Rüdiger Ganslandt Harald Hofmann

Handbook of Lighting Design

E Edition

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Rüdiger Ganslandt Born in 1955. Studied German, Art and the History of Art in Aachen, Germany. Member of the project team on ‘imaginary architecture’. Book publications on topics relating to sciences and humanities, article on lighting design. Joined Erco in 1987, work on texts and didactic concepts. Lives in Lüdenscheid, Germany. Harald Hofmann Born in 1941 in Worms, Germany. Studied Electrical Engineering at Darmstadt University of Technology from 1961 to 1968. Gained a doctorate in 1975. Worked as an educator and researcher in the Lighting Technology department at Darmstadt University of Technology until 1978. Joined Erco in 1979 as Head of Lighting Technology. Professor of Lighting Technology in the Faculty of Architecture at the Darmstadt University of Technology since 1997.

Title Authors Layout and graphic design Drawings

Handbook of Lighting Design Rüdiger Ganslandt Harald Hofmann otl aicher and Monika Schnell otl aicher Reinfriede Bettrich Peter Graf Druckhaus Maack Druckhaus Maack, Lüdenscheid OffsetReproTechnik, Berlin Reproservice Schmidt, Kempten Druckhaus Maack, Lüdenscheid C. Fikentscher Großbuchbinderei Darmstadt


Setting/printing Book binding

© ERCO Leuchten GmbH, Lüdenscheid Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden 1. edition 1992 The Vieweg publishing company is a Bertelsmann International Group company. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission from the publisher. This applies in particular to (photo)copying, translations, microfilms and saving or processing in electronic systems. Printed in Germany

Rüdiger Ganslandt Harald Hofmann

Handbook of Lighting Design

E Edition


index and bibliography provided to assist users of this Handbook in their daily work facilitate the search for information or further literature. The Handbook aims to approach and deal with the subject of architectural lighting in a practical and comprehensible manner. The third part deals with concepts. but the varied and distinctive architecture of modern-day buildings requires equally differentiated and distinctive lighting. An extensive range of light sources and luminaires are available for this task. The second part of the Handbook deals with the basics of lighting technology and surveys light sources. as a reference book for lighting designers.g. for students of architecture. It exists as much as a teaching aid. e. Background information is provided through a chapter dedicated to the history of lighting. strategies and the processes involved in lighting design. not least because the growing awareness of architectural quality has given rise to an increased demand for good architectural lighting. . Standardised lighting concepts may have sufficed to light the concrete architecture of the recent past. It is this fact that makes it increasingly difficult for the lighting designer to be adequately informed regarding the comprehensive range of lamps and luminaires available and to decide on the correct technical solution to meet the lighting requirements of a specific project. control gear and luminaires available. The Handbook of Lighting Design covers the basic principles and practice of architectural lighting. and this has in turn led to the development of increasingly more specialised lighting equipment and tools.About this book Wide interest has developed in light and lighting. The Handbook does not intend to compete with the existing comprehensive range of specialist literature on lighting engineering. In the fourth part there is a comprehensive collection of design concepts for the most frequent requirements of interior lighting. The glossary. nor to be added to the limited number of beautifully illustrated volumes containing finished projects. with technical progress the scope of lighting technology has expanded.

2.0 2.2 2.3 2.5.6 2.6.2 2.6 2.1 History The history of architectural lighting 12 Daylight architecture 12 Artificial lighting 13 Science and lighting 15 Modern light sources 16 Gas lighting 17 Electrical light sources 18 Quantitative lighting design 22 Beginnings of a new age kind lighting design 22 The influence of stage lighting 24 Qualitative lighting design 24 Lighting engineering and lighting design 25 Basics Perception 28 Eye and camera 28 Perceptual psychology 29 Constancy 31 Laws of gestalt 33 Physiology of the eye 36 Objects of peception 38 Terms and units 40 Luminous flux 40 Luminous efficacy 40 Quantity of light 40 Luminous intensity 40 Illuminance 42 Exposure 42 Luminance 42 Light and light sources 43 Incandescent lamps 45 Halogen lamps 49 Discharge lamps 52 Fluorescent lamps 53 Compact fluorescent lamps 54 High-voltage fluorescent tubes 55 Low-pressure sodium lamps 56 High-pressure mercury lamps 57 Self-ballasted mercury lamps 58 Metal halide lamps 59 High-pressure sodium lamps 60 Control gear and control equipment 65 Control gear for discharge lamps 65 Fluorescent lamps 65 Compact fluorescent lamps 66 High-voltage fluorescent tubes 66 Low-pressure sodium lamps 66 High-pressure mercury lamps 66 Metal halide lamps 67 High-pressure sodium lamps 67 Compensation and wiring of discharge lamps 67 Radio-interference suppression and limiting other interference 67 Transformers for low-voltage installations 68 Controlling brightness 71 Incandescent and halogen lamps 71 .4.2.7 2.4.2 1.2.4 2.1 1.3.3 2.2 2.1.1 2.1.1 2.1 1.5 2.7 2.1.5 2.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.3.1 2.2 1.2 2.2.1 2.1.4 2.4.2 1.4.2 2.4.Contents Foreword 1.7 2.1 1.1 1.1 2.1 2.1.2 2.6 2.2.3 1.3 2.1.

1 3.3 2.3 2.1.2 2.6.5 2.6.1 2.6.5 3.3 3.2 2.1.2 2.2.4 2.1 3.3 2.1.0 3.7 2.6.6 2.4 2.2 3.1.2 3.2 3.4.1 2.2 2.3.2 2.7.1 2.2.1 2.7 Low-voltage halogen lamps 71 Fluorescent lamps 71 Compact fluorescent lamps 72 Other discharge lamps 72 Remote control 72 Lighting control systems 72 Lighting control systems for theatrical effects 73 Light – qualities and features 74 Quantity of light 74 Diffuse light and directed light 76 Modelling 77 Brilliance 78 Glare 79 Luminous colour and colour rendering 83 Controlling light 85 The principles of controlling light 85 Reflection 85 Transmission 85 Absorption 87 Refraction 87 Interference 87 Reflectors 88 Parabolic reflectors 89 Darklight reflectors 90 Spherical reflectors 90 Involute reflectors 90 Elliptical reflectors 90 Lens systems 91 Collecting lenses 91 Fresnel lenses 91 Projecting systems 91 Prismatic systems 92 Accessories 92 Luminaires 94 Stationary luminaires 94 Downlights 94 Uplights 97 Louvred luminaires 97 Washlights 100 Integral luminaires 101 Movable luminaires 102 Spotlights 102 Wallwashers 103 Light structures 104 Secondary reflector luminaires 105 Fibre optic systems 105 Lighting design Lighting design concepts 110 Quantitative lighting design 110 Luminance-based design 112 The principles of perception-oriented lighting design 115 Richard Kelly 115 William Lam 117 Architecture and atmosphere 118 Qualitative lighting design 119 Project analysis 119 Utilisation of space 119 Psychological requirements 122 Architecture and atmosphere 122 .5 2.5 2.7.4 2.1.6 2.2 2.1 2.2 3.4 2.1 2.3 2.6.1 2.6.4 2.7.

3 3.6 4.8 4.1.1 3.3.5 3.9 4.12 4.1 3.3.13 4.3 4.1 3. bibliography 5.3.1 3.3.19 4.3 3.7 3.2 3.2.9 4.5 3.3.2. public areas 259 Exhibitions 264 Appendix Illuminance recommendations 270 Classification of lamps 271 Glossary 272. boutiques 252 Sales areas. 3.4 4.8 3.3.2 3.0 4.4 3.8 3.2.5 3.7 3.1.4 3.10 4.3.2 3. galleries 241 Vaulted ceilings 249 Sales areas.1.7 4.6 3.3 3. bistros 221 Restaurants 225 Multifunctional spaces 229 Museums.14 3.3. acknowledgements 286.5 4.0 Project development 123 Practical planning 126 Lamp selection 126 Modelling and brilliance 127 Colour rendering 127 Luminous colour and colour temperature 128 Luminous flux 128 Efficiency 128 Brightness control 130 Ignition and re-ignition 130 Radiant and thermal load 130 Luminaire selection 132 Standard product or custom design 132 Integral or additive lighting 132 Stationary or movable lighting 136 General lighting or differentiated lighting 136 Direct or indirect lighting 136 Horizontal and vertical lighting 138 Lighting working areas and floors 138 Wall lighting 139 Ceiling lighting 141 Luminance limitation 141 Safety requirements 143 Relation to acoustics and air conditioning 143 Accessories 143 Lighting control and theatrical effects 144 Lighting layout 144 Switching and lighting control 150 Installation 152 Ceiling mounting 152 Wall and floor mounting 154 Suspension systems 154 Calculations 154 Utilisation factor method 154 Planning based on specific connected load 157 Point illuminance 158 Lighting costs 159 Simulation and presentation 160 Measuring lighting installations 168 Maintenance 169 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers 173 Lift lobbies 180 Corridors 184 Staircases 188 Team offices 192 Cellular offices 198 Executive offices 203 Conference rooms 207 Auditoriums 213 Canteens 217 Cafés.4 3. showcases 236 Museum.16 4.2.12 3.11 3.18 4. index 287 .1 4.3.3. counters 256 Administration buildings. 3.2 3.7 3.3.2.



1.1 The history of architectural lighting

1.1 History 1.1.1 Daylight architecture

For the most part of the history of mankind, from the origins of man up to the 18. century, there were basically two sources of light available. The older one of these two is daylight, the medium by which we see and to whose properties the eye has adapted over millions of years. A considerable time elapsed before the stone age, with its development of cultural techniques and tools, added the flame as a second, artificial light source. From this time on lighting conditions remained the same for a considerable time. The paintings in the cave of Altamira were created to be viewed under the same light as Renaissance and Baroque paintings. Lighting was limited to daylight and flame and it was for this very reason that man has continued to perfect the application of these two light sources for tens of thousands of years. 1.1.1 Daylight architecture In the case of daylight this meant consistently adapting architecture to the requirements for lighting with natural light. Entire buildings and individual rooms were therefore aligned to the incidence of the sun’s rays. The size of the rooms was also determined by the availability of natural lighting and ventilation. Different basic types of daylight architecture developed in conjunction with the lighting conditions in the various climatic zones of the globe. In cooler regions with a predominantly overcast sky we see the development of buildings with large, tall windows to allow as much light into the building as possible. It was found that diffuse celestial light produced uniform lighting; the problems inherent to bright sunshine – cast shadow, glare and overheating of interior spaces – were restricted to a few sunny days in the year and could be ignored. In countries with a lot of sunshine these problems are critical. A majority of the buildings here have small windows located in the lower sections of the buildings and the exterior walls are highly reflective. This means that hardly any direct sunlight can penetrate the building. Even today the lighting is effected in the main by the light reflected from the building’s surfaces, the light being dispersed in the course of the reflection process and a large proportion of its infrared component dissipated. When it came to the question of whether there was sufficient light, aspects relating to aesthetic quality and perceptual psychology were also taken into account when dealing with daylight, which is evident in the way architectural details are treated. Certain elements were designed differently according to the light available to promote the required spatial effect through the interplay of light and shadow. In direct sunlight reliefs, ledges and the

Daylight architecture: large, tall windows.

Sunlight architecture: small, low windows, reflective outer walls.


1.1 History 1.1.2 Artifical lighting

The influence of light on northern and southern architectural design. In the south spatial forms are aligned to the correlation of the steep angle of incident sunlight and light reflected from the ground. In the north it is the low angle of the sun’s rays that affects the shape of the buildings.

fluting on columns have a three-dimensional effect even if they are of shallow depth. Such details require far more depth under diffuse light to achieve the same effect. Facades in southern countries therefore only needed shallow surface structures, whereas the architecture of more northern latitudes – and the design of interior spaces – was dependent on more pronounced forms and accentuation through colour to underline the structure of surfaces. But light does not only serve to render spatial bodies three-dimensional. It is an excellent means for controlling our perception on a psychological level. In old Egyptian temples – e.g. in the sun temple of Amun Re in Karnak or in Abu Simbel – you will not find light in the form of uniform ambient lighting, but as a means to accentuate the essential – colonnades that gradually become darker allow the viewer to adapt to lower lighting levels, the highlighted image of the god then appearing overwhelmingly bright in contrast. An architectural construction can function similar to an astronomical clock, with special lighting effects only occurring on significant days or during particular periods in the year, when the sun rises or sets, or at the summer or the winter solstice. In the course of history the skill to create purposefully differentiated daylighting effects has been continually perfected, reaching a climax in the churches of the Baroque period, – e.g. the pilgrimage church in Birnau or the pilgrimage church designed by Dominikus Zimmermann in Upper Bavaria – , where the visitor’s gaze is drawn from the diffuse brightness of the nave towards the brightly lit altar area, where intricate wood carvings decorated in gold sparkle and stand out in relief. 1.1.2 Artificial lighting A similar process of perfection also took place in the realm of artificial lighting, a development that was clearly confined by the inadequate luminous power provided by the light sources available. The story began when the flame, the source of light, was separated from fire, the source of warmth - burning branches were removed from the fire and used for a specific purpose. It soon became obvious that it was an advantage to select pieces of wood that combust and emit light particularly well, and the branch was replaced by especially resinous pine wood. The next step involved not only relying on a natural feature of the wood, but, in the case of burning torches, to apply flammable material to produce more light artificially. The development of the oil lamp and the candle meant that man then had compact, relatively safe light sources at his disposal; select fuels were used eco-

Oil lamp made of brass

Greek oil lamp, a mass item in the ancient world


1.1 History 1.1.2 Artificial lighting

Lamps and burners dating back to the second half of the 19. century, copper engraving. Based on the construction of the Argand burner, the oil lamp was adapted through numerous technical innovations to meet a wide variety of requirements. The differences between lamps with flat wicks and those with the more efficient tubular wicks are clearly evident. In later paraffin lamps the light fuel

was transported to the flame via the capillary action of the wick alone, earlier lamps that used thick-bodied vegetable oils required more costly fuel supply solutions involving upturned glass bottles or spring mechanisms. In the case of especially volatile or thickbodied oils there were special wickless lamps available that produced combustible gaseous mixtures through the inherent vapour pressure produced by the volatile oil or by external compression.


the belief laid down by the ancient Greeks was taken to be true: during the burning process a substance called “phlogistos” was released. and its luminous power. which was actually developed in prehistoric times. represented the highest form of lighting engineering progress for a very long time. demonstrating a clear semantic link to the original material used for the vision aid. which provided excellent and differentiated lighting for an entire space. remained unchanged. Isaac Newton. any material that could be burned therefore consisted of ash and phlogistos ( the classical elements of earth and fire). At the turn of the first millennium. With the development of photometrics – the theory of how to measure light – and illuminances – through Boguer and Lambert in the 18th century. Until the birth of modern chemistry. whereby air supply to the flame was effected from within the tube as well as from the outer surface of the wick. microscopes and projector equipment were then constructed. They were predominantly used in the form of magnifying glasses or spectacles as a vision aid. It is clear that the burning process could not be optimised as long as beliefs were based on this theory. It was only through Lavoisier’s experiments that it became clear that combustion was a form of chemical action and that the flame was dependent on the presence of air. Huygens. the most essential scientific principles for workable lighting engineering were established. and are dependent on external light sources. but only through an understanding of the combination of both ideas. In the 17th century these instruments were then perfected by Galileo. Lavoisier’s experiments were carried out in the 1770s and in 1783 the new findings were applied in the field of lighting. to instruments therefore that allow man to observe. in the form of water-filled glass spheres. In the late 16th century the first telescopes were designed by Dutch lens grinders. Up to the late 18th century architectural lighting as we know it today remained the exclusive domain of daylighting. Even modern day paraffin lamps work according to this perfected principle. began to mark man’s night-time. Improved oxygen supply together with an enlarged wick surface meant a huge and instantaneous improvement in luminous efficiency. the torch holder was reduced to the wick as a means of transport for wax or oil. This costly semi-precious stone was later replaced by glass. the Argand lamp. Optical instruments have been recognised as aids to controlling light from very early times. The lamp itself – later to be joined by the candlestick – continued to be developed.3 Science and lighting nomically in these cases. The Argand lamp became the epitome of the oil lamp. The two competing theories are substantiated by a series of optical phenomena and existed side by side.1. Kepler and Newton. The active control of light using reflectors and lenses. According to the Greeks. it was due to man’s false conception of the combustion process. Today it is clear that light can neither be understood as a purely particle or wave-based phenomenon.1. The next step involved surrounding wick and flame with a glass cylinder. earth remained in the form of ash. some basic theories about the nature of light originated.3 Science and lighting Paraffin lamp with Argand burner. Compared to modern day light sources this luminous power was very poor. All sorts of magnificent chandeliers and sconces were developed in a wide variety of styles. There is in fact concrete evidence of these lenses dating from the 13th century.1. but the flame. Newton held the view that light was made up of numerous particles – a view that can be retraced to ancient time. This was an oil lamp with a tubular wick. In the case of the oil lamp. and artificial lighting remained a makeshift device. known to be theoretically possible and 15 Christiaan Huygens. To light interiors brightly after dark required large numbers of expensive lamps and fixtures. The material first used was ground beryl. In contrast to daylight. The oil lamp. The role of oxidation had not yet been discovered. The German word for glasses is “Brille”. The application of these various correlated findings was restricted practically exclusively to the construction of optical instruments such as the telescope and the microscope. whereby the chimney effect resulted in an increased through-put of air and a further increase in efficiency. And there are stories of burning glasses. saw light as a phenomenon comprising waves. Mirrors are known to have been used by ancient Greeks and Romans and the theory behind their application set down in writing. 1. on the other hand.1 History 1. . The reason why the development of efficient artficial light sources experienced a period of stagnation at this point in time lies in man’s inadequate knowledge in the field of science. Francois Argand constructed a lamp that was to be named after him. there were a number of theoretical works in Arabia and China concerning the effect of optical lenses. the brightness of a flame was always restricted to its direct environment. There is a tale about Archimedes setting fire to enemy ships off Syracuse using concave mirrors. which were separated during the burning process – phlogistos was released as a flame. which were only conceivable for courtly gatherings. Light. manufactured to a sufficiently clear quality. People gathered around the element that provided light or positioned it directly next to the object to be lit. At the same time. albeit weak.

in street lighting and stage lighting. The inner section of the luminous beam is concentrated via a stepped lens. 1.1.4 Modern light sources The Argand lamp marked the climax of a development which lasted tens of thousands of years. But the most important use was for lighthouses. where the Argand lamp found application shortly after its development. The oil lamp at its very best. which had previously been poorly lit by coal fires or by using a large number of oil lamps. with its considerably improved luminous intensity not only served to light living-rooms. perfecting the use of the flame as a light source. centrally situated light available was not considered to be a concern. therefore.1. however. above all. especially in the construction of lighthouses. It was therefore not surprising that the Argand lamp. in lighting situations where a considerable distance between the light source and the object to be lit was required. This applied in the first place to street and stage lighting. In 1820 Augustin Jean Fresnel developed a composite system of stepped lens and prismatic rings which could be made large enough to concentrate the light from lighthouses. which revolutionised lighting engineering at an increasingly faster pace. Fresnel lenses and Argand burners.4 Modern light sources Beacon with Fresnel lenses and Argand burners. Since then Fresnel lenses have been the basis for all lighthouse beacons and have also been applied in numerous types of projectors. occasionally tested. six years later the idea was used in France’s most prominent lighthouse in Cordouan. which rendered this latter development possible. This shortcoming gave rise to considerable problems in other areas. 16 . but was welcomed in the above-mentioned critical areas and used to develop systems that control light. and in the area of signalling.1 History 1. this construction was also first installed in Cordouan.1. In the field of domestic lighting the fact that there was no controllable. the outer section deflected by means of separate prismatic rings. Augustin Jean Fresnel. was doomed to fail due to the shortcomings of the light sources available. Scientific progress. gave rise to the development of completely new light sources . so to speak. It was compensated for by family gatherings around the oil lamp in the evenings. For example. The proposal to light lighthouses using systems comprising Argand lamps and parabolic mirrors was made in 1785.

followed gradually by public buildings and finally private households.4 Modern light sources 1.1. There was therefore a limit to the luminous intensity of selfluminous flames. Similar to the oil lamp a variety of different burners were developed whose increased flame sizes provided increased luminous intensity. It was. Gas lighting only became an economic proposition with the coupling of coke recovery and gas production. this gave rise to the extraordinarily hot. This new light source achieved as yet unknown illuminance levels. As is the case with all other light sources a series of technical developments made gas lighting increasingly more efficient. the glowing particles of carbon that incorporated the light produced by the flame were no longer evident. As all the carbon contained in the gas was burned off to produce gaseous carbon dioxide. People had known of the existence of combustible gases since the 17th century. A number of small devices were developed. The attempt to produce a surplus of oxygen in the gas mixture by continuing to develop the Argand burner produced a surprising result. .1 Gas lighting The first competitor to the Argand lamp was gas lighting. Carl Auer v. Welsbach.1. One possibility for producing highly efficient gas lighting was developed through the phenomenon of thermo-luminescence. Welsbach.1. The Argand principle involving the ring-shaped flame with its oxygen supply from both sides could also be applied in the case of gas lighting and in turn led to unsurpassed luminous efficacy. Towards the end of the 18th century the efficiency of gas lighting was demonstrated in a series of pilot projects – a lecture hall in Löwen lit by Jan Pieter Minckellaers. Drummond’s limelight. which made it possible to produce gas for lighting and heating in individual households. so-called thermo-lamps. a factory. not yet possible to introduce this new form of lighting on a large scale due to the costs involved in the manufacture of the lighting gas and in removing the admittedly foul-smelling residues. The incandescent mantle as invented by Auer v. however. then entire sections of towns could benefit from central gas supply. These devices did not prove to be as successful as hoped.1 History 1. the excitation of luminescent material by 17 Lighting shop windows using gas light (around 1870). but barely glowing flame of the Bunsen burner. a private home and even an automobile lit by the English engineer William Murdoch. A process for recovering lighting gas from mineral coal was developed in parallel to the Argand lamp experimentation. but gaseous substances were first systematically understood and produced within the framework of modern chemistry. for further increases in efficiency researchers had to fall back on other principles to produce light . Street lighting was the first area to be connected to a central gas supply.4.

These incandescent mantles were applied to Bunsen burners. 1. e.4 Modern light sources Jablotschkow’s version of the arc lamp. which in turn had to compete with the newly developed forms of electric light. This also applies to the candle. A simple spring mechanism automatically controls the distance between the four carbon electrodes set in the shape of a V. which both started life as weak light sources and were developed to become ever more efficient. but requires considerable manual control with the result that it was used almost exclusively for effect lighting in the theatre. Similarly. the electric lamp embarked on its career in its brightest form. emit a strong white light when heated. and for lighting using incandescent mantles. It was only in 1890 that Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach came up with a far more practical method for utilising thermo-luminiscence. the optimum was achieved in the field of gas lighting. On first ignition the cotton fabric burned. in camping lamps. leaving behind nothing but the rare earths – the incandescent mantle in effect. 18 .1. luminous efficacy and colour appearance in this process were not solely dependent on the temperature.4. which was a costly business. the Argand lamp was pipped at the post by the development of gas lighting. which was developed in 1826. added to the fact that arc lamps first had to be operated on batteries. Just as the Argand lamp continues to exist today in the form of the paraffin lamp. but also on the kind of material. which only received an optimised wick in 1824 to prevent it from smoking too much. heating. Through the combination of the extremely hot flame of the Bunsen burner and incandescent mantles comprising rare earths. Similar to Drummond’s limelight.1 History 1.1.2 Electrical light sources Incandescent gas light was doomed to go the way of most lighting discoveries that were fated to be overtaken by new light sources just as they are nearing perfection. Auer von Welsbach steeped a cylinder made of cotton fabric in a solution containing rare earths – substances that. The first light source to work according to this principle was Drummond’s limelight. In contrast to the oil lamp and gas lighting. Arc lighting at the Place de la Concorde. more and whiter light was produced using temperature radiation methods. the incandescent or Welsbach mantle is still used for gas lighting. In contrast to thermal radiation. Limelight is admittedly very effective. continuous manual adjustment was required.1.g. This involved a piece of limestone being excited to a state of thermo-luminescence with the aid of an oxy-hydrogen burner. similar to limestone. Hugo Bremer’s arc lamp. exposed and with glass bulb. From the beginning of the 19th century it was a known fact that by creating voltage between two carbon electrodes an extremely bright arc could be produced. making it difficult for this new light source to gain acceptance.

According to the description: an adjustable spotlight complete with “concave mirror.4 Modern light sources Siemens’ arc lamp dating back to 1868. 19 .1 History 1. carriage.1. stand and antidazzle screen" – the oldest luminaire in Siemens’ archives documented in the form of a drawing.1.

because it tended to produce far too much light – a novelty in the field of lighting technology. for stage lighting. Edison lamps. Swan’s version of the incandescent lamp with graphite filament and spring base. as the different burning levels of the individual lamps meant that the entire series was quickly extinguished. First experiments made with platinum wires or carbon filaments did not produce much more than minimum service life. experimental incandescent lamps (carbon filaments in air-void eaude-cologne bottles). Moreover. HefnerAlteneck. developed in 1878 by Friedrich v. thereby eliminating the problem of manual adjustment. however. but also more reliable solution was provided by the differential lamp. It was in fact applied wherever its excellent luminous intensity could be put to good use – once again in lighthouses. which involved two parallel carbon electrodes set in a plaster cylinder and allowed to burn simultaneously from the top downwards. that electrical conductors heat up to produce a sufficiently great resistance. and. a Siemens engineer. but above Thomas Alva Edison. as it was called – was not possible. About mid-century self-adjusting lamps were developed. but was also used on a wide scale. and even begin to glow.1. as yet without the typical screw cap. It was discovered at a fairly early stage. which not only found individual application. who preceded Edison by six months with his graphite lamp. much the same as the arc lamp. in 1802 – eight years before his spectacular presentation of the first arc lamp – Humphrey Davy demonstrated how he could make a platinum wire glow by means of electrolysis. A more complex. the high level of resistance required very thin filaments. Joseph Wilson Swan. still only possible to operate one arc lamp per power source. There were only a few substances that had a melting point high enough to create incandescence before melting. 20 . The life time could only be extended when the filament – predominantly made of carbon or graphite at that time – was prevented from burning up by surrounding it with a glass bulb.4 Modern light sources Heinrich Goebel. The arc lamp was not entirely suitable for application in private homes. however. platinum and carbon filament version. The incandescent lamp failed to establish itself as a new light source for technical reasons. series connection – “splitting the light”. Now that light could be “divided up” the arc lamp became an extremely practical light source. which was either evacuated or filled with inert gas. above all. which were difficult to produce. broke easily and burnt up quickly in the oxygen in the air. whereby carbon supply and power constancy were effected via an electromagnetic system. It would take other forms of electric lighting to replace gas lighting in private living spaces. for all forms of street and exterior lighting.1 History 1.1. This problem was only solved in the 1870s. Pioneers in this field were Joseph Wilson Swan. It was. Generators that could guarantee a continuous supply of electricity were now also available. The simple solution was provided by Jablotschkow’s version of the arc lamp.

however. because it was ignited by tipping the tubes by means of a drawstring. except that it had no fluorescent coating. was indeed thanks to Thomas Alva Edison. The lamp was mounted in the centre like a scale beam. This product corresponded in many ways to the incandescent lamp as we know it today – right down to the construction of the screw cap. Following the arc lamp and the incandescent lamp. discharge lamps took their place as the third form of electric lighting. This is where Auer von Welsbach. only be substantially improved with the changeover to metallic filaments. comes into his own once again. The actual breakthrough.1. He used osmium filaments derived through a laborious sintering process. Edison first used Goebel’s carbon filament comprising carbonized bamboo. . Another was the low-pressure mercury lamp. This occured at around the turn of the century. Later synthetic carbon filaments extruded from cellulose nitrate were developed. 21 Theatre foyer lit by Moore lamps. giving way to tantalum lamps. who in 1879 succeeded in developing an industrial mass product out of the experimental constructions created by his predecessors. could. at the beginning of the 18th century Davy examined all three forms of electric lighting systematically. always the main weakness of incandescent lamps. that the first discharge lamps with the prime purpose of producing light were brought onto the market. however. all Heinrich Goebel. which is the equivalent of the fluorescent lamp as we know it today. which were developed a little later and were considerably more robust. This lamp worked much like a modernday fluorescent tube but did not contain any fluorescent material. high voltage and a pure gas discharge process. These were in turn replaced by lamps with filaments made of tungsten. It consisted of long glass tubes of various shapes and sizes. The luminous efficacy. The filaments did not prove to be very stable. who had already made more efficient gas lighting possible through the development of the incandescent mantle.1. Almost eighty years passed. As far back as the 17th century there were reports about luminous phenomena in mercury barometers. a material still used for the filament wire in lamps today. In fact. The filament was the only element that remained in need of improvement. who in 1854 produced incandescent lamps with a service life of 220 hours with the aid of carbonized bamboo fibres and air-void eau-de-cologne bottles. however. however. and it was only after the incandescent lamp had established itself as a valid light source. before the first truly functioning discharge lamps were actually constructed. One of these was the Moore lamp – a forerunner of the modern-day high voltage fluorescent tube. so only very little visible light was produced. Again physical findings were available long before the lamp was put to any practical use.4 Modern light sources Cooper-Hewitt’s lowpressure mercury lamp.1 History 1. But it was Humphrey Davy once again who gave the first demonstration of how a discharge lamp worked.

therefore. e. . not be regarded as a comprehensive planning aid for all possible lighting tasks. for the lighting of streets and public spaces. Although this catalogue of standards was designed predominantly as an aid for the planning of lighting for workplaces. the temptation to turn night into day and to do away with darkness altogether was great. The result was the fluorescent lamp. sufficient light had only been available during daylight hours. artificial light changed dramatically.5 Quantitative lighting design A good hundred years after scientific research into new light sources began all the standard lamps that we know today had been created. this meant that higher light intensities could be achieved. Its advantages were. which immediately established it as a competitor to the relatively inefficient incandescent lamp. Teichmüller defined the term “Lichtarchitektur” as architecture that American light tower (San José 1885). The aim of standards is to manage the amount of light available in an economic sense. which made the highpressure mercury lamp a competitor to the arc lamp.1. based on the physiological research that had been done on human visual requirements. in addition to a physiological process. goes beyond the realm of a set of rules. lighting specialists were then faced with the challenge of purposefully controlling excessive amounts of light. but a considerable increase in luminous efficacy. founder of the Institute for Lighting Technology in Karlsruhe. Joachim Teichmüller. Quantitative lighting design is content with providing uniform ambient lighting that will meet the re-quirements of the most difficult visual task to be performed in the given space. not surprising that alongside quantative lighting technology and planning a new approach to designing with light was developed. Floodlighting on this scale soon proved to have more disadvantages than advantages due to glare problems and harsh shadows. ranking with natural light. however. From now on.1 History 1. vision is also a psychological process. an approach that was related far more intensely to architectural lighting and its inherent requirements. 1.1. Especially in the case of street lighting. Up to this point in time. In the United States a number of projects were realised in which entire towns were lit by an array of light towers. Whereas 22 inadequate light sources had been the main problem to date. It was no longer a temporary expedient but a form of lighting to be taken seriously. or for the floodlighting of buildings. whether its structure is clearly legible and its aesthetic quality has been enhanced by the lighting. its luminous intensity was too low to be seriously used for functional lighting. it soon became a guideline for lighting in general. and even today determines lighting design in practice. The other idea was to increase the pressure by which the mercury vapour was discharged.1. which did produce good colour rendering and offered enhanced luminous efficacy due to the exploitation of the considerable ultra-violet emission.6 Beginnings of a new kind of lighting design It was. The fact that the perception of an object is more than a mere visual task and that. which meant that it could only be used for simple lighting tasks. Both the attempt to provide comprehensive street lighting and the failure of these attempts was yet another phase in the application of artificial light. on the other hand. The mercury vapour lamp. had excellent luminous efficacy values. at least in their basic form. while at the same time adhering to the standards with regard to glare limitation and colour distortion. There were two completely different ways of solving this problem. As a planning aid it is almost exclusively quantityoriented and should. under a given light.1. The days of this extreme form of exterior lighting were therefore numbered.5 Quantitative lighting design 1. outweighed by its inadequate colour rendering properties. The result of these perceptual physiological investigations was a comprehensive work of reference that contained the illuminance levels required for certain visual tasks plus minimum colour rendering qualities and glare limitation requirements. The result was moderate colour rendering. Moreover. Task lighting in particular was examined in detail to establish how great an influence illuminance and the kind of lighting applied had on productivity. How we see architecture. This developed in part within the framework of lighting engineering as it was known. One possibility was to compensate for the missing spectral components in the mercury vapour discharge process by adding luminous substances. was disregarded.1. is a name that should be mentioned here. therefore.g. Illuminance levels similar to those of daylight could technically now be produced in interior living and working spaces or in exterior spaces. Specialist engineers started to think about how much light was to be required in which situations and what forms of lighting were to be applied. for instance. 1.6 Beginnings of new lighting design The Moore lamp – like the highvoltage fluorescent tube today – was primarily used for contour lighting in architectural spaces and for advertising purposes.

however. but also included the artificially lit interior space. if it is applied purposefully and in a differentiated way. with regard to architectural lighting. which were not only openings to let daylight into the building. Crayon. around 1920. A German style of architecture known as “Gläserne Kette” in particular interpreted the building as a crystalline. conceives light as a building material and incorporates it purposefully into the overall architectural design. Rotterdam 1926–30. Light no longer only had an effect coming from outside into the building. artificial light can surpass daylight. to be viewed from outside at night. this no longer only applied to sunlight. And yet even this approach did not go far enough. Wassili Luckhardt (1889–1972): Crystal on the sphere. It addressed the structures of the lit architecture. their facades divided up via the interchange of dark wall sections and light glazed areas. It could light interior spaces. unimaginative interior lighting. In these cases. lighting design clearly went far beyond the mere creation of recommended illuminances. in part. in the 1920s. luminous cities dotted with light towers and magnificent glazed structures. Buildings created up to the beginning of the second world war were therefore characterised by what is. à la Paul Scheerbart. From time immemorial. Second version. were reflected in a number of equally visionary designs of sparkling crystals and shining domes.1 History 1.6 Beginnings of new lighting design Joachim Teichmüller. Cult building. large buildings such as industrial plants or department stores took on the appearance of self-illuminating structures after dark. self-luminous creation. Lighting engineers still tended to practise a quantative lighting philiosophy. J. L. It was the architects who were now beginning to develop new concepts for architectural lighting. 23 . van der Vlugt and Mart Stam: Van Nelle tobacco factory. A little later. made little difference to the trend towards quantitative. Utopian ideas of glass architecture. The significance of light and shadow and the way light can structure a building is something every architect is familiar with. When Le Corbusier described architecture as the “correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light”. Brinkmann. All this. highly differentiated exterior lighting. and disregarded users of the building and their visual needs. He also pointed out – and he was the first to do so – that. involving in the main standard louvred fittings. a number of glass architecture concepts were created.1. because it regarded the building as a single entity. C. With the development of more efficient artificial light sources. This new understanding of light had special significance for extensively glazed facades.1. and now even light from inside outwards. the knowledge that has been gained of daylight technology was now joined by the scope offered by artificial light. but gave the architecture a new appearance at night through artificial light. daylight had been the defining agent.

24 . These three basic lighting categories provided a simple. but effective and clearly structured range of possibilities that allowed lighting to address the architecture and the objects within an environment as well as the perceptual needs of the users of the space. Starting in the USA. the question of illuminance levels and uniform lighting is of minor importance.1. at least in the case of large-scale. lighting design began to change gradually from a purely technical discipline to an equally important and indispensible discipline in the architectural design process – the competent lighting designer became a recognised partner in the design team. 1. In the theatre. the question of how reality perceived is reconstructed in the process of seeing. Nevertheless stage lighting serves as an example for architectural lighting.6 Beginnings of new lighting design Ambient light. Kelly differentiated between three basic functions: ambient light . orientation within an environment or orientation while in motion. changes in the weather. in itself. it was not simply a question of the quantitative limiting values for the perception of abstract “visual tasks”. In order to develop more far-reaching architectural lighting concepts.1 The influence of stage lighting Lighting technology focussing on man as a perceptive being acquired a number of essential impulses from stage lighting. but that it could become an object of contemplation.1 History 1. these might include the perception of objects and building structures.6. Innumerable optical phenomena proved that perception involves a complex interpretation of surrounding stimuli. In view of these findings lighting acquired a totally new meaning. It identifies methods of producing differentiated lighting effects and the instruments required to create these particular effects – both areas from which architectural lighting can benefit. In contrast to uniform lighting. what the audience has to perceive is changing scenes and moods – light alone can be applied on the same set to create the impression of different times of day.2 Qualitative lighting design A new lighting philosophy that no longer confined itself exclusively to quantitative aspects began to develop in the USA after the second world war. Kelly broke away from the idea of uniform illuminance as the paramount criterion of lighting design. with the result that focal glow not only contributed towards orientation. prestigious projects. Play of brilliance took into account the fact that light does not only illuminate objects and express visual information. not a photographing of our environment. Stage lighting goes much further in its intentions than architectural lighting does – it strives to create illusions.6. whereas architectural lighting is concerned with rendering real structures visible. it determined the priority and the way individual objects in our visual environment were seen. of a series of functions that lighting had to meet to serve the needs of the perceiver. In this third function light could also enhance an environment in an aesthetic sense – play of brilliance from a simple candle flame to a chandelier could lend a prestigious space life and atmosphere. Focal glow picked out relevant visual information against a background of ambient light. significant areas were accentuated and less relevant visual information took second place. Lighting was not only there to render things and spaces around us visible. One of the pioneers in the field is without doubt Richard Kelly. 1. focal glow and play of brilliance.1. the visual environment was structured and could be perceived quickly and easily. Light was no longer just a physical quantity that provided sufficient illumination. Man as a perceiving being was the focus of the research. Focal glow went beyond this general lighting and allowed for the needs of man as a perceptive being in the respective environment. The aim of stage lighting is not to render the stage or any of the technical equipment it comprises visible. He substituted the issue of quantity with the issue of different qualities of light. frightening or romantic atmospheres. a source of information. It is therefore not surprising that stage lighting began to play a significant role in the development of lighting design and that a large number of well-known lighting designers have their roots in theatre lighting. the viewer’s attention could be drawn towards individual objects.1. it became a decisive factor in human perception. Moreover. Ambient light corresponded to what had up to then been termed quantitative lighting. Perceptual psychology provided the key. who integrated existing ideas from the field of perceptual psychology and stage lighting to create one uniform concept. but could also be used for the presentation of goods and aesthetic objects. man had to become the third factor alongside architecture and light.1. that eye and brain constructed rather than reproduced an image of the world around us. General lighting was provided that was sufficient for the perception of the given visual tasks. In contrast to physiological research. These investigations soon led to evidence that perception was not purely a process of reproducing images.

The third new development is the compact fluorescent lamp. or different ones again for the permanent lighting in a theatre foyer than for the variable lighting required in a multi-purpose hall or exhibition space. which is simply not feasible via manual switching.3 Lighting engineering and lighting design The growing demand for quality lighting design was accompanied by the demand for quality lighting equipment. It can be expected in future that progress in the field of lighting design will depend on the continuing further development of light sources and luminaires. whose sparkling. Each scene can be adjusted to suit the requirements of a particular situation. Concentrated light can be applied effectively over larger distances. than you do for accentuating one individual object. because it allowed enormous flexibility.1. Similar qualities are achieved in the field of discharge lamps with metal halide sources. All this means that lighting designers have a further range of tools at their disposal for the creation of differentiated lighting to meet the requirements of the specific situation and the perceptual needs of the people using the space.1.6 Beginnings of new lighting design 1. for example. but are able to define a range of light scenes. but it might also be a matter of adapting to changes within a specific environment: the changing intensity of daylight or the time of day. Exposed incandescent and fluorescent lamps were replaced by a variety of specialised reflector luminaires. The development of technical possibilities and lighting application led to a productive correlation: industry had to meet the designers’ demands for new luminaires. Differentiated lighting required specialised luminaires designed to cope with specific lighting tasks. and further developments in the field of lamp technology and luminaire design were promoted to suit particular applications required by the lighting designers. which combines the advantages of the linear fluorescent with smaller volume. Lighting installations could be adapted to meet the respective requirements of the space. You need completely different luminaires to achieve uniform washlight over a wall area. The development of track lighting opened up further scope for lighting design. New lighting developments served to allow spatial differentiation and more flexible lighting. ideally suited to energy-efficient fluorescent downlights.1 History 1.1. This might be the different lighting conditions required for a podium discussion or for a slide show.6. allowing a lighting installation to be utilised to the full – a seamless transition between individual scenes. There is currently considerable research and development being undertaken in the field of compact light sources: among the incandescents the halogen lamp. providing the first opportunity to direct light purposefully into certain areas or onto objects – from the uniform lighting of extensive surfaces using wall or ceiling washers to the accentuation of a precisely defined area by means of reflector spotlights. Lighting control systems are therefore a logical consequence of spatial differentiation. thereby achieving improved optical control. for example. Play of brilliance 25 . Focal glow. but above all on the consistent application of this ‘hardware’ in the interest of qualitative lighting design. With the use of compact control systems it has become possible to plan lighting installations that not only offer one fixed application. Exotic solutions – using equipment such as laser lighting or lighting using huge reflector systems – will remain isolated cases and will not become part of general lighting practice. Products that allowed spatial differentiation were followed by new developments that offered time-related differentiation: lighting control systems. concentrated light provides new concepts for display lighting.


0 Basics .2.

The amount of light is controlled by a diaphragm.1. in the eye. Through its intensity. light creates specific conditions which can influence our perception.1 Perception 2. via a deformable lens.1. in fact. Ultimately it is the actual effect the lighting has on the user of a space. but it does not contribute to our comprehension of perception. Spherical aberration. the lightsensitive retina the role of the film. 2. Chromatic aberration. where it is adjusted in the cortex and made available to the conscious mind.2. After developing the film and reversing the image during the enlarging process a visible. Human perception must be a key consideration in the lighting design process.1 Perception 2. Firstly.1 Eye and camera The process of perception is frequently explained by comparing the eye with a camera. that decides whether a lighting concept is successful or not. The iris takes on the function of the diaphragm. but there are considerable differences between what is actually perceived in our field of vision and the image on the retina. Images are blurred due to the various degrees of refraction of spectral colours. the image is spatially distorted through its projection onto the curved surface of the retina – a straight line is as a rule depicted as a curve on the retina. 28 . Comparing the eye with the camera in this way makes the process of vision fairly easy to understand. Lighting design can therefore not be restricted to the creation of technical concepts only. Good lighting design aims to create perceptual conditions which allow us to work effectively and orient ourselves safely while promoting a feeling of well-being in a particular environment and at the same time enhancing that same enviroment in an aesthetic sense. In the case of the camera. The physical qualities of a lighting situation can be calculated and measured. an adjustable system of lenses projects the reversed image of an object onto a lightsensitive film. the way it is distributed throughout a space and through its properties.1 Eye and camera Most of the information we receive about the world around us is through our eyes. the planning of our visual environment. The fact that the retina image forms the basis for perception is undisputed. the so-called fundus oculi. twodimensional image of the object becomes apparent. Light is not only an essential prerequisite and the medium by which we are able to see. Lighting design is. The fault lies in the assumption that the image projected onto the retina is identical to the perceived image. The image is then transported via the optic nerve from the retina to the brain. Similarly. Projected images are distorted due to the curvature of the retina. his subjective perception. a reversed image is projected onto the inner surface of the eye.

This means that they must somehow be eliminated while the image is being processed in the brain. whether it has to be developed through experience. this gives rise to images on the retina whose perspectives are distorted.2 Perceptual psychology Presenting a model of the eye to demonstrate the similarities to the workings of a camera does not provide any explanation as to how the perceived image comes into being – it only transports the object to be perceived from the outside world to the cortex. which produces coloured rings around the objects viewed. for example. This perception of a square shape remains consistent. This image may. even if viewer or object move. however. The colour of the central grey point adjusts itself to the black or white colour of the respective perceived pattern of five . Perceptual psychology is divided on this point. but rather the process involved in the interpretation of this information. The eye is therefore a very inadequate optical instrument. in fact.1.1. If we perceive objects that are arranged within a space. although the shape of the image projected on the retina is constantly changing due to the changing perspective. the creation of visual impressions.2 Perceptual psychology Perceptual constancy: perception of a shape in spite of the fact that the image on the retina is changing with the changing perspective. To truly understand what visual perception is all about. it is not so much the transport of visual information that is of significance. or by an unlimited number of square shapes arranged at an angle. It is more a result of the way the image is interpreted. also have been produced by a trapezoidal surface viewed front on. A square perceived at an angle.e.1 Perception 2. 2. There is no clear answer to this question. i. The only thing that is perceived is one single shape – the square that this image has actually produced. The next question that arises is whether our ability to perceive the world around us is innate or the result of a learning process. Another point to be considered is whether sense impressions from outside alone are re-sponsible for the perceived image or whether the brain translates these stimuli into a perceivable image through the application of its own principles of order. a number of contradictory opinions. Recognising an overall shape by revealing essential details. It produces a spatially distorted and non-colour corrected image on the retina. each of which can provide evidence of various kinds to prove 29 Perception of a shape based on shadow formation alone when contours are missing.2. But these defects are not evident in our actual perception of the world around us. There are. Apart from this corrective process there are a number of other considerable differences between the image on the retina and what we actually perceive. This spherical misrepresentation is accompanied by clear chromatic aberration – light of various wavelengths is refracted to varying degrees. Perception cannot therefore only be purely a matter of rendering the image on the retina available to our conscious mind. Matching a colour to the respective pattern perceived. will produce a trapezoidal image on the retina.

1 Perception 2. The grey of the sharply framed picture is interpreted as a property of the material.1. the fact that vertical lines in a perspective drawing appear to be considerably larger further back in the drawing than in the foreground. Once interpretations of complex visual shapes have been gained. When it comes to perception. In this case experience.whereas on a higher level of processing experience helps us to interpret complex shapes and structures. It may be presumed that the innate component is responsible for organising or structuring the information perceived. and serve as a source of reference for future perception. they remain. both innate mechanisms and experience have a part to play.e. which tells the animal. But not one of these schools of thought is able to give a plausible explanation for all the phenomena that occur during the visual process. What we are considering here is a visual impression that is based exclusively on sensory input which is not influenced by any criteria of order linked with our intellectual processing of this information. A line that is further away. in the background. There is an indication that the spatial aspect of perception is innate. must be longer than a line in the foreground in order to produce an equivalently large retina image – in the depth of the space a line of effectively the same length will therefore be interpreted and perceived as being longer. Known shapes are more easily recognised than unknown ones. The fact that a grey area will appear light grey if it is edged in black. Due to the perspective interpretation of this illustration the luminaires are all perceived as being the same size in spite of the variations in size of the retina images. On the other hand. The vertical line to the rear appears to be longer than a line of identical length in the foreground due to the perspective interpretation of the picture. 30 The perception of the lightness of the grey surface depends on its immediate surroundings. therefore. it can be demonstrated that perception is also dependent on previous experience. again there is evidence to prove both these concepts. flat surface. The wall reflectance factor is assumed to be constant. The continuous luminance gradient across the surface of the walls is interpreted as a property of the lighting of the wall. On the other hand. Constancy with regard to perception of size. In this case the perspective interpretation leads to an optical illusion. and the expectations linked with it. This indicates that the innate visual recognition of depth and its inherent dangers have priority over information relayed via the sense of touch. or baby. If the surrounding field is light an identical shade of grey will appear to be darker than when the surrounding field is dark. If you place new-born animals (or six-monthold babies) on a glass panel that overlaps a step. or dark grey if it is edged in white can be explained by the fact that the stimuli perceived are processed directly – brightness is perceived as a result of the lightness contrast between the grey area and the immediate surroundings. i. they will avoid moving onto the area beyond the step. . can be explained by the fact that the drawing is interpreted spatially.2 Perceptual psychology their point.2. although the luminance is identical to the luminance of the corner of the room. As for the issue of whether impressions received via the senses alone determine perception or whether the information also has to be structured on a psychical level. may be so strong that missing elements of a shape are perceived as complete or individual details amended to enable the object to meet our expectations. that they are on a safe.

There must be additional mechanisms that go beyond the perception of luminous reflectance. A person seen a long way away is therefore not perceived as a dwarf and a house on the horizon not as a small box.e. This means that a white surface is assumed to be white both in light and shade. A third reason for the presence of different luminances may lie in the quality of the surface. but results from various mechanisms. because in relation to the surrounding sufaces it reflects more light. We are familiar with changing luminance levels on the surfaces around us.1 Perception 2. sizes and brightness arising due to changes in lighting. or whether it is spatially formed or a uniformly lit object with an uneven reflection factor. the moon. can be explained as stemming from one common objective. but can be regarded as the border case of a mechanism that provides essential information under everyday conditions. They guarantee that the changing trapezoidal and ellipsoidal forms in the retina image can be perceived as spatial manifestations of constant. The aim of the perceptual process is to decide whether an object is of a single colour. this indicates that mechanisms must exist to identify these objects and their properties and to perceive them as being constant. is much more difficult for us to handle. One of the most important tasks of perception is to differentiate between constant objects and changes in our surroundings in the continuously changing shapes and distribution of brightness of the image on the retina. By inverting the picture the perception of elevation and depth is changed. The spatial impression is determined by the unconscious assumption that light comes from above. There is. Since constant objects also produce retina images of varying shapes. i. rectangular or round objects. while taking into consideration the angle at which the object is viewed. we can say that there is evidence that the brain is able to perform interpretative processes that are not dependent on external stimuli.2 Perceptual psychology Our apparent knowledge of distance ratios therefore gives rise to a change in the way we perceive things. As the distances in the drawing are however fictitious. They may be the result of the type of lighting: one example of this is the gradual decrease in brightness along the rear wall of a space that is daylit from one side only. distance or perspective. those which control the perception of bright-ness. Just as we have mechanisms that handle the perception of size we have similar mechanisms that balance the perspective distortion of objects. The illuminated side of a unicoloured object has a higher luminance than the side that receives no direct light. Vice versa. Judging from daily experience this mechanism is sufficient to allow us to perceive objects and their size reliably. 31 . Through the identification of the luminous reflectance of a surface it becomes apparent that a surface reflects light differently depending on the intensity of the surrounding lighting. Optical illusions provide an opportunity to examine the effects and aims of perception. the viewing of objects that are considerably farther away.2. cylinders or spheres. objects of known sizes are used to judge distances or to recognise the size of adjacent objects. Uneven reflectance results in uneven luminance even if the lighting is uniform. the luminous reflectance would not be recognised as a constant property of an object. both the changing perception of brightness on identical surfaces and the erroneous perception of lines of equal length. however.g. When it comes to lighting design there is a further complex of constancy phenomena that are of significance. the question regarding which objective the various mechanisms serve remains an interesting one. If perception depended on seen luminance. Or they may arise from the spatial form of the illuminated object: examples of this are the formation of typical shadows on spatial bodies such as cubes. a black object in sunlight shows a considerably higher level of luminance than a white object in an interior space. as indicated above. Perception therefore cannot be attributed to one principle alone. This indicates that both phenomena described above. the borderline case.2. Only in extreme situations does our perception deceive us: looking out of an aeroplane objects on the ground appear to be tiny. The ability of the perceptual process to recognise the luminous reflectance of objects under different illuminance levels is actually only half the story. the luminance of a surface varies. but not lit uniformly. where two surfaces of the same colour are perceived as being of a different brightness under the same lighting due to different surrounding surfaces. e. but that the distance of the observer from the object is significant. 2. Optical illusion is not a case of a perceptual faux pas.1 Constancy Even if there is not one simple explanation for the way perception works. A mechanism is required that determines the luminous reflectance of a surface from the ratio of the luminances of this surface to its surroundings. while processing varying gradients and sharp differences in luminance. Our misinterpretation of lines of the same length shows that the perceived size of an object does not depend on the size of the retina image alone.1. The spatial quality of an object can be recognised purely from the gradient of the shadows.1.

2 Perceptual psychology Change of perception from light/dark to black/white if the spatial interpretation of the figure changes. As a rule the folded card is perceived as if it is being viewed from the outside (fold to the front). Perception is therefore able to adjust to the respective colour properties of the lighting. similar to the perception of brightness. Differences in luminance are effectively eliminated from the perceived images to a large extent or especially emphasized depending on whether they are interpreted as a characteristic feature of the object or as a feature of the surroundings – in this case. it is taken to be a feature of the lighting situation. whereas the same lighting distribution on a structured wall is interpreted as background and not perceived. when The lighting distribution on an unstructured wall becomes a dominant feature. The example shown here serves to explain this process. the preference for simple and easily comprehensible interpretations. for example. when luminous patterns created on the walls bear no relation to the architecture. The perception of colour.1 Perception 2. This is evident. Light distribution that is not aligned with the architectural structure of the space is perceived as disturbing patterns that do not relate to the space. If the card is seen as being viewed from inside (fold to the rear). nor as an important feature of the lighting. A colour is therefore perceived as being constant both when viewed in the bluish light of an overcast sky or in warmer direct sunlight – colour photographs taken under the same conditions. The first conclusion that can be drawn is that the impression of uniform brightness does not depend on totally uniform lighting. therefore. however.2. The luminance pattern of the retina image is therefore interpreted differently: in one case it is attributed to a characteristic black/white coloration of the perceived object. These mechanisms should be taken into consideration when designing the lighting for a space. but that it can be achieved by means of luminance gradients that run uniformly. The position of the luminous beam determines whether it is perceived as background or as a disturbing shape.1. If luminance patterns are irregular they should. however. therefore. The necessity to interpret colours is based on the fact that colour appearances around us are constantly changing. show the colour shifts we expect under the particular lighting. it is perceived as being uniformly lit but with one half coloured black. 32 . One characteristic feature of perception is. of the lighting. On the other hand irregular or uneven luminances can lead to confusing lighting situations. thereby providing constant colour perception under changing conditions. is dependent on surrounding colours and the quality of the lighting. This only applies. The observer’s attention is drawn to a luminance pattern that cannot be explained through the properties of the wall. In this case it appears to be uniformly white but lit from one side. in the other case perception does not cover the different luminance in the perception of the apparently uniformly white card. always be in accordance with the architecture.

Once the hidden faces have been discovered. If different lighting situations can be compared directly.2. which are included in our perception of the overall situation. Moreover. form. but above all when different light sources are used within one room or if the observer is in a space comprising coloured glazing and in a position to compare the lighting inside and outside the building. It is not an object in its own right and is not affected by changes inherent to the form.2 Laws of gestalt The main theme of this chapter so far has been the question of how the properties of objects – size. Lighting a space using different luminous colours can be done effectively. that is to say. but is organised into forms or groups in accordance with the laws of gestalt. In the drawing on the left most people spontaneously see a white vase against a grey background. objects of perception. the object itself must be recognised. is in fact. on the walls or in the space. An example will serve to illustrate this process. an object of interest while the rest of the patterns are regarded as the background and their properties by and large ignored. This becomes evident when the observer moves through spaces that are lit differently. The result is continuously shifting focus selection. another form. reflectance and colour – are perceived as being constant in spite of changing retina images. of motif and background. but other shapes and forms. 33 . In our example. or gestalt – the perceptual mechanism is stronger than our conscious reasoning.1. negative effect may be – for example. These rules are not only of value when it comes to describing the perceptual process. Another. but it is impossible to see both at the same time. that it is possible to formulate laws according to which certain arrangements are grouped together to form shapes.2. In both cases we perceive a figure – either the vase or the two faces against a background of a contrasting colour.e.1 Perception 2. i. is so complete that if you imagine that the form is moved. Or to put it in more general terms: how does the perceptual process define the structures its attention has been drawn to and how does it distinguish them from their surroundings. Before properties can be attributed to an object. This example shows that the complex and inconsistent patterns of the retina image are ordered in the course of the perpetual process to enable us to interpret whatwe perceive easily and clearly. a portion of these patterns within one picture are grouped together to form an image. the background does not move in unison. These considerations did not include how the object itself is perceived. Depending on how you view this drawing. Every lighting installation comprises an arrangement of luminaires – on the ceiling.2 Perceptual psychology the entire environment is lit with light of the same luminous colour and the lighting does not change too rapidly. In our example the background is therefore an area behind the form and fills the entire drawing. The process of identifying this object in the profusion of continuously changing stimuli on the retina is no less problematic than the perception of objects. This impression is not influenced by the knowledge that the "background" in our example. if the change of luminous colour bears a clear relation to the respective environment. It is therefore necessary to consider to the laws of gestalt when developing lighting design concepts.1. i.e. It might occur that these structures are reorganised visually to such an extent that we do not perceive the patterns as intended. Apart from its colour and its function as an environment no other properties are attributed to the background area. The architectural setting and the lighting effects produced by the luminaires give rise to further patterns. The separation of gestalt (form) and environment. This arrangement is not perceived as such. On closer examination two grey heads facing each other against a white background become apparent. distinguished from its surroundings. you will see a vase or two heads facing each other. the fact that of the two interpretations the vase is the preferred one shows that this process of interpretion is subject to certain rules. the contrast due to different luminous colours will be perceived. 2. in the case of a chessboard pattern – that gestalt and background cannot be clearly identified. they are also of practical interest for the lighting designer. there is no difficulty in perceiving the vase or the faces. that is to say.

rendering a figure visible inside the line. Law of gestalt relating to proximity. The downlights are arranged in two lines in accordance with the law of pure form. the law of proximity. If this leads to a plausible interpretation of the initial pattern.2. perception also clarifies the relation of figures to each other. This is not strictly a case of symmetry. 34 . and this allows us to perceive a shape. uniform style can still be enough to render a shape a gestalt. One example of the this logical structuring of specific shapes is symmetry. is the tendency to interpret closed forms as a figure. But in such cases there are laws of gestalt that allow certain arrangements to appear as a shape. whereas more complex structures belonging to the same pattern disappear into an apparently continuous background. the resulting shape is not a polygon but a perfect circle. Luminaires are grouped in pairs.1. Shapes of equal width have a similar effect. Apart from the effect produced by proximity. Four points are grouped to form a square.e. The circles are arranged in such a strict order that the imaginary linking lines between them is not straight.2 Perceptual psychology Law of gestalt relating to proximity. surrounding side of the line that encloses the figure. logical structure. This inner side is usually identical to the concave. Apart from providing the ability to distinguish shapes from their surroundings. Elements arranged close together are grouped according to another law of gestalt. that is to say in the partly enclosed area. Patterns frequently possess no shapes that can be arranged according to the principles of closure or proximity. An initial and essential principle of the perception of gestalt. If a pattern contains no symmetry or similar widths. The example on the left demonstrates that we first see a circle and then an arrangement of luminaires. This in turn leads to a formative effect even in the case of open curves or angles. there is another mechanism via which shapes that are not competely closed can be perceived as a gestalt. or the inner line. The basic principle that lies behind our ability to distinguish between shapes and background is once again evident here: our unconscious search for order in our visual field. The perception of a form as a pure shape is based on simple. the effect of the inner side can be significant. and form a figure. be it the grouping together of individual shapes to form one large shape or the inter-relationship of a number of shapes to form a group. but forms a circle. figures from their background. Closed forms need not possess a continuous contour. however.1 Perception 2. evident. A principle of order and organisation is. i. When two modular luminaires are added the arrangement is reorganised according to the law of symmetry to form two groups of five. from eight points upwards a circle is formed. A closed shape is always seen as being on the inside of the linking line – the formative effect therefore only works in one direction.

