the resulting changes in J and L1 were evaluated. ~c = ~ 8.0. _ ~c(el) + ~nc(el) p + 10~c(pl) :. we will neglect the Irwin plastic zone correction. for load control.514 x 10-3 0.69 x 10-5 m .7.: 4. Equation (9. (a) Fixed load. For a = 130 mm. the crack was advanced by 5 mm.L1J .. the second term vanishes.85 x 10-2 m-I ( dP . Jtot == 122.474 x 10-5 m/MN = 9. d. (9.49) can be evaluated directly.159 X (L = 50 mm) 10-4 m/MN (L == 5 m) (1!) l\ T = . Two of the four derivatives in Eq.

13. How do the Ip values estimated from the EPR! Handbook compare with the assumed value of 0. 0.500.33) solve for rp in tenus of oz.511 . 0.250.500 rp n = 10 0.a.~) 3 W Computed rp values are tabulated below.452 0.Solutions Manual 63 Thus the plate exhibits a falling driving force curve when the gage length is short. 9. Beginning with Egs (9.306 0.5.250 0. Note that the slope of the driving force for the long gage length (L = 5 m) is nearly as large as the load control case (L = 00). and 0. Assume plane strain for all calculations.418 0.750 0.2).500 0.33) with the above expression yields rp = 1 1 . a W n=3 0.419 0. Use the resulting expression to compute rp for n = 10 and a/W = 0.a/w (hh2 . 0. These values agree reasonably well with the value in ASTM E 1290 when a/W .44 in ASTh1 E 1290-89? = Ans: Combining Eqs.32) and (9.625 0.625. the deformation can be described by a simple hinge model (Fig.423 0. Repeat for n 3 and the same a/W values.32) and (9. (9.375 0.10 When a single edge notched bend specimen is loaded in the fully plastic range. h31 and specimen dimensions. assuming a small angle of rotation.432 0. The plastic rotational factor can be estimated from load line displacement and crack mouth opening displacement as follows: 1 ~ Vp ) rp = W _ a ~ ~p .0.750.450 0.375. and a rising driving force curve for long gage lengths.467 0.

14 correction factors for the surface flaw (Eq.. (oYS + 0'1'5)/2 = 545 MPa and Pb.4 ..:::0.0. 53 7 Q = 1 + 1.64 9.Trn » 0. E:. Ccrit:.. the residual stress distribution is unknown. assume that a residual stress of 480 MPa (:.000 MPa.28 Stress intensity factor calculations: .64) and a/2c = 0. The limit load solution for this configuration is given For af1ow:.69): OR = (1.:::.0. 5 _ 260MPa r- 466MPa . O'YS) acts uniformly through the cross section. Perform a PD = 6493 Level 2 assessment acceptable.2 F = 1. (9.1.11 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications A welded panelS rn wide and 50 mm thick contains a semielliptical surface crack (in the weld metal) with a 10 nun and 2c :.558) 480 MPa = 404MPa Sb == O.0. The material CI1 the weld flaw to determine properties are as follows: whether or not it is O):'S::: 480 rviPa. Thus Sm = 404 MPa and Stress intensity Table 12.231.22): a/t .558 to account for mechanical The residual stress can now be adjusted stress relief (Eq. The primary membrane 54 stress is 260 MPa and the primary bending stress is 60 MPa. (9. OTS:.65 . P m(L) = 466 MPa Thus In Table 12.::: 10 MPa.185 H = 0.:. The panel is in the as-welded condition..15 rom 6 Ans: Since the residual stresses are not known and the structure is in the aswelded condition .::: mm.28.464 27 10) ( 1.:::207.:::.