1 Perception 2. Besides spatial layout. This principle of identity also applies when the shapes in a group are not absolutely identical but only similar. In the case of the law of "common destiny" it is not the similarity of structure. Law of gestalt relating to continuous lines. The arrangement is interpreted as two superimposed rectangles. but in groups of identical shapes. At first glance these laws of gestalt appear to be very abstract and of little significance for the lighting designer. if the concept it is based on ignores the mechanisms inherent to perception. which is placed on the original pattern. predominantly of the spatial position. it is as if they are drawn on a transparent overlay. The arrangement is interpreted as two lines crossing. and to avoid bends and deviations. shapes are organised to create figures that are as simple and clearly arranged as possible. In this case. The proximity of shapes is an equally essential principle in this regard. This becomes apparent when some of the forms that were originally attributed to a previously wellorganised group. which assembles the figures into groups. A further criterion for the formulation of groups is symmetry. 35 . too. The final law of gestalt for the arrangement of groups is a special case. The shapes in the adjacent drawing are not organised according to proximity or axial symmetry. The actual lighting effect produced by a planned arrangement of luminaires may deviate totally from the original design.2 Perceptual psychology A basic law of gestalt is to prefer to perceive lines as steady continuous curves or straight lines. the structure of the shapes themselves is also responsible for the formation into groups. similar laws of gestalt come into play as with the focal selection of figure and background. When a given number of individual shapes are put together to form groups. because in contrast to the remaining figures. Especially in the case of axial symmetry (arrangements around a vertical axis) the mirrored shapes are always grouped in pairs. When it comes to two-dimensional shapes the law of the continuous line conforms with the law of pure form. The common movement of the group in contrast to the immovability of the other figures renders their belonging together in any purposeful sense so probable that the original image is spontaneously reinterpreted.1. This effect can be so strong that the grouping of adjacent shapes according to the law of proximity becomes irrelevant. The preferance to perceive continuous lines is so great that it can influence the overall interpretation of an image. Law of gestalt relating to similarity. move in unison. But these laws of gestalt do play an important role in the development of luminaire arrangements. Luminaires of the same type are grouped together. as it involves the element of movement.2. but rather a mutual change. Law of gestalt relating to pure form.

location of the light-sensitive receptors Choroid membrane for blood supply to the eye Sclera 36 .2.3 Physiology of the eye Sectional view of the eye.1. representation showing the parts of the eye which are significant in the physiology of vision: Cornea Cavity Fovea Lens Vitreous body Iris with pupil as the visual aperture Ciliary muscle for adaptation of lens to different viewing distances (accommodation) Optical nerve Retina.1 Perception 2.

the rods and the cones. On close examination it is evident that these receptors are not arranged in a uniform pattern. but how the image is interpreted. Although this means that priority will be given here to the process by which the image is created both physiologically and psychologically. The peripheral field of vision is also significant. The retina has. which regulates incident light in a 1:16 ratio. but more interesting by far is the surface on which the image occurs . Objects of low luminance. At one point. how we differentiate between objects with constant properties in a changing environment.1. the main reason for us to change our direction of view is the presence of high luminances . the so-called “blind spot”. Apart from noticing sudden movement. We can perceive the world around us by moonlight or sunlight.1 Perception 2. 37 . Adaptation is performed to a large extent by the retina. The rod system comes into effect in relation to night vision (scotopic vision). but adapts to cover one narrow range in which differentiated perception is possible. under daylight or electric light. i. On the other hand there is an area called the fovea. from an evolutionary point of view.104 12 . rods do not allow us to perceive colour. which are then received as an image in the fovea to be examined more closely.e. i. the cones allow us to see during the daytime (photopic vision) and both receptor systems are activated in the transition times of dawn and dusk (mesopic vision). on the other hand.e. we do not perceive the entire field of vision uniformly. The extent of tasks the eye is capable of performing is extremely wide . The reason for this arrangement of different receptor types lies in the fact that our eyes consist of two visual systems. which are not distributed evenly over the retina. as this is the junction between the optic nerves and the retina. there are no receptors at all. and it is not possible to concentrate on objects. This is where we find the greatest concentration of rods.104 8 . although it only produces an illuminance of 10-12 lux on the eye.e.3 Physiology of the eye The information presented in this chapter is based on the consideration that it is inadequate to portray the eye as an optical system when describing human perception. In contrast to rod vision. the cones.0 0.3 Physiology of the eye 2. they appear to be extremely bright. It is in this layer that the pattern of luminances is translated into nervous impulses. Although vision is therefore possible over an extremely wide area of luminances there are clearly strict limits with regard to contrast perception in each individual lighting situation. N 16 . which is at the focal point of the lens. therefore. We have described this system by comparing the eye with a camera. but as it does so it Number N of rods and cones on the retina in relation to the angle of sight.104 4 .a faintly glowing star in the night’s sky can be perceived. contours are not sharp.the retina. however. to possess light sensitive receptors that are numerously sufficient to allow a high resolution of the visual image. The older of these two systems. The special features of this system are a high level of light-sensitivity and a large capacity for perceiving movement over the entire field of vision. The reason for this lies in the fact that the eye cannot cover the entire range of possible luminances at one and the same time. that is to say. One of the most remarkable properties of the eye is its ability to adapt to different lighting conditions. The eye is first and foremost an optical system creating images on the retina.2 V' V 400 500 600 700 800 ¬ (nm) Relative spectral luminous efficiency of rods V’ and cones V. This accomodation is only influenced to a very small extent by the pupil. The main features of night vision . The cone system has a lower level of lightsensitivity and is concentrated in the central area around the fovea. This is a system which we require to see things under greater luminous intensities. Here there is the greatest concentration of cones.1. the eye and its fundamental properties should not be ignored. appear to be too dark.2. The rod system is extremely sensitive and it is activated when the illumance level is below 1 lux. whereas the density of the cones reduces rapidly towards the peripheral area. The other type of receptors. to study items clearly when they are in the centre of our field of vision. On the other hand.104 temporal nasal Rods Cones Blind spot 60˚ 40˚ 20˚ 0˚ 20˚ 40˚ 60˚ 1. It allows us to see colours and sharper contours of objects on which we focus. if interesting phenomena are perceived in that area then our attention is automatically drawn to these points. The process of perception is not a matter of how an image of our environment is transferred to the retina.8 0. striking colours and patterns. which are not evident at all in the fovea.4 0.our eyes and attention are attracted by bright light. The rod and cone system handles different levels of light intensity. The eye is able to adjust to new luminance conditions. contours are blurred and poorly lit items in our peripheral field of vision are more visible – can be explained by the properties of the rod system. the retina is a very complicated structure: firstly there are two different types of receptor.6 0. whose image falls in the fovea area. although there is a difference of a factor of 105 in the illuminance. Objects that possess too high a luminance for a particular level of adaptation cause glare.mainly the fact that colour is not evident. is the one involving the rods. i. the main area of perception is in the central area. make up a system with very different properties.

0 H 0. and it also makes sense because not all the information that exists in our environment is necessarily relevant for perception. Both the fact that contrast in luminance can only be processed by the eye within a certain range.1. A precision mechanic processes different information than a worker in a warehouse. 65˚ 1 30˚ 15˚ 0˚ 15˚ 30˚ 2 3 Although this chapter has described the psychological mechanisms involved in the perception process together with the physiological prerequisites. This process of adaptation does take time.20 m 15˚ 25˚ 40˚ Preferred field of vision for horizontal visual tasks. In the first instance the value of any particular information relates to the current activity of the observer.20 m 25˚ 35˚ 3 60˚ Visual field (1). plus the fact that it takes time to adapt to a new level of lighting. or brightness. or when adjusting lighting levels in adjacent spaces. The way the fovea prefers to focus on small. for example. Any attempt to describe visual perception effectively must therefore also take into account the criteria by which the selection of the perceived information is effected. This selection is inevitable. To this point the things that were seen were either “objects” or “figures” in general or examples chosen to illustrate a certain mechanism. 38 .1 Perception 2. 2. whereas adapting from light to darkness requires a considerably longer time. preferred direction of view 25°. a third area has only been touched upon . It is possible 65˚ Frequency H of angle of sight å for horizontal visual tasks. whether small details or slight contrasts have to be registered. changing scenes shows that the perception process purposefully selects specific areas. Adapting from dark to light situations occurs relatively rapidly. This activity may be work or movement-related or any other activity for which visual information is required.6 0. Lighting conditions under which the visual task can be perceived to an optimum degree can be determined from the abovementioned specific features. A car driver has to concentrate on different visual tasks than a pedestrian. whether colours or surface structures are essential properties. as the brain is not capable of processing all the visual information in the field of vision. Preferred direction of view 25°. 1. The specific information received depends on the type of activity. or the transitory period of night blindness we experience when entering a very dark room. A good example of this is how bright we find it outside having come out of a dark cinema auditorium during the daytime. Preferred field of vision between 15° and 40°.the subject of perception.1.70 m 20˚ 45˚ 2 3 simply selects a different but restricted range. A visual task can be defined by size or location. however. We do not perceive any object that comes within our field of vision.4 Objects of perception 1 30˚ 0˚ 2 1.2. below) for vertical visual tasks. it is of importance whether a visual task is movement-related or not. have an impact on lighting design: the purposeful planning of different luminance grades within a space.4 Objects of perception 1 45˚ 0˚ 10˚ 1.2 å 15˚ 25˚ 40˚ 90˚ 1. preferred visual field (2) and optimum field of vision (3) of a person standing (above) and sitting (centre.

2.1 Perception 2.1.4 Objects of perception

Typical illuminances E and luminances under daylight and electric light.

Sunlight Overcast sky Task lighting Circulation zone lighting Street lighting Moonlight

E (lux) 100 000 10 000 1000 100 10 1 L (cd/m2) 1000 000 000 100 000 10 000 10 000 5 000 500 100 50–500 100 10–50 1

Sunlight Incandescent lamp (matt finish) Fluorescent lamp Sunlit Clouds Blue sky Luminous ceiling Louvred luminaires Preferred values in interior spaces White paper at 500 lx Monitor (negative) White paper at 5 lx

1 2 3 4 5 7 L (cd/m2) 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 6

Luminance range L of rod vision (1), mesopic vision (2) and cone vision (3). Luminances (4) and preferred luminances (5) in interior spaces. Absolute threshold of vision (6) and threshold of absolute glare (7).

to define ways of lighting which will optimise the performace of specific activities. Investigations have been carried out especially in office and traffic situations to study the respective visual tasks and a wide range of activities and to determine the conditions required for optimum perception. Standards and recommendations for the lighting of workplaces and traffic systems are based on the findings of this research. There is, however, another basic need for visual information that goes beyond the specific information required for a particular activity. This requirement for information is not related to any particular situation, it is the result of man’s biological need to understand the world around him. Whereas you can enable a person to work more effectively by creating optimum perceptual conditions for certain activities, man’s feeling of wellbeing in his visual environment depends on satisfying his biological need for information. Much of the information required results from man’s need to feel safe. To be able to evaluate a danger you have to be able to comprehend the structure of your environment. This applies both to orientation – knowing where you are, which route you are on, and what the potential destinations may be – and knowledge about the qualities and peculiarities of the environment you find yourself in. This knowledge, or lack of information, determines the way we feel and our behaviour. It can lead to a feeling of tension and unrest in unknown or potentially dangerous situations, or relaxation and tranquility in a familiar and safe environment. Other information about the world around us is required to allow us to adapt our behaviour to the specific situation. This may include knowledge of weather conditions and the time of day as well as information relating to other activities occurring in the given environment. Should this information not be available, e.g. in large, windowless buildings, the situation is often interpreted as being unnatural and oppressive. A third area arises from man’s social needs. The need for contact with other people and the demand for a private sphere are somewhat contradictory and have to be carefully balanced. The focus on which visual information is to be taken in is, therefore, determined by the activities being performed in a given environment and man’s basic biological needs. Areas that promise significant information – be it in their own right, or through accentuation with the aid of light – are perceived first. They attract our attention. The information content of a given object is responsible for its being selected as an object of perception. Moreover, the information content also has an influence on the way in which an object is perceived and evaluated.

The glare phenomenon illustrates this particularly well. If the exterior lighting is especially strong, an opal glass window will produce glare, a fact that can be explained physiologically by the great contrast between the luminance of the window and the considerably lower luminance level of the surrounding wall surface. In the case of a window that provides an interesting view outside, the contrast is greater, but the feeling that we are being subjected to disturbing glare does not arise. Glare can, therefore, not only be explained from a physiological standpoint, as it occurs when a bright surface with no information content attracts our attention. Even high luminance contrasts are felt to be glare-free, if the area perceived offers interesting information. It is therefore clear that it is not practical to stipulate photometric quantities – e.g. luminance or illuminance limits – out of context, since the actual perception of these photometric quantities is influenced by the processing of the information provided.


2.2 Terms and units


Terms and units

In lighting technology a number of technical terms and units are used to describe the properties of light sources and the effects that are produced. 2.2.1 Luminous flux [Ï] = Lumen (lm) Luminous flux describes the total amount of light emitted by a light source. This radiation could basically be measured or expressed in watt. This does not, however, describe the optical effect of a light source adequately, since the varying spectral sensitivity of the eye is not taken into account. To include the spectral sensitivity of the eye the luminous flux is measured in lumen. Radiant flux of 1 W emitted at the peak of the spectral sensitivity (in the photopic range at 555 nm) produces a luminous flux of 683 lm. Due to the shape of the V (l) curve the same radiant flux will produce correspondingly less luminous flux at different frequency points. 2.2.2 Luminous efficacy Luminous efficacy describes the luminous flux of a lamp in relation to its power consumption and is therefore expressed in lumen per watt (lm/W). The maximum value theoretically attainable when the total radiant power is transformed into visible light is 683 lm/W. Luminous efficacy varies from light source to light source, but always remains well below this optimum value. 2.2.3 Quantity of light The quantity of light, or luminous energy (US), is a product of the luminous flux emitted multiplied by time; luminous energy is generally expressed in klm · h. Q=Ï.t [Q] = Im . h 2.2.4 Luminous intensity An ideal point-source lamp radiates luminous flux uniformly into the space in all directions; its luminous intensity is the same in all directions. In practice, however, luminous flux is not distributed uniformly. This results partly from the design of the light source, and partly on the way the light is intentionally directed. It makes sense, therefore, to have a way of presenting the spatial distribution of luminous flux, i.e. the luminous intensity distribution of the light source. The unit for measuring luminous intensity is candela (cd). The candela is the primary basic unit in lighting technology from which all others are derived. The candela was originally defined by the luminous intensity of a standardised candle. Later thorium powder at the temperature of the solidification of platinum was de-

The amount of light emitted by a light source is the luminous flux Ï.


æ= Ï P [æ] = Im W

Luminous intensity I is the luminous flux Ï radiating in a given direction per solid angle Ø.




I= Ï Ø [I] = Im sr Im = Candela (cd) sr



Terms and units

C 0/180˚ C 90/270˚

90˚ I 0˚

Luminous intensity distribution of a light source having rotational symmetry. A section through the C plane produces the luminous intensity distribution curve.

C 0/180˚

fined as the standard; since 1979 the candela has been defined by a source of radiation that radiates 1/683 W per steradian at a frequency of 540 · 1012 Hz. The distribution of the luminous intensity of a light source throughout a space produces a three-dimensional graph. A section through this graph results in a luminous intensity distribution curve, which describes the luminous intensity on one plane. The lumious intensity is usually indicated in a polar coordinate system as the function of the beam angle. To allow comparison between different light sources to be made, the light distribution curves are based on an output of 1000 lm. In the case of symmetrical luminaires one light distribution curve is sufficient to describe one luminaire, axially symmetrical luminaires require two curves, which are usually depicted in one diagram. The polar coordinate diagram is not sufficiently accurate for narrow-beam luminaires, e.g. stage projectors. In this case it is usual to provide a Cartesian coordinate system.

C 90/270˚


I 0˚

Luminous intensity distribution body and diagram (for planes C 0/180° and C 90/270°) of an axially symmetrical luminaire. Luminous intensity distribution curve standardised to 1000 lm, represented in polar coordinates and Cartesian coordinates. The angle within which the maximum luminous intensity l' is reduced to l'/2, identifies the beam spread ∫. The cutoff angle å is the limiting angle of the luminous intensity distribution curve.
-90˚ å ß -60˚ I' 2 60˚ I' 2 90˚ I'

I = I' . Ï [I] = cd [I'] = cd/kIm [Ï] = kIm
Conversion of 1000 lm-related luminous intensity I’ to effective luminous intensity l.

©G I'

å 30˚ -40˚ -20˚ ß 0˚ 20˚ 40˚ å




Terms and units

Illuminance E indicates the amount of luminous flux from a light source falling on a given surface A.

2.2.5 Illuminance Illuminance is the means of evaluating the density of luminous flux. It indicates the amount of luminous flux from a light source falling on a given area. Illuminance need not necessarily be related to a real surface. It can be measured at any point within a space. Illuminance can be determined from the luminous intensity of the light source.Illuminance decreases with the square of the distance from the light source (inverse square law). 2.2.6 Exposure Eh Ev Exposure is described as the product of the illuminance and the exposure time. Exposure is an important issue, for example, regarding the calculating of light exposure on exhibits in museums. Em = Ï A

Horizontal illuminance E h and vertical illuminnance Ev in interior spaces.

Average illuminance Em is calculated from the luminous flux Ï falling on the given surface A.

2.2.7 Luminance Whereas illuminance indicates the amount of luminous flux falling on a given surface, luminance describes the brightness of an illuminated or luminous surface. Luminance is defined as the ratio of luminous intensity of a surface (cd) to the projected area of this surface (m2 ). In the case of illumination the light can be reflected by the surface or transmitted through the surface. In the case of diffuse reflecting (matt) and diffuse transmitting (opaque) materials luminance can be calculated from the illuminance and the reflectance or transmittance. Luminance is the basis for describing perceived brightness; the actual brightness is, however, still influenced by the state of adaptation of the eye, the surrounding contrast ratios and the information content of the perceived surface.


The illuminance at a point Ep is calculated from the luminous intensity l and the distance a between the light source and the given point.



Ep = I2 a [Ep] = Ix [I] = cd


[a] = m

The luminance of a luminous surface is the ratio of luminous intensity l and the projected surface area Ap .
I L Ap

L= I Ap [L] = cd m2

The luminance of an illuminated surface with diffuse reflectance is proportional to the illuminance and the reflectance of the surface.

L1 = L2 =
Eh ®1 L1 Ev ®2 L 2

Eh . ®1 ¿ Ev . ®2 ¿

[L] = cd m2 [E] = Ix


2.3 Light and light sources
Light, the basis for all vision, is an element of our lives that we take for granted. We are so familiar with brightness, darkness and the spectrum of visible colours that another form of perception in a different frequency range and with different colour sensitivity is difficult for us to imagine. Visible light is in fact just a small part of an essentially broader spectrum of electromagnetic waves, which range from cosmic rays to radio waves. It is not just by chance that the 380 to 780 nm range forms the basis for our vision, i.e. “visible light”. It is this very range that we have at our disposal as solar radiation on earth in relatively uniform amounts and can therefore serve as a reliable basis for our perception. The human eye therefore utilises the part of the spectrum of electromagnetic waves available to gather information about the world around us. It perceives the amount and distribution of the light that is radiated or reflected from objects to gain information about their existence or their quality; it also perceives the colour of this light to acquire additional information about these objects. The human eye is adjusted to the only light source that has been available for millions of years – the sun. The eye is therefore at its most sensitive in the area in which we experience maximum solar radiation. Our perception of colour is therefore also attuned to the continuous spectrum of sunlight.


Light and light sources

The first artificial light source was the flame of fire, in which glowing particles of carbon produce light that, like sunlight, has a continuous spectrum. For a long time the production of light was based on this principle, which exploited flaming torches and kindling, then the candle and the oil lamp and gas light to an increasingly effective degree. With the development of the incandescent mantle for gas lighting in the second half of the 19th century the principle of the self luminous flame became outdated; in its place we find a material that can be made to glow by heating – the flame was now only needed to produce the required temperature. Incandescent gas light was accompanied practically simultaneously by the development of electric arc and incandescent lamps, which were joined at the end of the 19th century by discharge lamps. In the 1930s gas light had practically been completely replaced by a whole range of electric light sources,whose operation provides the bases for all modern light sources. Electric light sources can be divided into two main groups, which differ according to the processes applied to convert electrical energy into light. One group comprises the thermal radiators, they include incandescent lamps and halogen lamps. The second group comprises the discharge lamps; they include a wide range of light sources, e.g. all forms of fluorescent lamps, mercury or sodium discharge lamps and metal halide lamps.

1,0 Se (%) 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 500 1000 1500 2000 ¬ (nm) 2500

Relative spectral distribution Se (l) of solar radiation (sunlight and sky light) with a pronounced emission maximum in the visible range.

10 16 ¬ (nm) 10 14

Audio frequencies Long wave

850 ¬ (nm) 800 IR radiation

10 12 10 10 10 8 10 6 10 4 10 2 10 0

Medium wave Short wave Ultra short wave Decimetre waves Centimetre waves Microwaves Radar IR radiation UV radiation X rays Gamma rays Cosmic radiation

750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 UV radiation

Ranges of electromagnetic radiation. The spectrum of visible radiation comprises the narrow band between 380 and 780 nm.

10 - 2 10 - 4 10 - 6


compact fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps. Current developments show a marked trend towards the development of compact light sources such as lowvoltage halogen lamps.2.3 Light and light sources Technical lamps Thermal radiators Discharge lamps Low-pressure lamps High-pressure lamps Incandescent lamps Halogen lamps Fluorescent lamps Mercury lamps Low-voltage halogen lamps Compact fluorescent lamps Metal halide lamps Low-pressure sodium lamps High-pressure sodium lamps Representation of the different kinds of electric light sources according to the means of their light production. In the case of technical lamps the main distinction is between thermal radiators and discharge lamps. Discharge lamps are further subdivided into high-pressure and low-pressure lamps. 44 .

Depending on lamp type and wattage the temperature of the filament can reach up to 3000 K. that have a sufficiently high melting point and at the same time a sufficiently low evaporation rate below melting point that render them suitable for use as filament wires. 100 Se (%) 80 ¬ max 60 40 20 4000 K 3500 K 3000 K 2500 K 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 ¬ (mm) 2800 K Dimming characteristics of incandescent lamps. Nowadays practically only tungsten is used for the manufacture of filament wires. The filament wire begins to glow when it is heated to a sufficiently high temperature by an electric current.3.2. to a minimum. which is relatively large in order to keep light loss. because it only melts at a temperature of 3653 K and has a low evaporation rate. The inert gases predominantly used are argon and krypton. Relative luminous flux Ï and colour temperature as a function of the relative voltage U/U n . As the temperature increases the maximum radiation shifts into the visible range. The krypton permits a higher operating temperature – and greater lu- Incandescent lamps with tungsten filaments in an evacuated or gasfilled glass bulb. due to deposits of evaporated tungsten (blackening). there are a substantial number of practical problems involved in the construction of an incandescent lamp. As is the case with all heated solid bodies – or the highly compressed gas produced by the sun – the incandescent lamp radiates a continuous spectrum.1 Incandescent lamps The incandescent lamp is a thermal radiator. of which one part is visible light. but at the same time reduces the evaporation rate of the tungsten. General service lamp (left) and pressed-glass lamp with integrated parabolic reflector (right). A reduction in voltage results in a disproportionate decrease in luminous flux.3. which in turn leads to increased luminous efficacy and a longer lamp life. As the temperature increases the spectrum of the radiated light shifts towards the shorter wavelength range – the red heat of the filament shifts to the warm white light of the incandescent lamp. In the case of the incandescent lamp the filament is located inside a soft glass bulb. for example. Spectral distribution S e (¬) of a thermal radiator at different filament temperatures. 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 2100 K 2000 K 2700 K 2600 K 2500 K 2400 K 2300 K 2200 K U/Un 20 40 60 80 (%) 100 45 .1 Incandescent lamps 2. which would increase the luminous efficacy and produce a cool white luminous colour. The heating of the filament wire results from its high electrical resistance – electrical energy is converted into radiant energy. The spectral distrbution curve is therefore continuous and does not consist of a set of individual lines. with the result that in comparison to the visible spectrum there is a high degree of thermal radiation and very little UV radiation. Although this is basically a simple principle. The thermal insulation properties of the gas used to fill the bulb increases the temperature of the wire filament. Maximum radiation at these temperatures still lies in the infrared range. The tungsten is made into fine wires and is wound to make single or double coiled filaments. Lack of a suitable material for the filament means that it is not possible to increase the temperature further. To prevent the filament from oxidising the outer envelope is evacuated for low wattages and filled with nitrogen or a nitrogen-based inert gas mixture for higher wattages.3 Light and light sources 2. in the case of halogen lamps over 3000 K. There are only a few conducting materials.

3. with insulated filament supports The inside of the lamp is either evacuated or filled with inert gas Filament. The first functional incandescent lamps were made in 1854 by Heinrich Goebel. The real breakthrough that made the incandescent the most common light source can be ascribed to Thomas Alva Edison. Parts of the glass bulb can be provided with a silver coating to form a reflector 46 . usually a double coil of tungsten wire Clear. Insulated contact for connection to the phase Screw cap to secure lamp mechanically. matt or coloured glass bulb. who developed the incandescent lamp as we know it today in 1879.1 Incandescent lamps General service lamp: the principle of producing light by means of an electrically heated wire filament has been known since1802.2.3 Light and light sources 2. also serves as a contact to the neutral conductor Connection wires with integrated fuse Glass stem.

although. Relative power P of incandescent lamps as a function of voltage. the R lamps control the light via their form and a partly silvered area inside the lamp. The thermal load on illuminated objects can therefore be reduced by half. for example. krypton is only used in special applications. selectively reflective coating. the parabolic reflector produces a well-defined beam spread. there are a number of disadvantages: low luminous efficacy. as well as a wide range of special models available for decorative purposes.8 Un Ïn æ = ( U )2. The continuous colour spectrum of the incandescent lamp provides excellent colour rendition. in contrast with the A lamps. No additional control gear is required for their operation and the lamps can be operated in any burning position. a subgroup of the PAR lamps. Special forms are available for critical applications (e. In the case of cool-beam lamps. i. Due to the fact that it is so expensive. which radiate light in all directions. a dichroic. sparkling effects can be produced on shiny surfaces and the light easily controlled using optical equipment. A characteristic feature of incandescent lamps is their low colour temperature the light they produce is warm in comparison to daylight. electrical power P and lamp life t. Incandescent lamps can be easily dimmed.e. Incandescent lamps can therefore be applied for both narrow-beam accent lighting and for wide-beam general lighting. is applied. Another range of incandescents are the PAR (parabolic reflector) lamps.g. As a point source with a high luminance. 100 P (%) 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 U/Un (%) 100 Effect of overvoltage and undervoltage on relative luminous flux Ï. % 180 140 100 60 20 80 90 100 110 U/Un (%) 120 t Ï æ P Luminous flux Luminous efficacy Power Lamp life Colour temperature Exponential correlation between the relative voltage U/Un and electrical and photometric quantities. matt or opal. In spite of these advantages.2.4 Un Tfn 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 t (h) 1800 200 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 600 1000 1400 200 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 600 1000 1400 t (h) 1800 Proportion of operating lamps N.3. General service lamps (A lamps) are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Ï = ( U )3. which increases the luminous efficacy by up to 40 %. The glass bulbs are clear.3 Light and light sources 2. while the lamp life relates significantly to the operating voltage.3 Un æn P = ( U )1. or lamps exposed to mechanical loads).5 Pn Un t = ( U )–14 tn Un Tf = ( U )0.1 Incandescent lamps minous efficacy. and a relatively short lamp life. Dichroic reflectors reflect visible light. 40 20 t (h) 1800 200 600 1000 1400 47 . luminous efficacy n. Special incandescent lamps are available with a dichroic coating inside the bulb that reflects the infrared component back to the wire filament. A second basic model is the reflector lamp (R lamp). The PAR lamp is made of pressed glass to provide a higher resistance to changes in temperature and a more exact form. The bulbs of these lamps are also blown from soft glass. but allow a large part of the IR radiation to pass the reflector. rooms subject to the danger of explosion. lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of total installation ÏA (as the product of both values) as a function of the operating time t.

producing medium beam characteristics. Bottom row (from left to right): reflector lamp with pressed glass bulb and efficient parabolic reflector (PAR lamp). PAR lamp with dichroic cool-beam reflector. high-power pressed-glass reflector lamp. infrared radiation is reflected back to the filament.1 Incandescent lamps Top row (from left to right): decorative lamp. infrared radiation transmitted. 48 . The increase in the temperature of the filament results in increased luminous efficacy. also suitable for exterior application due to its high resistance to changes in temperature.3. reflector lamp with soft glass bulb and ellipsoidal or parabolic reflector. This allows visible light to be transmitted. thereby reducing the thermal load on the illuminated objects. Incandescent lamp with glass bulb coated with dichroic material (hot mirror). general service lamp. available for narrowbeam (spot) and widebeam (flood). Visible light is reflected.2.3 Light and light sources 2.

1 Halogen lamps It is not so much the melting point of the tungsten (which. lowvoltage halogen lamps do have to be run on a transformer. In order to achieve this a compact bulb of quartz glass is fitted tightly over the filament. The compact form of the halogen lamp makes it ideal as a point-source lamp. luminous efficacy n. The temperature of the outer glass envelope has to be over 250° C to allow the development of the halogen cycle to take place.2. 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 Proportion of operating lamps N as a function of the operating time t. 2800 K of the operating temperature of incandescents) that hinders the construction of more efficient incandescent lamps. The luminous efficacy of halogen lamps is well above that of conventional incandescents – especially in the low-voltage range. which takes on the form of a gas at the temperature in the outer section of the lamp and can therefore leave no deposits on the glass bulb. This compact form not only means an increase in temperature. Halogen lamp for mains voltage with screw cap and outer envelope (left). at 3653 K. however. which increases the luminous efficacy of these lamps considerably. which in turn reduces the evaporation rate of the tungsten. Low-voltage halogen lamp with pin base and axial filament in a quartz glass bulb (right). but also an increase in gas pressure. its light can be handled easily and it can create attractive sparkling effects. but rather the increasing rate of evaporation of the filament that accompanies the increase in temperature. Compared with the conventional incandescent the halogen lamp gives a whiter light – a result of its higher operating temperature of 3000 to 3300 K. Halogen lamps may have a dichroic. heatreflecting coating inside the bulbs.1.3 Light and light sources 2. Some tungsten halogen lamps have to be operated with a protective glass cover. The metal halide is split into tungsten and halogen once again at the considerably hotter filament and the tungsten is then returned to the coil. Splitting of the tungsten halogens back to the filament. is still a relatively long way from the approx. This initially leads to lower performance due to the blackening of the surrounding glass bulb until finally the filament burns through.1 Incandescent lamps 2. In the case of double-ended lamps. Halogen cycle: combination of evaporated tungsten and halogen to produce tungsten halide in the peripheral area. The continuous spectrum produces excellent colour rendering properties.3. The price to be paid for an increase in luminous efficiency is therefore a shorter lamp life. electrical power P and lamp life t. Halogen lamps are dimmable. The outer envelope means that the lamp can be operated without a protective glass covering. Like conventional incandescent lamps. projector lamps and special purpose lamps for studios the burning position is frequently restricted. they require no additional control gear. its luminous colour is still in the warm white range. The evaporated tungsten combines with the halogen to form a metal halide. 60 20 80 90 100 110 U/Un (%) 120 49 . The lamp life of halogen lamps is longer than that of conventional incandescents.3. One technical way of preventing the blackening of the glass is the adding of halogens to the gas mixture inside the lamp. % 180 140 100 1000 2000 t (h) 3000 t Ï æ P Influence of overvoltage and undervoltage on relative luminous flux Ï.

3 Light and light sources 2. 50 . Below (from left to right): halogen lamp for mains voltage with an E 27 cap and outer glass envelope. and the double-ended version. halogen lamps can be run on mains voltage. but some are equipped with an E 27 screw cap and an additional glass envelope and can be used in the same way as conventional incandescents. with a bayonet cap. bi-pin and cool-beam glass reflector. or cool-beam reflector versions. with an aluminium reflector for increased power.1 Incandescent lamps Like almost all conventional incandescent lamps. low-voltage halogen lamps are also gaining in importance. The advantages of this latter light source – high luminous efficiency in a small-dimensioned lamp – resulted in wide application of low-voltage halogen lamps in the field of architectural lighting.3. Low-voltage halogen lamps are available for different voltages (12/ 24 V) and in different shapes. The lamp’s small size allows compact luminaire designs and concentrated spread angles. As well as mains voltage halogen lamps. with bayonet connection and aluminium reflector.2. Above (from left to right): low-voltage halogen bi-pin lamp and aluminium reflector. The halogen and lowvoltage halogen lamps most commonly used in interior lighting. They usually have special caps. Low-voltage halogen lamp with transverse filament and axial filament. Here too a selection can be made between clear lamps and various lamp and reflector combinations.

3 Lamp life 3000 h Low-voltage halogen lamps. d (mm) 122 LV halogen reflector lamp Des.3. P (W) QT-DE12 100 150 200 300 500 Cap: R7s-15 Single and doubleended halogen lamps for mains voltage. P (W) (lm) l (mm) QR-CB35 20 5000 37/44 QR35 8000 CB35 Cap: GZ4 Lamp life 2000 h d (mm) 38 58 d (mm) 70 d (mm) 179 d (mm) 111 d (mm) 35 Halogen lamp Des.2. P (W) (lm) l (mm) PAR38 60 600 136 80 800 120 1200 Cap: E27 Lamp life 2000 h Parabolic reflector lamp Des. P (W) (lm) l (mm) PAR56 300 3000 127 Cap: GX16d Lamp life 2000 h General service lamps. P (W) (lm) QT32 75 1050 100 1400 150 2500 250 4200 Cap: E27 Lamp life 2000 h Halogen lamp Des. lamp length l and lamp diameter d. P (W) (lm) l (mm) QR-CB51 20 8000 45 QR35 13000 CB51 50 15000 65/70 20000 Cap: GX5. P (W) QT9 10 20 Cap: G4 LV halogen lamp Des. d (mm) 51 l (mm) 86 86 98 98 d (mm) 18 (lm) l (mm) 1650 75 2500 75 3200 115 5000 115 9500 115 Lamp life 2000 h d (mm) 12 51 . power P. P (W) R63 60 R80 100 R95 100 Cap: E27 d (mm) 60 60 65 80 LV halogen lamp Des. P (W) (lm) QT18 75 1050 100 1400 150 2500 250 4200 Cap: B15dLamp life 2000 h Halogen lamp Des. reflector lamps and two standard PAR lamps for mains voltage with data regarding lamp classification.35 (lm) l (mm) 140 31 350 Lamp life 2000 h d (mm) 9 (lm) l (mm) 650 103 1080 110 1030 135 Lamp life 1000 h d (mm) 63 80 95 (lm) l (mm) 950 44 1600 2500 Lamp life 2000 h d (mm) 12 Parabolic reflector lamp Des.1 Incandescent lamps General service lamp Des. l (mm) 85 85 105 105 d (mm) 32 LV halogen cool-beam reflector lamp Des. P (W) (lm) l (mm) A60 60 730 107 A60 100 1380 107 A65 150 2220 128 A80 200 3150 156 Cap: E27/E40 Lamp life 1000 h Reflector lamp Des.3 Light and light sources 2. clear. P (W) (lm) l (mm) QR38 20 7000 38 QR58 50 18000 59 Cap: B15d Lamp life 2000 h LV halogen reflector lamp Des. luminous flux Ï. P (W) QT12 50 75 100 Cap: GY6. with metal reflector or with cool-beam reflector. P (W) (lm) l (mm) QR111 50 20000 45 75 25000 100 45000 Cap: G53 Lamp life 2000 h LV halogen cool-beam reflector lamp Des. P (W) (lm) l (mm) QR70 20 5000 50 75 15000 75 19000 Cap: B15d Lamp life 2000 h LV halogen reflector lamp Des.

The luminous efficacy of low-pressure discharge lamps is mainly dependent on lamp volume. in some cases this leads to lamp forms with additional glass bulbs. this equipment is integrated into the lamp.3. These can be determined by the choice of gas or metal vapour in the discharge tube. Each of these groups has different properties. the gas atom is decomposed to create a free electron and a positively charged ion. radiation. but by exciting gases or metal vapours. One group comprises low-pressure discharge lamps. For every type of gas there is a certain wavelength combination. light. but ionised. These lamps contain inert gases or a mixture of inert gas and metal vapour at a pressure well below 1 bar. The number of electrically charged. Ultraviolet radiation in particular. Whereas incandescent lamps have a continuous spectrum dependent on the temperature of the filament. Additional equipment is necessary for both the ignition and operation of discharge lamps.3. On their way through the discharge tube the electrons collide with gas atoms. Instant reignition is only possible if the starting voltage is very high. it is possible to exceed the given limit for thermal radiators of 3650 K and produce daylight-quality light of higher colour temperatures. High-pressure discharge lamps. through which specific luminous colours can be produced by the appropriate selection and mixing of the fluorescent material. The spectral lines spread out as the pressure increases. giving rise to a corresponding increase in radiation. Incandescent lamps can be run on the mains without any additional control gear.2 Discharge lamps 2. Due to the high pressure and the resulting high temperatures there is a great deal of interaction in the discharge gas. The result is a pure line spectrum. If the current is interrupted it is usually necessary to allow the lamp to cool down for a while before restarting it.e. when the electrons are travelling at a sufficiently high speed. in the luminaire. effective particles in the discharge tube is accordingly increased.2. these electrons must be made available via a special starting device. Discharge lamps can be divided into two main groups depending on the operating pressure. however. Moreover. Due to the low pressure inside the discharge tube there is hardly any interaction between the gas molecules. This applies in the first place to the means by which the light of the respective lamp is produced. approaching continuous spectral distribution.3 Light and light sources 2. the gas atoms are no longer excited on collision. from infrared through the visible region to ultraviolet. In general. They produce light as soon as they are switched on. As the gas that is to be excited is not ionised before ignition. To attain adequate luminous power the lamps must have large discharge tubes. are operated at a pressure well above 1 bar. It soon becomes evident that discharge lamps have different properties to incandescent lamps. In the case of discharge lamps. In some cases. The luminous power per unit of volume is far greater than that of a low-pressure . Light is no longer radiated in narrow spectral lines but in broader frequency ranges. there are various special ignition and operating conditions. light from discharge lamps is not produced by heating a filament. The number and distribution of the spectral lines results in light of different luminous colours. Through the voltage current is produced between the two electrodes. radiation shifts with increasing pressure into the longwave region of the spectrum. Another method for the effective production of luminous colours is through the application of fluorescent coatings on the interior surfaces of the discharge tube. The spectral lines can occur in all regions of the spectrum. is produced from one or several narrow frequency ranges. 52 Apart from the differences in the kind of light they produce.2 Discharge lamps In contrast to incandescent lamps. The ignition behaviour and performance of discharge lamps depend on the operating temperature. which occurs during certain gas discharge processes. There are special requirements for some of the lamps regarding the burning position. there are also differences between incandescent and discharge lamps when it comes to operating conditions. which would increase and destroy the lamp in a relatively short time. Once the discharge lamp has been ignited there is an avalanchelike ionisation of the excited gases. on the other hand. which are in turn excited to radiate light. If the speed of the electrons increases. which in turn leads to a continuously increasing operating current. is transformed into visible light by means of these fluorescent substances. but it is normally installed separate from the lamp.This results in enhanced colour rendering and luminous efficacy. discharge lamps produce a spectrum with narrow bands that are typical for the respective gases or metal vapours. To ignite a discharge lamp there must be sufficient electron current in the discharge tube. This is effected by applying voltage between two electrodes located in a discharge tube filled with inert gases or metal vapours. The quality of the discharge lamp can also be influenced by changing the pressure inside the discharge tube. and as a result white light of various colour temperatures can be produced. To prevent this from happening the operating current must be controlled by means of a ballast. i.

the discharge tubes are small. the lamp ignites when the voltage is applied. a warm white. To achieve this three different luminous substances are frequently combined. High-pressure discharge lamps – similar to incandescent lamps – are point sources with high lamp luminance.2.2. The diffuse light of the fluorescent lamp gives rise to soft shadows. The mercury atoms (4) are thus excited and in turn produce UV radiation (5). which. Different luminous colours can be achieved through the combination of appropriate fluorescent materials. In contrast to point sources (see incandescent lamps. As a rule the actual discharge tubes are surrounded by an additional outer envelope. above) the light from fluorescent sources is radiated from a larger surface area. the vapour of which produces ultraviolet radiation when excited. which stabilises the operating temperature of the lamp. It has an elongated discharge tube with an electrode at each end. To facilitate ignition of the fluorescent lamp the electrodes usually take the form of wire filaments and are coated with metallic oxide (emissive material) that promotes the flow of electrons.1 Fluorescent lamps The fluorescent lamp is a low-pressure discharge lamp using mercury vapour. but this light still has poorer colour rendering properties than light with a continuous spectrum due to the missing spectral components. Fluorescent lamps produce a spectrum. which means that they have different colour rendering compared with incandescent lamps. 100 Se(%) 80 60 40 20 200 400 600 ¬ (nm) 800 V (¬) 100 Se(%) V (¬) 80 60 40 20 400 100 Se(%) V (¬) 80 60 40 20 400 100 Se(%) V (¬) 80 60 T = 5000 K Ra = 98 500 600 700 800 ¬ (nm) T = 3800 K Ra = 95 500 600 700 800 ¬ (nm) T = 2700 K Ra = 95 Relative spectral distribution S e (¬) of lowpressure discharge of mercury vapour. which ignites easily and controls the discharge. The light is predominantly diffuse. if necessary. or. Relative spectral distribution Se (¬) of standard fluorescent lamps with very good colour rendering in warm white (above). Spatial forms and material qualities are therefore not emphasised.3.3. The radiation produced is to a large extent beyond the spectral sensitivity of the eye V (¬). plus a small amount of mercury. which is not continuous. The gas used to fill the tube comprises inert gas. The UV radiation is transformed into visible light (7) in the fluorescent coating (6). neutral white (centre) and daylight white (below). making it more suitable for the uniform illumination of larger areas than for accent lighting. The electrodes are preheated at the ignition stage. serves as a UV filter and can be used as a means of containing the fluorescent coating.3 Light and light sources 2. It is possible to produce white light of any colour temperature by combining fewer fluorescent materials. neutral white or daylight white colour is produced. 2. produce white light. when mixed together. There are no sparkling effects on glossy surfaces.2 Discharge lamps discharge. The inner surface of the discharge tube is coated with a fluorescent substance that transforms the ultraviolet radiation produced by the lamp into visible light by means of fluorescence. To produce fluorescent lamps with very good colour rendering properties more luminous sub1 2 4 7 5 6 3 When leaving the electrode (1) the electrons (2) collide with mercury atoms (3). 40 20 400 500 600 700 800 ¬ (nm) 53 . Depending on the composition of the luminous substances.

high luminous efficacy and a long lamp life. the main ones being warm white. Fluorescent lamps can be dimmed. Lamp types with a diameter of 38 mm are of little significance.g. Some models have an outer glass envelope around the discharge tube. 100 Ï (%) 60 20 -20 t (%) 150 100 50 N (1/d) 30 0 20 T (˚C) 40 The effect of ambient temperature T on lamp lumens Ï. There are no restrictions with regard to burning position. for lighting food displays. This means that concentra- % 120 100 80 80 100 U (%) 120 P Ï Effect of overvoltage and undervoltage on relative luminous flux Ï and electrical power P. The diameter of the lamps is 26 mm (and 16 mm). U-shaped or ring-shaped fluorescents are available for special applications. Fluorescent lamps in this form are not only confined to application in louvred luminaires. neutral white and daylight white. Fluorescent lamps ignite immediately and attain full power within a short period of time.2. above all. limited due to the relatively small volume of the discharge tube. Fluorescent lamps are available in a wide range of luminous colours.2. Fluorescent lamps are usually ignited via an external starting device and preheated electrodes. Fluorescent lamps have a high luminous efficacy.3 Light and light sources 2.2 Discharge lamps 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 3000 6000 9000 12000 t (h) 100 Ï (%) 80 EB CB 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 40 20 CB EB 60 40 20 3000 CB EB 6000 9000 12000 t (h) 3000 6000 9000 12000 t (h) Proportion of operating lamps N. Nominal lamp life of 100 % is achieved at a switching rate of 8 times every 24 hours. They have a long lamp life. The colour rendering properties of fluorescents can be improved at the cost of the luminous efficacy. These are mainly used in enclosed luminaires. downlights). which changes the appearance and the photometric properties of the lamp. which means that they can do without a starting device altogether. 10 20 T26 18W. Their luminous efficiency is. for environments where there is a risk of explosion. Through the application of electronic control gear (EB) the operating quality of the lamps is improved by comparison with the operation with conventional control gear (CB). but this reduces considerably the higher the switching rate. The compact form does offer a new set of qualities and fields of application. 36W. that is to say. 58W Comparison of lengths of standard T26 fluorescent lamps. 54 . There are also lamps available for special purposes (e. 100 Ï (%) 60 20 20 40 60 80 U (%) 100 Relative luminous flux Ï of fluorescent lamps as a function of voltage. lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of total installation ÏA (as the product of both values) as a function of the operating time t.3. they can also be used in compact reflector luminaires (e. however. UV lamps) and coloured lamps. Lamp life t as a function of switching frequency per day N. Both ignitors and ballasts are required for the operation of fluorescent lamps. enhanced luminous efficacy therefore means a deterioration in the colour rendering quality.g. Fluorescent lamps are usually tubular in shape. but they do have a more compact shape and consist of either one curved discharge tube or the combination of several short ones. Instant reignition is possible after an interruption of current.2 Compact fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps do not function any differently from conventional fluorescent lamps. whereby the length of the lamp is dependent on the wattage. Some models have integrated ignition. stances have to be combined in such a way that the spectral distribution corresponds as closely as possible to that of a continuous spectrum. Compact fluorescent lamps basically have the same properties as conventional fluorescents.3. 2.

Compact fluorescent lamps with two-pin plug-in cap and integral starting device (above). Compact fluorescent lamps are mainly available in the form of tubular lamps. In contrast to fluorescent lamps. high-voltage discharge lamps available that run at over 1000 V. 36W. High-voltage fluorescent tubes have a considerably lower luminous efficacy than conventional fluorescent lamps. which manage the high voltages required for ignition and operation. Arrangement of tubes in compact fluorescent lamps: TC/TC-L (above). High-voltage 55 In contrast to conventional fluorescent lamps.2 Discharge lamps ted light can be produced to accentuate the qualities of illuminated objects by creating shadows. screw cap with integral ballast for mains operation (below). If these lamps are used in luminaires designed to take incandescent lamps it should be noted that the luminaire characteristics will be compromised by the greater volume of the lamp.3. 2. 13W. 9W. in the case of compact fluorescents both ends of the discharge tube(s) are mounted on a single cap. in the case of lamps with two-pin plug-in caps the starting device is integrated into the cap. 40/55W Comparison of sizes of standard TC. As there are special regulations concerning installations run at 1000 V and more. Compact fluorescent lamps with an integrated starting device cannot be dimmed. There are. but there are models available with external igniting devices and four-pin bases that can be run on electronic control gear. However. which allows dimming. 11W TC-D 10W. TC-D (centre). 18W. but they have a long lamp life. they are operated on leakage transformers. TC 5W. the gas being either an inert or rare gas or a mixture of inert gas and mercury vapour. Starting device and ballast are required to operate these lamps. in which each lamp has a combination of two or four discharge tubes. High-voltage fluorescent tubes require a ballast. 26W TC-L 18W.2.3. Alongside the standard forms equipped with plug-in caps and designed to be run on ballasts. 24W.2. there is a range of compact fluorescent lamps with integrated starting device and ballast. Rare-gas discharge does not allow much scope when it comes to producing different colours. four-pin plugin cap for operation on electronic control gear (centre). however. which means they have to be ignited and run on high voltage. they have a screw cap and can be used like incandescent lamps. To extend the spectrum of colours available it is possible to use coloured discharge tubes.3 High-voltage fluorescent tubes High-voltage fluorescent tubes work on the principle of low-pressure gas discharge. high-voltage tubular lamps are usually operated at less than 1000 V. . Some of these lamps have an additional cylindrical or spherical glass bulb or cover to make them look more like incandescent lamps. TC-DEL (below). red can be produced using neon gas or blue using argon. mercury is usually added to the inert gas and the resulting ultraviolet radiation transformed into the desired luminous colours using fluorescent material. the electrodes contained in these lamps are not heated. TC-D and TC-L compact fluore-scent lamps. 7W.3 Light and light sources 2.

lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of total installation ÏA (as the product of both values) as a function of the operating time t. As the low-pressure sodium lamp has a very long lamp life.2. In the first place. 2.2. Low-pressure sodium vapour only produces light in two spectral lines which are very close together. High-voltage fluorescent tubes come in various diameters and lengths. The infrared radiation produced by the lamp is reflected back into the discharge tube via the dichroic coating on the glass. the light radiated by the lamp is monochrome yellow. because solid sodium – as opposed to liquid mercury – does not produce metal vapour at room temperature. it is the most economically efficient light source available. The line spectrum produced is close to the maximum spectral sensitivity of the eye. This leads to a number of essential differences to fluorescent lamps. The most striking feature of low-pressure sodium lamps is their extraordinarily high luminous efficacy.g.3. thereby enabling the actual metal vapour discharge to take place. The obvious disadvantage of these lamps with regard to the advantages mentioned above is their exceptionally poor colour rendering quality. for written signs and company logos. ignition can only be effected with the aid of additional inert gas. To guarantee a sufficiently high operating temperature. but limits colour rendering through its monochromatic character.3. e. Whereas mercury vapour excited at low pressure produces mainly ultraviolet radiation. There are no restrictions with regard to burning position.3 Light and light sources 2. 90 W Comparison of sizes of low-pressure sodium lamps (LST). 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 400 500 600 700 800 ¬(nm) 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 5000 7500 10000 t (h) 5000 7500 10000 t (h) 5000 7500 10000 t (h) V (¬) Proportion of operating lamps N. Low-pressure sodium lamps therefore require no luminous substances to be added. Different tubular shapes can be manufactured to meet the requirements of specific applications. sodium lamps are more difficult to ignite than mercury lamps. Run-up characteristic: lamp lumens Ï in relation to time t. the discharge tube is usually encased in a separate glass envelope that is often designed to reflect infrared radiation. Moreover. LST 35 W.2 Discharge lamps fluorescent tubes ignite instantly and they can be restarted when hot. sodium vapour produces light directly. In this case sodium vapour is excited instead of mercury vapour.4 Low-pressure sodium lamps Low-pressure sodium lamps are comparable to fluorescent lamps in the way they are constructed and how they operate. Low-pressure sodium lamps require high ignition voltage and a relatively long run-up time before they reach maximum efficacy. Relative spectral distribution Se (¬) of low-pressure sodium vapour discharge. thereby cutting down the time required to reach operating temperature. Colour ren- Low-pressure sodium lamp with U-shaped discharge tube in a dichroic glass bulb. They are available in a variety of colours. 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 2 4 6 8 10 t (min) 12 56 . the luminous efficacy of these lamps is so high that the lamp volume required is considerably smaller than is the case for fluorescent lamps. which is transformed into light with the aid of fluorescent substances. In the case of sodium lamps. Another difference is the kind of light the lamp produces. Due to its monochromatic character it does not produce any chromatic aberration in the eye and therefore guarantees visual acuity. only when the rare-gas discharge produces sufficient heat does the sodium begin to evaporate.

Colour rendering is poor. The light produced by high-pressure mercury lamps is bluish-white in colour due to the lack of the red spectral range. surrounded by an additional glass envelope. When the gas has been ionised in this way. A combination of ignitor and ballast is necessary to operate some of the tubular models. Low-pressure sodium lamps are normally U-shaped. Low-pressure sodium lamps have therefore been replaced by high-pressure sodium lamps to a great extent.3 Light and light sources 2. Instant re-ignition is possible if special control gear is used. When the lamp is ignited. Standard high-pressure mercury lamps with elliptical bulb (HME). Relative spectral distribution Se (l) of high-pressure mercury lamps. but usually a leakage transformer is used as a starting device and ballast. A neutral white or warm white colour appearance and improved colour rendering properties are achieved by the addition of fluorescent materials. All that is perceived is saturated yellow in various shades. The discharge tube is surrounded by a glass envelope that stabilises the lamp temperature and protects the discharge tube from corrosion.3. but remains constant throughout the entire lamp life. at this point in time. especially in their main field of application: street lighting. 2. High-pressure mercury lamps have moderate luminous efficacy and a very long lamp life. As a rule the bulb is coated with a layer of fluorescent material which transforms the UV radiation produced by the lamp into visible light. sometimes also tubular. which allows their light to be controlled via optical equipment. from the pure colour to black. there is an initial luminous discharge from the auxiliary electrode which gradually extends to the second main electrode.5 High-pressure mercury lamps High-pressure mercury lamps have a short quartz glass discharge tube that contains a mixture of inert gas and mercury. Only when all the mercury has been evaporated via the arc discharge and the resulting heat has produced sufficient excess pressure. 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 2 4 6 t (min) 57 . spherical bulb (HMG) and integrated reflector (HMR). Low-pressure sodium lamps require a run-up time of a few minutes and a short cooling time before re-ignition. Due to the integrated auxiliary electrode there is no need for high-pressure High-pressure mercury lamp with quartz glass discharge tube and elliptical bulb.2. Electrodes are positioned at both ends of the discharge tube. which. The outer glass can be provided with a fluorescent coating to control the luminous colour. does high-pressure discharge take place and the lamp produce full power. HME 125W HMG 80W HMR 125W 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 400 500 600 700 800 ¬(nm) 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 100 Ï (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 40 20 2500 5000 7500 10000 t (h) 5000 7500 10000 t (h) 5000 7500 10000 t (h) V(¬) Proportion of operating lamps N.2. thereby improving luminous efficacy and colour rendering. In close proximity to one of the electrodes there is an additional auxiliary electrode for the ignition of the lamp. As a light source they are relatively compact.2 Discharge lamps dering in the usual sense does not exist. lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of total installation ÏA (as the product of both values) as a function of the operating time t. Run-up characteristic: lamp lumens Ï in relation to time t. There are restrictions regarding the burning position. is the equivalent of a low-pressure discharge.3. there is an arc discharge between the two main electrodes.

There are no restrictions as to the burning position. which is connected in series with the discharge tube. The filament takes on the role of a current limiter. Standard self-ballasted mercury lamp with elliptical bulb (HME-SB). the outer bulbs can be spherical. They have an additional filament in the outer glass bulb. Self-ballasted mercury lamps usually contain additional fluorescent material to enhance the luminous colour and improve the luminous efficacy. HME-SB 160W HMR-SB 160W 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 400 500 600 700 800 ¬(nm) 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 2000 100 Ï(%) 80 60 40 20 2000 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 40 20 2000 4000 6000 t (h) 4000 6000 t (h) 4000 6000 t (h) V(¬) Proportion of functional lamps N. self-ballasted mercury lamps can be used as incandescent lamps. Luminous efficacy and lamp life rates are not so good. Self-ballasted mercury lamps have similar qualities to high-pressure mercury lamps. Self-ballasted mercury lamps cannot be dimmed. Following an interruption to the mains supply self-ballasted mercury lamps require a cooling-off period.2. Self-ballasted mercury lamps are available with an elliptical bulb or as mushroomshaped reflector lamps.3. mercury lamps to have an ignitor. High-pressure mercury lamps are available in various shapes and sizes. lamp l umens Ï and luminous flux of overall installation ÏA (as the product of both values) in relation to the operating time t. The warm white light produced by the filament complements the missing red content in the mercury spectrum.3. but they do have to be run on a ballast. the latter versions being designed as reflector lamps. or integral reflector (HMR-SB). with the consequence that they are seldom used for architectural lighting. Run-up characteristic: lamp lumens Ï in relation to time t. The elliptical bulb is frequently provided with a coating of light-diffusing material.2 Discharge lamps Self-ballasted mercury lamp with a quartz glass discharge tube for high-pressure mercury discharge and an additional filament that takes on the function of preresistance and supplements the spectrum in the red range. Highpressure mercury lamps require a run up time of some minutes and a longer cooling time before restriking.6 Self-ballasted mercury lamps Self-ballasted mercury lamps are basically constructed in the same way as highpressure mercury lamps. Relative spectral distribution Se (¬) of a self-ballasted mercury lamp with the combination of the spectra produced by the high-pressure mercury dis-charge and the filament.2. however. 140 Ï(%) 120 100 80 60 1 2 3 t (min) 58 . however. After a few minutes the incandescent component diminishes and the mercury vapour discharge reaches full power. The filament in self-ballasted mercury lamps radiates light immediately on ignition. There are restrictions as to the burning position for certain lamp types. which improves the colour rendering.3 Light and light sources 2. Since they require no ignitor or control gear and are produced with an E 27 cap. making an external ballast unnecessary. elliptical or mushroomshaped. 2.

Metal halide lamps are available in warm white.7 Metal halide lamps Double-ended metal halide lamp with compact discharge tube and quartz glass outer envelope. but special ignitors or an electronic ballast is necessary. This is particularly noticeable when it comes to the warm white lamps. Metal halide lamps have excellent luminous efficacy and good colour rendering qualities. If the metal combinations are correct then multi-line spectra can be produced. 3 and < 1 times per day. The mercury component primarily serves as an ignition aid and to stabilise the discharge process. The colour rendering and colour temperature of metal halide lamps is.3. Additional fluorescent substances to enhance colour rendering are not necessary. as single or double-ended tubular lamps. as elliptical lamps and as reflector lamps. This means that metals that do not produce metal vapour when the lamp is in operation can also be used. their nominal lamp life is high. by using specific combinations it is possible to create a practically continuous spectrum consisting of numerous of spectral lines. lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of overall installation ÏA (as the product of both values) in relation to the operating time t.3. Instant reignition is possible in the case of some double-ended types. it varies between individual lamps in a range and changes depending on the age of the lamp and the ambient conditions. By adding metal halides. 8. In contrast to pure metals.2. V(¬) T = 3000 K 80 60 40 20 2000 4000 6000 t (h) V(¬) T = 4000 K 80 60 40 20 2000 4000 6000 t (h) V(¬) T = 5600 K 100 Ï(%) 20 80 300 400 500 600 700 ¬(nm) 60 Relative spectral distribution Se (¬) of standard metal halide lamp with luminous colour warm white (above). Metal halide lamps require external control gear. To operate metal halide lamps both an ignitor and a ballast are required. They are extremely compact light sources.2. whose light can be easily controlled. colour rendering enhanced. As a rule metal halide lamps cannot dimmed. above all. similar to those of fluorescent lamps. neutral white (centre) and daylight white (below). halogen compounds have the advantage that they melt at a considerably lower temperature. <1 3 24 12 8 40 20 2000 100 Ï(%) 80 60 40 4000 6000 t (h) Run-up characteristic: lamp lumens Ï in relation to time t.3 Light and light sources 2. not constant. however. these metal vapours essentially produce light.2 Discharge lamps 2. Decline in luminous flux Ï at different switching frequencies of 24. when the metal halides have been evaporated via the initial mercury vapour discharge. The presence of halogens inside the lamp bulb means that auxiliary electrodes are not required as part of a starting device. They require a run-up time of some minutes and a longer cooling time before restarting. 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 2000 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 300 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 300 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 400 500 600 700 ¬(nm) 400 500 600 700 ¬(nm) 100 ÏA (%) 100 Ï(%) 4000 6000 t (h) Proportion of functional lamps N. neutral white and daylight white. 20 1 2 3 t (min) 59 . Metal halide lamps are a further development of mercury lamps and are therefore similar to these with regard to construction and function. The burning position is usually restricted. 12. Apart from mercury they also contain a mixture of metal halides. luminous efficacy is improved and.

These lamps have a long nominal lamp life. tubular (HST). Instant re-ignition is possible in the case of some double-ended types. The lamps are filled with inert gases and an amalgam of mercury and sodium.3. double-ended linear type lamps. 150W HIE 100W Standard metal halide lamps. 150W. If the pressure is sufficiently high the spectrum produced is practically continuous with the resultant enhanced colour rendering properties. HST-DE 150W 60 . The improvement in colour rendering is. It does not contain any fluorescent materials. They require a run-up time of some minutes and cooling time before restarting. the discharge tube in high-pressure sodium lamps is made of alumina ceramic.3. which allow instant reignition and form an especially compact light source. They also have a small discharge tube. 70W. As a rule there are no restrictions as to the burning position. which is in turn surrounded by a glass envelope.3 Light and light sources 2. single-ended (HIT) and double-ended versions (HIT-DE). the light produced is yellowish to warm white producing average to good colour rendering. HSE 70W HIT-DE 75W. High-pressure sodium lamps are run on a ballast and require an ignition device. the spectrum produced by sodium lamps can also be extended by increasing the pressure. Instead of the monochrome yellow light produced by the lowpressure sodium lamp. however. such that the rare gas and mercury component serve to ignite the lamp and stabilise the discharge process. at the cost of luminous efficacy.8 High-pressure sodium lamps Similar to mercury lamps. 250W HIT 35W. High-pressure sodium lamps are comparable to mercury lamps with regard to their construction and function. HST 100W Standard high-pressure sodium lamps. since high-pressure sodium vapours have an aggressive effect on glass.2 Discharge lamps 2.2. Whereas the discharge tube in high-pressure mercury lamps is made of quartz glass. with the extremely poor colour rendering properties. Colour rendering is average to good. This coating only serves to reduce the luminance of the lamp and to improve diffusion. distinctly better than that of monochrome yellow low-pressure sodium light. They are also available as compact.2. 150W HIT 35W. 70W. but special ignition devices or an electronic ballast is necessary. The luminous efficacy of high-pressure sodium lamps is not so high as that of low-pressure sodium lamps. plus elliptical version (HIE). singleended elliptical (HSE). The surrounding bulb of some highpressure sodium lamps is provided with a special coating. but higher than that of other discharge lamps. and double-ended tubular (HST-DE). Single-ended highpressure sodium lamp with ceramic discharge tube and additional outer glass envelope. HST 70W High-pressure sodium lamps are available as clear glass tubular lamps or with specially coated ellipsoidal bulbs.

The result is wide spectral distribution with a minimum in the lowpressure sodium lamps.2. By increasing the pressure the spectrum is inverted. lamp lumens Ï and luminous flux of overall installation ÏA (as the product of both values) in relation to the operating time t. Proportion of functional lamps N. 61 . in contrast to low-pressure discharge. 100 Se (%) 80 60 40 20 400 500 600 700 ¬(nm) 800 100 Ï(%) 80 60 40 20 3000 100 ÏA (%) 80 60 40 20 3000 6000 9000 12000 t (h) 6000 9000 12000 t (h) 100 Ï(%) 80 60 40 20 2 4 6 t (min) 100 N (%) 80 60 40 20 3000 6000 9000 12000 t (h) Run-up characteristic: lamp lumens Ï in re-lation to time t.2 Discharge lamps Relative spectral distribution Se (¬) of highpressure sodium lamps.3 Light and light sources 2.3.