150 mm = 0.28 = 1720 MPa ~rnm KIS = 1.083 + 0.000) = 0.160 mm Plasticity correction factor (Eq. .753)(60 MPa)] 11: (10 mm) 1.68»: p Thus the CTOD ratio is given by 0.12 The point (0. Since the point falls outside of the FAD.558. 518.Solutions Manual 65 KIP = 1. 1.14 (404 MPa) 1t (10 mm) 1. (9. the structure is considered unsafe.28 = 2280 MPa ~mm Applied CTOD: (1720 + 2280)2 01 = (480)(208.083 = 1.14 [260 MPa + (0.160 mm 0.12) is plotted on the failure assessment diagram in Fig.

! :: :: j . : :: :' :: _~~~ l· ::.11 and 9.••••• :-- j f. Ans: Sm = crYS/3 = 160 MPa Sb = 0 (Problem 9. ••••••••••••• '.. ·······T···········f···········:·············:········:..:--_~~_~~...! ! : • ~ : i ~ -.. i ....903MPa~mm Applied CTOD: (1720 + 903)2 01 = (480)(208.lnsec (It 2 2 .6 1 1...000) .----: : x...2 1 Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications !..4 0. = 5 r [.. .558 KIP == 1720 MPa~mm 1t KIS = 1.:.••• ...6 . •• ~•••• ..._ i ! _=J~. 0...•.'.2 Sr FIGURE S18 Failure assessment diagram for Problems 9.14 (160 MPa) (10 mm) 1...--7-' : : i : _...__---~~ .. .: 0..el 2 assessment.. Repeat the Lc..=~==~~.- .66 Fracture 1.. :~ : .. assuming the residual stresses after the heat treatment are eq ual to one third the yield strength.. . ..- Sr ]"2 ..~:::±:=--i--f--~:--: I .....12. i .. : 1 ~.12 : "1"" : ~ ~•••••• ~••••••• i . = 0.:! COLLAPSE : ...···· : i : ~ ------- ~ : 0. ':~"". ---.2 ---_...-~~~.~... ""1 ..2 0. I FRACTURE) .' ~••••••••••••• ~. ~ __ ~~~_~ : : o o 0..4 0...._.28 ..-.. ~-.0._-~ - -. SAFE ··:············"1""···········1········· ·:--.J~~_ ..11) s. -.0689 nun .... _----- :.12 Su.•••••••• "("..• ---. .••• ~•••••• .. " ~ : •• Problem 9....8.11 is thermally stress relieved.. . 9.rpose that the panel in Problem 9.8 ~_...~ ~.

90 9.542 0.00 7.80 35.76 0.74 0.876 0.00 32.837 0.40 32.00 32.0 rnrn (omitted from problem statement in the first lQrinting).00 8.900 0.856 0.882 {3. (9.923 0. 0.60 34.00 8.20 33.847 0.00 Sr 0.822 0.00 5.150 mm = 0. 0.62 0.854 0.845 0.00 3. the point falls inside the FAD.723) is plotted on the failure assessment diagram in Fig.045 = 0.045 ~= + 0.Solutions Manual 67 Plasticity correction factor (Eq.40 8.00 40.00 2.58 0.843 0. (FAD) 0.854 0.00 6.74 0.40 34.809 .80 33.908 0.77 0.30 8.00 10.0689 mm 0.mm 4.833 0.75 0.00 24.60 8.5 with Level 2 of the 1991 version of PO 6493.829 0.25.67 0.850 0.70 8. Estimate the limiting flaw dimensions assuming a surface crack with a/2e 0.nun 1.00 8.74 0.00 12. The limiting crack dimensions 8. 518. a.847 0.844 0. and the structure is considered safe. Ans: The results are tabulated below.70 0.00 16..818 0.57 0.723 The point (0.456 0.00 e.80 8.00 4.342 0.890 0.60 36.00 20.64 0.68)): p Thus the CTOD ratio is given by 0.60 0.850 0.20 8. In this case.840 0.75 0.558.920 0.838 0.860 0.76 0.8 mm.20 35.852 0.82 are a = {8.13 Evaluate the structure from Problem 9.612 0. = Use 01'5 = 500 MPa and thickness = ERRATA 25.50 8.673 0.73 0.915 0.00 34. 9.858 0.75 0.00 28.7 mm and c = 34.77 0.840 0.825 0.775 0.10 8.727 0.