Choice of power for interior lighting including data on lamp description. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HME-SB 160 3100 177 Cap: E27 Lamp life 5000 h d (mm) 75 Self-ballasted mercury reflector lamp Des. of standard power. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HMR-SB 160 2500 168 Cap: E27 Lamp life 5000 h High-pressure mercury lamps and self-ballasted mercury lamps. P (W) (lm) l (mm) TC 7 400 138 9 600 168 11 900 238 Cap: G23 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) 12 Mercury lamp Des. luminous flux Ï. P (W) HME 50 80 125 250 Cap: E27/E40 (lm) l (mm) 2000 130 4000 156 6500 170 14000 226 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) 55 70 75 90 Compact fluorescent lamp Des.3 Light and light sources 2. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HMR 80 3000 168 125 5000 Cap: E27 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) 125 Compact fluorescent lamp Des. power P. P (W) (lm) l (mm) TC-L 18 1200 225 24 1800 320 36 2900 415 40 3500 535 55 4800 535 Cap: 2G11 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) 17 Self-ballasted mercury lamp Des. P (W) (lm) l (mm) LST 35 4800 310 55 8000 425 90 13500 528 Cap: BY22d Lamp life 10000 h Single-ended lowpressure sodium lamp in the standard form with U-shaped discharge tube. P (W) (lm) l (mm) TC-DEL 15 900 148 20 1200 168 23 1500 178 Cap: E27 Lamp life: 8000 h Compact fluorescent lamps in the standard shapes TC. TC-D and TC-L. P (W) T26 18 30 36 38 58 Cap: G13 (lm) l (mm) 1350 590 2400 895 3350 1200 3200 1047 5200 1500 Lamp life 7000 h d (mm) 26 Low-pressure sodium lamp Des. both lamp types with an ellipsoidal outer envelope and as a reflector lamp. d (mm) 54 54 68 Tubular fluorescent lamp (diameter 26 mm). P (W) (lm) l (mm) TC-D 10 600 118 13 900 153 18 1200 173 26 1800 193 Cap: G24 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) 12 Mercury reflector lamp Des. d (mm) 125 Compact fluorescent lamp Des.2.3. Compact fluorescent lamp Des. length of lamp I and lamp diameter d.2 Discharge lamps Fluorescent lamp Des. and with integral electronic ballast and E 27 cap: TC-DEL. d (mm) 58 62 . P (W) (lm) l (mm) TC-DEL 9 400 127 11 600 145 15 900 170 20 1200 190 23 1500 210 Cap: E27 Lamp life 8000 h d (mm) Compact fluorescent lamp Des.

High-pressure sodium lamp Des.3 Light and light sources 2. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HSE 50 3500 156 70 5600 156 100 9500 186 150 14000 226 250 25000 226 Cap: E27/E40 Lamp life 10000 h d (mm) 70 70 75 90 90 d (mm) 32 High-pressure sodium lamp Des. P (W) HIE 75 100 150 250 Cap: E27/E40 (lm) l (mm) 5500 138 8500 138 13000 138 17000 226 Lamp life 5000 h d (mm) 54 54 54 90 Metal halide reflector lamp Des. High-pressure sodium lamp. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HST 35 1300 149 70 2300 100 4700 Cap: PG12 Lamp life 5000 h High-pressure sodium lamp Des. ellipsoidal plus tubular. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HST-DE 70 7000 114 150 15000 132 Cap: RX7s Lamp life 10000 h d (mm) 20 23 63 . P (W) (lm) l (mm) HST 50 4000 156 70 6500 156 100 10000 211 150 17000 211 250 33000 257 Cap: E27/E40 Lamp life 10000 h d (mm) 37 37 46 46 46 High-pressure sodium lamp Des. single-ended and double-ended versions.2. Choice of standard wattages for interior lighting. P (W) HIT-DE 75 150 250 Cap: RX7s (lm) l (mm) 5500 114 11250 132 20000 163 Lamp life 5000 h d (mm) 20 23 25 Metal halide lamp. Choice of standard wattages for interior lighting.3. P (W) HIT 35 70 150 Cap: G12/PG12 (lm) l (mm) 2400 84 5200 12000 Lamp life 5000 h d (mm) 26 Metal halide lamp Des. as an ellipsoidal and reflector lamp and as single and doubleended versions. P (W) (lm) l (mm) HIR 250 13500 180 Cap: E40 Lamp life 6000 h d (mm) 125 Metal halide lamp Des.2 Discharge lamps Metal halide lamp Des.

2. also serves as a contact to the neutral conductor Integral electronic ballast Heated coil electrode Discharge tube containing a mixture of rare earth gases and low-pressure mercury vapour Fluorescent material for transforming ultraviolet radiation into visible light 64 . This lamp is mainly used domestically as an economic alternative to the incandescent lamp Insulated contact for connection to the phase Screw cap to secure lamp mechanically.3.3 Light and light sources 2.2 Discharge lamps Compact fluorescent lamp with integral ballast and screw cap.

More recently both electronic starters and electronic ignition devices have become available. except that their core material is of a higher quality and they have thicker copper wires to reduce the loss of energy in the control gear. If fluorescent lamps are operated using inductive ballasts it is necessary to provide a separate starter.but decreases the lamp life. The starter first preheats the lamp electrodes. which prevents any reactive feedback onto the mains supply. inductive ballasts.4. Operating the lamps at 25–40 kHz presents a number of advantages. They can be operated at both 50 and 60 Hz and over a voltage range of between 200 and 250 V. Current limitation using super-imposed capacitors – i. but a leakage transformer or an ignitor is required in the case of higher ignition voltages.2. the lower the voltage the higher the operating current. they are occasionally used for self-ballasted mercury lamps. It is used to switch luminaires on and off and to control their brightness – and sometimes also other luminaire characteristics. a rectifier and a high-frequency inverter. however. Low loss ballasts are only slightly more expensive than conventional ballasts. however. fluorescent lamps with EBs can be operated on batteries. enhanced luminous efficacy. which in turn leads to substantial energy consumption. Lighting control equipment. Special equipment is therefore required to ignite the lamps. the operating current in the case of discharge lamps is constantly on the increase due to the avalanche ionisation effect of the inert gas.1 Control gear for discharge lamps Typical of all discharge lamps is their negative current versus voltage characteristic.4 Control gear and control equipment In addition to lamps and luminaires supplementary equipment is often required in order for a lighting installation to function. Conventional ballasts are the cheapest kind of ballasts. They ensure a flicker-free start and switch off automatically if the lamp is defective. Electronic ballasts (EB) differ in weight. In practice. and magnetic interference and humming. especially as this kind of ballast has the added advantage that it can be used to produce the striking voltage to ignite the lamp. This induces a voltage surge in the ballast which in turn ignites the lamp. At the same time there is considerably less power loss. switching and operation are as trouble-free as with incandescent lamps. Electronic ballasts are. which means that no additional ignitor is required. This in turn means that the luminous power is achieved. so they are frequently used in lieu of the latter. all of which are associated with conventional ballasts. Electronic ballasts have an integrated ignition device.4 Control gear and control equipment 2.e. so is similarly not a popular solution. As they are also designed to be run on direct current. Low loss ballasts (LLB) are comparable to conventional ballasts. which if left uncontrolled would result in the destruction of the lamp. In this case the ballast functions as an inductive resistor. on the other hand. but at a lower energy consumption. High-frequency electronic control gear is gaining importance alongside inductive ballasts. This may be a matter of auxiliary electrodes built into the lamp that ionise the gas in the lamp via a luminous discharge. above all. Electronic ballasts are to a large extent insensitive to voltage and frequency fluctuations. In their simplest form these are ohmic current limiters. The most important additional equipment is control gear. Besides their function as current limiting devices electronic ballasts also serve as ignitors and ensure that the lamp operates more effectively. This type of current limiting device is not frequently used. thereby simplifying the provision of emergency lighting. which prevents the ignitor being activated time and again. They consist of a filter. which is necessary for the operation of many lamp types. is not required to operate the luminaires. To operate discharge lamps it is therefore necessary to use a ballast to limit the current.e. it comprises a lag ballast which consists of a laminate iron core and a copper-wire winding.1 Discharge lamps 2. since it tends to heat up. In contrast to incandescent lamps. via capacitive reactance – reduces the loss of energy. where the filament acts as a current limiting device. which can be produced inductively by the starter and the ballast. Once the electrodes are sufficiently heated the starter breaks the circuit. The high operating frequency of the lamps also prevents stroboscopic and flicker effects.1 Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps can be operated on a conventional ballast (CB) and a starter.1. The simplest form of ignitors are glow starters. . should there be a current failure. The ignition voltage of discharge lamps is well above their operating voltage and usually also above the mains voltage provided. 2. ignition is usually effected via a voltage surge. more expensive than inductive ballasts. However. but they do give rise to significant losses of energy due to the generation of heat.4. 2. i.4. They comprise bimetal electrodes 65 N L Circuit diagram of a fluorescent lamp with an inductive ballast and ignition device (not power-factor corrected). which use a filament as an ohmic current limiter. form and function from conventional. current limitation is mainly effected via the application of inductive current limiting devices such as lag ballasts or transformers.

which in turn heats up the electrodes.4. ignition and operating voltage are so high.4. Lamps with four-pin bases can be operated on an inductive ballast with a separate starter or on an electronic ballast. Moreover.4 Low-pressure sodium lamps Some linear type low-pressure sodium lamps –similar to fluorescent lamps– can be run on chokes or inductive ballasts with an additional starter.1. low-loss (LLB) and electronic ballasts (EB). As a rule. Switching the lamp on produces a luminous discharge between the electrodes in the starter.1. Special regulations have to be observed in Germany (VDE 0128.4.2. so they can be operated on inductive ballasts without an additional ignition device. 2. These ballasts must. Thermal starters are more expensive than glow starters. ignition is not always troublefree. Instant re-ignition of the lamps after a power failure is required in the case of the lighting of certain traffic installations and meeting places.6 Metal halide lamps Metal halide lamps are run on inductive ballasts. the result is that thermal starters ignite faster than glow starters. After a short time the starter electrodes cool down and separate. however. be designed to handle the higher operating current. They ensure a quick and safe start under a much wider range of conditions. 0713. in the case of defective lamps the re-ignition process is terminated. This is insufficient to produce a luminous discharge in the starter. This disconnection induces a voltage surge in the ballast which in turn ignites the lamp.4.1. Double-ended metal halide lamps are equipped with special ignitors which supply the necessary high ignition voltages that make an instant restart possible.1. as for fluorescent lamps. They do have one drawback: they repeatedly try to ignite the lamp in the event of it being defective. which avoids the lamps being permanently heated.1. 2. that a leakage transformer is used to handle ignition and current limitation. The contacts are disconnected by means of an additional heating element which heats up a bimetal strip or dilating wire. During this process the bimetal electrodes bend inwards until they touch. ignition problems may arise in the case of undervoltage or low ambient temperatures due to the fact that the preheating times are inadequate. thereby ensuring that defective lamps are not subjected to continuous ignition.3 High-voltage fluorescent tubes High-voltage fluorescent tubes require an operating voltage that is considerably higher than mains voltage. Some versions require a separate heating current supply through the ballast. An extra ignition device is generally required (e. while at the 66 . encased in a glass tube filled with inert gas. Thermal starters have contacts that are normally closed when the lamp is switched on.1 Discharge lamps 70 P (W) CB LLB EB Ballast 50 30 Lamp 10 T 18W T 36W T 58W Power consumption P (lamp power and power loss of ballast) of standard fluorescent lamps run on conventional (CB). however.4.g. As there is no need for an initial warm up period to the point of contact. thereby closing the heater or filament circuit of the fluorescent lamp. In the case of lamps with a bipin base the starter is integrated.4 Control gear and control equipment 2.5 High-pressure mercury lamps High-pressure mercury lamps are ignited using a glow discharge through an auxiliary electrode. Electronic control gear is also available for metal halide lamps. Glow starters are the starters most frequently used and they are the most economical. 2. To operate the starter again it is necessary to reset the safety switch manually. Current limitation is controlled via inductive ballasts. They switch off automatically after repeated attempts to ignite the lamp. 2. They are therefore run on a leakage transformer. 2. They have similar properties and advantages to the electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps.2 Compact fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps are operated on the same ballasts as conventional fluorescent lamps. Additional starters or ignition devices are therefore not required. The starter only opens when it has been sufficiently preheated and since the preheating time is prolonged if the temperature or the voltage conditions are not ideal. Planners prefer to opt for installations comprising shorter high-voltage fluorescent tubes and voltages below 1000 V. 0250) for high-voltage fluorescent tubes run at 1000 V and above. Electronic starters open and close the preheating circuit without any mechanical contacts. and then reduces the voltage during the operation of the lamp.4. Additional starters or ignition devices are not necessary. The electrodes therefore remain open. impulse generator). When the lamp has been ignited it is only the operating voltage of the lamp that is applied to the starter. which only have to meet the requirements laid down for low-voltage installations (VDE 0100). which handles the ignition with its high open potential. This gives rise to noise and flickering lamps. Safety starter switches are similar to glow starters.

to a power factor to approach unity – in the case of large-scale lighting installations. The power factor in this case is well above unity and so this type of circuit is referred to as an overcompensated circuit. In the hospital environment. Compensation is effected by means of capacitors. for example) and bear the seal of approval. Sequential connection of the lamps to a three-phase supply network will also minimize these effects. Ballasts without compensating capacitors are referred to as inductive circuits. It is possible to compensate individual luminaires. This means that stroboscopic or flickering effects at workplaces with rotating machine parts. Compensation can be effected in this case using a parallel capacitor.3 Radio interference suppression same time allowing an instant restart after power failure. To avoid interference of this kind specially designed inductive ballasts can be wired in series with the compensating capacitors.4. Some double-ended lamps do allow an instant restrike when the lamps are still warm. Capacitive circuit: power factor is overcompensated by a series capacitor (centre). for example.4. the operation of ECG and EEG equipment may suffer interference from electric and magnetic fields induced by lighting installations – particularly by cabling. groups of luminaires or an entire installation. Electronic ballasts are also available for high-pressure sodium lamps. Limiting Value Category B. Circuits of this kind allow a second lamp with a noncompensated ballast to be operated at the same time. 2. this type of circuit is known as a tandem circuit. An ignition device is required due to their high ignition voltage.2.e.4 Control gear and control equipment 2. are avoided.1. power supply companies require the idle current to be compensated – i. 2.4. Such circuits are known as twin-start circuits. as they effectively have a unity power factor. Audio frequency energy control devices such as those that control night storage heaters and street lighting systems may cause interference from ballasts with parallel compensation. As with metal halide lamps.7 High-pressure sodium lamps High-pressure sodium lamps are operated on inductive ballasts. which balance the phase shift caused by the reactance. Since idle current loads the mains.2 Compensation and wiring of discharge lamps Inductive ballasts produce a certain amount of idle current due to the phase shift of the voltage with respect to the current – they have a power factor (cos f) substantially below 1. The advantage of a twin-start circuit is that both lamps are out-of-phase. With a suitably designed ballast it is possible to operate two fluorescent lamps in series. Fluorescent lamps that are run on inductive ballasts can be compensated via capacitors that are connected in parallel to or in series with the ballast. If a compensating capacitor is connected in series with the ballast.4. for example. Circuit diagrams for fluorescent lamps. Compensating circuit: power factor correction by a capacitor in parallel (above). a special ignitor is necessary for these lamps to handle the required high ignition voltages and the installation must be designed to take these voltages. N L N L N L . which is caused by ignition devices and by the discharge lamp itself. This consists primarily of radio interference. Retroactive effects on the supply network due to harmonic oscillations have to be below stated minimum values (VDE 0712). ballasts and transformers. hospitals and similar environments.2 Compensation 2. Radio interference can be suppressed by the use of suitably rated radio-interference capacitors. we talk about a capacitive circuit. Twin-start circuit: combination of a noncompensated and an over-compensated circuit (below). Compensation is not necessary in the case of electronic ballasts.3 Radio interference suppression and limiting other interference Discharge lamps and the control gear they require may give rise to various disturbance factors in both the supply network and their environment. 67 2. For this reason there are special regulations (VDE 0107) for electrical installations in doctors’ practices.4. Depending on their application control gear and luminaires must meet certain minimum requirements with regard to radio interference (in Germany. VDE 0875.

4.4 Control gear and control equipment 2. excessive voltage drop can be avoided. Operation on an electronic ballast: starter and compensating capacitor are not required.4 Transformers for low-voltage installations In addition to ballasts and ignition devices for discharge lamps low-voltage installations also require transformers as part of their control gear. which ensures that they do not overheat. the way they operate at high frequencies. safety transformers compliant with VDE 0551 must be used. as currents up to 20 times above the rated current can occur when the lamp is switched on. the fact that they are smaller and lighter. Electronic transformers are also more expensive than conventional transformers. generally below 42 V (mostly 6. They are therefore suitable for handling small partial loads. many transformers have both primary and secondary voltage tapping devices. 68 . Tandem circuit: operation of two lamps connected in series to one ballast (parallel compensation). if appropriate cable diameters are used and the connections are kept short. Single lamp (above) and twinlamp circuit (below). These transformers contain a thermal protection switch. N L N L It must be noted that significant voltage drops may occur in the connecting cables when dealing with low-voltage installations. N L Fluorescent lamp circuits. Transformers form an interface between mains voltage and low voltage. Circuit diagrams for fluorescent lamps. in Germany for example. To guarantee that a low-voltage installation is never subject to mains voltage. Slow-blow fuses are used for this.2.c. As with electronic ballasts. This is due to the high current values that occur with low voltages. Transformers may be an integral part of the luminaire or may be installed separately and supply one or more luminaires. d. 12 or 24 V) is taken from the mains voltage using transformers.4. The low voltage required for such installations. Transformers for low-voltage installations must have fuses that can handle primary voltage (230 V).4 Transformers 2. in the case of technical faults. Electronic transformers are comparable to electronic ballasts from the point of view of their properties and functions: in particular. they are required – as are luminaires – to bear an additional M or M M symbol. for which certain safety regulations apply. Electronic transformers supply voltage that is to a large extent independent of the load. operation for emergency lighting is also possible. which means that in the case of longer connection cables. If transformers are mounted on inflammable surfaces. and that they allow low power loss. This can be compensated for.

) and dimensions (l.2 l (mm) 155 155 w (mm) 45 45 h (mm) 30 30 20 15 Pv/Pn (%) Full load Rated power (Pn ). 100 W electronic transformer (below). Pn (W) 20 50 100 150 300 600 Wt.5 9. Data provided for open circuit and full-load operation.0 1.5 1. weight (Wt.8 2.4 Control gear and control equipment 2. 10 5 20 50 100 150 300 600 Pn (W) 69 .2.4. w. (kg) 0.4 Transformers Comparison of sizes of transformers for lowvoltage installations: 600 W safety transformer (above) and 100 W version (centre).6 5. (kg) 0.2 0. h) of standard safety transformers (above) and electronic transformers (below).2 l (mm) 120 155 210 220 290 310 w (mm) 56 56 56 90 150 150 h (mm) 50 50 50 90 130 130 20 15 10 5 Pv/Pn (%) Open circuit Full load Relative power loss (P V /P n ) of transformers of varying rated power Pn in the case of standard safety transformers (above) and electronic transformers (below). 20 50 100 150 300 600 Pn (W) Pn (W) 50 100 Wt.

Voltage drop ¤U per 1 m of cable in relation to current I and lamp power P for various cable diameters A.0 10 0. the transformer may also be an integral part of the luminaire. Starshaped wiring to ensure the same wiring lengths between transformer and fixtures: this guarantees that all lamps receive the same applied voltage.035 .0 A (mm2) 1. Individual voltage drops are calculated according to the set formula.2. I l A [¤U] = V [I] = A [l] = m [A] = mm2 230/U Voltage drop ¤U for copper cable.5 4.0 6.5 2.1 16 25 A (mm2) 0. . I (A) 10 P (W) 120 20 240 30 360 40 480 50 600 A (mm2) 60 720 Outer diameter d of sheathed cables of various cable diameters A with number n of cores. ¤U = 0. depending on current.5 2.4 Transformers 230/U Low-voltage installation with individual transformers. Low-voltage installation with a single transformer.5 4.4.4 Control gear and control equipment 2.5 4. Applies to 12 V installations.0 25.0 10.0 6. The wiring from transformer to luminaire is as short as possible to keep voltage drop to a minimum.2 0.0 70 .0 16. whereby l1 is the result of all lamps 4P/U and I2 of P/U. 2. length and diameter of cable. I2 l2 A2 230/U l1 l1 A1 ¤ U1 ¤U ¤ U2 P The overall voltage drop ¤U of a lowvoltage installation with a star-shaped wiring layout and single transformer is a result of the sum of the individual voltage drops ¤U1 + ¤U2 .75 1.75 1.0 1.5 I (A) 12 15 18 26 34 44 61 82 108 n 2 3 5 2 3 5 3 5 d (mm) 10 10 11 11 11 13 13 15 Limiting current I of multi-core conductors with diameter A. ¤U (V/m) 0.

During the dimming process the cables between the dimmer and the luminaire are subject to a considerable load of idle current that cannot be compensated. 50 % at a decrease in lamp current of 10 %. 2. therefore. This means that the lighting can be adjusted to suit the use of the space and the ambient conditions.This idle current must be taken into account when dimensioning cables and control gear. The reciprocal interaction of dimmer and transformer means that these control gear components are subject to increased stress. lamp life increases considerably and there is a colour shift to the warmer colours of the spectrum. Incandescent lamps can be dimmed almost 100 per cent. Dimming is basically effected by controlling mains voltage. This must be taken into account in lecture halls. Much of the dimming equipment available for fluorescent lamps requires an additional fourth conductor for the heating of the electrodes.4. Fluorescent lamps do not change their luminous colour when dimmed. When electronic ballasts are used there are none of the disturbing flicker effects that can occur when dimming at mains frequency. as standard tracks only have three circuits. Special dimmers are required to control the brightness of fluorescent lamps. but also to control their brightness. however. Simple leading edge dimmers are all that are required to control the brightness of these sources.1 Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps Conventional incandescent lamps and halogen lamps for mains voltage are the easiest light sources to dim. 2.5 Controlling brightness 2. but the dimming behaviour of fluorescent lamps is considerably different to that of incandescent lamps.4. The transformers used must also be approved as compatible with dimming gear and equipped with fuses that are designed to cope with the high starting current. some makes still require specially adapted dimmers. The ways and means of controlling brightness largely depends on the type of light source installed. which makes them suitable for application with track systems.4. Such systems cannot be used for fluorescent lamps that are operated on power tracks.5 Controlling brightness There are a number of applications where it is practical to not only be able to switch a lighting installation or individual groups of luminaires on and off. not be applied in this case. The way the dimming of 38 mm lamps operated on inductive ballasts was formerly effected is no longer of any real significance. A slight reduction in operating current results in considerable changes in the characteristics of the light source. As we are familiar with this gradual changing of colour temperature through natural phenomena (sunset. Some of these means of controlling brightness require a three-wire connection. where especially low dimming levels are required when slides and videos are shown. a fire burning out).4. 26 mm lamps operated on inductive ballasts require a heating transformer with an electronic starter.4. for example.4 Control gear and control equipment 2. They usually have to be supplied together with suitable dimmers. the luminous flux reduces dramatically. Special electronic ballasts can also be used for controlling the brightness of 26 mm fluorescent lamps.5. since the installation can only be compensated from outside the dimmed circuit.5. In addition. 2. to attain this level of dimming in fluorescent lamps the lamp current also has to be reduced by 50 %. It required special lamps with ignition aids and heating transformers for the permanent heating of the lamp electrodes. 71 . we find the change of luminous colour pleasant when incandescent lamps are dimmed. there is also a consider-able saving in energy due to the virtually loss-free leading edge dimmers.2. ballast and dimmer used.5. or they can be operated with all other kinds of dimmers designed for use with fluorescent lamps.2 Low-voltage halogen lamps Low-voltage halogen lamps behave in a similar way to conventional incandescent lamps when dimmed. depending on the type of lamp.3 Fluorescent lamps The brightness of fluorescent lamps can also be controlled. Conventional dimmers can sometimes be used together with electronic transformers. At this stage it should be noted that there is a virtual linear correlation of lamp current and luminous flux. Special dimmers for low-voltage installations are required. Conventional dimmers can. Some fluorescent lamp dimmers do not allow dimming to low illuminance levels. each fixture has to be equipped with a special filter choke or a conventional ballast designed to function as a filter choke. Controlling the brightness of fluorescent lamps can be effected in different ways. Whereas the luminous flux of an incandescent lamp is reduced to approx.

Furthermore. The receiver can be controlled via a manual device or a wall-mounted unit. accentuate architectural structures and support the architectural statement. One only has to consider the simplest of lighting tasks to understand that the requirements cannot be fulfilled by one lighting concept alone.4. 230 V 3 4 5 1 2 EVG 72 .4. it should also take into consideration the aesthetic and psychological effects of the lighting. Preset panels (1) installed in the respective space allows pre-programmed light scenes to be called up. low-voltage halogen lamps (4) and fluorescent lamps (5).4 Control gear and control equipment 2. e. the change of Diagram showing a programmable lighting control system. Various dimming modules allow the dimming of incandescent lamps (3). The switching and dimming sequences for the specific light scenes are programmed and saved in the central control unit (2).7 Lighting control systems Track system with 3channel remote control. The requirements of a lighting installation are substantially different when it comes to the uses of the space. Good lighting must enable the users of the space to perform the necessary visual tasks and move safely from room to room. these receivers switch or dim the fixtures they are connected to through an infrared signal. 2. 2.6 Remote control 2. lighting installations or distributor boxes. Lamp types with four-pin bases are dimmed in the same way as conventional 26 mm fluorescent lamps. There are special receivers available for operation on tracks.5. because it cannot be guaranteed that the lamps will continue to burn consistently and dimming has a deteriorating effect on the properties of the lamp. separately controllable units. The lighting has to be adjusted to meet the changing conditions in the environment – the conditions for night lighting are different from the supplementary lighting required during the day. Remote control systems can be used to control the lighting from any position within a space using a hand-held controller.4 Compact fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps with a two-pin base (integral starter) cannot be dimmed.5.7 Lighting control systems The task of a lighting installation is to create optimum visual conditions for any particular situation. i. 2. The great advantage of such systems is the fact that an individual circuit can be subdivided into several. These receivers can control all the track circuits. Receivers have to be installed in the fixtures.4.2. 2.5 Other discharge lamps As a rule high-pressure discharge lamps and low-pressure sodium lamps are not dimmed.e.4. provide an aid for orientation. Example of the remote control of a threecircuit track system by switching and dimming of individual circuits. By coding signals it is possible to address a number of fixtures or circuits separately.4. This means that – especially in the case of old buildings with only one circuit available per room – it is possible to install differentiated lighting into a room easily and economically.g.4.6 Remote control Remote control systems provide the opportunity to control individual luminaires or circuits with the aid of a remote control unit.

Lighting concepts that comprise theatrical effects are becoming increasingly popular. The prerequisite is that luminaires or groups of luminaires can be switched separately and their brightness controlled. they also include distribution characteristics. Depending on the application. Example of a preprogrammable lighting control system: preset panel (centre) for 6 scenes with On/Off switches for controlling the brightness of the overall installation. architectural lighting concentrates on human visual requirements and on defining our real surroundings. If large numbers of luminaires are to be controlled accurately. Changes in the lighting are not merely related to switching groups of lights on and off and changing the level of brightness. sun-blinds or projection screens). With the increasing trend to apply theatrical lighting effects in architectural spaces architectural lighting designers now require lighting control systems that are not only able to switch and dim fixtures. colour and distribution characteristics. It is also possible to raise or lower the overall brightness level of a light scene without re-programming. a series of load modules (dimmers or relays). a light scene that complies with the use of the room or creates specific ambient conditions. possible to create more complex processes than a simple change of scenes. it is a good idea to store the light scenes electronically so that any scene may be called up as required. 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 0 ? C F1 F3 F2 F4 ON OFF 1 4 2 5 3 6 ON OFF 12 73 . beam direction and colour. The result is an optimum pattern of switched luminaires and brightness levels.2. Using a programmed lighting control system it is. Circuit module (below) with programmed address and On/Off switches for testing purposes.1 Lighting control systems for theatrical effects Unlike stage lighting whose task it is to create illusions. although large-scale systems will require their own cabinet.4 Control gear and control equipment 2. so that the illuminance level and lighting quality in specific areas of the space can be adjusted to particular situations. the application of coloured light – using spotlights and colour filters.7 Lighting control systems events in a multi-purpose hall. Via special switching arrangements or by incorporating lighting control systems into building management programmes lighting control systems can also control and supervise other technical equipment besides the lighting (e.7. which are each allocated to a circuit. To meet such changing requirements a lighting installation has to be able to be dimmed and switched in a variety of ways to create different light scenes.4. It is also possible to have a change of scenes controlled automatically. but becomes a design element in its own right. In this case the lighting control is usually dependent on the amount of daylight available or what day of the week it is and what time of day/night. Due to the miniaturisation of electronic components lighting control systems are so compact that some of them can be installed in existing distribution boxes or fuse boxes.4.g. Stage lighting control systems therefore have to meet considerably more stringent requirements than conventional lighting control systems. A change of scene can be programmed to be effected instantaneously or in the form of a seamless transition. Central control unit with LCD display (above). 2. In spite of this basic difference some stage lighting methods have been adopted in the field of architectural lighting. The main task of a lighting control system is to store a series of light scenes – each comprising the switching and dimming status required for the various circuits – and to call them up when required. contour lighting using coloured neon tubes – and gobo projections. the change of exhibitions in a museum or even the way a standard office space can be transformed into a conference room. and one or more preset panels. a change of scenes in this case no longer serves as a method for adjusting to existing requirements. Besides creating specific effects on stage it is the way that stage lighting changes that plays a decisive role. The transition from one scene to another can be effected manually using a preset panel. for example. These include stark contrasts between light and dark. Lighting control systems consist of a central control unit for digital storage and control. but are also able to change their position. other modules for time or daylight-related control and for the lighting control in a number of different spaces are required. however.

We will now consider the area where light and perception meet – and describe the qualities and features of light.1 Quantity of light The basis for any lighting installation is the quantity of light available for a specific visual task in a given situation. the colour quality of a lighting installation or glare limitation. 20 lux is the threshold value at which a person’s facial features can be recognised.0 1.0 S 2. In the case of simple visual tasks adequate visual performance can be attained at low illuminance levels. There then followed the evaluation of the amount of light that was appropriate in each situation. The intention is to show how specific qualities of light create different perceptual conditions and thereby influence and control human perception. establishing the upper and lower illuminance and luminance limits in specific situations. By visual performance we mean the ability to perceive and identify objects or details. Visual acuity S in relation to age (average values). A comprehensive set of regulations exist for workplaces which define the optimum lighting conditions for specific visual tasks to ensure that visual tasks can be performed correctly and without causing fatigue. such as candles or oil lamps.5 2. At least 200 lux is required for continuous work. however.1 Quantity of light Up to now visual perception and the production or generation of light have been treated as two separate topics. Broader concepts are required to take into consideration the architectural and psychological requirements of the visual environment. and decreases rapidly at extremely high illuminance levels due to glare effects. Illuminance plays as great a part as light distribution. i. Every-one knows that light is a prerequisite for visual perception. Only with the development of gas light and electric light did it become possible to produce sufficient amounts of light and thus to actively control lighting conditions.5.5 1.5 10 30 50 70 Age (a) 90 Influence of illuminance E on the relative visual performance P for simple (upper curve) and complicated visual tasks (lower curve).5 Light Qualities and features 2.0 0.2. Much investigation went into lighting conditions in the working environment to establish illuminance levels for optimum visual performance.0 S 2.0 0. This effect improves more slowly from 1000 lux upwards. Up to around a hundred years ago we were dependent on the amount of light available through constantly changing daylight conditions or weak artificial light sources. Influence of illuminance E on the visual acuity S of normalsighted observers. Visual performance generally improves when the illuminance level is increased. whereas complicated 100 P (%) 80 60 40 20 100 300 500 700 E (lx) 900 3.0 1. 74 .e. visual tasks with given contrast between the object viewed and the surrounding area. beam direction.5 Light 2.5. 2.5 2.5 1. whereas complex visual tasks require high illuminance levels. The standards only relate to establishing good working practice regarding working conditions.5 100 300 500 700 E (lx) 900 3.

In Waldram’s “designed appearance” concept or Bartenbach’s idea of “stable perception”. The preferred illuminance level at the workplace ranges between 1000 and 2000 lux. atmosphere) through the purposeful arrangement of luminances. The gap is 1/5 of the ring’s diameter. in the combination of light and object. International guidelines for illuminance levels range in values from 20 to 2000 lux and are therefore within the abovementioned framework. includes minimal consideration regarding actual perception. in operating theatres E (lx) 20 Typical illuminance levels E in interior spaces. For some time now more systematic approaches to comprehensive lighting design have been made based on the results of research on luminance distribution.g. It is assumed that a space with low luminance contrasts will appear to be monotonous and uninteresting and a space with stark contrasts restless and irritating. Likewise for absolute luminances that are not to be exceeded. for example of luminous ceilings or luminaires in spaces equipped with VDT workstations. e.g. in particular. e. Visual perception is a process which allows us to gain information about objects in the world around us using the medium of light. It is the light that is emitted.g. This applies to overall illuminance stipulations and luminance scales as well as to sets of given luminance patterns. The recommended illuminance levels are mainly a consequence of the degree of difficulty of the visual task in contrast to the immediate environment. The visual task is to determine the position of the opening in the ring. visual tasks require up to 2000 lux.5 Light 2. The image on the retina is created entirely by the luminance pattern of the perceived objects. Recommendations have also been laid down for luminance levels. which is generally what lighting design amounts to in practice. excluding working areas Illuminance level required for recognising facial features 200 Minimum illuminance for workplaces in continuous use 2 000 Maximum illuminance at standard workplaces 20 000 Illuminance level for special visual tasks e. It is not the luminous flux falling on a given surface – illuminance – that produces an image in the eye. A process that is there75 d 5 d 5 å d S 0. A visual acuity of 1 is recorded when the gap in the ring can be recognised at an angle of vision of å = 1' (1/60°). that is to say for maximum luminance contrasts between visual task and surrounding area.g. e.2. Following a set of fixed rules for overall illuminance levels as laid down in the standards for the lighting of workplaces. . precision assembly work Extremely complicated visual tasks.1 Quantity of light The Landolt ring for determining visual acuity. where there is little contrast to the surrounding area. In addition to these guidelines there is also a set of general recommendations for luminance distribution in the entire space. there have been attempts to control the visual appearance of the overall environment (mood. The object is again is to optimise visual performance at the workplace. Any attempt to design a lighting installation based on quantitative data is bound to lead to problems. Minimum value in interior spaces. transmitted or reflected by the surfaces. in operating theatres. office work Complicated visual tasks. whereby extremely detailed visual tasks.5. E (lx) 20–50 50–100 100–200 200–500 300–750 500–1000 750–1000 1000–2000 > 2000 Paths and working areas outdoors Orientation in short-stay spaces Workrooms that are not in continuous use Simple visual tasks Visual tasks of average degree of difficulty Difficult visual tasks. inspection and control Additional lighting for difficult and complicated tasks Recommended illuminance levels E according to the CIE for various activities. require the highest illuminance levels. The angle of vision å is calculated from the width of the opening of the smallest detectable Landolt ring and the distance of the viewer from the image. up to 10000 lux. in special cases. e.5 S= 1 å [å] = min 1 2 3 Table for determining the reader’s visual acuity S from a distance of 2 m. Visual acuity S is its reciprocal value.g.

constancy phenomena. for example.2. This technique is often applied for the presentation of objects. The aim of perception is not just to register luminous phenomena. expectations and the information content of the object that is being perceived. but produces reduced shadows or reflections. the difference between diffuse light and directed light being one of the most important aspects. in each respective situation. object and perceiver. This involves innumerable aspects: laws of gestalt. A white body has different luminance qualities depending on the lighting situation. although it is based on this luminance pattern. The formation of shadows on a spatial body – its luminance pattern – is not interpreted as being unevenly lit.5. soft lighting. In interior spaces diffuse light can also be reflected from illuminated ceilings and walls. in contrast to the dramatic interplay of light and shade in bright sunlight. or.5. or when the light falling on a surface is absorbed to a large extent by the low reflectance of the environment. flat surfaces.5 Light 2.2 Diffuse and directed light fore basically influenced by three factors: light. Directed light not only produces shadows and reflections. The pattern of luminances projected onto the retina is not the end product. because the lighting situation is registered and taken into account when the image is being processed. We are familiar with these different forms of light through our everyday experience with daylight – direct sunlight when the sky is clear and diffuse light when the sky is overcast. object and perceiving being. In interior spaces. These simple examples are clear evidence of the important part psychological processing has to play in the creation of the final perceived image. but is only used in architectural lighting when the concept intends to create a dramatic spatial effect. The portion of diffuse light decreases when ceiling and walls receive too little light. In both cases the characteristics of the object and the type of lighting are interpreted from the perceived luminance pattern simultaneously. When a lighting design concept purposefully strives to achieve specific visual effects it must involve all factors related to the perceptual process. It is not the luminances produced by an accumulation of objects that are interesting. such as the sky in the daytime. it is always perceived as being uniformly white. especially as it is not itself perceptible. luminous ceilings. in the field of artificial lighting. The essential properties of directed light are the production of shadows on objects and structured surfaces. Daylight. but rather the information about the quality of these objects and about the lighting conditions under which this quality can be perceived. Characteristic qualities are the uniform. for example. Lighting design cannot be restricted to the observance of illuminance or luminance levels. 2. consideration must be given to the quality of light. These may be extensive. but to gain information about the environment. In the case of daylight this is the sun. has a more or less fixed ratio of sunlight to sky light (directed light to diffuse light) of 5:1 to 10:1. Directed light is emitted from point light sources. A design concept that is restricted to fixed illuminance criteria is only concerned with the aspect of the light. This can be exploited for dramatic effects through accent lighting. but the correlation of the light with the objects in the space. but simply forms the basis for a complex process at the end of which is the image we actually see. which illuminates the entire space and makes objects visible. but as a feature of a three-dimensional form. in artificial lighting compact light sources. Diffuse light is produced by extensive areas that emit light. on the other hand. even when this approach effectively results in optimum per76 ceptual conditions at workplaces. of light and object alone. at least up to the moment an image is projected onto the retina. This is why the image that we actually perceive is not identical to the pattern of luminances on the retina. These effects are particularly noticeable when the general lighting consists of only a small portion of diffuse light. When planning luminance distribution it is not only the light that is taken into consideration. as governed by the laws of perceptual psychology. But luminance and luminance distribution do not provide an adequate basis for the planning of visual impressions – attention has yet to be paid to the perceiving individual. Evenso. and reflections on specular objects. Luminance is the basis of the brightness we perceive. it opens up new horizons for the lighting designer because of the choice of beam angles and aiming directions . Illuminance is therefore inadequate as a basis for predicting visual effect. Apart from considering the qualities of the light to be applied lighting design must – as an integral part of the design of the environment – also take into account the interaction of light source.2 Diffuse light and directed light Having dealt with light quantity. This produces very uniform. we can determine the ratio of directed and diffuse light we require or prefer. almost shadowless light we experience under an overcast sky. which means that the perceptual process is taken into account.

Whereas in the era of the candle and the oil lamp the light was bound to the immediate vicinity of the luminaire.2 Diffuse and directed light that he has at his disposal. too much shaping can conceal information. can we recognise its spatial quality.5. Three-dimensionality comprises a number of individual areas.5 Light 2. This means that a space can be purposefully lit and the lighting modulated. Just as it is impossible for us to retrieve this information when there is no directed light at all. is its three-dimensional quality.2. The texture of a surface only stands out when light is directed onto the surface at an angle and produces shadows. Only through directed light are we able to gain information about the threedimensional character of objects. in the case of tightly controlled light. These are difficult to recognise under diffuse light. the effect of the light relates directly to the position of the luminaire. One essential objective regarding visual perception must therefore be to provide information about this aspect of our environment.e. it is now possible to use light in other parts of the space at any distance from where the light source is located. from the extension of the space around us to the location and orientation of objects within the space. Forms and surface structures are accentuated. Shapes and surface structures are poorly recognisable. Whereas the light emitted by diffuse or exposed light sources always has an effect on the entire space.2. 2. The shaping of our environment through light and shade is of prime importance for our perception of spatial forms and surface structures. down to their spatial form and surface structure. Here lies one of the most progressive aspects of lighting technology. It appears to be no more than a circular area. but the significance for human perception must be analysed. If we view a sphere under completely diffuse light we cannot perceive its spatial form. Modelling is primarily effected using directed light. It is possible to use lighting effects at specific illuminance levels on exactly defined areas from practically any location within a space. Diffuse lighting produces negligible shadowing. This happens when intensely 77 Perception of threedimensional forms and surface structures under different lighting conditions. There are no disturbing shadows. Lighting that consists of both diffuse and directed lighting produces soft shadows. Directed light produces pronounced shadows and strong shaping effects. while details can be concealed by the shadows. The relative local illuminance level can be adjusted to suit the significance of a particular part of a space and the perceptual information it contains. Perception of the three-dimensional character of our environment involves processes that relate to our physiology and perceptual psychology. The same applies to the way we perceive surface structures. and one that we take absolutely for granted. .5. This has been referred to.1 Modelling Another basic feature of the world around us. Only when directed light falls on the sphere – i. when shadows are created. Forms and surface structures can be recognised clearly.

But it may also be information regarding the type and quality of a surface.5. The information we receive may only be that there is a sparkling light source.2. Brilliance is produced by compact. It is. they are not primarily dependent on the amount of light applied. disturbing as it is felt that the information we require is being concealed behind the reflections. Objects that refract this light are perceived as specular. illuminated glass. The light source itself will be seen as a brilliant point of light. Direct sunlight either comes from above or from the side. this can be achieved by using sparkling light sources: candlelight or low-voltage halogen lamps. A good example of this is the effect of a candlelight in evening light. ceramics. It will create the feeling that the object of perception. If an environment – a festival hall. a church or a lobby – is to appear especially festive. As a rule suitable proportions of diffuse light and directed light are required. is exclusive. possible to apply light from other directions and with other colour temperature combinations. In offices. Sparkling effects are in fact generally used in practice to make objects or spaces more interesting and prestigious. Brilliance is effective because it attracts our attention with the promise of information content.2 Brilliance Another feature of directed light alongside its modelling effect is brilliance. e. reflections on clear plastic sleeves. It is possible to create uniform lighting in a space by using several point light sources.2. Directed light can also be applied with sparkling effect for the presentation of specific objects – making them appear more precious. lending a space an interesting. or the overall environment. paint or varnish. then it is found to be disturbing. require lighting that emphasises shapes and forms.g. of course. i. Disturbing brilliance is referred to as glare. In the case of uniform lighting with diffuse light the shadows are softer and far less distinct. glass. Brilliance is also produced when light falls on highly glossy surfaces. When applied to the lighting of objects brilliance accentuates their spatial quality and surface structure – similar to modelling – because sparkling effects are mainly evident along edges and around the curves on shiny objects. Well balanced portions provide good overall visibility of the environment and simultaneously allow spatial appreciation and vivid perception of the objects. Accentuating form and surface structure using brilliance enhances the quality of the illuminated objects and their surroundings. polished gems or crystal chandeliers. but mostly on the luminous intensity of the light source. If this is the case.2 Diffuse and directed light directed light casts such stark shadows that parts of an object are concealed by the darkness. such as porcelain. Due to the fact that each light beam is directed. The colour of sunlight is clearly warmer than that of diffuse sky light. In some standards for workplace lighting there is a criterion for the modelling effect of a lighting installation. Brilliance can be a means of attracting attention to the light source. point light sources and is most effective when applied with an extremely low proportion of diffuse light. lighting that comprises directed light falling diagonally from above with a lower colour temperature than the diffuse general lighting will be felt to be natural. 78 . If the brilliance possesses no informative value. computer monitors or glossy paper are not interpreted as information (brilliance). but this will lead to effects that are especially striking or strange. polished metal or wet materials. This applies in particular when it arrises as reflected glare. paint or metal. Since sparkling effects are produced by reflections or refraction. When planning the application of directed and diffuse light it is advisable to rely on our fundamental experience of daylight with regard to the direction and colour of the light. 2. however. a low-voltage halogen lamp) can create reflections of far greater brilliance than a less compact lamp of greater luminous power. objects within the space will cast multiple shadows.e. Only in situations where spatial quality and surface structure are of no importance.g. The question still has to be raised. lively character. but as disturbing glare. Specific visual tasks. we will accept the sparkling light as pleasant and interesting. It is referred to as the modelling factor. through the geometry and symmetry of the reflections. glass.5 Light 2.5. whether the information our attention has been drawn to is really of interest in the particular situation. This applies above all for the presentation of refractive or shiny materials. where the spatial quality or the surface structure is of prime importance. The task of lighting design is therefore to create a suitable ratio of diffuse light to directed light to meet the requirements of each individual situation. or if they are disturbing factors. A very compact light source (e. but never from below. which is defined as the ratio of cylindrical illuminance to horizontal illuminance. can completely diffuse lighting be used. Consequently.

when we look directly at artificial light sources or at the sun.5. Superimposition of scattered or disturbing light. discomfort glare is a problem that concerns the processing of information. its size and proximity to the visual task. In this case the degree of glare depends mainly on the luminous intensity of the glare source. but merely a subjective interference factor the term discomfort glare is used. The predominant directions of view also play a significant role. and the distraction of the reflected glare source. when we look at a uniformly overcast sky or at a luminous ceiling. in which the glare source is reflected by the visual task or its ambient field. 3 1 2 glare can lead to a high degree of unease. The second form of glare is reflected glare. e. The evaluation of luminances and luminance contrasts that may lead to unwanted glare is predominantly dependent on the type of environment and the requirement that the lighting aims to fulfil.g. This arises when luminance levels of more than 104 cd/m2 are evident in the field of vision. Repeatedly having to adjust to various brightness levels and the distance between the visual task and the glare source eventually leads to eye strain. thereby reducing visibility. and as such can be compared with a disturbing sound that continually attracts our attention and undermines our perception. what may be desired brilliance in one case may be considered to be unwanted glare in another. discomfort glare does not become a problem. Discomfort glare caused by reflected light creates considerable problems for persons reading texts printed on glossy paper or working at computer monitors. Disability glare does not depend upon the luminance contrast in the environment. but by high luminance contrasts within the field of vision. Although visual performance may objectively remain unchanged. There is a set of formalised rules that apply to glare limitation in the field of lighting at workplaces. which in turn will have an effect on the person's overall performance at his/her workplace. The reason for this superimposition of the luminous intensities of visual task and glare source may be the direct overlay of the images on the retina. which cannot be described out of context – the information content of the visual environment and the perceptual information we require in a given situation. In the case of objective depreciation in visual performance the term physiological glare is applied. if these contrasts overlay more important information and themselves provide no information.g. The degree of light scattering depends primarily on the opacity of the inner eye. lighting that may be glare-free for a person sitting upright in a chair may constitute glare if that same person leans back. Disability and discomfort glare both take two forms. even slight differences in luminance levels can give rise to discomfort glare. which can be explained irrespective of the specific situation as the exceeding of given luminance or luminance contrast values. The most extreme case of physiological glare is disability glare. A glare source is also frequently referred to as visual noise. if these contrasts are expected and provide valuable information. e. Disability glare seldom presents a problem in architectural lighting. is often enough to reduce visual performance. discomfort In the case of physiological glare the retinal image of the object being viewed (1) is superimposed by luminances that occur in the eye from the dispersion (2) of the light produced by a glare source (3). The person's gaze is constantly being drawn away from the visual task to the glare source. the sparkling light of a crystal chandelier or an appealing view out of a window. which is considered to be unpleasant or even painful.g. and the subjective disturbance felt by individuals through excessive luminance levels or stark contrasts in luminance levels within the field of vision. Discomfort glare occurs when an individual is involuntarily or unconsciously distracted by high luminance levels within the field of vision.3 Glare 2.3 Glare An essential feature of good lighting is the extent to which glare is limited.2. If the glare source is not the cause of a reduction in visual performance. they are 79 .5 Light 2. In this case the light from a glare source superposes the luminance pattern of the visual task. Although there may be considerable luminance contrasts occurring within the field of vision. The latter increases with age and is the reason why older people are considerably more sensitive to glare. as the eye is continually straining to accommodate to the visual task. which is located at some distance away. although this area of increased brightness fails to provide the expected information. whereby the reduction of visual performance is not caused by extreme luminances. in the case of reflections on glossy paper. This form of glare depends on the abovementioned factors and the specular quality and position of the reflecting surface. which is at close range. The rules that govern a festive or theatrical environment are entirely different from those for workplaces. There are two aspects to glare: the objective depreciation of visual performance. In contrast to disability glare. as a rule. It cannot be eliminated by increasing the luminance level. which arises through the dispersion of the light from the glare source within the eye. its luminance contrast to the visual task. where the glare source itself is visible in the field of vision of the visual task.5. Here it is more a question of relative glare. On the other hand. The first is direct glare. e.

by raising the ambient luminance or lowering the luminance of the glare source.2. The contrast rendition factor in this case is defined as the ratio of the luminance contrast inherent to a visual task under totally diffuse standard Glare limitation at VDT workstations: for areas with VDT workstations a cut-off angle å of at least 30° is recommended. presents a special case. Reflected glare can only be evaluated according to qualitative criteria. In the case of direct glare this is the area of ceiling in front of the seated person and perceived at angles lower than 45°. For reflected glare in the case of horizontal reading.5. the type of luminaires and the required visual compfort the lighting installation aims to meet. but parallel to the direction of view and between the workplaces.5 Light 2. Continuous rows of louvred luminaires should not be installed cross-wise to the direction of view. Reflected glare on VDTs. for example. reflected glare in the case of horizontal visual tasks (2) and reflected glare in the case of vertical visual tasks. It describes a specific process for checking that limiting values between comfort and direct glare are not exceeded. Normally © G values lie between 50° and 60°. luminance limiting curves can be drawn on the diagram that are not to be exceeded by the luminance curve stipulated for the luminaire installed. Depending on the rated illuminance. at VDT workstations (3). Glare can be minimised by reducing luminance contrasts – for example. In this case glare is mainly caused by glare sources in the ceiling area behind the person. 80 . Suitable glare limitation can be achieved by the correct choice of luminaires. Glare can also be avoided by suitably arranging the luminaire geometry. From the height of the sitting position and the preferred direction of view areas can be defined in which light sources will tend to produce the most glare. Luminance levels of walls that produce reflections on monitors should not exceed 200 cd/m 2 on average.g. The reflection of windows on computer monitors should basically be avoided. writing and drawing tasks there is a process that describes the degree of reflected glare in quantitative terms via the contrast rendition factor (CRF). In the case of reflected glare. or 400 cd/m2 as a maximum. e. that is to say on practically vertical surfaces. å ©G based on a person working seated at a desk with louvred luminaires providing the lighting. the glare is caused predominantly by luminaires located in the ceiling area directly in front of the person. In Germany DIN 5035 is used for the evaluation of glare limitation at the workplace. The luminance of luminaires that cause reflections on conventional computer monitors should not exceed 200 cd/m 2 above a critical angle ©G. Especially developed reflectors can guarantee that luminaires positioned above the critical angle do not produce any unacceptable luminances. caused primarily by luminaires (1). By installing luminaires that emit only minimal direct light downwards can also make a substantial contribution towards limiting reflected glare. Apart from glare through windows glare is mainly produced by luminaires located in specific parts of the ceiling. In the case of direct glare there is the quantitative method of evaluating luminance limiting curves. however. The luminance of the installed luminaires is determined at angles of 45°–85° and entered in a diagram.3 Glare 3 2 1 3 2 With regard to glare a distinction is made between direct glare.

From the geometry of the space the viewing angle for the first luminaire is 55°. Category A 1 55˚ 70˚ Mean illuminance (lx) 1000 750 500 2000 1500 1000 – 750 300 500 E = 500 lx 85˚ © 75˚ 65˚ 1 55˚ 103 2 3 4 5 6 8 104 L(cd/m2) Example of how to apply glare limitation to an illuminance level of 500 Ix and category A. Luminance limiting curves (for luminaires without luminous side panels). matt High-pressure lamp. in relation to the glare limitation category.2. They identify values for average luminance L of the luminaire at angles © between 45° and 85°. The CRF can be measured in an actual lighting installation on the basis of the given reflection standard or calculated on the basis of the reflectance data. clear Incandescent lamp. which are not to be exceeded by the luminaire in question for the given mean illuminance and for the required glare limitation category. 85˚ 45˚ To evaluate direct glare the luminance of the luminaires within the range 45° to 85° is considered.5 Light 2. The contrast rendition factor (CRF) is based on a reflection standard comprising one light (high reflectance) and one dark (low reflectance) ceramic disc with standardised reflectance for various directions and angles of illumination. The luminance curve does not exceed the limiting curve.3 Glare Minimum cut-off angle of luminaires with different light sources. For completely diffuse lighting the reference contrast is known.5. Lamp type Glare limitation category A B Very low High 20° 20° 30° 30° 10° 15° 20° 30° C Average 0° 5° 10° 15° D Low 0° 0° 5° 10° Fluorescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp High-pressure lamp. clear lighting conditions to the luminance contrast of the same visual task under the given lighting conditions. 81 . for the second luminaire 70°. the luminaire therefore meets the requirements laid down for glare limitation. The corresponding luminances can be read off luminance curve 1 in the diagram. The CRF is then classified into one of three CRF categories.

Visual task Predominantly glossy Matt with a soft sheen Matt Contrast rendering High Average Low CRF cat. taking as a basis an A3 format area of view at viewing position (1).3 Glare L O1 L O2 C0 = L01 – L02 L01 C0 = 0.2.91 L1 Evaluating the contrast rendition factor (CRF): in the case of a completely diffuse reference lighting situation (idealised representation of a light hemi-sphere. 82 . CRF >1 indicates that the lighting situation exceeds the quality of the reference lighting with regard to contrast rendition.95 ≥ 0.91 0.5 Light 2. 35˚ DIN A3 25˚ 15˚ 1 0˚ 15˚ 30˚ 45˚ View point Recommendations for average and minimum CRF values depending on the type of visual task and CRF rating.0 0.91 L1 L2 å C = L1 – L2 L1 CRF = C = C = L1 – . CRF <1 indicates that the lighting has lost part of its contrast rendering quality due to reflections.7 ≤ CRF < 0. value ≥ 0.5 Grid for calculating the contrast rendition factor.85 CRF min. value 1.85 ≤ CRF < 1. above left) the reference value for standard reflectanceaccording to Bruel + Kjaer is C0 (above right). 50 mm in front of and 400 mm above the front edge of the area under consideration. 1 2 3 CRF av.7 ≥ 0. In the case of an actual lighting situation (below left) the contrast value for standard reflectance with a viewing angle å is C (below right). Contrast rendition factor CRF is a criterion for contrast perception at viewing angle å.0 ≤ CRF 0. 25˚ By projecting the field of vision onto the ceiling surface it is possible to define the area in which the luminaires may have a negative influence on contrast rendering.L2 C0 0. For the basic planning of a lighting installation the CRF value is generally only calculated for the primary viewing angle of 25°.5.

however. starting from the Planckian radiator curve.56 0.40 0.3 490 0.72 2500 K 2000 K 1600 K 0.40 0. Brightness is referred to in this case as the reflecting coefficient of an object colour.2 0.26 tw 0. To be able to describe the luminous colour of discharge lamps. A curve can be drawn inside the coloured area to show the luminous colour of a Planckian radiator (black body) at different colour temperatures. The white point E marks the point of least saturation.58 y Spectral colour loci 0. with the result that only hue and saturation can be determined using this diagram. which produces a comprehensive colour atlas in the form of a three-dimensional matrix. The ranges given are the luminous colours of warm white (ww).8 540 0.4 Luminous colour and colour rendering 2. This system disregards brightness as a dimension. The point of lowest saturation is located in the centre of the plane. The purple boundary forms the line between the long-wave and shortwave spectral range.26 x 0.32 0.1 0.58 0. The chromaticity of any real colour can be defined using the x/y coordinates in the chromaticity diagram. They are calculated or measured according to the spectral composition of the illuminant for luminous colours. neutral white (nw) and daylight white (dw). The spectrum locus links the colour loci of all saturated spectral colours.64 0. and the term saturation refers to the degree of colour strength from pure colour to the non-coloured grey scale.2 0.34 8000 0. The light itself can also be seen as being coloured (luminous colour).1 480 Blue E Purple 620 690–780 Purple boundary x 0.56 0.64 Section of the chromaticity diagram with the curve relating to the Planckian radiator and the series of straight lines marking the colour loci of the same correlated colour temperature between 1600 and 10000 K. The Munsell system or the DIN colour chart arrange object colours according to brightness.42 3000 3300 K 4000 5000 6000 ww nw 0. which is perceived as brightness.6 0.4 0. Section of the chromaticity diagram with the curve relating to the Planckian radiator and the colour loci of standard illuminants A (incandescent light) and D 65 (daylight) plus the colour loci of typical light sources: candlelight (1). thereby changing the spectral composition of the light which they reflect (object colour). Colour is. With the aid of this array of lines it is also possible to allocate luminous colours that are not present on this curve to the colour temperature of a 0. 83 .50 0.4 Blue-green Green The CIE’s chromaticity diagram.34 0. or the reflectance or transmittance of the object for object colours. hue is the colour tone.8 0.48 0.42 0. Additive combinations of two colours also lie along the straight lines that link the respective colour loci.6 0. The borderlines that separate the different colour regions fan out from the white point. The CIE chromaticity diagram represents a plane that comprises all actual colours and satisfies a number of other conditions. not arranged according to a three-dimensional catalogue.32 6 E 43 2 A 5 D 65 1 600 620 690– 780 x 0. hue and saturation. halogen lamp (3).5. There are various systems by which colours are described.7 0. nw (5) and dw (6). this curve can be used to describe the luminous colour of incandescent lamps. 560 Yellow-green Wavelength (nm) Spectral colour loci 570 Yellow Orange 590 600 Red 0. The plane is surrounded by a curved borderline.9 380–410 0.5. incandescent lamp (2).5 0.4 Luminous colour and colour rendering Apart from luminance. and presented in a continuous two-dimensional diagram.72 0.5 0.7 0.2. fluorescent lamps in ww (4).48 0.5 Light 2. a series of straight lines of correlated colour temperatures is entered on the graph. In the CIE’s standard chromaticity diagram object colours and luminous colour are. also produced through the capacity of various materials to absorb specific spectral ranges. along which the colour loci of the saturated spectral colours lie. and is referred to as the white point. however.3 0. the eye also registers an impression of colour based on the spectral composition of the perceived light.50 y 565 Spectral colour loci 580 0. All degrees of saturation of a colour on the saturation scale can now be found on the lines that run between the white point and the spectral colour loci.9 y 520 0.

blue sky) Overcast sky Clear blue sky T (K) 1900–1950 2100 2 700–2 900 2 800–7 500 4100 5 000–6 000 5 800–6 500 6 400–6 900 10 000–26 000 Colour rendering Category 1A 1B 2A 2B 3 4 Ra index Ra > 90 80 ≤ Ra ≤ 90 70 ≤ Ra < 80 60 ≤ Ra < 70 40 ≤ Ra < 60 20 ≤ Ra < 40 Colour rendering categories and their inherent Ra indices. These stipulate the minimum requirements for colour rendering for lighting in workplaces. Spectral distribution Se (l) of standard illuminants A (incandescent light. It is therefore a comparison of the similarity of colour effects under two types of lighting. The quality of the colour rendering established is expressed as a colour rendering index. using average colour rendering. Since the eye can adapt to different colour temperatures. The maximum index of 100 represents optimum colour rendering. Colour rendering categories 1 and 2 are further subdivided – into A and B – to allow a differentiated evaluation of light sources. Some investigations indicate that a warm colour appearance is preferred at low illuminance levels and in the case of directed light. e.5. In some cases the index for the rendering of a specific colour has to be taken into account.4 Luminous colour and colour rendering thermal radiator. To determine the colour rendering of a light source the colour effects of a scale of eight object colours are calculated under the types of lighting to be evaluated as well as under comparison standard lighting. and the two then compared. The quality of colour rendering is divided into four categories. below). The same colours will be seen as clear and bright under daylight white fluorescent light – although its colour rendering properties are not so good.5 Light 2. 250 Se 150 50 400 250 Se 150 50 400 600 ¬ (nm) 800 600 ¬ (nm) 800 Correlated colour temperature T of typical light sources. in Germany according to DIN standards. In the case of display lighting the colours of the illuminated objects can be made to appear brighter and more vivid through the purposeful application of luminous colour – if necessary. therefore. whereby colour rendering category 3 is sufficient for industrial workplaces. in the field of medicine or cosmetics. Colour rendering is defined as the degree of change which occurs in the colour effect of objects through lighting with a specific light source in contrast to the lighting with a comparative reference light source. The colour of illuminated objects is the result of the spectral composition of the light falling on a body and the ability of the body to absorb or transmit certain components of this light and only reflect or absorb the remaining frequency ranges. which can be related to both general colour rendering (Ra) as well as the rendering of individual colours. the standard of comparison is rather a comparable light source with a continuous spectrum. The degree of deviation is referred to as the colour rendering of the light source. colour rendering must be determined in relation to luminous colour. be it a thermal radiator of comparable colour temperature. when skin colours have to be differentíated. The lighting designer’s decision as to which light source to select therefore depends on the given situation. The same applies the other way round for the rendition of yellow and red colours. Colour rendering category 1 is required for tasks which involve the evaluation of colours. and lower values correspondingly less adequate colour rendering. This way of purposefully emphasizing colour qualities can also be applied in retail lighting. offices and industrial workplaces with demanding visual tasks the minimum colour rendering category required is 2.g. It is possible to differentiate between three main groups of luminous colours here: the warm white range which resemble most closely colour temperatures below 3300 K.2. The degree of colour fidelity. the neutral white range between 3300 and 5000 K and the daylight white range which resemble most closely colour temperatures above 5000 K. whereas cold colour appearances are accepted for high illuminance levels and diffuse lighting. by which illuminated objects are rendered in comparison to reference lighting. The colour rendering quality is an important criteria when choosing a light source. Apart from the rendition quality the choice of luminous colour is also of critical importance for the actual effect of colours. above) and D 65 (daylight. 84 . The eye is able to gradually adapt to the predominant luminous colour – similar to the way it adapts to a luminance level – which means that in the case of a lighting situation that comprises different luminous colours virtually constant perception of the scale of object colours is guaranteed. One single light source cannot therefore serve as the source of reference. For the lighting of interior spaces. The lighting under which a customer decides which articles he wishes to purchase should not deviate significantly from the lighting conditions the customer is accustomed to. Light source Candle Carbon filament lamp Incandescent lamp Fluorescent lamps Moonlight Sunlight Daylight (sunshine. In addition to the resulting. Colour rendering category 4 is only permitted when the lowest of requirements are to be met at illuminance levels of up to 200 lux. or daylight. Blue and green colours will appear grey and dull under incandescent light despite its excellent colour rendering properties. objective calculable or measurable colour stimulus the colour adaptation of the eye also plays a role in our actual perception of things around us.