Initial Crack Radius lmm 1mm Final Crack Radius lOmm 20mm 10 nun 20mrn 25. :~ = 6.J.2 A structural component made from a high strength steel is subject to cyclic loading..145 ksi Discuss the relative sensitivity • initial crack size. = 1 in l1vIPa = 0.77x 105 3.1. the component was inspected by nondestructive evaluation (NDE).1 Using the Paris-Erdogan equation for fatigue crack propagation. Also. with O'max = 210 MFa and O'min = 70 MFa.85 x 105 551 x 105 2. The results are tabulated below. Ini hal Crack Radius 1mrn Final Crack Radius lOmm 20mrn 10mm 20mrn Ntot 4. Prior to going into service. This component experiences 100 stress cycles per day. but doubling the final crack size has only a marginal effect. The material has . and no flaws were found.. 2mm 10.87 x 10-12 (M<)3 60 = 200 MFa.[.43 x loS Imm 2mm. • final crack size.. Assume that the crack radius is small compared to the cross section of the structure. calculate the number of fatigue cycles corresponding to the cornbinations of initial and final crack radius for a semicircular surface flaw tabulated below..68 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications CHAPTER 10 10. 1 where da/dN is in m/cycle and Me is in MFa Vm. The fatigue life is more sensitive to the initial crack size than the final crack size.1 MPa. of Ntot to: Ans: The number of cycles can be computed from the relationship derived in Example 10.4 nun 2mm 2mm 1 . Doubling the initial crack size decreases the fatigue life by approximately a factor of 2.{ = 1 ksi .

3 rom (a) Assume that 2 mm deep flaws flaws are present. Briefly explain the trends in the curves. KIC 25 MFa v. while R= 0.1 gIves N = 817.. 10. Ans: At low . Several options are (i) Use a material with higher toughness.Solutions Manual 69 the following properties: evs 1000 MPa.8 in the second experiment. and the effect of R ratio is minimal. At high . Setting ao = 2 rnrn and af = 10. KIC = 25 MPaVrn = (0. = = The fatigue (a) The NDE technique can find flaws :2: 2 mID deep. Assume that the experiments cover a wide range of ~K values. (ii) Improve the NDE sensitivity. the growth rate at R = 0. the R= 0 specimen exhibits a higher threshold ~K due to crack closure.1.3mm and applying the relationship derived in Example 10. the ParisErdogan equation applies. assuming an NDE detectability limit of 10 nun.663) (210 MPa) ~ ac = 10. Ans: At failure. crack growth rate in this material is the same as in Problem 10. (b) Repeat part (a).8 is faster because closure effects are not as pronounced.3 Fatigue tests are performed en two samples of an alloy for aerospace applications.. (iii) Change the design to lower the stresses.. Estimate the maximum safe design life of this component. In the first experiment. R = 0. Sketch the expected trends in the data for the two experimentsen a schematic log(da/dN) v.1._. the safety of this component available in such cases: cannot be assured. assuming that subsequent in-service inspections will not be performed.K values. 10g(AK) plot. since the NOE inspection could have missed flaws of this size..4 years (b) Since the detectability limit on the order of the critical flaw size.700 cycles = 8177 days = 22. Assume that any flaws that may be present are semicircular surface cracks and that they are small relative to the cross section of the component. At intermediate ~K.

calculate the number of cycles required to grow Ute crack from a/W == 0. Based on numerical N .35 to a/W = 0. Ans: Figure 520 is integration.8 LogM< FIGURE 519 Effect of R ratio on fatigue crack growth behavior.1) that is loaded cyclically at a constant load amplitude with Pmax = 18 kN and Pmin = 5 kN.1.4 Write a program or spreadsheet macro to compute fatigue crack growth behavior in a compact specimen.2. Using the fatigue crack growth data in Problem 10.60. a plot of crack length versus cycles. the growth rate at R = 0.28 x 105 cycles .8. 10. Consider a IT compact specimen (see Section 7. assuming the fatigue crack growth is governed by the Paris-Erdogan equation.70 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications dK values. the growth rate accelerates as Kmax approaches KIC· KIc Log daJdN R=O.8 R = 0.1. Plot crack size versus cumulative cycles for this range of a/W.