In the case of specular surfaces there is no diffusion. 2. the light falling onto a surface is fully or partially reflected.2 Transmission Transmission describes how the light falling on a body is totally or partially transmitted depending on the transmission factor of the given body. In the case of completely transparent materials there is no diffusion. In contrast to luminaires with exposed lamps.g.6. for enhanced luminaire efficiency and improved glare limitation led to the reflector being taken from the lamp and integrated into the luminaire. It is equally important that the form and arrangement of the luminaires and the lighting effects are appropriate. luminaires were developed to ensure that the light source could be mounted and transported safely. the lighting effect was therefore no longer confined to the vicinity of the luminaire. The first is to accommodate one or more lamps plus any necessary control gear.6. electrical connection and servicing must be as easy and safe as possible. the smaller the specular component of the reflected light. the smaller the direct component of the transmitted light. up to the point where only diffuse light is produced. You will still find this combination of lamp and lampshade today – especially in the decorative market – in spite of their being relatively inefficient.1 Reflection In the case of reflection. One disadvantage of reflector lamps was the fact that every time you replaced the lamp you also replaced the reflector.6 Controlling light Luminaires have a number of functions. 2. Luminaire technology was first confined to providing a shielding element for the lamp and reducing the luminous intensity of the lamp by means of diffusing lampshades or canopies. The demand for more differentiated lighting control. Transmitting materials in luminaires can be transparent. which meant high operating costs. Apart from that.6 Controlling light 2. 85 . which also define the light output ratio. Besides reflectance the degree of diffusion of the reflected light is also significant. Specular reflection is a key factor in the construction of luminaires. This applies to simple front glass panels. rooms where there is a danger of an explosion. The aim is to produce a light distribution in accordance with the specific functions the luminaire is required to fulfil.2.1. With the advent of considerably stronger light sources – first gas lighting and later electric lamps – it became more important to construct luminaires that could control luminance and ensure that the light was distributed as required. Mounting.1 Principles of controlling light Various optical phenomena can be used in the construction of luminaires as a means for controlling light: 2. Luminaires that are to be applied under specific operating conditions – e. Besides these electrical and safety aspects luminaires also have an aesthetic function as an integral part of the architectural design of a building. The introduction of reflector and PAR lamps. asymmetrical light distribution in the case of a washlight – there was frequently no suitable reflector lamp available. but did not control the distribution of the light. marked the first step towards controlling light purposefully and efficiently. up to the point where only diffuse light is produced. so for special tasks – e. In these light sources the light is concentrated by the reflectors that form an integral part of the lamp and efficiently directed as required in defined beam angles.g. It became possible to accentuate specific areas from almost any point within the space. or filters that absorb certain spectral regions but transmit others.1. the flame. The construction of the luminaires guarantees that the user is protected from contact with live components (electric shock) and that there is no danger of surrounding surfaces and objects overheating (fire prevention). which was absorbed or able to scatter in undefined directions. each with different beam angles. there were only a few standardised reflector types available. The third and perhaps most essential task the luminaire has to fulfil is to control the luminous flux. 2. The greater the diffusing power. Even in the days of the first artificial light source. This means that it is possible to construct luminaires that are designed to meet the specific requirements of the light source and the task which can now be applied as instruments for differentiated lighting effects. utilizing energy as effectively as possible.6. the purposeful control of light can be achieved through specially designed reflectors and surfaces. The greater the diffusing power of the reflecting surface. The degree of diffusion of the transmitted light must also be taken into account.1 Principles the luminaire only served as a device to hold the lamp and as a means for limiting glare. The reflector lamp took on the task of controlling the light. which were used widely in the USA. This was one way of limiting glare.6. depending on the reflecting coefficient of this surface. or damp or humid spaces – must be designed to meet the more stringent requirements.

white Mortar.70–0. concave surface (converging rays) and convex surface (diverging rays).85 0. polished Chrome. ochre. dark green Building materials Plaster.05–0. matt finish Aluminium.6.75 0.10–0. pale blue. clear 0.85 0. mid-grey.25–0. polished Copper. highly specular Aluminium.40–0.85 0.30–0.10–0. paint colours and building materials.50 0.50 0.50–0.50–0. The luminance distribution is the same from all angles of view. I L Specular reflection of parallel beams of light falling onto a flat surface (parallel path of rays).20 0.10 0.80 0. Luminous intensity distribution in the case of mixed reflection (centre) and specular reflection (below).70 0.20 0.40–0.1 Principles Luminous intensity distribution I (top left) and luminance distribution L (top right) in the case of diffuse reflection. dark grey.70 0. dark blue. orange.60–0.50 0.70 0.70–0.2. Metals Aluminium.70 0.30 0.60–0. 86 . Luminous intensity distribution in the case of mixed transmittance (centre) and direct transmittance through transparent material (below).70–0.10–0. Reflection factor of common metals. light red.80–0.75–0. polished Paint finish White Pale yellow Pale green. anodised. white Gypsum Enamel.80 0. light Concrete Granite Brick.60 I L Luminous intensity distribution I (top left) and luminance distribution L (top right) in the case of diffuse transmission. dark red.6 Controlling light 2.60–0.90 0.35 0. matt finish Silver. polished Steel. red Glass. The luminance distribution is the same from all angles of view. light grey Beige.60–0.

in this regard it is essential for visual comfort. ™G = 42°.6 Controlling light 2. have a high transmission factor and produce particularly distinct separation of reflected and transmitted spectral ranges. since it does not control. In the construction of luminaires absorption is primarily used for shielding light sources. In principle. but rather wastes light. sin ™1 = n2 sin ™2 n1 ™1 n1 ™2 n2 When transmitted through a medium of a different density. For the transition from air to glass the refractive index is approx. symmetrical ribbed panel (top right). When transmitted from one medium with a refractive index of n1 into a denser medium with a refractive index of n2 rays of light are diffracted towards the axis of incidence (™1 > ™2).6. thereby reducing the light output ratio of the luminaire. Reflectors and filters designed to produce coloured light can be manufactured using this technique. ™G n2 n1 87 . for example – it is refracted.e.1.1. n2 / n1 =1. Typical ray tracing through an asymmetrical prismatic panel (top left). barn doors or louvres in various shapes and sizes. not wanted.6. From the lighting point of view inteference effects are exploited when light falls on extremely thin layers that lead to specific frequency ranges being reflected and others being transmitted. Interference filters. If this critical angle is exceeded the ray of light is reflected into the denser medium (total reflection).5. opal glass or opal plastics – are used for front covers in order to reduce lamp luminance and help to control glare. anti-dazzle cylinders.4 Refraction When beams of light enter a clear transmitting medium of differing density – from air into glass and vice versa from glass into the air. By arranging the sequence of thin layers of metal vapour according to defined thicknesses and densities. In the case of objects with parallel surfaces there is only a parallel light shift. In the construction of luminaires refracting elements such as prisms or lenses are frequently used in combination with reflectors to control the light. the direction of its path is changed. Typical absorbing elements on a luminaire are black multigrooved baffles. whereas prisms and lenses give rise to optical effects ranging from change of radiation angle to the concentration or diffusion of light to the creation of optical images. Light guides function according to the principle of total internal reflection (below). for example – as is the case with cool-beam lamps. The result can be that visible light is reflected and infrared radiation transmitted.1 Principles thereby producing coloured light or a reduction in the UV or IR range. Fresnel lens (bottom left) and collecting lens (bottom right).2.5 Interference Interference is described as the intensification or attenuation of light when waves are superimposed. however. i.g.1. selective reflectance can be produced for specific frequency ranges. sin ™G = n2 n1 There is an angular limit ™G for the transmission of a ray of light from a medium with a refractive index of n2 into a medium of less density with a refractive index of n1. absorption is. 2. rays are displaced in parallel. For the transition from glass to air the angular limit is approx. so-called dichroic filters.6. Occasionally diffusing materials – e.6.3 Absorption Absorption describes how the light falling on a surface is totally or partially absorbed depending on the absorption factor of the given material. 2. 2.

parabola and hyperbola (from top to bottom). be it to attain softer light or to balance out irregularities in the light distribution.6. the circle or the ellipse. 3 4 2 1 3 2 4 3 2 1 Ray tracing from a point light source when reflecting on circle. If the reflected light beam is to be slightly diffuse. The thickness of the final anodised coating depends on the application. Circle (1). which is more expensive.2 Reflectors 2. but can only take a limited thermal load and are therefore not so robust as aluminium reflectors. the reflector surfaces may have a facetted or hammered finish.2. Plastic reflectors are reasonably low-priced.6 Controlling light 2. Light distribution is determined to a large extent by the form of the reflector. These reflectors were originally made of glass with a mirrored rear surface. ranging from highquality super-purity aluminium to reflectors with only a coating of pure aluminium. whose highly resistant anodized coating provides mechanical protection and can be subjected to high temperatures. for interior applications it is around 3–5 µm. which led to the term which is still used today: mirror reflector technology.6. The anodising process can be applied to the aluminium coil (coil anodising) or on the finished reflectors (stationary anodising). The matt finish produces greater and more uniform reflector luminance. which can control light luminous colour or the UV or IR component. for luminaires to be used in exterior spaces or chemically aggressive environments up to 10 µm. 88 . ellipse. Diagram of the sectional planes and sections (below). Metal reflectors may receive a dichroic coating. Almost all reflector shapes can be attributed to the parabola.2 Reflectors Reflectors are probably the most important elements in the construction of luminaires for controlling light. parabola (3) and hyperbola (4) as the sectional planes of a cone (above). Aluminium reflectors are available in a variety of qualities. Anodized aluminium or chrome or aluminium-coated plastic are generally used as reflector material today. The surfaces of the reflectors can have a specular or matt finish. ellipse (2). Both reflectors with diffusely reflecting surfaces – mostly white or with a matt finish – and highly specular surfaces are used.

the result is a reflector with wide-beam to batwing light distribution characteristics. 1 1 å å 89 . å Parabolic reflector for glare limitation for flat and linear light sources.2. In this type of construction the focal point of the parabola lies at the nadir of the opposite parabolic segments.6 Controlling light 2. the result is a reflector with narrow-beam light distribution. although these lamps are not located at the focal point of the parabola. no shielding for direct rays.g. In the case of linear light sources a similar effect is produced when rectangular reflectors with a parabolic cross section are used.g. in skylights – direct the sunlight so that glare cannot arise above the cut-off angle. converging rays /ellipse (top right).1 Parabolic reflectors The most widely used reflectors are parabolic reflectors. 2.2. Parabolic contours of rectangular reflectors and rotationally symmetrical reflectors. Wide-angle parabolic reflector with cut-off angle å (below). wide-beam or asymmetrical distribution. but can also be applied to daylight control systems. Parabolic reflectors can also be applied with linear or flat light sources – e.2 Reflectors Parabolic reflector with short distance between focal point and apex of the reflector. In this case the aim is not so much to produce parallel directional light but optimum glare limitation. They allow light to be controlled in a variety of ways – narrowbeam. and provide for specific glare limitation characteristics. parabolic louvres – e. Reflector contours for parallel rays / parabola (top left). PAR lamps or fluorescent lamps. with the result that no light from the light source located above the reflector can be emitted above the given cut-off angle. If the reflector contour is constructed by rotating a parabolic segment around an axis. The more the light source deviates from the ideal point source – in relation to the diameter of the parabola – the more the rays of light emitted will diverge. Beam angles and cut-off angles can therefore basically be defined as required. When the focal point is located at the nadir (1) of the opposite parabolic segment no light is radiated above the cut-off angle å. which is at an angle to the parabolic axis. diverging rays /hyperbola (bottom left) and converging-diverging rays (bottom right). In the case of parabolic reflectors the light emitted by a light source located at the focal point of the parabola is radiated parallel to the parabolic axis. spherical reflector as a shielding element. which allows luminaires to be constructed to meet a wide range of light distribution and glare limitation requirements. reflector acts as a cut-off element.6. Parabolic reflector with intense directional light (above). Such constructions are not only possible in luminaires. Parabolic reflector with greater distance between focal point and apex of the reflector.6. If the reflector contour is constructed by rotating a parabola or parabolic segment around its own axis. Parabolic reflector with greater distance between focal point and apex of the reflector.

although the lamp itself is shielded. In the case of spherical reflectors the light emitted by a lamp located at the focal point of the sphere is reflected to this focal point.6.2. By using reflectors with a variable parabolic focal point (so-called darklight reflectors) this effect can be avoided. also possible to control the light distribution and glare limitation by using an additional parabolic reflector. By using reflectors with a variable parabolic focal point no light is radiated above cut-off angle å.5 Elliptical reflectors In the case of elliptical reflectors the light radiated by a lamp located at the first focal point of the ellipse is reflected to the second focal point. Elliptical reflectors in double-focus downlights (above).2. as is the case with spherical reflectors. 90 . Involute reflectors: light radiated by the lamp is reflected past the light source. however. but reflected past the lamp. 2.2. Involute reflectors are mainly used with discharge lamps to avoid the lamps over-heating due to the retro-reflected light.2 Reflectors å Darklight technology.2 Darklight reflectors In the case of the above-mentioned parabolic reflectors clearly defined light radiation – and effective glare limitation – is only possible for exact.4 Involute reflectors Here the light that is emitted by the lamp is not reflected back to the light source. They direct the luminous flux forwards onto the parabolic reflector.2. or to utilize the light radiated backwards by means of retroreflection back towards the lamp.6. The second focal point will be an imaginary light source positioned at ceiling level. When using larger radiating sources – e.g. glare is visible in the reflector. The second focal point of the ellipse can be used as an imaginary. secondary light source. i.2. 2. frosted incandescent lamps – glare will occur above the cut-off angle. 2.6 Controlling light 2. 2. especially in the case of volume radiating sources.3 Spherical reflectors 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ Through the calculation of specific reflector contours various cutoff angles and distribution characteristics can be obtained for the same ceiling opening and lamp geometry.6. when the light source is visible. point light sources. it is. Elliptical reflectors are used in recessed ceiling washlights to produce a light effect from the ceiling downwards.6.6. so that it also functions in controlling the light. wallwashers (centre) and spotlights (below). which would result in a decrease in performance. Elliptical reflectors are also ideal when the smallest possible ceiling opening is required for downlights.e. brightness will then only occur in the reflector of larger radiating sources below the cut-off angle. Spherical reflectors are used predominantly as an aid in conjunction with parabolic reflectors or lens systems.

Fresnel lenses are. Luminaires equipped with Fresnel lenses were originally mainly used for stage lighting. considerably flatter. which is why they are frequently used in luminaire construction in place of converging lenses. different beam angles or image dimensions can be selected depen91 Collecting lens (above) and Fresnel lens (below).6. and contour masks can be used to create different contours on the light beam. Simple aperture plates or iris diaphragms can produce variously sized light beams. 1 2 . The beam angle can be varied by changing the distance between lens and light source. The optical performance of Fresnel lenses is confined by aberration in the regions between the segments. and the condenser projector (below) for high quality definition.6 Controlling light 2. in the meantime they are also used in architectural lighting schemes to allow individual adjustment of beam angles when the distance between luminaires and objects varies. The ellipsoidal projector (above) with high light output. In addition.3. 2.3 Projecting systems Projecting systems comprise an elliptical reflector or a combination of spherical reflector and condenser to direct light at a carrier.6. as a rule the rear side of the lenses is structured to mask visible irregularities in the light distribution and to ensure that the beam contours are soft.2 Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses consist of concentrically aligned ring-shaped lens segments. Image size and beam angle can be defined at carrier plane. so that the beam angles can be adjusted as required. Collecting lenses are usually used in luminaire constructions together with a reflector. however. With the aid of templates (gobos) it is possible to project logos or images. As a rule the optical system comprises a combination of one reflector with one or more lenses.2. lenses are used practically exclusively for luminaires for point light sources.3. The reflector directs the overall luminous flux in beam direction.6. The distance be-tween the collecting lens and the light source is usually variable. lighter and less expensive.3 Lens systems In contrast to prismatic louvres.3.1 Collecting lenses Collecting lenses direct the light emitted by a light source located in its focal point to a parallel beam of light. The optical effect of these lenses is comparable to the effect produced by conventional lenses of corresponding shape or curvature.6. which can be fitted with optical accessories. The light is then projected on the surface to be illuminated by the main lens in the luminaire.3 Lens systems 2. 2. 2. the lens is there to concentrate the light.6. 1 2 Projector with projecting system: a uniformly illuminated carrier (1) is focussed via a lens system (2).

Light head of a spotlight to which various accessories can be fitted. it is not longer refracted but reflected. This principle is also frequently applied in prismatic systems to deflect light in angles beyond the widest angle of refraction. 2. 2. In the case of increased risk of mechanical damage. Prismatic systems are primarily used in luminaires that take fluorescent lamps to control the beam angle and to ensure adequate glare limitation. In contrast to luminaires for Fresnel lenses it is possible to produce light beams with sharp contours. soft contours can be obtained by setting the projector out of focus. which provide coloured light. Sculpture lens to produce an oval light beam. or reduce the UV or IR component. Accessories (from the top down): flood lenses to widen the light beam. although glass filters are more durable.6 Controlling light 2.6. This means that the prisms have to be calculated for the respective angle of incidence and combined to form a lengthwise oriented louvre or shield which in turn forms the outer cover of the luminaire. The most important are supplementary filters.6.6. Wider and softer light distribution can be achieved using flood lenses. Additional glare shields or honeycomb anti-dazzle screens can be used to improve glare limitation. If the light falls onto the side of the prism above a specific angle. 100 †(%) 60 20 400 100 †(%) 60 20 400 100 †(%) 60 20 400 600 ¬(nm) 800 600 ¬(nm) 800 Blue 600 ¬(nm) 800 Yellow Red 100 †(%) 60 20 400 100 †(%) 60 20 400 600 IR ¬(nm) 600 800 UV ¬(nm) 800 92 . -90˚ -60˚ -30˚ 0˚ 90˚ 60˚ 30˚ Spectral transmission † (¬) for conventional filters.4 Prismatic systems 2. above all in sports facilities and in areas prone to vandalism. Filters may be made of plastic foil. The deflection angle of the light can therefore be determined by the shape of the prism. Multigroove baffle and honeycomb anti-dazzle screen to control the light beam and reduce glare. whereas sculpture lenses produce an elliptical light cone. It is known that the deflection of a ray of light when it penetrates a prism is dependent on the angle of the prism. Typical light distribution of a fluorescent lamp equipped with prismatic optics. additional protective shields can be fitted. which have high transmission and produce exact separation of transmitted and reflected spectral components.5 Accessories ding on the focal length of the lenses.4 Prismatic systems Another optical means of controlling light is deflection using prisms.2.5 Accessories Many luminaires can be equipped with accessories to change or modify their photometric qualities.6. Apart from conventional absorption filters there are also interference filters (dichroic filters) available.

Recessed directional spotlights are both dis-creet and flexible.6 Controlling light Heat sink made of cast aluminium Ceramic lamp holder for E 27 cap Recessed directional spotlight for PAR lamp.2. blending harmoniously with the ceiling design and with all the advantages of conventional spotlights Lamp housing Terminal block PAR lamp as light source and integral part of the optical system Tilting stirrup for adjusting the lamp bracket Fixed darklight reflector Mounting ring 93 .

Narrow-beam downlights only light a small area. which can be classified accordng to different criteria.7.7 Luminaires There are various types of luminaires available. where the cut-off angle of the lamp is identical to the cut-off angle of the luminaire. This book is more concerned with luminaires with clearly defined photometric qualities that can be applied in the field of architectural lighting. Downlights are available with different light distributions. Some downlight forms have supplementary louvre attachments in the reflector aperture as an extra protection against glare. is the wall-mounted downlight. On vertical surfaces – e.7. A special version.1 Downlights As the name implies. also available as surface or pendant luminaires. Downlights are usually mounted on the ceiling. Darklight technology. In the case of downlights with darklight reflectors the cut-off angle of the lamp is identical to the cut-off angle of the luminaire. Occasionally it is possible to vary light direction. walls – the light patterns they produce have a typical hyperbolic shape (scallops).g. 2. This sector also comprises a wide range of luminaire types. but give rise to fewer glare problems due to their steep cut-off angle. which means that they are hardly visible as luminaires and only effective through the light they emit. where outward appearance is more important than the light they produce.7. We will not be dealing with this type of luminaire in depth. For our purposes we have divided these into three main groups: stationary luminaires. They are usually mounted on the ceiling and illuminate the floor or other horizontal surfaces. Stationary luminaires can be further subdivided according to luminaire characteristics and design. One main group comprises decorative luminaires. Recessed downlight for incandescent lamps. Downlights are.7 Luminaires 2.2.1. 2. 94 . downlights direct light predominantly downwards. which is found more in hallways or exterior spaces. thereby producing a luminaire with optimal wide-angle light distribution and light output ratio.1 Stationary luminaires Stationary luminaires are an integral part of the architecture. movable luminaires and light structures. but rigid mounting usually means that the light direction is also fixed. They may be recessed. In their basic form downlights therefore radiate light vertically downwards. however.1 Stationary luminaires 2.

95 .1 Stationary luminaires Different reflector shapes produce different cut-off angles from the same ceiling aperture. which not only directs the light vertically downwards.2. Recessed downlight for high-pressure discharge lamps. Lamp and reflector are separated by a safety glass cover. Symbolic representation in plan view: washlights.7. They are used to achieve uniform illumination over wall surfaces as a complement to horizontal lighting. Mounting options for downlights: recessed. double washlights and corner washlights. semi-recessed. Recessed downlights for compact fluorescent lamps. 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ Washlights with darklight reflectors and additional ellipsoidal segment for the wall lighting. versions with integrated and separate control gear (above) and with crossblade louvre (below). the corner of a space or two opposite sections of wall. Washlights have asymmetrical lighting distribution. Depending on the type used washlights are designed to illuminate a section of a wall. but also directly onto vertical surfaces. pendant and wall mounting. but the special form of the reflector allows high luminous efficiency even though the ceiling aperture is small. Double-focus downlight with ellipsoidal reflector and additional parabolic reflector with especially small ceiling aperture. Installation of doublefocus downlights in horizontal and inclined ceilings.7 Luminaires 2. surface. Double-focus downlights have similar properties to conventional downlights.

Directional spotlight. because the cooling effect of the return air may influence the performance of the light source. for air return or for both air-supply and airreturn. Downlight with combined air-supply and air-return. Air-handling downlights are available as air-return and air-handling luminaires. Their light distribution is narrow to medium. Typical values for downlights. Air-handling luminaires can be provided with connections for fresh air supply.0 Residual heat factor 0.1 Stationary luminaires Directional spotlights provide accent lighting of specific areas or objects. Downlight with airreturn function.2. Directional spotlight with darklight reflector. halogen lamps. 1. spherical version.7. This means that the directional spotlight can be directed at both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Those most frequently used are compact light sources such as incandescent lamps. L (dB(A)) 40 20 100 140 V (m3/h) 180 Noise level range L in relation to volume of return air flow V.2 100 140 V (m3/h) 180 Residual heat factor in relation to volume of return air flow V. Directional spotlight with anti-dazzle mask. They represent a dual function solution comprising lighting and air-conditioning and make for harmonious ceiling design. Directional spotlights can generally be rotated 360° and inclined to 40°. Downlights are available for a wide range of lamps. Directional spotlight with adjustable reflector lamp and darklight reflector. designed for a compact fluorescent lamp. By redirecting the light beam they can be used for different lighting tasks.7 Luminaires 2. Directional spotlight with cardanic suspension.6 0. 96 . high-pressure discharge lamps and compact fluorescent lamps. 360˚ 40˚ Air-handling downlight designed for an incandescent lamp. The convection heat produced by the lamp is removed with the air flow. The return air is dissipated separately. Typical values for downlights.

they are available for recessed or surface mounting or as pendant fixtures. Similar to downlights. 40. Wall-mounted combined uplight and downlight for PAR lamps. light controlling specular reflectors or prismatic diffusers. recessed floor mounting. They generally have wide-beam light distribution. They can therefore be used for lighting ceilings. square or round. Being fitted with linear light sources of low luminance louvred luminaires produce little or no modelling effects. Their name derives from their anti-dazzle attachments that may be anti-glare louvres. Uplights can be mounted on or in the floor or wall.7. 36 97 .2 Uplights In contrast to downlights. Louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps with darklight reflector and involute upper reflector. with the result that louvred luminaires are predominantly used for lighting wide areas.2. 40. Louvred luminaires are usually long and rectangular in shape (linear fluorescents). They are available in wall and pendant versions.3 Louvred luminaires Louvred luminaires are designed for linear light sources such as fluorescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps. Louvred luminaires can be rectangular. 55 Comparison of shapes and sizes of louvred luminaires for different lamps. .7 Luminaires 2.7. uplights emit light upwards. 30 60 90 I (cm) T [W] TC-L [W] 18 24 36. 2. floor mounting. Up-downlights combine a downlight and an uplight in one fixture. These luminaires are applied for the simultaneous lighting of floor and ceiling or for grazing lighting over a wall surface.1 Stationary luminaires 2. 55 Sectional drawing of a recessed floor luminaire for halogen reflector lamps.1.1. for indirect lighting by light reflected from the ceiling or for illuminating walls using grazing light. 30 60 90 I (cm) T [W] TC-L [W] 18 24 18 36 58 36. square and round versions are also available for compact fluorescent lamps. 30 60 90 I (cm) T [W] TC-L [W] 18 24 Mounting options for uplights and combined uplight/downlight: wall mounting.7.

The simplest is the application of anti-dazzle louvres to limit the distribution angle. surface.3 Luminaires 3. Twin-lamp version with lamps arranged horizontally and vertically (below left and top right). They are available with cut-off angles of 30° to 40° and a variety of beam characteristics. 98 . luminaire with parabolic louvres. walls. Different versions of louvred luminaires (from the top downwards): luminaire with transverse louvres. Twin-lamp version with twin-louvre (below right). so light distribution and glare limitation can be selected to suit the respective requirements. If a reduction in reflected glare is required. In the case of highly specular reflectors. floor-standing or pendant mounting. Mounting options for louvred luminaires: recessed ceiling. but they do sometimes lead to unwanted reflections in the louvre. louvred luminaires with batwing distribution can be used.32 Stationary luminaires In their basic form louvred luminaires have axially symmetrical light distribution. Lamp position to increase the cut-off angle (centre left). mounting on tracks. Direct glare caused by louvred luminaires can be controlled in a number of ways. Lamp arrangement in louvred luminaires: standard arrangement above the transverse louvres (top left). Louvres with a matt finish provide uniform surface luminance in line with the luminance of the ceiling. They emit light at predominantly low angles with the result that very little light is emitted in the critical reflecting range. Enhanced luminaire efficiency is best achieved by light-controlling louvres. luminaire with prismatic louvre. A further means for controlling light in louvred luminaires is by using prismatic diffusers. luminaire with parabolic louvres and prismatic lamp diffuser for improving contrast rendition. Lateral position for asymmetrical light distribution (centre right). the louvre within the cut-off angle can appear to be dark. These louvres can have a highly specular or matt finish.3.

In Germany they must have a cut-off angle of at least 30° along both main axes and must not exceed an average luminance of 200 cd/m2 above the cut-off angle. in the vicinity of a window) using a luminaire with a flat side reflector. directindirect luminaire with a predominantly indirect component. -10˚ 10˚ -30˚ 30˚ Asymmetric louvred luminaires (from the top down): the wall can be lit by tilting the symmetrical reflector. When using positive contrast monitors higher luminances are permissible. in critical cases a cut-off angle of 40° may be required. direct-indirect luminaire with a predominantly direct component. They produce a direct component on horizontal surfaces beneath the luminaire and at the same time light the ceiling and provide diffuse ambient lighting.7. Lighting without a wall component (e.2. Typical light distribution curves for louvred luminaires: direct luminaire.7 Luminaires 2. lighting using a wallwasher with an elliptical side reflector. 99 . Direct-indirect louvred luminaires are suspended from the ceiling or mounted on the wall. -10˚ 10˚ -30˚ 30˚ -10˚ 10˚ 30˚ 30˚ -30˚ 30˚ -10˚ 10˚ 40˚ 40˚ -30˚ 30˚ Cut-off angle of 30° (limiting angle 60°) along both main axes (above).g. cut-off angle of 40° (limiting angle 50°) along both main axes (below). They can be used for the uniform lighting of walls or to avoid glare caused by light projected onto windows or doors. indirect luminaire.1 Stationary luminaires Asymmetric louvred luminaires predominantly radiate light in one direction only. They are therefore generally equipped with highly specular louvres. VDT louvred luminaires are designed for use in spaces with computer workstations.

ceilings and floors. the wall lighting is especially uniform.1. 100 . the reflector contour produces especially uniform lighting over the wall surface. Wallwasher for compact fluorescent lamps. Wallwashers for reflector lamps with a lens to spread the light beam and a darklight reflector.7. Wallwasher for fluorescent lamps. Wallwasher with sculpture lens and reflector attachment for reflector lamps. 2. Very little light is directed onto the floor. for funnelling return air off into extract air ducts and for combined supply air and return air handling. or both supply air and return air. Stationary wallwashers are available as recessed and surface-mounted luminaires. Wallwashers illuminate walls and – depending on how they are designed – also a part of the floor. therefore.2. mainly walls. Wallwasher with ellipsoidal reflector for halogen lamps. Louvred luminaires with air-return component for negative pressure ceilings. return air. In the diagram below a supplementary prismatic diffuser below ceiling level provides light directly from the top of the wall. Cantilever-mounted wallwasher.1 Stationary luminaires Air-handing louvred luminaires are designed to handle supply air and return air and provide a more harmonious ceiling layout.7 Luminaires 2.4 Washlights Washlights are designed to provide uniform lighting over extensive surfaces. The direct light component is cut off.7. They are included in the group downlights and louvred luminaires. Air-handling louvred luminaires can be provided with connections/outlets for supply air. although washlights do have their own luminaire forms.

coffered ceilings and vaulted ceilings and in wall constructions. Different versions of floor washlights: round and square versions for incandescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps. Luminaires integrated into the architecture. lighting that is integrated into the architecture is inefficient and.7. The reflector contours produce uniform ceiling lighting. As a rule. For this purpose they are excellent. e. Ceiling washlights are generally equipped with tungsten halogen lamps for mains voltage or with high-pressure discharge lamps.g. to reveal contours.2. Different versions of ceiling washlights: wall-mounted. Luminaires can be integrated into the architecture in order to accentuate architectural elements.7.5 Integral luminaires Some forms of lighting use the architectural elements as controlling components of the lighting. Standard luminaires. e. Wall-mounted ceiling washlight. cove lighting or concealed cornice lighting. rectangular version for fluorescent lamps. e. Floor washlights are mounted in or on the wall at relatively low levels. suspended ceiling elements. freestanding luminaire or pairs of luminaires mounted on a stand and suspended version. Wall-mounted floor washlight. For this reason it does not play a significant role in the effective lighting of spaces. 101 .1 Stationary luminaires Ceiling washlights are designed for brightening or lighting ceilings and for indirect ambient lighting.1. the reflector shape produces uniform lighting of the floor. Typical examples are luminous ceilings. difficult to control. The direct light component is restricted. Floor washlights are mainly used for lighting hallways and other circulation zones.g.7 Luminaires 2. 2. They are installed above eye height on the wall or suspended from the ceiling.g. for fluorescent lamps or high-voltage tubular lamps can be used for such applications. from a lighting engineering point of view.

90° is characteristic for floodlights designed for the lighting of wall surfaces. Spotlights are available for a wide range of light sources. Their narrow-beam light distribution provides for the lighting of small areas from considerable distances. Some models can be equipped with converging lenses or Fresnel lenses to vary the beam angle. they are generally used in track systems or in light structures. When operating on mains voltage tracks the transformer is usually integrated into the adapter or mounted on the luminaire (below). Spotlights can be equipped with reflectors or reflector lamps.7. 2. they are not confined to a fixed position. designers tend to opt for compact light sources such as incandescent lamps. such as low-voltage halogen lamps or metal halide lamps provide an especially concentrated beam of light. multigroove baffles or honeycomb anti-dazzle screens.7. occasionally also compact fluorescent lamps.7. In view of their flexibility with regard to mounting position and light direction.2. UV or infrared filters and a range of antidazzle attachments. Spotlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps can be operated on low-voltage tracks. They illuminate a limited area.1 Spotlights Spotlights are the most common form of movable luminaires. such as double-ended halogen lamps and high-pressure discharge lamps or compact fluorescent lamps. halogen lamps and high-pressure discharge lamps.2 Movable luminaires 2. narrow beam. 10° (spot) and wide-beam angles of approx.7 Luminaires 2. anti-dazzle cylinders. such as flood or sculpture lenses. 102 . Since the aim is generally to produce a clearly defined.2. whereas the wider light distribution inherent in wide-beam spotlights means that a larger area can be illuminated using a single spotlight. with the result that they are rarely used for ambient lighting but predominantly for accent lighting. Wide-beam spotlights are mainly designed for larger lamps. An especially wide beam angle of approx. colour filters. A distinction is made between narrow beam angles of approx. Spotlights with projecting systems allow a variety of different beam contours by the use of projection of masks or templates (gobos). Spotlights are available in a variety of beam angles. the transformer can be mounted on the ceiling or be in an exposed position on the track (above). whereas point sources. Another characteristic of spotlights is that they can be equipped with a wide range of accessories or attachments. they can be adjusted to meet changing requirements. In the case of spotlights designed for accent lighting the beam angle can be varied by selecting from a range of reflectors or reflector lamps.2 Movable luminaires In contrast to stationary luminaires movable luminaires can be used in a variety of locations. Movable luminaires usually also allow changes in light direction. such as barn doors. 30° (flood). but can be adjusted and repositioned as required.

They can be adjusted to different wall heights and distances. but also as movable luminaires. Accessories for spotlights and projectors: honeycomb anti-dazzle screen. Wallwashers for halogen lamps. projector for reflector lamps and Fresnel projector with variable beam angle. Different versions of stage-type projectors (from the top downwards): condenser projector and ellipsoidal projector with optical systems for projecting images. movable wallwashers can provide temporary or permanent lighting on vertical surfaces. barn doors. Cantilevers for the mounting of light structures and individual luminaires (below). anti-dazzle cylinder. Movable wallwashers are generally equipped with halogen lamps for mains voltage. metal halide lamps or with fluorescent lamps (linearand compact types). for example. 103 . parabolic projector. compact fluorescent lamps and linear fluorescent lamps.2 Movable luminaires 2. In this case it is not so much the light direction that is variable. Cantilevers with integral transformer for low-voltage spotlights. wall-mounted (above) and mounted on a partition wall (centre).7 Luminaires 2. sculpture lens.7.2 Wallwashers Wallwashers are not only available as stationary luminaires.7. Different versions of movable wallwashers.2. filter.2. On track. but the luminaire itself.

louvred luminaire (top right). Light structure. End cap. which can be used for direct lighting and for indirect lighting by light reflected off the ceiling. Light structures can be formed of track. if they also contain track or a series of connection points. or suspended from the ceiling. Other elements can take information signs. Their main feature is that they are modular systems. ceiling washlights (bottom left) and uplight (bottom right). e. directional spotlights and information signs. T-connector and X-connector for track. they are designed to be highly functional lighting installations blending in harmoniously with their surroundings.. connection points. if required). wallwashers. In the strict sense of the word light structures are characterised by the fact that they contain integral luminaires. tubular profiles or panels. they are also able to take movable luminaires. Different types of light structures: from track to large-span structures. They are designed exclusively for the mounting and operation of movable luminaires.7.2. Cross sections of light structures showing a variety of profile designs.3 Light structures Light structures are systems comprising modular elements that take integrated luminaires. Carrier systems with a high load-bearing capacity are also available as large-span structures. track. decorative effects can be produced by elements with exposed incandescent or halogen lamps. L-connector. lattice beams. They consist of tubular or panel elements and are usually suspended from the ceiling. They can be track or tubular or panel systems with integral track. flexible connector.3 Light structures 2. can be mounted and operated on light structures. One sub-group of light structures are carrier systems with integral power supply. Three-circuit track for mains voltage and single-phase low-voltage track. 104 .g. as required. comprising standardised basic elements and a selection of connectors that allow the construction of a wide variety of structures – from linear arrangements to extensive grids. Light structures frequently consist of elements with integral louvred luminaires. etc. downlights (also loudspeakers. Light structures can therefore be incorporated into the surrounding architecture or themselves create architectural structures. Adapter with phase selection switch for threecircuit track. Movable luminaires.7 Luminaires 2. spotlights. empty profile with variety of attachments: louvred luminiares.7. For accent lighting elements with integral downlights or directional luminaires (frequently equipped with lowvoltage lamps) can be used. connector. Carrier system with downlight (top left). Carrier systems can be mounted directly onto walls and ceilings. They therefore allow a combination of stationary and movable luminaires.

In the case of architectural models several light heads can be taken from one strong central light source. The actual light source may be located at a considerable distance from the light head.5 Fibre optic systems 2. To create differentiated lighting and provide a component of directed light. Pendant direct-indirect secondary reflector luminaire. The light is then conveyed along the individual light guides. diffuse lighting throughout the space. glass display cases can be illuminated from the plinth. and a luminaire with a secondary reflector only. allow light to be transported at various lengths and around bends and curves.7. which represents an area of uncontrolled reflectance. Typical light guide fixtures (from the top downwards): downlight with reflector. Secondary reflector luminaire with a parabolic reflector for the direct component and involute secondary reflector for the control of the indirect component. rectangular and square versions. This may consist of combining task lighting with ceiling washlighting. which is able to emit exclusively indirect light as well as direct and indirect light in a variety of ratios.4 Secondary reflector luminaires 2. 105 .g. Glare limitation can be provided through the use of VDT-approved luminaires. Direct-indirect and indirect secondary reflector luminaire. This guarantees a high degree of visual comfort. allowing luminaires to be applied to scale. makes for more comprehensive optical control.5 Fibre optic systems Light guides. Rotationally symmetrical secondary reflector luminaire for point sources (e. it can produce completely uniform. which is a relatively new development.7. or optical fibres.4 Secondary reflector luminaires The widespread use of personal computer workstations in modern-day office spaces has led to a greater demand for improved visual comfort. 2. but is otherwise ineffective and difficult to control. is replaced by a secondary reflector which is integrated into the luminaire and whose reflection properties and luminance can be predetermined. above all with regard to limiting direct glare and discomfort glare. Optical fibres made of glass are now so well developed that adequate amounts of luminous flux can now be transmitted along the fibres for lighting applications. even when extremely bright light sources such as halogen lamps or metal halide lamps are used. Secondary reflector luminaire. The especially small-dimensioned fibre ends lend themselves perfectly to the application of miniaturised downlights or for decorative starry sky effects. The combination of a primary and a secondary reflector system produces a particularly versatile luminaire. or the use of direct-indirect trunking systems. The use of secondary reflectors. Inside the projector the light emitted by a lowvoltage halogen lamp is focussed onto the Common End of the bundle of fibres by means of an elliptical reflector. highpressure discharge lamps). for safety reasons or because maintenance costs would be exorbitant. directional spotlight with reflector. Fibre optic system comprising projector.7. Thermal load and the danger of damaging the exhibits are also considerably reduced due to the fact that the light source is installed outside the showcase. it is possible to combine direct and indirect lighting components in a two-component lighting system.2. Illustrated versions with parabolic reflector or lens system for the direct component. and while still being possible to produce differentiated lighting. Fibre optics are used above all in locations where conventional lamps cannot be installed due to size. or through the application of indirect lighting installations. and emitted at the ends of the fibres through the attached light heads. flexible light guides and individual light heads for the ends of the fibres. This means that the ceiling.7 Luminaires 2. downlight with lens optics. In the case of showcase lighting. Exclusively indirect lighting that provides illumination of the ceiling will avoid creating glare. directional spotlight with lens optics.7.

106 .7 Luminaires Spotlights and washlights whose design is based on fundamental geometrical forms. Spotlights of different designs and technical performance. The development of low-voltage halogen lamps allows the design of luminaires of especially compact dimensions. in particular for spotlights for low-voltage track.2.

Stage projectors can be used for creating dramatic lighting effects.7 Luminaires Within a uniform design concept the construction of luminaires for a variety of light sources and lighting tasks leads to a wide range of designs. such as colour effects and projections in large spaces. 107 .2.

108 .

3.0 Lighting design .

This development is accompanied. Taking such criteria as a basis. Only in the last one hundred years. which looks back on a tradition that developed gradually over several thousand years. Both aspects of this task were examined in detail.1. and the technical question of establishing criteria by which the quality of a lighting installation can be measured. While decisions with regard to lighting in the private sector can be limited to the choice of suitably attractive luminaires.e.1 Quantitative lighting design The scientific application of artificial lighting is a relatively young discipline. high productivity and safety at operating costs which are affordable. shadow quality and the degree of glare limitation. plus the minimum requirements for the other quality criteria. In practice. public circulation Office with daylightoriented workplace Meeting and conference rooms Office space.g. The concept of quantitative lighting design with illuminance as the central criterion. 110 . The inevitable result is that Type of lighting Area of activity Circulation routes Staircases and short-stay spaces Rooms not continually in use – lobbies. which could best be effected by a regular arrangement of luminaires. mostly horizontally oriented lighting over the entire space. by the task of defining the objectives and methods behind this new discipline. Just 200 years ago planning using artificial light sources was confined to deciding where best to position the few candles or oil lamps available. this would appear to require uniform. In contrast to daylighting. e. 3. there is a clear interest in the field of the lighting of workplaces to develop effective and efficient forms of lighting. both the physiological question of the correlation of visual performance and lighting.3.1. followed by uniformity.1 Lighting design concepts 3. technical drawings and design office Complicated visual tasks. the need to develop concepts for artificial lighting only became a requirement in the last century or two. with the rapid development of efficient light sources. however. The main concern is which illuminance levels and types of lighting will ensure optimum visual performance. Not really what might be referred to as adequate lighting design. i. standards were compiled containing minimum illuminance levels on the relevant working area for a wide variety of activities. data processing Open-plan office. of deciding on the criteria by which the artificial light that is now available is to be applied.1 Quantitative lighting design The first and to date most effective concept has given rise to a set of standards or criteria for the lighting of workplaces. The illuminance level in each case is designed – in accordance with the demand for uniform lighting – to meet the requirements of the most complicated visual tasks that can be expected in the given space. developed at a relatively early stage. continuous rows of fluorescent linear luminaires or louvred downlights.1 Lighting design concepts 3. precision assembly. has lighting design acquired the tools that allow artificial lighting to be produced with adequate illuminance levels. luminous colour. colour testing Guideline E (lx) 50 100 200 General lighting in short-stay spaces General lighting in working spaces 300 300 500 750 1000 Additional lighting for very complicated visual tasks 2000 Guide values for illuminance E for various areas of activity in accordance with CIE recommendations.

changeover time ∆t and operating time t. is based on what can only be described as inadmissible simplification. There is no doubt that quantitative lighting design concepts of this kind are successful within the framework of the task that has been set. this corresponds to the definable effect which the quality of the lighting has on efficiency and safety at the workplace. uniformity Emin/ Emax.3. Standby lighting Standby lighting (usually 10 % of the rated illuminance) takes over from the artificial lighting to maintain continued operation for a defined period of time. Part 5. Part 2 Escape routes Emin ≥ 1 lx (0. all architectural considerations. Safety lighting Workplaces exposed to hazards Emin = 0. ∆t ≤ 0. The same applies to the definition of the perceiving person. the lighting of workplaces. the light required to be able to read small print might be unbearable for reading texts printed on glossy paper. this kind of lighting philosophy is widespread and is generally adopted as the standard for architectural lighting. Regulations laid down in DIN 5035. There is a proven correlation between the quality of the light and visual performance. It is therefore justified to maintain that the standard lighting conditions recommended for a technical office must be different from those for a warehouse. it is impossible to put other lighting qualities into any kind of basic order of importance – the measures taken to limit direct glare may not work at all to limit reflected glare. If the task is to light a drawing board and a CAD workstation. business premises) Requirements to be met by safety lighting for escape routes: minimum illuminance Emin. used to limit damage and loss of production. or to complete activities and leave rooms with workplaces that are exposed to hazards. DIN 57108.5 s ∆t ≥ 1 min. As can be readily appreciated. Similarly. Our entire environment is reduced to the term “visual task”. Part 5. Emergency exit sign. to DIN 4844). for example – nowadays a frequent constellation – it soon becomes clear that the high illuminance level required for the drawing board is disturbing to the person working at the computer. by relaxing the requirement for lighting to be uniform.1. More light is therefore not always necessarily better light. who is 111 Safety lighting Standby lighting For workplaces subject to particular hazards For escape routes Safety lighting Safety lighting allows people to leave rooms and buildings (safety lighting for escape routes). h d View point Min. in particular.1 Quantitative lighting design Emergency lighting the overall lighting is far too bright for all the other activities which will occur in the area. but only by orienting the planning towards the requirements of the individual areas. indeed that the vertical light component required for work at the drawing board may make it impossible to work at the computer. Optimum lighting of different workplaces cannot be effected by raising the overall “quantity” or brightness of the light. VDE 0108. Regulations laid down in ASR 7/4 DIN 5035. at least for the period people are subjected to danger Requirements to be met by safety lighting in workplaces exposed to hazards: minimum illuminance Emin. change-over time ∆t and operating time t.2 m above floor level) E min 1 ≥ E max 40 ∆t ≤ 15 s (workplaces) ∆t ≤ 1s ( meeting places. the information content and aesthetic quality of the visual environment are disregarded. in other words. as explained above. to DIN 5035. the limits of quantitative lighting design soon become apparent in the actual field of application it was intended for. On closer investigation it is apparent that quantitative lighting design is based on an extremely simplified perception model.1 Lighting design concepts 3. business premises) t = 1h t = 3h (workplaces) (meeting places. backlit h= d 200 Illuminated emergency exit sign h= d 100 .1 E n at least 15 lx E n acc. But when consideration is given to the lighting required for working areas with different or changing activities the limits of quantitative lighting design concepts soon become apparent. Questionable though it is. height h of emergency exit signs in escape routes in accordance with maximum viewing distance d (acc. The frequently encountered idea that an overall illuminance level of 2000 lux with optimum glare limitation and colour rendering will be the end of complaints from office staff.

the psychology of perception is disregarded altogether.1 Lighting design concepts 3. The most prominent example is the lighting for the Museum of Art in Berne. can lead to problems at the workplace. not confined to ascertaining spatial zones. The permissible scale of contrasts is a result of the state of adaptation of the eye while perceiving the visual task – in a “stable” environment the eye retains a constant state of adaptation. which in turn would only lead to splitting a space up into a series of conventionally lit areas. The luminance level of the surroundings should therefore be lower so as not to distract the person’s view. but through the grey colour of the walls. Just as luminance is a result of the correlation of the illuminance and reflectance of the surfaces. At this stage it is possible to refer to the standards and recommendations laid down for quantitative lighting design when planning the lighting for the individual visual tasks. Considering luminance levels in this way means that brightness ratios produced by a lighting installation in correlation with the architecture and the illuminated objects can be ascertained and lighting concepts developed based on the distribution of brightness. for example. The main feature of this kind of planning is that it is not directed towards the lighting for visual tasks. Outside the working environment the user would inevitably find such lighting inadequate. of simply changing reference criteria. certain values. between individual objects or between objects and their surroundings. To be able to plan the visual effect of an environment the central reference quantity has to be changed. luminances of room surfaces (2).2 Luminance-based design A quantitative lighting design concept that is oriented primarily towards providing a recommended illuminance level. This change of criteria does not make much difference to the lighting of visual tasks at the workplace. where the especially intense and bright appearance of the paintings on display is not achieved by increased illuminance levels. but also by determining surrounding colours. 3. Instead of illuminance. The aim of this approach is a process that not only provides adequate lighting for visual tasks but is also able to describe and plan the optical effect of an entire space. thereby holding the attention of the viewer. but remain within a defined range of contrast. and ignore any other requirements the perceiving person may have of his visual environment. In this situation the paintings have a higher luminance than the relatively dark surrounding area. be it between visual task and background. the balance of all luminances within one zone. the lighting installation and the material qualities must be planned together when designing concepts based on luminance levels. the lighting solution will remain clearly inferior to the feasible possibilities. This means that it is now possible to differentiate between the various visual tasks performed in a space. whereas an “instable” environment leads to continuous. it is luminance that becomes the basic criteria – a dimension that arises from the correlation of light and lit environment. the approach now is to plan luminance levels for all areas of a visual environment. thereby forming the basis for human perception.3. as represented in Waldram’s “designed appearance” and Bartenbach’s “stable perception” models. Design concepts based on luminance levels are. Designing concepts based on luminance levels is therefore not so much a question 4 3 2 1 100 2 5 101 2 5 102 2 5 103 2 5 L (cd/m2) 104 2 Ranges of typical luminances L in interior spaces: luminances outside working spaces (1). This presumes that the lighting for one zone only allows optimum “stable” perception when the luminance contrasts do not exceed. The aim is to create a constellation within which the visual task forms the brightest area in the environment. In response to this problem a new kind of lighting philosophy is developed. tiring adaptation through too low or too high background luminances. however. but more of expanding the design analysis to the entire space. When planning a “stable” spatial situation with controlled luminance distribution it is no longer possible to base concepts on a standardised lighting installation. luminances of visual tasks at the workplace (3). tolerance luminances of luminaires (4). lacks the criteria to develop a concept that goes beyond the requirements that would ensure productivity and safety to meet the needs of the architecture and the persons using the architectural space.2 Luminance technology effectively considered to be a walking camera – the only aspect that is taken into account is the physiology of our vision. but towards the brightness ratio between the visual tasks and their respective surroundings. or fall below.1. to define room zones where the lighting is adjusted to the specific activities carried out in these areas. which describes only the technical performance of a lighting installation. Whereas up to now an overall illuminance level was planned for the whole space based on the visual requirements for the most complicated visual task. Changing the central quantity to luminance means that brightness and contrast ratios can be established for the entire perceived space. This does not apply for the lighting effect in the entire space. which only serve to ensure safety and a sound working economy. which makes their 112 . The required luminance contrasts cannot only be achieved by varying the lighting. Design concepts based on these principles. since the effect of different contrast ratios on visual performance are known and have been taken into consideration according to the degree of difficulty defined for the specific visual tasks.1.

which avoids the weak points of quantitative lighting design and provides criteria for a perception-oriented design theory.5 0. Considerable doubts have arisen from the perceptual psychology sector. which is completed through complex processes in the brain.1.3. At first glance this appears to be a promising concept. however. If luminance were the only factor that determined our perception. however. ceiling D. reflectance R and luminance L in working places with visual task I. changing luminance patterns only serve as an aid and a starting point. EI ED EI = EA = ED = EW = ES = 500 lx 500 lx 50 lx 200 lx 200 lx ES EW EA ®D RI = RA = RD = R W= RS = 0. Luminance is indeed superior to illuminance in as far as it forms the basis for perception – light itself is invisible. as to whether luminance and luminance distribution are suitable criteria for a lighting design theory based on human perception. working surface A. that our perception is aimed at.3 0. Luminance. not as the ultimate objective of vision.1 Lighting design concepts 3. This also applies to luminance scales that are adjusted to the state of adaptation of the eye or the conversion into equidistant grades of brightness – there is no direct correlation between the image actually perceived and the luminance pattern on the retina.3 ®S ®I ®W ®A LD LI = LA = LD = LW = LS = 111 cd/m 2 48 cd/m2 11 cd/m 2 32 cd/m2 19 cd/m2 LS LI LW LA Calculation of luminance L from the illuminance E and the reflectance R . the forms and material qualities around us. We would never be in a position to distinguish the colour and reflectance of an object from different lighting levels. Simplified correlation between illuminance E.® L= E π 113 .2 Luminance technology colours appear particularly intense – similar to projected slides or lighting using framing projectors. The formula only applies in the case of completely diffuse reflection. or perceive three-dimensional forms. the luminance pattern on the retina only provides the basis for our perception. . It can only be perceived when it is reflected by objects and surfaces. we would be helplessly exposed to an array of confusing patterns of brightness produced by the world around us. wall W and partition walls S.7 0. but generally produces good approximate values in practice. It is nevertheless exactly these factors of constancy. is not identical to the brightness we actually perceive.7 0.

which is inherent to our perception: the acquisiton of information about a given environment clearly has higher priority than mere optical images. Dissatisfaction with the lighting at a workplace. But you can only decide whether a lighting situation is pleasing or unreasonable when you experience a specific situation.2 Luminance technology L (cd/m2) 500 400 300 200 100 0. Maximum luminance contrast values of 1:3 or 1:10 between the object of attention and the proximate or broader ambient field have been laid down that confine the lighting designer’s range of expression to a dull average. illuminance is a prime criterion. The decline in luminance over a wall surface lit from an angle is likewise ignored. the attempt to describe ideal luminance patterns out of context is unsound.1 Lighting design concepts 3. In the case of the lighting of workplaces a quantitative design concept may prove to be clearly successful. the relativity of luminances to be apprehended and the luminance patterns in the eye to be reinforced or ignored. luminance situations such as we experience on any sunny day or on a walk in the snow. even when the lighting is exclusively adjusted to optimising visual 114 . and if it takes place depending on the information provided. is frequently not recognised by the person concerned as a result of poor lighting design – criticism is usually aimed in the direction of the innocent “neon lamp”. which play a considerable role in imparting information about materials in our environment.0 ® Preferred luminance L for visual tasks as a function of reflectance R of the visual task. If the aim of perception is to process information. Similar to quantitative lighting design. the information it provides and the perceptual requirements of the users of the space. It is not the window with a view over the sun- lit countryside that gives rise to glare.1 lux on a clear night or 100 000 lux on a sunny day. whereas it has an increased effect on the sides of a cube. This also applies to the attempt to make an abstract definition of “stable” lighting situations. in comparison to luminance. in the case of the perception of visual tasks. The information content of our perceived environment and the interest this environment awakens in the perceiving being cannot be explained by this model but it is this very interplay of information and interests that allows the perceived image to be processed. Progress made in the field of lighting design can therefore not be evaluated by simply differentiating between inadequate and optimum. and a familiar three-dimensional image arise from the mass of confusing parts. overcast sky seen above a field of snow will appear to be darker than the snow. which reduces the perceptual process to the creation of optical images in the eye. It is therefore not surprising that lighting installations that do not take into account the essential requirements of the perceiving person generally meet with acceptance.will fail due to the fact that the information content pertaining to the relevant glare sources is not available.4 0. Colour ratios and grey values are thus corrected in differently lit areas. but – in spite of its lower luminance factor – the pane of opal glass that prevents this very view. are considered to be unreasonable. with the result that we perceive a consistent scale. Just as the brightness we actually perceive cannot be derived from luminance. they result when the illuminance level remains constant. any attempt to define a set of general rules for lighting that are not based on a concrete situation is of doubtful validity. It becomes apparent that glare does not only depend on stark luminance contrasts. which is what luminancebased design strives to do. Only with knowledge of the lighting conditions and with the aid of constancy phenomena can interpretations be made of the luminance pattern on the retina. but also on lack of information content with regard to the surface producing the glare.the most extreme form of an “unstable”. it cannot under any circumstances be examined irrespective of the information content provided by or inherent in a specific environment.2 0.1. the lighting designer is obliged to examine each specific situation.6 0. A general definition of the conditions required for the development of psychological glare . luminance technology adheres to a purely physiological concept. a blue summer sky with a few clouds is not a source of glare. is not substantially disturbed in its performance by luminance contrasts of 1:100. ignoring all other processes that take place beyond the retina. for example. This central aspect of the way we process information cannot be taken into consideraion by a theory of perception based on luminance. In every case. The difficult aspect to evaluating the quality of lighting concepts is the exceptionally vast adaptability of the human eye: a perceptual apparatus that is able to provide usable results at 0. but the uniform grey-white sky of a dull day in November. are practically excluded. and is entirely capable of balancing the effects of inadequate lighting design. The brightness ratios that we actually perceive may deviate considerably from the underlying luminance pattern. but they will bother someone who is trying to read a book.8 1. If it is not possible the find an abstract definition for an “unstable” milieu. In the light of this fact. it is impossible to conclude the exact lighting conditions which are necessary to ensure good perception simply by examining the contrast range of a lit environment. however. The luminances preferred in the experiment are in proportion to the reflectance factor. Consequently. In spite of its higher luminance a grey. or clearly correct or incorrect lighting solutions. luminance contrasts on the beach are not too stark for someone taking a stroll.3. the registering of luminances is deferred in favour of the constant qualities of objects. disturbing lighting situation . Phenomena such as brilliance and accentuated modelling.

about its character as a mediaeval stone wall or whether such lighting will only reveal the poor quality of the plaster work. who can construct an image of a visual environment based on a wide variety of expectations and needs. the visual environment is more than just a configuration of optically effective surfaces. Luminance technology is equally not able to keep both promises – the designer’s prediction of what the visual effect will be and the creation of (perceptually speaking) optimum. the expansion of the design analysis from the visual task to the entire space and the development of zoneoriented lighting design all make for progress. The decision whether to graze the surface structure of a wall with light depends on whether this structure presents essential information. Only then is it possible to analyse the ranking of importance which relate to individual areas and functions.g.1. Perception-oriented lighting design. can no longer be directed in primarily quantitative terms relating to illuminance and the distribution of luminance. On the basis of this pattern of significance it is possible to plan the lighting as the third variable factor in the visual process and to design it accordingly. which does not provide any reliable criteria apart from the isolated consideration of visual tasks. Both quantitative lighting design and luminance technology remain at the level of purely physiologically oriented design. Only when two main factors are correlated – the structural information provided by a visual environment and the needs of a human being in the given situation – does the so-called pattern of significance of a space develop. but as an active factor in the perceptual process – an acting subject. The need for orientation aids varies radically depending on the type of environment – light applied for guiding people through spaces can be of prime importance in a congress centre with constantly changing groups of visitors. “window” and “ceiling”. no attention is paid to the person behind the eye and the significance of the perceived objects.3. Luminance technology can also be regarded as a step in the right direction.3 The principles of perceptionoriented lighting design The main reason for our dissatisfaction with lighting concepts based on quantitative lighting design or luminance technology is the fact that they adhere strictly to a physiologically oriented view of human perception. “stable” lighting situations. 3. Even if lighting solutions can be achieved using quantitative processes that are acceptable within the broad spectrum of visual adaptability. In this way both information content and the structures and aesthetic qualities of a piece of architecture can be analysed adequately. Man is only seen as a mobile being for processing images. 115 . it is only possible to analyse a minor portion of the complex perceptual process.1 Lighting design concepts 3. Only when we begin to go beyond the physiology of the eye and take a closer look at the psychology of perception can the conditions required for the processing of visual information be fully understood and all the factors involved in the correlation between the perceiving being. Seen from this angle. and in turn have a positive effect on the quality of the lighting. To achieve lighting that is suitable for a given situation it is necessary to develop a set of qualitative criteria. the perceived objects and light as a medium for allowing perception to take place be taken into account. it does not mean to say that lighting has been designed that will comply with all essential perceptual requirements. e.1. Man is no longer seen as merely recording his visual environment. which is directed at the human being and his needs. at the best to an overall perceptual understanding of “table” and “wall”. which comprises the eye and an abstract comprehension of the world around us. his visual environment is reduced to the mere “visual task”. an entire vocabulary of terms. it is therefore not realistic to lay down a set of abstract criteria for brightness distribution that do not relate to a specific situation. which can describe the requirements a lighting installation has to meet and comprise the functions of the light with which these requirements can be fulfilled. whereas this task is considerably less important in familiar environments.2 Principles of perceptionoriented lighting design performance. In a concept that understands perception as more than a process for handling information.

information of secondary importance or disturbing information toned down by applying lower lighting levels. This is the light that provides general illumination of our environment. . It guarantees that the surrounding space. This also applies to orientation within the space – e. e. The effect produced traditionally by chandeliers and candlelight can be achieved in modern-day lighting design through the purposeful application of light sculptures or the creation of brilliance from illuminated materials.2 Principles of perceptionoriented lighting design 3. 116 Richard Kelly. the ability to distinguish quickly between a main entrance and a side entrance – and for the accentuation of objects.3. the visual environment. This applies above all to specular effects.g. is easily recognised. The aim is not to produce overall lighting of supposedly optimum illuminance. a pioneer of qualitative lighting design. It is covered to a large extent by the ideas underlying quantitative lighting design. a second form of lighting is required that Kelly refers to as focal glow. plus the objects and persons in it.1 Lighting design concpets 3. This facilitates the fast and accurate flow of information. he developed the basic principles of differentiated lighting design. One important aspect that is taken into account here is the fact that our attention is automatically drawn towards brightly lit areas. The third form of light. but that it can represent information in itself. but only a basis for further planning. except that ambient light in the Kelly sense is not the aim of a lighting concept. Louis Kahn or Philip Johnson.3. with its inherent structures and the significance of the objects it contains. play of brilliance is a result of the realization that light not only draws our attention to information. as we find in product displays or the emphasizing of the most valuable sculpture in a collection. In projects designed by leading architects. one of the pioneers of modern lighting design. Mies van der Rohe. the light source itself can also be considered to be brilliant. such as those produced by point light sources on reflective or refractive materials. This “play of brilliance” can lend prestigious spaces in particular life and atmosphere. are visible. influenced by stage lighting. It is therefore possible to arrange the mass of information contained in an environment via the appropriate distribution of brightness – areas containing essential information can be emphasized by accent lighting. This form of overall. To achieve differentiation.1 Richard Kelly A significant part of this task – a basic description of the various functions of light as a medium for imparting information – was developed in the fifties by Richard Kelly.1.1. but differentiated lighting that can be developed taking ambient light as the basic level of lighting. Kelly describes the first and basic form of light as ambient light.g. uniform lighting ensures that we can orient ourselves and carry out general tasks. This is the first instance where light becomes an active participant in conveying information.

The question that still remains open is: according to what criteria are these means to be applied? The lighting designer is obliged to continue to depend on his own instinct. C.2 William Lam With his differentiation between the basic functions of light Kelly made a substantial contribution towards the theory behind qualitative lighting design. biological needs covers the psychological need for information. A second group of psychological needs is targeted at how well we can comprehend surrounding structures. which comprises biological needs. which are derived from man’s occupations with specific tasks. in the same way as overlit areas. It refers to how well destinations and routes can be identified: the spatial location of entrances. it comprises an element of structuring. Two decades pass. e. Dark corners. Any changes are perceived immediately. the more fundamental aspects of the human relation to the visual environment. for example. We have all experienced the feeling of being disoriented in the mass of visual information at an airport or when looking for a specific office in a local authority building. Man’s visual attention is almost always extended to observe his entire surroundings.1. William Lam. for example. The emotional evaluation of a visual environment does not only depend on whether it provides the required information in a clear fashion or whether it withholds it from the observer – the feeling of unease that arises in confusing situations. As far as the aims of lighting design are concerned. In contrast to the advocates of quantitative lighting design Lam objects strongly to uniform lighting aligned to the respective most difficult visual task. Comprehension of our surroundings does not mean that absolutely everything has to be visible. If this information is missing. It is important that all areas of the spaces are sufficiently visible.3. distinguishes between two main groups of criteria. may contain danger. we feel uncomfortable and unsafe. . But orientation also comprises information about further aspects of the environment. e. the aim is to design functional lighting that will provide optimum visual conditions for the specific task – be it work. Lam. For Lam the first of the basic psychological needs for environmental information is the need for orientation. lighting designer and dedicated theoretician of qualitative lighting design. or leisure activities. experience and the inadequate support provided by the quantitative criteria laid down in the standards when it comes to analysing the particular lighting context – determining the special features of the space. the time of day. he proposes a far more differentiated analysis of all the activities that will take place according to location. a special office or the individual departments of a department store.1 Lighting design concepts 3. is what Lam calls his second complex. biological needs comprise mainly unconscious needs. To understand these needs it is essential to know the characteristics of the various visual tasks to be performed. We feel that a situation is positive when the form and structure of the surrounding architecture is clearly recognizable. one of the most dedicated advocates of qualitative lighting design. movement through a space. Orientation can be understood in this case first in a spatial sense. Lam compiles the missing catalogue of criteria: systematic. He provides a systematic presentation of the means available. This is a decisive factor in our feeling of security in a visual environment. in subways or dark corridors in hotels at night. In his definition of biological needs Lam presumes that our attention is only dedicated to one visual task in moments of greatest concentration. 117 He first describes the group of activity needs: the needs for information related to specific conscious activities. the weather or what is happening around us. Whereas activity needs arise from specific conscious activities and are aimed at the functional aspects of a visual environment. They are concerned with our feeling of wellbeing in a visual environment. contextrelated vocabulary for describing the requirements a lighting installation has to meet. and when important areas are designed to stand out against the given background. If there are niches and corridors we cannot see into or parts of a space are poorly lit.1. however. which allow us to evaluate a situation from an emotional point of view. behaviour can be adjusted without delay to adapt to the changed situation. as may be the case in closed spaces in department stores or in the corridors of large buildings.2 Principles of perceptionoriented lighting design 3. type and frequency. analysing activity needs is therefore in line with the criteria laid down for quantitative lighting. we feel the environment to be unnatural and even threatening.g. In contrast to activity needs. exits and what the environment specifically offers. there is general agreement on this point. before William M. how it is utilized and the requirements of the users. only when we have left the building can we suddenly make up for the information deficit – we establish that it has become dark and started to rain. the need for a clearly structured enviroment. Instead of a confusing and possibly inconsistent flow of information the space thus presents itself as a clearly structured whole. This may be a reception.3.g. Even more important than this new evaluation of a group of criteria that already existed.

3 Architecture and atmosphere Both main groups of William Lam’s criteria describe man’s needs.1. A view outside or the presence of other points of interest. an alignment of spotlights or a light sculpture. . It is a tool for rendering the given architectural structures visible. The fixture itself is not visible. This applies primarily to luminaires and their arrangement. for example.3. while at the same time allowing private spaces to be defined. which is based on the needs of man as a perceiving being. Any decision to go for one of these approaches implies a decision to create a different aesthetic effect. the lighting installation itself can become an architectural element that can purposefully change the appearance of the space. Luminaires can be discreetly integrated into the architecture – e. and contributes towards their planned effect. Apart from merely considering the needs of the perceiving being it is also necessary to plan the interplay of light and architecture. via recessed mounting in the ceiling. it is only the light that has effect.3. Lam’s demand for a clearly structured visual environment comes very close to fulfilling this task. but does not cover all aspects. a space should promote contact to other persons.1 Lighting design concepts 3. It is certainly possible to structure a space according to the psychological needs of the users by applying different forms of lighting. but also to enhance the intended appearance. e. Lighting can go beyond this subordinate role and itself become an active component in the design of the space.2 Principles of perceptionoriented lighting design When accentuating specific areas it is not only visual tasks that traditionally receive attention that should be underlined. a work of art. Both extremes. a different atmosphere in the space. This applies in the first place for light that is not only able to render architecture visible. A private space can be created by defining an area with light: a seated area or a conference table within a large room. 3. can be equally effective.g. his needs for a functional and perceptually sound environment. When Le Corbusier describes architecture as “the correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light”. he underlines the significance of lighting on the design of buildings. it must not be forgotten that light and luminaires also make a substantial contribution towards the aesthetic effect of architectural design. Besides this analysis. A third area consists of the balance between man’s need for communication and his right to clearly defined private spaces.g. are felt to be negative. As with user-oriented lighting design. and making it stand out from its surroundings.1. But luminaires can also be added to 118 architecture: in the form of a light structure. complete isolation and complete public exposure. light also has a supporting function in architecture.

which furnishes spaces with stylish luminaires without regard for the lighting effects these fixtures produce. it is necessary to gain as much information as possible about the environment that is to be illuminated. Apart from the qualities of the illuminated objects the visual performance of the user must also be taken into account. or. will frequently also indicate standard stipulations. an office space or the wide range of functions related to a hotel – gives rise to a series of individual visual tasks. One of the most frequent sources of error in lighting design is to separate light from its complex associations with human psychology and human activities as well as with the surrounding architecture.1. the conditions and special features. Simplified. if they are associated with specific parts of the space or specific periods of time. illuminance and luminance distribution are in harmony with the particular situation. which might produce optimum working conditions but forgets the perceiving being. or for visual tasks in offices on the horizontal. A quantitative design concept can follow the standards laid down for a specific task to a large extent. and the style of the architecture. This will first give rise to a series of global answers that outline the lighting task. how often and how important they are. influences the way we feel and the aesthetic effect and atmosphere in a space. when designing lighting for workplaces this planning process itself may even become the primary objective. When it comes to qualitative planning. the degree of glare limitation. but the quality. Apart from simply making our surroundings visible light determines the way we perceive an environment. Standards dictate the illuminance level. This applies to both purely quantitative lighting design.2 Qualitative lighting design Light plays a central and manifold role in the design of a visual environment. the direction of view of people playing volleyball is upwards. 3. Due to the adaptability of the eye elementary perception can take place at minimum lighting levels or under difficult visual conditions. architecture. the characteristics of which must in turn also be analysed. In individual cases. The quantitative design approach with its scientifically sound caculations and processes is actually a great help here. to the other extreme. In a gymnasium. the way a lighting scheme meets the visual needs of the perceiving person.1 Utilisation of space A central aspect of project analysis is the question of how the spaces that are to be illuminated are used. while for optimum conditions at the workplace and for a piece of architecture to be accepted and found to be aesthetically pleasing it is necessary to create lighting whose qualities. special attention must be paid to these increased demands on illuminance and glare limitation. The main criterion for lighting design is never a figure displayed on measuring equipment.2 Qualitative lighting design 3. the lighting of a sales space.1 Project analysis The basis for every lighting design concept is an analysis of the project. or in an art gallery on the vertical. and older people are more sensitive to glare. the luminous colour and colour rendering. Work and movement are only possible when we have light to see by. You only have to enter a Baroque church with its bright and inspiring atmosphere to see and feel what effects light can have in architecture. unilateral lighting design can provide easily compehensible concepts. Two criteria relating to a visual task are the size and contrast of the details that have to be recorded or handled. it is important to establish what activity or activities take place in the environment. The position of the visual task within the space and the predominant direction of view may also become central issues – visibility and glare limitation have to be handled differently in different environments. This comprehensive analysis of the task – e. 119 . the tasks the lighting is expected to fulfil.2.g.2. promotes a feeling of well-being and is in line with the architectural design. 3. there then follows the question of whether colour or surface structure of the visual task are significant. and to primarily design-oriented lighting. but often leads to unsatisfactory results by overlooking essential aspects. look at Piranesi’s paintings of dungeons with their dark labyrinths.3. where the shadows conceal a never-ending source of horror. an exhibition. but the human being – the deciding factor is not the quantity of light. and form a framework for the lighting design concept. especially in the case of older people – the eye becomes less efficient with age. whether movement and spatial arrangement have to be recognized or whether reflected glare is likely to be problem. people and objects are only visible if there is light. What is really required is lighting design that meets all the lighting requirements – design concepts that form an integral part of the overall architectural design and produce a visual environment that supports various activities. who will use it.2. the lighting of old people’s homes in particular. how it is used.1 Project analysis 3. for example.

Compact electronic transformers allow the design of especially small luminaires.3. Washlights for doubleended halogen lamps. three separate groups of luminaires can be switched or dimmed.2 Qualitative lighting design Three-circuit track for mains voltage: luminaires for mains voltage and low-voltage fixtures with an integral transformer can be operated on track. Spotlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps with integral electronic transformer. washlight for metal halide lamps with integral control gear. Spotlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps with adjustable light heads on an electronic transformer. wallwasher for doubleended halogen lamps. 120 .

conventional transformer.3.2 Qualitative lighting design Low-voltage track: low-voltage spotlights without transformers can be operated on the track. Uplighter for compact fluorescent lamps or halogen lamps. The extremely small dimensions of the lamp and the use of an external transformer allow the design of compact spotlights. Spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps with integral. Larger reflectors make for enhanced optical control and increased luminous intensity. Power supply is effected via an external transformer. Spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. 121 .

. This primarily concerns the overall architectural concept – the atmosphere the building creates. and the question of budget and the permissible energy consumption. but warmer. and sometimes also the need for orientation within the environment. The special features and main characteristics of an environment also present an important issue. Many of these are concerned with the possibility of gaining better views of their surroundings. lighting can be applied especially effectively in the conversation areas or waiting zones within larger spaces to create a feeling of privacy. i. the type of ceiling and the reflectance of the room surfaces. architectural lighting is concerned with lighting that underlines the structures and characteristic features of the building. what modules and rhythms they contain.g. e. where there are continually different groups of users. This applies to the need for information about time of day and weather. lighting design also has to address the requirements of architecture and atmosphere. and if necessary its effect modified. and above all the type and arrangement of the room limits that are to be illuminated and the information signs that are to be emphasized. the materials applied and the most significant parts of the space. the expectation that you can recognize and distinguish between areas with different functions from the lighting they receive. the architectural concept also defines the basic conditions for the design of user-oriented lighting. The need for clearly defined private areas also falls in this category. the intended effect indoors and out by day and night. This is especially important in areas that are potentially subjected to danger. In some cases it is only necessary to underline a number of focal locations.3. the utlization of daylight. Other factors to be taken into consideration are the materials applied.1 Project analysis 3. As in the case of a clearly structured environment. but involving the aesthetic effect of the illuminated space. where the structure of the space must be easily legible.1. Quantitative lighting design also requires information about the dimensions of the spaces to be lit.2. it can be said that a clearly structured environment contributes to our feeling of well-being in a visual environment. attention must also be paid to the demands that stem from the users themselves. not only from the point of view of optimised perception. colour scheme and planned furnishings.2. In extensive buildings. The last factor is the need for defined spatial zones. the structures and qualities of the building itself are important. It is therefore essential to find out how important the need for orientation is in each specific case and which routes and areas demand special attention. Along with this basic information about the project. the application of higher colour temperatures and uniform. which depends on the individual project to a large extent. In general. above all the question of the formal language of the building – the design of the spaces and how they are subdivided. Another psychological need that has to be fulfilled is the creation of a clearly structured environment.2 Qualitative lighting design 3. The latter do not necessarily offer a view outside but do provide information about the weather and the progress of time is maintained – a changing patch of sunlight can contribute to the feeling of life inside a building.e. its qualities accentuated. about what is going on in the rest of the building. In reality this means accentuating the structure of the space.2.1. and how light and luminaires are to be aligned to underline these aspects. In the first place the architectural building is regarded as an object of lighting – it is to be rendered visible.3 Architecture and atmosphere Besides the requirements that arise from how a space is used and the needs of the users. In buildings with simple spatial structures that are constantly in use the need for orientation aids is of secondary importance. This mainly concerns the lighting of functional areas that we accept as typical and which is in line with previous experience. Furthermore. its atmosphere underlined. the need for optical systems that guide people through spaces becomes a central issue. there is a changing need for orientation aids. diffuse lighting in working spaces. 122 3. Detailed information about the architecture is of particular importance for the design of demanding lighting.2 Psychological requirements Besides the objective requirements which result from the activities performed in a visual environment. directed light in prestigious spaces. One special case is the utilisation of sunlight in atriums or through skylights and light wells. Apart from the need for daylight and views outside.

e. which almost inevitably leads to a uniform and thereby standard design using light and luminaires. To begin with. the demand for adequate room height in the case of an indirect lighting installation. whether the lighting design must submit to acoustic engineering requirements or whether integral solutions.2 Qualitative lighting design 3. harmonize with the architecture. all of which form a characteristic matrix of requirements for a visual environment. qualitative lighting design must come to terms with complex patterns of required lighting qualities.g. i. the most convincing solution is a concept that achieves the required result with the least amount of technical equipment and the highest degree of design clarity.e. that the designer responds to an unstructured set of lighting requirements with an equally unstructured variety of luminaires.3. The real challenge behind qualitative lighting design lies in the development of a concept that is able to fulfil a wide range of requirements by means of a lighting installation that is both technically and aesthetically consistent. to define the lighting conditions that are to be achieved in specific locations at specific times. whether one particular form of lighting can justify preferential treatment. and. but a concept that produces a clearly structured distribution of lighting qualities by means of a consistent lighting scheme. It is important to clarify the significance of individual aspects of the lighting for the overall concept. and it must keep within the budget with regard to both the investment costs and the operating costs. The degree of complexity that has to be accepted depends on the specific lighting task. whether the lighting installation is to be fixed or flexible and whether it is a good idea to include lighting control equipment for time-related or user-related lighting control. From a technical. are possible. plus the order of importance of these individual aspects within the overall lighting concept. A practice-oriented design concept must therefore first describe how the desired lighting effects can be realised within the basic conditions and restrictions inherent to the project. but the value of such costly installations from the point of view of perceptual psychology and aesthetics is questionable owing to the lack of harmony on the ceiling. Nevertheless. The allocation of lighting qualities to the individual lighting tasks in a project gives rise to a catalogue of design objectives. which takes into account the different requirements the lighting has to fulfil.1 Project development 3. supplemented by wallwashers for the architectural lighting and trackmounted spots for the accentuation of special features. In contrast to quantitative concepts. or that differentiated lighting can be achieved using integral systems such as light structures or the comprehensive range of recessed ceiling luminaires. e. The pattern of requirements acquired in the course of the project analysis thus gives rise to a pattern of lighting qualities.2. of course. Example of the development of a differentiated lighting concept (from the top downwards): general lighting provided by downlights in accordance with the identified visual tasks. The design concept may be required to correspond to specific standards. this concerns the quantity and the various other criteria of the light in the individual areas. This cannot mean. The next phase following the project analysis is the development of a qualitative concept that outlines an idea of the qualities the lighting should possess. It may be that the main requirements set by the lighting task allow general lighting throughout the space. This is the first indication of whether the lighting is to be uniform or differentiated to match different areas.g.2 Project development The result of the project analysis is a series of lighting tasks that are allocated to specific areas within the space or specific times of day. which in turn provides information about the various forms of lighting and the required spatial and temporal differentiation. a combination of lighting and an air-handling system. 123 . Such a solution may provide an adequate distribution of lighting qualities.2. which derive one general set of lighting qualities from the given profile of requirements for a project. The lighting concept must also be coordinated with other engineering work to be effected on the project. without consideration for the conditions required to realise the lighting scheme or instructions on how to effect a consistent lighting design concept. economic and design point of view the aim of lighting design should be to find a solution that does not go for the overall uniform lighting effect and equally not for a confusing and distracting muddle of lighting fixtures designed to cover a wide variety of lighting requirements. Or in a multifuntional space that a combination of different luminaire systems may be necessary. The first task concept development has to deal with is the allocation of specific lighting qualities to the lighting tasks defined as a result of the project analysis. The well-meant consideration of a wide range of lighting tasks frequently leads to an unsystematic distribution of a wide variety of luminaire types or to a conglomeration of several lighting systems. however. air-conditioning and acoustics. without giving exact information as to the choice of lamps and luminaires or how they are to be arranged.

The light is then reflected by ceiling reflectors or by the atrium ceiling. Pendant luminaires (2) with a decorative component continue the direct lighting in the restaurant inside the actual space. 3 6 6 The lighting components for the general lighting in the atrium (4) are mounted on pillars on the walls of the atrium.1 Project development 6 Lighting for the restaurant beneath the dome of the atrium. They radiate light upwards.2 Qualitative lighting design 3. A ceiling-mounted luminaire (3) provides uniform lighting over this level. e. the upper wall of the lift shaft and the opening of the atrium are accentuated by a decorative. the balastrades of the adjoining sales floors. Individual architectural elements. the lift car.3. linear lighting components (6). thereby providing indirect lighting. 6 4 5 The free-standing panoramic lift is accentuated by grazing light from below (5). Wallmounted luminaires (1) provide both indirect lighting of the dome and direct lighting of the restaurant.2.g. 124 . 1 2 Lighting of the cafeteria. The pillars are simultaneously accentuated by grazing light directed downwards.

3.2 Qualitative lighting design 3.2.1 Project development

Development of a lighting concept for the atrium of a large department store. The representations show two vertical sections set at right angles to each other through the atrium with a central panoramic lift. The aim of a lighting concept is to determine the positions of the luminaires and the lighting quality, without defining luminaire types or illuminance levels. 1




The walkways leading from the individual sales floors to the lifts receive a curtain of light from the direct luminaires arranged closely together along the wall (7). A series of recessed ceiling downlights (8) provide general lighting in the adjoining sales spaces.

6 4



3.3 Practical planning

3.3 Practical planning 3.3.1 Lamp selection

Wallwashers equipped with (from the top downwards) halogen lamps, metal halide lamps and compact fluorescent lamps: the same luminaire types with identical distribution characteristics produce different luminous flux, luminous colour and colour rendering qualities depending on the lamp used.

Having completed the project analysis and developed a lighting concept the next phase entails practical planning: decisions regarding the lamps and luminaires to be used, the arrangement and installation of the luminaires, their control gear and the lighting control equipment required. A detailed design can be developed from a concept based primarily on lighting qualities, which will allow both illuminances and costs to be calculated to a reliable degree. Similar to the earlier planning phases, it is also not possible at this stage in the planning process to stipulate a fixed or standard sequence of planning steps it may be possible to decide on a lamp type at the beginning of a project, but it may equally not be possible until an advanced stage in the planning process; the lighting layout may be the consequence of the choice of a particular luminaire or, alternatively, the basis for the choice of luminaire. Lighting design should be regarded as a cyclical process, which always allows the solutions that have been developed to be aligned to the stated requirements. 3.3.1 Lamp selection The choice of light sources has a decisive influence on the qualities of a lighting installation. This applies first and foremost to the technical aspects of the lighting; the costs for control gear that may be required, the possibility of incorporating a lighting control system and, above all, the operating costs for the lighting installation, depend almost entirely on the choice of lamps. It also applies similarly to the quality of light the lighting designer is aiming to achieve, e. g. the choice of luminous colour to create the atmosphere in specific spaces, the quality of colour rendering or the brilliance and modelling necessary for display lighting. The effect of the lighting does not depend solely on the decision to use a specific lamp type, however; it is the result of the correlation of lamp, luminaire and illuminated environment. Nevertheless, the majority of lighting qualities can only be achieved with the correct choice of light source. It is just as impossible to create accent lighting using fluorescent lamps as it is to obtain acceptable colour rendering under sodium lamps. The decision to select a particular light source is therefore not to be taken lightly, but is dependent on the criteria defined by the required lighting effect and basic conditions pertaining to the project. From the wide range of lamp types available there will only be a limited number which will fulfil the specific requirements.


3.3 Practical planning 3.3.1 Lamp selection and brilliance Modelling and brilliance are effects that can be most easily achieved using directed light. Compact light sources are the most suitable, as their light intensity can be increased significantly by using reflectors. The modelling of three-dimensional objects and surfaces is emphasized by the shadows and luminance patterns produced by directed light. Modelling is required when the material qualities emphasized (spatial form and surface structure) have an informative value - be it to check the quality of the material itself, for the lighting of a sculpture, the presentation of goods or the illumination of interestingly structured room surfaces. Modelling can only be effected by directed light coming predominantly from one direction. To produce modelling effects it is therefore only possible using effectively point light sources, where the intensity of light is frequently increased using reflectors or other control systems. For this reason the first choice is compact lamps with rotationally symmetrical reflector systems. Linear light sources are not suitable for producing modelling, the longer the lamp, the less suitable it is, since the significant diffuse component lightens shadows. If extremely dramatic modelling is required in confined areas low-voltage halogen lamps, which are very compact in form, are usually the most appropriate or, if increased luminous power is required, then metal halide lamps. To produce modelling effects there are a variety of compact lamp types which can be used: from general service lamps, reflector lamps and halogen lamps for mains voltage to highpressure discharge lamps, whereby the modelling effect will inevitably be reduced as the size of the light source increases. Compact fluorescent lamps can produce a reasonable degree of modelling, e.g. when they are used in downlights. Conversely, linear fluorescent lamps produce predominantly diffuse light. Brilliance is produced by points of light of extremely high luminance. These may be the light sources themselves, but brilliance is also produced when the light sources are reflected on glossy surfaces or when the light is refracted in transparent materials. Specular effects are frequently applied in display lighting or in prestigious environments to emphasize the transparency or sparkling quality of the illuminated materials to enhance their value or to create a festive atmosphere. Producing brilliance and specular effects demands more from the light source than producing modelling effects: it requires concentrated, practically point light sources. The sparkling effect depends predominantly on the lamp luminance. It is relati-

vely independent of the luminous flux emitted by the lamp. In contrast to lighting that produces modelling effects, brilliance does not require the light to be directed from one particular direction. It only requires the lamps to be point light sources. It is therefore not necessary to control the light using reflectors - exposed light sources can be used to create brilliance, in which case the light source itself and its effect on the illuminated material is perceived as being brilliant. Low-voltage halogen lamps are primarily used for the creation of brilliance, as they are extremely compact light sources with high luminance. Metal halide lamps can also be used to produce brilliance, although their high luminous power may undermine the creation of specular effects because the overall environment is generally brighter. Brilliance can also be produced by clear versions of halogen lamps for mains voltage. Larger light sources with lightdiffusing surfaces, such as frosted incandescent lamps are less suitable, fluorescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps not suitable at all. Colour rendering A light source can be said to have good colour rendering properties when there are only slight deviations in colour between a comprehensive range of colours illuminated by the lamp in comparison to a standardised reference light source of a corresponding colour temperature. Any statement made or data given on colour rendering therefore refers to a specific colour temperature. A colour rendering value that is valid for all luminous colours does not exist. Colour rendering is an important factor in lighting projects where it is important to be able to judge the quality and effect of colours, e. g. for matching colours, for the lighting of works of art or for the presentation of textiles. There are standards that stipulate the minimum colour rendering requirements for the lighting of workplaces. The colour rendering quality of a light source depends on the composition of the specific lamp spectrum. A continuous spectrum provides optimum colour rendering, whereas line or band spectrums mean poorer colour rendering. The spectral distribution of the light is also of significance for colour rendering. Spectral distribution that differs from that of the reference light source will also have a deteriorating effect on colour rendering values due to the fact that only specific colour effects are emphasized. The highest colour rendering index (Ra 100), i. e. colour rendering category 1A, is obtained from all forms of incandescent lamps, including halogen lamps, since they represent the reference light source 127

Wallwashers for fluorescent lamps (above) and halogen lamps (below). Uniform wallwashing can be achieved with the diffuse light produced by the fluorescent lamps or with the directed light from the halogen lamps.

3.3 Practical planning 3.3.1 Lamp selection

for the warm white range. De-Luxe versions of fluorescent lamps, plus some metal halide lamps have a colour rendering index above 90 and are classified as colour rendering category 1A. The remaining fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps are classified as colour rendering category 1B or, as the luminous efficacy increases at the expense of colour rendition, fall into colour rendering categories 2A or 2B. High-pressure mercury and sodium lamps with enhanced colour rendering are classified at category 2B, with standard versions classified as category 3. Category 4 only contains low-pressure sodium lamps. Luminous colour and colour temperature Similar to colour rendering, the luminous colour of a light source is dependent on the spectral distribution of the light emitted by the lamp. In the case of incandescent lamps this distribution is a result of the temperature of the filament, hence the reference to colour temperature. In the case of discharge lamps, however, a comparative value must be used as a guideline - the most similar colour temperature. In practice it is not customary to provide exact colour temperature data. Luminous colour is roughly categorized into warm white, neutral white and daylight white. Through the specific combination of luminous substances it is possible, in the case of discharge lamps, to create a further range of special luminous colours, which cannot be adequately described using colour temperature classification. The luminous colour of a lamp affects the colour spectrum of illuminated objects. Warm white lamps emphasize the red and yellow ranges of the spectrum, daylight white the blue and green, i. e. cold colours. Luminous colour can be applied as a design factor for the presentation of objects which have defined colour ranges, for example. Some luminous colours are expressly blended for the presentation of specific types of articles. Luminous colour also affects our subjective appreciation of a lighting situation; colder luminous colours at high illuminances and from diffuse lighting are comparable to the light of the sky, warm colour appearances at lower illuminances in the form of directed light are comparable to candlelight and considered to be pleasant. Recommended luminous colours are included in the published standards for the lighting of workplaces. Light sources with exclusively warm white luminous colour comprise all forms of incandescent lamps plus high-pressure sodium lamps. There are also fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps and highpressure mercury lamps available that are classified as being warm white. Light 128

sources with neutral white luminous colour include fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps and high-pressure mercury lamps. Daylight white light sources include fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps. Fluorescent lamps are the only light sources available in special luminous colours. The luminous colour of a lamp can, in fact, be manipulated, either by providing the outer envelope with a special coating, as is the case for daylight quality incandescent lamps, or by applying a conversion filter. Luminous flux The luminous flux of a lamp is especially important if the number of lamps with which the lighting is to be created has been predetermined. It may be that the lighting is being designed using only a few high output lamps, or that a large number of low light output lamps are to be used. The objective is not to select a few lamps of average luminous intensity, but to vary between large and small “lumen packages”. Low-voltage halogen lamps, conventional incandescent lamps and compact fluorecent lamps are examples of small lumen packages. Halogen lamps for mains voltage, fluorescent lamps and high-pressure discharge lamps have higher luminous power. Metal halide lamps have the highest values. Efficiency The efficiency of a lighting installation depends largely on the choice of lamps. The influence of other aspects, e. g. the choice of control gear and control equipment is of less importance. When selecting lamps on the basis of their efficiency there are a number of criteria that may be of primary importance, irrespective of the basic conditions inherent in the lighting task. The luminous efficacy of a lamp is important when maximum luminous power, and illuminance, is to be achieved using a minimum of electric power. Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps have the lowest luminous efficacy at around 10-20 lm/w. The luminous efficacy of fluorescent lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps and metal halide lamps is higher at 40-100 lm/w. The exceptionally high luminous efficacy of sodium lamps (up to 130 lm/w in the case of high-pressure lamps) is achieved at the expense of colour rendering. The rated life of a lamp is always important when maintenance of the lighting installation results in considerable expense or if conditions make maintenance difficult, e. g. in the case of particularly high ceilings or in rooms that are in continual use. The rated life of incandescent

Colour rendering cat. Applications Quality 1A Textile, paint and Optimum printing industry Prestigious spaces Museums 1B Very good Meeting rooms Hotels Restaurants Shop windows Administration buildings Schools Sales spaces Industrial manufacturing plants Circulation zones Exterior lighting Warehouses Industrial halls Exterior lighting Floodlighting

2A Good 2B Acceptable 3 Adequate 4 Low

Allocation of colour rendering categories in accordance with the CIE and the colour rendering qualities of lamps and their typical lighting tasks.

3.3 Practical planning 3.3.1 Lamp selection

A, R, PAR QT QT-LV T TC LST HMT, HME HIT, HIE HST, HSE 100 200 300 400

Range of power P for various lamp types.

P (W) 500

A, R, PAR QT QT-LV T TC LST HMT, HME HIT, HIE HST, HSE 20 40 60 80 100 120

Ranges of luminous efficacy h for various lamp types.

æ (lm/W) 140

A, R, PAR QT QT-LV T TC LST HMT, HME HIT, HIE HST, HSE 2000 4000 6000 8000

Service life t of various lamp types.

t (h) 10000

A, R, PAR QT QT-LV T TC LST HMT, HME HIT, HIE HST, HSE 2000 3000 4000 5000 TF (K)

Colour temperature ranges TF for various lamp types.

A, R, PAR QT QT-LV T TC LST HMT, HME HIT, HIE HST, HSE 20 40 60 80 100 Ra

Colour rendering index Ra ranges for various lamp types.


when a person enters a room). the highest ultrviolet load in practice is produced by halogen lamps which .7 Ignition and re-ignition Lamp behaviour when lamps are switched on and reswitching after power failure may be of significance in the design. 3. In the exhibition environment light. in the case of discharge lamps the values refer to lamp life in terms of light output. This applies to accent lighting on heat-sensitive objects.3.1 Lamp selection lamps is given as the average lamp life after the failure of 50 % of the lamps. In the majority of cases there is no time to allow a cooling phase before reigniting lamps that have been switched off or are off due to power failure. From a technical point of view high-pressure discharge lamps should not be dimmed. the luminous flux Ï. Lowvoltage halogen lamps and fluorescent lamps are technically more difficult to handle. Dimmable lamps can also be used to adjust the lighting to changing environmental conditions. They vary between values that can be ignored when compared with costs for power and maintenance. In the case of some special lighting tasks limiting the radiant load on objects is a prime concern. but are also dimmable. Reignition is only possible without special equipment. 3. For the lighting of large meeting spaces and sports facilities there are statutory requirements stipulating that the instant re-ignition of lamps must be ensured.6 Brightness control The dimming quality of light sources is important for the lighting of spaces with changing activities and for environments where different atmospheres are required. As the UV component is always reduced by obligatory front glass covers. g. The actual rated life is. To calculate the costs the lamp price KLa . 1000 DM 106 lm . 130 . The rated life of fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps is considerably higher at 8000 h and 6000 h. to values that are as high as these costs. double-ended versions equipped with special ignitors must be installed. can all result in damage due to the acceleration in the ageing of materials and fading of colours. High proportions of infrared radiation and convection heat are emitted by light sources with predominantly low luminous efficacy. The most economical lamps are conventional incandescent lamps. high-pressure mercury lamps over 8000 h.3. since in the case of low efficacy for a given lighting level more energy exists in the infrared range. [K = ( KLa + P a ) . i. This is due to the fact that the power used by the lighting equipment is. after a specific cooling time.3.1. The same applies to fluorescent lamps. Sodium lamps have a rated life of 10 000 h. 3. h [K] = Formula for calculating the operating costs of a lighting installation on the basis of specific lamp costs K (DM/106 Imh).1.3000 h. Ultraviolet radiation is theoretically emitted predominantly by high-pressure discharge lamps. e. in fact. Conventional incandescent lamps and halogen lamps for mains voltage can be dimmed easily and economically.e. respectively. Depending on lamp type and power the specific costs can be between DM 3 and DM 30 per 10 6 Imh. Radiation problems occur most frequently in exhibition lighting. either directly through air convection or when light-absorbing materials heat up. In the case of discharge lamps it is switching frequency that affects the rated life. Lamp costs are another aspect of the efficiency of a lighting installation. which can be ignited in a cold or warm state with negligible delay. t Ï . also affected by site conditions.3. however.3.3 Practical planning 3. They can simply be switched on at any time. 106 Ï . the wattage P. converted into heat. however. the service life t and the cost per unit of electricity a are required.1. the lower the efficacy of the light sources. infrared and ultraviolet radiation. High-pressure discharge lamps require a substantial run-up period. Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps pose no problems here.8 Radiant and thermal load When dimensioning air-conditioning plants the lighting load has to be taken into account. h [KLA] = DM [P] = W [Ï] = lm [t] = h [a] = DM kW . In the case of linear and compact fluorescent lamps infrared radiation is considerably lower. For many applications it is essential that the light sources provide sufficient luminous flux immediately after switching (e. Prices for high-pressure discharge lamps are substantially higher. The thermal load of a space increases. In the case of incandescent lamps the operating voltage has a critical influence on the life of the lamp. day and night-time lighting. such as incandescent lamps and halogen lamps. followed by fluorescent lamps and halogen lamps. when there is a reduction in luminous flux of up to 80 %. g. Incandescent lamps and halogen lamps have the shortest rated life at 1000 . If high-pressure lamps are to allow instant re-ignition.

10 0. 1200 klxh under daylight. classified according to the different wavelength ranges: UV (280 nm-380 nm). R. Light 5–7 5–6 3–5 2–3 2–5 2–3 IR 35–60 25–30 6–10 10–15 6–10 4–6 A.15 0.3 Practical planning 3. Range of exposure H as the product of illuminance E (klx) and exposure time t (h) for the visible fading of an exhibit as a function of the light fastness S of the exhibit (in accordance with DIN 54004) and the type of light source used. the lower one to daylight. light (380 nm-780 nm).05 Relative radiation flux Ïe of different lamp types in relation to a luminous flux of 103 Im. visible radiation (light) and infrared radiation (IR). Example: an exhibit classified as light fastness category 5 shows initial evidence of fading after approx. h) S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Relative damage factor D of optical radiation as a function of wavelength l. TC HME HIT HSE [Ee = Ïe .10–0.3.05–0. B and C categories.05–0. The upper tolerance curve applies to incandescent lamps. UV and IR radiation are further subdivided into A. Damage decreases exponentially through the wavelengths including the majority of the range of visible radiation. IR (780 nm-10000nm).20–1.1 Lamp selection Optical radiation UV-C UV-B UV-A Light IR-A IR-B IR-C Lamp l (nm) 100 ≤ l < 280 ≤ l < 315 ≤ l < 380 ≤ l < 280 315 380 780 Wavelength ranges of ultraviolet radiation (UV).15 0. 131 . 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 100 D (%) 50 20 10 5 2 300 350 400 450 500 ¬ (nm) 550 1000 4000 3000 2000 H (klx .00 0.00 0. in accordance with DIN 5031 Part 7. after approx. 4800 klxh under incandescent light.3. PAR QT T.01–0. Halogen lamps and discharge lamps lie within the band. [Ee] = W2 m [Ïe] = W klm [E] = lx E 1000 Correlation of the irradiance Ee on an exhibit at a given illuminance E and the relative radiation peformance of a lamp Ï e.20–1. 780 ≤ l < 1400 1400 ≤ l < 3000 3000 ≤ l < 10000 Ï e (W/klm) UV 0.

however. Recessed ceiling luminaires. Integral lighting also requires certain conditions relating to the installation. An exception exists in the case of special fluorescent lamps. 3. Both infrared and ultraviolet radiation load on persons or objects produced by light sources used for interior lighting is negligible.2 Luminaire selection The choice of light sources outlines the technical qualities of the lighting design concept and the limits to the lighting qualities that can be achieved. The lighting can only be changed using a lighting control system or applying adjustable luminaires. The lighting effects that can be obtained within this range depend on the choice of luminaires in which the lamps are to be used. They emit minimal ultraviolet radiation. recessed directional spotlights and specific louvred luminaires. The most extreme cases are forms of lighting that use architectural elements to create lighting effects. such as lighting installations that are integrated into the architecture (e.3 Practical planning 3.2. but on the lighting effects produced by the luminaires. emitting this freely through their quartz glass outer envelopes. The choice of lamp and luminaire is therefore closely related.3. prestigious projects consideration may also be given to developing a custom designed solution or even a new luminaire. The luminaires are only visible through the pattern of their apertures.3. whose spectral distribution is very similar to the global radiation of the sun and daylight.g. and vice versa. Integral lighting generally presents a comparatively static solution. Standard luminaires can also be used in special constructions. Opting for a particular light source will reduce the choice of luminaire.2. The UV and infrared components are increased at the expense of the visible radiation. cove lighting or luminous ceilings). there is the attempt to integrate the luminaires into the architecture as far as possible.e.3. The limit set for connected load is approximately 50W/m2. producing a “natural” light. and on the other hand.3. This allows the aesthetic arrangement of luminaires in architecture or in a characteristically designed interior and the solution of specific lighting tasks to be effected in closer relation to the project than if only standard products are chosen.2 Integral or additive lighting There are two basic contrasting concepts for the arrangement of luminaires in an architectural space. above which the effect of the thermal load will have a noticable effect on the subjective feeling of well-being in the local area.2 Luminaire selection do not have an outer envelope. the entire spectrum of downlights. or the provision of apertures for recessed mounting into ceilings or walls in new buildings. i. In the case of large-scale. There are therefore limits to adapting integral lighting to meet the changing uses of a space. Disturbing infrared or ultraviolet components produced by the selected lamps can in practice be reduced substantially through the use of suitable reflectors or filters. cove lighting or backlit elements. There is no documentary evidence on the advantages of these lamps with regard to health or technical benefits in the quality of light. The planning does not focus on the application of the luminaires themselves as design elements. These two concepts should not be regarded as two completely separate ideas. 132 Additional costs for development and time considerations must be included in the calculation of overall costs for the project. These include luminous ceilings. Integral lighting can easily be applied in a variety of environments and makes it possible to coordinate luminaires entirely with the design of the space. which can allocate different aesthetic functions to the lighting installation and provide a range of lighting possibilities. are specifically designed as integral lighting elements. . because they can be supplied at reasonably short notice. the idea of adding the luminaires to the existing architecture as an element in their own right. In the case of integral lighting the luminaires are concealed within the architecture. Floor and ceiling washlights in particular can be integrated into walls.1 Standard product or custom design In most cases the choice of luminaires will be confined to the standard products available. so-called “full spectrum lamps”. 3. the choice of luminaire will restrict the choice of lamp. which also allows mixed concepts and solutions.3. from recessed downlights to washlights. On the one hand. This may mean a suspended ceiling to allow recessed mounting. They are the two extremes at either end of a scale of design and technical possibilities. 3. have clearly defined performance characteristics and have been tested for safety.

3.3 Practical planning 3.2 Luminaire selection Adapter with a circuit selector switch for three-circuit track Facetted reflector for spot or flood versions Exchangeable light head Main housing of the spotlight Integral. conventional transformer Power supply and locking of light head onto main housing Spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps with integral transformer. Housing and removable light head form a modular system that allows a wide range of lighting options Capsule low-voltage halogen lamp with pin base Anti-dazzle cylinder made of blackened high-grade steel 133 .3.

Fluorescent lamps (1) illuminate the sides of the coffers and provide indirect lighting as an integral ceiling element.2 Luminaire selection Custom designed luminaire for the boardroom in the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank.6 m) corresponds to the form of the conference table. 2 1 Custom designed luminaire based on a standard product: the optical system of a conventional louvred luminaire (below) is used as the direct element within a linear secondary reflector luminaire (above). The elliptical luminaire (9. The outer ring contains a prismatic diffuser.1 x Practical planning 3. which provides ambient lighting and some specular effects. which are aligned to the seating. 134 . Custom designed luminaire for the coffer ceiling in the new entrance to the Louvre. The inner ring of the luminaire contains a series of directional spotlights. An additional spotlight (2) can be used for accent lighting.

The darklight reflector in a conventional downlight is used as the direct element in a rotationally symmetrical secondary reflector luminaire. the lighting designer has to specify the luminaire design and plan the lighting layout in accordance with the architectural design. Within the available options a decision can be made on a concept that corresponds to the architectural. Integral and additive lighting: identical lighting effects produced by recessed downlights and downlights mounted on a light structure. Besides planning the lighting effects which are to be produced by these luminaires. What is gained in flexibility is offset by the task of harmonizing the visual appearance of the lighting installation with the environment and avoiding visual unrest through the mixing of different luminaire types or by a confusing arrangement of light structures. which can be mounted directly onto the ceiling or onto suspended trunking systems. are especially suitable when flexible lighting is required. for display and exhibition purposes.3. Due to the fact that they are a separate element from the ceiling.3. The ceiling is illuminated and the shielding of the lamp is improved. The lighting requirements met by spotlights in an additive lighting concept can also be met by using recessed directional spotlights. 135 . light structures offer wide scope for a variety of applications: they allow both direct and indirect or combined direct-indirect lighting. The range of planning possibilities extends from harmonizing luminaires with available structural systems to selecting luminaires that will have an active influence on the overall visual appearance of the space.2 Luminaire selection In the case of additive lighting the luminaires are not integrated into the architecture. Spotlights. surfacemounted or pendant downlights are installed. but appear as elements in their own right. Integral lighting using downlights comes close to an additive lighting concept if semi-recessed. There are numerous intermediate options between the extreme forms of completely integral lighting and totally additive lighting. e.3 Practical planning 3. Lighting design and the luminaire selection are therefore not bound by the decision to opt for a distinctly integral or additive lighting solution. Luminaires typically used for additive lighting are light structures. g. Custom designed luminaires based on standard products: a prismatic panel mounted at a specific distance below the ceiling aperture of a standard downlight controls luminance distribution. spotlights and surface-mounted downlights. aesthetic and lighting requirements.

the more variable version being recessed directional spotlights. Both areas overlap. a close arrangement of narrowbeam downlights recessed in the ceiling is appropriate. Stationary and movable luminaires: identical lighting produced by directional spotlights and track-mounted spotlights.2. Whereas uniform general lighting usually means a standard lighting design concept. the ambient light they produce providing a background against which significant areas can be picked out using accent lighting to produce “focal glow”. especially louvred luminaires and light structures designed for fluorescent lamps.3 Stationary or movable lighting The decision to opt for a stationary or variable lighting installation overlaps the decision to go for an integral or additive solution.3 Practical planning 3. directed beams of light. This means that the lighting can be adjusted using a lighting control system. Individual luminaires or groups of luminaires can be dimmed or switched to adjust the lighting to suit the changing uses of the space. wallwashers or secondary luminaires. by using a lighting control system. Time-related or spatial changes can be produced in all permanently fitted systems. is provided by movable spotlights mounted on track or trunking systems. the one can now be combined with the other. whether they consist of recessed luminaires. such as directional spotlights or spotlights installed on singlets.3. as found in a majority of installations designed for work-places. the two are no longer separate. Scattered light from the areas illuminated by accent lighting is frequently sufficient to provide ambient light – general lighting can therefore be produced by accent lighting. Movable spotlights on track or light structures offer the maximum flexibility in beam direction and variability. realigned or individual luminaires substituted. accent lighting will always contain a general lighting component to allow the viewer to perceive the spatial arrangement of illuminated objects and provide for orientation within the space.2 Luminaire selection 3.3. Downlights are generally used for the static lighting of horizontal lighting tasks. As a rule. Above all. for the lighting of prestigious spaces. completely rearranged.4 General lighting and differentiated lighting The decision to design predominantly uniform general lighting or more distinctly differentiated accent lighting depends on the lighting task – it only makes sense to emphasize individual areas using light if there is a noteworthy difference in the information content between significant areas or objects and their surroundings.2. This general lighting can be produced by certain luminaires. This shows that there are no longer any grounds for dividing general lighting and accent lighting into distinctly different forms of lighting. Luminaires with wide-angle distribution are most suitable for general lighting. The next step towards increased flexibility is the application of permanently fitted luminaires that can be directed. such as lobbies or large meeting rooms. which allows the lighting to be adjusted to suit the specific requirements.3. 136 . surfacemounted luminaires or suspended structures. it is determined by the lighting requirements the installation has to meet rather than by design criteria. which is generally the case for the lighting of workplaces. The choice of luminaires for accent lighting is less extensive and limited to luminaires that are able to produce concentrated. as required for the lighting of temporary exhibitions and display lighting. correspondingly general lighting will be appropriate. There are different ways of making a lighting installation flexible. Uniform lighting can be equally well effected using indirect lighting provided by ceiling washlights. In the decision to go for a more static or a variable lightig system there is a seamless transition between the extremes. If the distribution of lighting tasks and information content is uniform across an area. 3. The highest degree of flexibility. a lighting design concept that aims to create isolated accents may be regarded as an exception.3. in fact.

A lighting design concept based on direct lighting means that individual areas within the space can be purposefully lit from almost any location. It should be noted.3. This gives rise to distinctly different lighting qualities. whereas a direct lighting concept may comprise both direct and diffuse light and both general and accent lighting. Problems arising from direct and reflected glare do not occur. the walls or even onto the floor. General lighting and differentitated ighting: general lighting provided by a regular arrangement of louvred luminaires and downlights.2. 137 . Both components can be switched and dimmed separately to produce a timed differentiation (above). This allows a greater degree of freedom when designing the luminaire layout.2 Luminaire selection 3.3. There is an increase in the number of socalled secondary reflector luminaires which are being developed.3. Direct and indirect lighting: direct lighting using downlights (above). This design allows improved optical control of the emitted light. such as work at VDTs. soft light and creates an open appearance due to the bright room surfaces. indirect lighting using wallmounted ceiling washlights (below).5 Direct or indirect lighting The decision whether to plan direct or indirect lighting affects the proportion of directed or diffuse lighting in the space significantly. which in turn adopts the character of a large-scale secondary reflector luminaire. The result may be a flat and monotonous environment. making indirect lighting an ideal solution for critical visual tasks. mostly using louvred luminaires. can also be used to produce general lighting with a predominant diffuse component. in the case of indirect lighting.3 Practical planning 3. The reflecting surface may be the architecture itself: the light may be directed onto the ceiling. This decision results in a lighting concept which. Direct lighting. It may well also have a component of directed light. above all considerably enhanced modelling and more clearly defined surface structures. They consist of a primary light source with its own reflector system and a larger secondary reflector. that indirect lighting alone produces very poor modelling and spatial differentiation. there is no accentuation of the architecture or the illuminated objects. from where it is reflected into the room. Indirect lighting is achieved by the light from a primary light source being reflected by a substantially greater. is designed to produce diffuse general lighting. Spatial differentiation is achieved by the arrangement of wallwashers and the grouping of downlights (below). In addition. Indirect lighting provides the advantage that it produces very uniform. mostly diffuse reflecting surface. however.

Conversely. 138 . vertical lighting frequently aims to present and create a visual environment. which means that indirect lighting pro-vides an optimum solution. the reading of wall charts or the viewing of paintings. It should be noted that energy consumption for an indirect lighting installation may be up to three times higher than that for a direct lighting system due to restricted reflection factors. Besides the combination of direct and indirect luminaires. Horizontal general lighting from different ceiling heights: as a rule. especially those designed for incandescent lamps. Indirect lighting is glare-free. This can be used for the lighting of corridors. which makes it especially suitable for lighting visual tasks that can be easily undermined by disturbing reflected glare.85 m above the floor) or the lighting of the floor itself (reference plane 0. This is especially true in the case of lighting for workplaces. directed light can be produced that accentuates the qualities of materials more intensely and produces greater differentiation in the lighting of a space. which is primarily required for workplaces. The primary decision to provide horizontal lighting is frequently in line with the decision to plan functional. user-oriented light. In this case the walls.2 m above the floor). This category includes the majority of lighting tasks regulated by standards for workplaces and circulation areas.7 Lighting working areas and floors One of the most common lighting tasks is the illumination of horizontal surfaces. 3. In future. especially in the case of the lighting of vertical visual tasks.g. a combination of direct and indirect lighting will gain in significance as opposed to exclusively direct or indirect lighting. If more modelling is required to enhance the three-dimensional quality of illuminated objects or to accentuate architectural features indirect lighting can be supplemented by directed lighting. and a large number of luminaires are available for this task. Louvred luminaires or light structures for fluorescent lamps produce uniform general lighting. or for a static or variable concept. which provides the required accentuation. to ensure people’s facial expressions are not concealed by the heavy shadows produced by single-component horizontal lighting. as well as to the accentuation and modelling of objects in the space. The illumination of horizontal surfaces can also be provided using indirect light.3.2. Horizontal and vertical lighting: the same luminaire layout can be used for downlights for horizontal lighting as well as for wallwashers for vertical lighting. for example.3 Practical planning 3. narrow-beam luminaires are used for high ceilings and widebeam luminaires for low ceilings to ensure that the light beams overlap. however. e.2 Luminaire selection 3. Vertical lighting is also essential in order to facilitate communication. in which case the indirect component will provide general lighting with a high degree of visual comfort. at workstations.3. either as individual luminaires or as integral luminaires in light structures. The decision to plan vertical lighting may also be related to the task to fulfil functional requirements.2. e. secondary luminaires can also be used. diffuse ambient lighting using these surfaces to reflect the light. They emit both direct and indirect light and allow optical control of both. by using downlights. A combination of both luminaire types is possible to create spatially differentiated lighting or to increase the portion of directed light in general. In such cases vertical lighting components are predominantly produced by the diffuse light that is reflected by the horizontal illuminated surfaces. A variety of lighting effects can be achieved depending on the choice of luminaires.3. In some cases very little modelling is required. purely functional lighting. This may be the lighting of the working plane (0. The illumination of these planes can be effected by direct light.g. This applies first and foremost to architecture. are illuminated to produce uniform. or preferably the ceiling. the extreme forms of exclusively horizontal or vertical lighting are hardly significant in practice: a portion of the missing form of lighting is almost always automatically produced through the reflections on room surfaces and illuminated objects. in contrast to horizontal. this can be used effectively for the illumination of prestigious spaces and for display lighting. vertical lighting is intended to emphasise the characteristic features and dominant elements in the visual environment. to create a spacious impression in spite of low illuminances. Indirect light consists of vertical components to provide a bright atmosphere in the space and horizontal components for the actual lighting of the working area or floor. where the lighting is predominantly designed as uniform lighting for horizontal visual tasks.3. and the direct component accent lighting for the working area and inherent visual tasks. whose structures can be clearly portrayed by purposefully illuminating the walls. In spite of this interdependence the character of a lighting installation is predominantly determined by the emphasis laid on either horizontal or vertical lighting.6 Horizontal and vertical lighting In contrast to the decision to opt for an integral or additive lighting installation.

In corridors and exterior spaces in particular grazing light on walls can be effected using uplights or combined uplight and downlights. There are various models available. the positions of doors or objects. directed light on the working plane with indirect lighting in the circulation areas (below). and for parallel walls in narrow spaces such as corridors. but an open impression of a wall is required. This type of lighting can also be used exclusively for illuminating walls.8 Wall lighting Wall lighting can fulfil a variety of tasks. 139 . Washlights are the most appropriate luminaires in this case. In any case the distribution of the scallops over the wall should be in line with the proportions of the space and follow a regular rhythm. or retail goods.g. Washlights have a special reflector segment that produces distinctly more uniform illumination of the wall than downlights in their basic form. e.3. Indirect general lighting (above). depending on the type of room and how it is used. objects such as paintings. directindirect lighting of the workplace with direct lighting in the circulation areas (centre). e. direct-indirect lighting of the workplace with direct lighting in the circulation areas (below).3 Practical planning 3. General lighting (above). If the wall is not to be revealed as a room surface as such. g. architectural structures or the wall surface itself. depending on the degree of flexibility required. Asymmetrical spacing. including fixtures for linear walls.3. Direct light on the working area together with wall lighting (above). which.2. textual information on charts or posters.g. Totally uniform wall lighting is obtained using wallwashers. e. In the case of reflecting surfaces. e.3. attention must be paid to the angle of incidence of the light to avoid disturbing reflections that may arise in the observer’s field of vision. are available for recessed or surface mounting or for mounting on track or trunking systems. wall lighting can be a means for providing indirect general lighting in a space. transitionless lighting should be used. oil paintings or pictures framed behind glass. Lighting walls using wallwashers or washlights also provides uniform lighting of vertical visual tasks as well as indirect general lighting. if a scallop effect is required. finally. if the angle of incidence is too steep. like washlights. shadows of the picture frames on the pictures.2 Luminaire selection 3. if the angle is too low. Grazing light provided by downlights is especially suitable for accentuating surface structures. is also possible. then uniform. which may be required due to special features of the particular wall surface. To accentuate certain areas of wall or objects on the wall spotlights and recessed directional spotlights are particularly suitable. for walls with recesses and corners. Illumination of working areas in an office: different lighting concepts can be applied. secondary reflector luminaires provide light on the working plane (centre). Wall lighting may also be intended to present the wall in its function as a room surface. or heavy shadows that may occur.g. It can be directed at vertical visual tasks on the walls. indirect general lighting and lighting for the workplace using the ceiling as a reflector (below).

140 . 30˚ 100˚ 40˚ 80˚ 50˚ 60˚ Wall lighting using rotationally symmetrical luminaires (from left to right): lens wallwasher. washlights. so the beam spread will decrease. Wall lighting using linear luminaires (from left to right): wallwasher for fluorescent lamps. directional washlight. as is the case for the combinations shown for the 30°. As the cut-off angle increases.3 Practical planning 3. wallwasher. wallwasher with prismatic element. trackmounted wallwasher.3. trackmounted wallwasher. 40° and 50° angles illustrated. the greater the visual comfort provided by the luminaire due to improved glare control.2 Luminaire selection The greater the cut-off angle. adjustable wallwasher.3. The same lighting layout will produce different distributions on the walls. wallwasher with louvred reflector.

This option is only applicable if there is sufficient room height. 3.3. The glare primarily occurs if the luminaire is not adjusted correctly and the light source becomes visible. For workstations with VDTs there are specific requirements. In the case of stationary luminaires. Ceiling lighting is generally used as a means for providing indirect general lighting of a space. as is often the case in historical buildings. this can be achieved using uplights.3. In the case of directional luminaires. then free-standing ceiling washlights can be installed. especially when the ceiling has an informative value of its own due to paintings or architectural structures.2 Luminaire selection 3. this applies to luminous ceilings in particular. as all luminaires must be mounted above head height to avoid direct glare and they must be installed at a suitable distance from the ceiling to ensure uniform light distribution. which stipulate minimum cut-off angles or highest permissible luminances in the cut-off range. In the case of direct glare the quality of glare limitation depends on the light distribution of the luminaire.3.10 Luminance limitation The question of how to control glare varies depending on whether the luminaires are stationary or movable. glare does depend on the light distribution of the luminaire. Application of narrowbeam downlights for grazing wall lighting with decorative scallops. such as downlights. Ceiling lighting can be created using ceiling washlights for mounting on or into the wall. This means that the ceiling becomes the brightest room surface and as such does not correspond to the relative information content. If certain areas of the ceiling are to be accentuated.3. 141 .3 Practical planning 3. free-standing luminaire providing asymmetrical directindirect lighting (from left to right). a particularly relevant form of ceiling lighting is cove lighting. Ceilings can also be illuminated using pendant luminaires or light structures that light the upper half of the space. either in the luminaire itself or through a reflection of the lamp from specular room surfaces.2. Standards exist for the lighting of workplaces. louvred luminaires or light structures it is necessary to distinguish between the elimination of direct glare and reflected glare.9 Ceiling lighting Ceiling lighting can be the sole purpose of lighting this room surface.2. but where the ceiling itself becomes an extensive luminaire. Wall lighting using washlights (above) and wallwashers (below). this method is also suitable for rooms with low ceilings. Free-standing luminaire providing asymmetrical indirect lighting. Ceiling lighting using wall-mounted ceiling washlights. If it is not possible to install luminaires on the walls. free-standing luminaire providing symmetrical indirect lighting. where it is not the ceiling that is illuminated. such as recessed directional spotlights. pendant indirect luminaires and a wall-mounted directindirect luminaire (from left to right). When users spend longer periods of time in the space the ceiling luminance – like an overcast sky – can therefore be felt to be disturbing or is ultimately a source of glare.

veneered or painted wood) for installation in or MM Luminaire suitableon furniture with un surface mounting known inflammable properties ¡Xm w Safety distance (X) in the direction of beam 142 .0 mm 4 Protection against dust Dust-proof 5 6 7 8 Degree of protection against water No protection Drip-proof: water/spray from above Drip-proof: water from an angle (up to 15° to the vertical ) Protected against spray (up to 15° to the vertical) Protected against spray from all directions Protected against jets of water from all directions Water-proof: flooding Water-proof: immersible Water-proof: may be submerged 2 3 4 5 6 Conventional IP XY classification for luminaires. The luminaire is operated on low-voltage up to 42 V. The protection class indicates the measures of safety provided. whereby X refers to protection against foreign bodies and Y protection against water. Protect. The luminaire is insulated such that there are no metal parts which users can touch that may be live if a fault occurs.3.5 mm 3 Protection against foreign bodies > 1. supplied via safety tranformers or batteries. These standards require all metal parts which users can touch not to be live if a fault occurs. There is no earth conductor. to which all metal parts with which users may come into contact must be connected. II III Luminaires are protected against the ingress of foreign bodies and water.3. X 6 5 4 3 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Y Symbols used to indicate special qualities and safety requirements. suitable for mounting on parts of buildings comprising materials with an ignition point of >200°C (e. class I Protection measures The luminaire has a connection point for an earthed conductor.2 Luminaire selection To ensure that luminaires are electrically safe they are required to meet specific safety standards. suitable for installation in areas exposed to dust or containing inflammable materials or in danger of explosion Luminaire suitable for installation in or surface mounting on furniture made of standard inflammable material (coated.3 Practical planning 3. The minimum requirements laid down for luminaires in interior spaces is IP 20. T TT M Luminaire with discharge lamp. Connection to the mains earth conductor is imperative.g: wooden ceilings) Luminaire with discharge lamp with a limited surface temperature. X Degree of protection against foreign bodies Y 0 1 Protection against foreign bodies > 12 mm 2 (protection against manual contact) Protection against foreign bodies > 2. The Mode of Protection (IP) is an internationally recognised system comprising two digits XY.