1 and a/2e = 0.500 105 3.500 105 CYCLES 2..0 in) thick plate that is loaded cyclically at a constant stress amplitude of 200 MPa (29 ksi).8.2.6. but that a/t is finite.1.4.68 X 105 cycles o Z ~ ~ 25 U ~ U 20 15 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ o 5. Assume that the flaw remains semielliptical. 0. using the fatigue crack growth data in Problem 10. the crack grows faster in the depth direction. 0.400 cycles were required to grow the crack to the specified depth.1.000 lOs 2.1. Use the ParisErdogan equation to compute the crack growth rate. Also. Figure 522 is a plot of a/t and a/t versus cycles. The alc ratio increases during growth. assume that c« W.4nun (1. 94.000 io' FIGURE 820 Crack growth plot for Problem 10. but take account of the variation in K around the circumference of the flaw. Construct a contour plot that shows the crack size and shape at alt = 0.4 10. and 0.8. . 0. calculate the number of cycles required to grow the crack to alt = 0. Wha t happens to the a/2c ratio as the crack grows? Ans: Figure 521 shows the crack profile during growth of the surface flaw.000 104 1.Solutions Manual 71 e e 30 ~ N = 2. Consider a 25.5 Write a program or spreadsheet macro to compute the fatigue crack growth behavior in a flat plate that contains a semielliptical surface flaw and is subject to a cyclic membrane (tensile) stress.000 lOS 1. Given an initial flaw with alt = 0.

(10.0 104 1. Does Eq..400 CYCLES 8.19) fit the data adequately or does U depend en Kmax? Does Eq.5).0 io' 6. (10.0 10" CYCLES FIGURE S22 Crack depth and aspect ratio versus fatigue cycles (Problem 10.6 Estimate U and Kop as a function of R and M< for the data in Fig. mm o 10 20 30 FIGURE 521 Crack profile during fatigue crack growth (Problem 10. ale 0. 10.20) adequately describe the data? If so.0 lOS o ~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~ o 2.72 Fracture 40 Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 35 30 e. determine the parameter Ko.8 / 0.4 alt 0.6 0.8. 10.2 N = 94..5) alt.0 104 4. 20 1"11 E 2S 15 10 5 0 a/t: -30 -20 -10 c. .

17 MFa for these R ratios. = 4.5 0. 0.8 (Problem 10. as Fig. (10.7 0.6).6 0. and 0. 10. Figure 525 is a plot of Kop for the three R ratios. The data exhibit a Kmax dependence. although Eq.3 R • 0. (10.1.6 § 0 • • § El 0.20) is reasonable for R = 0.2 0 = 0.8 R FIGURE 523 Comparison of Eq.3 0. 1 0.4 0.3.Solutions Ans: Manual 73 Figures 523 and 524 are plots ofU for R = 0.3.8 U 0. . 524 indicates.5 Eq.1 R== 0.2 0.1 and R = 0. K.19) 0 0 0. Neither model fits the data.19) with data from Fig. (10.4 0 R ==0.1 0.5.