These include filters to change the luminous colour or to reduce the UV or infrared radiation. refer to section 2. for protection relating to ball games. this may have an influence on the choice and arrangement of the luminaires. If more luminaires are required than for air-conditioning purposes. Luminaires are classified according to their Mode of Protection and Protection Class. spread lenses to change distribution characteristics.2.3. requirements laid down by the lighting and the airconditioning have to be coordinated to ensure that the ceiling design is harmonious and no conflicts arise in the organisation of ducting. e. Correct positioning of the luminaires is essential in order to avoid reflected glare.5. Luminaires to be mounted on furniture require the M seal of approval if they are to be installed on or in inflammable materials.2. in Germany this is usually guaranteed through the provision of a VDE seal of approval.2 Luminaire selection In the case of luminaires with mirror reflectors direct glare control improves the greater the cut-off angle. 143 . which are to be mounted on inflammable or easily inflammable materials. To ensure safety against fire. Air-handling versions of both louvred luminaires and downlights are available. If the flammability of the materials is not known. 3. or in rooms where there is a danger of explosion. dust and moisture. anti-dazzle equipment or mechanical shields. Depending on their design these luminaires can handle air supply. It is not possible to limit reflected glare by increasing the cut-off angle. the MM symbol is required.3. 3. airhandling dummies can be used that are identical in appearance to the air-handling luminaires. as they have the smallest surface area which may be acoustically significant. air return. Air-handling luminaires result in a considerable reduction of ceiling apertures and contribute towards creating a uniform ceiling layout.3 Practical planning 3. Air-conditioning similarly gives rise to a number of questions. The standard cut-off angles are 30° and 40°. however. i.3. Recessed downlights have been proven to be the most suitable for this kind of lighting task.3. whereby the protection class indicates the type of protection provided against electric shock. Luminaires for application in environments exposed to danger of explosion must meet a further set of requirements. 3. In some cases there are other requirements that have to be met and the luminaires marked accordingly.2.13 Accessories A wide variety of luminaires can be equipped with accessories to change their lighting or mechanical properties. e. theatres.g. auditoriums and multipurpose spaces. Special requirements also have to be fulfilled by luminaires that are to be operated in damp or dusty atmospheres. For further details. luminaires designed for discharge lamps. Any luminaire installed in the critical area of the ceiling over a workplace is a potential source of reflected glare. must meet the criteria to be marked with the T symbol. This applies primarily to fire safety when luminaires are installed in or on furniture or other inflammable materials.11 Safety requirements Luminaires are required to meet the safety requirements in all cases.12 Relation to acoustics and air conditioning The acoustics are of primary importance in concert halls.6. or both air supply and return. The critical area can be defined as that portion of the ceiling which is seen by the user in a mirror covering the working area. Acoustical criteria are therefore treated with priority when the ceiling is designed. but are not connected to the ventilation system.3. and the Mode of Protection its degree of protection against contact. narrow beam spreads.

The lighting layout may also depend on the form of the ceiling. g. there may be a number of conditions that determine the lighting layout. 3. In some cases it is also necessary to coordinate planning with the engineers responsible for airconditioning and acoustics to ensure that the cabling installation is carried out safely and that the ceiling appearance is acceptable. but also larger luminaires such as louvred luminaires and even groups of these individual elements. In the broadest sense the point can be any individual luminaire. by alternating positioning or through combinations. but also ceiling joists or other ceiling shapes form structures that have to be taken into account when planning the lighting layout. with the aim of providing uniformly distributed lighting. By superimposing light distribution patterns it is possible to produce uniform lighting also by means of a differentiated lighting layout. This category of design elements not only includes downlights. the arrangement of downlights above a seating area or the positioning of downlights and floodlights in a modern control room. by using accent lighting to divide up the space or by using suitable lighting control.3. A further step towards more complex design forms is the linear arrangement of point sources.3.3 Lighting layout Depending on the specific lighting project. On the other hand. The use of different luminaire types. provided that their total surface area is small in relation to the overall surface of the ceiling.3. existing ceiling grids and modules. by exploiting the wide range of luminaires available it is possible to achieve a designed pattern of lighting effects using a variety of lighting layouts. e.2. there is no direct link between lighting layout and lighting effect. but is designed along the lines dictated by the architectural . then special luminaires are required that allow colour changing and the variability in light distribution. but also take into account the aesthetics of ceiling design. Uniform lighting will require the luminaires to be arranged regularly across the area.3. are now being developed for interior and exterior architectural lighting. Some luminaires can be equipped with filters and lens systems that allow distribution characteristics to be changed and projections of effects using masks and gobos which are particularly suitable for such lighting tasks. Differentiated lighting for different parts of the room or functional areas may result in the luminaires having to be arranged accordingly. plus the fact that differentiated lighting is practically out of the question. If a high degree of flexibility is required along with the possibility to control lighting effects with respect to time and location. which have been used primarily for show lighting to date. through striking qualities such as coloured light. In quantitative lighting design it has become common practice to 144 plan the lighting layout of ceiling-mounted luminaires to produce a completely uniform grid. Such luminaires. in spite of all the preconditions there is wide scope for arranging the luminaires in accordance with the design concept. or by dramatic modelling. differentiated lighting can also be achieved with a uniform arrangement of various luminaires.3 Practical planning 3.3 Lighting layouts 3. however. the ceiling design of a lighting installation is developed in each specific case from the correlation of lighting tasks. Consequently. It is. One approach is to consider the point as a basic design element. allows the lighting qualities of a visual environment to be carefully controlled. technical prerequisites. architectural structures and design ideas. In contrast to simple lighting layouts in grid patterns. Some of these effects can be obtained using conventional luminaires. The simplest layout of these points is a regular grid. The lighting design should make use of this scope producing ceiling designs that combine functional lighting with an aesthetic lighting layout that relates to the architecture. possible to describe a series of basic concepts which show some general approaches to the form and design of luminaire patterns on ceiling sufaces. It is neither possible nor practical to present a comprehensive formal language for the design of lighting layouts. or even any compact and spatially isolated group of luminaires. These include dramatic contrasts.14 Lighting control and theatrical effects Theatrical effects are increasingly being applied in the field of architectural lighting. or possibly even direction control by remote control. An alternating grid of different individual luminaires or luminaire combinations can produce more interesting arrangements. the ceiling design in this case relates more closely to the architecture of the space – the ceiling is no longer simply covered with a grid of luminaires. A regular pattern of identical luminaires can easily result in a monotonous ceiling appearance. in a parallel or staggered arrangement. in this case luminaires of the same or different types can then be purposefully combined. The first is related to the particular lighting tasks. the use of coloured light and projections using masks and gobos. The lighting should not be confined by purely technical considerations. The lighting layout should not be based entirely on technical or functional conditions.

The end wall is illuminated separately. or compact groups of luminaires. 145 .3 Practical planning 3.3. by a linear arrangement of recessed floor luminaires. Point sources: linear arrangements. The point sources may be luminaires of different shapes and sizes.3 Lighting layouts Linear arrangement of ceiling luminaires follows the length of the long walls. Point sources: regular and staggered layouts. Luminaire arrangments can follow architectural structures or create patterns of their own.3.

The rectangular arrangement of track is in line with the form of the space. 146 . including decorative solutions. Linear and point elements: regular and staggered arrangements.3.3. Linear elements: regular and staggered arrangements. The long walls are accentuated separately by recessed floor luminaires. The combination of different elements gives rise to a broad range of design possibilities. Linear structures: linear and rectangular arrangements of track. This allows flexible lighting of all wall surfaces and accentuating of objects in the space.3 Practical planning 3.3 Lighting layouts A regular arrangement of ceiling luminaires provides the ambient lighting in the space.

The formal language of linear arrangements is identical to that of rows of points. These linear elements can be particular types of luminaires.g. this produces maximum vertical lighting and avoids reflected glare that may disturb the observer. As the linear arrangement of the luminaires does not necessarily relate to an actual line – the course a wall follows. louvred luminaires. Continuous systems. This may involve following the existing lines or purposefully arranging the luminaires in contrast to the existing formal language. Each of these angles can produce a wide range of forms.3. Creative design allows both the alternating application of different luminaire forms and the use of spotlights on lighting structures or trunking systems. e. Adjustable connectors allow specially variable design.3. but do entail more stringent design requirements. Whereas linear arrangements consisting of series of points are only produced indirectly by the perception of the gestalt. In the case of wallwashers the recommended distance to the wall is around one third of the room height. The formal language of such networking depends primarily on the connectors available for the specific structures.3 Lighting layouts Light structures using 90°. When illuminating paintings or sculptures using spotlights.3 Practical planning 3. In general. For ceiling-mounted downlights the distance to the wall should be about half the distance between the downlights. Light structures and trunking systems are particularly suitable in this regard. Apart from basic design concepts it is possible to compile a set of general rules for some aspects of lighting layouts. the so-called “museum angle”. the luminaires should be arranged so that the angle of incidence of the light is approximately 30°. As the visual forms produced when linear luminaires are used are real and not only implied. These laws of gestalt must receive special attention during the planning phase. or even trunking systems. 147 . light structures and almost all track arrangements or other trunking systems belong in this design category. Linear arrangements allow greater design scope. 135° and 120° angles in arrangements: individual and combined structures. they can be directly formed of linear elements. in the case of regular lighting layouts this applies above all for the distances between the luminaires and from the walls. 120° and 60°. form of the space. the distance be- tween the wallwashers should not exceed one and a half times the distance to the wall. The crucial criteria are the proximity of the luminaires and their equidistance. This allows differentiated lighting without individual luminaires disturbing the in-trinsic form of the structure. more complex arrangements can be planned with no danger of distortion through perception. from rectangular forms at angles of 90° to honeycomb-shaped arrangements at angles of 120°. The application of linear elements also allows the transition from linear arrangements to more planar layouts. connectors are available with fixed angles of 90° and 45°. ceiling projections or joists – the luminaire arrangement can only be created on the basis of the perception of gestalt. An arrangement of several hexagonal light structures subdivides the ceiling area irrespective of the surrounding architecture and becomes an active design element in the space.

60˚ In spaces with dominant architectural features the lighting layout should harmonize with the architectural elements.3 Lighting layouts The recommended distance of downlights to the wall is generally half the distance between the downlights.3 Practical planning 3. 148 . 80˚ 100˚ Overlapping light beams (beam spreads 60°.3. The optimum angle of incidence for the illumination of paintings and sculptures is 30°. 80° and 100°) on the working plane at a spacing to height to height ratio of 1:1. the distance between the luminaires themselves should not exceed one and a half times the distance to the wall. The distance of wallwashers and washlights from the wall should be 1/3 of the room height. Corner-mounted luminaires should be mounted on the 45° line to produce identical scallops on both walls.3. In the case of mirror walls the lighting layout should be planned such that the arrangement of luminaires appears consistent in the mirror image.

indirect lighting. Luminances falling on the visual tasks from the zones indicated result in reflected glare. the luminaires can be mounted in front of the excluded ceiling zone. If the entire wall surface is reflective.3.3 Practical planning 3. horizontal visual tasks (centre) and vertical visual tasks (right). 149 .3. Lighting solutions for horizontal visual tasks free of reflected glare: direct lighting using luminaires positioned outside the excluded zone.3 Lighting layouts Critical areas (excluded zones) for VDT workstations (left). then next to the excluded ceiling zone (centre). Lighting solutions for vertical visual tasks free of reflected glare: (from left to right): if the reflective surface is arranged transversely. the luminaires must be mounted within the excluded zone. If the reflective surface is arranged vertically. the cut-off angles must be planned such that the observer is not disturbed by reflected light.

other functions apart from lighting can also be operated by coupling the lighting control system with the building management system. This allows precisely defined light scenes to be recalled at the touch of a button. so the demand for variability and flexibility will increase. In the daytime artificial lighting must compete with sunlight. which means that additional control options must be provided. Further developments in lighting control can also be used to create theatrical effects in architectural lighting. or if a larger number of groups of luminaires are to be controlled.3.3.4 Switching and lighting control In the simplest case a lighting installation may consist of a single circuit. it is likely to be a prime consideration and require a lighting installation to meet both environmental situations. g. either using conventional switches and controllers or by infrared remote control. however. For example. This method still makes it difficult to reproduce defined light scenes or to adjust them at a fixed rate. The distribution and level of brightness of the lighting can be accurately controlled in individual areas within the space and the overall level of a light scene adjusted to the changing requirements– e. e. the lighting of exclusive restaurants. daylight conditions change radically during the course of the day. lighting control requirements will be extended accordingly. the lighting provided in lecture rooms should consist of accent lighting for podium discussions with comparatively high levels of lighting in the auditorium. If films or videos are to be shown. which allows groups of luminaires to be controlled even if there are only a minimal number of circuits. beam spread or even the direction of the luminaires. this may include changing luminous colour.4 Switching and lighting control 3. it is then possible to plan differentiated lighting to meet specific requirements. where the speaker is seen in accent lighting and the ambient light is just sufficient for the people in the audience to take notes. This fact presents a significant planning criterion for a wide range of lighting tasks. As a rule.3. Besides the switching of separate circuits.3 Practical planning 3. it is advisable to use an electronic control system. Once the required level of brightness has been identified. the transitions from a fixed lighting situation to a series of optional light scenes that are dependent on the time of day or given situations. 150 . dimming equipment is required for the separate groups of luminaires. The switching and dimming of individual groups of luminaires can be controlled manually. An installation of this kind can only be switched on and off and therefore only produces one lighting arrangement. In many cases. Besides controlling brightness. These groups may consist of lighting arrangements that are completely independent of one another and designed to fulfil different lighting tasks. In the evening and at night lower illuminances and pools of light are accepted. The potential range of light scenes increases considerably even if the number of luminaires and the switching remains the same. and our perception is adapted to high levels of brightness on the room surfaces. As the use of the space changes. but also involves varying the levels of brightness. In some cases. to the time of day or the daylight available.g. the definition of a light scene does not simply cover the simple switching of groups of luminaires. the creation of a differentiated lighting installation cannot be restricted to the development of a concept that meets a clearly defined set of requirements with an equally fixed. which may be operated separately or together. Even if the space is always used in the same way. exclusively spatially differentiated lighting layout. the lighting installation should also be suitable for slide presentations. and individual components of an overall installation. or a change of light scene to be programmed to take place over a given period of time. If the requirements the lighting control has to meet are complex. The first way of creating a light scene is to arrange individual luminaires in an installation to form groups that can be switched separately. Changing environmental conditions and different uses may demand the creation of temporal differentiation – that is to say. Lighting frequently has to meet changing requirements. It is also possible to control the light in accordance with daylight or the use of the spaces using sensors.

average level on walls. festive atmosphere due to decorative components 4. emphasis of wall surfaces. 5–10 track.4 Switching and lighting control Diagram of the lighting layout in a multifunctional space with the luminaires allocated to different circuits. Film or video projections: minimum general lighting. 4 decorative components. Scene 1 Reduced night-time lighting Scene 2 Morning lighting Scene 3 Daylight-related lighting to supplement daylight Scene 4 Warm early evening lighting Scene 5 Festive lighting for the evening Scene 6 Reduced festive lighting 151 . accent light on speaker. 3 general lighting. accent light on speaker. festive atmosphere produced by decorative components 4. minimum wall lighting. 1 5 6 7 2 3 4 4 3 2 Switching and dimming status of circuits 1–10 for different light scenes: % 80 60 40 20 % 80 60 40 20 % 80 60 40 20 8 9 10 1 % 80 60 40 20 % 80 60 40 20 % 80 60 40 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Conference: high level of horizontal general lighting. Lecture: reduced general lighting. Reception: room proportions are emphasised by the wall lighting. Dining: low wall lighting. accentuation of points of interest on tables and buffet using trackmounted spotlights.3. Scene 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 h Time-related light scenes in a hotel foyer.3 Practical planning 3. Slide presention: general lighting reduced for people to take notes by. accentuation of points of interest in the space using track-mounted spotlights. 2. Transition between light scenes with fading times of up to 15 mins.3. Circuits: 1 wall lighting.

i. whether specific installation locations must be avoided. In the case of wall or floormounting the luminaires may be surface-mounted or recessed into the fabric of the building. In the case of luminaires with an T mark no gap is required between the upper surface and the building surface. which means that numerous modes of installation are required. 3. suspended from the ceiling (pendant luminaires) or surface mounted onto the wall or ceiling. can be used as effective lighting elements. Mounting recessed luminaires in inclined ceilings: tiltable double-focus downlight (above). mounting into dry ceilings with luminaire attachment. mounting from above with mounting ring. Light structures can be handled in a similar way. Methods of mounting recessed luminaires (from the top downwards): mounting into plaster ceilings using a plaster ring. when the ceiling has been cast the blocks are removed.e.3. g. The range of downlights and louvred luminaires available is so vast and their designs differ substantially. combined uplights-downlights and light structures – are exclusively designed to be installed as additive elements. providing direct lighting in the space and indirect lighting through the illumination of the ceiling coffer. or surfacemounted luminaires using a mounting ring (below). They may be mounted on track or carrier systems.3 Practical planning 3. spotlights. due to concealed joists or whether the reinforcement of the ceiling should be coordinated with the lighting layout. with a polystyrene block and a substruction (right). e.1 Ceiling mounting Luminaires can be recessed into concrete ceilings or suspended ceilings. Mounting recessed luminaires using a concrete housing (left). moulded coffer ceilings. Semi-recessed mounting using a spacer ring (above). they can either be surface-mounted or recessed. recessed directional spotlight (centre) and downlight with special accessories (below). the mode of recessing depends essentially on the specific ceiling type. Ceiling mounting allows a variety of possiblities: pendant mounting. the more conventional method is to install the luminaire in the coffer as a pendant fitting. Another possibility is to install prefabricated housings. For recessed mounting into concrete ceilings the luminaire apertures are created when the ceiling is cast. 152 . providing apertures of the required size. surface mounting. It is essential to check that the planned lighting layout is compatible with the structure of the ceiling. which are also attached onto the concrete shuttering and remain in the ceiling. One method for providing the apertures is to fix polystyrene blocks in the form of the required space onto the concrete shuttering. depending on their design.5 Installation 3. for example. Shaped concrete ceilings. This may be to produce indirect lighting components and glare-free lighting.3. Between the upper surface of the luminaire and building surfaces b there must be at least 25 mm. The luminaires can be installed in the coffers to illluminate the sides of the coffers. and will inevitably accentuate the ceiling structure. semi-recessed or recessed mounting.5.3. g.3.5 Installation b a Installation of recessed luminaires according to the European standard (EN 60598): the minimum distance a between the sides of the luminaires and building surfaces must be 50–75 mm. A wide range of luminaire types – e.

can be installed in ceiling panels.g. following the same mounting instructions as for flat ceilings.3. recessed mounting into flat.3 Practical planning 3. can be installed in place of individual ceiling panels. In the case of flat suspended ceilings.5 Installation The recessed mounting of luminaires into suspended ceilings varies depending on the type of ceiling system. If the ceiling is to be plastered. but also from the carrier system. For open grid ceilings and honeycomb-grid ceilings there are recessed cassettes available complete with suitable apertures for the recessed mounting of downlights. They vary according to the material. Heavier luminaires require a separate suspension device. With specially developed recess accessories. the weight of the luminaire must be carried by additional suspensions fixed onto or in close proximity to the luminaire. the luminaires can almost always be arranged irrespective of the suspended ceiling grid. Recessed mounting of louvred luminaires into various ceiling systems (from the top downwards): recessed mounting into ceilings with exposed and concealed profiles. with the recessed depth naturally being shallower. They can replace a ceiling panel or allow the installation of luminaires between ceiling panels which would otherwise not be suitable to take the static load. The luminaires are fixed firmly in the ceiling apertures provided.3. which is to be taken into account when positioning the luminaires. four suspension points. suspended ceilings and panelled ceilings. Light-weight luminaires are usually suspended by the connecting cable. two and four suspension cables connected to one ceiling mounting plate. The cassettes are dimensioned to suit the respective ceiling grids. Pendant mounting can be effected in a variety of ways. plaster rings are required for the luminaire apertures. Semi-recessed mounting of luminaires is similar to recessed mounting. 153 . which generally contains the connecting cable. The ceiling grid will automatically determine the possible layout. such as downlights. Some luminaire types are specifically designed for semi-recessed mounting. Pendant mounting of louvred luminaires: with two suspension points. especially louvred luminaires. Larger luminaires. There are various versions of suspended ceilings available made of individual panels. luminaires for both recessed and surface mounting can be adapted for semirecessed mounting. if necessary. e. Suspended ceilings made of individual panels may require the luminaires to have additional brackets to take the weight of the luminaires. This may take the form of a stranded wire cable or a pendant tube. grid dimensions and load-bearing capacity. Metal plank ceilings present a special case: luminaires are not only installed between the ceiling panels. different modes of installation are required for mounting into different ceiling types. Smaller luminaires. plasterboard ceilings.

3.3 Practical planning 3. these refer to the average illuminance required or exact illuminance levels in specific parts of the space. It can be suspended from the ceiling or mounted directly onto walls or ceiling. The luminaire itself is secured into the housing and is flush with the floor surface. suspended flanged track with ceiling panels. Luminaires mounted on wall brackets (from the top downwards): cantilever bracket. surfacemounting onto walls. Installation of floor-mounted luminaires can only be recessed.3 Suspension systems Suspension systems are generally designed for pendant mounting from the ceiling.5. Recessed mounting into walls or ceiling is also possible in the case of certain versions or it can be used as part of a carrier system in a suspended ceiling. bracket for partition walls.3.6 Calculations Installation of recessed floor-mounted luminaires: the housing is inserted into the floor. spanned between two walls or erected as a free-standing structure. This method does not provide exact illuminances at specific points in the space. It may also be of significance to calculate the luminance of specific parts of the space. wire suspension with adjustable height. In general terms. it allows the designer to determine the number of luminaires required to produce the defined illuminance on the working plane. Track can be mounted in a variety of ways. They can be suspended from the ceiling. The utilisation factor method is based on the fact that the average horizontal illuminance for a space of a given size can be calculated from the overall luminous flux produced by the luminaires installed.3. When planning a lighting installation it is necessary to perform a series of calculations.3.3. the light output ratio and the utilance. or.5. the illuminance on the working plane produced by a given number of luminaires. it describes Pendant mounting of track and structural systems (from left to right): pendant tube with ceiling canopy for electrical connection. 154 . 3. Wide-span carrier systems are a special case.6 Calculations 3. or the costs for a lighting installation. in the same way as for luminaires using wire cables or pendant tubes. Mounting of wall luminaires (from the top downwards): recessed mounting into masonry. such as shadow formation and contrast rendition. Mounting track (from the top downwards): surface-mounted. The latter can be in either concrete or hollow walls. which means that other methods must be applied to calculate the uniformity of a lighting installation or to determine illuminance levels at specific points. hollow walls. for recessed mounting into solid ceilings. wire suspension with ceiling canopy for electrical connection.6. The luminaire cover must be robust and provide protection against the ingress of moisture.1 Utilisation factor method The utilisation factor method is used to acquire a rough estimation of the dimensioning of a lighting installation.3. In general.3. or different lighting qualities. In some cases it is also possible to mount carrier systems onto walls by means of cantilever brackets.2 Wall and floor mounting Luminaires can be mounted onto wall surfaces or recessed into the wall. bracket with integral transformer. vice versa. 3.

The first digit refers to the proportion of luminous flux falling onto the working plane in the lower part of the space. If the conditions inherent in the basic concept are in line with those in the model space.60 0. When using the utilisation factor method an appropriate utilance table has to be used for each type of luminaire. . . direct or indirect lighting.75 0. the reflectance of the room surfaces and the efficiency and the distribution characteristics of the luminaires used. 1. Luminaire Louvred luminaire 30° Louvred luminaire 40° Louvred lumin. These standardised values have a decisive influence on the accuracy of the calculations for the application. if the lighting layout is distinctly asymmetrical.70 0. either mounted directly onto the ceiling or suspended from the ceiling. To be able to calculate the appropriate utilance in each individual case.a. The corresponding standard luminaire classification table can be used for this purpose. a combination indicates a number of luminaire qualities.50–0. Luminaire classification in accordance with DIN 5040 and the German Lighting Engineering Society is made up of one letter and two digits. The deciding factor in this calculation is the utilance.e.70 155 .55–0. æR æLB Utilisation factor method: formula for calculating the nominal illuminance EN for a given number of luminaires or the number of luminaires n for a given illuminance. idealised space is presumed to be empty and of regular shape and proportions. rectangular and having the ratio of length to width approx. which falls on the working plane after interaction with luminaires and room surfaces.6 to 1. changing reflection factors and luminaires with a variety of distribution characteristics. EN = V . as exact tables are supplied by the lighting manufacturers.b n = 1 .60–0.70 0.75 0. ÏLa ÏLe Typical light output ratios hLB for direct luminaires with various cut-off angles and lamp types. The more the basic conditions deviate from the standardised conditions.65 0.6 Calculations the portion of luminous flux emitted by the light sources. EN (lx) n a (m) b (m) Ï (m) hR hLB V Nominal illuminance Number of luminaires Length of space Width of space Luminous flux per luminaire Utilance Light output ratio Light loss factor æLB = ÏLe ÏLa Light output ratio h LB : ratio of the luminous flux emitted by a luminair ÏLe under operating conditions to the luminous flux of the lamp ÏLa .65–0.3 Practical planning 3. The letter defines the luminaire class and indicates whether a luminaire emits light primarily in the upper or lower part of the space. square Downlight 30° Downlight 40° Downlight 30° Downlight 40° Lamp type T26 T26 TC TC TC A/QT A/QT hLB 0. i. n Ï . . i. the results will be reasonably accurate. It is often not necessary to use the standard table of luminaire classification. which contain the utilance of a standardised space with changing room geometry.50–0. there are tables available.3. En . which is derived from the geometry of the space. The luminaires are presumed to be arranged in a regular pattern on the ceiling.e.æR æLB a b . e.3.70–0. The basic. it must be accepted that an increasing number of errors will occur in the calculation.60–0. g. V Ï . The second digit indicates the corresponding value for the upper part of the space.

60 0.00 0.95 1.88 0.08 1.76 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.6 Calculations k= a.3.81 0.01 1.50 2.60 1.90 0.50 0.47 0.70 0.50 3.36 0.20 0.92 0.6 Degree of Deterioration Normal deterioration Increased deterioration Heavy deterioration The appropriate utilance is calculated from the specific room index k (k') and the combination of the reflectance factors of ceiling ( RC ).00 0.65 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30˚ I (cd/klm) k 0.70 0.50 0.96 0.04 1.97 0.00 2.34 0.38 0.50 2.00 0.22 0.20 0.86 0.5 .14 0.50 0.94 0.92 0.86 0.70 0.44 0.75 0.08 0.70 0.25 0.14 0.88 0.50 0.29 0.26 0.79 0.20 0.50 0.43 0.71 0.25 1.61 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.80 0.00 1.98 1.65 0.90 0.93 0.10 0.00 1.09 0.20 0.88 0.20 0.94 0.06 1.00 1.79 0.51 0.99 1.91 0.61 0.27 0.02 1.82 100 200 E 12 (DIN) 300 I (cd/klm) k' 0.10 0.51 0.70 0.70 0.34 30˚ I (cd/klm) k 0.96 0.70 0.03 1.84 0.02 0.70 0.00 hR RC RW RF Wide-beam luminaires (A 40.62 0.70 0.50 0.03 0.03 1.91 0.74 0.40 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.95 0.20 0.76 0.8 0.59 0.99 1.81 0.73 0.97 1.89 0.50 0.25 0.87 0.99 1.66 0.37 0.47 0.85 0.23 1.50 0.b h' (a+b) k = 1.01 1. and the height h above the working plane under direct luminaires (room index k) and height h' above the working plane under predominantly indirect luminaires (room index k').61 0.11 0.00 2.70 0.05 0.31 0.00 1.43 0.98 0.50 2.58 0.50 0.43 0.00 1. 156 .05 1.95 0.42 0.83 0.76 0.43 0.29 1.70 0.70 0.03 0.55 0.97 0.20 0.70 0.03 0.10 0.11 0.00 2.76 0.97 0.10 0.87 0.14 0.25 1.20 0.70 0.12 0.50 3.20 0.04 1.02 1.30 0.20 0.36 0.10 0.11 0.00 0.00 V 0. Light loss factor V in relation to the degree of deterioration in the space.20 0.30 0.49 0.50 0.b h (a+b) a.41 0.63 0.11 1.70 0.81 0.81 0.90 0.09 1.70 0.78 0.59 0.43 0.25 0.00 1.20 0. It is calculated from the length and width of the room.49 0.00 0. walls ( RW ) and floor ( RF ).99 0.70 0.10 0.00 1.35 1.10 0.98 1.20 0.50 3.70 0.06 1.49 0. DIN 5040) -60˚ -90˚ -30˚ 0˚ 30˚ 60˚ 90˚ 0.02 0.41 1.55 0.60 1.20 0.69 0.94 0.34 0.35 0.20 0.00 hR RC RW RF Indirect luminaires (E 12.23 0.98 1.84 0.02 1.00 4.26 1.80 0.26 0.50 0. The room index k describes the influence of the room geometry on the utilance.50 0.30 0.31 0.20 0.50 0.00 0.19 0.88 0.42 0.10 0.32 0.20 0.80 0.87 0.99 1.25 1.97 0.18 0.56 0.02 1.50 0.20 0.03 1.50 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.31 0.41 0.20 0.50 1.50 0.31 0.00 4.85 0.07 1.00 0.05 0.00 0.10 0. DIN 5040) -90˚ 300 -60˚ 600 900 1200 -30˚ A 60 (DIN) 0˚ 90˚ 60˚ hR RC RW RF 0.98 0.20 0.82 0.11 0.96 0.15 0.67 0.00 4.84 0.30 1.05 0.91 0.24 0.49 0.70 0.68 0.10 0.10 0.79 0.53 0.17 1.17 1.06 1.04 1.63 0. h' h a b Utilance values hR for typical interior luminaires (from the top downwards): narrowbeam luminaires (A 60.3 Practical planning 3.7 0.73 0.50 0. DIN 5040) -90˚ -60˚ 150 300 450 600 -30˚ A 40 (DIN) 0˚ 90˚ 60˚ 0.31 0.50 0.26 0.92 0.20 0.86 0.60 1.3.70 0.38 1.86 0.07 0.

45 0. 100 .00 0.8.00 0.55 0.2/0. P* EN .60 0.3.75 0. then the illuminance has to be calculated separately for each component and then added. 3–5 ≥5 1 2 Example of a rough calculation of the illuminance for a room with a combination of two different luminaire types. the room height h and the reflectance factor of the ceiling ( RC). Nominal illuminance Number of luminaires Connected power for one luminaire incl.6.75 0. Values obtained in this way only apply with accuracy to the particular standard room.6 Calculations When the appropriate table has been drawn up.9 n =9 P L = 46 W (2 · 18 W + ballast) P* = 4 · m2 · W lx 100 E N1 = 9o lx EN2 = 93.2 Planning based on specific connected load Another method of providing the rough dimensioning of a lighting installation derived from the utilisation factor method is based on the specific connected load available. or the number of luminaires required n for a given illuminance.1 f = 0.80 0. n = 1 . g. widebeam lighting provided by louvred luminaires and a narrow-beam component provided by downlights for incandescent lamps. for greater accuracy.60 Standard values for specific connected load P* for different lamp types in direct luminaires. by the calculated utilance and light loss factor V. n .00 0.10 0. e. They not only calculate the illuminance. . A (m2) 20 50 ≥ 100 20 50 ≥ 100 50 ≥ 100 Correction factor f takes into account the effect of the room geometry and the reflectance factors on the illuminance or number of luminaires. The appropriate value is calculated from the basic area A. or vice versa.2 lx 157 .00 0.90 0.75 0.3. walls ( RW) and floor ( RF).50 0.65 0. The utilance can then be read off the table from the column showing the corresponding room index and line showing the appropriate combination of reflectance factors or. 3.65 0. Luminaire type 1 (A) n = 12 PL = 100 W P* = 12 · m 2 · W lx 100 Luminaire type 2 (TC) Room data Length a = 10 m Width b = 10 m Height h = 3 m R = 0.40 0. There are computer software programs available for calculating the utilisation factor. control gear P* (W/m2 · 100 lx) Specific connected load f Correction factor a (m) Length of room b (m) Width of room EN (lx) n PL (W) Lamp A QT T TC HME HIT f P* (W/m2· 100 lx) 12 10 3 4 5 4 RC RW RF h (m) ≤3 0. Should a lighting installation consist of several types of luminaire of varying classification.90 1. calculated through interpolation.45 0.75 0.50 0.20 0.40 0. a b f 100 PL .75 0.55 0. PL P* a b Lighting calculations based on a specific connected load of lamps (P*).3 Practical planning 3. Formulae for calculating the nominal illuminance EN for a given number of luminaires. This method allows the calculation of the required connected load for an average illuminance provided by a given luminaire and light source.2 lx Ecom = 183.20 0. Planning a lighting installation based on a specified connected load relies on the fact that every type light source has a specific luminous efficacy practically irrespective of the power consumption. which takes into account the ageing of the lighting installation and is usually taken to be 0. The average horizontal illuminance is the result of the total luminous flux produced by all the lamps installed per room surface in the space. When using the utilisation factor method it is possible to substitute the overall luminous flux by the connected load corrected by the respective luminous efficacy. corrected by the light output ratio (which is provided by the lighting manufacturer). Taking this as a basis it is possible to calculate the connected load per m2 which is required for a given combination of luminaire and light source to obtain an average illuminance of 100 lx in a space with standardised room geometry and reflectance factors. EN = f . the average illuminance that can be obtained given a specific connected load and a light source.5/0.70 0. A correction factor must be included in the calculations to take account of conditions that deviate from the standard.60 0.80 0. . but also locate the appropriate tables and and can handle the complex interpolation between the individual tables or values contained in the tables. if required. .85 0. . the room index k can be determined from the room geometry.3.90 0.60 0.

3. The results in this case are very exact. without strict regard for whether ten 150 W lamps. the average reflectance RM and the sum Acom of all room surfaces. which only allows average illuminances for an entire space to be calculated. Computer software is generally used for calculating the illuminances for an entire space.6 Calculations Calculating illuminance at specific points. using the inverse square law illuminance levels can be calculated for specific points in the space. ® Eind = ÏLe . errors only arise if light sources are incorrectly presumed to be point sources. Indirect components are not included in the calculation.3 Point illuminance I Eh Eh = lå . The basic function provided by these programs is the calculation of illuminances for all room surfaces. Vertical illuminance Ev at an angle å to the luminaire. ranging from isolux diagrams and isoluminance diagrams for individual room surfaces or zones to three-dimensional renderings. Horizontal illuminance Eh at an angle å to the luminaire. M Ages 1–®M 158 . 3.3. The calculation of illuminance at specific points can be carried out for the lighting provided by one single luminaire or for situations where the contribution of several luminaires is to be taken into account.6.3 Practical planning 3. Programs of this kind usually offer a variety of possibilities for the graphic presentation of the results. Formula for the rough calculation of the indirect illuminance components (Eind ). The connected power required for specific lamp types can be used for rough planning and.3. such as the luminance of the illuminated areas. The relation between illuminance E at a specific point and the luminous intensity I of one luminaire (from the top downwards): horizontal illuminance Eh directly below a luminaire. fifteen 100 W lamps or twenty 75 W lamps are used. to enable a quick comparison to be made of different light sources. above all. in which indirect lighting components are included in these calculations. Eh = l2 h h A by-product of this method of calculation is that for each lamp type a typical value can be defined for the specific connected load. working planes or clearly defined zones. calculations for numerous points within the space and a large number of luminaires take too much effort and are not justified. that a luminous flux of around 20000 lm can be obtained from conventional incandescent lamps with a connected load of 1500 W. shadow formation or contrast rendition factors at specific points in the rooms. Using this basic data it is possible to derive further values. The manual calculation of point illuminance at specific points can be applied for the lighting design of confined spaces illuminated by individual luminaires. for example. cos3 å h2 h å Iå Eh Ev = lå . Using the overall luminous flux produced by all the luminaires installed in the space Ï Le. but can be included through an additional calculation. This means. cos3 (90–å) d2 å Iå Ev d [E] = lx [l] = cd [h] = m [d] = m å Iå Ev d In contrast to the utilisation factor method.

3 Practical planning 3. L 2 å Eh Eh P Ev Calculating illuminances from the luminance of flat light sources. They comprise costs for energy. 3. Eh = L 2A .1–0.6 Calculations . K1 + R + tB (a . It is often advisable to compare the economic efficiency of different lamp types in the planning phase. This data can be calculated either as annual costs or as costs for the production of a specific quantity of light. material and wages for staff carrying out lamp replacement. The pay-back time is important in both completely new projects and refurbishment projects. that is to say the period of time within which the operating costs that have been saved can be set off against the investment costs for the new installation. The fixed costs do not apply to the operating time of the lighting installation. produced by luminance L from one half of the space. Formula for calculating the costs of a lighting installation K from the fixed costs K' and the annual operating costs K". produced by luminance L from one half of the space. The annual costs of a lighting installation are of particular interest. K = K' + K'' K' = n (p . P + K2 )] K = n [p tLa t= Kl (new) K'' (old) – K'' (new) Formula for calculating the pay-back time t of a new installation.3. cos4 ™ h [E] = lx [l] = cd/m2 [h] = m [A] = m2 A L h Horizontal illuminance Eh at point P. mounting Costs per lamp incl. lamp replacement Investment costs (n · K1) n p (1/a) P (kW) R (DM/a) t (a) tB (h) tLa (h) Number of luminaires Interest payments for the installation (0. they comprise the amotised costs for the luminaires. tB (a . Eh = π . produced by luminous surface A of luminance L at angle ™.6.3. L . Vertical illumnancee Ev . for their installation and cleaning. The variable costs are dependent on the operating time. Horizontal illuminance E h. On the basis of these values it is possible to calculate the different qualities of a lighting installation. t= Kl (B) – Kl (A) K'' (A) – K'' (B) a (DM/kWh) K (DM/a) K' (DM/a) K" (DM/a) K1 (DM) K2 (DM) K l (DM) Energy costs Annual costs for a lighting installation Fixed annual costs Annual operating costs Costs per luminaire incl.3. produced by a circular luminous surface of luminance L. L EV = π . whereby the surface extends to an angle 2 å. Comparison of the pay-back time t of two new installations. sin2 å L Horizontal illuminance Eh at point P.15) Wattage per luminaire Annual cleaning costs per luminaire Pay-back time Annual operating time Service life of a lamp 159 . P + K2 ) tLa . whereby installation B has higher investment costs and lower operating costs. K1 + R) K'' = n . ™ Eh P Eh = π .4 Lighting costs When calculating the costs for a lighting installation it is necessary to differentiate between the fixed costs and the variable costs.

It is frequently advisable to do without detailed computer graphics to illustrate the effect of the light in a given space and to make drawings based on the lighting data produced by the computer calculations instead. 160 . lighting installation and possibly furniture. computer graphics do not produce a subjective idea of the lighting effects that can be expected. but also an effective means of simulation. One of the first forms of presentation of lighting installations are technical drawings and diagrams. Graphically. Creating more complex computer graphics with a more differentiated representation of luminances. but are based on complex calculations. Besides drawings. There is a wide range of possibilities for presenting a lighting concept ranging from technically oriented ceiling plans to graphic illustrations of varying complexity to computer-aided renderings and three-dimensional architectural models or models of the lighting installation. grading luminances too strictly will often give rise to a rigid. Although it does take some time to enter the data concerning the architecture. this can be produced using special shading techniques or by free-hand drawings using pencil or chalks. this may be justified because it does allow more flexibility to try out different luminaire types and lighting concepts. artificial impression. lighting effects can best be illustrated in the form of beams of light. Graphic material of this kind allows the lighting designer to derive technical information about the installation and gain a realistic impression of the lighting effects produced. That is to say. or additional drawings showing different perspectives of the luminous environment. even the more complex forms of representation will reproduce lighting effects in the form of diagrams. If luminance patterns are also to be represented. Similar to a drawing. is adaptable and can be prepared quickly. they are therefore not only a presentation aid. it is also possible to use computer programs to illustrate lighting installations and the effects produced. the spatial design or the lighting effects in the luminous environment. which do not demonstrate the complexity of the actual lighting effects. This documentation can be supplemented by illuminance values entered on the ceiling plan or isolux diagrams. the more detailed the graphic presentation will have to be to show the differentiated lighting effects in the luminous environment. In most cases a drawing is an economical way of presenting an idea. computer graphics only provide a simplified picture of the actual lighting effects. this can be produced using hand-drawn white lines against a grey shaded background. Lighting calculations programs generally comprise simple spatial representations with different illuminance levels represented by black/white shading.3. Computer-aided renderings and models can also be used to simulate the lighting effects of a planned installation and to gain new information. The aim of such presentations is to provide information. This may be by way of the technical qualities of a lighting installation. The larger the project. From the point of view of drawings.7 Simulation and presentation 3. when explaining an overall concept a simple yet effective sketch can illustrate the intended lighting effects much better than an apparently realistic representation with artificially staggered luminance levels.7 Simulation and presentation Visual presentations of lighting installations and the effects they produce in the architectural space play a significant part in lighting design. a collage of foils with different transmittance qualities provides an extremely broad scale of luminances from black to the luminance of the lightest source applied. It provides exact information about the type and arrangement of luminaires. In contrast to drawings. The reflected ceiling plan is the most important. This need not necessarily be a disadvantage.3 Practical planning 3. With the exception of drawings that are based on existing installations or simulations. To illustrate a lighting concept it is therefore better to opt for presentation material that reflects the architecture and the lighting installation and the lighting effects that can be expected. as a coloured area or in a shade of grey that will allow them to stand out against a background colour. It is therefore advisable not always to place too much reliance on technical documentation when presenting a lighting concept. This cannot be expected of other persons involved in the planning process who are not so experienced in technical or lighting matters. If more contrast is required in the drawing to be able to represent a greater range of luminances. Graphic presentation of a lighting concept. besides producing lighting data in tables and diagrams computer programs are also able to give a rough visual impression of the lighting concept. which either appear as an outline of the beam. simple sketches may suffice. All these help to illustrate the lighting layout and its effect in the space.3.3. For greater differentiation a method using backlit transparent paper. colour and the furnishings in the luminous environment requires advanced hardware and software.

3. The presentation is confined to the representation of luminaire positions. beam directions and beam spreads.7 Simulation and presentation A graphical representation of the lighting concept for the auditorium of a theatre. The light beams are represented by hand-drawn white lines against a grey background. It conveys a qualitative overall impression of the distribution of light in the space and deliberately provides no quantitative data.3. 161 .3 Practical planning 3.

Ceiling grid and luminaire positions in the perspective are derived from the straight lines drawn from vanishing point F and from the projection of wall points from observation point S on the perspective plane E. the perspective plane is identical to the rear wall of the space. Then the base line AD of the rear wall is selected in the perspective and the room height AA'. d and the lighting layout entered. B A C D F1 F2 G d E a c b S 162 .3.3 Practical planning 3. b. The verticals of the perspective are derived from the projection of points a. c. This in turn defines the rear wall. d. c. b. b. DD' and the height of the vanishing point AF (in this case eye height of a person seated) are entered to scale. The horizontals BC and B'C' complete the perspective as the front base and ceiling lines. First.7 Simulation and presentation B' C' A' D' F A D B a d C E Central perspective: a perspective drawing is to be created from the plan a. the verticals of the vanishing points from the points of intersection of the parallels to the edges of the plan ba and bc with the perspective plane. the observation point S and perspective plane E are selected. b. so that heights and distances can be entered to scale on the rear wall of the perspective. b c S Perspective construction of a lighting structure (dual-point perspective): observation point S and perspective plane E are also selected first. c. the observation point is located on the extension of the left-hand wall. Lines DA and DC are defined by extending the vanishing lines F1 D and F2 D. The last point in the perspective. c. B. For reasons of simplification.3. By extending the vanishing lines FD and FD' the right-hand side wall DC and D'C' is defined. d on the perspective plane. for reasons of simplification the perspective plane once again lies at the furthermost point to the rear of the plan a. is defined by extending the vanishing lines F1 A and F2 C. The verticals of the perspective are the result of the projection of points a. Baseline G is then selected and entered to scale in line with vanishing points F1 and F2 (eye height of a person standing) together with the height of point D. d on the perspective plane.

rectangular recessed ceiling luminaire. Linear. suspended luminaire or light structure element.3 Practical planning 3. 0°/30°isometric view. whereas the isometric drawings illustrate the design and visual impression of the luminaire. 0°/30°isometric view. Side and front view of a spotlight inclined at an angle of 30°. In detailed drawings of luminaires cross sections illustrate the technical construction and function of the luminaire. Cross section and longitudinal section. Cross section and isometric view of recessed and surface-mounted ceiling luminaires.7 Simulation and presentation Linear. Circular luminaires. 163 . Cross section and longitudinal section with ceiling connection.3. 0°/30°isometric view from below. Illustrations of luminaires for technical purposes and presentation drawings.3.

the height and pattern defined by the cut-off angle of the luminaires. 164 .3 Practical planning 3. Perspective drawing of the space with luminaires and lighting effects on the room surfaces. between å and ∫ the resulting angle is usually 10°.7 Simulation and presentation Illustration of lighting effects in technical descriptions and presentation drawings: diameters of light beams on the floor are the result of the beam spread ∫. whereas scallops can be created on the walls by using the cut-off angle ∫. If only one value is known. Wall elevation with scallops.3. beam spread and cut-off angle can be derived approxi- mately from one another.3. Plan of the space with reflected ceiling plan and diameters of light beams. å ß Cross section of the room on the luminaire axis showing cut-off angle å and beam spread ∫ of the luminaires. which are defined by the beam spread of the luminaires. Sectional drawing and wall elevation showing a light beam with a particular beam spread.

Plan of the room with reflectedceiling plan and calculation points. Simulation of lighting effects in the space based on the spatial distribution of luminance.3.7 Simulation and presentation Calculation and visualisation of lighting data using a computer.3 Practical planning 3. A photorealistic luminance pattern is achieved through the fine gradation of the luminance values. Graphic representation of illuminance distribution on the room surfaces by means of a perspective representation with isolux curves illustrated in shades of grey. 165 . similar representations can be created to indicate luminance distribution. Taking reflectance factors into account. Calculation results represented by curves of identical illuminance on the working plane (isolux curves). Graphic representation illustrating illuminance distribution in the space by means of an isometric drawing with illuminance relief representation.3.

1:20).3. Directed sunlight is simulated by means of an adjustable parabolic halogen projector (2) attached to a rotating swivel arm (1).3. The base of the model is open to allow lightmeters. the illumination level can be continuously controlled.7 Simulation and presentation Principle of a modular system for creating simulation models with variable room geometry (1:10. 2 1 3 166 . With the aid of support pillars ceilings and walls can be arranged as required. Models of this type are used for daylight simulation and for the simulation of artificial lighting. Adjustable table (3) for variable positioning of models for sunlighting tests. endoscopes and micro-video cameras (2) can be computercontrolled to take up any position and direction.3 Practical planning 3. 2 1 Daylight and sunlight equipment in ERCO’s lighting laboratory. With the aid of an integral coordinate desk (1) luxmeter elements. endoscopes and micro-video cameras to be inserted. simulation takes place in a 5 x 5 x 3 m space with a central adjustable table. or follow the continuous path of the sun over the course of one day at any given location and time of year. A textile ceiling illuminated from behind by fluorescent lamps together with a surrounding mirrored wall serve to simulate diffuse daylight. which is computer-controlled to take up the position of the sun for any location or time of day or year.

the model can be used for presentation and simulation purposes. is generally the luminaire itself. Through the application of optical fibres. The scale chosen for the model depends on the purpose of the test and the degree of accuracy the simulation is to present. This is usually possible without too great an expense. an instrument similar to a sundial is used to position the model to correspond to a specific geographical location at a specific time of day and year at a specific angle of incident sunlight. directional spotlights. There are similarly limits to the accuracy with which luminaires can be represented due to the dimensions of the light sources available. a higher degree of accuracy is possible. The use of models for daylight simulations is particularly widespread. When evaluating the effect of a specially developed luminaire or luminaires that are integrated into the architecture. Models made to scales of 1:100 or even 1:200 only allow observation of the daylight effect on the entire building. while micro video cameras allow the documentation of changes in the lighting conditions over the course of the day or year. which convey the light from an external light source to several luminaire models. The most critical detail. 167 . By using special constructions on the ends of the fibres different luminaire types can be simulated (wide and narrowbeam downlights. The degree of accuracy of the simulation is only limited by the size and degree of accuracy of the proportions of the model.3.3 Practical planning 3. In this case the problem of recreating luminaires to scale does not arise. but they can actually be shown and observed in all their complexity. Similar to computer graphics. Fibre optic system used to simulate artificial lighting in models of interior spaces. An artificial sky can be used to simulate lighting conditions under an overcast sky and also allows daylight factors to be measured (according to DIN 5034). In both cases it is possible to carry out accurate observations of the effect of the light in and on the building on smallscale models and make constructive designs for solar protection and daylight control.3. The alternative is an artificial sky and a sunlight simulator. especially on small-scale models. If sunlight simulation equipment is used. which can be used to produce the required effect. whereas it is only justified for entire rooms in the case of large-scale projects. the sun is represented by a movable. because even small deviations have a direct effect on the lighting effect. whereas with 1:20 to 1:10 models it is possible to observe detailed lighting effects in individual areas. it is advisable to create a mock-up of the luminaire.7 Simulation and presentation In addition to drawings and computeraided techniques the construction of models is a practical way of demonstrating a lighting installation and the lighting effects it creates. The ends of the fibres represent the individual luminaires in the model. The clear advantage of models is that lighting effects are not only illustrated. In the case of daylight simulation in the open air. Observations can be recorded using endoscope cameras. or of the specific architectural element on a 1:1 scale. sunlight and daylight are readily available if the model is taken outside. The most realistic simulations are made on mock-up models on a 1:1 scale. artificial sun. wallwashers and exposed lamps).

the amount of daylight and the actual mains voltage.3.2 m plane of reference. the type and condition of the lamps and the overall condition of the installation. This initially involves the recording of specific qualities of the environment. Part 6) a floor plan is made of the space and has to include furniture. Measuring the contrast rendering factor (CRF) for the evaulation of reflected glare at workplaces on the basis of a standard reflection value. a series of parameters have to be taken into account and documented in a report. cylindrical illuminances for determining the formation of shadows on a 1. the time of day. Other values. Measuring horizontal illuminance using measuring equipment with a separate photo-cell (2) Measuring cylindrical illuminance using measuring equipment with a separate photo-cell (3) Measuring the luminance of luminaires or room surfaces using measuring equipment with an integral view finder. the lighting layout. Luminance measurements for calculating glare limitation are carried out at workplaces in offices at eye level (1.85 m or 0. The type of measuring equipment and the class of accuracy of the measuring device has to be recorded.8 Measuring lighting installations 3.3.3 Practical planning 3. Features of the lighting installation are then recorded: the age of the installation. Measurements can also be taken at individual workplaces.2 or 1.3. in the case of high rooms up to a 5 m grid. Horizontal illuminances are measured at the individual measuring points at the height of the working plane of 0. To ensure that results of measurements taken are usable the measuring equipment must be of a suitably high quality. In the case of new installations measurements are taken to check that the planned values have been obtained.8 Measuring lighting installations Measuring the lighting qualities of a lighting installation can serve a number of purposes. such as shadow formation or the contrast rendering factor (CRF) can be obtained using appropriate techniques. 2 3 1 Measuring horizontal illuminance on the working plane using measuring equipment with an integral photo-cell (1). such as reflectance factors and colours of room surfaces. 168 . The measuring points are the central points on a 1-2 m grid.2 m respectively. the types of luminaires. Measurements can also be taken during the planning process for the evulation and comparison of lighting concepts. The arrangement of luminaires and the points at which measurements are to be taken are then entered.6 m). When measuring a lighting installation. Measurements recorded on existing installations help the planner to decide what maintenance or renovation work is required. In the case of equipment for measuring illuminance this applies predominantly to the correct measurement of inclined incident light (cosine-corrected photometer) and the V (lambda) correction of the photometer. in which case an overall tight measuring grid is created for the area. To record illuminances for an entire space (in accordance with DIN 5035. The factors that are measured are initially illuminance and luminance.

8) to extend the intervals between the cleaning of the lumi- naires and co-ordinate them with the service life of the lamps. shelves or showcases in retail spaces. By keeping light loss factors low the lighting level will initially be higher and the period during which luminous flux is gradually reduced to below the critical value extended. lamp replacement and the cleaning of luminaires can be timed to take place simultaneously. and possibly also re-adjustment or realignment of spotlights and movable luminaires. since time and technical equipment. The main objective of maintenance is to ensure that the planned illuminance is maintained. it may have little effect on the overall illuminance in the space. to limit the unavoidable reduction of luminous flux of a lighting installation. checking whether the technical requirements are being met and the lighting is performing as planned. Besides quantative issues there are a number of qualitative aspects that may be decisive for maintenance. a missing beam of light in a series along one wall is just as disturbing as an abrupt drop in luminance due to a defective wallwasher. i. 0. The task of the lighting designer is to draw up a maintenance plan that meets the requirements of the given situation and to provide the necessary information for the maintenance staff. Measuring points for the measurement of illuminances at workplaces. In the case of specific lamp types. but the interruption in a pattern of bright luminaires may be visually disturbing. for example. By stipulating a light loss factor when planning the lighting. are essential costly factors in maintenance. halogen lamps for mains voltage. The reasons for the reduction in luminous flux may be defective lamps and the gradual loss of luminous flux by the lamps or a decrease in light output due to soiling of the reflectors or attachments. 169 . 3. e. In dusty environments. It is advisable to have an adequate supply of the required lamp types. It is practical to effect both maintenance procedures at the same time. In the field of display lighting luminaires frequently have to be realigned to emphasise specific areas to accommodate the layout of a new arrangement. This will ensure that only lamps of the same power.3. Using the light loss factor. such as lifting trucks and cleaning equipment.9 Maintenance The maintenance of a lighting installation generally comprises lamp replacement and the cleaning of the luminaires. The adjustment of luminaires is also classified as maintenance in the interest of the qualitative aspects of the lighting installation.6 instead of the customary 0. the intervals at which maintenance is to be carried out can be controlled.3. or in a continous row of luminaires. Calculating the uniformity g of a lighting installation from the lowest value Emin and the average illumi– nance E. It is therefore more practical in this case not to wait until the regular lamp replacement is due. Í Ex n 1 g = Emin — E Formula for calculating the average illumi– nance E from a measuring grid with n measuring points and the measured values Ex . but to replace the defective lamp immediately.9 Maintenance n — E = 1 . luminous colour and with the same technical qualities will be used in the lighting installation. or the repositioning of stands. The maintenance plan should enable the operator to service the installation at regular intervals. g.3 Practical planning 3. In order to avoid a reduction in luminous flux and illuminance below a given level all lamps must be replaced and luminaires cleaned at regular intervals. the products supplied by different manufacturers deviate so greatly from one another that uniform lighting effects can only be obtained if the luminaires are all equipped with the same brand. g. a low light loss factor can be stipulated (e. both for regular and individual lamp replacement.3. This also applies to the effects created by the luminaires. e. Measuring illuminances on the working plane in empty or open furnished spaces is made according to a regular grid of 1 to 2 metres. When one lamp fails in a geometric arrangement of downlights.

170 .

0 Examples of lighting concepts .4.

If a handbook of qualitative lighting design concepts is to do more than provide the technical basics and a list of planning requirements. This would only be valid for a defined room situation and a prescribed set of tasks. a range of alternative design concepts have been proposed that comprise the selection of appropriate light sources and luminaires and arrangement of equipment in accordance with the lighting requirements and the architectural design. Taking this as a basis. Downlight Spotlight. asymmerical Light structure Light structure with track Light structure with louvred luminaire Light structure with point light sources Downlight with emergency lighting Square luminaire with emergency lighting Louvred luminaire with emergency lighting Singlet 172 . the conditions laid down by the users of the space and the architectural design in every specific case. The aim of presenting these examples is to provide a series of basic concepts which may serve as a basis for a wide variety of unique solutions. This applies above all to the provision of illuminance levels and exact lamp data. task-related solutions.4. which nevertheless includes the aspects that deserve special attention regarding planning functional. directional spotlight Track-mounted spotlight Downlight. The task of lighting design is to align the stated concepts to the required lighting quality. psychological and architectural requirements appertaining to specific tasks. floor plans and sections are on a 1:100 scale to provide comparable dimensions of the spaces and lighting installations. as frequently applied within the framework of individual concepts. Luminaire symbols used in the reflected ceiling plans in the chapter: Examples of design concepts. They may appear to be easy to transfer to any kind of lighting project. to use general basic concepts to create individual lighting solutions. With a few excep-tions. In fact. but it is practically out of the question to transfer this concept onto another set of taskoriented criteria. When dealing with project-related design concepts the scope and limits of a set of standard design examples soon become apparent. Decorative luminaires and custom designed fixtures. it must limit itself to presenting general concepts as examples of applications. which will serve as a basis and a source of ideas for planning of greater relevance relating to specific situations. washlight Double washlight Corner washlight Square luminaire Square luminaire. asymmetrical Louvred luminaire Louvred luminaire. architectural or perception-oriented lighting. asymmetrical wallwasher. are only found in a few cases.0 Examples of lighting concepts In the preceding chapters qualitative lighting design has been depicted as a complex process involving the consideration of functional. It is admittedly possible to demonstrate the various aspects of a differentiated. The examples of lighting concepts given in this chapter intentionally avoid going into detail. pur-posefully planned solution taking a specific project as an example. but they can never meet the requirements of individual. The choice of luminaires is purposefully limited to the standard equip- ment applicable to architectural lighting. Consideration has only been given to the general requirements to be observed for a particular area of planning. Analysing designs that have already been implemented is equally not easy. to modify them or expand them through the application of decorative luminaires and lighting effects – in short. standard solutions should be avoided at all costs.

4. If the foyer has an image function. As a transition zone between the outside world and the interior of the building a foyer should also coordinate the diffe- rent lighting levels inherent to these two areas. This means providing calm. 173 . entrances to corridors. which may cause confusion. they serve as entrance area.0 4. staircases and lifts. one of the main tasks of the lighting is to provide clear orientation. It may be practical to install a lighting control system that can be programmed to handle daytime and nighttime requirements. or by providing decorative sparkle effects and light sculptures. Clear views through the space should not be hampered by confusing structures or an excess of competing visual stimuli.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers 4. Attention can be drawn to this area via increased illuminance levels. The next task is to draw attention to essential focal areas. and also provide access to internal areas of the building. It is also possible to use a different luminous colour here or an individual arrangement of luminaires in the ceiling. Other areas to be accentuated are the reception desk and waiting areas. non-dramatic ambient lighting to elucidate the architectural structure of the space and avoid accentuating additional structures. The first of these is the entrance. As foyers are usually unfamiliar environments. Systems adjusted to the availability of daylight or user frequency can also contribute to the economic efficiency of an installation.1 Foyers Foyers are spaces that link a building with the outside world. the required atmosphere can be achieved via the purposeful selection of light sources and luminaires. reception and waiting areas.

with accent lighting on the entrance.0 4. The entrance is accentuated by integral downlights. 174 . Pendant downlight for HIT lamps. The ambient lighting is produced by reflected light. Combined uplight/ downlight for halogen lamps or compact fluorescent lamps. After dark the architectural structures are emphasized by wall-mounted combined uplight and downlights and ceiling washlights. During the daytime pendant downlights supplement the daylight pouring in through the glazed facade and roof. Ceiling washlights for halogen lamps or compact fluorescent lamps.4. Recessed downlights for low-voltage halogen lamps.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers Daytime and night-time lighting are clearly different. there is no additional accent lighting on the reception desk or in the waiting area.

The accent lighting is maintained at night. During the daytime the lobby is lit by daylight. The area beneath the first floor ceiling is illuminated using surface-mounted downlights.4. with the wall behind the reception desk illuminated by wallwashers and the entrance accentuated by downlights. The reception desk has received individual lighting from task lights.0 4. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. 175 . Task light for compact fluorescent lamps. Surface-mounted downlight for compact fluorescent lamps.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers A suspended light structure carries the lighting equipment. and is supplemented by an illumination of the room surfaces by indirect luminaires mounted on the light structure. Light structure with integral indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and integral track to take wallwashers.

Ambient lighting and the accentuating of architectural structures is effected by flush-mounted ceiling panels with wallwashers.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers The luminaires are mounted on a loadbearing lattice beam with integral track. the entrance by downlights. The reception desk is accentuated by spotlights. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. Load-bearing lattice beam with integral track to take spotlights or panels with wallwashers equipped with PAR 38 reflector lamps. 176 .4. Track for wallwashers for halogen lamps.0 4. The waiting area beneath the first floor ceiling is illuminated by wallwashers mounted on a track recessed in the ceiling.

projectors are used to create lighting effects on the wall. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. Track with spotlights and projectors. Double-focus downlight for metal halide lamps or halogen lamps.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers Recessed double focus downlights along both end walls provide ambient lighting. 177 . The area beneath the first floor ceiling is illuminated by recessed downlights. the reception desk by trackmounted spotlights. The entrance is accentuated by recessed downlights.4.0 4.

Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. 178 . miniature low-voltage lamps on the lower side of the structure and integral indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. with additional accent provided by spotlights.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers The luminaires are mounted on a widespan lighting structure. After dark the architecture is accentuated by integral.4.0 4. A series of miniature low-voltage halogen lamps make for specular effects on the lower side of the structure. Wide-span system with track-mounted spotlights. Downlights accentuate the entrance and the edge of the first floor ceiling. indirect luminaires.

Recessed wallwasher for PAR 38 reflector lamps. The area beneath the first floor ceiling is illuminated by recessed washlights. Recessed washlight for general service lamps.0 4. Task light for compact fluorescent lamps.4. Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. 179 . The reception desk has received individual lighting using task lights.1 Examples of lighting concepts Foyers Recessed wallwashers illuminate the long walls. with reflected light creating the ambient lighting. Additional accentuation of the entrance is effected by downlights.

especially the walls. The lighting in lift lobbies and lifts should provide an adequate vertical component to facilitate communication and recognition when the doors open. 180 . this presumes that there is adequate reflectance from the room surfaces.2 Examples of lighting concepts Lift lobbies 4. which is why lift lobbies should be illuminated so that they stand out from their surroundings. Vertical lighting components should be achieved using wide-beam luminaires with adequate cut-off angles or by indirect lighting.4. Accentuation can be effected by means of independent lighting elements or by concentrating larger numbers of the elements that provide the lighting in the surrounding area around the lift lobby. The lighting inside the lift car should also harmonize with the overall lighting concept to avoid glare or any unreasonable changes in brightness when entering or leaving the lift.0 4.2 Lift lobbies People have to be able to find lifts quickly.

4.0 4.2

Examples of lighting concepts Lift lobbies

Downlights for compact fluorescent lamps provide economically efficient general lighting. Low-voltage downlights have been used to accentuate the lift lobby. The downlights provide horizontal lighting and produce effective grazing light over the lift doors.

Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps.

Indirect luminaires illuminate the lift lobby. The area directly in front of the lifts is accentuated by wall-mounted downlights. The grazing light over the walls creates an interesting architectural feature and provides diffuse lighting.

Pendant indirect luminaire for fluorescent lamps.

Wall-mounted downlight for halogen reflector lamps.


4.0 4.2

Examples of lighting concepts Lift lobbies

General lighting is provided by wallmounted ceiling washlights. The lift doors are accentuated using recessed louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps.

Louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. Wall-mounted ceiling washlight for compact fluorescent lamps or halogen lamps.

The objective is to create a prestigious atmosphere. The area directly in front of the lifts is accented by means of specular effects produced by a series of miniature lamps and downlights arranged in pairs. Both lighting components are mounted on a suspended track system.

Track system with miniature lamps and a double row of downlights for halogen reflector lamps.


4.0 4.2

Examples of lighting concepts Lift lobbies

Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps.

General lighting is provided by a staggered arrangement of decorative downlights, which produce adequate illuminance levels and attractive specular effects. In addition, lighting at floor level is provided by a series of floor washlights.

Recessed floor washlight for compact fluorescent lamp.


4.0 4.3

Examples of lighting concepts Corridors

4.3 Corridors

Corridors provide access to different rooms or constitute a link between parts of buildings. They may receive daylight through windows or skylights, but frequently run through the interior of buildings and have to be lit artificially all day. One of the main tasks of the lighting in corridors, like foyers, is to provide clear orientation. Non-dramatic, communicative lighting is required here to express the architectural structure of the space. Central points of interest, such as entrance, exit and doors to adjacent rooms should receive additonal accentuation to ensure that the user is supplied with the necessary information. If the design of the building is such that it is difficult to find 184

the way from place to place, it is advisable to assist orientation by means of information signs, symbols or colours. Corridors located in the interior of a building are often dark or appear the same. This effect can be counteracted by illuminating the walls and providing lighting that structures the space, making it more easily legible. In such corridors it is advisable to arrange luminaires in accordance with the architectural design. Accent lighting can also contribute towards removing the feeling of monotony in the space, by dividing it up into sections or views. Continous lighting in corridors inevitably leads to long switching times, which

means that ways have to be found to save energy. One means is the use lamps with high luminous efficacy, such as fluorescent lamps. In buildings where corridors also have to be lit at night, it is advisable to include night lighting in the design concept, and reduce the lighting level for times of when the corridors are less frequently used. This may be effected by dimming, switching specific groups of luminaires off or by installing a specially designed night lighting system.

4.0 4.3

Examples of lighting concepts Corridors

Recessed downlights provide general lighting in the corridor of a hotel with staggered arrangement of doors. The area around the doors is accentuated by recessed louvred luminaires.

Washlights for recessed mounting illuminate the circulation zones. The extremely diffuse light they produce lends the space a bright and friendly atmosphere. Downlights are positioned above the doors to accentuate the area around the doors.

General lighting is provided by floor washlights. The areas around the doors are accentuated by downlights mounted on the side walls. This produces a clear contrast between the horizontal lighting in the circulation zone and the vertical lighting in the area around the doors.

Recessed washlights for halogen lamps.

Wall-mounted downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps.

Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps.

Floor washlight for compact fluorescent lamps.


and information signs.4. A light structure spanned between the walls provides indirect light for the ambient lighting. 186 . Wall-mounted ceiling washlights for compact fluorescent lamps or halogen lamps. Light structure with indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps.3 Examples of lighting concepts Corridors Wall-mounted ceiling washlights provide uniform.0 4. The corridor lighting in an administration building is provided by a matching series of bracket-mounted wallwashers. These provide both indirect ambient lighting via the light reflected by the walls and direct lighting of information signage. indirect lighting in the corridor. Bracket-mounted wallwashers for fluorescent lamps. which makes for a bright and friendly atmosphere. The luminaires are arranged so that an information sign can be aligned to each door.

Trunking system with recessed louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps. efficient lighting. plus loudspeakers and emergency lighting. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. The lighting components are mounted on a multifunctional trunking system that runs the length of the corridor and takes direct luminaires.3 Examples of lighting concepts Corridors Economically efficient corridor lighting by means of a regular arrangement of louvred luminaires equipped with compact fluorescent lamps. The luminaires are arranged crosswise to the length of the corridor. 187 .4. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed louvred luminaires make for uniform.0 4. and trackmounted spotlights. sections of track for spotlights to accentuate specific wall areas.

188 . Light is used to make the structure of the environment legible and hazardous areas visible.4 Staircases The primary objective of staircase lighting is to provide an aid to orientation.4 Examples of lighting concepts Staircases 4.4. The structure of the staircase should be easily recognizable.0 4. Since staircases are usually illuminated for long periods of times. confusing structures. without creating any additional. and the individual steps clearly visible. it is advisable to use energy-saving light sources.

4 Examples of lighting concepts Staircases Pairs of recessed louvred luminaires illuminate the landings and flights of stairs. This avoids any complicated constructions above the centre of the landings. The structure follows the course of the staircases and crosses the landings between each flight of stairs.4.0 4. Suspended light structure with integral direct or indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. Direct and indirect luminares in a light structure suspended in the stairwell. 189 .

Wall-mounted directindirect luminaire for fluorescent lamps. 190 . A direct-indirect wall-mounted luminaire provides adequate lighting levels on the stairs and landings.4. Light structure with integral direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps.4 Examples of lighting concepts Staircases A direct-indirect light structure spanned between the walls of the stairwell above the landings provides direct and reflected light for the lighting of the adjacent flights of steps.0 4.

191 .4. whereas the landings are illuminated by recessed downlights. Floor washlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Wall-mounted downlights installed above the foot and top of each flight of stairs and above the doors on the landings illuminate the staircases. This arrangement of luminaires produces excellent visual conditions.4 Examples of lighting concepts Staircases Two different types of luminaire are used to illuminate the flights of stairs and landings. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Mounting the luminaires on the walls also makes this lighting solution suitable for open staircases. where installation can sometimes be difficult. Floor washlights provide the lighting for the flights of stairs. Wall-mounted downlight for compact fluorescent lamps.0 4.

luminous colour and colour rendering. it is advisable to install wide-angle luminares and satin finished reflectors. where character and glare limitation can be influenced by the choice of luminaires and whether they are direct.4. that VDT-approved luminaires do have the following disadvantages in spite of their glare limiting qualities: the low vertical lighting they produce. For team offices which are clearly subdivided into individual areas (working area.5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices 4. circulation zone. e. Other requirements that may have to be met may concern the correlation of daylight and artificial light. It should be pointed out. Luminaires constructed in accordance with the standards are referred to in Germany as VDT-approved luminaires and can be used without reservation for the illumination of such workplaces. 192 .0 4. One way of lighting team offices is to provide uniform illumination using luminaires arranged according to a set grid.5 Team offices The lighting of team offices for small groups is required to fulfil a number of conditions. as laid down in the standards for the lighting of workplaces. and the increased reflected glare on horizontal visual tasks. conference area) it is possible to develop a zonal concept. but lower ambient lighting supplemented by task lights. Efficiency can be further increased by the use of electronic control gear. social area. It is also possible to provide daylight-related switching of luminaires located near windows. lighting each area in accordance with the activity that takes place there. For economically efficient lighting it is advisable to use conventional or compact fluorescent lamps. which also enhances visual comfort through the avoidance of flickering effects. the fact that the luminaires have to be arranged in close proximity to one another. The luminaires used for the lighting of spaces with personal computers are required to meet especially stringent standards to avoid reflected glare on computer screens. and to only use the VDT-approved fixtures as a solution for the most critical cases concerning the lighting of personal computers. the presence of drawing boards. and above all the lighting of spaces with personal computers. Luminances in the space should be balanced and special attention paid to optimum glare control through the installation of suitable luminaires. For the lighting of spaces with positive image screens or if luminaires are installed outside the critical area of the screens. indirect or direct-indirect fixtures. however.g. by combining luminaires for fluorescent lamps and halogen lamps. The requirements include the following quality criteria: the level and uniformity of the lighting. Another possibility is to provide equally uniform. By switching different combinations of luminares the lighting can be adjusted to suit the use of the space. luminance distribution. the direction of light and shadow. limitation of direct and reflected glare.

4.5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices 193 .0 4.

The lighting is not related to individual workplaces.0 4.4. achieves good CRF values throughout the space and allows flexible furniture layout. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. A staggered arrangement of recessed louvred luminaires provides uniform ambient lighting. which completely avoids reflected glare.5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices A regular arrangement of recessed louvred luminaires for the ambient lighting. which means that office layouts can be changed without changing the lighting. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. 194 . A linear prismatic lens positioned in the centre of the reflector produces batwing-shaped light distribution.

Recessed downlight with cross-blade louvre for compact fluorescent lamps. Ventilation or air-handling systems can be integrated into these installation channels.0 4. Trunking system/installation channel for louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps and recessed directional spotlights for halogen lamps. 195 . The lighting components are mounted on multifunctional channels that run parallel to the windows. They take the louvred luminaires for the ambient lighting and directional spotlights for accent lighting.5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices A regluar arrangement of recessed downlights with cross-blade louvres provides uniform ambient lighting.4.

5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices Secondary reflector luminares are used to illuminate the office. glare-free ambient lighting produced from free-standing ceiling washlights. In addition. The ratio of direct and indirect light and glare limitation can be controlled by the appropriate choice of luminaires. Direct-indirect secondary reflector luminaires for recessed mounting into ceilings for fluorescent lamps. This will in turn produce the required atmosphere. Diffuse.4. each workplace has its own task light. Free-standing ceiling washlight for metal halide lamps. Task light for compact fluorescent lamps.0 4. 196 .

0 4. Suspended light structure with integral.5 Examples of lighting concepts Team offices The lighting is provided by a suspended light structure. which takes both directindirect luminaires and downlights. This combination allows efficient lighting using fluorescent lamps for office work during the day. direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. and integral downlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps. 197 . and low-voltage downlights for meetings that may take place at the end of the day.4.

Disturbing glare.4. may however be caused by the windows. 198 . For offices with a high daylight component lower illuminances are sufficient.6 Examples of lighting concepts Cellular offices 4.6 Cellular offices The same design criteria basically apply for cellular offices as for team offices.0 4. it is also advisable to install the luminaires so that fixtures near the windows can be switched separately when there is sufficient daylight available. especially in spaces with personal computers. Whereas in the case of team offices it can be of extreme importance to control the luminance of luminaires. especially reflected glare on display screens. this aspect is not so critical in cellular offices due to the geometry of the space.

The wide-angle luminaires make for enhanced contrast rendition. the direct light component is reduced by the linear prismatic lens. Recessed louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Integral direct-indirect luminares for fluorescent lamps and track-mounted spotlights mounted on a light structure suspended in the space. 199 . The spotlights are used to accent points of interest on the walls. The ambient lighting is workplace-related and is produced by the luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Suspended light structure with integral direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and integral track-mounted spotlights. with lower illuminance in the circulation area between the doors.0 4. The lighting layout is workplace-related.4.6 Examples of lighting concepts Cellular offices Ambient lighting is provided by louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps arranged parallel to the window.

which in turn produces the required atmosphere.0 4.6 Examples of lighting concepts Cellular offices General lighting is provided by recessed secondary reflector luminaires. Office lighting using louvred luminaires for compact fluorescent lamps. Secondary reflector luminaire for recessed mounting for fluorescent lamps. Recessed downlight with cross-blade louvre for compact fluorescent lamps. 200 . Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. which in turn leads to enhanced contrast rendition. This produces batwing light distribution.4. Ambient lighting is provided by a precisely positioned group of four downlights with cross-blade louvres for compact fluorescent lamps. A linear prismatic lens can be inserted above the cross-blade louvre. The ratio of direct and indirect light and glare limitation can be controlled by the appropriate choice of luminaires.

4. Track system with lowbrightness luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Task light for compact fluorescent lamps. Wall-mounted ceiling washlight for fluorescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps.6 Examples of lighting concepts Cellular offices Wall-mounted ceiling washlights provide indirect ambient lighting and create a bright and friendly atmosphere in the space. Track system spanned from wall to wall with low-brightness luminaires as well as spotlights for the accentuation of specific points of interest or importance.0 4. and spotlights. A task light on the desk provides direct light on the working plane when required. 201 .

Light structure with integral direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and downlights for low-voltage halogen lamps. The luminaire layout is workplace-related with lower illuminance in the circulation area. The indirect component is reflected into the space by the satin finished reflector. Office lighting illuminance is provided by two suspended light structure elements parallel to the windows. 202 .0 4.4.6 Examples of lighting concepts Cellular offices The ambient lighting in the office is provided by four recessed indirect secondary reflector luminaires. Recessed secondary reflector luminaires for compact fluorescent lamps. with integral direct-indirect luminaires and integral directional luminaires to accentuate the desk and other points of interest.

7 Examples of lighting concepts Executive offices 4. each area with specific lighting requirements. It consists of a working area and conference area.7 Executive offices An office of this kind may be the workplace of a manager or the office of a selfemployed person. atmosphere and prestigious effect are also important aspects in this case.0 4.4. 203 . it is advisable to develop a design concept that allows the switching and dimming of different groups of luminaires to meet changing requirements. In contrast to the purely functional lighting in the other office spaces. As rooms of this kind are used for a variety of activities.

Recessed wallwasher for general service lamps. Recessed directional spotlight for halogen reflector lamps. The desk receives direct light from two directional spotlights. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. 204 . Task light for compact fluorescent lamps. A task light is installed on the desk.0 4.4. Recessed downlight for general service lamps. A group of four downlights accentuate the conference table.6 Examples of lighting concepts Executive offices Recessed downlights arranged in a rectangle around the perimeter of the room provide ambient lighting. Washlights on the end walls provide the general lighting in the room.

Recessed double-focus downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. Singlet with spotlight. downlights for the illumination of the desk and conference table and directional spotlights to illuminate the cupboards. a double-focus downlight accentuates the conference table. Recessed wallwasher for halogen lamps.4. Surface-mounted spotlights pick out points of interest on the remaining wall surfaces. Wallwashers aligned with the cupboards provide the ambient lighting. Outlets are available for spotlights for the illumination of the remaining wall surfaces. 205 . Recessed downlight for halogen lamps. They contain two louvred luminaires for the lighting of the desk. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. Task light for compact fluorescent lamps.0 4. Recessed directional spotlight for halogen lamps. The desk has a task light. Singlet with spotlight.6 Examples of lighting concepts Executive offices The lighting equipment is mounted on three multifunctional channels that run parallel to the windows.

the reflected light also provides the ambient lighting. Other points of interest are picked out by further spotlights. Desk and conference table are accentuated by spotlights mounted on a recessed track.0 4.8 Examples of lighting concepts Executive offices Recessed louvred luminaires illuminate desk and conference table. 206 . Track with spotlights.4. Track-mounted wallwashers provide vertical lighting on the end walls and produce a bright and friendly atmosphere. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. Recessed washlights and corner washlights for general service lamps. Track-mounted wallwashers equipped with halogen lamps. Recessed washlights provide uniform lighting of the wall lined with cupboards and one of the end walls.

It is therefore practical to plan a lighting installation comprising circuits which can be switched and dimmed separately.8 Conference rooms Conference rooms are used for a variety of purposes: for discussions. or even a working lunch. which allows preprogrammed scenes to be recalled at the touch of a button. Extreme direct or diffuse light conditions should be avoided. Conference lighting requires a balanced ratio of horizontal and vertical lighting. products. notes made on the board or on a flip-chart require additional accent lighting on the end walls of the conference room.4. The lighting design concept must therefore be multifunctional and include the possibility of creating a prestigious atmosphere.8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms 4. or even a programmable lighting control system. 207 . seminars.0 4. small-scale presentations. The lighting on the walls must be reduced to a suitable level to allow people to write by when slides or overhead foils are projected. The presentation of pictures. Vertical components produce a bright and friendly atmosphere and promote communication. Horizontal lighting makes for good shaping qualities and and adequate bright-ness.

Two rows of downlights for recessed mounting in the ceiling provide direct. Integral secondary luminaire for fluorescent lamps. Track-mounted spotlights in front of the end walls can be used to accentuate visual aids. which can serve as the main lighting for a working lunch or dinner. or for people to write by when slides are being shown. The end walls can be illuminated by trackmounted spotlights or washlights. Secondary luminaires arranged along the side walls provide general lighting with balanced horizontal and vertical components. The luminaire design. which can serve as the main lighting for a working lunch or dinner. Track with spotlights.8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms Ceiling washlights provide indirect light for the general lighting of the room. Two rows of recessed downlights provide direct light on the table. Track with spotlights. or for people to write by when slides are being shown. prestigious light on the table.0 4.4. 208 . which harmonizes with the geometry of the space makes for optimum control of direct and reflected glare. Recessed downlight for halogen lamps or general service lamps. Recessed downlight for low-voltage lamps. Wall-mounted ceiling washlight for halogen lamps. if required.

for example. Recessed wallwasher for fluorescent lamps.0 4. 209 . The end walls can receive additional lighting via wallwashers. luminaires along the side walls can be dimmed to provide lower lighting levels. Recessed downlight for halogen lamps or general service lamps. Pendant directindirect luminaire for fluorescent lamps.4. Downlights arranged along the side walls brighten the overall environment.8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms Direct-indirect luminaires suspended above the table provide ambient lighting in line with the layout or the office furniture. for people to write by when slides are being shown.

0 4. The spotlights and the washlights. These downlights comprise the main lighting on representative occasions or light for people to write by in the case of slide projections. adjacent to the side and end walls can be switched and dimmed separately. Tracks mounted parallel to the end walls can take spotlights for the illumination of the walls or presentations. Washlights provide direct lighting over the table and ambient lighting by the light reflected by the walls. The luminaires are equipped with general service lamps.4. which produce specular effects on the surface of the table. Track with spotlights. The pairs of luminaires nearest the end walls can be switched separately for projection lighting. Track with spotlights and wallwashers for fluorescent lamps. which means that they can be easily dimmed to the required lighting level. 210 . Downlight for general service lamps. The light consists of two rows of low-voltage downlights. which have fluorescent lamps. Above the edge of the ceiling there are tracks with washlights for indirect lighting. Recessed downlights for low-voltage lamps.8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms The lighting is installed in a suspended ceiling positioned at a set distance to the walls. and spotlights. the alignment of the lighting to the seating ensures optimum visual comfort.

8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms Luminaires equipped with fluorescent lamps and mounted on a suspended light structure provide the lighting over the table. The latter can be dimmed during slides projections to provide light to write by. wallwashers for halogen lamps and spotlights. Spotlights accentuate points of interest on the walls. Light structure with louvred luminares for fluorescent lamps.0 4. Dimmable wallwashers for halogen lamps are mounted on the end sections. 211 .4.

212 .0 4.8 Examples of lighting concepts Conference rooms General lighting in the conference room is provided by a series of wallwashers.4. Recessed downlight for general service lamps. Track with spotlights. Recessed wallwasher for fluorescent lamps. Downlights equipped with general service lamps provide light to write by. Tracks mounted parallel to the end walls can take spotlights for the illumination of the walls or demonstrations.

213 . Lighting for auditoriums should therefore be based on a multi-functional concept which allows the lighting to be adapted to meet a variety of different requirements. and between the people in the audience. When overhead foils. In the area where the audience are seated the lighting primarily serves the purpose of orientation and allows people to take notes. to allow and promote discussion. On the speaker’s platform the lighting is focussed on the speaker. It is important that the lighting should allow eye contact between the speakers and the audience.9 Examples of lighting concepts Auditoriums 4.4.0 4. slides. interaction and feedback. film or video projectors.9 Auditoriums Auditoriums are rooms that can be used to give a variety of talks or presentations to an audience. or on the objects or experiments presented. During slide projections and the like the lighting is reduced to a level for people to write by. The main feature of the lighting in auditoriums is the functional separation of speaker’s platform from the audience. for experimental demonstrations and product presentations or for podium discussions and seminars. They may be used simply for the presentation of special papers. or overhead projectors. films and videos are shown the lighting must be reduced – especially the vertical lighting on the end wall – so as not to interfere with the projections. for talks supported by slide.

9 Examples of lighting concepts Auditoriums Recessed wallwashers illuminate the end wall of the auditorium. A series of dimmable downlights for halogen lamps are arranged between the first set of downlights and provide controllable lighting when slides are being shown. 214 .4. Singlet with spotlight. Downlights for compact fluorescent lamps arranged in a staggered pattern provide ambient lighting during the talk. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Downlights that can be switched and dimmed separately plus a series of singlets for additional spotlights provide accent lighting on the speaker’s platform. The lighting over the seating area consists of two components. Recessed downlightwallwasher for PAR 38 reflector lamps. Both luminaire types can be operated separately or in unison. Recessed downlight for halogen lamps.0 4.

Singlets along the side walls can take additional spotlights to accentuate special points of interest. The ambient lighting in the auditorium is provided by louvred luminaires aligned to the long side walls and a series of dimmable downlights in alternate rows between them. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. The speaker’s platform is accentuated by track-mounted spotlights. Recessed double-focus downlight for halogen lamps.9 Examples of lighting concepts Auditoriums A row of wallwashers illuminate the end wall. The end wall receives additional lighting from a series of wallwashers. Track with spotlights. There is also a series of recessed double-focus downlights for halogen lamps arranged in a regular pattern across the ceiling. This set provides lighting during the talk and can be dimmed down to allow people to take notes during slide or video projections. if required.0 4. This pattern is continued on the speaker’s platform in a condensed form. Downlight-wallwasher for general service lamps. Wallwashers arranged along the side walls provide light for orientation. Recessed downlight for general service lamps. Singlet with spotlight.4. Recessed wallwasher for halogen lamps. 215 .

Wall-mounted floor washlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Floor washlights positioned along one side wall in the auditorium section provide lighting for orientation.9 Examples of lighting concepts Auditoriums Two runs of track over the speaker’s area take wallwashers for the illumination of the end wall and spotlights for accent lighting. Suspended light structure with integral direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and integral downlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps. The main lighting is provided by a suspended light structure with direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and dimmable downlights for low-voltage halogen lamps. Track with spotlights and wallwashers for halogen lamps.0 4. 216 .4.

10 Canteens Canteens are spaces where large numbers of people are provided with meals.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The prime objective is to provide an efficient lighting installation with high average illuminance levels. 217 . The lighting design concept should also allow for the space to be used for other functions such as parties or meetings.10 Canteens 4. warm white light is required for festive lighting for a party or a large gathering. The food is generally served from a counter. people eating in canteens are only there for a short period of time.4. The atmosphere in the room should be bright and friendly with sufficient vertical lighting to make for a communicative atmosphere. It is advisable to plan a second component that can be switched separately when brilliant.

Spotlights are mounted in track below the light structure to provide accent lighting over the counter. Light structure with luminaires for fluorescent lamps and integral track for spotlights. The ambient lighting comes from luminaires for fluorescent lamps mounted beneath the structure. 218 .10 Canteens The lighting is provided from a suspended light structure.4.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.

The louvred luminaires and the downlights can be switched separately or in unison. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps. The fixtures used are louvred luminaires equipped with conventional fluorescent lamps and arranged in parallel rows throughout the space.4. A series of recessed downlights for halogen lamps arranged alternately between the louvred luminaires create a prestigious atmosphere. A combination of fluorescent and halogen lighting. Recessed downlight for halogen lamps.10 Canteens A staggered arrangement of square louvred luminaires equipped with compact fluorescent lamps provide efficient ambient lighting.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. 219 . Recessed downlight for halogen lamps. The counter area is accentuated by positioning the luminaires closer together.

220 . uniform lighting of the canteen is achieved by direct-indirect luminaires equipped with fluorescent lamps and mounted on a suspended light structure arranged in parallel rows throughout the space.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Suspended light structure with direct-indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps.10 Canteens Efficient.4.

the lighting level on the whole lower. Cafés and bistros are open throughout the day. overall lighting. or to include a programmable lighting control system. bistros 4. The clientele comprises small groups who tend to stay for longer periods of time. In contrast to the canteen. which results in different lighting requirements by day and by night.11 Cafés.11 Cafés. or bistro. the lighting required in this case is of a more prestigious nature. covers a variety of catering establishments that offer a service somewhere between the functional canteen and the up-market restaurant.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The interior design and the accentuation of the individual tables is more important here than efficient. It may range from uniform lighting concepts to the integration of dramatic forms of lighting and lighting effects. a spectrum ranging from fast food restaurant to ice-cream parlours and cafés to bistros. The actual lighting design concept depends to a large extent on the required atmosphere and the target clientele. The objective nevertheless is not to produce very low ambient lighting with strongly illuminated and well defined individual areas (tables). bistros The term café. It is therefore advisable to develop a concept that allows different components to be switched and dimmed separately. the entire space should be generally bright and friendly and promote a communicative atmosphere.4. 221 . using the establishment as a meeting place as well as somewhere to eat.

Singlet for spotlights.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Spotlights are mounted on the track aligned with with the position of the tables.11 Cafés. Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps.4. Ceiling-mounted light structure with direct luminaires arranged in a diagonal pattern across the ceiling provides the lighting on the tables. Surface-mounted downlight for halogen lamps. 222 . The counter is accentuated by a row of decorative downlights installed in a suspended ceiling. bistros Three rows of track are proposed to run the length of the space. A series of singlets along one side wall allow the installation of spotlights to pick out focal points. Surface-mounted light structure with direct luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Wallwashers are mounted on the track nearest the wall. Track with spotlights and wallwashers. producing reflected light for the ambient lighting. Surface-mounted downlights accentuate the counter.

These provide lighting over the individual tables and accentuate the counter.11 Cafés. The counter is emphasized by a linear arrangement of decorative downlights. Installation channel with directional lowvoltage spotlights.4. Integral directional spotlights arranged in a regular pattern across the ceiling accentuate the tables. Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. Integral directional spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. 223 . bistros A series of directional spotlights are mounted on installation channels arranged across the width of the room.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.

224 . Recessed double-focus downlights provide direct light on the tables.11 Cafés. The two components are arranged in a regular pattern. bistros Recessed wallwashers produce reflected light for the general lighting in the space. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps.4. The counter is accentuated by downlights. Recessed wallwasher for halogen lamps.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Recessed double-focus downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps.

plants or other decorative elements may be accentuated to create points of interest in the environment. Paintings.12 Restaurants The difference between restaurants and cafés and bistros lies in the quality and range of food offered and in the atmosphere. Each group of guests should have the feeling that they have their own private space. The interior furnishings and the lighting should be chosen and designed to limit visual and acoustic disturbance caused by occupants in other parts of the room. Guests also require an element of privacy in a restaurant. the general lighting gives way to localised celebratory lighting of the individual tables. decorative luminaires or light sculptures can also be extremely effective in the restaurant environment.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. food and guests to be seen in their most favourable light. To meet the different requirements for daytime and night-time lighting. The average illuminance level is low. “Play of brilliance” in the form of candlelight. it is advisable to develop a concept that allows the switching and dimming of different groups of luminaires. The design concept should therefore aim to provide illumination that allows the surroundings. prestigious atmosphere in which to enjoy their food and conversation with friends or business colleagues.4. People dining require a pleasant.12 Restaurants 4. Lunches and dinners comprising several courses mean that guests generally stay for longer periods of time. 225 .

4. Uplights located between the plants project a leafy pattern on the ceiling. The tables are illuminated by recessed directional spotlights. 226 . Uplight for PAR 38 reflector lamps. decorative recessed downlights accentuate the bar and the entrance area. Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. Directional spotlight for low-voltage halogen lamps.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Decorative wallmounted ceiling washlight for general service lamps.12 Restaurants The ambient lighting in the restaurant is provided by decorative wall-mounted wallwashers.

Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. Recessed directional spotlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps.12 Restaurants The indirect general lighting in the entrance and seating area is provided by wallwashers. A supplementary row of directional spotlights illuminate the plants between the seated area and the bar.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. 227 . Recessed double-focus downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. The bar is accentuated by a series of downlights that follow the shape of the bar. Recessed wallwasher for halogen lamps. A regular arrangement of doublefocus downlights provide direct light throughout the main restaurant area.4.

Wall-mounted ceiling washlight for halogen lamps or general service lamps.12 Restaurants Indirect general lighting is provided by ceiling washlights arranged along the side walls. A staggered layout of decorative recessed downlights provides accent lighting on the tables and bar. Track-mounted spotlights. Trackmounted spotlights illuminate the plants and entrance area.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. 228 . Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps.4.

13 Multifunctional spaces 4. They can be found in hotels and congress centres. in public buildings and on industrial premises. which allows a number of small meetings or events to take place simultaneously. decorative luminaires may be used for effect. which can be switched or electronically controlled separately or in unison.13 Multifunctional spaces Multifunctional spaces are used as meeting rooms for a variety of events. The lighting should be variable to correspond to the multifunctional nature of the space. They are most frequently used for conferences and seminars. but also for receptions and parties. this requires a lighting layout that is symmetrically aligned to the dividing line. in relation to both the overall space and to the potential individual spaces. Functional. Depending on the design of the space. with adjustable spotlights for the presentation of products or teaching aids and downlights for general service lamps for accent lighting or dimmed lighting. It should be both functional and prestigious.4. efficient ambient lighting can be provided by louvred luminaires equipped with fluorescent lamps. The lighting installation will generally comprise several components. 229 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. for example. A multifunctional space can often be divided by means of a removable partition.

The twin lighting layout allows the room to be divided and both parts used separately.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps. Two lighting layouts comprising square louvred luminaires designed for compact fluorescent lamps and downlights equipped with halogen lamps produce both efficient and accentuated. Gala event with cabaret and dance floor.13 Multifunctional spaces Multifunctional spaces are used for a variety of events. Double-focus downlight for halogen lamps. Seminar. but also suitable for presentations and festive occasions. Two runs of track mounted flush with the ceiling at both ends of the room take spotlights for lighting presentations or a stage area. Conference. Track with spotlights. The lighting in these spaces is not only expected to be functional. Simultaneous use: small party and meeting. Gala dinner with individual tables and buffet. 230 . Rooms that can be divided require special attention when designing the lighting installation.4. dimmable lighting.

0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.13 Multifunctional spaces The ambient lighting in the multifunctional space is produced by a symmetrical arrangement of luminaires in both parts of the room. Recessed track with spotlights for presentation lighting or accent lighting. Recessed downlight with cross baffles for compact fluorescent lamps. Downlights equipped with compact fluorescent lamps and pairs of double-focus downlights with halogen lamps are arranged in a uniform pattern. The fluorescent downlights provide efficient lighting for functional events.4. Track with spotlights. whereas the dimmable halogendownlights are used for lighting festive occasions and provide lighting for people to take notes during slide or video presentations. Recessed double-focus downlight for halogen lamps. 231 .

232 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4. Recessed downlight for general service lamps. Four downlights are arranged along the walls. Recessed wallwasher for general service lamps. Singlet with spotlight. Wallwashers located along the end walls provide lighting over the wall surfaces.13 Multifunctional spaces The ambient lighting in the multifunctional space is produced by three parallel lines of luminaires that run the length of the room and consist of an alternating arrangement of louvred luminaires equipped with fluorescent lamps and downlights with general service lamps. combined with two singlets for additional spotlights for accent lighting. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps.

0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. symmetrically aligned suspended light structures.4. if required. downlights for halogen lamps. 233 . Light structure with uplights designed for compact fluorescent lamps. Spotlights can also be mounted on the structure. to emphasize focal points on the walls. and track-mounted spotlights. The ambient lighting is produced by uplights. with direct light on the tables and floor produced by pairs of downlights.13 Multifunctional spaces The lighting is carried on four rectangular.

These downlights can be dimmed for special occasions or for people to take notes during slide or video presentations.13 Multifunctional spaces Ambient lighting in the multifunctional space is produced by indirect luminaires mounted on six linear light structures installed across the width of the space.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Singlet with spotlight. Downlights for halogen lamps are arranged between the suspended structures.4. Suspended light structure with indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Singlets arranged along the side walls take spotlights for accent lighting. 234 . if required. Recessed downlight for halogen lamps.

0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The track installed between the rows of luminaires take additional spotlights for accent lighting. with downlights illuminating the centre of the space and washlights arranged along the end walls.4. individual groups of luminaires can be dimmed to allow the lighting to be adjusted to different requirements. Recessed washlight for halogen lamps. which makes for a prestigious atmosphere. Track-mounted spotlights.13 Multifunctional spaces The lighting layout in this multifunctional space is based on a regular grid. The downlights and washlights are equipped with halogen lamps. 235 . Recessed downlight for halogen lamps.

14 Museums. The architecural lighting in this case is of secondary importance. trackmounted spotlights. ethnological or scientific information is presented. can be subjected to higher illuminances. In addition to integral showcase lighting separate ambient lighting is invariably required. Fibre optic systems can also be of value if thermal load and danger to exhibits due to lamps inside the cases are to be avoided. High showcases can be illuminated with the aid of lighting components integrated into the case soffit. especially those where archaeological. showcases 4. it is advisable to take 300 lx as the limit. It may be the form or structure. The first task of the lighting is to illuminate the exhibits in accordance with their particular qualities. 236 . Depending on the required atmosphere and the illuminance laid down in curatorial stipulations ambient lighting may range from a lighting level just above the level of the showcase lighting down to orientation light produced by spill light from the showcases. Fixed luminaires can only be used in combination with fixed showcases. Less sensitive materials. e. It is important to avoid creating competition to the objects on display by over-accentuating architectural elements in the surroundings. such as stone and metal. the exhibits are primarily displayed in showcases. glassware – can be illuminated by lighting integrated into the base of the showcase. or lighting with especially good colour rendering qualities. Both daylight and general lighting can contribute towards the illumination of exhibits. especially books. eliminated by the provision of adequate shielding (e.4. overheating in showcases due to convection is also an aspect to be considered. exhibition lighting and the ambient lighting both come from the ceiling. As light sources. g. g. to ensure that the contrast to adjacent spaces that are lit at a lower illuminance level is not too strong. vertical blinds). Apart from loading damage caused by visible light. Depending on the type of materials that are to be illuminated. Potential reflected glare through windows should also be taken into account and. Transparent materials – e. choice of lamp. curatorial aspects also play an essential part in the development of the lighting design concept. watercolour paintings or textiles 50 lx should be regarded as the maximum.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. if necessary. The recommended illuminance for museum lighting is 150 lx. the glossy or transparent quality of surfaces or colour that are of particular significance and therefore require purposefully designed lighting – this may involve diffuse or accent lighting. as can light from spotlights. This form of lighting is especially suitable for glass showcases and flat display cases viewed from above. g. showcases In many museums. filtering and illuminance control must be investigated carefully so as not to accelerate the damage to the exhibits. This value refers to the lighting of oil paintings and a large number of other materials. Apart from pure presentation. Careful attention must be paid to the positioning and direction of luminaires when illuminating the showcase from the outside. When lighting showcases from the outside. ultraviolet and infrared radiation. in spaces where temporary exhibitions are held it is advisable to choose an adjustable lighting system. for example. this requires careful balancing of the exhibition lighting and the ambient lighting. all requiring consideration in the accentuation of specific objects. halogen lamps are generally used for accent lighting and compact fluorescent lamps for widearea lighting. In the case of highly sensitive materials. in the case of sensitive exhibits it may be necessary to install integral luminaires in a separate compartment of the showcase. When developing the lighting design concept the showcases must be treated as the priority. or if the showcase dimensions do not allow the installation of conventional luminaires. The lighting layout must be related to the position of the showcases to avoid reflected glare.14 Museums. When lighting showcases it is especially important to avoid reflected glare on horizontal and vertical glass surfaces. where it is not possible to integrate luminaires inside the cases. the latter being considerably lower.

4.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.14 Museums. showcases 237 .

The luminaires are equipped with covered reflector lamps to avoid danger to the exhibits. showcases The lighting in the tall showcases is produced by integral luminaires.14 Museums.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Accent lighting inside the showcase is provided by recessed lowvoltage directional spotlights. Downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. The showcase is shielded by a filter attachment and an anti-dazzle screen. 238 .4. The upper section of the showcase can be ventilated separately. The downlights have a narrow beam spread for better control of reflections on the glass surfaces of the cases. Recessed downlights provide ambient lighting and lighting for the flat display cases. Showcase lighting using spotlights. Wide-beam lighting of the showcase using a washlight for compact fluorescent lamps or halogen lamps. Recessed downlight for incandescent lamps or halogen lamps.

14 Museums. One central light source supplies a number of light heads.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. or with a variety of anti-dazzle screens to limit glare. showcases Lighting of glass showcases. Track-mounted spotlights. 239 . A series of spotlights are mounted on a suspended light structure. The spotlights can be equipped with filters to reduce UV and IR radiation.4. Showcase lighting using a fibre optic system. This solution also provides ambient lighting. Integral lighting of this kind can be installed in the smallest of spaces.

It is acceptable to position luminaires in these areas.14 Museums. provided they are directed or shielded so as not to produce glare effects. No lamp luminances should be reproduced on the reflecting surfaces from these areas of the ceiling. Identifying the “forbidden zones” for horizontal reflecting surfaces. 240 . Windows must also be taken into account and shielded.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4. showcases Identifying the “forbidden zones” for vertical reflecting surfaces. if necessary.

In both cases it is imperative to make sure that the angle of incidence has been calcuated correctly to avoid disturbing reflections on glass or shiny surfaces. 241 . in galleries where paintings and sculptures are on display architectural lighting is also an essential part of the lighting design concept. Sculptures generally require directed light to reveal their three-dimensional quality and surface structure. illuminance and frame shadows optimally. The lighting system should provide appropriate levels of illuminance at all times of day and night. The objective of the lighting design concept will usually be to continue to balance the importance of the art to the architecture.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. supplementary devices and equipment may be necessary to control illuminance in accordance with specific curatorial stipulations.4. They are usually illuminated by spotlights or recessed directional spotlights. galleries In contrast to museums which primarily exhibit objects in showcases. The works of art on the walls can be illuminated by uniform wall lighting provided by wallwashers or accent lighting using spotlights. In both historical buildings and modern museums the architecture is frequently in competition with the exhibits. An angle of incidence of 30° to the vertical (angle of incidence for museums) has been proven to be a good guideline. Museums frequently also use daylight as well as artificial lighting.15 Museums. galleries 4. when daylight is excessive or inadequate. because it handles reflected glare.14 Museums. The exhibits to be illuminated are mainly paintings and drawings on the walls and sculptures in the centre of the spaces. Electronic control systems are now available that allow combined control of incident daylight using adjustable louvres as well as the artificial lighting. The lighting design concept must aim to control the daylight and coordinate the natural light with the artificial lighting. Daylight can be controlled by the architecture to a certain extent.

galleries The lighting installation consists of a suspended light structure with uplights providing indirect ambient lighting and wallwashers providing direct lighting of the walls.4.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Wallwashers mounted parallel to the luminous ceiling supplement daylight and provide lighting in the hours after dark. Daylit museum with a luminous ceiling.14 Museums. Wallwasher for fluorescent lamps. Track with spotlights. Light structure with uplights for compact fluorescent lamps or halogen lamps and wallwashers for PAR 38 reflector lamps. Track-mounted spotlights allow additional accent lighting. 242 .

which directs light onto the ceiling. the lighting is produced by free-standing washlights which provide lighting of the walls and the ceiling. Free-standing washlight for halogen lamps. 243 . As it is not permissible to mount luminaires on the walls or ceiling. Museum luminaire for fluorescent lamps. galleries The lighting of a historical museum building. Luminaires mounted on the cornice consist of a wallwasher component and a prismatic louvre in the upper part of the luminaire.14 Museums. equipped with a wallwasher reflector and prismatic louvre for the lighting of the ceiling.4.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.

Recessed directional spotlight for reflector lamps. Recessed directional spotlights are installed in the suspended ceiling for the lighting of sculptures. galleries Wallwasher for halogen lamps and wallwasher for fluorescent lamps.4. the alternating arrangement of wallwashers for halogen lamps and fluorescent lamps means it is possible to produce different lighting levels and lighting qualities on the walls.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The lighting is installed in a suspended ceiling and positioned at a specific distance from the walls. both track-mounted.14 Museums. 244 . Wallwashers are mounted on track behind the edge of the suspended ceiling.

Recessed downlight for halogen lamps. supplemented by a regular arrangment of downlights for halogen lamps. A series of singlets allow additional accent lighting using spotlights. galleries Wallwasher for fluorescent lamps.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The lighting is provided by a rectangular arrangement of wallwashers for fluorescent lamps. Singlet with spotlight.14 Museums.4. 245 .

Wallwashers arranged parallel to the walls provide lighting of the walls.14 Museums. 246 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4. Track installed in a square in the central area takes spotlights for accent lighting. galleries Recessed wallwasher for halogen lamps. Track-mounted spotlights.

247 .4. Track runs around the edges of the luminous ceiling and crosswise across the ceiling. Museum lighting based on a luminous ceiling illuminated using fluorescent lamps. This allows the lighting to be supplemented by spotlights and washlights.14 Museums.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. galleries Track-mounted spotlights and washlights. as required.

both track-mounted.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The lighting is installed on recessed track arranged in two superimposed rectangles. the inner track spotlights for the accentuation of sculptures. 248 . Track-mounted spotlights.14 Museums. The outer track takes wallwashers for the uniform lighting of the walls. The alternating arrangement of wallwashers for halogen lamps and fluorescent lamps means it is possible to produce different lighting levels and lighting qualities on the walls. galleries Wallwasher for halogen lamps and wallwasher for fluorescent lamps.4.

integral lighting or systems that are complicated to install are out of the question.16 Vaulted ceilings 4. is to express the architectural design and architectural elements. The lighting is therefore generally installed on pillars and walls or. 249 . Since penetration of the historical ceiling surfaces is to be avoided.16 Vaulted ceilings Vaulted ceilings are usually found in historical buildings. As a rule. which will in turn serve to illuminate the architecture and provide ambient lighting. The design concept will incorporate indirect or direct-indirect lighting. by illuminating the structure of the ceiling or the frescos.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. alternatively. e. one of the main tasks of the lighting. g. therefore.4. is applied in the form of pendant luminaires and light structures.

16 Vaulted ceilings A square suspended light structure with uplights for indirect lighting is installed in each vault. Light structure with uplights for halogen lamps and trackmounted spotlights. 250 . Spotlights can be mounted on the lower part of the structure for accent lighting.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4.

Groups of four ceiling washlights are mounted on a suspended light structure installed on the central axis of the vaults. These washlights provide indirect lighting.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. free-standing luminaires can be used. The vaulted ceiling is illuminated by combined up/downlight luminaires mounted on the pillars. If installation on the pillars presents a problem. Spotlights can be mounted on the lower part of the structure for accent lighting purposes. Free-standing or wallmounted ceiling washlights for halogen lamps or metal halide lamps.16 Vaulted ceilings Combined up and downlight for halogen lamps. Light structure with pairs of ceiling washlights for halogen lamps plus track-mounted spotlights. 251 . uniform lighting of the vaulted ceiling is required this can be achieved using ceiling washlights mounted on the pillars. and for visitors’ and users’ orientation. Each free-standing pillar has four luminaires and each pilaster one luminaire. This provides sufficient ambient lighting to make the architecture visible.4. When only indirect.

an attractive entrance area. In general it can be stated that the level of lighting increases with the quality of the goods and the more exclusive the location. The lighting of the cash-desk as a workplace should be treated separately. As opposed to standard installed loads of 15 W/m2 for ambient and accent lighting respectively. 252 . Dramatic lighting effects.17 Sales areas. are also possible.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. boutiques 4. at the same time the general lighting is reduced in favour of differentiated lighting. whereas high-quality goods require presentation using accent lighting. as are distinctive light structures or decorative luminaires.17 Sales areas. efficient lighting. and ambient lighting. Cheaper articles can be displayed under uniform. boutiques When developing lighting design concepts for boutiques or similar sales areas the tasks that require attention are accent lighting for the presentation of goods. The lighting design concept will frequently go beyond the standard repertoire of lighting effects and luminaires in order to create a characteristic atmosphere.4. the connected load with high levels of accent lighting may amount to over 60 W/m2. such as coloured light or projection lighting.

The lighting of the boutique is based on a regular layout. boutiques The ambient lighting in the boutique is provided by a group of six recessed downlights. Track with spotlights for metal halide lamps and low-voltage halogen lamps. treated as a workplace. is additionally illuminated by a track-mounted spotlight. 253 . in which two components are arranged in a staggered pattern. The cashdesk. low-voltage downlights arranged closely together accentuate the entrance “welcome mat”. The shop-window displays are illuminated separately using track-mounted spotlights. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. Recessed directional spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. the second component consists of pairs of directional spotlights for accent lighting of the shelves and displays. on shelves and for displays.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4. Track-mounted spotlights provide accent lighting in shop-windows. Recessed downlight for metal halide lamps. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. making it easier for customers to find. The downlight component provides uniform ambient lighting.17 Sales areas. Track-mounted spotlights.

Spotlights are fitted in the track for accent lighting of garments and cash-desk. Directional spotlights are recessed into an L-shaped suspending ceiling to produce accent lighting on the walls. A series of downlights accentuate the entrance area and create a “welcome mat” effect. patterns or a company logo). Recessed directional wallwasher for metal halide lamps. Integral directional washlights are mounted in a suspended ceiling installed around the walls.g. Track-mounted spotlights. Light structure with integral indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps and spotlights mounted on integral track. Shop-window displays are illuminated by track-mounted spotlights. Track-mounted spotlights. highpressure sodium lamps or halogen lamps. A double portal comprising a lattice beam structure with integral track is a main feature in the boutique and takes spotlights to accentuate displays.4. 254 . In the centre of the area lens projectors create special lighting effects on the wall or floor (e. In the central area are a series of light structures arranged parallel to each other with integral. Lattice beam structure with integral track for the mounting of spotlights and lens projectors. Recessed directional spotlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. boutiques This project has been given an architectural lighting concept.17 Sales areas. indirect luminaires. Shop-window displays are illuminated by track-mounted spotlights.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps. coloured beams of light.

Light structure with indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. boutiques The ambient lighting in the boutique is provided by two light structures running the length of the space and equipped with indirect luminaires for the lighting of the shallow ceiling vaults. Directional spotlight for low-voltage halogen lamps.17 Sales areas. 255 .4. Three runs of track are recessed in the ceiling parallel to the light structures and take spotlights for accent lighting on shelves and displays.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Two groups of six directional spotlights provide accent lighting in the shop-window. Track-mounted spotlights.

4. the resulting areas each requiring their own lighting.18 Sales areas.18 Sales areas. Shelves or showcases require vertical display lighting.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. the counter itself glare-free horizontal lighting. counters 4. The main circulation area requires general lighting. a jeweller’s shop. g. counters Sales areas where customers are served by staff at counters are mainly found in retail outlets where customers require consultation. 256 . The counter itself creates a dividing element in the space. e.

Directional floodlight for compact fluorescent lamps. counters Recessed downlights with various beam angles illuminate the entrance and the counter. Spotlights mounted on the structure accentuate shelves and counter. The shelves are accentuated by directional floodlights and directional spotlights. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps. Recessed directional spotlight for halogen lamps. track-mounted spotlights provide direct lighting in the shop-window. spotlights mounted on a separate track provide direct lighting in the shop-window.18 Sales areas.4. Ambient lighting is provided by indirect luminaires. 257 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Track-mounted spotlights. Track-mounted spotlights. Light structure with indirect luminaires for fluorescent lamps. and spotlights. The lighting is mounted on a suspended light structure.

Installation channel with direct lighting from recessed louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps and directional spotlights for low-voltage halogen lamps. The lighting is mounted on a suspended light structure.18 Sales areas.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Track-mounted spotlights. asymmetrical louvred luminaires the vertical lighting of the shelves. 258 . Spotlights are used to accentuate shelves and focal points on the walls. Recessed wallwasher for fluorescent lamps. decorative recessed downlights for low-voltage halogen lamps and tracks with spotlights for lowvoltage halogen lamps. Track-mounted spotlights provide direct lighting in the shop-window. Panels are inserted in the structure above the counter which take decorative downlights. and additional directional spotlights accent lighting on special offers.4. Spotlights mounted on a separate track provide direct lighting in the shop-window. Light structure with panels. Symmetrical louvred luminaires provide the ambient lighting. counters The lighting is mounted in a U-shaped installation channel. Track-mounted spotlights.

If direct access is available from the street – as is often the case with banks – the lighting of the entrance area must be treated as a separate lighting entity. Both room areas and the counter area itself require specific lighting. The lighting in the public area can be compared with that in a lobby.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. There is usually a counter or a row of individual counters between the public area and the office space.4.19 Administration buildings. public areas 4. 259 . public areas Spaces where office space and public areas meet can be found in a wide variety of buildings: local authorities. insurance companies or banks. It is advisable that the lighting over the counter matches the shape and marks it clearly. whereas the lighting in the office area must meet the requirements of the workplaces.19 Administration buildings.

0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.19 Administration buildings. Task light for compact fluorescent lamps. 260 . Recessed downlight for metal halide lamps. also by downlights. The entrance area is illuminated separately. public areas The public area is illuminated by a staggered layout of downlights. A light structure with direct louvred luminaires is suspended above the service counter. task lights provide additional lighting on the information desk. Spotlights mounted on the light structure accentuate focal points. Recessed downlight for compact fluorescent lamps. Recessed louvred luminaire for compact fluorescent lamps.4. Light structure with louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps and spotlights. Lighting for the office area is provided by square louvred luminiares arranged in a regular pattern across the ceiling.

Recessed downlight for halogen lamps. The office area is illuminated by a staggered arrangement of louvred luminaires.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Recessed washlight for halogen lamps. A light structure with direct-indirect louvred luminaires is suspended above the counter. with additional downlights accentutating the entrance. Recessed louvred luminaire for fluorescent lamps.19 Administration buildings.4. 261 . Light structure with direct-indirect louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps. public areas The public area is illuminated by washlights.

Recessed downlight for halogen lamps.19 Administration buildings.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. A light structure with luminaires equipped with fluorescent lamps is suspended above the counter. Decorative downlights create a “welcome mat” effect in the entrance area. They provide indirect light and the beams of light they produce subdivide the wall. public areas Pairs of combined up/downlights are installed along the one side wall. Light structure with luminaires for fluorescent lamps. The office area is illuminated by a staggered arrangement of downlights with cross baffles. Decorative recessed downlight for lowvoltage halogen lamps.4. Wall-mounted combined up/downlight for PAR 38 reflector lamps. Recessed downlight with cross baffles for compact fluorescent lamps. 262 . Downlights positioned in front of the counter produce increased illuminance.

Recessed downlight for metal halide lamps. Recessed downlight for low-voltage halogen lamps.19 Administration buildings. 263 .4. A series of downlights in the entrance area create a “welcome mat” effect. Light structure with direct-indirect louvred luminaires for fluorescent lamps. Wall-mounted ceiling washlight for halogen lamps. A suspended ceiling with integral downlights follows the course of the counter. public areas The indirect lighting in the public area is provided by ceiling washlights.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. The office area is illuminated by a light structure arranged diagonally to the main axis and fitted with direct-indirect louvred luminaires.

Structures with integral track are practical because they save having to wire the structure. the lighting design may consist of a comprehensive range of design possibilities – irrespective of the setting or the objects being presented. Such areas are used for the exhibition of specific products in department stores or car showrooms. coloured light or projections.4. They produce direct light and excellent colour rendering.20 Exhibitions 4. Stage effects can also be used for presentation lighting. at airports and other travel terminals. or even for fashion shows in hotels or congress centres. 264 . This kind of lighting is frequently required in halls or pavilions at trade fairs. it is advisable to go for a demountable. adaptable construction on which to install the lighting. ambient lighting that also serves as the base lighting for the surrounding architecture is usually only required on stands at trade fairs. which emphasises the qualities of the materials on display.g. Modular lattice beam structures meet these requirements best. Spotlights and projectors are the luminaires most commonly used. As in the case of all exhibition lighting accent lighting is by far the more important component.20 Exhibitions A frequent task of exhibition lighting is to create defined presentation area within a larger space. Since it is usually a case of providing temporary lighting. e. which allows lighting to be set up quickly and easily.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Power tripods present an especially versatile solution. and varied in size and shape due to their modular construction. It is most customary to use load-bearing structures onto which luminaires can be mounted mechanically. sometimes only for a few days. They can be erected irrespective of the surrounding architecture. integral track allows a large number of luminaires to be mounted and controlled easily.

20 Exhibitions The lighting is mounted on a wide-span light structure with textile ceiling elements. The structure takes direct luminaires designed for fluorescent lamps and small decorative lamps and spotlights for accent lighting. 265 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4.4. small decorative lamps and track-mounted spotlights. Wide-span light structure with luminaires for fluorescent lamps.

266 . clearly defined beams and gobo projections.4. Power tripod with spotlights.20 Exhibitions Spotlights mounted on a power tripods make for variable exhibition lighting. The lighting is installed on a double portal frame structure comprising lattice beams with integral tracks aligned diagonally to the presentation space. Lens projectors and spotlights mounted on lattice beams with integral tracks.0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Spotlights and projectors are used for striking accent lighting.

20 Exhibitions The lighting is installed on a freestanding. 267 .0 Examples of lighting concepts 4. Spotlights and projectors are used for striking accent lighting and clearly defined beams and gobo projections.4. wide-span structure comprising lattice beams with integral tracks. Lens projectors and spotlights mounted on lattice beams with integral tracks.


5.0 Appendix .

TC T. TC A. QT-LV. TC T. TC A. TC A. HIE. HST. T. QT-LV. TC QT. HIT T. R. The illuminances are aimed at a lighting level appropriate to the specific visual tasks to be performed in the space or in a part of the space. TC A. TC T.5. festival hall Concert platform Meeting room Church 100 200 300/500 750 500 500 500 500 300 300 750 300 200 QT. HIT T. TC T Recommended minimum illuminances (E) for typical interior lighting tasks. The average horizontal illuminances quoted are in accordance with national and international standards. QT-LV. PAR. theatre. R. TC Sales area Department store Cashdesk Supermarket Reception Restaurant Café. TC T. QT. TC A. HSE. HSE. TC T. HIT QT. HME. QT 270 . QT. T. TC. R. T. TC T A. TC. TC A. TC T. TC T. T. TC T. QT. competition Gymnasium. QT A. HIT A. They do not include architectural lighting components or other aspects for the specific situation. QT-LV. QT-LV. illuminance E (lx) Office Team office Open plan office Technical drawing office Data processing CAD Control room Corridor Staircase Canteen Bathroom. R. TC T. HSE. HST. R. QT-LV. QT-LV. QT. T. HIE. TC T. QT-LV. TC T. T. HIT T. QT PAR. HIT T. TC T. auditorium Multi-purpose space Concert. media library Reading room Gymnasium. examination 300 300 500 500 200 200 200 300 500 200 300 300 300 500 400 200 500 750 500 100 200 300 500 QT. lobby Circulation area Classroom Large classoom College hall Art studio Laboratory Lecture hall. QT-LV. TC QT. TC T. R. PAR. HIT T QT. gallery Exhibition space Trade fair hall Library. ward – ambient lighting – reading light – examination light Hospital. T. QT-LV. WC 300 500 750 750 500 200/500 200 50 100 200 100 T. QT. TC PAR. Reception. TC T. QT. QT. QT. TC QT. Using the light sources indicated lighting qualities can be achieved to meet the requirements of the particular visual task economically. PAR. T. PAR.0 Appendix Illuminance recommendations Illuminance recommendations Space/ activity Recommended Light source min. TC. TC TC TC T. TC T T. TC QT. TC A. R. HST. T. HME. T. PAR. training Laboratory Beauty salon Hairdressing salon Hospital. bistro Self-service restaurant Canteen kitchen Museum. T. T. HME.

5. Some lamp do manufacturers use different abbreviations. which are hyphenated. I H L Incandescent lamp High-pressure discharge lamp Low-pressure discharge lamp The second letter indicates the material of the outer envelope for incandescent lamps. beam spread. with integral EB – with 4 discharge tubes. The letters in brackets are not used in practice. colour of outer envelope. The first letter indicates the light production. 271 . The resulting abbreviations are given in the right-hand column. coolbeam.0 Appendix Classification of lamps Classification of lamps The ZVEI. double-ended Halogen reflector lamp. or the gas contained in discharge lamps. power. G Q M I S Glass Quartz glass Mercury Metal halide Sodium vapour The third letter or combination of letters indicates the form of the outer envelope. however. with cover Metal halide lamp. the German Electrical Engineering and Industrial Federation. General service lamp Parabolic reflector lamp Reflector lamp Halogen reflector lamp Halogen lamp (tubular form) Mercury lamp (ellipsoidal form) Mercury lamp (reflector form) Metal halide lamp (ellipsoidal form) Metal halide lamp (reflector form) Metal halide lamp (tubular form) High-pressure sodium lamp (ellipsoidal form) High-pressure sodium lamp (tubular form) Fluorescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp Low-pressure sodium lamp (I) (G) A (I) (G) PAR (I) (G) R (I) Q R (I) Q T H M E H M R H I E H I R H I T H S E H S T (L) (M) T (L) (M) TC L S T A PAR PAR QR QT HME HMR HIE HIR HIT HSE HST T TC LST Standard abbreviations for lamps in this book. type of cap and voltage can be added to the above identification. coolbeam. The ZVEI system of designation consists of up to three characters. without cover Halogen reflector lamp. Halogen lamp. A E PAR R T TC General Ellipsoidal Parabolic reflector Reflector Tubular Compact tubes To complete the classification of a lamp data regarding diameter of lamp or reflector. without starter for EB – linear form QT-DE QR-CB QR-CBC HIT-DE TC TC-EL TC-D TC-DSE TC-DEL TC-L Abbreviations for special models or versions are separated from the main abbreviation by a hyphen. has developed a system of abbreviations for electric lamps used for general lighting purposes. double-ended Compact fluorescent lamp – without starter for EB – with 4 discharge tubes – with 4 discharge tubes. These are supplemented by further abbreviations for special models or versions.

They are the result of basic human needs for information regarding the time of day. or electronically. They may require an additional ignitor or starting device. The degree of absorption is defined as the ratio of absorbed luminous flux to the incident flux Accent lighting Accenting of individual areas of a space by means of lighting that is significantly higher than the level of ¡ the ambient lighting. ¡ Focal glow Accommodation The physiological adjustment of the eye to be able to identify objects at different distances. mostly of aluminium. measure for the size of the image of the object on the ¡ retina Anodizing Electro-chemical oxidation of metal surfaces. Electronic ballasts (EB) do not require additional ignitors. The name is derived from the batwing shape of the light intensity distribution curve Beam spread The angle between the limits from which the axial value of a ¡ light intensity distribution curve decreases to 50%. it is produced by compact.5. objects and people in the environment are visible. The beam spread is the basis for calculating the diameter of light beams emitted by symmetrical luminaires Biological needs The biological needs a lighting concept is expected to meet depend largely on the specific activities to be performed.0 Appendix Glossary Glossary Aberration Defective image in the eye. Effected primarily through the enlarging or reducing of the size of the pupil. point light sources 272 . A distinction is made between spherical aberration. Accommodation deteriorates with age Adaptation The ability of the eye to adjust to ¡ luminances in the field of vision. Brilliance is produced by the reflection of the light source or the light being refracted. Effected by deformation of the lens. work and communication Angle of view Angle at which an object under view is perceived. Architecture. the weather and things that are happening. and chromatic aberration. which allows orientation. using a choke. most significantly effected by changes in the sensitivity of the receptors on the retina and the change between ¡ photopic vision and ¡ scotopic vision Ambient light Ambient light provides general lighting of the visual environment. Inductive ballasts are available as conventional ballasts (CB) or low-loss ballasts (LLB). Current limitation is effected either inductively. legible environment together with the need for a balanced ratio of possible contact with other persons and a private domain Black body ¡ Planckian radiator Brilliance Describes the effect of light on glossy surfaces or transparent materials. spatial orientation and a clearly structured. Anodized surfaces that are subsequently polished or treated chemically to produce a glossy finish are extremely durable and have high ¡ (luminous) reflectance Ballast Current limiting ¡ control gear for ¡ discharge lamps. This fulfils the need for safety. They do not produce disturbing humming noises or ¡ strobscopic effects Barndoors Term used to describe rectangular antidazzle screens used predominantly with stage projectors Batwing characteristics ¡ Light intensity distribution curve of a luminaire with especially wide-angled light intensity distribution characteristics. which is a result of the different focal lengths of central and peripheral areas of the lens. which occurs when the refraction of light of different wavelengths is changed Absorption The ability of materials and substances to transform light into other forms of energy (primarily heat) without reflecting or transmitting it.