5 R =0.4 0.12 FIGURE 524 Closure ratio as a function of Kmax (Problem 10.04 0.6 R Kop values for fatigue data from Fig. 10.3 0. 0.08 0.1 0.2 0.6).4.74 1 U Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 0.1 0.4 0.17 R Kmax / 0.8 (Problem 10. en 0 0 '.2 O~~~~~~~~~~~~-L~~-L-L~~~~~~~~ o 0.6 0 R • 0 = 0.3 U = 1.5 0. 8 I I I I I 0 6- 9 0 0 8 I • - - 2 f- - o I 1 I I I o FIGURE 525 0.02 0.6). .8 0 •• v.06 0.1 = 0.

60. a material to determine the near-threshold behavior at R = 0.7). Ans: Figure 526 is a plot of crack length versus cycles for both the constant amplitude case (Problem 10.4) and the present problem where a single overload is applied..8 You have been asked to perform K-decreasing tests 00.35 to a/W = 0. Assume plane strain conditions at the crack tip and crvs = 250 MPa.4 experiences a single overload of 36 kN when a/W:::: 0. During all other cycles the load amplitude is constant with Pmax = 18 kN and Pmin:::: 5 kN.45. ~ 28 / I -- Constant Amplitute 26 I / C-' I.4) with crack growth after the application of a single overload cycle at a/W = 0. . 3.. Using the Wheeler retardation model with -y :::: 1.7 Suppose that the IT compact specimen in Problem 10.5.IJ .Solutions Manual 75 10. For the latter case. N:.2 x 105 cycles.45 (Problem 10.4 .l ~.1. comparing the present case to the constant load amplitude case of Problem lOA. Z 2... 10. Your laboratory has a computercontrolled test machine that can be progranuned to vary Pmax and Pmin cna cycle-by-cycle basis.a U 22 -- / U 20 Overload 18 16 0 CYCLES FIGURE 526 Comparison of constant amplitude fatigue (Problem 10.. Plot crack size versus cumulative cycles. 32 30 I Single Overload e e... estimate the number of cycles required to grow the crack from a/W = 0.

5.60 MPa. the crack growth rate decreases. 8.3 x 106 cycles (b) The final ~K can be inferred (ii) af = 35.73 x 10-8 m/cycle.52. When the test begins. (iii) The final AK. (b) Suppose that the material near the threshold: exhibits the following crack growth behavior m/ cycle. Calculate the following: For R = 0. You stop the test when da/dN reaches 10-10 where da/dN is in m/cycle and M( is in MPa Vm..0.Jm .0. (i) The number of cycles required to complete the test.520 and da/dN ""1. (ii) The final crack length.07 m-1 and the boundary conditions given above for a/W .70a) where ~K is in MParm and a is in m. a/W :. from the growth equation.8491 . The results are as follows: (i) N::.0. Numerical integration is required to estimate cycles.1. 0. ~K and crack length are related as follows: ~ ::..76 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications (a) Compute and plot Pmax and Pmin versus crack length for the range 0.50 MPa ~~ .5 S a/W S. (a) For a constant K gradient of -0.75 corresponding to a normalized K gradient of .Figure 527 is a plot of Pmax and P min required to maintain this load.07 nun-I in a IT compact specimen. and the final crack length can be computed from the above relationship. M<th = 8. A5 the test continues in accordance with the loading history determined in part (a).33 exp(1.6 mm (iii) Final ~ ::. 16.