LLB) is compensated using a series capacitor. so that reflected glare occurs in the reflector above the cut-off angle Cut-off angle (luminaire) The angle taken from the horizontal to the line from the inner edge of the luminaire to the edge of the light source. this angle is used to identify the glare limitation of a luminaire 273 . by which the cross section at right angles to the longitudinal axis determines the lighting effect Cut-off angle (lamp) Angle above which no direct ¡ reflection from the light source is visible in the ¡ reflector. The phenomenon of constancy is one of the essential prerequisites that allow the creation of a clearly structured image of reality from the changing luminance patterns on the retina Contrast Difference in the ¡ luminance or colour of two objects or one object and its surroundings. In the case of discharge lamps. In other forms of reflector it may be less. This comprises generally ¡ ballasts that regulate the current flow. which means that a second lamp can be operated in parallel with the first (¡ lead-lag circuit) CB Abbreviation for conventional ¡ ballast Central field of vision The central field of vision is effectively the same as the working plane. a correlated colour temperature is given. The concepts of central field of vision and surrounding field are used mainly in connection with luminance distribution Chromacity coordinates ¡ Standard colorimetric system Chromacity diagram ¡ Standard colorimetric system Chromatic aberration ¡ Aberration CIE Abbreviation for Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage. as it consists of the visual task and its direct ambient field. international lighting commission Colour adaptation The ability of the eye to adjust to the ¡ luminous colour of an environment. Due to the phase shift of the voltage with respect to the current a certain amount of blind (reactive. the more difficult the ¡ visual task Contrast rendition Criterion for limiting reflected glare. can be integrated into the cap Compensation If ¡ discharge lamps are run on inductive ¡ ballasts (CB. 1 cd is defined as the luminous intensity emitted by a monochromatic light source with a radiant power of 1/683 W at 555 nm at a solid angle of 1 steradian Capacitive circuits Circuits where a discharge lamp run on an inductive ¡ ballast (CB. which loads the power mains. Compact fluorescent lamps are single-ended lamps. reflectance/colour) from changes in the environment (changes in distance. Often referred to as multi-mirror reflectors Cove Architectural element on the ceiling or wall that can accommodate luminaires (usually ¡ fluorescent lamps or ¡ highvoltage fluorescent tubes) for indirect lighting Cove reflector Reflector for linear light sources. or by the colour rendering category Colour temperature Describes the ¡ luminous colour of a light source. effectively parallel in the case of objects viewed at a considerable distance. position within the space. form. which is defined as the ratio of the luminance contrast of the visual task under given lighting conditions to the luminance contrast under reference lighting conditions Control gear Control gear is the equipment required in addition to the actual lamp for the operation of the light source. LLB). Contrast rendition is described by the contrast rendition factor (CRF). the basic unit of measure in lighting technology. Together with the ¡ cut-off angle (lamp). lighting). ¡ ignitors and ¡ starting devices for the operation of discharge lamps. and sometimes also ¡ ballasts.5. Using coolbeam reflectors reduces the thermal load on illuminated objects. In the case of ¡ darklight reflectors the cut-off angle of the lamp is identical to the cut-off angle of the luminaire. wattless) current is produced. In the case of thermal radiators the colour temperature is almost equivalent to the temperature of the filament. In the case of large-scale installations power supply companies require the blind current to be compensated by means of power factor correction capacitors Cone vision ¡ Photopic vision Cones ¡ Eye Constancy The ability of human perception to distinguish the constant qualities of objects (size. Allows relatively natural colour perception even amongst different luminous colours Colour rendering Quality of the reproduction of colours under a given light. This is the temperature at which a ¡ black body emits light of a comparable colour Compact fluorescent lamp ¡ Fluorescent lamps with especially compact dimensions due to a combination of several short discharge tubes or one curved discharge tube. The circuit is then over-compensated.0 Appendix Glossary Candela Represented by the symbol l (cd) Unit of ¡ luminous intensity. starters. The lower the contrast level. meeting at an angle in the case of objects viewed at close range Coolbeam reflector ¡ Dichroic reflector which reflects mainly visible light but transmits (glass reflectors) or absorbs (metal reflectors) infrared radiation. and transformers for the operation of low-voltage lamps Controlling brightness ¡ Dimmer Convergence Alignment of the optical axes of the eyes to an object. the power factor is below unity. The central field of vision is enclosed by the surrounding field as an extended ambient field. The degree of colour distortion in comparison with a reference light source is classified by the colour rendering index Ra.

The pattern of luminances on the retina is translated into nervous impulses by receptor cells. The ¡ luminous colour is always in the ¡ daylight white range Daylight factor Ratio of the ¡ daylight ¡ illuminance on the ¡ working plane in a space to the outdoor illuminance Daylight simulator Technical equipment for simulating sunlight and ¡ daylight. They allow colours and sharper contours to be seen in a narrow angle of vision. the testing of light control equipment and measurement of ¡ daylight factors on the model Daylight white. which provides ¡ modelling and ¡ brilliance effects. To allow ignition to occur the electrodes in a large number of discharge lamps are coated with a special emitter material (usually barium oxide) Exposure Represented by the symbol H (lx. which in turn leads to improved ¡ colour rendition. Colour rendering can be improved substantially by adding luminous substances. The cones are concentrated in the central area around the fovea. They are also used for inverse effect outer envelopes on lamps to increase the temperature of the lamp (hot mirror) Diffuse light Diffuse light is emitted by large luminous areas. High-pressure discharge lamps have a small lamp volume and have correspondingly high luminance values. There are two kinds of receptor in the eye: the rods and the cones. which is moved to coordinate with the course of the sun for the duration of one day or one year. but require high illuminances (¡ photopic vision) 274 . The high operating pressure leads to the broadening of the spectral ranges produced. they are extremely sensitive to light and allow wide-angled vision at low illuminances (¡ scotopic vision).5. Dichroic reflectors are used primarily as ¡ coolbeam reflectors. Generally in the form of a loss-free leading edge dimmer. Conventional dimmers can be used without problems for incandescent lamps run on mains voltage. Increasing the lamp pressure frequently also means an increase in luminous efficacy Discomfort glare ¡ Glare Distribution characteristics ¡ luminous intensity distribution curve Double focus reflector ¡ Reflector EB Abbreviation for electronic ¡ ballast Elliptical reflector ¡ Reflector Emitter Material that facilitates the transfer of electrons to be converted from the electrodes into the discharge column of the lamp. which is located on the axis of sight. The beam direction is from one angle only. comprising the cornea and the deformable lens which enable images of the environment to be reproduced on the retina. which to a large extent restricts colour rendition characteristic. The qualities of the lamp depend on the contents of the discharge tube and the operating pressure of the lamp. Low-pressure discharge lamps have a larger lamp volume and correspondingly low lamp luminances. The variable beam directions within the space are generally aligned to produce uniformly directed beams of light. The light emitted comprises only narrow spectral ranges. Daylight is either simulated by a semi-spherical shaped arrangement of numerous luminaires or by the multireflection of a laylight ceiling in a mirrored room.h) Exposure is defined as the product of the illuminance and the exposure time through which a surface is illuminated Eye The eye consists of an optical system. Exposed lamps also produce directed light. and colours are not perceived. the dimming of high-pressure discharge lamps is technically possible. The rods are distributed fairly evenly over the retina. Visual accuity is poor. however. ¡ Controlling light. dw ¡ Luminous colour Daytime vision ¡ Photopic vision Dichroic filters ¡ Filters Dichroic reflector Reflector with a multi-layered selective reflective coating.0 Appendix Glossary Darklight reflector ¡ Reflector Daylight Daylight consists of both direct sunlight and the diffuse light of an overcast or clear sky. which only reflects a part of the spectrum and transmits others. A distinction is therefore made between high-pressure and lowpressure discharge lamps. Dimmers for fluorescent lamps and low-voltage lamps are technically more complicated. Disability glare ¡ Glare Discharge lamp Light source that produces light by exciting gases or metal vapours. The result is uniform. reflecting visible light and transmitting ¡ infrared radiation. By adjusting the size of the aperture of the pupil the iris roughly controls the amount of incident light. but it is also costly and is not often provided Direct glare ¡ Glare Directed light Directed light is emitted by point light sources. Sunlight is simulated by a parabolic spotlight. A daylight simulator allows model simulations of light and shadow conditions in planned buildings. Daylight illuminances are significantly higher than the illuminances produced by artificial lighting. soft lighting which produces little ¡ modelling or ¡ brilliance Dimmer Regulating device for varying the luminous intensity of a light source.

0 Appendix Glossary Filter Optically effective element with selective ¡ transmission. In all cases glare can be caused by the light source itself (direct glare) or through the reflection of the light source (reflected glare) Gobo Term used in stage lighting to describe a mask or template. as complete forms. ¡ EB Focal glow Focal glow refers to accent lighting. a distinction is made between disability glare (physiological glare). Optical disturbance caused by the edges of the prisms is usually corrected by producing a grained finish on the rear side of the lens. The ultraviolet radiation produced during the mercury discharge process is converted into visible light by the luminous substances on the inner wall of the discharge tube. i. ¡ infrared) are eliminated.5. Fluorescent lamps require an ignitor and a ballast. fluorescent lamps have heated electrodes and can therefore be ignited at comparatively low voltages. so that either coloured light is produced or invisible portions of radiation (¡ ultraviolet. which involves a subjective disturbance factor arising from the incongruity of luminance and information content of the area perceived. by which there is an objective depreciation of visual performance. which can be projected onto the set using a projector Goniophotometer ¡ Photometer 275 . Filter effects can be achieved by means of selective ¡ absorption or ¡ interference. The wavelength of the light emitted is always greater than the wavelength of the radiation used to excite the substances. As a rule. where the effect of a considerably thicker lens is achieved by a flat arrangement of lens segments. A distinction is made between disability glare. By using different luminous substances it is possible to produce a variety of luminous colours and different colour rendering qualities. Light is used deliberately to convey information by visually accentuating significant areas and allowing insignificant areas to remain in the background Fovea ¡ Eye Fresnel lens Stepped lens. Furthermore. which does not depend on luminance contrast. ¡ Ambient lighting General service lamp ¡ Incandescent lamp Gestalt (form) perception Theory of perception that presumes that perceived structures are regarded as a gestalt.e. and not synthesized as individual elements. the aim is to create optimum perceptual conditions for all activities to be performed in a specific area Gas light An early form of lighting using a bare gas flame to produce light General lighting Uniform lighting of an entire space without taking specific visual tasks into account. Each gestalt is classified according to a specific law of gestalt and separated from its environment Glare Generic term describing the depreciation of ¡ visual performance or the disturbance felt by perceivers through excessive ¡ luminance levels or ¡ luminance contrasts in a visual environment. Interference filters allow an especially clear division of the light that is transmitted and that which is eliminated by the filters Flood Usual term used for wide-beam ¡ reflectors or ¡ reflector lamps Fluorescence Fluorescence is a process by which substances are excited by means of radiation and made to produce light. and discomfort glare. Fresnel lenses are primarily used in stage projectors and spotlights with adjustable ¡ beam spreads Functional requirements (Lam: activity needs) The functional requirements a lighting concept is expected to meet are dictated by the visual tasks which are to be performed. Fluorescence is used in technical applications for ¡ luminous substances that convert ¡ ultraviolet radiation into visible light Fluorescent lamp Low-pressure ¡ discharge lamp filled with mercury vapour. and contrast-related relative glare. Only a part of the radiation falling on a surface is transmitted.

5. limestone. especially thermal radiators. The discharge tubes can be extremely long and have a variety of forms. In contrast to general service lamps. the internal discharge tube is made of alumina ceramic and surrounded by an additional outer envelope.g. The illuminance decreases with the square of the distance Involute reflector ¡ Reflector Isoluminance diagram Diagram to illustrate luminance distribution. Leakage transformers. at high pressure mercury vapour produces visible light with a low red content. Luminous substances can be added to complement the red content and improve ¡ colour rendering. in the case of ¡ fluorescent lamps with unheated electrodes. They are used primarily for luminous advertising and for theatrical effect. At high illuminance levels infrared radiation can lead to inacceptable thermal loads and damage to materials Interference Physical phenomenon which occurs when asynchronous waves are superimposed. e. and the PAR lamp made of pressed glass with an integral parabolic reflector Inductive circuits Circuit in which a non-compensated discharge lamp can be operated on an inductive ¡ ballast (CCB. which results in the selective attenuation of wavelength ranges.g. In contrast to the lowpressure discharge process. ignition pulsers and electronic ignitors can be used as ignitors Illuminance Represented by the symbol E (lx) Illuminance is defined as the ratio of the amount of luminous flux falling on a surface to the area of the surface Incandescent gas light Form of lighting whereby an incandescent mantle coated with rare earths. In contrast to ¡ low-pressure sodium lamps colour rendition is considerably improved. clear or frosted outer envelopes. The luminous colour is in the warm white range. Infrared radiation is produced by all light sources. High-pressure mercury lamps require ¡ ballasts. The filament is contained in an outer envelope made of glass and filled with a special gas (nitrogen or inert gas) to prevent the filament from oxidizing and to slow down the vaporisation of the filament material. They are filled with neon or argon gas and contain luminous substances. in which lines representing values of illuminance are indicated on a reference plane 276 . which produces almost exclusively ¡ ultraviolet radiation. In this case the power factor of the installation is below unity Infrared radiation Invisible long-wave radiation (thermal radiation. ignition transformers. High-pressure sodium lamps require ¡ ignitors and ¡ ballasts High-voltage fluorescent tubes ¡ Fluorescent lamps similar to low-pressure ¡ discharge lamps. the reflector lamp with a variety of internal mirrors. There are various types of incandescent lamps available: the main group comprises general purpose lamps with drop-shaped. originally using other solid bodies (e. High-voltage fluorescent tubes require an ¡ ignitor and a ¡ ballast Ignition aid Equipment to facilitate ignition. ¡ LLB). limelight) is excited to thermolumine-scence using a gas flame. but at the expense of luminous efficacy. halogen lamps have increased luminous efficacy and a longer service life High-pressure discharge lamps ¡ Discharge lamps High-pressure mercury lamp High-pressure ¡ discharge lamp containing mercury vapour. which prevents deposits of the evaporated filament material forming on the outer envelope.0 Appendix Glossary Halogen lamp Compact incandescent lamp with additional halides in the gas compound. As aggressive sodium vapour can destroy glass at high pressures. wavelength >780 nm). Interference is used in ¡ filters and ¡ reflectors for selective ¡ transmission or ¡ reflection Interference filters ¡ Filters Inverse square law Law that describes the ¡ illuminance as the function of the distance from the light source. which can produce a large number of luminous colours. which work with unheated electrodes and accordingly require high voltages. The luminous efficacy is far greater and the light produced of a shorter wavelength than is the case with pure ¡ gas light Incandescent lamp ¡ Thermal radiator. where it is the major component of the emitted radiation. usually an auxiliary electrode or an external ignitor system Ignitor ¡ Control gear which promotes the ignition of ¡ discharge lamps by producing high-voltage peaks. where light is produced by the heating of a wire filament (usually tungsten). but no ¡ ignitors High-pressure sodium lamp High-pressure discharge lamp containing sodium vapour. in which lines representing values of luminance are indicated on a reference plane Isolux diagram Diagram to illustrate illuminance distribution.

With the aid of light control the ¡ luminance that can give rise to glare in the critical beam area can be reduced to an acceptable level Light fastness Is an indication of the degree by which a material wll be damaged by the effect of light. Low-pressure sodium lamps have excellent luminous efficacy. a specific pattern of switching and dimming for each circuit. whose ¡ luminous intensity distribution (with regard to the cosine law) is the shape of a sphere or a circle LDC Abbreviation for ¡ light distribution curve Leading edge dimming Method of controlling the brightness. i. thermal luminescence. 12. Different luminaire types allow lighting effects ranging from uniform lighting to the accentuation of specific areas to the projection of light patterns. chemoluminescence. It is calculated from the spectral radiant power by the evaluation with the spectral sensitivity of the eye V (¬) Luminous intensity Represented by the symbol l (cd) Luminous intensity is the amount of luminous flux radiating in a given direction (lm/sr). (lm/W) Luminous flux Represented by the symbol Ï (lm) Luminous flux describes the total amount of light emitted by a light source. The light scene can be stored electronically and recalled at the touch of button Line spectrum ¡ Spectrum LitG ¡ Abbreviation for Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e. cathodoluminescence. ¡ transmission or ¡ reflection. As they emit monochromatic. The luminance is accordingly defined as the ratio of ¡ luminous intensity to the area on a plane at right angles to the direction of beam Luminance limiting curve ¡ Luminance limiting method Luminance limiting method Method for evaluating the potential glare of a luminaire. defines whether a luminaire emits light upwards or downwards. Since both lamps are out-of-phase. i. The luminous colour can be identified by x. 24 V). but may also apply to the material itself Light loss factor Factor (usually 0. Light fastness applies primarily to changes in the colour of the material (colour fastness). neutral white (nw) and daylight white (dw). it is not possible to recognise colours under the lighting provided by these lamps. yellow light. frequently equipped with specular. and the second digit indicates the corresponding value for the upper half of the room Luminaire efficiency Luminaire light output ratio Luminaire light output ratio Ratio of the luminous flux emitted by a luminaire to the luminous flux of the lamp.g. (German Lighting Engineering Society) LLB ¡ Abbreviation for low-loss ¡ ballast Louvred luminaire Standard term used to describe rectangular luminaires designed for linear fluorescent lamps (modular luminaires). The same luminous colours may have different spectral distributions and correspondingly different ¡ colour rendering Luminous efficacy Luminous efficacy describes the luminous flux of a lamp in relation to its power consumption. in which the power to the lamps is controlled by cutting out the leading edge of waves of alternating current Lead-lag cicuit Wiring of an inductive ¡ fluorescent lamp in parallel with an over-compensated fluorescent lamp. Frequently also available with metal reflectors or ¡ coolbeam reflectors Lumen. to take into account the reduction in performance of a lighting installation due to the ageing of the lamps and the deterioration of the light output from the luminaires Light output ratio ¡ Luminaire light output ratio Lighting control Lighting control allows the lighting of a space to be adjusted to meet changing uses and environmental conditions. bioluminescence.e. in the case of white luminous colours also as a colour temperature TF. A light scene is created for each different use .when using the utilisation factor method. e. The internal discharge tube is surrounded by an outer envelope that reflects infrared radiation to increase the lamp temperature. prismatic or antidazzle louvres Low-pressure discharge lamp ¡ Discharge lamp Low-pressure sodium lamp Low-pressure discharge lamp containing sodium vapour. The luminance of the luminaire with different beam spreads is entered in a diagram. Low-pressure sodium lamps require ¡ ignitors and ¡ ballasts Low-voltage halogen lamp Extremely compact ¡ tungsten halogen lamps operated on low voltage (usually 6. White luminous colours are roughly divided up into warm white (ww). The power factor of the overall circuit is effectively unity. the letter indicates the luminaire category. which is included in illuminance calculations.0 Appendix Glossary Lambertian radiator Completely diffuse light source. y coordinates as chromacity coordinates in the ¡ standard colorimetric system. lm ¡ Luminous flux Luminaire classification System for the classification of luminaire qualities according to the luminous intensity distribution curve.5. The first digit after that describes the portion of direct luminous flux falling on the working plane in the lower half of the room.e. Light control is extremely significant for ¡ visual comfort. in which the luminance curve must not exceed the luminance limit for the required glare limitation classification Luminescence General term for all luminous phenomena that are not produced by thermal radiators (photoluminescence. It describes the spatial distribution of the luminous flux 277 . In the classification of the luminous intensity of a luminaire through the allocation of a letter and digits. triboluminescence) Luminous colour The colour of the light emitted by a lamp.8). there is less fluctuation of luminous intensity Light control The control of light using reflectors or lenses is used to develop luminaires with clearly defined optical qualities as instruments for effective lighting design. electroluminescence. The luminaire light output ratio is related to the actual lamp lumens in the luminaire Luminance Represented by the symbol L (cd/m2) Luminance describes the brightness of a luminous surface which either emits light through autoluminance (as a light source).V.

In contrast to pure metals. In the case of rotationally symmetrical light sources only one light distribution curve is required. or light distribution curve. i. In this case it is usual to provide a Cartesian coordinate system Lux. prismatic or anti-dazzle louvres Monochromatic light Light of one colour with a very narrow spectral range. halogen compounds melt at a considerably lower temperature. g. is the section through the three-dimensional graph which represents the distribution of the luminous intensity of a light source throughout a space. This means that metals that do not produce metal vapour when the lamp is in operation can also be used.e. lx ¡ Illuminance Maintenance factor Reciprocal value of the ¡ light loss factor Mesopic vision Transitional stage between ¡ photopic vision. Light guides are made of glass or plastic and may be solid core or hollow fibres 278 . fibre optic system Optical instrument for conveying light to required positions. e. e.5. nw ¡ Luminous colour Night vision ¡ Scotopic vision Optical fibres. i.01 cd/m2 Metal halide lamp ¡ High-pressure discharge lamp where the envelope is filled with metal halides. The light distribution curve is generally given in the form of a polar coordinate diagram standardised to a luminous flux of 1000 lm. including around corners and bends. Can be explained by the term ¡ shadow formation Modular luminaires General term used to describe rectangular luminaires designed to take tubular fluorescent lamps. Mesopic vision covers the luminance range of 3 cd/m2 to 0. As ¡ louvred luminaires frequently equipped with specular. Visual accuity increases under monochromatic light due to the fact that chromatic ¡ aberration does not arise. The polar coordinate diagram is not sufficiently accurate for narrow-beam luminaires. projectors. Axially symmetrical light sources require two or more curves. Light is transported from one end of the light guide to the other by means of total internal reflection. daylight vision with the aid of ¡ cones and scotopic vision. Colour perception and visual accuity have corresponding interim values. night vision with the aid of ¡ rods. Colour rendition is not possible Multi-mirror ¡ Coolbeam reflector Neutral white. The availability of a large variety of source materials means that metal vapour compounds can be produced which in turn produce high luminous efficacy during the discharge process. and good colour rendering Mode of Protection Classification of luminaires with regard to the degree of protection provided against physical contact and the ingress of foreign bodies or water Modelling Accentuation of three-dimensional forms and surface structures through direct light from point light sources.0 Appendix Glossary Luminous intensity distribution curve The luminous intensity distribution curve.

Photometers are adjusted to the spectral sensitivity of the eye (V(¬) adjustment). Colours can be perceived Planckian radiator (Black body). especially the way received sense stimuli are processed Permanent supplementary artificial lighting.5. The task of the lighting is to reinforce the way the space is divided up. its forms. especially the bundling of light. Measurement is carried out by moving the measuring device around the luminaire (spiral photometer) or by directing the luminous flux onto a stationary measuring device via an adjustable mirror Photometric distance of tolerance Minimum distance above which the influence of the size of the lamp or luminaire on the validity of the inverse square law can be ignored. especially in deep office spaces with a row of windows along one side of the space only. and in the case of mirror reflectors the contours of the cross section. through the arrangement and effects of the luminaires 279 . festive or exciting atmosphere Point illuminance In contrast to average illuminance. which increases with size Power factor ¡ Compensation Prismatic louvre Element used for controlling light in luminaires or for controlling daylight using refraction and total internal reflection in prismatic elements Protection class Classification of luminaires with regard to the rate of protection provided against electric shock Reflected ceiling plan The view of a ceiling plan from above. Re-ignition The restarting of a lamp after it has been switched off or after current failure. practically point-sized light source emitting direct light. Ideal thermal radiator whose radiation properties are described in the Planck's Law Play of brilliance Play of brilliance is the decorative application of light. The degree of reflection is expressed in the reflection factor (reflecting coefficient). A large number of ¡ discharge lamps can only be re-ignited after a given cooling time. rhythms and modules. ¡ Visual accuity is good. whereas linear or flat light sources produce diffuse light. large-dimensioned photometric equipment (goniophotometers) is required for measuring the light distribution of luminaires. point illuminance describes the exact level of illuminance at a specific point in the space Point light source Term used to describe compact. It indicates the ratio of the reflected luminous flux to the luminous flux falling on a surface Reflector System for controlling light based on reflecting surfaces. to emphasise architectural features and support the intended atmosphere of the building. provided to show the type and arrangement of the luminaires and equipment to be installed Reflected glare ¡ Glare Reflection Ability of materials to redirect light. in the case of optical systems the photometric distance of tolerance is established by experimentation Photopic vision (Daylight vision). Vision with ¡ adaptation to luminances of over 3 cd/m2. The intention of the architectural design can be underlined. Instant re-ignition is only possible with the aid of special high-voltage ¡ ignitors Relative glare ¡ Glare Requirements. Parabolic reflectors direct the light from a (point) light source parallel to the axis. The refraction of different parts of the spectrum to different degrees gives rise to the formation of colour spectra (prisms). which expresses the average level of illuminance in a space. from which other photometric quantities are derived. PSALI Additional artificial lighting. Specular effects produced by light source and illuminated materials – from the candle flame to the chandelier to the light sculpture – contribute towards creating a prestigious. architectural The architectural requirements a lighting concept is expected to meet are dictated by the structure of the architecture.0 Appendix Glossary PAR lamp ¡ Incandescent lamp Parabolic reflector ¡ Reflector Perceptual physiology Field of science concerning the biological aspects of perception. The primary quantity measured is ¡ illuminance. Point light sources allow optimum control of the light. Permanent supplementary artificial lighting balances the steep drop in illuminance in parts of the space furthest away from the windows and contributes towards avoiding ¡ glare by reducing the luminance contrast between the windows and the surrounding space Photometer Instrument for measuring photometric quantities. and even enhanced. The characteristics of a reflector are primarily the reflecting and diffusing qualities. The refracting power of a medium is defined as the refractive index Refraction of light Bending of rays of light as they pass through materials of different density. spherical reflectors direct the light back to the focal point and elliptical reflectors direct the light radiated by a lamp located at the first focal point of the ellipse to the second focal point Reflector lamp ¡ Incandescent lamp Refraction The bending of rays of light as they pass through materials of different density. Photometric vision occurs through the ¡ cones and is therefore concentrated on the area around the ¡ fovea. Special. The photometric distance of tolerance must be at least ten times the maximum diameter of the lamp or luminaire. especially the way the brain receives and processes sense stimuli Perceptual psychology Field of science concerning the mental and intellectual aspects of perception.

Vision with ¡ adaptation to luminances of less than 0. Scotopic vision is effected with the aid of the ¡ rods and comprises the peripheral area of the ¡ retina.0 Appendix Glossary Retina ¡ Eye Retro-reflection Reflection in rectangular reflector systems (triple mirrors) or transparent spheres. but by the use of the luminaire's own secondary reflector. Modelling can be described as the ratio of the average vertical (cylindrical) illuminance to the horizontal ¡ illuminance at a given point in the space Solid angle Represented by the symbol Ø Unit for measuring the angular extent of an area. They are disturbing and dangerous in spaces where people are operating machines. Stroboscopic effects can arise in ¡ discharge lamps. which results in improved colour rendition.y coordinates ¡ chromaticity diagram.5. ¡ Visual accuity is poor. as the name suggests Shadow formation Measure for the ¡ modelling quality of a lighting installation. The ¡ spectral distribution gives rise to the ¡ luminous colour and ¡ colour rendering. which in turn heats the lamp electrodes. The solid angle is the ratio of the area on a sphere to the square of the sphere's radius Spectrum Distribution of the radiant power of a light source over all wavelengths. blended lamp ¡ High-pressure mercury lamp with an additional filament within the outer envelope which is connected in series and takes the form of a current limiter. colours cannot be perceived. The luminous colour of thermal radiators is located on the curve of the Planckian radiator Starter Ingnition device for ¡ fluorescent lamps. Scallops are produced by grazing wall lighting from downlights Scotopic vision (Night vision). the room index indicates the geometry of the space Scallop Hyperbolic beam shape of a beam of light. The effect can be counteracted by operating the lamps out of phase (¡ lead-lag circuit. Combinations of two colours lie along the straight lines that link the respective colour loci. by which the light is reflected parallel to the incident light Rods ¡ Eye Room index When calculating ¡ illuminances using the ¡ utilisation factor method. connection to three-phase mains) or on high-frequency electronic ¡ ballasts Sun simulator ¡ Daylight simulator Sunlight ¡ Daylight Surrounding field ¡ Central field of vision 280 . Secondary reflector luminaires frequently have a combination of primary and secondary reflectors.01 cd/m2. the line spectrum (low-pressure discharge) and band spectrum (high-pressure discharge) Specular louvres ¡ Reflector Spherical aberration ¡ Aberration Spherical reflector ¡ Reflector Spiral photometer ¡ Photometer Spot General term used to describe narrowbeam ¡ reflectors or ¡ reflector lamps Standard colorimetric system System for defining luminous colours and body colours numerically. which through induction produces the voltage surge in the ¡ ballast required to ignite the lamp Stepped lens ¡ Fresnel lens Steradiant. After a specific preheating time the electric circuit is opened. Depending on the type of light produced. Self ballasted mercury discharge lamps need no ¡ ignitor or ¡ ballast. sr ¡ Solid angle Stroboscopic effects Flickering effects or apparent changes in speed of moving objects due to pulsating light (through the supply frequency) up to apparent standstill or a change of direction. which allows good control of the direct and indirect ¡ luminous flux emitted Self ballasted mercury discharge lamp. basic types of spectra can differ: the continuous spectrum (daylight and ¡ thermal radiators). The standard colorimetric system is presented in a twodimensional diagram in which the colour loci of all colours and colour blends from their purely saturated state to white are numerically described through their x. predominantly in dimmed fluorescent lamps. When the lamp is switched on the lamp the starter closes a preheat circuit. sensitivity to the movement of perceived objects is high Secondary reflector technology Luminaire technolgy where an indirect or a direct/indirect component is not produced by lighting the room surfaces.

Additional lighting of the workplace which goes beyond ¡ general lighting to meet the demands of specific visual tasks Thermal radiator Radiant source which emits light through the heating of a material. ¡ luminance ratios.5. g. The unit of measure is the visus. usually 0. the ¡ utilance and the lamp lumens VDT-approved luminaire Luminaires designed for application in offices equipped with visual display terminals Visual accuity Ability of the eye to perceive details. ¡ colour rendition. and with the diminishing size of details Warm white.2 m in circulation zones Zoning Dividing up of the space into different areas relating to their function 281 . (¡ illuminance. in the case of materials used in practice (e. Light sources used for architectural lighting only emit a small portion of ultraviolet radiation. tan effect) and in photochemistry. ww ¡ Luminous colour Working plane Standardised plane to which illuminances and luminances are related. It is the result of the correlation of room geometry. Utilance Utilance is the ratio of the ¡ luminous flux falling on the working plane to the luminous flux emitted by a luminaire. which is defined as the reciprocal value of the size of the smallest detail that can be perceived (usually the position of the opening in the Landolt broken ring) in minutes of arc Visual comfort Visual comfort is generally understood as the quality of a lighting installation that meets a number of quality criteria. ¡ modelling) Visual task Expression for the perceptual perfomance required of the eye or for the visual qualities of the object to be perceived. This ability is expressed as a transmission factor.85 m in the case of workplaces and 0. tungsten in wire filaments) the spectrum produced differs slightly from this spectral distribution Thermoluminescence ¡ Luminescence Transformer ¡ Control gear Transmission Ability of materials to allow light to pass through them.0 Appendix Glossary Tandem circuit Operation of two ¡ fluorescent lamps switched in series on one ¡ ballast Task lighting Used generally to describe the illumination of workplaces in accordance with given standards and regulations. Special light sources designed to produce a higher portion of ultraviolet radiation are used for medical and cosmetic purposes (disinfection. which is defined as the ratio of transmitted luminous flux to the luminous flux falling on a surface Tri-phosphor lamp ¡ Fluorescent lamp Ultraviolet radiation Invisible radiation below short-wave light (wavelength <380 nm). the reflectance of the room surfaces and the luminaire characteristics Utilisation factor method Method for calculating the average ¡ illuminance of spaces with the aid of the ¡ light output ratio. An ideal ¡ Planckian radiator emits a spectrum pursuant to the Planck's Law. The grade of difficulty of a visual task grows with diminishing colour or luminance contrast. Ultraviolet radiation can have a damaging effect: colours fade and materials become brittle.

Stage. March Arnheim. B.: Neue Lichtatmosphäre im Büro – Direkt-Indirektbeleuchtung und ihre Bewertung. Stuttgart 1967 Davis. W. 19/2.. 8 Bouma. University of California. H. MIT. 3 Breitfuß. Thomas B. Leibig.: The Agreable Environment. MacKenzie. Lam. J.1) CIE: Committee TC-3. Paris 1970 CIE: Guide on Interior Lighting. Its Interaction with Art and Antiquity.. 4 Bauer.: Versuche zur Beschreibung der Hellempfindung. H. 64 No. Stevenage Herts. J. Hallenbeck.. Lighting Design + Application 1987. 1973 Boud. February. F.. Nr.. May De Boer. H. J.: Development of Integrated Ceiling Systems. Applied Science Publishers. VDE Verlag Berlin.: Bildschirmarbeitsplätze im richtigen Licht. June Boyce. Bücherei. John. H. Light & Lighting 1971. Vol. Offenbach 1989 Cakir. Hentschel. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. F. Vol. W. Hans Georg: Lexikon Lichtund Beleuchtungstechnik. J. M. LIV Bodmann.-J. H. James J. Voit.. H. Technik am Bau 1978. Ernst: Sonnenschutz. W. Gösta: Lighting the Theatre. Internationale Lichtrundschau 1984. Internationale Lichtrundschau 1983. J. Lighting Research and Technology 1975.0 Appendix Bibliography Bibliography Appel. Faber: Light. Leibig. Vol. Heft 6 Breitfuß. P. Berlin 1990 Caminada. Faber. Technik am Bau 1986.: Strahlungsmessung im optischen Spektralbereich. Bommel. P. Institut für Arbeits. Nr. M. New York 1969 Birren. Peter R. Berkeley 1971 Bartenbach. 1966 Buschendorf.und Sozialforschung. London 1981 Brandston. 13 Bodmann. No. Lichttechnik 1962. G. Christian: Neue Tageslichtkonzepte. Pusch.: Lighting for Effect. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. New York 1980 British Lighting Council: Interior Lighting Design Handbook. E. 4 CIE: International Lighting Vocabulary. International Lighting Review 1962. Lighting Research and Technology 1977 282 . 13 No.: Light. W. Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn. H. J. R.: Bridging the Gap – Part II. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society 1984.: Eine Untersuchung zum Stand der Beleuchtungstechnik in deutschen Büros. 1982.. J. 29 (TC-4. J. 4 Caminada. Licht 34. W. 11 Boud.. Paris 1981. J. Ergonomic. 59 No. Publ. Rudolf: Visual Thinking. Progressive Architecture 1960. Hatje.2 Beitz. Studio. July Vol.1 Council for Care of Churches: Lighting and Wiring of Churches. A. John: Lighting Design in Buildings. Henry L. 28 De Boer. Publ. Ahmet E. Van Nostrand Reinhold.: Developement and Use of a Quantitative Method for Specification of Interior Illumination Levels on the Basis of Performance Data. Light & Lighting 1966.: Über architektonische Beleuchtung. F. Vol. Eindhoven 1951 Boyce. Plenum. 14 Boud. 8 Bartenbach. J.: Shop. Lighting Design + Application 1987. Illuminating Engineering 1959.: Farbe und Farbwahrnehmung. Pinniger. Logan.: Models in Architecture. J. August Blackwell.: Closing the Gap.: How Much Light Do We Really Need? Building Systems Design 1975. 1980 Brill. Boston 1976 Bentham. Albert. No. Color and Environment. Christian: Licht. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1975. L. Stockholm 1977 Birren.: Illumination Levels and Visual Performance. B.: Performance and Comfort in the Presence of Veiling Reflections. Braunschweig 1962 Bedocs. Pitman. J. William M. American Elsevier. R. Howard: Beleuchtung aus der Sicht des Praktikers. London 1969 Bergmann. Philips Techn. C. Robert G. Data Report 15. 7 No.: Glanz in der Beleuchtungstechnik.: An Approach to the Design of the Luminous Environment. Lichttechnik 1967..und Raummilieu.: Human Factors in Lighting.: The Art of Stage Lighting. van: New Lighting Criteria for Residential Areas. Nr.1: An Analytic Model for Describing the Influence of Lighting Parameters on Visual Performance. G.5. Nr. New York 1968 Danz. Vol. Peter Peregrinus Ltd. et al. Council for Care of Churches 1961 Cowan.

: Daylighting. Bd. Thompson. Stuttgart 1974 Hartmann. P. Essay on Gestalt Perception. Louis: Creative Design. Lichttechnik 1978. February 283 . 12 Hilbert. C. 4 Grenald. Roll.. Jr.: Seeing in the Light of Experience. Mark L. Van Nostrand Reinhold. K. Louis: Radiation. R. 16 No.: Die Indirektkomponente der Beleuchtung und optimale Leuchtdichteverhältnisse im Innenraum. Erwin: Optimale Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz. Walter: Lichttechnik. Lighting Design + Application 1986. PBC International (Hearst). Wiley. Institut für Museumswesen. (Kaufman. Watson-Guptill Publications. Bertolone.. Udo: Tageslichttechnik. Hans-Jürgen: Licht und Beleuchtung. Faber & Faber. S. M. Boston 1976 Lamb. R. B. Lighting Research and Technology 1970. Urban & Schwarzenberg. III. Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht: Informationen zur Lichtanwendung. London 1966 Hopkins. Wien..: Concepts in Architectural Lighting.: Perception and Lighting as Formgivers for Architecture.. J. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Prentice-Hall.: Perception. Wirtschaftsverlag NW. Fischer. Libro. IES 1981 IES. Thomas: Four Young Lighting Designers Speak Out. Gaetono: Organisation in Vision. New York 1986 Lam.0 Appendix Bibliography De Boer. New York 1981 Feltman. E. R. 9.: Daylight in Architecture.. München. F. Berlin 1937 Lemons. C. E. Albert. London 1972 Hopkinson. MacLeod. 3 No. Forschungsbericht Nr. P. A Note on the Use of Indices of Glare Discomfort in Lighting Codes. David M. Roush. B. Ludwigshafen 1977 Hartmann.: Bringing Interiors to Light.: Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 32 No. W. Postf. Wassili. Philips Technical Library. McGraw Hill. das Meisterwerk von Dominikus Zimmermann. Helen. G. K. Note No..: Interior Lighting. J. England 1960. July Gut. Köln 1985 Kellogg-Smith. Heinz Moos. Rose: Beleuchtung und Klima im Museum. J.und Städtebau. April. Camarillo Reproduction Center. Motoko: My Universe of Lights. R. Vol. G. T. William M. McGraw-Hill. Motoko Ishii International Inc. Berlin 1955 Krochmann. Heft 2 Elmer.: A Designers Checklist for Merchandise Lighting. William: Psychology. 2 Krochmann. R. K.. 700969.: Wahrnehmung und Umwelt.-J. Berlin. McGraw-Hill.und Stadtentwicklungsforschung des Landes NRW: Licht im Hoch. Luckhardt: Lichtarchitektur. G. Wanda: The Best of Lighting Design.: The Lighting of Buildings.: Architectural and Interior Models. S. Lighting Design + Application 1986. Louis: Views on the Visual Environment.: Gerät zur Ermittlung der ergonomisch notwendigen Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz.: Eine neue konservatorische Bewertung der Beleuchtung in Museen.): Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook Application Volume. James.: Optimale Sehbedingungen am Bildschirmarbeitsplatz I. Der ökologische Ansatz in der visuellen Wahrnehmung. William M.-F.: Light and Lighting. Gerd: Lichtplanung in Kirchen. Institut für Museumskunde. Heft 6 Herzberg. John E. Baltimore 1982 Gregory. Lighting Design + Application 1987. Kirschbaum C. Förder gemeinschaft Gutes Licht.: The Optical Design of Reflectors. ZVEI. Frankfurt/Main 1975–80 Frisby. May Vol. A Selection. Fawcett. Materialien Heft 5. R. W. Whitney Library of Design. MIT. Lighting Design + Application 1972. August Evans. New York 1979 Gregory. 5 Fischer. Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Lighting Research & Technology 1971. Titel u. München 1983 Gibson. Frankfurt/M. D.: Die Wies. Robert. Tokyo 1985 Ishii..: Kontrastwiedergabefaktor – ein neues Qualitätsmerkmal einer Beleuchtungsanlage? Licht-Forschung 6 1984. IES 1985 Institut für Landes. Nr. Bildgedächtnis. Praeger. 14. R.): Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook Reference Volume.. Beitz. New York 1977 Lam. L.: Handbuch der Lichtwerbung. Fred J. John P. Walter. Karlsruhe 1981 Hartmann. C. A. Kay. The Principles and Practices of Lighting Design. New York 1983 Egger. Müller-Limmroth. Optische Täuschungen.: Sehen. Vol. ed. Licht 35 1983. Licht 1980.: A Code of Lighting Quality. Heft 7/8. J.. Dezember. B. William M. Berlin 1979 Hickish. H. New York 1979 Keller. Building Research Station. ed. Hüthig. Prouse. New Jersey 1964 Hohauser. Dortmund 1979 Ishii. D.: The European Approach to the Integration of Lighting and Air-Conditioning. IES 1981 IES (Kaufman. Hallenbeck. A Potpourri of Essays on Lighting Design IES 1985 Erhard. 1967 Kanisza. Lighting Design + Application 1986. Camarillo 1977 Erhard.-F. Longmore.: Scale Models Used in Lighting Systems Design and Evaluation. W. J. Helios. G. L. London 1963 Hopkinson. C. 10 Hentschel. Vol. Heinemann.5. McGraw-Hill. D. Motoko: Motoko Lights.. New York 1963 Jankowski. Bremerhaven 1983 Lam. II. Heidelberg 1987 Hentschel. Berlin 1952 Köhler. Gehirnfunktionen. Max: Handbuch der Bühnenbeleuchtung. New York 1986 Köhler.): Lighting Ready Reference. E 999 IES (Kaufman. 2 Fischer. New York 1970 Hopkinson.. Petherbridge. E. Köln-Braunsfeld 1982 Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht: Hefte 1–12 div. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York 1979 Erhardt. Garston. 355. J. J. Benjamin H. Raymond: Perception – The Name of the Game. March Egan. G. J.: Architectural Physics: Lighting. Light and Illumination. ed.: An Approach to the Design of the Luminous Environment.: Sunlighting as Formgiver for Architecture. James J.. John E. Fran. Roll.: Stellungnahme zur Verträglichkeit des Leuchtstofflampenlichts. John E. LiTG. Berlin 1983 Hochberg. S. Müller. Jürgen: Zur Frage der Beleuchtung von Museen. New York 1987 Jay. Licht 36 1984. Krochmann. G.. Leibig. Antwerp 1981 Diemer. H. Sachgebiete. R.

Cambridge. July Sturm. 1 .: Model Building for Architects and Engineers.: Das Bild als Schein der Wirklichkeit. Franck. R. Moos. US Government Printing Office. New York 1982 Spieser.: A Review of Lighting Progress.: The Lighting of Compact Plan Hospitals. J. New York 1973 Metcalf. Amsterdam 1985 Santen. J. Essen 1975 Santen. Parfulla C. Zürich 1950 Steffy. Berlin 1988 McCandless. Christa van. Vol. vol. James L.: Models in Architectural Education and Practice. John Wiley & Sons. 1975 Moon. Waldemar Kramer. 31 No. Manfred (Einf. München 1972 Sewig. Longman. Mainz 1980 Sieverts.: Photometry. June SLG.5. Frankfurt/M. Spektrum der Wissenschaft. Associates of Research Libraries. McGraw-Hill. Princeton 1963 O’Dea. W. L. Lighting Design + Application 1987.: Illuminating Engineering. Eindhoven 1981 Philips: Correspondence Course Lighting Application. Gerry: Why I am an Perceptionist. E. Faculteit der bouwkunde. Collins.: Criteria for Recommending Lighting Levels. Leipzig 1954 Waldram.0 Appendix Bibliography LiTG: Beleuchtung in Verbindung mit Klima und Schalltechnik. Institut für Lichttechnik. Empfehlungen für die Projektierung und Messung der Beleuchtung. Karl: Lichttechnik. In: Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz. Karlsruhe 1962 Riege.: A New Look at the Research Basis for Lighting Level Recommendations. H. Berlin 1967 284 Ritter. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Fuller: Concepts and Practice of Architectural Daylighting. Mass. A. U. NBS Building Science Series 82. Rudolf: Handbuch der Lichttechnik. Eindhoven 1984 f..: Grundlagen der Photometrie. Henry: Poetics of Light. New York 1979 Sorcar. Robert: Handbuch für Beleuchtung. Lichttechnik 1965. Würzburg 1938. Leipzig 1970 Bd. B. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Praefulla C. 3rd Edition. Christa van. BAU Tb49. February Yonemura. M. Braun. A. W.: Bürohaus.): Wahrnehmung und visuelles System. Union 1927.: Interior Lighting for Environmental Designers. R. Design and Analysis.. 1964 Bd. H.: Vorschaltgeräte und Schaltungen für Niederspannungs-Entladungslampen.: Lighting. Eberle Spencer.: Ein einfaches System zur Blendungsbewertung. E. O. Architecture and Urbanism 1987. 2 Bände Sieverts. Jhdt. Kohayakawa. Keyes D. H. Kohlhammer GmbH. New York 1965 Weigel. Lichttechnik 1974.C.: Licht in de Architektuur – een beschouwing vor dag. Spektrum der Wissenschaft. Washington DC 1970 Metzger.: Rapid Lighting Design and Cost Estimating. Richard: Stage Lighting. Fachbuchverlag. Berlin 1928 Teichmüller.. Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society 1966. Visuelle communicatie in het bouwproces. Joseph B. Bisher 12 Hefte.: The Lighting of Gloucester Cathedral by the „Designed Appearence“ Method. 4 No. Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society 1959. Vol. Forrest: How we create.: Notbeleuchtung.: Energy Saving Light Systems. Dover Publications Inc. D. T. Internationale Lichtrundschau 1983. C. Y. 26 No. 2 Nuckolls. December. I. München 1962 Wahl. Gerry: Wie man die Augen eines Designers erwirbt.. Joachim: Lichtarchitektur. LTAG. Lighting Design + Application 1986. Rentschler. New York 1986 Rock. Van Nostrand Reinhold.: The Social History of Lighting. 3 Walsh. Mieczyslaw: Sonne und Architektur. Addison-Wesley. J.en kunstlicht. Domina: Lighting Design. 1948 Moore.: Daylighting. Optische Täuschungen in Wissenschaft und Kunst. 14 Twarowski. Philips. J. Internationale Lichtrundschau 1982. E.: Zichtbarmaaken van schaduwpatroonen. McGraw-Hill. I. Nr. Laternen. Stuttgart 1962 Reeb. 3 Wilson. Hansen A. June Zekowski. Joachim: Handbuch der lichttechnischen Literatur. Mannheim. II Schober. G. London 1978 Rebske. C. London 1958 Pelbrow. Heidelberg 1985 Rodman. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 24 No. Claude L. Delft 1989 Schivelbusch. J. Philips. Union. Macmillan. Stanley: A Method of Lighting the Stage. Vom visuellen Reiz zum Sehen und Erkennen.. März. Stuttgart. Van Nostrand Reinhold. T. de Bussy. Zur Geschichte der künstlichen Helligkeit im 19. Giradet.: Library Lighting. G. Plummer. Isaacs. H. Zentrale für Lichtwirtschaft. Berlin. Hans: Sportstättenbeleuchtung. T. Irvin: Wahrnehmung. W. Bremerhaven 1988 Söllner. 3 Zekowski. Gerry: Beleuchtung – Kunst und Wissenschaft. Wolfgang: Gesetze des Sehens. Licht und Lampe.: Beleuchtung und Raumgestaltung. Hanser. Vol. Vol. Theatre Arts Books. Lighting Design + Application 1987. Heft 13. Heidelberg 1986 Robbins. 2 Waldram. Pflaum. J. Ernst: Lampen. V.und Verwaltungsbau. August Zekowski. 12 Pritchard. New York 1970 Philips: Lighting Manual. Köln. National Bureau of Standarts 1981. Lighting Design + Application 1973. March 81-2231 Yonemura. München 1983 Schober. Wirtschaftsverlag NW. T.: Grundzüge der Lichttechnik. Hansen. BBC. Leuchten. LiTG: Handbuch für Beleuchtung.: Das Sehen. Gerry: How to Grab a Footcandle. 17 Sorcar. Girardet. München 1985 Welter. Parry. E. Lighting Research & Technology 1972. Princeton University Press. Olgyay. Wolfgang: Lichtblicke. Gary: Lighting for Architecture and People. J. VEB Fachbuchverlag. M. Essen 1952 Weis. New York 1971 Teichmüller. Lighting Design + Application 1986. D. Washington. New York 1976 Olgyay. G. TU. B. Karlsruhe 1980 LiTG: Projektierung von Beleuchtungsanlagen für Innenräume. W. G. New York 1985 Ne’eman. 1976 Zekowski. Callwey.S. Essen Taylor. Eine Historie der Beleuchtung. New York 1985 Murdoch. Joachim: Moderne Lichttechnik in Wissenschaft und Praxis.: Solar Control and Shading Devices.

6 A Special Issue on Museum and Art Gallery Lighting. International Lighting Review 1969. Gerry: Undeification of the Calculation. Vol. Richtwerte für Arbeitsstätten in Innenräumen und im Freien DIN 5035 Teil 7 (9/88).: Leitfaden der Lichttechnik. 37 No. February 285 . H. 10. Eindhoven 1955 Zimmer. R. Beleuchtung und Anordnung Lichtarchitektur. Bd. 15 No. Vol. Beleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht. März. (Hrsg. 2 Arbeitsstättenrichtlinien ASR 7/3.). Heft 27 Lighting Technology Terminology. Allgemeine Anforderungen DIN 5035 Teil 1 (6/90). Beleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht. Spezielle Empfehlungen für die Beleuchtung von Räumen mit Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen und mit Arbeitsplätzen mit Bildschirmunterstützung DIN 66234 Teil 7 (12/84).0 Appendix Bibliography Zekowski. 1 DIN 5034 Teil 1 (2/83). Carl Heinz: Beleuchtungstechnik für den Elektrofachmann. Bildschirmarbeitsplätze.): Technik Wörterbuch Lichttechnik (8-spr. Lighting Design + Application 1981. Tageslicht in Innenräumen. Februar. International Lighting Review 1963. Licht 1985. Heidelberg 1985 Zijl. Daidalos 1988. anonymous articles A Special Issue on Hotel Lighting. 14 No.5. (6/79) Besseres Licht im Büro. 1972 Lighting Up the CRT Screen – Problems and Solutions. Begriffe und allgemeine Anforderungen DIN 5035 Teil 2 (9/90). Berlin 1977 Standards. Vol. Lighting Design + Application 1984. Hüthig. 20 No. BS 4727. Ergonomische Gestaltung des Arbeitsraums. Gerry: The Art of Lighting is a Science/The Science of Lighting is an Art. International Lighting Review 1964. Lighting Design + Application 1984. Philips Technische Bibliothek Reihe B. Vol. 5–6 A Special Issue on Shop and Display Lighting. Innenraumbeleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht. March Zekowski. VEB Verlag Technik. Februar Zieseniß.

New York (Van Nostrand Reinhold) 1986 117 William Lam Osram photo archives 20 Heinrich Goebel Correspondence Course Lighting Application. Dortmund 1980 13 The influence of light on northern and southern architectural forms Addison Kelly 116 Richard Kelly William M. Leuchten. Eindhoven 1984 13 Brass oil lamp 15 Christiaan Huygens 15 Isaac Newton 17 Carl Auer v. Lam: Sunlighting as Formgiver for Architecture. Laternen. 17. 2.5. century 15 Paraffin lamp with Argand burner 16 Fresnel lenses and Argand burner 17 Incandescent mantle as invented by Auer v. München 1962 13 Greek oil lamp 286 . C.und Städtebau. Welsbach 18 Jablochkoff arc lamps 20 Joseph Wilson Swan 20 Thomas Alva Edison 21 Theatre foyer lit by Moore lamps 23 Joachim Teichmüller Henry Plummer: Poetics of Light. Vol. Munich 20 Goebel lamps ERCO 24 Ambient light 25 Focal glow 25 Play of brilliance Institut für Landes. Rotterdam Deutsches Museum. Entwicklungsgeschichte eines alten Kulturgutes.0 Appendix Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Graphic material Archiv für Kunst und Geschichte 17 Shop window lighting using gas light CAT Software GmbH 165 Illuminance distribution 165 Luminance distribution Daidalos 27. Eine Historie der Beleuchtung. 12. Arnsberg 1987 14 Lamps and burners developed in the 2. S. Lichtarchitektur. Band 3.): Licht im Hoch. half of the 19. Eine kulturhistorische Dokumentation über 2500 Jahre Architektur. Stuttgart (Franck) 1962 16 Lighthouse lighting using Fresnel lenses and Argand burners 17 Drummond’s limelight 19 Siemens arc lamp. In: Architecture and Urbanism. Stuttgart 1982 12 Daylight architecture Ernst Rebske: Lampen. Zur Geschichte der künstlichen Helligkeit im 19. Heidelberg. History of Light and Lighting.): Baukunst des Abendlandes. Welsbach 18 Hugo Bremer’s arc lamp 20 Edison lamps 21 Low-pressure mercuy vapour lamp developed Cooper-Hewitt Ullstein Bilderdienst 16 Augustin Jean Fresnel Sigrid Wechssler-Kümmel: Schöne Lampen. Jhdt. Leuchter und Laternen. 1987 12 Sunlight architecture Michael Raeburn (Hrsg. March 1988 23 Wassili Luckhardt: Crystal on the sphere 23 Van Nelle tobacco factory. München (Hanser) 1983 18 Arc lighting at the Place de la Concorde 22 American lighthouse Trilux: Lichter und Leuchter. 1868 20 Swan lamp Wolfgang Schivelbusch: Lichtblicke.und Stadtentwicklungsforschung des Landes NordrheinWestfalen ILS (Hrsg.021.

88 Cove reflector 89 Cove 141 Cut-off angle (lamp) 89. 138 Focal glow 24. 53–55. 114. 87. 66 Ellipsoidal reflector 90 Emitter 53 Exposure 24. 127. 85. 66. 88. 83. 55. 97. 98 Beam spread 41. 88 Dichroic filters 88. 47. 49. 144 Contrast rendering 81. 99 Capacitive circuit 67 CB 65 Chromacity coordinates 83 Chromatic aberration 44. 23. 116 Anodisation 88 Architectural requirements 74. 128 Colour rendition 22. 126–128. 57 Absolute glare 79 Absorption 87 Accent lighting 53. 117. 65. 87. 47. 97. 168 Daylight factor 167 Daylight white 54. 92. 85. 119. 126. 136. 78–80. 74. 38. 143 Discomfort glare 79. 137. 53. 127. 94 Cut-off angle (luminaire) 94. 118. 130 Compact fluorescent lamp 25. 101–103. 98. 90. 71 Cones 37 Constancy 31 Contrast 39. 71 Batwing characteristics 89. 79. 28. 65. 132. 84. 55. 83. 25. 150. 77. 47. 68. 127. 78. 72. 52. 101. 132. 73. 52. 38. 92. 83. 57–60. 130. 97. 94 Daylight 12. 136 Accommodation 80 Activity needs 112. 76. 126 Convergence 80 Coolbeam reflector 47. 15. 137 Disability glare 79 Discharge lamp 21. 72. 76–78. 22. 65. 84. 143 Direct field of vision 114 Directed light 25. 67.0 Appendix Index Index Index Aberration 28. 132 Fluorescence 53 Fluorescent lamp 21. 112. 132. 117. 54–60. 29. 43. 61. 50. 98. 60. 167. 85. 37. 54. 83. 92 Diffuse light 13. 123. 25. 126. 38. 80 Double-focus reflector 95 EB 65. 114. 31. 42 Eye 12. 127. 54. 91. 128 Dichroic reflector 47. 79. 154. 111. 96. 132. cd 41. 92. 57. 119. 79. 65–67. 57 CIE 83 Colour adaptation 84 Colour temperature 47. 111. 116 Fovea 37 287 . 52. 130. 158. 118 Adaptation 13. 141. 128.5. 127 Candela. 122. 72. 84. 24. 53. 122 Brilliance 47. 102 Biological needs 74. 122 Ballast 52. 89. 49. 60. 71. 53. 117. 43. 84 Ambient light 24. 75. 43. 65–68. 88 Dimmer 71. 99 Darklight reflector 90. 59. 54. 102 Compensation 67. 128. 168 Control gear 49. 73 Direct glare 79-81. 71. 84. 115 Filter 53. 76.

75. 84. 59. 74. 43. 71. 47. 143. 143 Interference 87 Inverse square law 42. 132. 138. 105. 32. 104. 92. 37. 39. 126. 102. 43 General service lamp 127 General lighting 13. 56–58. 22. 56. 128. 72 Ignitor 58. lm 40. 155. 127. 78. 83. 110. 130. 130 High-voltage fluorescent tubes 21. 18 Luminous efficacy 17. 128 Low-voltage halogen lamp 49. 127. 16. 127. 99. 45. 157. 102. 96. 127. 66. 39. 104. 144. 157 Mesopic vision 37 Metal hailde lamp 43. 34. 122. 128. 75. 130 Mode of Protection 143 Modelling 77. 112. 25. 90 Perceptual psychology 24. 80. 21. 59. 144 High-pressure fluorescent lamp 21. 169 Light output ratio 154. 144. 127.5. 49. 102. 22. 71. 103. 72 Infrared radiation 88. 61. 110. 71. 119. 150. 99. 55. 103. 130 Lumen. 155. 54–56. 141 Gestalt perception 33. 154. 157. 98. 127. 136. 40. 116. 73. 123 Ignition aid 54. 169 Inductive circuit 65–67. 157. 45. 126–128. 78. 105. 126. lx 37. 158. 20. 18. 60. 143 Gobo 73. 50. 130. 102 Gas light 17. 45. 114. 49. 101. 57. 158. 128 Night vision 37 Optical fibre 105 Parabolic reflector 89. 33. 22–24. 97. 42. 73. 52–54. 153. 119. 97–100. 89. 138. 128. 37–39. 74. 113. 73. 58. 157. 169 Luminous intensity 22. 29. 52. 90. 71. 135. 157. 144 Modular luminaire 97 Neutral white 54. 91. 31. 127 Light loss factor 157. 79. 155. 130. 49. 92. 24. 80. 65–67 Illuminance 15. 132. 92. 152. 128. 103. 158 Involute reflector 90 Isoluminance diagram 158 Isolux diagram 158. 128. 155. 147.0 Appendix Index Fresnel lens 16. 128 Luminous intensity distribution 41 Luminous flux 40. 114. 78. 76. 66. 83. 119. 58–60. 158 Luminaire classification 143 Luminaire efficiency 154. 101. 114. 73–78. 160 Luminescence 17. 111. 147 Glare 12. 132. 60. 85. 22. 80. 115. 56. 169 Illuminance at a point 154. 157 Luminous colour 18. 150 Line spectrum 52 LiTG 155 LLB 65 Louvred luminaire 55. 79. 143. 65. 158 Luminance limiting method 81 Luminance 31. 135–138. 128. 150. 92. 143. 94. 65. 84. 138. 41. 158 Incandescent gas light 18 Incandescent lamp 21. 169 Light control 15. 128 Lux. 144. 158. 52–55. 157 Low-pressure sodium vapour lamp 56. 59. 99. 112–114. 66. 55. 160 Lead-lag cicuit 67 Light output ratio 85. 73. 104. 88. 123 High-pressure mercury lamp 57. 130. 105. 90. 98. 84. 168. 113 Phase angle control 71 Photopic vision 37 288 . 126. 87. 136–139. 37. 47. 71. 137. 158 Lighting control 25.

113. 85. 102. 112. 50. 39. 80. 110. 59. 132. 132. 79. 147 Reflection 12. 33. 127 Re-ignition 54. 154. 76. 127. 137–139. 128. 13. 37. 136 Tandem circuit 67 Task lighting 22. 78. 168 Spherical reflector 90 Spherical aberration 28 Standard colorimetric system 83 Starter 54. 169 Ultraviolet radiation 45. 110. 89. 65. 56. 87 Refraction of light 92. 57. 53. 54. 105 Visual task 22. 50. 78. 88. 47. 169 Reflector lamp 58–60. 158. 128 Working plane 110. 66 Steradian 41 Stroboscopic effects 65. 67 Sun simulator 167 Sunlight 12. 80. 98. 98. 98 Protection class 143 Reflected ceiling plan 160 Reflected glare 79–81. 138 Reflector 16. 139 Scotopic vision 37 Secondary reflector technology 105. 67 Relative glare 79 Retina 28–33. 111. 76. 72. 141 Visual comfort 87. 130. 54. 115. 65. 67–69. 97. 45. 143 Thermal radiator 43. 84. 132. 168 Zoning 112 289 . 105. 78. 87. 55. 49. 136–138 Self ballasted mercury discharge lamp 58. 117–119. 150 Surround field 79. 112. 157 VDT-approved 99. 45. 158. 127. 71. 24. 127 Refraction 78. 31. 43. 138. 122. 138 Visual accuity 37. 128.5. 87. 105. 59–61. 154. 111. 138. 78–81. 114. 102. 92. 113. 143 Utilance 155. 119. 137. 138. 91. 114. 75. 71 Transmission 85 Halogen lamp 25. 75. 111. 136. 23.0 Appendix Index Planckian radiator 83 Play of brilliance 24. 92. 101–104. 84 Transformer 49. 96. 65 Shadow formation (modelling) 78. 116 Power factor 67 Prismatic louvre 91. 155. 74. 75. 114 Rods 37 Room index 157 Scallop 94. 57 Warm white 49. 116 Point light source 53. 102. 88. 143. 56. 91. 127. 60. 85. 43. 37. 85.

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