. L o __ ----.or ·---···1··-·····~··---· ---r-------:' -1----~-. j:::Li::_L::.-~~ : ~. ~ .::liI:I':. .:. -.65 0..~---.2 14. ... CHAPTER 11 11.3 86.35 0.20 0._.1 A series of finite element meshes have been generated that model compact specimens with various crack lengths.61 11..t:.0 47.75 0.-------t. ~ -.--.80 0. : . a W 0.--.65 37.. __ ~~~ 0.45 0.:-T!:::L:_: __ ~~~ __ ~~~ : . .9 0.Solutions Manual 77 12 ~~~~~--~~~~~--~~-r-. o ----. Plane stress linear elastic analyses have been performed CI1 these models.6 0. Nondimensional compliance values as a function ofa/W are tabulated below. .90 123 186 577 1390 306 Ans: From Problem 2.".----__ ~~~ __ ~~~ rmk+tLl 0.50 0.. '. ~ . .·1·····'··7-------.55 .-'--r-.~-.~ t··_.-..---.1 22.55 0.8).~ : ':'" ----1-"-'- 9 6 4:IiII:Ii. : ..--~-------:._.---.2.5 0.:.:. -._.0 a W liBE P 18. Estimate the nondimensional stress intensity for the compact specimen from these data and compare your estimates to the polynomial solution in Table 12.~-:.-.3 a W liBE P 29. ." ~ - --r--···· . ..~'----- .I:{r.9 63.. 0..85 0.+---..25 0.--L_~~ __ +:-.-.--------. .7 a/W FlGURE 527 Loads required to maintain a K gradiant of .--.17.30 0.! ---.vr:::r:::-:!: 2 Fi-!--:-EfL-li:-FI-f-r-F--!Ei-E .-J 10 . .-or -... .07 mm-1in a IT compact specimen (Problem 10. + ~~~ ~.70 0.-------:---_---.~. : 1.3 0.40 liBE P 8.60 0.

although both techniques slightly overestimate f(a/W).3).1).7 0.78 Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 2 BE de d(a/W) Figure 528 compares f(a/W) computed by numerical differentiation of the above expression with the polynomial relationship in Table 12. 11.14) and compare your estimate to the exact solution for this geometry.8 0. 11. the central difference method provides the best estimates.3 0. ~ ns ~ - • 30 E3 - 20 o ~~~~~~~~-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 0. 2. Estimate KI by means of the stress matching approach (Eq. This problem demonstrates the difficulties of numerical differencing.2 A finite element analysis is performed CIl a through crack in a wide plate (Fig.4 0.2 Eq.9 1 a/W FIGURE 528 Nondimensional KJ values for a compact specimen (Problem 11. and the half crack length = 25 nun. 40 0 Centra! Difference Forward Difference Table 12.2. The stress normal to the crack plane «(122)at e = a is determined at node points near the crack tip and is tabulated below. The remote stress is 100 MPa.5 0. Is the mesh refinement sufficient to obtain an accurate solution in this case? .6 0.2 0. Of the two numerical techniques.

.D °ru 0I o~ .[):J .. CD Z ...0\.-o 00 ~ H (.1 0 0) .·0 I .n .or .f:"CO N -o <-D LU I OQ::J r ....AI z:-.

- T. L. Anderson - Fracture Mechanics 3rd Edition
- Fracture Mechanics [Lecture Notes Uni of Colorado] - Saouma, Victor E
- Problems and Solutions in Fracture Mechanics
- 084938432X_fractMech
- Exercises on Fracture Mechanics
- Fracture Mechanics
- Solution Manual
- 0871708027Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture An Introduction
- [D. Broek] Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics
- Fracture Mechanics(Anderson)
- Fracture Mechanics
- Fracture mechanics
- Fracture-Mechanics-Exercises
- Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures
- Fracture Mechanics, Schreus, 2012.pdf
- Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials 5th Edition
- Problems Solutions on Fracture Mechanics
- Metal Fatigue in Engineering
- FRACTURE MECHANICS Fundamentals and Applications Third Edition Solution Manual - Google Search
- Broek - The Practical Use of Fracture Mechanics
- Metal-Fatigue-in-Engineering-Solutions-Manual-by-Stephens.pdf
- Fracture Mechanics
- Anderson Fracture Mechanics Solver
- Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials
- David Broek - Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics
- Fracture mechanics
- Fracture
- Freund-Dynamic Fracture Mechanics
- FRACTURE & FATIGUE - Advanced Fracture Mechanics - O'Dowd (Notes)
- Fracture Mechanics_ANSYS
- Anderson.solutions.manual.for.Fracture.mechanics.fundamentals.and.Applications.2edition

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd